WorldWideScience

Sample records for current magnetic bias

  1. Lateral Vibration Attenuation by the Dynamic Adjustment of Bias Currents in Magnetic Suspension System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Takeshi; Takasaki, Masaya; Ishino, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Switching stiffness control is applied to attenuate vibration in the lateral directions in an active magnetic suspension system with electromagnets operated in differential mode. The magnetic suspension system using the attractive force between magnetized bodies is inherently unstable in the normal direction so that feedback control is necessary to achieve stable suspension. In contrast, it can be stable in the lateral directions due to the edge effects in the magnetic circuits. In several applications, such passive suspension is used in combination with the active one to reduce cost and space. However, damping in the lateral directions is generally small. As a result, induced vibrations in these directions are hardly attenuated. To suppress such vibration without any additional actuator (electromagnet), switching stiffness control is applied to an magnetic suspension system operated in the differential mode. The stiffness in the lateral direction is adjusted by varying the bias currents of an opposed pair of electromagnets located in the normal direction simultaneously according to the motion of the suspended object. When the varied bias currents are adjusted for the additive normal forces cancel each other, such control does not affect the suspension in the normal direction. The effectiveness of the proposed control methods is confirmed experimentally. (paper)

  2. Magnetic field induced suppression of the forward bias current in Bi2Se3/Si Schottky barrier diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoming; Hebard, Arthur

    Schottky diodes formed by van der Waals bonding between freshly cleaved flakes of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 and doped silicon substrates show electrical characteristics in good agreement with thermionic emission theory. The motivation is to use magnetic fields to modulate the conductance of the topologically protected conducting surface state. This surface state in close proximity to the semiconductor surface may play an important role in determining the nature of the Schottky barrier. Current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics were obtained for temperatures in the range 50-300 K and magnetic fields, both perpendicular and parallel to the interface, as high as 7 T. The I-V curve shows more than 6 decades linearity on semi-logarithmic plots, allowing extraction of parameters such as ideality (η), zero-voltage Schottky barrier height (SBH), and series resistance (Rs). In forward bias we observe a field-induced decrease in current which becomes increasingly more pronounced at higher voltages and lower temperature, and is found to be correlated with changes in Rs rather than other barrier parameters. A comparison of changes in Rs in both field direction will be made with magnetoresistance in Bi2Se3 transport measurement. The work is supported by NSF through DMR 1305783.

  3. Gigantic 2D laser-induced photovoltaic effect in magnetically doped topological insulators for surface zero-bias spin-polarized current generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikin, A. M.; Voroshin, V. Yu; Rybkin, A. G.; Kokh, K. A.; Tereshchenko, O. E.; Ishida, Y.; Kimura, A.

    2018-01-01

    A new kind of 2D photovoltaic effect (PVE) with the generation of anomalously large surface photovoltage up to 210 meV in magnetically doped topological insulators (TIs) has been studied by the laser time-resolved pump-probe angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The PVE has maximal efficiency for TIs with high occupation of the upper Dirac cone (DC) states and the Dirac point located inside the fundamental energy gap. For TIs with low occupation of the upper DC states and the Dirac point located inside the valence band the generated surface photovoltage is significantly reduced. We have shown that the observed giant PVE is related to the laser-generated electron-hole asymmetry followed by accumulation of the photoexcited electrons at the surface. It is accompanied by the 2D relaxation process with the generation of zero-bias spin-polarized currents flowing along the topological surface states (TSSs) outside the laser beam spot. As a result, the spin-polarized current generates an effective in-plane magnetic field that is experimentally confirmed by the k II-shift of the DC relative to the bottom non-spin-polarized conduction band states. The realized 2D PVE can be considered as a source for the generation of zero-bias surface spin-polarized currents and the laser-induced local surface magnetization developed in such kind 2D TSS materials.

  4. Mechanism for and method of biasing magnetic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, David R.

    2007-12-04

    A magnetic sensor package having a biasing mechanism involving a coil-generated, resistor-controlled magnetic field for providing a desired biasing effect. In a preferred illustrated embodiment, the package broadly comprises a substrate; a magnetic sensor element; a biasing mechanism, including a coil and a first resistance element; an amplification mechanism; a filter capacitor element; and an encapsulant. The sensor is positioned within the coil. A current applied to the coil produces a biasing magnetic field. The biasing magnetic field is controlled by selecting a resistance value for the first resistance element which achieves the desired biasing effect. The first resistance element preferably includes a plurality of selectable resistors, the selection of one or more of which sets the resistance value.

  5. Method for introducing bias magnetization in ungaped cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilar, Andres Revilla; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2014-01-01

    The use of permanent magnets for bias magnetization is a known technique to increase the energy storage capability in DC inductors, resulting in a size reduction or increased current rating. This paper presents a brief introduction on the different permanent magnet inductor’s configurations found...

  6. Eddy current magnetic bias x-probe qualification and inspection of steam generator Monel 400 tubing in Pickering Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, B.A.; Van Langen, J.; Obrutsky, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the x-probe MB 350 eddy current inspection array probe, for detection of open OD axial crack-like flaws in Monel 400 tubes at Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. This report contains a selection of inspection results from the field inspections performed with this probe during the 2003 and 2004 period at Pickering Nuclear Generating Station A and B. During the 2003 in-service eddy current inspection results of Pickering Nuclear Generating Station A (PNGS-A) Unit 2, a 13 mm (0.5 inch) long axial indication was detected by the CTR1 bobbin and CTR2-C4 array probes in Tube R25-C52 of Steam Generator (SG) 11 in the hot leg sludge pile region. An experimental magnetic bias X-probe, specially designed by Zetec for inspection of Monel 400 tubing, was deployed and the indication was characterized as a potential out diameter (OD) axially oriented crack. Post-inspection tube pulling and destructive examination confirmed the presence of an Environmentally Assisted Crack (EAC), approximately 80% deep and 13mm long. Due to the significance of this discovery, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) requested AECL to initiate a program for qualification of the X-probe MB 350 for the detection of OD axial cracks in medium to high magnetic permeability μ r Monel 400 PNGS-A and B steam generator tubing at different locations. The X-probe MB 350 subsequently has been deployed as a primary inspection probe for crack detection for PNGS steam generators. (author)

  7. New Trends in Magnetic Exchange Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Alexandra; Mangin, Stéphane; Bobo, Jean-Francois; Loidl, Alois

    2005-05-01

    The study of layered magnetic structures is one of the hottest topics in magnetism due to the growing attraction of applications in magnetic sensors and magnetic storage media, such as random access memory. For almost half a century, new discoveries have driven researchers to re-investigate magnetism in thin film structures. Phenomena such as giant magnetoresistance, tunneling magnetoresistance, exchange bias and interlayer exchange coupling led to new ideas to construct devices, based not only on semiconductors but on a variety of magnetic materials Upon cooling fine cobalt particles in a magnetic field through the Néel temperature of their outer antiferromagnetic oxide layer, Meiklejohn and Bean discovered exchange bias in 1956. The exchange bias effect through which an antiferromagnetic AF layer can cause an adjacent ferromagnetic F layer to develop a preferred direction of magnetization, is widely used in magnetoelectronics technology to pin the magnetization of a device reference layer in a desired direction. However, the origin and effects due to exchange interaction across the interface between antiferromagneic and ferromagnetic layers are still debated after about fifty years of research, due to the extreme difficulty associated with the determination of the magnetic interfacial structure in F/AF bilayers. Indeed, in an AF/F bilayer system, the AF layer acts as “the invisible man” during conventional magnetic measurements and the presence of the exchange coupling is evidenced indirectly through the unusual behavior of the adjacent F layer. Basically, the coercive field of the F layer increases in contact with the AF and, in some cases, its hysteresis loop is shifted by an amount called exchange bias field. Thus, AF/F exchange coupling generates a new source of anisotropy in the F layer. This induced anisotropy strongly depends on basic features such as the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, crystallographic and spin structures, defects, domain patterns etc

  8. Low Current Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Because Goddard Space Flight Center needed a way to cool sensors aboard the AXAF, a low current superconducting magnet was developed under contract by Cryomagnetics, Inc. The magnet, now commercially available, reduced the rate of helium consumption, extending the lifetime of the AXAF's x-ray spectrometer. On Earth, it offers a way to reduce operating costs through smaller, less expensive power supplies and reduced use of coolant. The magnet has particular advantages for MRI systems, as it is safer and has lower maintenance requirements.

  9. Performance improvement of magnetized coaxial plasma gun by magnetic circuit on a bias coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Asai, Tomohiko; Kamino, Yasuhiro; Inomoto, Michiaki; Gota, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    A magnetized coaxial plasmoid accelerator has been utilized for compact torus (CT) injection to refuel into fusion reactor core plasma. Recently, CT injection experiments have been conducted on the C-2/C-2U facility at Tri Alpha Energy. In the series of experiments successful refueling, i.e. increased particle inventory of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma, has been observed. In order to improve the performance of CT injector and to refuel in the upgraded FRC device, called C-2W, with higher confinement magnetic field, magnetic circuit consisting of magnetic material onto a bias magnetic coil is currently being tested at Nihon University. Numerical work suggests that the optimized bias magnetic field distribution realizes the increased injection velocity because of higher conversion efficiency of Lorenz self force to kinetic energy. Details of the magnetic circuit design as well as results of the test experiment and field calculations will be presented and discussed.

  10. Magnetic tunnel structures: Transport properties controlled by bias, magnetic field, and microwave and optical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, N.V.; Eremin, E.V.; Tarasov, A.S.; Rautskii, M.V.; Varnakov, S.N.; Ovchinnikov, S.G.; Patrin, G.S.

    2012-01-01

    Different phenomena that give rise to a spin-polarized current in some systems with magnetic tunnel junctions are considered. In a manganite-based magnetic tunnel structure in CIP geometry, the effect of current-channel switching was observed, which causes bias-driven magnetoresistance, rf rectification, and the photoelectric effect. The second system under study, ferromagnetic/insulator/semiconductor, exhibits the features of the transport properties in CIP geometry that are also related to the current-channel switching effect. The described properties can be controlled by a bias, a magnetic field, and optical radiation. At last, the third system under consideration is a cooperative assembly of magnetic tunnel junctions. This system exhibits tunnel magnetoresistance and the magnetic-field-driven microwave detection effect.

  11. Asymmetric magnetoimpedance in amorphous microwires due to bias current: Effect of torsional stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buznikov, N.A.; Antonov, A.S.; Granovsky, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of torsional stress on the asymmetric magnetoimpedance in a glass-coated negative magnetostrictive amorphous microwire due to bias current is studied theoretically. The longitudinal and off-diagonal impedance components are found assuming a simplified spatial distribution of the magnetoelastic anisotropy induced by the torsional stress. The asymmetry in the field dependence of the impedance components is attributed to the combination of the circular magnetic field produced by the bias current and a helical anisotropy induced by the torsional stress. The asymmetry in the magnetoimpedance and the low-field hysteresis are analyzed as a function of the bias current and torsional stress. It is shown that the application of torsional stress significantly changes the value of the bias current required to suppress the hysteresis effect. The results obtained may be useful for applications in magnetic-field and stress sensors. - Highlights: • Effects of torsional stress on magnetoimpedance in amorphous microwire are studied. • Asymmetry in magnetoimpedance is analyzed as a function of bias current and stress. • Torsional stress changes the anisotropy and effects on the microwire impedance. • Field-dependence of impedance is anhysteretic when bias current exceeds threshold value. • Threshold bias current can be tuned by the application of torsional stress

  12. Asymmetric magnetoimpedance in amorphous microwires due to bias current: Effect of torsional stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buznikov, N.A., E-mail: n_buznikov@mail.ru [Scientific-Research Institute of Natural Gases and Gas Technologies – GAZPROM VNIIGAZ, Razvilka, Leninsky District, Moscow Region 142717 (Russian Federation); Antonov, A.S. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Granovsky, A.B. [Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-15

    The influence of torsional stress on the asymmetric magnetoimpedance in a glass-coated negative magnetostrictive amorphous microwire due to bias current is studied theoretically. The longitudinal and off-diagonal impedance components are found assuming a simplified spatial distribution of the magnetoelastic anisotropy induced by the torsional stress. The asymmetry in the field dependence of the impedance components is attributed to the combination of the circular magnetic field produced by the bias current and a helical anisotropy induced by the torsional stress. The asymmetry in the magnetoimpedance and the low-field hysteresis are analyzed as a function of the bias current and torsional stress. It is shown that the application of torsional stress significantly changes the value of the bias current required to suppress the hysteresis effect. The results obtained may be useful for applications in magnetic-field and stress sensors. - Highlights: • Effects of torsional stress on magnetoimpedance in amorphous microwire are studied. • Asymmetry in magnetoimpedance is analyzed as a function of bias current and stress. • Torsional stress changes the anisotropy and effects on the microwire impedance. • Field-dependence of impedance is anhysteretic when bias current exceeds threshold value. • Threshold bias current can be tuned by the application of torsional stress.

  13. Size Reduction of a DC Link Choke Using Saturation Gap and Biasing with Permanent Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilar, Andres Revilla; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Zuccherato, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the design procedure of permanent magnet biased DC inductors using the Saturation-gap technique [1]. This biasing configuration can provide a 50% reduction in either the core volume or the number of turns, while meeting its current and inductance requirements. A design exa...

  14. Bias voltage induced resistance switching effect in single-molecule magnets' tunneling junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Liang

    2014-09-12

    An electric-pulse-induced reversible resistance change effect in a molecular magnetic tunneling junction, consisting of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) sandwiched in one nonmagnetic and one ferromagnetic electrode, is theoretically investigated. By applying a time-varying bias voltage, the SMM's spin orientation can be manipulated with large bias voltage pulses. Moreover, the different magnetic configuration at high-resistance/low-resistance states can be 'read out' by utilizing relative low bias voltage. This device scheme can be implemented with current technologies (Khajetoorians et al 2013 Science 339 55) and has potential application in molecular spintronics and high-density nonvolatile memory devices.

  15. Current leads for superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Kenji

    1989-01-01

    Current leads for superconducting magnets have been studied since 1960's. The technology of current leads may seem to have been established both in theory and experiment before the middle of 1970's. Nevertheless, a wide variety of superconducting magnets have been introduced in the last 15 years, and the demands for special current leads have increased in accordance to the variety. A steady advance has been made in the design theory and fabrication of current leads. This paper describes the recent current lead technology regarding the design theory, safety in accidents, and high current capability. (author)

  16. Tunable biasing magnetic field design of ferrite tuner for ICRF heating system in EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manman, XU; Yuntao, SONG; Gen, CHEN; Yanping, ZHAO; Yuzhou, MAO; Guang, LIU; Zhen, PENG

    2017-11-01

    Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating has been used in tokamaks as one of the most successful auxiliary heating tools and has been adopted in the EAST. However, the antenna load will fluctuate with the change of plasma parameters in the ICRF heating process. To ensure the steady operation of the ICRF heating system in the EAST, fast ferrite tuner (FFT) has been carried out to achieve real-time impedance matching. For the requirements of the FFT impedance matching system, the magnet system of the ferrite tuner (FT) was designed by numerical simulations and experimental analysis, where the biasing magnetic circuit and alternating magnetic circuit were the key researched parts of the ferrite magnet. The integral design goal of the FT magnetic circuit is that DC bias magnetic field is 2000 Gs and alternating magnetic field is ±400 Gs. In the FTT, E-type magnetic circuit was adopted. Ferrite material is NdFeB with a thickness of 30 mm by setting the working point of NdFeB, and the ampere turn of excitation coil is 25 through the theoretical calculation and simulation analysis. The coil inductance to generate alternating magnetic field is about 7 mH. Eddy-current effect has been analyzed, while the magnetic field distribution has been measured by a Hall probe in the medium plane of the biasing magnet. Finally, the test results show the good performance of the biasing magnet satisfying the design and operating requirements of the FFT.

  17. Compensation techniques for operational amplifier bias current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Two techniques are proposed for the compensation of the input current on operational amplifiers that can be used on inverting and non-inverting configurations. A qualitative analysis of temperature drift problems is made, and as a practical application, the construction of a voltage follower for high impedance measurements is presented. (Author) [pt

  18. Magnification bias as a novel probe for primordial magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camera, S.; Fedeli, C.; Moscardini, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate magnetic fields generated in the early Universe. These fields are important candidates at explaining the origin of astrophysical magnetism observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters, whose genesis is still by and large unclear. Compared to the standard inflationary power spectrum, intermediate to small scales would experience further substantial matter clustering, were a cosmological magnetic field present prior to recombination. As a consequence, the bias and redshift distribution of galaxies would also be modified. Hitherto, primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) have been tested and constrained with a number of cosmological observables, e.g. the cosmic microwave background radiation, galaxy clustering and, more recently, weak gravitational lensing. Here, we explore the constraining potential of the density fluctuation bias induced by gravitational lensing magnification onto the galaxy-galaxy angular power spectrum. Such an effect is known as magnification bias. Compared to the usual galaxy clustering approach, magnification bias helps in lifting the pathological degeneracy present amongst power spectrum normalisation and galaxy bias. This is because magnification bias cross-correlates galaxy number density fluctuations of nearby objects with weak lensing distortions of high-redshift sources. Thus, it takes advantage of the gravitational deflection of light, which is insensitive to galaxy bias but powerful in constraining the density fluctuation amplitude. To scrutinise the potentiality of this method, we adopt a deep and wide-field spectroscopic galaxy survey. We show that magnification bias does contain important information on primordial magnetism, which will be useful in combination with galaxy clustering and shear. We find we shall be able to rule out at 95.4% CL amplitudes of PMFs larger than 5 × 10 −4 nG for values of the PMF power spectral index n B ∼ 0

  19. Automatic adjustment of bias current for direct current superconducting quantum interference device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makie-Fukuda, K.; Hotta, M.; Okajima, K.; Kado, H.

    1993-01-01

    A new method of adjusting the bias current of dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is described. It is shown that the signal-to-noise ratio of a SQUID magnetometer connected in a flux-locked loop configuration is proportional to the second harmonic of the output signal from the SQUID. A circuit configuration that can automatically optimize a SQUID's bias current by measuring this second harmonic and adjusting the bias current accordingly is proposed

  20. Eddy currents in accelerator magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Moritz, G

    2010-01-01

    This paper covers the main eddy current effects in accelerator magnets - field modification (time delay and field quality) and resistive power losses. In the first part, starting from the Maxwell equations, a basic understanding of the processes is given and explained with examples of simple geometry and time behaviour. Useful formulas are derived for an analytic estimate of the size of the effects. In the second part the effects in real magnets are analysed and described in comparison with numerical and measured results. Finally, based on the previous parts, design recommendations are given regarding how to minimize eddy current effects.

  1. Bias correction for magnetic resonance images via joint entropy regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Xia, Yong; Dong, Pei; Luo, Jianhua; Huang, Qiu; Feng, Dagan; Li, Yuanxiang

    2014-01-01

    Due to the imperfections of the radio frequency (RF) coil or object-dependent electrodynamic interactions, magnetic resonance (MR) images often suffer from a smooth and biologically meaningless bias field, which causes severe troubles for subsequent processing and quantitative analysis. To effectively restore the original signal, this paper simultaneously exploits the spatial and gradient features of the corrupted MR images for bias correction via the joint entropy regularization. With both isotropic and anisotropic total variation (TV) considered, two nonparametric bias correction algorithms have been proposed, namely IsoTVBiasC and AniTVBiasC. These two methods have been applied to simulated images under various noise levels and bias field corruption and also tested on real MR data. The test results show that the proposed two methods can effectively remove the bias field and also present comparable performance compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  2. Neutron detection using a current biased kinetic inductance detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishido, Hiroaki, E-mail: shishido@pe.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Miyajima, Shigeyuki; Ishida, Takekazu [Department of Physics and Electronics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Narukami, Yoshito [Department of Physics and Electronics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Oikawa, Kenichi; Harada, Masahide; Oku, Takayuki; Arai, Masatoshi [Materials and Life Science Division, J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, Mutsuo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Fujimaki, Akira [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-12-07

    We demonstrate neutron detection using a solid state superconducting current biased kinetic inductance detector (CB-KID), which consists of a superconducting Nb meander line of 1 μm width and 40 nm thickness. {sup 10}B-enriched neutron absorber layer of 150 nm thickness is placed on top of the CB-KID. Our neutron detectors are able to operate in a wide superconducting region in the bias current–temperature diagram. This is in sharp contrast with our preceding current-biased transition edge detector, which can operate only in a narrow range just below the superconducting critical temperature. The full width at half maximum of the signals remains of the order of a few tens of ns, which confirms the high speed operation of our detectors.

  3. Neutron detection using a current biased kinetic inductance detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Miyajima, Shigeyuki; Ishida, Takekazu; Narukami, Yoshito; Oikawa, Kenichi; Harada, Masahide; Oku, Takayuki; Arai, Masatoshi; Hidaka, Mutsuo; Fujimaki, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate neutron detection using a solid state superconducting current biased kinetic inductance detector (CB-KID), which consists of a superconducting Nb meander line of 1 μm width and 40 nm thickness. 10 B-enriched neutron absorber layer of 150 nm thickness is placed on top of the CB-KID. Our neutron detectors are able to operate in a wide superconducting region in the bias current–temperature diagram. This is in sharp contrast with our preceding current-biased transition edge detector, which can operate only in a narrow range just below the superconducting critical temperature. The full width at half maximum of the signals remains of the order of a few tens of ns, which confirms the high speed operation of our detectors

  4. Zero bias thermally stimulated currents in synthetic diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, R.; Miglio, S.; Bruzzi, M.; Bogani, F.; De Sio, A.; Pace, E.

    2009-06-01

    Zero bias thermally stimulated currents (ZBTSCs) have been observed in single crystal high pressure high temperature (HPHT) and polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited (pCVD) diamond films. The ZBTSC technique is characterized by an increased sensitivity with respect to a standard TSC analysis. Due to the absence of the thermally activated background current, new TSC peaks have been observed in both HPHT and pCVD diamond films, related to shallow activation energies usually obscured by the emission of the dominant impurities. The ZBTSC peaks are explained in terms of defect discharge in the nonequilibrium potential distribution created by a nonuniform traps filling at the metal-diamond junctions. The electric field due to the charged defects has been estimated in a quasizero bias TSC experiment by applying an external bias.

  5. Efficient bias correction for magnetic resonance image denoising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi; Qiu, Peihua

    2013-05-30

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a popular radiology technique that is used for visualizing detailed internal structure of the body. Observed MRI images are generated by the inverse Fourier transformation from received frequency signals of a magnetic resonance scanner system. Previous research has demonstrated that random noise involved in the observed MRI images can be described adequately by the so-called Rician noise model. Under that model, the observed image intensity at a given pixel is a nonlinear function of the true image intensity and of two independent zero-mean random variables with the same normal distribution. Because of such a complicated noise structure in the observed MRI images, denoised images by conventional denoising methods are usually biased, and the bias could reduce image contrast and negatively affect subsequent image analysis. Therefore, it is important to address the bias issue properly. To this end, several bias-correction procedures have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we study the Rician noise model and the corresponding bias-correction problem systematically and propose a new and more effective bias-correction formula based on the regression analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. Numerical studies show that our proposed method works well in various applications. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effects of DC bias on magnetic performance of high grades grain-oriented silicon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Guang; Cheng, Ling [Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Transmission Technology,Beijing 102211 (China); Lu, Licheng [State Grid Corporation of China, Beijing 100031 (China); Yang, Fuyao; Chen, Xin [Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Transmission Technology,Beijing 102211 (China); Zhu, Chengzhi [State Grid Zhejiang Electric Power Company, Hangzhou 310007 (China)

    2017-03-15

    When high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission adopting mono-polar ground return operation mode or unbalanced bipolar operation mode, the invasion of DC current into neutral point of alternating current (AC) transformer will cause core saturation, temperature increasing, and vibration acceleration. Based on the MPG-200D soft magnetic measurement system, the influence of DC bias on magnetic performance of 0.23 mm and 0.27 mm series (P{sub 1.7}=0.70–1.05 W/kg, B{sub 8}>1.89 T) grain-oriented (GO) silicon steels under condition of AC / DC hybrid excitation were systematically realized in this paper. For the high magnetic induction GO steels (core losses are the same), greater thickness can lead to stronger ability of resisting DC bias, and the reasons for it were analyzed. Finally, the magnetostriction and A-weighted magnetostriction velocity level of GO steel under DC biased magnetization were researched. - Highlights: • Magnetic properties of 0.23 mm and 0.27 mm series (P{sub 1.7}=0.70–1.05 W/kg, B{sub 8}>1.89 T) grain-oriented (GO) silicon steels under condition of AC / DC hybrid excitation were systematically analyzed. • Influence of DC biased magnetization on core loss, magnetostriction, and A-weighted magnetostriction velocity level of GO steel were researched. • Greater thickness and relatively lower magnetic induction (B{sub 8}>1.89 T yet) of GO steel can lead to stronger ability of resisting DC bias, and the reasons for it were analyzed.

  7. Magnetic Particle inspection by DC and AC magnetization current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Zhong Soo; Kim, Goo Hwa

    1996-01-01

    Dry magnetic particle inspection was performed to detect the surface defects of the steel billets. The detectability was evaluated according to magnetizing current, temperature, and amount of the magnetic particles on material. We selected a certain set of steel compositions for target materials. Their magnetic properties are measured with B-H hysteresis graph. Results of the magnetic particle inspection(MPI) by direct magnetizing current was compared with results of the finite element method calculations, which were verified by measurement of the magnetic leakage flux above the surface of material. For square rod materials, the magnetic flux density at the corner was about 30% of that at the face center with sufficiently large direct magnetizing current, while it is about 70% with alternating magnetizing current. Alternating magnetizing current generates rather uniform magnetic flux density running from the center to the corner except for the region of about 10 mm extending from the corner.

  8. Low noise constant current source for bias dependent noise measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talukdar, D.; Bose, Suvendu; Bardhan, K. K.; Chakraborty, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    A low noise constant current source used for measuring the 1/f noise in disordered systems in ohmic as well as nonohmic regime is described. The source can supply low noise constant current starting from as low as 1 μA to a few tens of milliampere with a high voltage compliance limit of around 20 V. The constant current source has several stages, which can work in a standalone manner or together to supply the desired value of load current. The noise contributed by the current source is very low in the entire current range. The fabrication of a low noise voltage preamplifier modified for bias dependent noise measurements and based on the existing design available in the MAT04 data sheet is also described.

  9. Current-Induced Forces and Hot Spots in Biased Nanojunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the interplay of current-induced forces (CIFs), Joule heating, and heat transport inside a current-carrying nanoconductor. We find that the CIFs, due to the electron-phonon coherence, can control the spatial heat dissipation in the conductor. This yields a significant...... asymmetric concentration of excess heating (hot spot) even for a symmetric conductor. When coupled to the electrode phonons, CIFs drive different phonon heat flux into the two electrodes. First-principles calculations on realistic biased nanojunctions illustrate the importance of the effect....

  10. Wide gap, permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Karl

    1992-01-01

    The unique features and applications of the presented electrical permanent magnetic bearing system essentially result from three facts: (1) the only bearing rotor components are nonlaminated ferromagnetic steel collars or cylinders; (2) all radial and axial forces are transmitted via radial gaps; and (3) large radial bearing gaps can be provided with minimum electric power consumption. The large gaps allow for effective encapsulation and shielding of the rotors at elevated or low temperatures, corrosive or ultra clean atmosphere or vacuum or high pressure environment. Two significant applications are described: (1) a magnetically suspended x ray rotary anode was operated under high vacuum conditions at 100 KV anode potential, 600 C temperature at the rotor collars and speed 18000 rpm with 13 mm radial bearing gap; and (2) an improved Czochralski type crystal growth apparatus using the hot wall method for pulling GaAs single crystals of low dislocation density. Both crystal and crucible are carried and transported by magnetically suspended shafts inside a hermetically sealed housing at 800 C shaft and wall temperature. The radial magnetic bearing gap measures 24 mm.

  11. Current-phase relations and noise in rf biased SQUIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, L.D.; Clark, T.D.; Buhrman, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effect of the weak link current-phase relation on noise in rf biased SQUIDs. Non-sinusoidal current-phase relations were observed in various weak links, and these non-sinusoidal relations were correlated with significantly increased intrinsic noise in the SQUID ring. The current-phase relation was also found to affect the amplitude of the rf SQUID ring dissipation. The result of an rf SQUID system noise analysis shows that, due to increased intrinsic noise and reduced ring dissipation, the minimum attainable noise for a SQUID ring having a very non-sinusoidal current-phase relation is considerably greater than for a ring with a sinusoidal relation

  12. Nanometer-size magnetic domains and coherent magnetization reversal in a giant exchange-bias system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dufour, C.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Borchers, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The role of magnetic domains and domain walls in exchange bias has stimulated much contemporary deliberation. Here we present compelling evidence obtained with small-angle scattering of unpolarized- and polarized-neutron beams that magnetization reversal occurs via formation of 10-100s nm-sized m...... to that of structural defects at the seed-layer-superlattice interface....

  13. Drought Duration Biases in Current Global Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Heewon; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Seneviratne, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Several droughts in the recent past are characterized by their increased duration and intensity. In particular, substantially prolonged droughts have brought major societal and economic losses in certain regions, yet climate change projections of such droughts in terms of duration is subject to large uncertainties. This study analyzes the biases of drought duration in state-of-the-art global climate model (GCM) simulations from the 5th phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Drought durations are defined as negative precipitation anomalies and evaluated with three observation-based datasets in the period of 1901-2010. Large spread in biases of GCMs is commonly found in all regions, with particular strong biases in North East Brazil, Africa, Northern Australia, Central America, Central and Northern Europe, Sahel and Asia. Also in most regions, the interquartile range of bias lies below 0, meaning that the GCMs tend to underestimate drought durations. Meanwhile in some regions such as Western South America, the Amazon, Sahel, West and South Africa, and Asia, considerable inconsistency among the three observation-based datasets were found. These results indicate substantial uncertainties and errors in current GCMs for simulating drought durations as well as a large spread in observation-based datasets, both of which are found to be particularly strong in those regions that are often considered to be hot spots of projected future drying. The underlying sources of these uncertainties need to be identified in further study and will be applied to constrain GCM-based drought projections under climate change.

  14. Electric field-controlled magnetization in exchange biased IrMn/Co/PZT multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huong Giang, D T; Duc, N H; Agnus, G; Maroutian, T; Lecoeur, P

    2013-01-01

    Electric-field modulating exchange bias and near 180° deterministic magnetization switching at room temperature are demonstrated in simple antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic/ferroelectric (AFM/FM/FE) exchange-coupled multiferroic multilayers of IrMn/Co/PZT. A rather large exchange bias field shift up to ΔH ex /H ex = 500% was obtained. This change governs mainly the electric-field strength rather than the applied current. It is explained as being realized through the competition between the electric-field induced uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropies. These results show good prospects for low-power spintronic devices. (paper)

  15. Shape Biased Low Power Spin Dependent Tunneling Magnetic Field Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondra, Mark; Qian, Zhenghong; Wang, Dexin; Nordman, Cathy; Anderson, John

    2001-10-01

    Spin Dependent Tunneling (SDT) devices are leading candidates for inclusion in a number of Unattended Ground Sensor applications. Continued progress at NVE has pushed their performance to 1OOs of pT I rt. Hz 1 Hz. However, these sensors were designed to use an applied field from an on-chip coil to create an appropriate magnetic sensing configuration. The power required to generate this field (^100mW) is significantly greater than the power budget (^lmW) for a magnetic sensor in an Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) application. Consequently, a new approach to creating an ideal sensing environment is required. One approach being used at NVE is "shape biasing." This means that the physical layout of the SDT sensing elements is such that the magnetization of the sensing film is correct even when no biasing field is applied. Sensors have been fabricated using this technique and show reasonable promise for UGS applications. Some performance trade-offs exist. The power is easily tinder 1 MW, but the sensitivity is typically lower by a factor of 10. This talk will discuss some of the design details of these sensors as well as their expected ultimate performance.

  16. A novel structure of permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jinji; Fang Jiancheng

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel structure for a permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Based on the air gap between the rotor and stator of traditional radial hybrid magnetic bearings, a subsidiary air gap is first constructed between the permanent magnets and the inner magnetic parts. Radial magnetic bearing makes X and Y magnetic fields independent of each other with separate stator poles, and the subsidiary air gap makes control flux to a close loop. As a result, magnetic field coupling of the X and Y channels is decreased significantly by the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and makes it easier to design control systems. Then an external rotor structure is designed into the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. The working principle of the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and its mathematical model is discussed. Finally, a non-linear magnetic network method is proposed to analyze the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Simulation results indicate that magnetic fields in the two channels of the proposed radial hybrid magnetic bearing decouple well from each other.

  17. A novel structure of permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Jinji, E-mail: sunjinji@aspe.buaa.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science for National Defense, Novel Inertial Instrument and Navigation System Technology, School of Instrument Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 100191 (China); Fang Jiancheng [Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science for National Defense, Novel Inertial Instrument and Navigation System Technology, School of Instrument Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 100191 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The paper proposes a novel structure for a permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Based on the air gap between the rotor and stator of traditional radial hybrid magnetic bearings, a subsidiary air gap is first constructed between the permanent magnets and the inner magnetic parts. Radial magnetic bearing makes X and Y magnetic fields independent of each other with separate stator poles, and the subsidiary air gap makes control flux to a close loop. As a result, magnetic field coupling of the X and Y channels is decreased significantly by the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and makes it easier to design control systems. Then an external rotor structure is designed into the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. The working principle of the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and its mathematical model is discussed. Finally, a non-linear magnetic network method is proposed to analyze the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Simulation results indicate that magnetic fields in the two channels of the proposed radial hybrid magnetic bearing decouple well from each other.

  18. A measurement system for two-dimensional DC-biased properties of magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enokizono, M.; Matsuo, H.

    2003-01-01

    So far, the DC-biased magnetic properties have been measured in one dimension (scalar). However, these scalar magnetic properties are not enough to clarify the DC-biased magnetic properties because the scalar magnetic properties cannot exactly take into account the phase difference between the magnetic flux density B vector and the magnetic filed strength H vector. Thus, the magnetic field strength H and magnetic flux density B in magnetic materials must be measured as vector quantities (two-dimensional), directly. We showed the measurement system using a single-sheet tester (SST) to clarify the two-dimensional DC-biased magnetic properties. This system excited AC in Y-direction and DC in X-direction. This paper shows the measurement system using an SST and presents the measurement results of two-dimensional DC-biased magnetic properties when changing the DC exciting voltage and the iron loss

  19. Modelling of radial electric fields and currents during divertor plate biasing on TdeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachambre, J.L.; Quirion, B.; Boucher, C.

    1994-01-01

    A simple model based on non-ambipolar radial transport and planar sheath physics is used to describe the generation of radial electric fields and currents in the scrape-off layer of the Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV) during divertor plate biasing. In general, the calculated predictions compare favourably with TdeV results over a variety of plasma conditions and divertor magnetic configurations. Validated by the experiment, the model is used to study the scaling laws of perpendicular ion mobility and to test existing related theories. Finally, the model is proposed as a useful tool for the design and upgrade of biased divertors through optimization of the plate and throat geometry. (author). 35 refs, 16 figs, 1 tab

  20. Calculation of persistent currents in superconducting magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Völlinger

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a semianalytical hysteresis model for hard superconductors. The model is based on the critical state model considering the dependency of the critical current density on the varying local field in the superconducting filaments. By combining this hysteresis model with numerical field computation methods, it is possible to calculate the persistent current multipole errors in the magnet taking local saturation effects in the magnetic iron parts into consideration. As an application of the method, the use of soft magnetic iron sheets (coil protection sheets mounted between the coils and the collars for partial compensation of the multipole errors during the ramping of the magnets is investigated.

  1. Analysis of the giant magnetostrictive actuator with strong bias magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Guangming, E-mail: yy0youxia@163.com; He, Zhongbo; Li, Dongwei; Yang, Zhaoshu; Zhao, Zhenglong

    2015-11-15

    Giant magnetostrictive actuator with strong bias magnetic field is designed to control the injector bullet valve opening and closing. The relationship between actuator displacement amplitude and input signal direction is analyzed. And based on the approximate linearity of strain-magnetic field, second-order system model of the actuator displacement is established. Experimental system suitable for the actuator is designed. The experimental results show that, the square voltage amplitude being 12 V, the actuator displacement amplitude is about 17 μm with backward direction signal input while being 1.5 μm under forward direction signal. From the results, the suitable input direction is confirmed to be backward. With exciting frequncy lower than 200 Hz, the error between the model and experimental result is less than 1.7 μm. So the model is validated under the low-frequency signal input. The testing displacement-voltage curves are approximately straight lines. But due to the biased position, the line slope and the displacement-voltage linearity change as the input voltage changes. - Highlights: • Giant magnetostrictive actuator with strong bias magnetic field is designed. • The relationship between actuator displacement amplitude and input current direction is analyzed. • The model of the actuator displacement is established and its accuracy is verified by the test. • The actuator displacement-voltage curves are achieved by the test, and the curves’ characteristics are analyzed theoretically.

  2. Current control for magnetized plasma in direct-current plasma-immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Deli; Chu, Paul K.

    2003-01-01

    A method to control the ion current in direct-current plasma-immersion ion implantation (PIII) is reported for low-pressure magnetized inductively coupled plasma. The ion current can be conveniently adjusted by applying bias voltage to the conducting grid that separates plasma formation and implantation (ion acceleration) zones without the need to alter the rf input power, gas flux, or other operating conditions. The ion current that diminishes with an increase in grid bias in magnetized plasmas can be varied from 48 to 1 mA by increasing the grid voltage from 0 to 70 V at -50 kV sample bias and 0.5 mTorr hydrogen pressure. High implantation voltage and monoenergetic immersion implantation can now be achieved by controlling the ion current without varying the macroscopic plasma parameters. The experimental results and interpretation of the effects are presented in this letter. This technique is very attractive for PIII of planar samples that require on-the-fly adjustment of the implantation current at high implantation voltage but low substrate temperature. In some applications such as hydrogen PIII-ion cut, it may obviate the need for complicated sample cooling devices that must work at high voltage

  3. Dipolar-Biased Tunneling of Magnetization in Crystals of Single Molecule Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaga, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    The molecular cluster Mn12 has attracted much interest as a single-molecule magnet (SMM) and as a multi-redox system. It has a high-spin ground state of S=10 and a strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, and the combination of the two natures makes an effective potential barrier between the up and down spin states. At low temperatures, the magnetization curve exhibited a hysteresis loop and the quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM). In the present work, we studied the structure and magnetic properties of the mixed-metal SMM, Mn11Cr, through the analysis of Mn11Cr/Mn12 mixed crystal. High-frequency EPR spectra were well explained by assuming that Mn11Cr was in a ground spin-state of S=19/2 with nearly the same EPR parameter set as for Mn12. QTM in Mn11Cr was observed with the same field interval as for Mn12. The magnetization of Mn11Cr and Mn12 in the mixed crystal can be independently manipulated by utilizing the difference between their coercive fields. The resonance fields of QTM in Mn11Cr are significantly affected by the magnetization direction of Mn12, suggesting the effect of dipolar-biased tunneling. Besides SMM, we would also like to report the unusual magnetic properties of spherical hollow nanomagnets, the electrical properties of heterocyclic thiazyl radicals, and their possible applications in spintronics and organic electronics.

  4. How does relativity affect magnetically induced currents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R J F; Repisky, M; Komorovsky, S

    2015-09-21

    Magnetically induced probability currents in molecules are studied in relativistic theory. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) enhances the curvature and gives rise to a previously unobserved current cusp in AuH or small bulge-like distortions in HgH2 at the proton positions. The origin of this curvature is magnetically induced spin-density arising from SOC in the relativistic description.

  5. Current-induced magnetization dynamics in nanomagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertotti, G.; Serpico, C.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Bonin, R.; D'Aquino, M.

    2007-01-01

    An overview is given of the various approaches that have been proposed for the interpretation of spin-transfer-driven magnetization dynamics. Models of critical currents and critical fields for switching as well as for the onset of magnetization oscillations are discussed, together with methods for the construction of field-current stability diagrams. Finally, the role of thermal fluctuations is analyzed. Particular emphasis is given to the study of uniformly magnetized nanomagnets, which represents an essential step before moving to the numerical computation of more complex micromagnetic configurations

  6. Current-induced magnetization dynamics in nanomagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertotti, G. [INRIM-Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Turin (Italy)]. E-mail: g.bertotti@inrim.it; Serpico, C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universita degli Studi Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples (Italy); Mayergoyz, I.D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bonin, R. [INRIM-Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Turin (Italy); D' Aquino, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universita degli Studi Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    An overview is given of the various approaches that have been proposed for the interpretation of spin-transfer-driven magnetization dynamics. Models of critical currents and critical fields for switching as well as for the onset of magnetization oscillations are discussed, together with methods for the construction of field-current stability diagrams. Finally, the role of thermal fluctuations is analyzed. Particular emphasis is given to the study of uniformly magnetized nanomagnets, which represents an essential step before moving to the numerical computation of more complex micromagnetic configurations.

  7. Exchange currents for hypernuclear magnetic moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, K.; Oka, M.; Suzuki, T.

    1997-01-01

    The meson (K and π) exchange currents for the hypernuclear magnetic moments are calculated using the effective Lagrangian method. The seagull diagram, the mesonic diagram and the Σ 0 -excitation diagram are considered. The Λ-N exchange magnetic moments for 5 Λ He and A=6 hypernuclei are calculated employing the harmonic oscillator shell model. It is found that the two-body correction is about -9% of the single particle value for 5 Λ He. The π exchange current, induced only in the Σ 0 -excitation diagram, is found to give dominant contribution for the isovector magnetic moments of hypernuclei with A=6. (orig.)

  8. Experiments with Coler magnetic current apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, T.

    Experiments with a replica of the famous Coler "Magnetstromapparat" (magnetic current apparatus) were conducted. The replica was built at the same institute at the Technical University of Berlin where the original was tested by Prof. Kloss in 1925. The details of the setup will be presented in this paper. The investigation of the Coler device was done with modern methods. The output was measured with a digital multi meter (DMM) and a digital storage oscilloscope (DSO). The results of the measurements will be presented. Did Coler convert vacuum fluctuations via magnetic, electric and acoustic resonance into electricity? There is a strong connection between magnetism and quantum field radiation energy. The magnetic moment of the electron is in part an energy exchange with the radiation field. The energy output of the Coler apparatus is measured. Furthermore the dynamics of the ferromagnetic magnets that Coler reported as the working principle of his device was investigated with magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and the spectroscopy mode of an atomic force microscope (AFM). The magnetic and acoustic resonance was investigated with magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The connection between ZPE and magnetism will be discussed as well as the perspective of using magnetic systems as a means to convert vacuum fluctuations into usable electricity.

  9. Optimization of magnetoresistive sensor current for on-chip magnetic bead detection using the sensor self-field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the self-heating of magnetoresistive sensors used for measurements on magnetic beads in magnetic biosensors. The signal from magnetic beads magnetized by the field due to the sensor bias current is proportional to the bias current squared. Therefore, we aim to maximize the bias...... current while limiting the sensor self-heating. We systematically characterize and model the Joule heating of magnetoresistive sensors with different sensor geometries and stack compositions. The sensor heating is determined using the increase of the sensor resistance as function of the bias current......, thus the heat conductance is proportional to the sensor area and inversely proportional to the oxide thickness. This simple heat conductance determines the relationship between bias current and sensor temperature, and we show that View the MathML source25μm wide sensor on a View the MathML source1μm...

  10. Study of the Dependency on Magnetic Field and Bias Voltage of an AC-Biased TES Microcalorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, L.; Bruijn, M.; denHartog, R.; Hoevers, H.; deKorte, P.; vanderKuur, J.; Linderman, M.; Adams, J.; Bailey, C.; Bandler, S.; hide

    2012-01-01

    At SRON we are studying the performance of a Goddard Space Flight Center single pixel TES microcalorimeter operated in an AC bias configuration. For x-ray photons at 6 keV the pixel shows an x-ray energy resolution Delta E(sub FWHM) = 3.7 eV, which is about a factor 2 worse than the energy resolution observed in an identical DC-biased pixel. In order to better understand the reasons for this discrepancy we characterized the detector as a function of temperature, bias working point and applied perpendicular magnetic field. A strong periodic dependency of the detector noise on the TES AC bias voltage is measured. We discuss the results in the framework of the recently observed weak-link behaviour of a TES microcalorimeter.

  11. Current-driven parametric resonance in magnetic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C; Seinige, H; Tsoi, M

    2013-01-01

    Current-induced parametric excitations were observed in point-contact spin-valve nanodevices. Point contacts were used to inject high densities of direct and microwave currents into spin valves, thus producing oscillating spin-transfer and Oersted-field torques on magnetic moments. The resulting magnetodynamics were observed electrically by measuring rectified voltage signals across the contact. In addition to the spin-torque-driven ferromagnetic resonance we observe doubled-frequency signals which correspond to the parametric excitation of magnetic moments. Numerical simulations suggest that while both spin-transfer torque and ac Oersted field contribute to the parametrically excited dynamics, the ac spin torque dominates, and dc spin torque can switch it on and off. The dc bias dependence of the parametric resonance signal enabled the mapping of instability regions characterizing the nonlinearity of the oscillation. (paper)

  12. Analysis and design of permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing based on hybrid factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinji Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, hybrid factor is proposed for hybrid magnetic bearing. The hybrid factor is defined as the ratio of the force produced by the permanent magnet and the forces produced by the permanent magnet and current in hybrid magnetic bearing. It is deduced from a certain radial hybrid magnetic bearing using its important parameters such as the current stiffness and displacement stiffness at first and then the dynamic model of magnetically suspended rotor system is established. The relationship between structural parameters and control system parameters is analyzed based on the hybrid factor. Some influencing factors of hybrid factor in hybrid magnetic bearing, such as the size of the permanent magnet, length of air gap, and area of the stator poles, are analyzed in this article. It can be concluded that larger hybrid factor can be caused by the smaller power loss according to the definition of hybrid factor mentioned above. Meanwhile, the hybrid factor has a maximum value, which is related to control system parameters such as proportional factor expect for structural parameters. Finally, the design steps of parameters of hybrid magnetic bearing can be concluded.

  13. Electro-optical effect of a magnetically biased ferronematic liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S H; Liang, B J

    1988-09-01

    The electro-optical effect of a magnetically biased ferronematic liquid-crystal film is investigated by using birefringence measurements. When a magnetic field is applied, the threshold voltage of the Freedericksz transition no longer exists. The dependence of the birefringence on the magnetic field strength in the low field regime is presented. A theory that accounts for the results is given.

  14. Energy of magnetic moment of superconducting current in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtovoi, V.L.; Nikulov, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantization effects observed in superconducting loops are considered. • The energy of magnetic moment in magnetic field can not be deduced from Hamiltonian. • This energy is deduced from a history of the current state in the classical case. • It can not be deduced directly in the quantum case. • Taking this energy into account demolishes agreement between theory and experiment. - Abstract: The energy of magnetic moment of the persistent current circulating in superconducting loop in an externally produced magnetic field is not taken into account in the theory of quantization effects because of identification of the Hamiltonian with the energy. This identification misleads if, in accordance with the conservation law, the energy of a state is the energy expended for its creation. The energy of magnetic moment is deduced from a creation history of the current state in magnetic field both in the classical and quantum case. But taking this energy into account demolishes the agreement between theory and experiment. Impartial consideration of this problem discovers the contradiction both in theory and experiment

  15. Charge and spin current oscillations in a tunnel junction induced by magnetic field pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dartora, C.A., E-mail: cadartora@eletrica.ufpr.br [Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana (UFPR), C.P. 19011 Curitiba, 81.531-970 PR (Brazil); Nobrega, K.Z., E-mail: bzuza1@yahoo.com.br [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technolgy of Maranhão (IFMA), Av. Marechal Castelo Branco, 789, São Luís, 65.076-091 MA (Brazil); Cabrera, G.G., E-mail: cabrera@ifi.unicamp.br [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin’, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), C.P. 6165, Campinas 13.083-970 SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    Usually, charge and spin transport properties in tunnel junctions are studied in the DC bias regime and/or in the adiabatic regime of time-varying magnetic fields. In this letter, the temporal dynamics of charge and spin currents in a tunnel junction induced by pulsed magnetic fields is considered. At low bias voltages, energy and momentum of the conduction electrons are nearly conserved in the tunneling process, leading to the description of the junction as a spin-1/2 fermionic system coupled to time-varying magnetic fields. Under the influence of pulsed magnetic fields, charge and spin current can flow across the tunnel junction, displaying oscillatory behavior, even in the absence of DC bias voltage. A type of spin capacitance function, in close analogy to electric capacitance, is predicted.

  16. Current filaments in turbulent magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martines, E.; Vianello, N.; Sundkvist, D.

    2009-01-01

    gradient region of a fusion plasma confined in reversed field pinch configuration and in a density gradient region in the Earth magnetosphere are measured and compared, showing that in both environments they can be attributed to drift-Alfvén vortices. Current structures associated with reconnection events......Direct measurements of current density perturbations associated with non-linear phenomena in magnetized plasmas can be carried out using in situ magnetic measurements. In this paper we report such measurements for three different kinds of phenomena. Current density fluctuations in the edge density...... measured in a reversed field pinch plasma and in the magnetosheath are detected and compared. Evidence of current filaments occurring during ELMs in an H-mode tokamak plasma is displayed....

  17. Model for an irreversible bias current in the superconducting qubit measurement process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, G. D.; Williams, D. A.; Holmes, C. A.; Stace, T. M.; Spiller, T. P.; Barrett, S. D.; Milburn, G. J.; Hasko, D. G.

    2006-01-01

    The superconducting charge-phase ''quantronium'' qubit is considered in order to develop a model for the measurement process used in the experiment of Vion et al. [Science 296, 886 (2002)]. For this model we propose a method for including the bias current in the readout process in a fundamentally irreversible way, which to first order is approximated by the Josephson junction tilted-washboard potential phenomenology. The decohering bias current is introduced in the form of a Lindblad operator and the Wigner function for the current-biased readout Josephson junction is derived and analyzed. During the readout current pulse used in the quantronium experiment we find that the coherence of the qubit initially prepared in a symmetric superposition state is lost at a time of 0.2 ns after the bias current pulse has been applied, a time scale that is much shorter than the experimental readout time. Additionally we look at the effect of Johnson-Nyquist noise with zero mean from the current source during the qubit manipulation and show that the decoherence due to the irreversible bias current description is an order of magnitude smaller than that found through adding noise to the reversible tilted-washboard potential model. Our irreversible bias current model is also applicable to persistent-current-based qubits where the state is measured according to its flux via a small-inductance direct-current superconducting quantum interference device

  18. Attention and memory biases as stable abnormalities among currently depressed and currently remitted individuals with Unipolar Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi eGupta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn the present study, we explored the possibility of the stability of attention bias and memory bias in currently remitted individuals with unipolar depression compared to currently depressed individuals with unipolar depression and never-depressed individuals. MethodsThe Emotional Stroop and autobiographical memory task were administered on 10 participants, who were currently depressed, currently remitted with unipolar depression, or never-depressed. In the emotional Stroop task (EST, the respondent’s task was to indicate the color of the ink of the positive, negative, and neutral words by selecting one of a series of colored blocks. In the autobiographical memory task (AMT, participants were presented with positive, negative, and neutral cue words. For each word, they were asked to report specific events from their life. ResultsBoth the attention bias and memory bias exist in both the clinical groups. In EST, both currently depressed and currently remitted groups were slower to respond to negative words compared to neutral words. Unlike EST, in AMT both currently depressed and currently remitted groups were slower to respond to positive words compared to neutral words. Interestingly, the capacity to generate specific events for negative events was higher in both currently depressed and currently remitted groups. They were over-general in their memories of positive events. Importantly, the never-depressed group was specific in their memories of both positive and negative events of their life. ConclusionsOur findings provide evidence for the stable existence of attention and memory bias in currently remitted individuals. This study has implications for the cognitive behavior therapy for depression to include modules to resolve the attention and memory bias toward negative thought and content, and to build strategies to overcome such biases.

  19. Transformer current sensor for superconducting magnetic coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, S.S.; Wilson, C.T.

    1985-04-16

    The present invention is a current transformer for operating currents larger than 2kA (two kiloamps) that is capable of detecting a millivolt level resistive voltage in the presence of a large inductive voltage. Specifically, the present invention includes substantially cylindrical primary turns arranged to carry a primary current and substantially cylindrical secondary turns arranged coaxially with and only partially within the primary turns, the secondary turns including an active winding and a dummy winding, the active and dummy windings being coaxial, longitudinally separated and arranged to mutually cancel voltages excited by commonly experienced magnetic fields, the active winding but not the dummy winding being arranged within the primary turns.

  20. A clinical trial with combined transcranial direct current stimulation and alcohol approach bias retraining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Uyl, T.E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Wiers, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Two studies showed an improvement in clinical outcomes after alcohol approach bias retraining, a form of Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM). We investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could enhance effects of CBM. TDCS is a neuromodulation technique that can increase

  1. Exchange current contributions to isoscalar magnetic moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, A.; Bentz, W.; Ichii, S.

    1986-01-01

    In this work the authors have investigated two recent suggestions which indicated appreciable exchange current contributions to isoscalar magnetic moments. On account of gauge invariance the authors found that in both treatments certain important terms seem to be omitted. The authors then performed explicit calculations using a one-boson exchange model for the exchange current operator. The authors found that the results are sensitive to the ratio of coupling constants g/sub σNN///g/sub ωNN/. Due to this fact it is difficult to draw quantitative conclusions. In the present model calculation the authors found that both g/sub s/(0) and g/sub 1//sup 0/ are enhanced by about 3% to 4%, resulting in non-negligible corrections to isoscalar magnetic moments

  2. Thermal drift reduction with multiple bias current for MOSFET dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvajal, M A; Martinez-Olmos, A; Morales, D P; Lopez-Villanueva, J A; Palma, A J [Departamento de Electronica y TecnologIa de Computadores, ETSIIT, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Lallena, A M, E-mail: carvajal@ugr.es [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2011-06-21

    New thermal compensation methods suitable for p-channel MOSFET (pMOS) dosimeters with the usual dose readout procedure based on a constant drain current are presented. Measuring the source-drain voltage shifts for two or three different drain currents and knowing the value of the zero-temperature coefficient drain current, I{sub ZTC}, the thermal drift of source-drain or threshold voltages can be significantly reduced. Analytical expressions for the thermal compensation have been theoretically deduced on the basis of a linear dependence on temperature of the parameters involved. The proposed thermal modelling has been experimentally proven. These methods have been applied to a group of ten commercial pMOS transistors (3N163). The thermal coefficients of the source-drain voltage and the threshold voltage were reduced from -3.0 mV deg. C{sup -1}, in the worst case, down to -70 {mu}V deg. C{sup -1}. This means a thermal drift of -2.4 mGy deg. C{sup -1} for the dosimeter. When analysing the thermal drifts of all the studied transistors, in the temperature range from 19 to 36 deg. C, uncertainty was obtained in the threshold voltage due to a thermal drift of {+-}9mGy (2 SD), a commonly acceptable value in most radiotherapy treatments. The procedures described herein provide thermal drift reduction comparable to that of other technological or numerical strategies, but can be used in a very simple and low-cost dosimetry sensor.

  3. Casimir Interaction from Magnetically Coupled Eddy Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intravaia, Francesco; Henkel, Carsten

    2009-09-01

    We study the quantum and thermal fluctuations of eddy (Foucault) currents in thick metallic plates. A Casimir interaction between two plates arises from the coupling via quasistatic magnetic fields. As a function of distance, the relevant eddy current modes cross over from a quantum to a thermal regime. These modes alone reproduce previously discussed thermal anomalies of the electromagnetic Casimir interaction between good conductors. In particular, they provide a physical picture for the Casimir entropy whose nonzero value at zero temperature arises from a correlated, glassy state.

  4. Magnetic field measurements on the perpendicular biased RF booster cavity for the proposed TRIUMF KAON Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enchevich, I.B.; Poirier, R.L.

    1992-08-01

    The successful operation of the full scale KAON Factory Ferrite tuned Booster Accelerating Cavity Prototype allowed us to do ac magnetic field measurements in the tuner. The field measured is close to that calculated. The measured data are discussed. They may be used for reliable computation of the perturbation of the beam dynamics due to the ferrite biasing magnetic field. Methods to compensate the disturbing magnetic fields are discussed. 7 refs., 7 figs

  5. Modulation of low-frequency oscillations in GaAs MESFETs' channel current by sidegating bias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yong; LU Shengli; ZHAO Fuchuan

    2005-01-01

    Low-frequency oscillations in channel current are usually observed when measuring the GaAs MESFET's output characteristics. This paper studies the oscillations by testing the MESFET's output characteristics under different sidegate bias conditions. It is shown that the low-frequency oscillations of channel current are directly related to the sidegate bias. In other words, the sidegate bias can modulate the oscillations. Whether the sidegate bias varies positively or negatively, there will inevitably be a threshold voltage after which the low-frequency oscillations disappear. The observation is strongly dependent upon the peculiarities of channel-substrate (C-S) junction and impact ionization of traps-EL2 under high field. This conclusion is of particular pertinence to the design of low-noise GaAs IC's.

  6. A Novel Integrated Structure with a Radial Displacement Sensor and a Permanent Magnet Biased Radial Magnetic Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinji Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel integrated structure is proposed in order to reduce the axial length of the high speed of a magnetically suspended motor (HSMSM to ensure the maximum speed, which combines radial displacement sensor probes and the permanent magnet biased radial magnetic bearing in HSMSM. The sensor probes are integrated in the magnetic bearing, and the sensor preamplifiers are placed in the control system of the HSMSM, separate from the sensor probes. The proposed integrated structure can save space in HSMSMs, improve the working frequency, reduce the influence of temperature on the sensor circuit, and improve the stability of HSMSMs.

  7. Bipolar programmable current supply for superconducting nuclear magnetic resonance magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivuniemi, Jaakko; Luusalo, Reeta; Hakonen, Pertti

    1998-09-01

    In high resolution continuous-wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) work well-reproducible, linear sweeps of current are needed. We have developed a microcontroller based programmable current supply, tested with superconducting magnets with inductance of 10 mH and 10 H. We achieved a resolution and noise of 4 ppm. The supply has an internal sweep with programmable ramping rate and a possibility for remote operation from a computer with either GPIB or RS232 interface. It is based on an 18-bit D/A converter. The maximum output current is ±10 A, the sweep rate can be set between 1 μA/s-140 mA/s, and the maximum output voltage is ±2.5 V. In work at ultralow temperatures, especially in superconducting quantum interference device NMR, all rf interference to the experiment should be avoided. One of the sources of this kind of unwanted input is the digital switching noise of fast logic devices. We discuss this problem in the context of our design.

  8. Fluxgate Magnetic Sensor and Its Application for Current Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra-Djamal

    2007-01-01

    Conventionally electric current can be measured by connecting the instrument serially on the circuit. This method has disadvantage because its disturb the measured current flow. By using a magnetic sensor, current can be measured without disturbing the current flow, because it just measures the magnetic field of the measured current. This paper shows the use of fluxgate magnetic sensor for current measurement. It is shown that the sensor can measure widely range of current with resolution ≤ 2 %. (author)

  9. Magnetic charge distribution and stray field landscape of asymmetric néel walls in a magnetically patterned exchange bias layer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingsem, Norbert; Ahrend, Florian; Vock, Silvia; Gottlob, Daniel; Krug, Ingo; Doganay, Hatice; Holzinger, Dennis; Neu, Volker; Ehresmann, Arno

    2017-12-01

    The 3D stray field landscape above an exchange bias layer system with engineered domain walls has been fully characterized by quantitative magnetic force microscopy (qMFM) measurements. This method is based on a complete quantification of the MFM tip’s imaging properties and the subtraction of its contribution from the measured MFM data by deconvolution in Fourier space. The magnetically patterned Ir17Mn83/Co70Fe30-exchange-bias-multilayers have been designed to contain asymmetric head-to-head (hh)/tail-to-tail (tt) Néel walls between domains of different magnetic anisotropies for potential use in guided particle transport. In the current application, qMFM reveals the effective magnetic charge profile on the surface of the sample—with high spatial resolution and in an absolute quantitative manner. These data enable to calculate the magnetostatic potential and the full stray field landscape above the sample surface. It has been successfully tested against: (i) micromagnetic simulations of the magnetization structure of a comparable exchange-bias layer system, (ii) measurements of the magnetization profile across the domain boundary with x-ray photoemission electron microscopy, and (iii) direct stray field measurements obtained by scanning Hall probe microscopy at elevated scan heights. This approach results in a quantitative determination of the stray field landscape at close distances to the sample surface, which will be of importance for remote magnetic particle transport applications in lab-on-a-chip devices. Furthermore, the highly resolving and quantitative MFM approach reveals details of the domain transition across the artificially structured phase boundary, which have to be attributed to a continuous change in the materials parameters across this boundary, rather than an abrupt one.

  10. Do release-site biases reflect response to the Earth's magnetic field during position determination by homing pigeons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Cordula V; Walker, Michael M

    2009-09-22

    How homing pigeons (Columba livia) return to their loft from distant, unfamiliar sites has long been a mystery. At many release sites, untreated birds consistently vanish from view in a direction different from the home direction, a phenomenon called the release-site bias. These deviations in flight direction have been implicated in the position determination (or map) step of navigation because they may reflect local distortions in information about location that the birds obtain from the geophysical environment at the release site. Here, we performed a post hoc analysis of the relationship between vanishing bearings and local variations in magnetic intensity using previously published datasets for pigeons homing to lofts in Germany. Vanishing bearings of both experienced and naïve birds were strongly associated with magnetic intensity variations at release sites, with 90 per cent of bearings lying within +/-29 degrees of the magnetic intensity slope or contour direction. Our results (i) demonstrate that pigeons respond in an orderly manner to the local structure of the magnetic field at release sites, (ii) provide a mechanism for the occurrence of release-site biases and (iii) suggest that pigeons may derive spatial information from the magnetic field at the release site that could be used to estimate their current position relative to their loft.

  11. Fingerprints of surface magnetism in Cr2O3 based exchange bias heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xi; Wang, Yi; Binek, Ch.

    2009-03-01

    Magnetoelectric materials experienced a recent revival as promising components of novel spintronic devices [1, 2, 3]. Since the magnetoelectric (ME) effect is relativistically small in traditional antiferromagnetic (AF) compounds like Cr2O3 (max. αzz 4ps/m) and also cross-coupling between ferroic order parameters is typically small in the modern multiferroics, it is a challenge to electrically induce sufficient magnetization required for the envisioned device applications. In exchange bias systems the bias field depends critically on the AF interface magnetization. Hence, a strong relation between the latter and the surface magnetization of the free Cr2O3 pinning layer can be expected. Our recent research indicates that there are surface magnetic phase transitions in free Cr2O3 (111) films accompanying surface structural phase transitions. Well defined AF interface magnetization is initialized through ME annealing to T=20K. Subsequently, the interface magnetization is thermally driven through phase transitions at T=120 and 210K. Their effects on the exchange bias are studied in Cr2O3 (111)/CoPt films with the help of polar Kerr and SQUID magnetometry. [1] P. Borisov et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 117203 (2005). [2] Ch. Binek, B.Doudin, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, L39 (2005). [3] R. Ramesh et al. 2007 Nature Materials 6 21. Financial support by NSF through Career DMR-0547887, MRSEC DMR-0820521 and the NRI.

  12. Magnetic stability in exchange-spring and exchange bias systems after multiple switching cycles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, J. S.; Inomata, A.; You, C.-Y.; Pearson, J. E.; Bader, S. D.

    2001-06-01

    We have studied the magnetic stability in exchange bias and exchange spring systems prepared via epitaxial sputter deposition. The two interfacial exchange coupled systems, Fe/Cr(211) double superlattices consisting of a ferromagnetic and an antiferromagnetic Fe/Cr superlattice that are exchange coupled through a Cr spacer, and Sin-Co/Fe exchange-spring bilayer structures with ferromagnetically coupled hard Sin-Co layer and soft Fe layer, were epitaxially grown on suitably prepared Cr buffer layers to give rise to different microstructure and magnetic anisotropy. The magnetic stability was investigated using the magneto-optic Kerr effect during repeated reversal of the soft layer magnetization by field cycling up to 10{sup 7} times. For uniaxial Fe/Cr exchange biased double superlattices and exchange spring bilayers with uniaxial Sin-Co, small but rapid initial decay in the exchange bias field HE and in the remanent magnetization is observed. However, the exchange spring bilayers with biaxial and random in-plane anisotropy in the Sin-Co layer shows gradual decay in H{sub E} and without large reduction of the magnetization. The different decay behaviors are attributed to the different microstructure and spin configuration of the pinning layers.

  13. Generation of pure spin currents via spin Seebeck effect in self-biased hexagonal ferrite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng; Ellsworth, David; Chang, Houchen; Janantha, Praveen; Richardson, Daniel; Phillips, Preston; Vijayasarathy, Tarah; Wu, Mingzhong, E-mail: mwu@lamar.colostate.edu [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Shah, Faisal [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Light-induced generation of pure spin currents in a Pt(2.5 nm)/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}(1.2 μm)/sapphire(0.5 mm) structure is reported. The BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} film had strong in-plane uniaxial anisotropy and was therefore self-biased. Upon exposure to light, a temperature difference (ΔT) was established across the BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} thickness that gave rise to a pure spin current in the Pt via the spin Seebeck effect. Via the inverse spin Hall effect, the spin current produced an electric voltage across one of the Pt lateral dimensions. The voltage varied with time in the same manner as ΔT and flipped its sign when the magnetization in BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} was reversed.

  14. Magnetic Biasing of a Ferroelectric Hysteresis Loop in a Multiferroic Orthoferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Y.; Taguchi, Y.; Arima, T.; Tokura, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In a multiferroic orthoferrite Dy0.7Tb0.3FeO3, which shows electric-field-(E-)driven magnetization (M) reversal due to a tight clamping between polarization (P) and M, a gigantic effect of magnetic-field (H) biasing on P-E hysteresis loops is observed in the case of rapid E sweeping. The magnitude of the bias E field can be controlled by varying the magnitude of H, and its sign can be reversed by changing the sign of H or the relative clamping direction between P and M. The origin of this unconventional biasing effect is ascribed to the difference in the Zeeman energy between the +P and -P states coupled with the M states with opposite sign.

  15. Half Size Reduction of DC Output Filter Inductors With the Saturation-Gap Magnetic Bias Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilar, Andres Revilla; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Filter inductors are probably one of the heaviest and more voluminous components found in power supplies of most electronic devices. A known technique to reduce the inductor size in dc applications is the use of permanent magnet inductors (PMIs). One of the latest developed biasing topologies...

  16. High-current power supply for accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourkland, K.R.; Winje, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    A power supply for controlling the current to accelerator magnets produces a high current at a precisely controlled time rate of change by varying the resonant frequency of an RLC circuit that includes the magnet and applying the current to the magnet during a predetermined portion of the waveform of an oscillation. The current is kept from going negative despite the reverse-current characteristics of thyristors by a quenching circuit

  17. Analysis of Reverse-Bias Leakage Current Mechanisms in Metal/GaN Schottky Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pipinys

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-dependent reverse-bias current-voltage characteristics obtained by other researchers for Schottky diodes fabricated on GaN are reinterpreted in terms of phonon-assisted tunneling (PhAT model. Temperature dependence of reverse-bias leakage current is shown could be caused by the temperature dependence of electron tunneling rate from traps in the metal-semiconductor interface to the conduction band of semiconductor. A good fit of experimental data with the theory is received in a wide temperature range (from 80 K to 500 K using for calculation the effective mass of 0.222 me. and for the phonon energy the value of 70 meV. The temperature and bias voltages dependences of an apparent barrier height (activation energy are also explicable in the framework of the PhAT model.

  18. Stable superconducting magnet. [high current levels below critical temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boom, R. W. (Inventor)

    1967-01-01

    Operation of a superconducting magnet is considered. A method is described for; (1) obtaining a relatively high current in a superconducting magnet positioned in a bath of a gas refrigerant; (2) operating a superconducting magnet at a relatively high current level without training; and (3) operating a superconducting magnet containing a plurality of turns of a niobium zirconium wire at a relatively high current level without training.

  19. Individual magnetization reversal of a square dot matrix by common current excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elyasi, Mehrdad; Bhatia, Charanjit S; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed a method for magnetization reversal of individual sites of a 2 by 2 matrix of perpendicularly magnetized dots by common current excitation. The spin-polarized current signal consists of a dc-biased ac part followed by a pure dc one. The amplitude of the dc and ac parts of the current, as well as the phase and duration of the ac current, determine the reversal sites through the magnetostatic interaction among the dots. We show that the individual selectivity in magnetization reversal occurs through two consecutive steps, dephasing of the matrix dyadic pairs dynamics followed by nonlinear dephasing of the individual elements. This method can be utilized to increase the storage density of magnetic random access memory by enabling common access for four or more bits. (paper)

  20. Micromagnetic modeling of critical current oscillations in magnetic Josephson junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    golovchanskiy, I.A.; Bol'ginov, V.V.; Stolyarov, V.S.; Abramov, N.N.; Ben Hamida, A.; Emelyanova, O.V.; Stolyarov, B.S.; Kupriyanov, M..Y.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Ryazanov, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose and explore an effective numerical approach for investigation of critical current dependence on applied magnetic field for magnetic Josephson junctions with in-plane magnetization orientation. This approach is based on micromagnetic simulation of the magnetization reversal

  1. Magnetic properties and crystal texture of Co alloy thin films prepared on double bias Cr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Lambeth, D. N.; Lee, L.-L.; Laughlin, D. E.

    1993-05-01

    A double layer Cr film structure has been prepared by sputter depositing Cr on single crystal Si substrates first without substrate bias and then with various substrate bias voltages. Without substrate bias, Cr{200} texture grows on Si at room temperature; thus the first Cr layer acts like a seed Cr layer with the {200} texture, and the second Cr layer, prepared with substrate bias, tends to replicate the {200} texture epitaxially. CoCrTa and CoNiCr films prepared on these double Cr underlayers, therefore, tend to have a {112¯0} texture with their c-axes oriented in the plane of the film. At the same time, the bias sputtering of the second Cr layer increases the coercivity of the subsequently deposited magnetic films significantly. Comparison studies of δM curves show that the use of the double Cr underlayers reduces the intergranular exchange interactions. The films prepared on the Si substrates have been compared with the films prepared on canasite and glass substrates. It has also been found that the magnetic properties are similar for films on canasite and on glass.

  2. Self-Biased 215MHz Magnetoelectric NEMS Resonator for Ultra-Sensitive DC Magnetic Field Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Tianxiang; Hui, Yu; Rinaldi, Matteo; Sun, Nian X.

    2013-06-01

    High sensitivity magnetoelectric sensors with their electromechanical resonance frequencies electromechanical systems (NEMS) resonator with an electromechanical resonance frequency of 215 MHz based on an AlN/(FeGaB/Al2O3) × 10 magnetoelectric heterostructure for detecting DC magnetic fields. This magnetoelectric NEMS resonator showed a high quality factor of 735, and strong magnetoelectric coupling with a large voltage tunable sensitivity. The admittance of the magnetoelectric NEMS resonator was very sensitive to DC magnetic fields at its electromechanical resonance, which led to a new detection mechanism for ultra-sensitive self-biased RF NEMS magnetoelectric sensor with a low limit of detection of DC magnetic fields of ~300 picoTelsa. The magnetic/piezoelectric heterostructure based RF NEMS magnetoelectric sensor is compact, power efficient and readily integrated with CMOS technology, which represents a new class of ultra-sensitive magnetometers for DC and low frequency AC magnetic fields.

  3. Effect of Reverse Bias Stress on Leakage Currents and Breakdown Voltages of Solid Tantalum Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of solid tantalum capacitors are produced by high-temperature sintering of a fine tantalum powder around a tantalum wire followed by electrolytic anodization that forms a thin amorphous Ta2O5 dielectric layer and pyrolysis of manganese nitrite on the oxide to create a conductive manganese dioxide electrode. A contact to tantalum wire is used as anode terminal and to the manganese layer as a cathode terminal of the device. This process results in formation of an asymmetric Ta -- Ta2O5 -- MnO2 capacitor that has different characteristics at forward (positive bias applied to tantalum) and reverse (positive bias applied to manganese cathode) voltages. Reverse bias currents might be several orders of magnitude larger than forward leakage currents so I-V characteristics of tantalum capacitors resemble characteristics of semiconductor rectifiers. Asymmetric I-V characteristics of Ta -- anodic Ta2O5 systems have been observed at different top electrode materials including metals, electrolytes, conductive polymers, and manganese oxide thus indicating that this phenomenon is likely related to the specifics of the Ta -- Ta2O5 interface. There have been multiple attempts to explain rectifying characteristics of capacitors employing anodic tantalum pentoxide dielectrics. A brief review of works related to reverse bias (RB) behavior of tantalum capacitors shows that the mechanism of conduction in Ta -- Ta2O5 systems is still not clear and more testing and analysis is necessary to understand the processes involved. If tantalum capacitors behave just as rectifiers, then the assessment of the safe reverse bias operating conditions would be a relatively simple task. Unfortunately, these parts can degrade with time under reverse bias significantly, and this further complicates analysis of the I-V characteristics and establishing safe operating areas of the parts. On other hand, time dependence of reverse currents might provide additional information for investigation of

  4. High plasma rotation velocity and density transitions by biased electrodes in RF produced, magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Shoichiro; Shinohara, Shunjiro

    2001-01-01

    A large density profile modification was successfully obtained by voltage biasing to electrodes inserted in a RF (radio frequency) produced, magnetized plasma, and formation of strong shear of azimuthal plasma rotation velocity in a supersonic regime was found. For the case of biasing to an electrode near the central plasma region, two types of density transitions were observed in the outer plasma region: one was an oscillatory transition between two states, and the other was a transition from high to low density states with a large reduction of density fluctuations. (author)

  5. High plasma rotation velocity and density transitions by biased electrodes in RF produced, magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Shoichiro; Shinohara, Shunjiro [Kyushu Univ., Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    A large density profile modification was successfully obtained by voltage biasing to electrodes inserted in a RF (radio frequency) produced, magnetized plasma, and formation of strong shear of azimuthal plasma rotation velocity in a supersonic regime was found. For the case of biasing to an electrode near the central plasma region, two types of density transitions were observed in the outer plasma region: one was an oscillatory transition between two states, and the other was a transition from high to low density states with a large reduction of density fluctuations. (author)

  6. Magnetic stability under magnetic cycling of MgO-based magnetic tunneling junctions with an exchange-biased synthetic antiferromagnetic pinned layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Hao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the magnetic stability and endurance of MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs with an exchange-biased synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF pinned layer. When a uniaxially cycling switching field is applied along the easy axis of the free magnetic layer, the magnetoresistance varies only by 1.7% logarithmically with the number of cycles, while no such change appears in the case of a rotating field. This observation is consistent with the effect of the formation and motion of domain walls in the free layer, which create significant stray fields within the pinned hard layer. Unlike in previous studies, the decay we observed only occurs during the first few starting cycles (<20, at which point there is no further variance in all performance parameters up to 107 cycles. Exchange-biased SAF structure is ideally suited for solid-state magnetic sensors and magnetic memory devices.

  7. Current-induced switching in a magnetic insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Can Onur; Quindeau, Andy; Pai, Chi-Feng; Mann, Maxwell; Caretta, Lucas; Tang, Astera S.; Onbasli, Mehmet C.; Ross, Caroline A.; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2017-03-01

    The spin Hall effect in heavy metals converts charge current into pure spin current, which can be injected into an adjacent ferromagnet to exert a torque. This spin-orbit torque (SOT) has been widely used to manipulate the magnetization in metallic ferromagnets. In the case of magnetic insulators (MIs), although charge currents cannot flow, spin currents can propagate, but current-induced control of the magnetization in a MI has so far remained elusive. Here we demonstrate spin-current-induced switching of a perpendicularly magnetized thulium iron garnet film driven by charge current in a Pt overlayer. We estimate a relatively large spin-mixing conductance and damping-like SOT through spin Hall magnetoresistance and harmonic Hall measurements, respectively, indicating considerable spin transparency at the Pt/MI interface. We show that spin currents injected across this interface lead to deterministic magnetization reversal at low current densities, paving the road towards ultralow-dissipation spintronic devices based on MIs.

  8. Permanent-Magnet Free Biasing of MR Sensors with Tunable Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Sean; Dasilva, Fabio; Pappas, David

    2007-03-01

    Exchange coupling^1 has been previously observed in a trilayer structure of ferromagnet (FM)/non-magnetic/antiferromagnet (AFM) and the exchange bias was found to be a function of the thickness of the buffer layer.^2,3,4 This unique coupling is used as a stabilizing bias for the sense layer with the additional ability to tailor the magnetic gain of the sensor for various applications. The elimination of permanent magnet bias results in the elimination of one patterning and one deposition step. Ruthenium (Ru) is used as the buffer layer and is self aligned with the FM and AFM layers and the thickness is varied to change the slope of the transfer curve in the linear region. Sensor devices are fabricated with a bipolar output, a medium sensitivity, and a wide field range. The results show that this biasing scheme is well suited for barber pole and soft adjacent layer (SAL) anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) stripes used in magnetic field sensors with a FM layer of Permalloy (NiFe) and an AFM layer of Iridium-Manganese (IrMn). Applications include a 256 channel read head used for magnetic forensics. 1N.J. Gokemeijer, T. Ambrose, C.L. Chien, N. Wang and K.K. Fung, J. Appl. Phys. 81 (8), 4999, 15 April 1997. 2W.H. Meiklejohn and C.P. Bean, Phys. Rev. 102, 1413 1956; 105, 904, 1957. 3L. Thomas, A.J. Kellock and S.S.P. Parkin, J. Appl. Phys. 87 (9), 5061, 1 May 2000. 4D. Wang, J. Daughton, C. Nordman, P. Eames and J. Fink, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 2006.

  9. Simulative research on reverse current in magnetically insulated coaxial diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danni Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The reverse current tends to occur in the transition region of the guiding magnetic field in a magnetically insulated coaxial diode (MICD. Influence of the guiding magnetic field on characteristics of the MICD especially on the reverse current is studied by the particle-in-cell (PIC simulation in this paper. The reverse current is confirmed to be irrelevant with the guiding magnetic field strength. However, the reverse current is clarified quantitatively to depend on the electric and magnetic field distribution in the upstream of the cathode tip. As the MICD has been widely employed in microwave tubes, a simple approach to suppress the reverse current on the premise of little change of the original diode is valuable and thus proposed. The optimum matching point between the cathode and the magnetic field is selected in consideration of the entrance depth tolerance, the diode impedance discrepancy and the reverse current coefficient.

  10. Rotating magnetic field current drive-theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    Rotating magnetic fields have been used to drive plasma current and establish a range of compact torus configurations, named rotamaks. The current drive mechanism involves a ponderomotive force acting on the electron fluid. Recent extensions of the theory indicate that this method is most suitable for driving currents in directions perpendicular to the steady magnetic fields

  11. Spin current pumped by a rotating magnetic field in zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Chan, K S

    2010-01-01

    We study electron spin resonance in zigzag graphene nanoribbons by applying a rotating magnetic field on the system without any bias. By using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique, the spin-resolved pumped current is explicitly derived in a rotating reference frame. The pumped spin current density increases with the system size and the intensity of the transverse rotating magnetic field. For graphene nanoribbons with an even number of zigzag chains, there is a nonzero pumped charge current in addition to the pumped spin current owing to the broken spatial inversion symmetry of the system, but its magnitude is much smaller than the spin current. The short-ranged static disorder from either impurities or defects in the ribbon can depress the spin current greatly due to the localization effect, whereas the long-ranged disorder from charge impurities can avoid inter-valley scattering so that the spin current can survive in the strong disorder for the single-energy mode.

  12. Bias-field equalizer for bubble memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetoresistive Perm-alloy sensor monitors bias field required to maintain bubble memory. Sensor provides error signal that, in turn, corrects magnitude of bias field. Error signal from sensor can be used to control magnitude of bias field in either auxiliary set of bias-field coils around permanent magnet field, or current in small coils used to remagnetize permanent magnet by infrequent, short, high-current pulse or short sequence of pulses.

  13. Effect of duct bias on transport of vacuum arc plasmas through curved magnetic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Brown, I.G.

    1994-01-01

    The plasma output of a 90 degree magnetic macroparticle filter of vacuum arc plasma was monitored by a Langmuir probe as a function of bias of the duct wall and guiding magnetic field. Maximum plasma transport through the filter was found at a positive bias of about 20 V. A relatively small magnetic field of 10--30 mT is sufficient for effective guiding of the plasma, and further increase of the guiding field improves the filter efficiency only gradually. The potential of a floating duct changes from negative to positive when the guiding field is increased. This can be explained by the balance of electron and ion flux transverse to the magnetic field. Saturation in the plasma output at high guiding field (>120 mT) is observed for carbon but not for heavy elements. The transport of plasma through bent ducts is made possible by the magnetic pressure of the guiding field, and by sheath and space-charge electric fields

  14. Magnetic and exchange bias properties of YCo thin films and IrMn/YCo bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat Narayana, M.; Manivel Raja, M.; Jammalamadaka, S. Narayana

    2018-02-01

    We report on the structural and magnetic properties of YCo thin films and IrMn/YCo bilayers. X-ray diffraction infer that all the films are amorphous in nature. Magnetization versus magnetic field measurements reveal room temperature soft ferromagnetism in all the YCo films. Thin films which were grown at 100 W sputter power with growth rates of 0.677, 0.694 and 0.711 Å/sec show better morphology and composition than 50 W (0.333, 0.444 and 0.277 Å/sec) grown films. Perpendicular exchange bias in as deposited bilayers is evident for IrMn/YCo bilayers. Exchange bias (EB) decreases in case of in plane measurements and enhances for out of plane measurements after perpendicular field annealing. EB is more in case of out of plane direction due to large perpendicular anisotropy in comparison with in plane direction. Above the critical thickness, EB variation is explained on the basis of random field model in the Heisenberg regime, which has been proposed by Malozemoff. Indeed there exists an inverse relationship between EB and IrMn layer thickness. Evidenced vertical shift apart from the horizontal shift for magnetization loops is attributed to frozen magnetic moments in one of the layers at the interface. Present results would prove to be helpful in spintronic device applications.

  15. Magnetic reconnection and current sheet formation in 3D magnetic configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of magnetic reconnection in three-dimensional (3D) magnetic configurations has been studied experimentally. The research has concentrated on the possibilities of formation of current sheets, which represent crucial objects for a realization of magnetic reconnection phenomena. Different types of 3D magnetic configurations were examined, including configurations with singular lines of the X-type, non-uniform fields containing isolated magnetic null-points and without null-points. It was revealed that formation of quasi-one-dimensional current sheets is the universal process for plasma dynamics in 3D magnetic fields both with null-points and without. At the same time the peculiarities of current sheets, plasma dynamics and magnetic reconnection processes depend essentially on characteristics of 3D magnetic configurations. The result of principal significance obtained was that magnetic reconnection phenomena can take place in a wide range of 3D magnetic configurations as a consequence of their ability to form current sheets. (author)

  16. Magnetic Switching of a Single Molecular Magnet due to Spin-Polarized Current

    OpenAIRE

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnas, Józef

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic switching of a single molecular magnet (SMM) due to spin-polarized current flowing between ferromagnetic metallic electrodes is investigated theoretically. Magnetic moments of the electrodes are assumed to be collinear and parallel to the magnetic easy axis of the molecule. Electrons tunneling through a barrier between magnetic leads are coupled to the SMM via exchange interaction. The current flowing through the system as well as the spin relaxation times of the SMM are calculated f...

  17. [Application of an Adaptive Inertia Weight Particle Swarm Algorithm in the Magnetic Resonance Bias Field Correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang; Qin, Xin; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Wenchao

    2016-06-01

    An adaptive inertia weight particle swarm algorithm is proposed in this study to solve the local optimal problem with the method of traditional particle swarm optimization in the process of estimating magnetic resonance(MR)image bias field.An indicator measuring the degree of premature convergence was designed for the defect of traditional particle swarm optimization algorithm.The inertia weight was adjusted adaptively based on this indicator to ensure particle swarm to be optimized globally and to avoid it from falling into local optimum.The Legendre polynomial was used to fit bias field,the polynomial parameters were optimized globally,and finally the bias field was estimated and corrected.Compared to those with the improved entropy minimum algorithm,the entropy of corrected image was smaller and the estimated bias field was more accurate in this study.Then the corrected image was segmented and the segmentation accuracy obtained in this research was 10% higher than that with improved entropy minimum algorithm.This algorithm can be applied to the correction of MR image bias field.

  18. Circulating persistent current and induced magnetic field in a fractal network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Srilekha [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector-I, Block-AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Maiti, Santanu K., E-mail: santanu.maiti@isical.ac.in [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Kolkata 700 108 (India); Karmakar, S.N. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector-I, Block-AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2016-04-29

    We present the overall conductance as well as the circulating currents in individual loops of a Sierpinski gasket (SPG) as we apply bias voltage via the side attached electrodes. SPG being a self-similar structure, its manifestation on loop currents and magnetic fields is examined in various generations of this fractal and it has been observed that for a given configuration of the electrodes, the physical quantities exhibit certain regularity as we go from one generation to another. Also a notable feature is the introduction of anisotropy in hopping causes an increase in magnitude of overall transport current. These features are a subject of interest in this article. - Highlights: • Voltage driven circular current is analyzed in a fractal network. • Current induced magnetic field is strong enough to flip a spin. • Anisotropy in hopping enhances overall transport current.

  19. Permanent Magnet Eddy Current Loss Analysis of a Novel Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuqiu; Lu, Kaiyuan; Ye, Yunyue

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new motor integrated permanent magnet gear (MIPMG) is discussed. The focus is on eddy current loss analysis associated to permanent magnets (PMs). A convenient model of MIPMG is provided based on 2-D field-motion coupled time-stepping finite element method for transient eddy...... current analysis. The model takes the eddy current effect of PMs into account in determination of the magnetic field in the air-gap and in the magnet regions. The eddy current losses generated in the magnets are properly interpreted. Design improvements for reducing the eddy current losses are suggested...

  20. Influence of magnet eddy current on magnetization characteristics of variable flux memory machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Lin, Heyun; Zhu, Z. Q.; Lyu, Shukang

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the magnet eddy current characteristics of a newly developed variable flux memory machine (VFMM) is investigated. Firstly, the machine structure, non-linear hysteresis characteristics and eddy current modeling of low coercive force magnet are described, respectively. Besides, the PM eddy current behaviors when applying the demagnetizing current pulses are unveiled and investigated. The mismatch of the required demagnetization currents between the cases with or without considering the magnet eddy current is identified. In addition, the influences of the magnet eddy current on the demagnetization effect of VFMM are analyzed. Finally, a prototype is manufactured and tested to verify the theoretical analyses.

  1. Suppression of magnetic islands by rf-driven currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.H.

    1982-06-01

    The quasilinear theory for the saturation of nonlinear tearing modes is modified to include rf driven currents. It is shown that the presence of lower hybrid driven currents can strongly suppress the growth of magnetic islands

  2. 3-D analysis of eddy current in permanent magnet of interior permanent magnet motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Fukanaga, Hiromu; Ito, Shokichi

    2002-01-01

    Interior permanent magnet motors are widely used in various fields. However, in high-speed operations, it is important to decrease the eddy current loss in the permanent magnet. In order to decrease the eddy current loss, we propose to divide the permanent magnet. In this paper, we clarified the effect of division of permanent magnet on the eddy current loss using the 3-D finite element method. (Author)

  3. Interaction between current imbalance and magnetization in LHC cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, M.; Kuijper, A.; Kuijper, A.; den Ouden, A.; ten Haken, Bernard; Bottura, L.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    2001-01-01

    The quality of the magnetic field in superconducting accelerator magnets is associated with the properties of the superconducting cable. Current imbalances due to coupling currents ¿I, as large as 100 A, are induced by spatial variations of the field sweep rate and contact resistances. During

  4. NiO/Fe(001): Magnetic anisotropy, exchange bias, and interface structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlynczak, E. [Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 8, 30-239 Krakow (Poland); Luches, P. [S3, Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Via G. Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Valeri, S. [S3, Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Via G. Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Informatiche, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41100 Modena (Italy); Korecki, J. [Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 8, 30-239 Krakow (Poland); Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2013-06-21

    The magnetic and structural properties of NiO/Fe epitaxial bilayers grown on MgO(001) were studied using magnetooptic Kerr effect (MOKE) and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). The bilayers were prepared under ultra high vacuum conditions using molecular beam epitaxy with oblique deposition. Two systems were compared: one showing the exchange bias (100ML-NiO/24ML-Fe), ML stands for a monolayer, and another where the exchange bias was not observed (50ML-NiO/50ML-Fe). For both, the magnetic anisotropy was found to be complex, yet dominated by the growth-induced uniaxial anisotropy. The training effect was observed for the 100ML-NiO/24ML-Fe system and quantitatively described using the spin glass model. The composition and magnetic state of the interfacial Fe layers were studied using {sup 57}Fe-CEMS. An iron oxide phase (Fe{sup 3+}{sub 4}Fe{sup 2+}{sub 1}O{sub 7}), as thick as 31 A, was identified at the NiO/Fe interface in the as-deposited samples. The ferrimagnetic nature of the interfacial iron oxide film explains the complex magnetic anisotropy observed in the samples.

  5. Strong mechanically induced effects in DC current-biased suspended Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Thomas; Deng, Hai-Yao; Isacsson, Andreas; Mariani, Eros

    2018-01-01

    Superconductivity is a result of quantum coherence at macroscopic scales. Two superconductors separated by a metallic or insulating weak link exhibit the AC Josephson effect: the conversion of a DC voltage bias into an AC supercurrent. This current may be used to activate mechanical oscillations in a suspended weak link. As the DC-voltage bias condition is remarkably difficult to achieve in experiments, here we analyze theoretically how the Josephson effect can be exploited to activate and detect mechanical oscillations in the experimentally relevant condition with purely DC current bias. We unveil how changing the strength of the electromechanical coupling results in two qualitatively different regimes showing dramatic effects of the oscillations on the DC-voltage characteristic of the device. These include the appearance of Shapiro-type plateaus for weak coupling and a sudden mechanically induced retrapping for strong coupling. Our predictions, measurable in state-of-the-art experimental setups, allow the determination of the frequency and quality factor of the resonator using DC only techniques.

  6. Transcranial direct current stimulation over the parietal cortex alters bias in item and source memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Denise; Chua, Elizabeth F

    2016-10-01

    Neuroimaging data have shown that activity in the lateral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) correlates with item recognition and source recollection, but there is considerable debate about its specific contributions. Performance on both item and source memory tasks were compared between participants who were given bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the parietal cortex to those given prefrontal or sham tDCS. The parietal tDCS group, but not the prefrontal group, showed decreased false recognition, and less bias in item and source discrimination tasks compared to sham stimulation. These results are consistent with a causal role of the PPC in item and source memory retrieval, likely based on attentional and decision-making biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance Improvement of a Magnetized Coaxial Plasma Gun by adopting Iron-core Bias Coil and New Pre-Ionization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo, Takahiro; Asai, T.; Tanaka, F.; Yamada, S.; Hosozawa, A.; Gota, H.; Roche, T.; Allfrey, I.; Matsumoto, T.

    2017-10-01

    A magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) is a device used to generate a compact toroid (CT), which has a spheromak-like configuration. A typical MCPG consists of a set of axisymmetric cylindrical electrodes, bias coil, and gas-puff valves. In order to expand the CT operating range, the distributions of the bias magnetic field and neutral gas have been investigated. We have developed a new means of generating stuffing flux. By inserting an iron core into the bias coil, the magnetic field increases dramatically; even a small current of a few Amps produces a sufficient bias field. According to a simulation result, it was also suggested that the radial distribution of the bias field is easily controlled. The ejected CT and the target FRC are cooled by excess neutral gas that typical MCPGs require to initiate a breakdown; therefore, we have adopted a miniature gun as a new pre-ionization (PI) system. By introducing this PI system, the breakdown occurs at lower neutral gas density so that the amount of excess neutral gas can be reduced.

  8. Progressive current degradation and breakdown behavior in GaN LEDs under high reverse bias stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Linna; Yu Peihong; Yan Dawei; Zhou Hao; Wu Jinbo; Cui Zhiqiang; Gu Xiaofeng; Guo Zixiang; Sun Huarui

    2017-01-01

    The progressive current degradation and breakdown behaviors of GaN-based light emitting diodes under high reverse-bias stress are studied by combining the electrical, optical, and surface morphology characterizations. The current features a typical “soft breakdown” behavior, which is linearly correlated to an increase of the accumulative number of electroluminescence spots. The time-to-failure for each failure site approximately obeys a Weibull distribution with slopes of about 0.67 and 4.09 at the infant and wear-out periods, respectively. After breakdown, visible craters can be observed at the device surface as a result of transient electrostatic discharge. By performing focused ion beam cuts coupled with scan electron microscope, we observed a local current shunt path in the surface layer, caused by the rapid microstructure deterioration due to significant current heating effect, consistent well with the optical beam induced resistance change observations. (paper)

  9. Magnetic Nanoparticle Thermometer: An Investigation of Minimum Error Transmission Path and AC Bias Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhou Du

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The signal transmission module of a magnetic nanoparticle thermometer (MNPT was established in this study to analyze the error sources introduced during the signal flow in the hardware system. The underlying error sources that significantly affected the precision of the MNPT were determined through mathematical modeling and simulation. A transfer module path with the minimum error in the hardware system was then proposed through the analysis of the variations of the system error caused by the significant error sources when the signal flew through the signal transmission module. In addition, a system parameter, named the signal-to-AC bias ratio (i.e., the ratio between the signal and AC bias, was identified as a direct determinant of the precision of the measured temperature. The temperature error was below 0.1 K when the signal-to-AC bias ratio was higher than 80 dB, and other system errors were not considered. The temperature error was below 0.1 K in the experiments with a commercial magnetic fluid (Sample SOR-10, Ocean Nanotechnology, Springdale, AR, USA when the hardware system of the MNPT was designed with the aforementioned method.

  10. Shaped excitation current for synchrotron magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, M.; Praeg, W.

    1981-01-01

    A 500-MeV synchrotron at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) operates at 30 Hz with its beam spill locked to neutron choppers with a precision of +- 0.5 μs. The average beam will be increased by running the magnets at 45 Hz. Three 45-Hz circuits are discussed which differ greatly in overall cost and complexity. The first is a conventional 45-Hz sine wave circuit. The reduction in time for beam acceleration results in a costly increase in peak rf power. This problem is avoided in the other two circuits by making the field rise slowly and fall rapidly. The second circuit discussed is resonant at 45 Hz and 90 Hz. Exciting this circuit with a mixture of dc, 45 Hz, and 90 Hz can produce a magnetic field with the same maximum dB/dt as the present 30-Hz field. A third, and possibly least expensive, solution is a novel circuit which produces 30 Hz during acceleration and 90 Hz when the magnets are reset. The rf requirements are, of course, identical to present requirements during acceleration. Circuit details are given

  11. The effect of Birkeland currents on magnetic field topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroomian, Vahe; Lyons, Larry R.; Schulz, Michael

    1996-01-01

    A technique was developed for the inclusion of large scale magnetospheric current systems in magnetic field models. The region 1 and 2 Birkeland current systems are included in the source surface model of the terrestrial magnetosphere. The region 1 and 2 Birkeland currents are placed in the model using a series of field aligned, infinitely thin wire segments. The normal component of the magnetic field from these currents is calculated on the surface of the magnetopause and shielded using image current carrying wires placed outside of the magnetosphere. It is found that the inclusion of the Birkeland currents in the model results in a northward magnetic field in the near-midnight tail, leading to the closure of previously open flux in the tail, and a southward magnetic field in the flanks. A sunward shift in the separatrix is observed.

  12. Eddy current effect in soft magnetic backlayer for PMR media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Kurisu, H.; Matsuura, M.

    2005-01-01

    Flux density distributions in the recording layer and soft magnetic backlayer of a perpendicular magnetic recording medium were calculated up to 5 GHz using a three-dimensional finite element method electromagnetic field analysis simulator, where eddy current effects in the high-frequency recording process were considered. It is presented that the flux density distribution in a recording layer hardly depends on the eddy current effect, although flux density distribution in a soft magnetic backlayer changes depending on the recording frequency and resistivity of the soft magnetic backlayer

  13. Magnetization reversal and exchange bias effects in hard/soft ferromagnetic bilayers with orthogonal anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navas, D; Ross, C A; Torrejon, J; Béron, F; Pirota, K R; Redondo, C; Sierra, B; Castaño, F; Batallan, F; Toperverg, B P; Devishvili, A

    2012-01-01

    The magnetization reversal processes are discussed for exchange-coupled ferromagnetic hard/soft bilayers made from Co 0.66 Cr 0.22 Pt 0.12 (10 and 20 nm)/Ni (from 0 to 40 nm) films with out-of-plane and in-plane magnetic easy axes respectively, based on room temperature hysteresis loops and first-order reversal curve analysis. On increasing the Ni layer thicknesses, the easy axis of the bilayer reorients from out-of-plane to in-plane. An exchange bias effect, consisting of a shift of the in-plane minor hysteresis loops along the field axis, was observed at room temperature after in-plane saturation. This effect was associated with specific ferromagnetic domain configurations experimentally determined by polarized neutron reflectivity. On the other hand, perpendicular exchange bias effect was revealed from the out-of-plane hysteresis loops and it was attributed to residual domains in the magnetically hard layer. (paper)

  14. Cardiac magnetic source imaging based on current multipole model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Fa-Kuan; Wang Qian; Hua Ning; Lu Hong; Tang Xue-Zheng; Ma Ping

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the heart current source can be reduced into a current multipole. By adopting three linear inverse methods, the cardiac magnetic imaging is achieved in this article based on the current multipole model expanded to the first order terms. This magnetic imaging is realized in a reconstruction plane in the centre of human heart, where the current dipole array is employed to represent realistic cardiac current distribution. The current multipole as testing source generates magnetic fields in the measuring plane, serving as inputs of cardiac magnetic inverse problem. In the heart-torso model constructed by boundary element method, the current multipole magnetic field distribution is compared with that in the homogeneous infinite space, and also with the single current dipole magnetic field distribution. Then the minimum-norm least-squares (MNLS) method, the optimal weighted pseudoinverse method (OWPIM), and the optimal constrained linear inverse method (OCLIM) are selected as the algorithms for inverse computation based on current multipole model innovatively, and the imaging effects of these three inverse methods are compared. Besides, two reconstructing parameters, residual and mean residual, are also discussed, and their trends under MNLS, OWPIM and OCLIM each as a function of SNR are obtained and compared. (general)

  15. Macroscopic quantum effects in the zero voltage state of the current biased Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.; Devoret, M.H.; Martinis, J.; Esteve, D.

    1985-05-01

    When a weak microwave current is applied to a current-biased Josephson tunnel junction in the thermal limit the escape rate from the zero voltage state is enhanced when the microwave frequency is near the plasma frequency of the junction. The resonance curve is markedly asymmetric because of the anharmonic properties of the potential well: this behavior is well explained by a computer simulation using a resistively shunted junction model. This phenomenon of resonant activation enables one to make in situ measurements of the capacitance and resistance shunting the junction, including contributions from the complex impedance presented by the current leads. For the relatively large area junctions studied in these experiments, the external capacitive loading was relatively unimportant, but the damping was entirely dominated by the external resistance

  16. Development of Interior Permanent Magnet Motors with Concentrated Windings for Reducing Magnet Eddy Current Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Katsumi; Kanou, Yuji; Fukushima, Yu; Ohki, Shunji; Nezu, Akira; Ikemi, Takeshi; Mizokami, Ryoichi

    In this paper, we present the development of interior magnet motors with concentrated windings, which reduce the eddy current loss of the magnets. First, the mechanism of the magnet eddy current loss generation is investigated by a simple linear magnetic circuit. Due to the consideration, an automatic optimization method using an adaptive finite element method is carried out to determine the stator and rotor shapes, which decrease the eddy current loss of the magnet. The determined stator and rotor are manufactured in order to proof the effectiveness by the measurement.

  17. Influence of time dependent longitudinal magnetic fields on the cooling process, exchange bias and magnetization reversal mechanism in FM core/AFM shell nanoparticles: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Yusuf; Akıncı, Ümit

    2016-12-07

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we have investigated the dynamic phase transition properties of magnetic nanoparticles with ferromagnetic core coated by an antiferromagnetic shell structure. Effects of field amplitude and frequency on the thermal dependence of magnetizations, magnetization reversal mechanisms during hysteresis cycles, as well as on the exchange bias and coercive fields have been examined, and the feasibility of applying dynamic magnetic fields on the particle have been discussed for technological and biomedical purposes.

  18. Pure spin polarized current through a full magnetic silicene junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorestaniweiss, Zeinab; Rashidian, Zeinab

    2018-06-01

    Using the Landauer-Buttiker formula, we investigate electronic transport in silicene junction composed of ferromagnetic silicene. The direction of magnetization in the middle region may change in a plane perpendicular to the junction, whereas the magnetization direction keep fixed upward in silicene electrodes. We investigate how the various magnetization directions in the middle region affect the electronic transport. We demonstrate that conductance depends on the orientation of magnetizations in the middle region. It is found that by changing the direction of the magnetization in the middle region, a pure spin up current can be achieved. This achievement makes this full magnetic junction a good design for a full spin-up current polarizer.

  19. Eddy current probe development based on a magnetic sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacher, F.

    2007-06-01

    This research deals with in the study of the use of innovating magnetic sensors in eddy current non destructive inspection. The author reports an analysis survey of magnetic sensor performances. This survey enables the selection of magnetic sensor technologies used in non destructive inspection. He presents the state-of-the-art of eddy current probes exploiting the qualities of innovating magnetic sensors, and describes the methods enabling the use of these magnetic sensors in non destructive testing. Two main applications of innovating magnetic sensors are identified: the detection of very small defects by means of magneto-resistive sensors, and the detection of deep defects by means of giant magneto-impedances. Based on the use of modelling, optimization, signal processing tools, probes are manufactured for these both applications

  20. Direct-current substrate bias effects on amorphous silicon sputter-deposited films for thin film transistor fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Seung-Ik; Rack, Philip D.; McKnight, Timothy E.; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    The effect that direct current (dc) substrate bias has on radio frequency-sputter-deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si) films has been investigated. The substrate bias produces a denser a-Si film with fewer defects compared to unbiased films. The reduced number of defects results in a higher resistivity because defect-mediated conduction paths are reduced. Thin film transistors (TFTs) that were completely sputter deposited were fabricated and characterized. The TFT with the biased a-Si film showed lower leakage (off-state) current, higher on/off current ratio, and higher transconductance (field effect mobility) than the TFT with the unbiased a-Si film

  1. Asymmetric magnetization reversal in exchange-biased Co/Pt multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijken, Sebastiaan van [SFI Trintiy Nanoscience Laboratory, Physics Department, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Czapkiewicz, M.; Zoladz, M.; Stobiecki, T. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow 30-059 (Poland)

    2006-01-01

    A detailed study of the magnetization reversal process in [20 Aa Pt/t Aa Co]{sub 3}/100 Aa IrMn/20 Aa Pt multilayers with 4 Aa{<=}t{<=}9 Aa is presented. The hysteresis of as-deposited films with t{>=} 5Aa is found to be asymmetric. This asymmetry is explained by a lateral variation in the perpendicular exchange bias direction due to the growth of IrMn onto multi-domain Co/Pt multilayers. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. DC bias effect on alternating current electrical conductivity of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/alumina nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikam, Pravin N., E-mail: pravinya26@gmail.com; Deshpande, Vineeta D., E-mail: drdeshpandevd@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai-400019, Maharashtra (India)

    2016-05-06

    Polymer nanocomposites based on metal oxide (ceramic) nanoparticles are a new class of materials with unique properties and designed for various applications such as electronic device packaging, insulation, fabrication and automotive industries. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanocomposites with filler content between 1 wt% and 5 wt% were prepared by melt compounding method using co-rotating twin screw extruder and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and precision LCR meter techniques. The results revealed that proper uniform dispersion at lower content up to 2 wt% of nano-alumina observed by using TEM. Aggregation of nanoparticles was observed at higher content of alumina examined by using SEM and TEM. The frequency dependences of the alternating current (AC) conductivity (σ{sub AC}) of PET/alumina nanocomposites on the filler content and DC bias were investigated in the frequency range of 20Hz - 1MHz. The results showed that the AC and direct current (DC) conductivity increases with increasing DC bias and nano-alumina content upto 3 wt%. It follows the Jonscher’s universal power law of solids. It revealed that σ{sub AC} of PET/alumina nanocomposites can be well characterized by the DC conductivity (σ{sub DC}), critical frequency (ω{sub c}), critical exponent of the power law (s). Roll of DC bias potential led to an increase of DC conductivity (σ{sub DC}) due to the creation of additional conducting paths with the polymer nanocomposites and percolation behavior achieved through co-continuous morphology.

  3. DC bias effect on alternating current electrical conductivity of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/alumina nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikam, Pravin N.; Deshpande, Vineeta D.

    2016-05-01

    Polymer nanocomposites based on metal oxide (ceramic) nanoparticles are a new class of materials with unique properties and designed for various applications such as electronic device packaging, insulation, fabrication and automotive industries. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/alumina (Al2O3) nanocomposites with filler content between 1 wt% and 5 wt% were prepared by melt compounding method using co-rotating twin screw extruder and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and precision LCR meter techniques. The results revealed that proper uniform dispersion at lower content up to 2 wt% of nano-alumina observed by using TEM. Aggregation of nanoparticles was observed at higher content of alumina examined by using SEM and TEM. The frequency dependences of the alternating current (AC) conductivity (σAC) of PET/alumina nanocomposites on the filler content and DC bias were investigated in the frequency range of 20Hz - 1MHz. The results showed that the AC and direct current (DC) conductivity increases with increasing DC bias and nano-alumina content upto 3 wt%. It follows the Jonscher's universal power law of solids. It revealed that σAC of PET/alumina nanocomposites can be well characterized by the DC conductivity (σDC), critical frequency (ωc), critical exponent of the power law (s). Roll of DC bias potential led to an increase of DC conductivity (σDC) due to the creation of additional conducting paths with the polymer nanocomposites and percolation behavior achieved through co-continuous morphology.

  4. DC bias effect on alternating current electrical conductivity of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/alumina nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikam, Pravin N.; Deshpande, Vineeta D.

    2016-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites based on metal oxide (ceramic) nanoparticles are a new class of materials with unique properties and designed for various applications such as electronic device packaging, insulation, fabrication and automotive industries. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/alumina (Al_2O_3) nanocomposites with filler content between 1 wt% and 5 wt% were prepared by melt compounding method using co-rotating twin screw extruder and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and precision LCR meter techniques. The results revealed that proper uniform dispersion at lower content up to 2 wt% of nano-alumina observed by using TEM. Aggregation of nanoparticles was observed at higher content of alumina examined by using SEM and TEM. The frequency dependences of the alternating current (AC) conductivity (σ_A_C) of PET/alumina nanocomposites on the filler content and DC bias were investigated in the frequency range of 20Hz - 1MHz. The results showed that the AC and direct current (DC) conductivity increases with increasing DC bias and nano-alumina content upto 3 wt%. It follows the Jonscher’s universal power law of solids. It revealed that σ_A_C of PET/alumina nanocomposites can be well characterized by the DC conductivity (σ_D_C), critical frequency (ω_c), critical exponent of the power law (s). Roll of DC bias potential led to an increase of DC conductivity (σ_D_C) due to the creation of additional conducting paths with the polymer nanocomposites and percolation behavior achieved through co-continuous morphology.

  5. Process of magnetic reconnection as a source of longitudinal currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidneva, M.V.; Semenov, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Variations in magnetic field and current system as applied to conditions in the Earth magnetospheric tail are calculated so as to show that three-dimensional reconnection leads inevitably to the appearance of a system of longitudinal currents. With reference to current layer of the magnetospheric tail the longitudinal currents appearing in the process of reconnection are directed to the Earth on the morning side and from Earth - on the evening side. The results presented suggest that magnetic reconnection can serve as a sourse of the Birkeland current loop of a substorm

  6. Enlargement of Tuning Range in a Ferrite-Tuned Cavity Through Superposed Orthogonal and Parallel Magnetic Bias

    CERN Document Server

    Vollinger, C

    2013-01-01

    Conventional ferrite-tuned cavities operate either with bias fields that are orthogonal or parallel to the magnetic RF-field. For a cavity that tunes rapidly over an overall frequency range around 100-400 MHz with high Q, we use ferrite garnets exposed to an innovative new biasing method consisting of a superposition of perpendicular and parallel magnetic fields. This method leads to a significant enlargement of the high-Q cavity tuning range by defining an operation point close to the magnetic saturation and thus improving ferrite material behaviour. A further advantage of this technique is the fast tuning speed resulting from the fact that tuning is carried out either with pure parallel biasing, or together with a very small change of operating point from perpendicular bias. In this paper, several scaled test models of ferrite-filled resonators are shown; measurements on the set-ups are compared and discussed.

  7. Interaction of bootstrap-current-driven magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1991-10-01

    The formation and interaction of fluctuating neoclassical pressure gradient driven magnetic islands is examined. The interaction of magnetic islands produces a stochastic region around the separatrices of the islands. This interaction causes the island pressure profile to be broadened, reducing the island bootstrap current and drive for the magnetic island. A model is presented that describes the magnetic topology as a bath of interacting magnetic islands with low to medium poloidal mode number (m congruent 3-30). The islands grow by the bootstrap current effect and damp due to the flattening of the pressure profile near the island separatrix caused by the interaction of the magnetic islands. The effect of this sporadic growth and decay of the islands (''magnetic bubbling'') is not normally addressed in theories of plasma transport due to magnetic fluctuations. The nature of the transport differs from statistical approaches to magnetic turbulence since the radial step size of the plasma transport is now given by the characteristic island width. This model suggests that tokamak experiments have relatively short-lived, coherent, long wavelength magnetic oscillations present in the steep pressure-gradient regions of the plasma. 42 refs

  8. Dynamics of a longitudinal current during a magnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolginov, S.Sh.; Zhuzgov, L.N.; Kosacheva, V.P.; Strunnikova, L.N.; Tyurmina, L.O.; Sharova, V.A.; Shkol'nikova, S.I.

    1984-01-01

    Results, investigating a spatial distribution and the structure of longitudinal currents during a magnetic storm at 18-19.09.81, are presented. It is shown that during the main phase of the storm the large-scale current system expands to the equator, and current density increases. Inside the current layer and to the pole of it there appears intensive small scale longitudinal l currents. During magnetic storm restopation phase the current system segregates into several pairs of opposite directed currents. During further decreasing of geomagnetic activity the large-scale current system is restored+ and its center is shifted to the pole, longitudinal current density being decreased. The invariant width of longitudinal currents is decreased, while the magnitude, Dsub(st), being increased, that is connected to the displacement of an auroral oval to the equator

  9. Energy considerations concerning current loops and magnetic objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluitman, J.H.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the thermodynamics of compound magnetic systems there is an ambiguity in defining the free energies connected to the constituent parts or subsystems. It is argued that the choice, usually made in defining the energy of a magnetized body, leads to an expression for the energy of a current loop or

  10. Magnetostrictive-piezoelectric magnetic sensor with current excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, J.L.; Aroca, C.; Lopez, E.; Sanchez, M.C.; Sanchez, P.

    2000-01-01

    A new working configuration for magnetostrictive-piezoelectric magnetic sensors is presented. In this configuration, the excitation is caused using an electrical current flowing through the ferromagnetic sample and the induced signal is sensed in the piezoelectric support as an electrical voltage. This new idea allows a magnetic field detection without any coil and opens a possibility for a future miniaturisation of the sensor

  11. Field modulation of the critical current in magnetic Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blamire, M G; Smiet, C B; Banerjee, N; Robinson, J W A

    2013-01-01

    The dependence of the critical current of a simple Josephson junction on the applied magnetic field is well known and, for a rectangular junction, gives rise to the classic ‘Fraunhofer’ modulation with periodic zeros at the fields that introduce a flux quantum into the junction region. Much recent work has been performed on Josephson junctions that contain magnetic layers. The magnetization of such layers introduces additional flux into the junction and, for large junction areas or strong magnetic materials, can significantly distort the modulation of the critical current and strongly suppress the maximum critical current. The growing interest in junctions that induce odd-frequency triplet pairing in a ferromagnet, and the need to make quantitative comparisons with theory, mean that a full understanding of the role of magnetic barriers in controlling the critical current is necessary. This paper analyses the effect of magnetism and various magnetic configurations on Josephson critical currents; the overall treatment applies to junctions of general shape, but the specific cases of square and rectangular junctions are considered. (paper)

  12. Micromagnetic analysis of geometrically controlled current-driven magnetization switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Alejos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The magnetization dynamics induced by current pulses in a pair of two “S-shaped” ferromagnetic elements, each one consisting on two oppositely tilted tapered spikes at the ends of a straight section, is theoretically studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. Our results indicate that the magnetization reversal is triggered by thermal activation, which assists the current-induced domain nucleation and the propagation of domain walls. The detailed analysis of the magnetization dynamics reveals that the magnetization switching is only achieved when a single domain wall is nucleated in the correct corner of the element. In agreement with recent experimental studies, the switching is purely dictated by the shape, being independent of the current polarity. The statistical study points out that successful switching is only achieved within a narrow range of the current pulse amplitudes.

  13. Efficient spin-current injection in single-molecule magnet junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqing Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study theoretically spin transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM in the sequential and cotunneling regimes, where the SMM is weakly coupled to one ferromagnetic and one normal-metallic leads. By a master-equation approach, it is found that the spin polarization injected from the ferromagnetic lead is amplified and highly polarized spin-current can be generated, due to the exchange coupling between the transport electron and the anisotropic spin of the SMM. Moreover, the spin-current polarization can be tuned by the gate or bias voltage, and thus an efficient spin injection device based on the SMM is proposed in molecular spintronics.

  14. Efficient spin-current injection in single-molecule magnet junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haiqing; Xu, Fuming; Jiao, Hujun; Wang, Qiang; Liang, J.-Q.

    2018-01-01

    We study theoretically spin transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM) in the sequential and cotunneling regimes, where the SMM is weakly coupled to one ferromagnetic and one normal-metallic leads. By a master-equation approach, it is found that the spin polarization injected from the ferromagnetic lead is amplified and highly polarized spin-current can be generated, due to the exchange coupling between the transport electron and the anisotropic spin of the SMM. Moreover, the spin-current polarization can be tuned by the gate or bias voltage, and thus an efficient spin injection device based on the SMM is proposed in molecular spintronics.

  15. Magnetic imaging of superconducting tapes to determine current flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G. W. (Geoffrey W.); Hawley, M. E. (Marilyn E.); Foltyn, S. R. (Stephen R.); Mueller, F. M. (Fred M.)

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a magnetic imaging system that uses magnetoresistive read heads from computer hard disk drives to map the transport-current-induced magnetic field at the surface of superconducting tapes at liquid nitrogen temperature. Transport current pathways are determined from the 2-dimensional magnetic field maps using established inversion schemes. We examined the current flow in pulsed-laser-deposited YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} a films patterned on single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} substrates and on a textured yttria-stabilized-zirconia layer deposited on an Inconel ribbon by ion beam assisted deposition. The transport current densities in all cases were consistent with the Critical State Model. For the Inconel-based sample, the transport current density maps have allowed us to observe defects and determine the region that limits the current carrying capacity of the structure.

  16. Initial magnetic field decay of the superconducting magnet in persistent current mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Yanada, T.

    1988-01-01

    The initial magnetic field decay in the persistent current mode of a magnetic resonance imaging magnet has been studied experimentally. The field decay is greater than the steady field decay due to joint resistances of conductors. Imaging experiments cannot be carried out during the periods, which last ten or more hours. The current distribution in the multifilamentory conductor is non-uniform just after the energization. It is suggested that the change of the current distribution causes the initial magnetic field decay. A 6th order superconducting magnet was prepared for experiments (central field = 0.35 T, inner diameters = 1 m, length = 1.86 m). The steady state magnetic field decay was 7*10/sup -8//hr. The initial magnetic field decay was 3*10/sup -6//hr. Overshoot currents (101 and 105 percent of the rated current) were applied to the magnet and the current reduced to the rated current to improve the initial decay. The energizing and de-energizing rate of the field was 1.8 gauss/second. No initial decay was observed when 105 percent current pattern was applied to the magnet

  17. Streaming current magnetic fields in a charged nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Abraham; Taheri, Peyman; Kostiuk, Larry W.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields induced by currents created in pressure driven flows inside a solid-state charged nanopore were modeled by numerically solving a system of steady state continuum partial differential equations, i.e., Poisson, Nernst-Planck, Ampere and Navier-Stokes equations (PNPANS). This analysis was based on non-dimensional transport governing equations that were scaled using Debye length as the characteristic length scale, and applied to a finite length cylindrical nano-channel. The comparison of numerical and analytical studies shows an excellent agreement and verified the magnetic fields density both inside and outside the nanopore. The radially non-uniform currents resulted in highly non-uniform magnetic fields within the nanopore that decay as 1/r outside the nanopore. It is worth noting that for either streaming currents or streaming potential cases, the maximum magnetic field occurred inside the pore in the vicinity of nanopore wall, as opposed to a cylindrical conductor that carries a steady electric current where the maximum magnetic fields occur at the perimeter of conductor. Based on these results, it is suggested and envisaged that non-invasive external magnetic fields readouts generated by streaming/ionic currents may be viewed as secondary electronic signatures of biomolecules to complement and enhance current DNA nanopore sequencing techniques. PMID:27833119

  18. High-current magnetron discharge with magnetic insulation of anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizyukov, A.A.; Sereda, K.N.; Sleptsov, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    In magnetron discharge at currents higher then critical which magnitude is in the range of 15...30 A the transition from glow discharge in transverse magnetic field to arc discharge occurs. In the present time the problem of arc blowout is solved at the expense of pulse and HF power supply applying. In this paper the alternative method of limiting current of magnetron discharge increasing at the expense of increasing of discharge gap resistance by means of additional anode layer transverse magnetic field and arc current interruption by sectioning of current collector of anode surface is carrying out

  19. Countercurrent in high-current microsecond diodes with magnetic insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaev, S.P.; Kim, A.A.; Koshelev, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of the generation of tube electron beams in diodes and the efficiency of the electron beam current pulse duration studied is the formation of the electron counter current in microsecond diodes with magnetic insulation in dependence on the various geometry of the cathode joint. The experiments have been carried out at the accelerator with the following parameters: diode voltage from 400 to 600 kV, the front and duration of the pulse 75 ns and 1-2 μs respectively, beam current from 4 to 17 kA, magnetic field of 18 kGs. The current in the drift tube and the total current of the electron gun have been measured. Distributing resistance current of vacuum insulator has been controlled. Conclusions have been made, that, in the case when the diameters of cathode and cathode holder are equal, the electron current is being produced from the reverse side of cathode plasma, which expands across the magnetic field with the rate of (4-5)x10 5 sm/cs. The counter current value has constituted 15% of the total current at the use of reflector with the geometry repeating the shape of the magnetic field force lines, corresponding to the cathode radius. The counter current has not been present at the use of the flat reflector

  20. Auger-generated hot carrier current in photo-excited forward biased single quantum well blue light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenlaub, Andrew C.; Alhassan, Abdullah I.; Nakamura, Shuji; Weisbuch, Claude; Speck, James S.

    2018-04-01

    We report on measurements of the photo-modulated current-voltage and electroluminescence characteristics of forward biased single quantum well, blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with and without electron blocking layers. Low intensity resonant optical excitation of the quantum well was observed to induce an additional forward current at constant forward diode bias, in contrast to the usual sense of the photocurrent in photodiodes and solar cells, as well as an increased electroluminescence intensity. The presence of an electron blocking layer only slightly decreased the magnitude of the photo-induced current at constant forward bias. Photo-modulation at constant forward diode current resulted in a reduced diode bias under optical excitation. We argue that this decrease in diode bias at constant current and the increase in forward diode current at constant applied bias can only be due to additional hot carriers being ejected from the quantum well as a result of an increased Auger recombination rate within the quantum well.

  1. Eddy current analysis by BEM utilizing loop electric and surface magnetic currents as unknowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    The surface integral equations whose unknowns are the surface electric and magnetic currents are widely used in eddy current analysis. However, when the skin depth is thick, computational error is increased especially in obtaining electromagnetic fields near the edge of the conductor. In order to obtain the electromagnetic field accurately, we propose an approach to solve surface integral equations utilizing loop electric and surface magnetic currents as unknowns. (Author)

  2. Current leads cooling for the series-connected hybrid magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hongyu; Marshall, William S.; Bird, Mark D.; Gavrilin, Andrew V.; Weijers, Hubertus W.

    2014-01-01

    Two Series-Connected Hybrid (SCH) magnets are being developed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. Both SCH magnets combine a set of resistive Florida-Bitter coils with a superconducting outsert coil constructed of the cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC). The outsert coils of the two magnets employ 20 kA BSCCO HTS current leads for the power supply although they have different designs and cooling methods. The copper heat exchangers of the HTS current leads for the HZB SCH are cooled with forced flow helium at a supply temperature of 44 K, while the copper heat exchangers of HTS current leads for NHMFL SCH are cooled with liquid nitrogen at a temperature of 78 K in a self-demand boil-off mode. This paper presents the two cooling methods and their impacts on cryogenic systems. Their efficiencies and costs are compared and presented.

  3. Multipacting in a coaxial coupler with bias voltage for SRF operation with a large beam current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.-K.; Wang, Ch.; Chang, F.-Y.; Chang, L.-H.; Chang, M.-H.; Chen, L.-J.; Chung, F.-T.; Lin, M.-C.; Lo, C.-H.; Tsai, C.-L.; Tsai, M.-H.; Yeh, M.-S.; Yu, T.-C.

    2016-09-01

    A superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) module is commonly used for a high-energy accelerator; its purpose is to provide energy to the particle beam. Because of the low power dissipation and smaller impedance of a higher-order mode for this module, it can provide more power to the particle beam with better stability through decreasing the couple bunch instability. A RF coupler is necessary to transfer the high power from a RF generator to the cavity. A coupler of coaxial type is a common choice. With high-power operation, it might suffer from multipacting, which is a resonance phenomenon due to re-emission of secondary electrons. Applying a bias voltage between inner and outer conductors of the coaxial coupler might increase or decrease the strength of the multipacting effect. We studied the effect of a bias voltage on multipacting using numerical simulation to track the motion of the electrons. The simulation results and an application for SRF operation with a large beam current are presented in this paper.

  4. Direct readout flux locked loop circuit with automatic tuning of bias current and bias flux for high-Tc SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, T.; Nagaishi, T.; Itozaki, H.

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of high-frequency magnetic signals has been required from some SQUID applications. We fabricated a high-T c SQUID magnetic sensor system that can treat high-frequency signals. This system is composed of a SQUID, a preamplifier circuit, a flux locked loop (FLL) circuit with I/O and a personal computer and a PC card. We used the FLL circuit with no modulation to treat the high-frequency signal and to simplify the circuit. This system can treat a signal from dc to 1 MHz. All the sequence from tuning the SQUID to data acquisition can be done by a personal computer. This system successfully realized easy operation of SQUID measurement. (author)

  5. Magnetization oscillations and waves driven by pure spin currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, V.E. [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, Corrensstrasse 2-4, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Urazhdin, S. [Department of Physics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Loubens, G. de [SPEC, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Klein, O. [INAC-SPINTEC, CEA/CNRS and Univ. Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); Cros, V.; Anane, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Demokritov, S.O., E-mail: demokrit@uni-muenster.de [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, Corrensstrasse 2-4, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division of RAS, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-23

    Recent advances in the studies of pure spin currents–flows of angular momentum (spin) not accompanied by the electric currents–have opened new horizons for the emerging technologies based on the electron’s spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. The main advantage of pure spin current, as compared to the spin-polarized electric current, is the possibility to exert spin transfer torque on the magnetization in thin magnetic films without the electrical current flow through the material. In addition to minimizing Joule heating and electromigration effects, this enables the implementation of spin torque devices based on the low-loss insulating magnetic materials, and offers an unprecedented geometric flexibility. Here we review the recent experimental achievements in investigations of magnetization oscillations excited by pure spin currents in different nanomagnetic systems based on metallic and insulating magnetic materials. We discuss the spectral properties of spin-current nano-oscillators, and relate them to the spatial characteristics of the excited dynamic magnetic modes determined by the spatially-resolved measurements. We also show that these systems support locking of the oscillations to external microwave signals, as well as their mutual synchronization, and can be used as efficient nanoscale sources of propagating spin waves.

  6. RF generator interlock by plasma grid bias current - An alternate to Hα interlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, M.; Gahlaut, A.; Yadav, R. K.; Pandya, K.; Tyagi, H.; Vupugalla, M.; Bhuyan, M.; Bhagora, J.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-08-01

    ROBIN is inductively coupled plasma (ICP) based negative hydrogen ion source, operated with a 100kW, 1MHz Tetrode based RF generator (RFG). Inductive plasma ignition by the RFG in ROBIN is associated with electron seeding by a hot filament and a gas puff. RFG is triggered by the control system to deliver power just at the peak pressure of the gas puff. Once plasma is ignited due to proper impedance matching, a bright light, dominated by Hα (˜656nm wavelength) radiation is available inside RF driver which is used as a feedback signal to the RFG to continue its operation. If impedance matching is not correct, plasma is not produced due to lack of power coupling and bright light is not available. During such condition, reflected RF power may damage the RFG. Therefore, to protect the RFG, it needs to be switched off automatically within 200ms by the control system in such cases. This plasma light based RFG interlock is adopted from BATMAN ion source. However, in case of vacuum immersed RF ion source in reactor grade NBI system, such plasma light based interlock may not be feasible due to lack of adequate optical fiber interfaces. In reactor grade NBI system, neutron and gamma radiations have impact on materials which may lead to frequent maintenance and machine down time. The present demonstration of RFG interlock by Bias Current (BC) in ROBIN testbed gives an alternate option in this regard. In ROBIN, a bias plate (BP) is placed in the plasma chamber near the plasma grid (PG). BP is electrically connected to the plasma chamber wall of the ion source and PG is isolated from the wall. A high current ˜85 A direct current (DC) power supply of voltage in the range of 0 - 33V is connected between the PG and the BP in such a way that PG can be biased positively with respect to the BP or plasma chamber. This arrangement is actually made to absorb electrons and correspondingly reduce co-extracted electron current during beam extraction. However, in case of normal plasma

  7. Langmuir probe characteristic in a current - carrying magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanojevic, M.; Cercek, M.; Gyergyek, T.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental investigation of the Langmuir probe characteristic is a magnetized plasma with an electron current along the magnetic field direction shows that the standard procedure for determination of the electron temperature and plasma density, which is applicable in a current - free magnetized plasma, gives erroneous results for these plasma parameters. However, more precise values of the plasma parameters can be calculated from the ion saturation currents and electron temperatures obtained with that procedure for two opposite orientations of the one - sided planar probe collecting surface with respect to the direction of the electron drift. With the existing theoretical models only the order of magnitude of the electron drift velocity can be accurately determined from the measured electron saturation currents for the two probe orientations. (author)

  8. Magnetic switching of a single molecular magnet due to spin-polarized current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnaś, Józef

    2007-04-01

    Magnetic switching of a single molecular magnet (SMM) due to spin-polarized current flowing between ferromagnetic metallic leads (electrodes) is investigated theoretically. Magnetic moments of the leads are assumed to be collinear and parallel to the magnetic easy axis of the molecule. Electrons tunneling through the barrier between magnetic leads are coupled to the SMM via exchange interaction. The current flowing through the system, as well as the spin relaxation times of the SMM, are calculated from the Fermi golden rule. It is shown that spin of the SMM can be reversed by applying a certain voltage between the two magnetic electrodes. Moreover, the switching may be visible in the corresponding current-voltage characteristics.

  9. Magnetic Field of Conductive Objects as Superposition of Elementary Eddy Currents and Eddy Current Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, D. Ya.; Zav'yalova, K. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper represents induced currents in an electrically conductive object as a totality of elementary eddy currents. The proposed scanning method includes measurements of only one component of the secondary magnetic field. Reconstruction of the current distribution is performed by deconvolution with regularization. Numerical modeling supported by the field experiments show that this approach is of direct practical relevance.

  10. Exchange biased Co3O4 nanowires: A new insight into its magnetic core-shell nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S.; Jose, A.; Thanveer, T.; Anantharaman, M. R.

    2017-06-01

    We investigated interfacial exchange coupling effect in nano casted Co3O4 nanowires. Magnetometry measurements indicated that the magnetic response of the wires has two contributions. First one from the core of the wire which has characteristics of a 2D-DAFF(two-dimensional diluted antiferromagnet in a field). The second one is from uncompensated surface spins which get magnetically ordered towards the field direction once field cooled below 25 K. Below 25 K, the net magnetization of the core of the wire gets exchange coupled with the uncompensated surface spins giving rise to exchange bias effect. The unique 2D-DAFF/spin-glass core/shell heterostructure showed a pronounced training effect in the first field cycling itself. The magnitude of exchange bias field showed a maximum at intermediate cooling fields and for the higher cooling field, exchange bias got reduced.

  11. Current disruption and its spreading in collisionless magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Neeraj; Büchner, Jörg; Dorfman, Seth; Ji, Hantao; Surjalal Sharma, A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent magnetic reconnection experiments (MRX) [Dorfman et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 233 (2013)] have disclosed current disruption in the absence of an externally imposed guide field. During current disruption in MRX, both the current density and the total observed out-of-reconnection-plane current drop simultaneous with a rise in out-of-reconnection-plane electric field. Here, we show that current disruption is an intrinsic property of the dynamic formation of an X-point configuration of magnetic field in magnetic reconnection, independent of the model used for plasma description and of the dimensionality (2D or 3D) of reconnection. An analytic expression for the current drop is derived from Ampere's Law. Its predictions are verified by 2D and 3D electron-magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) simulations. Three dimensional EMHD simulations show that the current disruption due to localized magnetic reconnection spreads along the direction of the electron drift velocity with a speed which depends on the wave number of the perturbation. The implications of these results for MRX are discussed

  12. Ionospheric midlatitude electric current density inferred from multiple magnetic satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shore, R. M.; Whaler, K. A.; Macmillan, S.

    2013-01-01

    A method for inferring zonal electric current density in the mid-to-low latitude F region ionosphere is presented. We describe a method of using near-simultaneous overflights of the Ørsted and CHAMP satellites to define a closed circuit for an application of Ampère's integral law to magnetic data...... for estimates of main and crustal magnetic fields. Current density in the range ±0.1 μA/m2 is resolved, with the distribution of electric current largely matching known features such as the Appleton anomaly. The currents appear unmodulated at times of either high-negative Dst or high F10.7, which has...... implications for any future efforts to model their effects. We resolve persistent current intensifications between geomagnetic latitudes of 30 and 50° in the postmidnight, predawn sector, a region typically thought to be relatively free of electric currents. The cause of these unexpected intensifications...

  13. Magnetic Method to Characterize the Current Densities in Breaker Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machkour, Nadia

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to use magnetic induction measurements from a low voltage breaker arc, to reconstruct the arc's current density. The measurements were made using Hall effect sensors, which were placed close to, but outside the breaking device. The arc was modelled as a rectangular current sheet, composed of a mix of threadlike current segments and with a current density varying across the propagation direction. We found the magnetic induction of the arc is a convolution product of the current density, and a function depending on the breaker geometry and arc model. Using deconvolution methods, the current density in the electric arc was determined.The method is used to study the arc behavior into the breaker device. Notably, position, arc size, and electric conductivity could all be determined, and then used to characterize the arc mode, diffuse or concentrated, and study the condition of its mode changing

  14. Current-current correlation function in presence of chemical potential and external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apresyan, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    The (2+1)-dimensional electron system was observed, where relation between the Green functions and conductivity was used. The current-current correlation function Π_μ_ν(B) for the fermion system was calculated in presence of non-quantizing magnetic field B, chemical potential η and gap m. From this function it is possible to obtain the equation for polarization operator calculated without the magnetic field. The result is also applicable for graphene

  15. Effects of magnetic shear on current penetration in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengyun; Wang Long

    2001-01-01

    The penetrations of the parallel and perpendicular components of plasma currents are interrelated to each other due to the existence of magnetic shear in a tokamak configuration. Effects of the shear on the penetration of Fourier components of toroidal plasma current are analysed in a cylindrical column model. The current penetration is obviously strengthened by the shear for a bell-bike conductivity profile and low safety factor and low aspect ratio

  16. Research and development of an aimed magnetic lead current density-magnetic field diagnostic. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A diagnostics survey was made to provide a clear definition of advanced diagnostic needs and the limitations of current approaches in addressing those needs. Special attention was given to the adequacy with which current diagnostics are interfaced to signal processing/data acquisition devices and systems. Critical evaluations of selected alternative diagnostic techniques for future R and D activities are presented. The conceptual basis of the Aimed Magnetic Lead Gradiometric system as a current density/magnetic field diagnostic is established

  17. Magnetic properties of NiMn2O4−δ (nickel manganite): Multiple magnetic phase transitions and exchange bias effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadic, Marin; Savic, S.M.; Jaglicic, Z.; Vojisavljevic, K.; Radojkovic, A.; Prsic, S.; Nikolic, Dobrica

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We have successfully synthesized NiMn 2 O 4−δ sample by complex polymerization synthesis. • Magnetic measurements reveal complex properties and triple magnetic phase transitions. • Magnetic measurements of M(H) show hysteretic behavior below 120 K. • Hysteresis properties after cooling of the sample in magnetic field show exchange bias effect. -- Abstract: We present magnetic properties of NiMn 2 O 4−δ (nickel manganite) which was synthesized by complex polymerization synthesis method followed by successive heat treatment and final calcinations in air at 1200 °C. The sample was characterized by using X-ray powder diffractometer (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The XRPD and FE-SEM studies revealed NiMn 2 O 4−δ phase and good crystallinity of particles. No other impurities have been observed by XRPD. The magnetic properties of the sample have been studied by measuring the temperature and field dependence of magnetization. Magnetic measurements of M(T) reveal rather complex magnetic properties and multiple magnetic phase transitions. We show three magnetic phase transitions with transition temperatures at T M1 = 35 K (long-range antiferromagnetic transition), T M2 = 101 K (antiferromagnetic-type transition) and T M3 = 120 K (ferromagnetic-like transition). We found that the T M1 transition is strongly dependent on the strength of the applied magnetic field (T M1 decreases with increasing applied field) whereas the T M3 is field independent. Otherwise, the T M2 maximum almost disappears in higher applied magnetic fields (H = 1 kOe and 10 kOe). Magnetic measurements of M(H) show hysteretic behavior below T M3 . Moreover, hysteresis properties measured after cooling of the sample in magnetic field of 10 kOe show exchange bias effect with an exchange bias field |H EB |=196 Oe. In summary, the properties that

  18. High and tunable spin current induced by magnetic-electric fields in a single-mode spintronic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala Kumar, S; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G; Liang, G-C

    2009-01-01

    We proposed that a viable form of spin current transistor is one to be made from a single-mode device which passes electrons through a series of magnetic-electric barriers built into the device. The barriers assume a wavy spatial profile across the conduction path due to the inevitable broadening of the magnetic fields. Field broadening results in a linearly increasing vector potential across the conduction channel, which increases spin polarization. We have identified that the important factors for generating high spin polarization and conductance modulation are the low source-drain bias, the broadened magnetic fields, and the high number of FM gates within a fixed channel length.

  19. Calculation and Analysis of Permanent Magnet Eddy Current Loss Fault with Magnet Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of calculating and analyzing the effect of the permanent magnet eddy current loss fault due to magnet segmentation. Taking an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor with inverter supplied as an example, the rated power of motor was 2.2 kW. Three-dimensional finite-element model was firstly established based on finite-element software. Then, the model mesh and boundary conditions were handled specially; permanent magnet eddy current loss fault was calculated and analyzed theoretically with magnet segmentation from space harmonic and time harmonic, respectively. Finally, calculation results were compared and explained. A useful conclusion for permanent magnet synchronous motor design has been obtained.

  20. Three-dimensional modeling of a negative ion source with a magnetic filter: impact of biasing the plasma electrode on the plasma asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fubiani, G.; Boeuf, J. P.

    2015-10-01

    The effect on the plasma characteristics of biasing positively the plasma electrode (PE) in negative ion sources with a magnetic filter is analysed using a 3D particle-in-cell model with Monte-Carlo collisions (PIC-MCC). We specialize to the one driver (i.e. one inductively coupled radio-frequency discharge) BATMAN negative ion source and the 4-drivers (large volume) ELISE device. Both are ITER prototype high power tandem-type negative ion sources developed for the neutral beam injector (NBI) system. The plasma is generated in the driver and diffuses inside the second chamber which is magnetized. Asymmetric plasma profiles originate from the formation of an electric field transverse to the electron current flowing through the magnetic filter (Hall effect). The model shows that the importance of the asymmetry increases with the PE bias potential, i.e. with the electron flow from the driver to the extraction region and depends on the shape of the magnetic filter field. We find that although the plasma density and potential profiles may be more or less asymmetric depending on the filter field configuration, the electron current to the plasma grid is always strongly asymmetric.

  1. Three-dimensional modeling of a negative ion source with a magnetic filter: impact of biasing the plasma electrode on the plasma asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fubiani, G; Boeuf, J P

    2015-01-01

    The effect on the plasma characteristics of biasing positively the plasma electrode (PE) in negative ion sources with a magnetic filter is analysed using a 3D particle-in-cell model with Monte-Carlo collisions (PIC-MCC). We specialize to the one driver (i.e. one inductively coupled radio-frequency discharge) BATMAN negative ion source and the 4-drivers (large volume) ELISE device. Both are ITER prototype high power tandem-type negative ion sources developed for the neutral beam injector (NBI) system. The plasma is generated in the driver and diffuses inside the second chamber which is magnetized. Asymmetric plasma profiles originate from the formation of an electric field transverse to the electron current flowing through the magnetic filter (Hall effect). The model shows that the importance of the asymmetry increases with the PE bias potential, i.e. with the electron flow from the driver to the extraction region and depends on the shape of the magnetic filter field. We find that although the plasma density and potential profiles may be more or less asymmetric depending on the filter field configuration, the electron current to the plasma grid is always strongly asymmetric. (paper)

  2. Dissipation of magnetic energy during disruptive current termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1983-09-01

    The magnetic coupling during a disruption between the plasma and the various coil systems on the PDX tokamak has been modeled. Using measured coil currents, the model indicates that dissipation of magnetic energy in the plasma equal to 75 % of the energy stored in the poloidal field of the plasma current does occur and that coupling between the plasma and the coil systems can reduce such dissipation. In the case of PDX ohmic discharges, bolometric measurements of radiation and charge exchange, integrated over a disruption, account for 90 % of the calculated energy dissipation. (author)

  3. Current Feedthroughs for Superconducting Magnets Operating Below 2 K

    CERN Document Server

    Benda, V

    1998-01-01

    For superconducting magnets working in superfluid helium, a thermal and pressure barrier between liquid helium baths at different temperatures, so called "lambda plate", is required. Bus bars connecte d to current leads of magnets to be powered, pass through current feedthroughs. These feedthroughs have to stand high pressure, thermal shock, high voltage, and mechanical stresses, must be leak tight and introduce minimum heat inleak. This article describes a possible solution. Three prototypes were built and measured. Design of this feedthrough and preliminary results are presented.

  4. Excitation mechanism for nickel and argon lines emitted by radio-frequency glow discharge plasma associated with bias current introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Kenji; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of d.c. bias current to an r.f. glow discharge plasma led to enhancement in the intensity of particular emission lines. In order to investigate the excitation mechanism, a large number of nickel emission lines was measured with and without the bias-current introduction. Emission intensities of nickel atomic lines were predominantly elevated by conducting bias current, especially when the emission lines have an excitation energy of approximately 5 eV. This phenomenon could be explained from the additional excitation through collisions with the introduced electrons having kinetic energies favorable for the excitation of such nickel atomic lines. However, this additional excitation mechanism was less effective for excited states of nickel ion, argon atom and argon ion, because their excitation energies were fairly high compared with the excitation energies of Ni atomic lines

  5. Tuning Coler Magnetic Current Apparatus with Magneto-Acoustic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Thorsten

    An attempt was made to tune the Coler magnetic current apparatus with the magneto acoustic resonance of the magnetic rods. Measurements with a replica of the famous Coler "Magnetstromapparat" were conducted. In order to tune the acoustic, magnetic and electric resonance circuits of the Coler device the magneto-acoustic resonance was measured with a frequency scan through a function generator and a lock-in amplifier. The frequency generator was powering a driving coil, while the lock-in was connected to a pickup coil. Both coils were placed on a magnetic rod. Resonances were observed up to the 17th harmonic. The quality Q of the observed resonances was 270. To study the magneto-acoustic resonance in the time domain a pair of Permendur rods were employed. The magneto-acoustic resonances of the Permendur rods were observed with an oscilloscope. Spectra of the magneto acoustic resonance were measured for the Permendur rods and for a Coler replica magnet in the frequency range from 25 kHz to 380 kHz. The next step was to bring the resonances of the Permendur rods close together so that they overlap. The 10thharmonic was chosen because it was close to the 180 kHz that Hans Coler related to ferromagnetism. Further more magneto-acoustic coupling between the Permendur rods was studied. Finally the question was explored if Hans Coler converted vacuum fluctuations via magnetic and acoustic resonance into electricity. There is a strong connection between magnetism and quantum field zero point energy (ZPE). An outlook is given on next steps in the experiments to unveil the working mechanism of the Coler magnetic current apparatus.

  6. Power and momentum relations in rotating magnetic field current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugrass, W N [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park. School of Physical Sciences

    1984-01-01

    The use of rotating magnetic fields (RMF) to drive steady currents in plasmas involves a transfer of energy and angular momentum from the radio frequency source feeding the rotating field coils to the plasma. The power-torque relationships in RMF systems are discussed and the analogy between RMF current drive and the polyphase induction motor is explained. The general relationship between the energy and angular momentum transfer is utilized to calculate the efficiency of the RMF plasma current drive. It is found that relatively high efficiencies can be achieved in RMF current drive because of the low phase velocity and small slip between the rotating field and the electron fluid.

  7. Modeling the current distribution in HTS tapes with transport current and applied magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazawa, T.; Yazawa, Takashi; Rabbers, J.J.; Chevtchenko, O.A.; ten Haken, Bernard; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Maeda, Hideaki

    1999-01-01

    A numerical model is developed for the current distribution in a high temperature superconducting (HTS) tape, (Bi,Pb)2Sr2 Ca2Cu3Ox-Ag, subjected to a combination of a transport current and an applied magnetic field. This analysis is based on a two-dimensional formulation of Maxwell's equations in

  8. Radio-frequency properties of stacked long Josephson junctions with nonuniform bias current distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filatrella, G; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1999-01-01

    We have numerically investigated the behavior of stacks of long Josephson junctions considering a nonuniform bias profile. In the presence of a microwave field the nonuniform bias, which favors the formation of fluxons, can give rise to a change of the sequence of radio-frequency induced steps...

  9. Alfven-wave current drive and magnetic field stochasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litwin, C.; Hegna, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    Propagating Alfven waves can generate parallel current through an alpha effect. In resistive MHD however, the dynamo field is proportional to resistivity and as such cannot drive significant currents for realistic parameters. In the search for an enhancement of this effect the authors investigate the role of magnetic field stochasticity. They show that the presence of a stochastic magnetic field, either spontaneously generated by instabilities or induced externally, can enhance the alpha effect of the wave. This enhancement is caused by an increased wave dissipation due to both current diffusion and filamentation. For the range of parameters of current drive experiments at Phaedrus-T tokamak, a moderate field stochasticity leads to significant modifications in the loop voltage

  10. Transformer core modeling for magnetizing inrush current investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Yahiou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The inrush currents generated during an energization of power transformer can reach very high values and may cause many problems in power system. This magnetizing inrush current which occurs at the time of energization of a transformer is due to temporary overfluxing in the transformer core. Its magnitude mainly depends on switching parameters such as the resistance of the primary winding and the point-on-voltage wave (switching angle. This paper describes a system for measuring the inrush current which is composed principally of an acquisition card (EAGLE, and LabVIEW code. The system is also capable of presetting various combinations of switching parameters for the energization of a 2 kVA transformer via an electronic card. Moreover, an algorithm for calculating the saturation curve is presented taking the iron core reactive losses into account, thereby producing a nonlinear inductance. This curve is used to simulate the magnetizing inrush current using the ATP-EMTP software.

  11. Discrete Current Control Strategy of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A control strategy of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs, which is different from the traditional vector control (VC and direct torque control (DTC, is proposed. Firstly, the circular rotating magnetic field is analyzed on the simplified model and discredited into stepping magnetic field. The stepping magnetomotive force will drive the rotor to run as the stepping motor. Secondly, the stator current orientation is used to build the control model instead of rotor flux orientation. Then, the discrete current control strategy is set and adopted in positioning control. Three methods of the strategy are simulated in computer and tested on the experiment platform of PMSM. The control precision is also verified through the experiment.

  12. Gravito-magnetic currents in the inflationary universe from WIMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Jesus Martin; Bellini, Mauricio [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2014-09-15

    Using the Weitzenboeck representation of a Riemann-flat 5D spacetime, we study the possible existence of primordial gravito-magnetic currents from Gravito-electromagnetic Inflation (GEMI). We found that these currents decrease exponentially in the Weitzenboeck representation, but they are null in a Levi-Civita representation because we are dealing with a 5D Riemann-flat spacetime without structure or torsion. (orig.)

  13. Quantization of edge currents for continuous magnetic operators

    CERN Document Server

    Kellendonk, J

    2003-01-01

    For a magnetic Hamiltonian on a half-plane given as the sum of the Landau operator with Dirichlet boundary conditions and a random potential, a quantization theorem for the edge currents is proven. This shows that the concept of edge channels also makes sense in presence of disorder. Moreover, gaussian bounds on the heat kernel and its covariant derivatives are obtained.

  14. A Very Robust AlGaN/GaN HEMT Technology to High Forward Gate Bias and Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Christiansen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports to date of GaN HEMTs subjected to forward gate bias stress include varied extents of degradation. We report an extremely robust GaN HEMT technology that survived—contrary to conventional wisdom—high forward gate bias (+6 V and current (>1.8 A/mm for >17.5 hours exhibiting only a slight change in gate diode characteristic, little decrease in maximum drain current, with only a 0.1 V positive threshold voltage shift, and, remarkably, a persisting breakdown voltage exceeding 200 V.

  15. Reversible and irreversible temperature-induced changes in exchange-biased planar Hall effect bridge (PHEB) magnetic field sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, G.; Lundtoft, N.C.; Østerberg, F.W.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the changes of planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors upon exposure to temperatures between 25° C and 90°C. From analyses of the sensor response vs. magnetic fields we extract the exchange bias field Hex, the uniaxial anisotropy field HK and the anisotropic...... magnetoresistance (AMR) of the exchange biased thin film at a given temperature and by comparing measurements carried out at elevated temperatures T with measurements carried out at 25° C after exposure to T, we can separate the reversible from the irreversible changes of the sensor. The results are not only...... relevant for sensor applications but also demonstrate the method as a useful tool for characterizing exchange-biased thin films....

  16. An analytical nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling model of laminated composites under combined pre-stress and magnetic bias loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hao-Miao; Qu, Shao-Xing; Ou, Xiao-Wei; Xiao, Ying; Wu, Hua-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Based on the equivalent circuit method, this paper adopts the nonlinear magnetostrictive constitutive relations to establish an analytical nonlinear magnetoelectric coefficient model for magnetostrictive/piezoelectric/magnetostrictive laminated magnetoelectric composites. When the pre-stress is set to zero in the model, the predicted results of the magnetoelectric coefficient coincide well with the available experimental results both qualitatively and quantitatively. Using the model, we can qualitatively predict the influence of the pre-stress, magnetic bias fields and the volume fraction of the magnetostrictive material on the magnetoelectric coefficient. The predicted results show that the influences of the pre-stress on the magnetoelectric coefficient, which varies with the magnetic bias field, before and after reaching the magnetoelectric coefficient maximum, are opposite. That is, the influence of the pre-stress on curves of the magnetoelectric coefficient reverses when the magnetoelectric coefficient reaches its maximum. Therefore, the correct setting of the pre-stress can lower the applied magnetic bias field and improve the magnetoelectric coefficient. The established nonlinear magnetoelectric effect model can provide a theoretical basis for regulating the magnetoelectric coefficient by the pre-stress and magnetic bias field and make it possible to design high-precision miniature magnetoelectric devices. (paper)

  17. Current-induced magnetic switching of a single molecule magnet on a spin valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Zheng-Chuan; Zheng, Qing-Rong; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Su, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The current-induced magnetic switching of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) attached on the central region of a spin valve is explored, and the condition for the switching current is derived. Electrons flowing through the spin valve will interact with the SMM via the s–d exchange interaction, producing the spin accumulation that satisfies the spin diffusion equation. We further describe the spin motion of the SMM by a Heisenberg-like equation. Based on the linear stability analysis, we obtain the critical current from two coupled equations. The results of the critical current versus the external magnetic field indicate that one can manipulate the magnetic state of the SMM by an external magnetic field. - Highlights: • We theoretically study the current-induced magnetic switching of the SMM. • We describe the spin motion of the SMM by a Heisenberg-like equation. • We describe the spin accumulation by the spin diffusion equation. • We obtain the critical current by the linear stability analysis. • Our approach can be easily extended to other SMMs

  18. Current-induced magnetic switching of a single molecule magnet on a spin valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Zheng-Chuan, E-mail: wangzc@ucas.ac.cn [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zheng, Qing-Rong [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhu, Zheng-Gang [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Electronics, Electric and Communication Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Su, Gang, E-mail: gsu@ucas.ac.cn [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-04-17

    The current-induced magnetic switching of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) attached on the central region of a spin valve is explored, and the condition for the switching current is derived. Electrons flowing through the spin valve will interact with the SMM via the s–d exchange interaction, producing the spin accumulation that satisfies the spin diffusion equation. We further describe the spin motion of the SMM by a Heisenberg-like equation. Based on the linear stability analysis, we obtain the critical current from two coupled equations. The results of the critical current versus the external magnetic field indicate that one can manipulate the magnetic state of the SMM by an external magnetic field. - Highlights: • We theoretically study the current-induced magnetic switching of the SMM. • We describe the spin motion of the SMM by a Heisenberg-like equation. • We describe the spin accumulation by the spin diffusion equation. • We obtain the critical current by the linear stability analysis. • Our approach can be easily extended to other SMMs.

  19. Magnetic configurations of the tilted current sheets in magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the geometrical structures of tilted current sheet and tail flapping waves have been analysed based on multiple spacecraft measurements and some features of the tilted current sheets have been made clear for the first time. The geometrical features of the tilted current sheet revealed in this investigation are as follows: (1 The magnetic field lines (MFLs in the tilted current sheet are generally plane curves and the osculating planes in which the MFLs lie are about vertical to the equatorial plane, while the normal of the tilted current sheet leans severely to the dawn or dusk side. (2 The tilted current sheet may become very thin, the half thickness of its neutral sheet is generally much less than the minimum radius of the curvature of the MFLs. (3 In the neutral sheet, the field-aligned current density becomes very large and has a maximum value at the center of the current sheet. (4 In some cases, the current density is a bifurcated one, and the two humps of the current density often superpose two peaks in the gradient of magnetic strength, indicating that the magnetic gradient drift current is possibly responsible for the formation of the two humps of the current density in some tilted current sheets. Tilted current sheets often appear along with tail current sheet flapping waves. It is found that, in the tail flapping current sheets, the minimum curvature radius of the MFLs in the current sheet is rather large with values around 1 RE, while the neutral sheet may be very thin, with its half thickness being several tenths of RE. During the flapping waves, the current sheet is tilted substantially, and the maximum tilt angle is generally larger than 45°. The phase velocities of these flapping waves are several tens km/s, while their periods and wavelengths are several tens of minutes, and several earth radii, respectively. These tail flapping events generally last several hours and occur during quiet periods or periods of

  20. Magnetic levitation by induced eddy currents in non-magnetic conductors and conductivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniguez, J; Raposo, V; Flores, A G; Zazo, M; Hernandez-Lopez, A

    2005-01-01

    We report a study on magnetic levitation by induced ac currents in non-magnetic conductors at low frequencies. Our discussion, based on Faraday's induction law, allows us to distinguish the two components of the current responsible for levitation and heating, respectively. The experimental evaluation of the levitation force in a copper ring revealed the accuracy of our analysis, clearly illustrating its asymptotic behaviour versus frequency, and validating it for the qualitative analysis of magnetic levitation and heating in conductors of different shapes such as tubes and discs, composed of collections of conductive loops. The analysis of the results allows precise values of its electrical conductivity to be found. With the help of a simulation technique, this work also reveals the progressive deformation undergone by magnetic induction lines due to magnetic screening when frequency increases

  1. Magnetic levitation by induced eddy currents in non-magnetic conductors and conductivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iniguez, J; Raposo, V; Flores, A G; Zazo, M; Hernandez-Lopez, A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37071, Salamanca (Spain)

    2005-11-01

    We report a study on magnetic levitation by induced ac currents in non-magnetic conductors at low frequencies. Our discussion, based on Faraday's induction law, allows us to distinguish the two components of the current responsible for levitation and heating, respectively. The experimental evaluation of the levitation force in a copper ring revealed the accuracy of our analysis, clearly illustrating its asymptotic behaviour versus frequency, and validating it for the qualitative analysis of magnetic levitation and heating in conductors of different shapes such as tubes and discs, composed of collections of conductive loops. The analysis of the results allows precise values of its electrical conductivity to be found. With the help of a simulation technique, this work also reveals the progressive deformation undergone by magnetic induction lines due to magnetic screening when frequency increases.

  2. Spin currents and magnon dynamics in insulating magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Kouki; Simon, Pascal; Loss, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Nambu-Goldstone theorem provides gapless modes to both relativistic and nonrelativistic systems. The Nambu-Goldstone bosons in insulating magnets are called magnons or spin-waves and play a key role in magnetization transport. We review here our past works on magnetization transport in insulating magnets and also add new insights, with a particular focus on magnon transport. We summarize in detail the magnon counterparts of electron transport, such as the Wiedemann-Franz law, the Onsager reciprocal relation between the Seebeck and Peltier coefficients, the Hall effects, the superconducting state, the Josephson effects, and the persistent quantized current in a ring to list a few. Focusing on the electromagnetism of moving magnons, i.e. magnetic dipoles, we theoretically propose a way to directly measure magnon currents. As a consequence of the Mermin-Wagner-Hohenberg theorem, spin transport is drastically altered in one-dimensional antiferromagnetic (AF) spin-1/2 chains; where the Néel order is destroyed by quantum fluctuations and a quasiparticle magnon-like picture breaks down. Instead, the low-energy collective excitations of the AF spin chain are described by a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) which provides the spin transport properties in such antiferromagnets some universal features at low enough temperature. Finally, we enumerate open issues and provide a platform to discuss the future directions of magnonics.

  3. Spin currents and magnon dynamics in insulating magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Kouki; Loss, Daniel; Simon, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Nambu–Goldstone theorem provides gapless modes to both relativistic and nonrelativistic systems. The Nambu–Goldstone bosons in insulating magnets are called magnons or spin-waves and play a key role in magnetization transport. We review here our past works on magnetization transport in insulating magnets and also add new insights, with a particular focus on magnon transport. We summarize in detail the magnon counterparts of electron transport, such as the Wiedemann–Franz law, the Onsager reciprocal relation between the Seebeck and Peltier coefficients, the Hall effects, the superconducting state, the Josephson effects, and the persistent quantized current in a ring to list a few. Focusing on the electromagnetism of moving magnons, i.e. magnetic dipoles, we theoretically propose a way to directly measure magnon currents. As a consequence of the Mermin–Wagner–Hohenberg theorem, spin transport is drastically altered in one-dimensional antiferromagnetic (AF) spin-1/2 chains; where the Néel order is destroyed by quantum fluctuations and a quasiparticle magnon-like picture breaks down. Instead, the low-energy collective excitations of the AF spin chain are described by a Tomonaga–Luttinger liquid (TLL) which provides the spin transport properties in such antiferromagnets some universal features at low enough temperature. Finally, we enumerate open issues and provide a platform to discuss the future directions of magnonics. (paper)

  4. Electric field-induced ferromagnetic resonance in a CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junction under dc bias voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Shun; Gajek, Martin; Worledge, D. C.; Matsukura, Fumihiro; Ohno, Hideo

    2014-12-01

    We measure homodyne-detected ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) induced by the electric-field effect in a CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with perpendicular magnetic easy axis under dc bias voltages up to 0.1 V. From the bias dependence of the resonant frequency, we find that the first order perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is modulated by the applied electric field, whereas the second order component is virtually independent of the electric field. The lineshapes of the FMR spectra are bias dependent, which are explained by the combination of electric-field effect and reflection of the bias voltage from the MTJ.

  5. A Method for Eddy Current Field Measurement in Permanent Magnet Magnetic Resonance Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Rui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a widely used medical imaging technique. In MRI system, gradient magnetic fields are used to code spatial information. However, the fast-switching electric currents in the gradients coils used to generate gradient fields also induce vortex electric field, often referred as eddy current, in the surrounding metal conductors. In this paper, a method for eddy current field measurement was proposed. Based on the Faraday law of electromagnetic induction, an eddy current field measuring device was designed. Combining hardware acquisition and software processing, the eddy current field was obtained by subtracting the ideal gradient field from the magnetic field measured experimentally, whose waveform could be displayed in real time. The proposed method was verified by experimental results.

  6. Eddy current calculations for the Tore Supra toroidal field magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, J.

    1983-01-01

    An outline is given of the calculation of the eddy currents in the magnetic structures of a Tokamak, which can be assimilated to thin conductors, so that the three-dimensional problem can be reduced mathematically to a two-dimensional one, the variables being two orthogonal coordinates of the considered surface. A finite element method has been used in order to treat the complicated geometry of the set of the 18 toroidal field coil casings and mechanical structures of Tore Supra. This eddy current code has been coupled with an axisymmetric equilibrium code in order to simulate typical phases of a Tokamak discharge (plasma current rise, additional heating, disruption, cleaning discharge) and the losses in the toroidal field magnet have thus been calculated. (author)

  7. On the magnetic effect of the quiet ring current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldstein, Ya.I.; Porchkhidze, Ts.D.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic effects of the quiet ring current DRsu (q) along the geomagnetic equator near a minimUm of solar activity are considered. The division of Dsub(st)-variation of the geomagnetic field observed on the Earth's surface into DCF and DR components for January 23-24, 1974 has been carried out. DRsup(q) being 16.7 nT. A comparison with the magnetic field of the ring current and the energy particles moving round the Earth in the radiation zone shows a good agreement in the intensities obtained by two methods. This means that in calculating the Dsub(st)-index the values of the H-component of the field are taken as a bench mark during such time intervals when the DRsup(q) field is approximately compensated by the fields of currents on the magnetopause DCFsup(q). The estimates giVe RCsup(q) approximately - 12 nT

  8. Magnetic fields with photon beams: Use of circular current loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jette, David

    2001-01-01

    Strong transverse magnetic fields can produce very large dose enhancements and reductions in localized regions of a patient under irradiation by a photon beam. Through EGS4 Monte Carlo simulations, we have examined the effects of applying a magnetic field produced by a pair of circular current loops to a photon beam penetrating a water phantom of finite thickness. We have indeed found very substantial localized dose enhancements, albeit with no corresponding dose reduction just distal to the region of dose enhancement. (However, dose reduction does occur near the distal end of the phantom.) We have also observed two phenomena to be concerned with, for this configuration: significant broadening of the penumbra close to the current loop, and narrowness of the enhanced dose region in a plane parallel to the planes of the loops. We have also examined the use of a single current loop to produce the magnetic field, and have found great asymmetry in the dose distribution; this asymmetry appears to make it impossible to treat with a single circular magnet a tumor of large dimension extending below the application surface

  9. Wideband Precision Current Transformer for the Magnet Current of the Beam Extraction Kicker Magnet of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Gräwer, G

    2004-01-01

    The LHC beam extraction system is composed of 15 fast kicker magnets per beam to extract the particles in one turn of the collider and to safely dispose them on external absorbers. Each magnet is powered by a separate pulse generator. The generator produces a magnet current pulse with 3 us rise time, 20 kA amplitude and 1.8 ms fall time, of which 90 us are needed to dump the beam. The beam extraction system requires a high level of reliability. To detect any change in the magnet current characteristics, which might indicate a slow degradation of the pulse generator, a high precision wideband current transformer will be installed. For redundancy reasons, the results obtained with this device will be cross-checked with a Rogowski coil, installed adjacent to the transformer. A prototype transformer has been successfully tested at nominal current levels and showed satisfactory results compared with the output of a high frequency resistive coaxial shunt. The annular core of the ring type transformer is composed of...

  10. B-periodic oscillations in the Hall-resistance induced by a dc-current-bias under combined microwave-excitation and dc-current bias in the GaAs/AlGaAs 2D system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Chun; Reichl, C; Wegscheider, W; Mani, R G

    2018-05-18

    We report the observation of dc-current-bias-induced B-periodic Hall resistance oscillations and Hall plateaus in the GaAs/AlGaAs 2D system under combined microwave radiation- and dc bias excitation at liquid helium temperatures. The Hall resistance oscillations and plateaus appear together with concomitant oscillations also in the diagonal magnetoresistance. The periods of Hall and diagonal resistance oscillations are nearly identical, and source power (P) dependent measurements demonstrate sub-linear relationship of the oscillation amplitude with P over the span 0 < P ≤ 20 mW.

  11. New approaches in the design of magnetic tweezers–current magnetic tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessalova, Valentina [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-2, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Perov, Nikolai [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-2, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo 14, 236004 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Rodionova, Valeria [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo 14, 236004 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology ' MISiS' , Leninsky Prospect 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-01

    The main advantages of the magnetic tweezers are the low price and simplicity of use. However the range of their application is reduced due to shortcomings like, for example, the remanent induction of the core and interaction between ferromagnetic cores. We present the new design of magnetic tweezers–Current Magnetic Tweezers (CMT) that allow particle manipulation by means of the magnetic field generated by the electric currents flowing through the non-magnetic wires. Arranging wires in different geometric shapes allows the particle movement either in two or three dimensions. Forces acting on the magnetic particles with the magnetic moment of 2·10{sup −11} A m{sup 2} at distances up to 1 mm had been experimentally measured. It is established that a current of about 1 A at a 1 mm distance generates force of (approximately) 3 pN which is consistent with theoretical estimates. - Highlights: • We suggest the idea and the results of the test the prototype based on 3 wire's system that allows manipulation of nanoparticles on XY plane.

  12. New approaches in the design of magnetic tweezers–current magnetic tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessalova, Valentina; Perov, Nikolai; Rodionova, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    The main advantages of the magnetic tweezers are the low price and simplicity of use. However the range of their application is reduced due to shortcomings like, for example, the remanent induction of the core and interaction between ferromagnetic cores. We present the new design of magnetic tweezers–Current Magnetic Tweezers (CMT) that allow particle manipulation by means of the magnetic field generated by the electric currents flowing through the non-magnetic wires. Arranging wires in different geometric shapes allows the particle movement either in two or three dimensions. Forces acting on the magnetic particles with the magnetic moment of 2·10 −11 A m 2 at distances up to 1 mm had been experimentally measured. It is established that a current of about 1 A at a 1 mm distance generates force of (approximately) 3 pN which is consistent with theoretical estimates. - Highlights: • We suggest the idea and the results of the test the prototype based on 3 wire's system that allows manipulation of nanoparticles on XY plane.

  13. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Effects of Combined Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Alcohol Approach Bias Retraining in Hazardous Drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Uyl, T.E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive bias modification (CBM) can be used to retrain automatic approach tendencies for alcohol. We investigated whether changing cortical excitability with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could enhance CBM effects in hazardous drinkers. We also studied the underlying

  14. Some thoughts on an eddy current septum magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1995-01-01

    It is the purpose of this report to describe the thinking and work that went into thoroughly understanding, a specific eddy current septum magnet that will be used in the APS and needs ''fixing.'' The goal is to go beyond mere qualitative understanding and carry the analysis far enough to recognize the real problems of this magnet and to develop the tools to solve them. While it would be very tempting to write this report in very general terms, it would be very difficult to achieve complete generality, and one would risk losing the focus on this specific magnet that needs to have an improved performance. The discussion contains, however, so many generally useful concepts and procedures that it might further be useful for designers of other eddy current septum magnets both at the APS and elsewhere. Since it is necessary not only to have a deep qualitative understanding of several aspects of this type of magnet, but also to quantitatively assess what has to be done to achieve the desired performance, fairly heavy use of mathematical tools was made. In doing so it became clear that the extensive use of these tools is essential not only for this purpose, but also to get the required good qualitative understanding of the device. For instance, it turns out that in this particular instance, an important part of the underlying physics does not become clear until one seems to run into what one might consider, at first, a mathematical problem, whose resolution is not clear until one has found the solution, which then seems ''obvious.'' Even though iron in the septum has a nonlinear relationship between B and H, assuming a constant permeability is sufficient to obtain the information needed to develop a sufficient understanding of the magnet to make some crucial decisions

  15. Repetitive formation and decay of current sheets in magnetic loops: An origin of diverse magnetic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhattacharyya, R. [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Dewali, Bari Road, Udaipur 313001 (India); Smolarkiewicz, P. K. [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading RG2 9AX (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    In this work, evolution of an incompressible, thermally homogeneous, infinitely conducting, viscous magnetofluid is numerically explored as the fluid undergoes repeated events of magnetic reconnection. The initial magnetic field is constructed by a superposition of two linear force-free fields and has similar morphology as the magnetic loops observed in the solar corona. The results are presented for computations with three distinct sets of footpoint geometries. To onset reconnection, we rely on numerical model magnetic diffusivity, in the spirit of implicit large eddy simulation. It is generally expected that in a high Lundquist number fluid, repeated magnetic reconnections are ubiquitous and hence can lead to a host of magnetic structures with considerable observational importance. In particular, the simulations presented here illustrate formations of magnetic islands, rotating magnetic helices and rising flux ropes—depending on the initial footpoint geometry but through the common process of repeated magnetic reconnections. Further, we observe the development of extended current sheets in two case studies, where the footpoint reconnections generate favorable dynamics.

  16. Repetitive formation and decay of current sheets in magnetic loops: An origin of diverse magnetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhattacharyya, R.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, evolution of an incompressible, thermally homogeneous, infinitely conducting, viscous magnetofluid is numerically explored as the fluid undergoes repeated events of magnetic reconnection. The initial magnetic field is constructed by a superposition of two linear force-free fields and has similar morphology as the magnetic loops observed in the solar corona. The results are presented for computations with three distinct sets of footpoint geometries. To onset reconnection, we rely on numerical model magnetic diffusivity, in the spirit of implicit large eddy simulation. It is generally expected that in a high Lundquist number fluid, repeated magnetic reconnections are ubiquitous and hence can lead to a host of magnetic structures with considerable observational importance. In particular, the simulations presented here illustrate formations of magnetic islands, rotating magnetic helices and rising flux ropes—depending on the initial footpoint geometry but through the common process of repeated magnetic reconnections. Further, we observe the development of extended current sheets in two case studies, where the footpoint reconnections generate favorable dynamics

  17. Solution of magnetic field and eddy current problem induced by rotating magnetic poles (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. J.; Low, T. S.

    1996-04-01

    The magnetic field and eddy current problems induced by rotating permanent magnet poles occur in electromagnetic dampers, magnetic couplings, and many other devices. Whereas numerical techniques, for example, finite element methods can be exploited to study various features of these problems, such as heat generation and drag torque development, etc., the analytical solution is always of interest to the designers since it helps them to gain the insight into the interdependence of the parameters involved and provides an efficient tool for designing. Some of the previous work showed that the solution of the eddy current problem due to the linearly moving magnet poles can give satisfactory approximation for the eddy current problem due to rotating fields. However, in many practical cases, especially when the number of magnet poles is small, there is significant effect of flux focusing due to the geometry. The above approximation can therefore lead to marked errors in the theoretical predictions of the device performance. Bernot et al. recently described an analytical solution in a polar coordinate system where the radial field is excited by a time-varying source. A discussion of an analytical solution of the magnetic field and eddy current problems induced by moving magnet poles in radial field machines will be given in this article. The theoretical predictions obtained from this method is compared with the results obtained from finite element calculations. The validity of the method is also checked by the comparison of the theoretical predictions and the measurements from a test machine. It is shown that the introduced solution leads to a significant improvement in the air gap field prediction as compared with the results obtained from the analytical solution that models the eddy current problems induced by linearly moving magnet poles.

  18. Bias-voltage dependence of perpendicular spin-transfer torque in asymmetric MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Se Chung; Park, Seung Young; Manchon, Aurelien; Chshiev, Mairbek; Han, Jae Ho; Lee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Jang Eun; Nam, Kyung Tae; Jo, Younghun; Kong, Yo Chan; Dieny, Bernard; Lee, Kyung Jin

    2009-01-01

    Spin-transfer torque (STT) allows the electrical control of magnetic states in nanostructures. The STT in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is of particular importance owing to its potential for device applications. It has been demonstrated that the MTJ has a sizable perpendicular STT (, field-like torque), which substantially affects STT-driven magnetization dynamics. In contrast to symmetric MTJs where the bias dependence of is quadratic, it is theoretically predicted that the symmetry breaking of the system causes an extra linear bias dependence. Here, we report experimental results that are consistent with the predicted linear bias dependence in asymmetric MTJs. The linear contribution is quite significant and its sign changes from positive to negative as the asymmetry is modified. This result opens a way to design the bias dependence of the field-like term, which is useful for device applications by allowing, in particular, the suppression of the abnormal switching-back phenomena. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Bias-voltage dependence of perpendicular spin-transfer torque in asymmetric MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Se Chung

    2009-10-25

    Spin-transfer torque (STT) allows the electrical control of magnetic states in nanostructures. The STT in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is of particular importance owing to its potential for device applications. It has been demonstrated that the MTJ has a sizable perpendicular STT (, field-like torque), which substantially affects STT-driven magnetization dynamics. In contrast to symmetric MTJs where the bias dependence of is quadratic, it is theoretically predicted that the symmetry breaking of the system causes an extra linear bias dependence. Here, we report experimental results that are consistent with the predicted linear bias dependence in asymmetric MTJs. The linear contribution is quite significant and its sign changes from positive to negative as the asymmetry is modified. This result opens a way to design the bias dependence of the field-like term, which is useful for device applications by allowing, in particular, the suppression of the abnormal switching-back phenomena. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Current-induced magnetization changes in a spin valve due to incoherent emission of non-equilibrium magnons

    OpenAIRE

    Kozub, V. I.; Caro, J.

    2004-01-01

    We describe spin transfer in a ferromagnet/normal metal/ferromagnet spin-valve point contact. Spin is transferred from the spin-polarized device current to the magnetization of the free layer by the mechanism of incoherent magnon emission by electrons. Our approach is based on the rate equation for the magnon occupation, using Fermi's golden rule for magnon emission and absorption and the non-equilibrium electron distribution for a biased spin valve. The magnon emission reduces the magnetizat...

  1. High sensitivity zero-biased magnetic field sensor based on multiphase laminate heterostructures with FeCuNbSiB nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jing; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Chen, Hengjia

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a high sensitivity zero-biased magnetic field sensor based on multiphase laminate heterostructures consisting of FeCuNbSiB/Terfenol-D (Tb1-xDyxFe2)/PZT (Pb(Zr1-x,Tix)O3)/Terfenol-D/PZT/Ternol-D/FeCuNbSiB (FMPMPMF) is presented, whose ME coupling characteristics and sensing performances have been investigated. Compared to traditional Terfenol-D/PZT/Terfenol-D (MPM) and Terfenol-D/PZT/Terfenol-D/PZT/Terfenol-D (MPMPM) sensors, the zero-biased ME coupling characteristics of FMPMPMF sensor were significantly improved, owing to a build-in magnetic field in FeCuNbSiB/Terfenol-D layers. The optimum zero-biased resonant ME voltage coefficient of 3.02 V/Oe is achieved, which is 1.65 times as great as that of MPMPM and 2.51 times of MPM sensors. The mean value of low-frequency ME field coefficient of FMPMPMF reaches 122.53 mV/cm Oe, which is 2.39 times as great as that of MPMPM and 1.79 times of MPM sensors. Meanwhile, the induced zero-biased ME voltage of FMPMPMF sensor shows an excellent linear relationship to ac magnetic field both at the low frequency (1 kHz) and the resonant frequency (106.6 kHz). Remarkably, it indicates that the proposed zero-biased magnetic field sensor give the prospect of being able to applied to the field of highly sensitive ac magnetic field sensing.

  2. Eddy current septum magnets for injection and extraction at SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Lianhua; Gu Ming; Liu Bo; Chen Rong

    2010-01-01

    There are 6 in-vacuum eddy current septum magnets used for booster injection, extraction, and storage ring injection in SSRF. Special attention was paid to coils and their support designs because of the shock force they bear in the magnetic fields and the high heat which is hard to be dissipated in vacuum environment. For the storage ring magnets, good transverse homogeneity in the gap was achieved by careful design, precise machining and accurate assembly; and an extremely low leakage field on the stored beam is another key feature thanks to the high permeability Mu metal. Magnetic field measurement was conducted with both a point coil and a long integral coil, and the results agree well with the OPERA-2d/3d simulations. An inner tube is added to keep the continuity of impedance for the circulating beam with two RF finger flanges at each end. There is no vacuum separation between the inner tube and the magnet chamber. Sputter ion pumps integrated with NEG are used to acquire the UHV for the chamber. (authors)

  3. The influence of bias magnetization of nanoparticles on GMR sensor signal and sensitivity for the ultra-low concentration detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Xu, Jie; Cao, Derang; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Guoxia; Sun, Nian X.; Li, Shandong

    2018-05-01

    In the broad research of the GMR bio-sensing technology, it is vital to explore appropriate magnetic labels and its influences on the detection signal. In this work, four kinds of ferrite particles of γ-Fe2O3, CoFe2O4, NiFe2O4 and NiZnFe2O4 were prepared through calcining the Dimethyl Formamide (DMF) solution of the transition metal nitrates [Fe(NO3)3 and X(NO3)2, X = Co, Ni, Zn] to study the effect of magnetic properties on detection signals using a DC in-plane measuring method. It was revealed that for four particles, the output voltage differences |ΔV| between with and without magnetic particles exhibit log-linear functions of the particles concentrations x in the range from 0.1 to 10 ng/mL. A very low limitation of detection (LOD) of 0.1 ng/mL for all the samples was obtained, which is two orders smaller than that in the previous work. Moreover, the change of output voltage difference at the LOD (|ΔVlim|) is proportional to the magnetization at bias field (bias magnetization, Mbias), which indicates that larger Mbias leads to a lower LOD. This work provides a useful guidance in selecting or preparing magnetic labels to enhance the sensitivity of GMR biosensors.

  4. System and method for magnetic current density imaging at ultra low magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, Michelle A.; George, John Stevens; Kraus, Robert Henry; Magnelind, Per; Matlashov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Tucker, Don; Turovets, Sergei; Volegov, Petr Lvovich

    2016-02-09

    Preferred systems can include an electrical impedance tomography apparatus electrically connectable to an object; an ultra low field magnetic resonance imaging apparatus including a plurality of field directions and disposable about the object; a controller connected to the ultra low field magnetic resonance imaging apparatus and configured to implement a sequencing of one or more ultra low magnetic fields substantially along one or more of the plurality of field directions; and a display connected to the controller, and wherein the controller is further configured to reconstruct a displayable image of an electrical current density in the object. Preferred methods, apparatuses, and computer program products are also disclosed.

  5. Overview of magnetic bias X-probe qualification and inspection of PNGS Monel 400 steam generator tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, B.A.; Van Langen, J.; Obrutsky, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the X-probe MB 350, the qualification for detection of open OD axial crack-like flaws, and a selection of inspection results from the subsequent field inspections performed with this probe during the 2003 and 2004 period at Pickering Nuclear Generating Station A and B. Examples of the field indications to be presented are axial cracking, OD pitting at top of tubesheet location (TTS), and flow assisted corrosion (top hats). During the 2003 in-service eddy current inspection results of Pickering Nuclear Generating Station A (PNGS-A) Unit 2, a 13 mm (0.5 inch) long axial indication was detected by the CTR1 bobbin and CTR2-C4 array probes in Tube R25-C52 of Steam Generator (SG) 11 in the hot leg sludge pile region. An experimental magnetic bias X-probe, especially designed by Zetec for inspection of Monel 400 tubing, was deployed and the indication was characterized as a potential outer diameter (OD) axially oriented crack. Posterior tube pulling and destructive examination confirmed the presence of an Environmentally Assisted Crack (EAC), approximately 80% deep and 13 mm long. Due to the significance of this discovery, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) requested AECL to initiate a program for qualification of the X-Probe MB 350 for the detection of OD axial cracks in medium to high magnetic permeability (μ r ) Monel 400 PNGS-A and B steam generator tubing at different locations. The X-probe MB 350 subsequently has been deployed as a primary inspection probe for crack detection for PNGS steam generators. (author)

  6. Attention bias modification for anxiety and phobias: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuckertz, Jennie M; Amir, Nader

    2015-02-01

    Attention bias modification (ABM) was introduced over a decade ago as a computerized method of manipulating attentional bias and has been followed by intense interest in applying ABM for clinical purposes. While meta-analyses support ABM as a method of modifying attentional biases and reducing anxiety symptoms, there have been notable discrepancies in findings published within the last several years. In this review, we comment on recent research that may help explain some of the inconsistencies across ABM studies. More relevant to the future of ABM research, we highlight areas in which continuing research is needed. We suggest that ABM appears to be a promising treatment for anxiety disorders, but relative to other interventions, ABM is in its infancy. Thus, research is needed in order to improve ABM as a clinical treatment and advance the psychological science of ABM.

  7. Detection of defect states responsible for leakage current in ultrathin tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) films by zero-bias thermally stimulated current spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, W.S.; Zhong, L.; Lee, A.; See, C.H.; Han, T.; Sandler, N.P.; Chong, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    Defect states responsible for leakage current in ultrathin (physical thickness 2 O 5 ) films were measured with a novel zero-bias thermally stimulated current technique. It was found that defect states A, whose activation energy was estimated to be about 0.2 eV, can be more efficiently suppressed by using N 2 O rapid thermal annealing (RTA) instead of using O 2 RTA for postdeposition annealing. The leakage current was also smaller for samples with N 2 O RTA than those with O 2 RTA for postdeposition annealing. Hence, defect states A are quite likely to be important in causing leakage current. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. Hall current effects in dynamic magnetic reconnection solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, I.J.D.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Watson, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of Hall current contributions on flow driven planar magnetic merging solutions is discussed. The Hall current is important if the dimensionless Hall parameter (or normalized ion skin depth) satisfies c H >η, where η is the inverse Lundquist number for the plasma. A dynamic analysis of the problem shows, however, that the Hall current initially manifests itself, not by modifying the planar reconnection field, but by inducing a non-reconnecting perpendicular 'separator' component in the magnetic field. Only if the stronger condition c H 2 >η is satisfied can Hall currents be expected to affect the planar merging. These analytic predictions are then tested by performing a series of numerical experiments in periodic geometry, using the full system of planar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The numerical results confirm that the nature of the merging changes dramatically when the Hall coupling satisfies c H 2 >η. In line with the analytic treatment of sheared reconnection, the coupling provided by the Hall term leads to the emergence of multiple current layers that can enhance the global Ohmic dissipation at the expense of the reconnection rate. However, the details of the dissipation depend critically on the symmetries of the simulation, and when the merging is 'head-on' (i.e., comprises fourfold symmetry) the reconnection rate can be enhanced

  9. Tailoring of electron flow current in magnetically insulated transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Martin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It is desirable to optimize (minimizing both the inductance and electron flow the magnetically insulated vacuum sections of low impedance pulsed-power drivers. The goal of low inductance is understandable from basic efficiency arguments. The goal of low electron flow results from two observations: (1 flowing electrons generally do not deliver energy to (or even reach most loads, and thus constitute a loss mechanism; (2 energetic electrons deposited in a small area can cause anode damage and anode plasma formation. Low inductance and low electron flow are competing goals; an optimized system requires a balance of the two. While magnetically insulated systems are generally forgiving, there are times when optimization is crucial. For example, in large pulsed-power drivers used to energize high energy density physics loads, the electron flow as a fraction of total current is small, but that flow often reaches the anode in relatively small regions. If the anode temperature becomes high enough to desorb gas, the resulting plasma initiates a gap closure process that can impact system performance. Magnetic-pressure driven (z pinches and material equation of state loads behave like a fixed inductor for much of the drive pulse. It is clear that neither fixed gap nor constant-impedance transmission lines are optimal for driving inductive loads. This work shows a technique for developing the optimal impedance profile for the magnetically insulated section of a high-current driver. Particle-in-cell calculations are used to validate the impedance profiles developed in a radial disk magnetically insulated transmission line geometry. The input parameters are the spacing and location of the minimum gap, the effective load inductance, and the desired electron flow profile. The radial electron flow profiles from these simulations are in good agreement with theoretical predictions when driven at relatively high voltage (i.e., V≥2  MV.

  10. Direct-current cathodic vacuum arc system with magnetic-field mechanism for plasma stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H-S; Komvopoulos, K

    2008-07-01

    Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition is characterized by plasma beam directionality, plasma energy adjustment via substrate biasing, macroparticle filtering, and independent substrate temperature control. Between the two modes of FCVA deposition, namely, direct current (dc) and pulsed arc, the dc mode yields higher deposition rates than the pulsed mode. However, maintaining the dc arc discharge is challenging because of its inherent plasma instabilities. A system generating a special configuration of magnetic field that stabilizes the dc arc discharge during film deposition is presented. This magnetic field is also part of the out-of-plane magnetic filter used to focus the plasma beam and prevent macroparticle film contamination. The efficiency of the plasma-stabilizing magnetic-field mechanism is demonstrated by the deposition of amorphous carbon (a-C) films exhibiting significantly high hardness and tetrahedral carbon hybridization (sp3) contents higher than 70%. Such high-quality films cannot be produced by dc arc deposition without the plasma-stabilizing mechanism presented in this study.

  11. Direct-current cathodic vacuum arc system with magnetic-field mechanism for plasma stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.-S.; Komvopoulos, K.

    2008-01-01

    Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition is characterized by plasma beam directionality, plasma energy adjustment via substrate biasing, macroparticle filtering, and independent substrate temperature control. Between the two modes of FCVA deposition, namely, direct current (dc) and pulsed arc, the dc mode yields higher deposition rates than the pulsed mode. However, maintaining the dc arc discharge is challenging because of its inherent plasma instabilities. A system generating a special configuration of magnetic field that stabilizes the dc arc discharge during film deposition is presented. This magnetic field is also part of the out-of-plane magnetic filter used to focus the plasma beam and prevent macroparticle film contamination. The efficiency of the plasma-stabilizing magnetic-field mechanism is demonstrated by the deposition of amorphous carbon (a-C) films exhibiting significantly high hardness and tetrahedral carbon hybridization (sp 3 ) contents higher than 70%. Such high-quality films cannot be produced by dc arc deposition without the plasma-stabilizing mechanism presented in this study

  12. Current understanding of magnetic storms: Storm-substorm relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, Y.; Gonzalez, W.D.; Baumjohann, W.; Daglis, I.A.; Grande, M.; Joselyn, J.A.; Singer, H.J.; McPherron, R.L.; Phillips, J.L.; Reeves, E.G.; Rostoker, G.; Sharma, A.S.; Tsurutani, B.T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper attempts to summarize the current understanding of the storm/substorm relationship by clearing up a considerable amount of controversy and by addressing the question of how solar wind energy is deposited into and is dissipated in the constituent elements that are critical to magnetospheric and ionospheric processes during magnetic storms. (1) Four mechanisms are identified and discussed as the primary causes of enhanced electric fields in the interplanetary medium responsible for geomagnetic storms. It is pointed out that in reality, these four mechanisms, which are not mutually exclusive, but interdependent, interact differently from event to event. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are found to be the primary phenomena responsible for the main phase of geomagnetic storms. The other two mechanisms, i.e., HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet activity) and the so-called Russell-McPherron effect, work to make the ICME and CIR phenomena more geoeffective. The solar cycle dependence of the various sources in creating magnetic storms has yet to be quantitatively understood. (2) A serious controversy exists as to whether the successive occurrence of intense substorms plays a direct role in the energization of ring current particles or whether the enhanced electric field associated with southward IMF enhances the effect of substorm expansions. While most of the Dst variance during magnetic storms can be solely reproduced by changes in the large-scale electric field in the solar wind and the residuals are uncorrelated with substorms, recent satellite observations of the ring current constituents during the main phase of magnetic storms show the importance of ionospheric ions. This implies that ionospheric ions, which are associated with the frequent occurrence of intense substorms, are accelerated upward along magnetic field lines, contributing to the energy density of the

  13. Novel magnetic wire fabrication process by way of nanoimprint lithography for current induced magnetization switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Asari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanoimprint lithography (NIL is an effective method to fabricate nanowire because it does not need expensive systems and this process is easier than conventional processes. In this letter, we report the Current Induced Magnetization Switching (CIMS in perpendicularly magnetized Tb-Co alloy nanowire fabricated by NIL. The CIMS in Tb-Co alloy wire was observed by using current pulse under in-plane external magnetic field (HL. We successfully observed the CIMS in Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL. Additionally, we found that the critical current density (Jc for the CIMS in the Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL is 4 times smaller than that fabricated by conventional lift-off process under HL = 200Oe. These results indicate that the NIL is effective method for the CIMS.

  14. Novel magnetic wire fabrication process by way of nanoimprint lithography for current induced magnetization switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tsukasa; Shibata, Ryosuke; Awano, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is an effective method to fabricate nanowire because it does not need expensive systems and this process is easier than conventional processes. In this letter, we report the Current Induced Magnetization Switching (CIMS) in perpendicularly magnetized Tb-Co alloy nanowire fabricated by NIL. The CIMS in Tb-Co alloy wire was observed by using current pulse under in-plane external magnetic field (HL). We successfully observed the CIMS in Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL. Additionally, we found that the critical current density (Jc) for the CIMS in the Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL is 4 times smaller than that fabricated by conventional lift-off process under HL = 200Oe. These results indicate that the NIL is effective method for the CIMS.

  15. Methods of high current magnetic field generator for transcranial magnetic stimulation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouda, N. R.; Pritchard, J.; Weber, R. J.; Mina, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design procedures and underlying concepts of a novel High Current Magnetic Field Generator (HCMFG) with adjustable pulse width for transcranial magnetic stimulation applications. This is achieved by utilizing two different switching devices, the MOSFET and insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT). Results indicate that currents as high as ±1200 A can be generated with inputs of +/−20 V. Special attention to tradeoffs between field generators utilizing IGBT circuits (HCMFG 1 ) and MOSFET circuits (HCMFG 2 ) was considered. The theory of operation, design, experimental results, and electronic setup are presented and analyzed

  16. Methods of high current magnetic field generator for transcranial magnetic stimulation application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouda, N. R.; Pritchard, J.; Weber, R. J.; Mina, M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the design procedures and underlying concepts of a novel High Current Magnetic Field Generator (HCMFG) with adjustable pulse width for transcranial magnetic stimulation applications. This is achieved by utilizing two different switching devices, the MOSFET and insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT). Results indicate that currents as high as ±1200 A can be generated with inputs of +/-20 V. Special attention to tradeoffs between field generators utilizing IGBT circuits (HCMFG1) and MOSFET circuits (HCMFG2) was considered. The theory of operation, design, experimental results, and electronic setup are presented and analyzed.

  17. Methods of high current magnetic field generator for transcranial magnetic stimulation application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouda, N. R., E-mail: nybouda@iastate.edu; Pritchard, J.; Weber, R. J.; Mina, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    This paper describes the design procedures and underlying concepts of a novel High Current Magnetic Field Generator (HCMFG) with adjustable pulse width for transcranial magnetic stimulation applications. This is achieved by utilizing two different switching devices, the MOSFET and insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT). Results indicate that currents as high as ±1200 A can be generated with inputs of +/−20 V. Special attention to tradeoffs between field generators utilizing IGBT circuits (HCMFG{sub 1}) and MOSFET circuits (HCMFG{sub 2}) was considered. The theory of operation, design, experimental results, and electronic setup are presented and analyzed.

  18. Immediacy Bias in Emotion Perception: Current Emotions Seem More Intense than Previous Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This "immediacy bias" in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional…

  19. Bias magnetic field and test period dependences of direct and converse magnetoelectric hysteresis of tri-layered magnetoelectric composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Li, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Jian-Feng; Zhou, Hao-Miao; Cao, Dan; Jiao, Zhi-Wei; Xu, Long; Li, Qi-Hao

    2018-04-01

    The direct and converse magnetoelectric hysteresis behavior for a tri-layered composite has been comparatively investigated and significant similarities have been observed. The results show that both the direct and converse magnetoelectric hysteresis is deeply affected by the bias magnetic field and test period. The test time hysteresis caused by a fast varying bias magnetic field can be reduced by prolonging the test period. The observed coercive field, remanence, and ratio of remanence of the direct and converse magnetoelectric effects with the test period obey an exponential decay law. A hysteretic nonlinear magnetoelectric theoretical model for the symmetrical tri-layered structure has been proposed based on a nonlinear constitutive model and pinning effect. The numerical calculation shows that the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental results. These findings not only provide insight into the examination and practical applications of magnetoelectric materials, but also propose a theoretical frame for studying the hysteretic characteristics of the magnetoelectric effect.

  20. Magnetic properties of exchange biased and of unbiased oxide/permalloy thin layers: a ferromagnetic resonance and Brillouin scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zighem, F; Roussigne, Y; Cherif, S-M; Moch, P [Laboratoire des Proprietes Mecaniques et Thermodynamiques des Materiaux, CNRS UPR 9001, Universite Paris Nord, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Ben Youssef, J [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 29285 Brest (France); Paumier, F, E-mail: fatih.zighem@cea.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS UPR 3346, Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, 86962 Futuroscope (France)

    2010-10-13

    Microstrip ferromagnetic resonance and Brillouin scattering are used to provide a comparative determination of the magnetic parameters of thin permalloy layers interfaced with a non-magnetic (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or with an antiferromagnetic oxide (NiO). It results from our microstructural study that no preferential texture is favoured in the observed polycrystalline sublayers. It is shown that the perpendicular anisotropy can be monitored using an interfacial surface energy term which is practically independent of the nature of the interface. In the interval of thicknesses investigated (5-25 nm) the saturation magnetization does not significantly differ from the reported one in bulk permalloy. In-plane uniaxial anisotropy and exchange bias anisotropy are also derived from the study of the dynamic magnetic excitations and compared with our independent evaluations using conventional magnetometry.

  1. Adjustability of resonance frequency by external magnetic field and bias electric field of sandwich magnetoelectric PZT/NFO/PZT composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ling-Fang; Feng, Xing; Sun, Kang; Liang, Ze-Yu; Xu, Qian; Liang, Jia-Yu; Yang, Chang-Ping [Hubei University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Ferro and Piezoelectric Materials and Devices, Faculty of Physics and Electronic Science, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Wuhan (China)

    2017-07-15

    Sandwich magnetoelectric composites of PZT/NFO/PZT (PNP) have been prepared by laminating PZT5, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and PZT5 ceramics in turn with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) paste. A systematic study of structural, magnetic and ferroelectric properties is undertaken. Structural studies carried out by X-ray diffraction indicate formation of cubic perovskite phase of PZT5 ceramic and cubic spinel phase of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramic. As increasing the content of PZT5 phase, ferroelectric loops and magnetic loops of PNP composites showed increasing remnant electric polarizations and decreasing remnant magnetic moments separately. Both external magnetic fields and bias voltages could regulate the basal radial resonance frequency of the composites, which should be originated with the transformation and coupling of the stress between the piezoelectric phase and magnetostrictive phase. Such magnetoelectric composite provides great opportunities for electrostatically tunable devices. (orig.)

  2. High current density magnets for INTOR and TIBER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.R.; Henning, C.D.; Kerns, J.A.; Slack, D.S.; Summers, L.T.; Zbasnik, J.P.

    1986-12-01

    The adoption of high current density, high field, superconducting magnets for INTOR and TIBER would prove beneficial. When combined with improved radiation tolerance of the magnets to minimize the inner leg shielding, a substantial reduction in machine dimensions and capital costs can be achieved. Fortunately, cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) which are capable of the desired enhancements are being developed. Because conductor stability in a CICC depends more on the trapped helium enthalpy, rather than the copper resistivity, higher current densities of the order of 40 A/mm 2 at 12 T are possible. Radiation damage to the copper stabilizer is less important because the growth in resistance is a second-order effect on stability. Such CICC conductors lend themselves naturally to niobium-tin utilization, with the benefits of the high current-sharing temperature of this material being taken to advantage in absorbing radiation heating. When the helium coolant is injected at near the critical pressure, Joule-Thompson expansion in the flow path tends to stabilize the fluid temperature at under 6 K. Thus, higher fields, as well as higher current densities, can be considered for INTOR or TIBER

  3. Magnetization, critical current, and injection field harmonics in superconducting accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Sampson, W.B.; Wanderer, P.

    1985-01-01

    The very large energy ratio of machines such as the SSC dictates rather low injection field (for 6T, 20 TeV it is approximately 0.3T). Since the harmonic content at such low fields is largely determined by magnetization currents in the superconductor, the random errors depend on the uniformity of the superconducting wire. In principle the magnitude of the residual fields can be reduced indefinitely by using finer filaments, but in practice there is a lower limit of a few microns. We have compared the injection field harmonics for a number of accelerator dipoles with magnetization measurements made on samples of the conductor used to wind the coils. In addition both the magnetization and harmonics have been compared with short sample critical current measurements made at 5T. The results indicated that an accurate estimate of the variation in injection field harmonics can only be obtained from direct measurements of the magnetization of the cable. It appears feasible to use such measurements to ''shuffle'' magnets for a large accelerator by predicting the low field properties of a magnet before actually winding the coils. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Magnetic properties of NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4−δ} (nickel manganite): Multiple magnetic phase transitions and exchange bias effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadic, Marin, E-mail: marint@vinca.rs [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Savic, S.M. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Jaglicic, Z. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy and Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vojisavljevic, K.; Radojkovic, A.; Prsic, S. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Nikolic, Dobrica [Department of Physics, University of Belgrade Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • We have successfully synthesized NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4−δ} sample by complex polymerization synthesis. • Magnetic measurements reveal complex properties and triple magnetic phase transitions. • Magnetic measurements of M(H) show hysteretic behavior below 120 K. • Hysteresis properties after cooling of the sample in magnetic field show exchange bias effect. -- Abstract: We present magnetic properties of NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4−δ} (nickel manganite) which was synthesized by complex polymerization synthesis method followed by successive heat treatment and final calcinations in air at 1200 °C. The sample was characterized by using X-ray powder diffractometer (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The XRPD and FE-SEM studies revealed NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4−δ} phase and good crystallinity of particles. No other impurities have been observed by XRPD. The magnetic properties of the sample have been studied by measuring the temperature and field dependence of magnetization. Magnetic measurements of M(T) reveal rather complex magnetic properties and multiple magnetic phase transitions. We show three magnetic phase transitions with transition temperatures at T{sub M1} = 35 K (long-range antiferromagnetic transition), T{sub M2} = 101 K (antiferromagnetic-type transition) and T{sub M3} = 120 K (ferromagnetic-like transition). We found that the T{sub M1} transition is strongly dependent on the strength of the applied magnetic field (T{sub M1} decreases with increasing applied field) whereas the T{sub M3} is field independent. Otherwise, the T{sub M2} maximum almost disappears in higher applied magnetic fields (H = 1 kOe and 10 kOe). Magnetic measurements of M(H) show hysteretic behavior below T{sub M3}. Moreover, hysteresis properties measured after cooling of the sample in magnetic field of 10 kOe show exchange bias effect with an

  5. Magnetization dynamics of perpendicular exchange-biased (Pt/Co)-Pt-IrMn multilayers studied by MOKE microscopy and magnetometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czapkiewicz, M.; Stobiecki, T.; Rak, R.; Zoladz, M.; Mietniowski, P. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Dijken, S. van [SFI Trinity Nanoscience Laboratory, Physics Department, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics of the magnetization reversal process in perpendicularly biased [20 Aa Pt/5 Aa Co]{sub 3}/t Aa Pt/100 Aa IrMn/20 Aa Pt multilayers with different Pt insertion layer thickness (0 Aa{<=}t{<=}12 Aa) is studied. The insertion of 1 Aa thick Pt enhances the exchange bias field (H{sub ex}) and for t>3 Aa H{sub ex} decreases exponentially with increasing Pt layer thickness. We show by magnetization relaxation measurements and direct observation of magnetic domains that magnetization reversal takes place by the nucleation of isolated cylindrical domains with a different nucleation site density in the forward and backward branches of the hysteresis loop. All the results were quantitatively analyzed using the Fatuzzo model for the dynamics of domain reversal processes. The activation energies for magnetization reversal by domain nucleation and domain propagation were determined. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects behavior by biasing endogenous cortical oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massihullah Hamidi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A governing assumption about repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has been that it interferes with task-related neuronal activity – in effect, by “injecting noise” into the brain – and thereby disrupts behavior. Recent reports of rTMS-produced behavioral enhancement, however, call this assumption into question. We investigated the neurophysiological effects of rTMS delivered during the delay period of a visual working memory task by simultaneously recording brain activity with electroencephalography (EEG. Subjects performed visual working memory for locations or for shapes, and in half the trials a 10-Hz train of rTMS was delivered to the superior parietal lobule or a control brain area. The wide range of individual differences in the effects of rTMS on task accuracy, from improvement to impairment, was predicted by individual differences in the effect of rTMS on power in the alpha-band of the EEG (~ 10 Hz: a decrease in alpha-band power corresponded to improved performance, whereas an increase in alpha-band power corresponded to the opposite. The EEG effect was localized to cortical sources encompassing the frontal eye fields and the intraparietal sulcus, and was specific to task (location, but not object memory and to rTMS target (superior parietal lobule, not control area. Furthermore, for the same task condition, rTMS-induced changes in cross-frequency phase synchrony between alpha- and gamma-band (> 40 Hz oscillations predicted changes in behavior. These results suggest that alpha-band oscillations play an active role cognitive processes and do not simply reflect absence of processing. Furthermore, this study shows that the complex effects of rTMS on behavior can result from biasing endogenous patterns of network-level oscillations.

  7. Method and apparatus for sensing a desired component of an incident magnetic field using magneto resistive elements biased in different directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bharat B. (Inventor); Wan, Hong (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing a desired component of a magnetic field using an isotropic magnetoresistive material. This is preferably accomplished by providing a bias field that is parallel to the desired component of the applied magnetic field. The bias field is applied in a first direction relative to a first set of magnetoresistive sensor elements, and in an opposite direction relative to a second set of magnetoresistive sensor elements. In this configuration, the desired component of the incident magnetic field adds to the bias field incident on the first set of magnetoresistive sensor elements, and subtracts from the bias field incident on the second set of magnetoresistive sensor elements. The magnetic field sensor may then sense the desired component of the incident magnetic field by simply sensing the difference in resistance of the first set of magnetoresistive sensor elements and the second set of magnetoresistive sensor elements.

  8. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Child Neurology: Current and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Richard E.; Rotenberg, Alexander; Ousley, Molliann; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method for focal brain stimulation based on the principle of electromagnetic induction, where small intracranial electric currents are generated by a powerful, rapidly changing extracranial magnetic field. Over the past 2 decades TMS has shown promise in the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disease in adults, but has been used on a more limited basis in children. We reviewed the literature to identify potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of TMS in child neurology and also its safety in pediatrics. Although TMS has not been associated with any serious side effects in children and appears to be well tolerated, general safety guidelines should be established. The potential for applications of TMS in child neurology and psychiatry is significant. Given its excellent safety profile and possible therapeutic effect, this technique should develop as an important tool in pediatric neurology over the next decade. PMID:18056688

  9. Electron current extraction from a permanent magnet waveguide plasma cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weatherford, B. R.; Foster, J. E. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Kamhawi, H. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    An electron cyclotron resonance plasma produced in a cylindrical waveguide with external permanent magnets was investigated as a possible plasma cathode electron source. The configuration is desirable in that it eliminates the need for a physical antenna inserted into the plasma, the erosion of which limits operating lifetime. Plasma bulk density was found to be overdense in the source. Extraction currents over 4 A were achieved with the device. Measurements of extracted electron currents were similar to calculated currents, which were estimated using Langmuir probe measurements at the plasma cathode orifice and along the length of the external plume. The influence of facility effects and trace ionization in the anode-cathode gap are also discussed.

  10. Magnetic particle imaging: current developments and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotopoulos N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos,1 Robert L Duschka,1 Mandy Ahlborg,2 Gael Bringout,2 Christina Debbeler,2 Matthias Graeser,2 Christian Kaethner,2 Kerstin Lüdtke-Buzug,2 Hanne Medimagh,2 Jan Stelzner,2 Thorsten M Buzug,2 Jörg Barkhausen,1 Florian M Vogt,1 Julian Haegele1 1Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Lübeck, 2Institute of Medical Engineering, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany Abstract: Magnetic particle imaging (MPI is a novel imaging method that was first proposed by Gleich and Weizenecker in 2005. Applying static and dynamic magnetic fields, MPI exploits the unique characteristics of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs. The SPIONs’ response allows a three-dimensional visualization of their distribution in space with a superb contrast, a very high temporal and good spatial resolution. Essentially, it is the SPIONs’ superparamagnetic characteristics, the fact that they are magnetically saturable, and the harmonic composition of the SPIONs’ response that make MPI possible at all. As SPIONs are the essential element of MPI, the development of customized nanoparticles is pursued with the greatest effort by many groups. Their objective is the creation of a SPION or a conglomerate of particles that will feature a much higher MPI performance than nanoparticles currently available commercially. A particle’s MPI performance and suitability is characterized by parameters such as the strength of its MPI signal, its biocompatibility, or its pharmacokinetics. Some of the most important adjuster bolts to tune them are the particles’ iron core and hydrodynamic diameter, their anisotropy, the composition of the particles’ suspension, and their coating. As a three-dimensional, real-time imaging modality that is free of ionizing radiation, MPI appears ideally suited for applications such as vascular imaging and interventions as well as cellular and targeted imaging. A number

  11. Biased low differential input impedance current receiver/converter device and method for low noise readout from voltage-controlled detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V [Williamsburg, VA; Popov, Vladimir E [Newport News, VA

    2011-03-22

    A first stage electronic system for receiving charge or current from voltage-controlled sensors or detectors that includes a low input impedance current receiver/converter device (for example, a transimpedance amplifier), which is directly coupled to the sensor output, a source of bias voltage, and the device's power supply (or supplies), which use the biased voltage point as a baseline.

  12. Optimal current waveforms for brushless permanent magnet motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehle, Nicholas; Boyd, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we give energy-optimal current waveforms for a permanent magnet synchronous motor that result in a desired average torque. Our formulation generalises previous work by including a general back-electromotive force (EMF) wave shape, voltage and current limits, an arbitrary phase winding connection, a simple eddy current loss model, and a trade-off between power loss and torque ripple. Determining the optimal current waveforms requires solving a small convex optimisation problem. We show how to use the alternating direction method of multipliers to find the optimal current in milliseconds or hundreds of microseconds, depending on the processor used, which allows the possibility of generating optimal waveforms in real time. This allows us to adapt in real time to changes in the operating requirements or in the model, such as a change in resistance with winding temperature, or even gross changes like the failure of one winding. Suboptimal waveforms are available in tens or hundreds of microseconds, allowing for quick response after abrupt changes in the desired torque. We demonstrate our approach on a simple numerical example, in which we give the optimal waveforms for a motor with a sinusoidal back-EMF, and for a motor with a more complicated, nonsinusoidal waveform, in both the constant-torque region and constant-power region.

  13. Ultra-fast magnetization reversal in magnetic nano-pillars by spin-polarized current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devolder, T. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622 CNRS, Universite Paris Sud, Ba-circumflex timent 220, 91405 Orsay (France)]. E-mail: thibaut.devolder@ief.u-psud.fr; Tulapurkar, A. [NanoElectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Yagami, K. [SSNC, Semiconductor Technology Development Group, SONY Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan); Crozat, P. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622 CNRS, Universite Paris Sud, Ba-circumflex timent 220, 91405 Orsay (France); Chappert, C. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622 CNRS, Universite Paris Sud, Ba-circumflex timent 220, 91405 Orsay (France); Fukushima, A. [NanoElectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [NanoElectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan)

    2005-02-01

    We study the speed limitations of the magnetization switching resulting from spin transfer in pillar-shaped CoFe/Cu/CoFe spin valves. The quasi-static critical currents are Ic-=-2mA for the antiparallel (AP) to parallel (P) configuration and Ic+=+4.6mA for the P to AP transition. Current pulses of duration down to 100ps and amplitude of 4I{sub c} trigger switching at 300K. The switching is probabilistic for lower current pulses. The P to AP transition speed is not much temperature dependant from 50 to 300K. In contrast, the AP to P transition is thermally inhibited and is much faster at 150K than at 300K. This thermal inhibition highlights the importance of the macrospin coherency and of the thermally excited spin waves with finite wave vector parallel to the magnetization. Our results validate spin-transfer switching for fast memory applications.

  14. Ultra-fast magnetization reversal in magnetic nano-pillars by spin-polarized current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devolder, T.; Tulapurkar, A.; Yagami, K.; Crozat, P.; Chappert, C.; Fukushima, A.; Suzuki, Y.

    2005-01-01

    We study the speed limitations of the magnetization switching resulting from spin transfer in pillar-shaped CoFe/Cu/CoFe spin valves. The quasi-static critical currents are Ic-=-2mA for the antiparallel (AP) to parallel (P) configuration and Ic+=+4.6mA for the P to AP transition. Current pulses of duration down to 100ps and amplitude of 4I c trigger switching at 300K. The switching is probabilistic for lower current pulses. The P to AP transition speed is not much temperature dependant from 50 to 300K. In contrast, the AP to P transition is thermally inhibited and is much faster at 150K than at 300K. This thermal inhibition highlights the importance of the macrospin coherency and of the thermally excited spin waves with finite wave vector parallel to the magnetization. Our results validate spin-transfer switching for fast memory applications

  15. Current-driven thermo-magnetic switching in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, A. F.; Polishchuk, D. M.; Pashchenko, V. A.; Tovstolytkin, A. I.; Korenivski, V.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate switching of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) driven by the thermal effect of the transport current through the junctions. The switching occurs in a specially designed composite free layer, which acts as one of the MTJ electrodes, and is due to a current-driven ferro-to-paramagnetic Curie transition with the associated exchange decoupling within the free layer leading to magnetic reversal. We simulate the current and heat propagation through the device and show how heat focusing can be used to improve the power efficiency. The Curie-switch MTJ demonstrated in this work has the advantage of being highly tunable in terms of its operating temperature range, conveniently to or just above room temperature, which can be of technological significance and competitive with the known switching methods using spin-transfer torques.

  16. Magnetic field behavior of current steps in long Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costabile, G.; Cucolo, A.M.; Pace, S.; Parmentier, R.D.; Savo, B.; Vaglio, R.

    1980-01-01

    The zero-field steps, or dc current singularities, in the current-voltage characteristics of long Josephson tunnel junctions, first reported by Chen et al., continue to attract research interest both because their study can provide fundamental information on the dynamics of fluxons in such junctions and because they are accompanied by the emission of microwave radiation from the junction, which may be exploitable in practical oscillator applications. The purpose of this paper is to report some experimental observations of the magnetic field behavior of the steps in junctions fabricated in our Laboratory and to offer a qualitative explanation for this behavior. Measurements have been made both for very long (L >> lambdasub(J)) and for slightly long (L approx. >= lambdasub(J)) junctions with a view toward comparing our results with those of other workers. (orig./WRI)

  17. Tailoring magnetic properties of self-biased hexaferrites using an alternative copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuanjian; Yu, Zhong; Sokolov, Alexander S.; Yu, Chengju; Sun, Ke; Jiang, Xiaona; Lan, Zhongwen; Harris, Vincent G.

    2018-05-01

    Discussed is a novel self-biased hexaferrite gelling system based on a nontoxic and water-soluble copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride. This copolymer simultaneously acts as a dispersant and gelling agent, and recently received much attention from the ceramics community. Herein its effects on the rheological conditions throughout magnetic-field pressing, and consequently, orientation, density and magnetic properties of textured hexaferrites were investigated. Ka-band FMR linewidths were measured, and the crystalline anisotropy and porosity induced linewidth broadening were estimated according to Schlömann's theory. The copolymer allowed to reduce the friction between micron-sized magnetic particulates, resulting in higher density and degree of crystalline orientation, and lower FMR linewidth.

  18. Interfaces exchange bias and magnetic properties of ordered CoFe_2O_4/Co_3O_4 nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, B.B.; Xu, J.C.; Wang, P.F.; Han, Y.B.; Hong, B.; Jin, H.X.; Jin, D.F.; Peng, X.L.; Li, J.; Yang, Y.T.; Gong, J.; Ge, H.L.; Wang, X.Q.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CoFe_2O_4 nanoparticles were well-dispersed anchored in mesopores of Co_3O_4. • The magnetic behavior of nanocomposites changed greatly at low temperature. • CoFe_2O_4 nanoparticles reinforced the interfaces magnetic interaction of nanocomposites. • M increased with the doping of CoFe_2O_4 and the decreasing temperature. • Exchange bias effect was observed at 100 K and increased with the doping of CoFe_2O_4. - Abstract: Cobalt ferrites (CoFe_2O_4) nanoparticles were implanted into the ordered mesoporous cobaltosic oxide (Co_3O_4) nanowires to synthesize magnetic CoFe_2O_4/Co_3O_4 nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N_2 physical absorption–desorption, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) were used to characterize the microstructure of mesoporous Co_3O_4 and CoFe_2O_4/Co_3O_4 nanocomposites. The percent of pore-volume of mesoporous Co_3O_4 nanowires was calculated to be about 41.99% and CoFe_2O_4 nanoparticles were revealed to exist in the mesopores of Co_3O_4_. The magnetic behavior of both samples were investigated with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Magnetization increased with the doping CoFe_2O_4 and decreasing temperature, while coercivity hardly changed. The exchange bias effect was obviously observed at 100 K and enhanced with the doping CoFe_2O_4. CoFe_2O_4 nanoparticles reinforced the interfaces magnetic interaction between antiferromagnetic Co_3O_4 and ferrimagnetic CoFe_2O_4.

  19. Bias Magnetic Field of Stack Giant Magnetostrictive Actuator: Design, Analysis, and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoshu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many novel applications using giant magnetostrictive actuators (GMA require their actuators output bidirectional strokes to be large enough to drive the load. In these cases, the sophisticated method to form such a sufficient bias field with minimum power and bulk consumption should be considered in the principal stage of GMA design. This paper concerns the methodology of bias field design for a specific GMA with stack PMs and GMMs (SGMA: both loop and field models for its bias field are established; the optimization method for given SGMA structure is outlined; a prototype is fabricated to verify the theory. Simulation and test results indicate that the bias field could be exerted more easily using SGMA structure; the modeling and optimization methodology for SGMA is valid in practical design.

  20. Current status of development on superconducting magnetic energy storage systems and magnetic refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems have excellent characteristics as energy-storage equipment in power systems such as high efficiency, quick response, and no deterioration in repetitive operations. There are many projects to develop SMES throughout the world. Since 1991, a national project by the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy Japan has been working to develop an SMES system to control power in power systems. Moreover, SMES has been developed to compensate for momentary voltage dips since 2003. To reduce energy consumption due to prolonged operating times, we developed energy-conserving electrical equipment incorporating refrigerating aggregates such as air conditioners. We conduced R and D to convert magnetic refrigeration and highly-efficient, energy-conserving/environmentally friendly technologies, to practical applications. The current status in the development of SMES to control power systems, bridging to deal with instantaneous voltage dips, and magnetic refrigeration technology will be explained in this paper. (author)

  1. Micromagnetic Simulation of Strain-Assisted Current-Induced Magnetization Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of substrate misfit strain on the current-induced magnetization switching in magnetic tunnel junctions by combining micromagnetic simulation with phase-field microelasticity theory. Our results indicate that the positive substrate misfit strain can decrease the critical current density of magnetization switching by pushing the magnetization from out-of-plane to in-plane directions, while the negative strain pushes the magnetization back to the out-of-plane directions. The magnetic domain evolution is obtained to demonstrate the strain-assisted current-induced magnetization switching.

  2. Magnetic field of the magnetospheric ring current and its dynamics during magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldstein, Y.I.; Grafe, A.; Pisarsky, V.Yu.; Prigansova, A.; Sumaruk, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    This review examines models existing in the literature which describe the magnetic field produced by the ring current (DR) at the Earth's surface based on the energy balance equation. The parameters of this equation, the injection function F and decay parameter τ are considered to depend on parameters of the interplanetary medium and the DR intensity. The existing models are shown to be able to describe the DR variations with sufficient accuracy (r.m.s. deviation δ between the experimental and modelled values of DR for 170 magnetic storms is 5 < δ < 15 nT, and the correlation coefficient between the two is 0.85 < r < 1). The models describe that part of the geomagnetic field variation at low latitudes during a magnetic storm that is controlled by the geoeffective characteristics of the interplanetary medium and which thus responds immediately to its variations (the driven part). The values of τ are significantly less during the main phase of a magnetic storm than during the recovery phase. This reflects the difference in the main mechanisms of ion loss from the ring current during the two phases of the storm. These are the interaction of ions with hydromagnetic waves during the main phase of the storm with its intervals of intense plasma injection into the inner magnetosphere, and charge exchange with the cold hydrogen geocorona during the recovery phase. (author)

  3. Magnetic field dependence of the critical current density in YBa2Cu3Ox ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, A.A.; Moshchalkov, V.V.; Komarkov, D.A.; Shabatin, V.P.; Gordeev, S.N.; Shelomov, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    Three magnetic field ranges corresponding to different critical current density j c behavior have been found out. They correlate with grain magnetization changes. The inverse critical current density is shown to depend linearly on the sample cross-section due to the magnetic field induced by the flowing current

  4. Breast density quantification using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with bias field correction: a postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huanjun; Johnson, Travis; Lin, Muqing; Le, Huy Q; Ducote, Justin L; Su, Min-Ying; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-12-01

    Quantification of breast density based on three-dimensional breast MRI may provide useful information for the early detection of breast cancer. However, the field inhomogeneity can severely challenge the computerized image segmentation process. In this work, the effect of the bias field in breast density quantification has been investigated with a postmortem study. T1-weighted images of 20 pairs of postmortem breasts were acquired on a 1.5 T breast MRI scanner. Two computer-assisted algorithms were used to quantify the volumetric breast density. First, standard fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering was used on raw images with the bias field present. Then, the coherent local intensity clustering (CLIC) method estimated and corrected the bias field during the iterative tissue segmentation process. Finally, FCM clustering was performed on the bias-field-corrected images produced by CLIC method. The left-right correlation for breasts in the same pair was studied for both segmentation algorithms to evaluate the precision of the tissue classification. Finally, the breast densities measured with the three methods were compared to the gold standard tissue compositions obtained from chemical analysis. The linear correlation coefficient, Pearson's r, was used to evaluate the two image segmentation algorithms and the effect of bias field. The CLIC method successfully corrected the intensity inhomogeneity induced by the bias field. In left-right comparisons, the CLIC method significantly improved the slope and the correlation coefficient of the linear fitting for the glandular volume estimation. The left-right breast density correlation was also increased from 0.93 to 0.98. When compared with the percent fibroglandular volume (%FGV) from chemical analysis, results after bias field correction from both the CLIC the FCM algorithms showed improved linear correlation. As a result, the Pearson's r increased from 0.86 to 0.92 with the bias field correction. The investigated CLIC method

  5. Breast density quantification using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with bias field correction: A postmortem study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Huanjun; Johnson, Travis; Lin, Muqing; Le, Huy Q.; Ducote, Justin L.; Su, Min-Ying; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of breast density based on three-dimensional breast MRI may provide useful information for the early detection of breast cancer. However, the field inhomogeneity can severely challenge the computerized image segmentation process. In this work, the effect of the bias field in breast density quantification has been investigated with a postmortem study. Methods: T1-weighted images of 20 pairs of postmortem breasts were acquired on a 1.5 T breast MRI scanner. Two computer-assisted algorithms were used to quantify the volumetric breast density. First, standard fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering was used on raw images with the bias field present. Then, the coherent local intensity clustering (CLIC) method estimated and corrected the bias field during the iterative tissue segmentation process. Finally, FCM clustering was performed on the bias-field-corrected images produced by CLIC method. The left–right correlation for breasts in the same pair was studied for both segmentation algorithms to evaluate the precision of the tissue classification. Finally, the breast densities measured with the three methods were compared to the gold standard tissue compositions obtained from chemical analysis. The linear correlation coefficient, Pearson'sr, was used to evaluate the two image segmentation algorithms and the effect of bias field. Results: The CLIC method successfully corrected the intensity inhomogeneity induced by the bias field. In left–right comparisons, the CLIC method significantly improved the slope and the correlation coefficient of the linear fitting for the glandular volume estimation. The left–right breast density correlation was also increased from 0.93 to 0.98. When compared with the percent fibroglandular volume (%FGV) from chemical analysis, results after bias field correction from both the CLIC the FCM algorithms showed improved linear correlation. As a result, the Pearson'sr increased from 0.86 to 0.92 with the bias field correction

  6. Magnetic resonance neurography. Current perspectives and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Avneesh [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Radiology and Orthopedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Johns Hopkins University, Adjunct Faculty, Baltimore, MD (United States); Madhuranthakam, Ananth J. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Advanced Imaging Research Institute, Dallas, TX (United States); Andreisek, Gustav [University of Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2018-02-15

    Magnetic resonance neurography (also called MRN or MR neurography) refers to MR imaging dedicated to the peripheral nerves. It is a technique that enhances selective multiplanar visualisation of the peripheral nerve and pathology by encompassing a combination of two-dimensional, three-dimensional and diffusion imaging pulse sequences. Referring physicians who seek imaging techniques that can depict and diagnose peripheral nerve pathologies superior to conventional MR imaging are driving the demand for MRN. This article reviews the pathophysiology of peripheral nerves in common practice scenarios, technical considerations of MRN, current indications of MRN, normal and abnormal neuromuscular appearances, and imaging pitfalls. Finally, the emerging utility of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging is discussed and future directions are highlighted. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic resonance neurography. Current perspectives and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J.; Andreisek, Gustav

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance neurography (also called MRN or MR neurography) refers to MR imaging dedicated to the peripheral nerves. It is a technique that enhances selective multiplanar visualisation of the peripheral nerve and pathology by encompassing a combination of two-dimensional, three-dimensional and diffusion imaging pulse sequences. Referring physicians who seek imaging techniques that can depict and diagnose peripheral nerve pathologies superior to conventional MR imaging are driving the demand for MRN. This article reviews the pathophysiology of peripheral nerves in common practice scenarios, technical considerations of MRN, current indications of MRN, normal and abnormal neuromuscular appearances, and imaging pitfalls. Finally, the emerging utility of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging is discussed and future directions are highlighted. (orig.)

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder: Rationale and current applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.G.; Helms, C.A.; Steinbach, L.; Neumann, C.; Munk, P.L.; Genant, H.K.

    1990-01-01

    Because it can demonstrate a wide range of tissue contrast with excellent resolution, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has revolutionized imaging in many areas of the musculoskeletal system and has generated excitement among those interested in the painful shoulder. Shoulder impingement syndrome and glenohumeral instability constitute the two major categories of shoulder derangements. Correct diagnosis requires the use of appropriate pulse sequences and imaging planes, proper patient positioning, and a satisfactory surface coil. In addition the imager must have a thorough understanding of shoulder anatomy and pathology. We present a summary of the current status of MR imaging of the shoulder including technical, anatomic, and pathologic considerations and a review of the pertinent literature. (orig.)

  9. High current densities in superconducting films from magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, T.R.; Gupta, A.; Koren, G.; Gross, R.

    1990-01-01

    Epitaxial thin films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x made by laser ablation have the CuO planes parallel to the film surface. In the CuO planes critical currents of J C ∼40 x 10 6 amps/cm 2 are found at 5K in zero field. Multi-layered films with Gd replacing Y each .01μm in thickness have J C nearly 140 x 10 6 amps/cm 2 . This higher value is perhaps due to additional point defects. Perpendicular to the CuO planes magnetization studies indicate strong pinning effects attributed to the CuO planes acting as barriers to flux motion

  10. Current bistability in a weakly coupled multi-quantum well structure: a magnetic field induced 'memory effect'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feu, W H M; Villas-Boas, J M; Cury, L A; Guimaraes, P S S; Vieira, G S; Tanaka, R Y; Passaro, A; Pires, M P; Landi, S M; Souza, P L

    2009-01-01

    A study of magnetotunnelling in weakly coupled multi-quantum wells reveals a new phenomenon which constitutes a kind of memory effect in the sense that the electrical resistance of the sample after application of the magnetic field is different from before and contains the information that a magnetic field was applied previously. The change in the electric field domain configuration triggered by the magnetic field was compared for two samples, one strictly periodic and another with a thicker quantum well inserted into the periodic structure. For applied biases at which two electric field domains are present in the sample, as the magnetic field is increased a succession of discontinuous reductions in the electrical resistance is observed due to the magnetic field-induced rearrangement of the electric field domains, i.e. the domain boundary jumps from well to well as the magnetic field is changed. The memory effect is revealed for the aperiodic structure as the electric field domain configuration triggered by the magnetic field remains stable after the field is reduced back to zero. This effect is related to the multi-stability in the current-voltage characteristics observed in some weakly coupled multi-quantum well structures.

  11. Application of a permanent magnet biased E-Core reluctance actuator in a magnetically suspended ceiling actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overboom, T.T.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.

    2010-01-01

    In the paper a novel actuator is presented for a magnetically suspended ceiling actuator. The actuator consists of several stator segments which contain the coils and the magnets. The armature, therefore, has a totally passive design. Because of its salient structure, a translational force can be

  12. Magnetic Field Equivalent Current Analysis-Based Radial Force Control for Bearingless Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huangqiu Zhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bearingless permanent magnet synchronous motors (BPMSMs, with all advantages of permanent magnet motors (PMSMs and magnetic bearings, have become an important research direction in the bearingless motor field. To realize a stable suspension for the BPMSM, accurate decoupling control between the electromagnetic torque and radial suspension force is indispensable. In this paper, a concise and reliable analysis method based on a magnetic field equivalent current is presented. By this analysis method, the operation principle is analyzed theoretically, and the necessary conditions to produce a stable radial suspension force are confirmed. In addition, mathematical models of the torque and radial suspension force are established which is verified by the finite element analysis (FEA software ANSYS. Finally, an experimental prototype of a 2-4 poles surface-mounted BPMSM is tested with the customized control strategy. The simulation and experimental results have shown that the motor has good rotation and suspension performance, and validated the accuracy of the proposed analysis method and the feasibility of the control strategy.

  13. Strain-assisted current-induced magnetization reversal in magnetic tunnel junctions: A micromagnetic study with phase-field microelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H. B.; Hu, J. M.; Yang, T. N.; Chen, L. Q.; Ma, X. Q.

    2014-01-01

    Effect of substrate misfit strain on current-induced in-plane magnetization reversal in CoFeB-MgO based magnetic tunnel junctions is investigated by combining micromagnetic simulations with phase-field microelasticity theory. It is found that the critical current density for in-plane magnetization reversal decreases dramatically with an increasing substrate strain, since the effective elastic field can drag the magnetization to one of the four in-plane diagonal directions. A potential strain-assisted multilevel bit spin transfer magnetization switching device using substrate misfit strain is also proposed.

  14. Exchange-biased AMR bridges for magnetic field sensing and biosensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Rizzi, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    We introduce magnetic field sensor bridges that are formed by combinations of stripes of an exchange-pinned magnetic stack displaying anisotropic magnetoresistance. We present a systematic overview on how the stripe geometries can be combined to form sensor bridges with a scalable signal and how...

  15. Current contact device for a superconducting magnet coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hieronymus, H.

    1987-01-01

    The invention concerns a current supply device for a superconducting magnet coil to be shortcircuited, with a separating device per coil end, which contains a fixed cooled contact and a moving contact connected to a power supply device and a mechanical actuating device for closing and opening the contacts. When closing the heated contact on to the cooled contact, relatively large quantities of heat can be transferred to the cooled contact and therefore to the connected superconducting coil end and can cause normal conduction there. The invention therefore provides that the mass ratio of the cooled contact to the moving contact is at least 5:1, preferably at least 10:1, and that the cooled contact part is provided, at the end away from the contact area, with means for increasing the area, for example cooling fins and is connected to the coil end has a thermal resistance between the contact area and the coil end of at least 0.2 k/W, preferably at least 0.5 k/W per 1000 A of current to be transmitted. (orig.) [de

  16. Introduction to wave heating and current drive in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsker, R. I.

    2001-01-01

    The development of high-power wave heating and current drive in magnetized plasmas in the last 40 years is a major ongoing success story in plasma science. A hallmark of this area of research has been the detailed quantitative comparison of theory and experiment; the good agreement consistently found is indicative of the robustness and the predictive power of the underlying theory. This tutorial paper is a brief overview of the fundamental concepts and applications of this branch of plasma science. Most of the high-power applications have been in three frequency regimes: the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF), the lower hybrid range of frequencies (LHRF), and the electron cyclotron range of frequencies (ECRF). The basic physics of wave propagation and damping in these regimes is briefly discussed. Some of the coupling structures (antennas) used to excite the waves at the plasma boundary are described, and the high-power systems used to generate the wave energy are touched on. Representative examples of the remarkably wide range of applications of high-power wave heating and current drive in high-temperature fusion plasmas will be discussed

  17. Radiofrequency Waves, Heating and Current Drive in Magnetically Confined Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porkolab, M; Bonoli, P T; Temkin, R J [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Pinsker, R I; Prater, R [General Atomics, San Diego, California (United States); Wilson, J R [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2012-09-15

    The need for supplementary heating of magnetically confined plasmas to fusion relevant temperatures ({approx}20 keV) has been recognized from the beginning of modern fusion plasma research. Although in tokamaks the plasmas are formed initially by ohmic heating (P{Omega}{approx}{eta}{sub R}j, where j is the current density and {eta}{sub R} is the resistivity) its effectiveness deteriorates with increasing temperature since the resistivity decreases as T{sub e}{sup -3/2}, and losses due to bremsstrahlung radiation increase as Z{sub eff}{sup 3} T{sub e}{sup 1/2} (where Z{sub eff} is the effective ion charge), and the plasma current cannot be raised to arbitrarily large values because of MHD stability limits. In addition, energy losses due to thermal conduction P{sub loss} are typically anomalously large compared to neoclassical predictions and the dependence on temperature is not well understood. Thus, the simplest form of steady state power balance indicates that losses due to radiation and heat conduction must be balanced by auxiliary heating of some form, P{sub aux}, which may simply be stated as P{sub {Omega}} + P{sub {alpha}} - P{sub loss} P{sub aux} where P{sub {alpha}} is the power input provided by alpha particles, which does not become significant until the temperature exceeds some tens of keV, depending on confinement and density. (author)

  18. Electromagnetic Currents and Magnetic Moments in $\\chi$EFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saori Pastore, Luca Girlanda, Rocco Schiavilla, Michele Viviani, Robert Wiringa

    2009-09-01

    A two-nucleon potential and consistent electromagnetic currents are derived in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) at, respectively, $Q^{\\, 2}$ (or N$^2$LO) and $e\\, Q$ (or N$^3$LO), where $Q$ generically denotes the low-momentum scale and $e$ is the electric charge. Dimensional regularization is used to renormalize the pion-loop corrections. A simple expression is derived for the magnetic dipole ($M1$) operator associated with pion loops, consisting of two terms, one of which is determined, uniquely, by the isospin-dependent part of the two-pion-exchange potential. This decomposition is also carried out for the $M1$ operator arising from contact currents, in which the unique term is determined by the contact potential. Finally, the low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the N$^2$LO potential are fixed by fits to the $np$ S- and P-wave phase shifts up to 100 MeV lab energies. Three additional LEC's are needed to completely specify the $M1$ operator at N$^3$L

  19. Relation between magnetic fields and electric currents in plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vasyliunas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Maxwell's equations allow the magnetic field B to be calculated if the electric current density J is assumed to be completely known as a function of space and time. The charged particles that constitute the current, however, are subject to Newton's laws as well, and J can be changed by forces acting on charged particles. Particularly in plasmas, where the concentration of charged particles is high, the effect of the electromagnetic field calculated from a given J on J itself cannot be ignored. Whereas in ordinary laboratory physics one is accustomed to take J as primary and B as derived from J, it is often asserted that in plasmas B should be viewed as primary and J as derived from B simply as (c/4π∇×B. Here I investigate the relation between ∇×B and J in the same terms and by the same method as previously applied to the MHD relation between the electric field and the plasma bulk flow vmv2001: assume that one but not the other is present initially, and calculate what happens. The result is that, for configurations with spatial scales much larger than the electron inertial length λe, a given ∇×B produces the corresponding J, while a given J does not produce any ∇×B but disappears instead. The reason for this can be understood by noting that ∇×B≠4π/cJ implies a time-varying electric field (displacement current which acts to change both terms (in order to bring them toward equality; the changes in the two terms, however, proceed on different time scales, light travel time for B and electron plasma period for J, and clearly the term changing much more slowly is the one that survives. (By definition, the two time scales are equal at λe. On larger scales, the evolution of B (and hence also of ∇×B is governed by

  20. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloska, Stephan P.; Wintermark, Max; Engelhorn, Tobias; Fiebach, Jochen B.

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Maximum Bandwidth Enhancement of Current Mirror using Series-Resistor and Dynamic Body Bias Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Niranjan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new approach for enhancing the bandwidth of a low voltage CMOS current mirror. The proposed approach is based on utilizing body effect in a MOS transistor by connecting its gate and bulk terminals together for signal input. This results in boosting the effective transconductance of MOS transistor along with reduction of the threshold voltage. The proposed approach does not affect the DC gain of the current mirror. We demonstrate that the proposed approach features compatibility with widely used series-resistor technique for enhancing the current mirror bandwidth and both techniques have been employed simultaneously for maximum bandwidth enhancement. An important consequence of using both techniques simultaneously is the reduction of the series-resistor value for achieving the same bandwidth. This reduction in value is very attractive because a smaller resistor results in smaller chip area and less noise. PSpice simulation results using 180 nm CMOS technology from TSMC are included to prove the unique results. The proposed current mirror operates at 1Volt consuming only 102 µW and maximum bandwidth extension ratio of 1.85 has been obtained using the proposed approach. Simulation results are in good agreement with analytical predictions.

  2. Low Noise Bias Current/Voltage References Based on Floating-Gate MOS Transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Igor, Mucha

    1997-01-01

    The exploitation of floating-gate MOS transistors as reference current and voltage sources is investigated. Test structures of common source and common drain floating-gate devices have been implemented in a commercially available 0.8 micron double-poly CMOS process. The measurements performed...

  3. Continuous development of current sheets near and away from magnetic nulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Bhattacharyya, R.

    2016-01-01

    The presented computations compare the strength of current sheets which develop near and away from the magnetic nulls. To ensure the spontaneous generation of current sheets, the computations are performed congruently with Parker's magnetostatic theorem. The simulations evince current sheets near two dimensional and three dimensional magnetic nulls as well as away from them. An important finding of this work is in the demonstration of comparative scaling of peak current density with numerical resolution, for these different types of current sheets. The results document current sheets near two dimensional magnetic nulls to have larger strength while exhibiting a stronger scaling than the current sheets close to three dimensional magnetic nulls or away from any magnetic null. The comparative scaling points to a scenario where the magnetic topology near a developing current sheet is important for energetics of the subsequent reconnection.

  4. Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ann. N.; Anderson, Richard E.; Cole, Jr., Edward I.

    1995-01-01

    A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits.

  5. Analytical description of ballistic spin currents and torques in magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Chshiev, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Kalitsov, A.; Ryzhanova, N.; Vedyayev, A.; Strelkov, N.; Butler, W. H.; Dieny, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate explicit analytical expressions for both charge and spin currents which constitute the 2×2 spinor in magnetic tunnel junctions with noncollinear magnetizations under applied voltage. The calculations have been performed

  6. High linearity current communicating passive mixer employing a simple resistor bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rongjiang; Guo Guiliang; Yan Yuepeng

    2013-01-01

    A high linearity current communicating passive mixer including the mixing cell and transimpedance amplifier (TIA) is introduced. It employs the resistor in the TIA to reduce the source voltage and the gate voltage of the mixing cell. The optimum linearity and the maximum symmetric switching operation are obtained at the same time. The mixer is implemented in a 0.25 μm CMOS process. The test shows that it achieves an input third-order intercept point of 13.32 dBm, conversion gain of 5.52 dB, and a single sideband noise figure of 20 dB. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. Tunneling current noise spectra of biased impurity with a phonon mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslova, N. S. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Arseev, P. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Mantsevich, V. N., E-mail: vmantsev@gmail.com [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    We report the results of theoretical investigations of the tunneling current noise spectra through a single-level impurity both in the presence and in the absence of electron–phonon interaction based on the nonequilibrium Green’s functions formalism. We show that due to the quantum nature of tunneling, the Fano factor is dramatically different from the Poisson limit both in the presence and in the absence of inelastic processes. The results are demonstrated to be sensitive to the tunneling contact parameters.

  8. Relativistic theory of current drive by radio frequency waves in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    A relativistic kinetic theory of rf current drive in a magnetized plasma is developed. Analytical expressions are obtained for the rf generated currents, the dissipated power, and the current drive efficiency in the presence of a magnetic field. The relativistic transport coefficients in both parallel and perpendicular directions of the magnetic field are exhibited to have important contributions to the efficiency of rf-generated current drive. The consideration of perpendicular particle and heat fluxes make it more attractive for fusion problems. The effect of collisions in the presence of a magnetic field on the transport of the rf-generated current drive is discussed

  9. Exchange coupling and magnetic anisotropy of exchanged-biased quantum tunnelling single-molecule magnet Ni3Mn2 complexes using theoretical methods based on Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Coca, Silvia; Ruiz, Eliseo

    2012-03-07

    The magnetic properties of a new family of single-molecule magnet Ni(3)Mn(2) complexes were studied using theoretical methods based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). The first part of this study is devoted to analysing the exchange coupling constants, focusing on the intramolecular as well as the intermolecular interactions. The calculated intramolecular J values were in excellent agreement with the experimental data, which show that all the couplings are ferromagnetic, leading to an S = 7 ground state. The intermolecular interactions were investigated because the two complexes studied do not show tunnelling at zero magnetic field. Usually, this exchange-biased quantum tunnelling is attributed to the presence of intermolecular interactions calculated with the help of theoretical methods. The results indicate the presence of weak intermolecular antiferromagnetic couplings that cannot explain the ferromagnetic value found experimentally for one of the systems. In the second part, the goal is to analyse magnetic anisotropy through the calculation of the zero-field splitting parameters (D and E), using DFT methods including the spin-orbit effect.

  10. Studies of Current Induced Magnetization reversal and generation of GHz radiation in magnetic nanopillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhajdarwish, Mustafa Yousef

    This thesis describes studies of two phenomena: Current-Induced Magnetization Switching (CIMS), and Current-Induced Generation of GHz Radiation. The CIMS part contains results of measurements of current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) magnetoresistance (MR) and CIMS behavior on Ferromagnetic/Nonmetal/Ferromagnetic (F1/N/F2) nanopillars. Judicious combinations of F1 and F2 metals with different bulk scattering asymmetries, and with F1/N and N/F2 interfaces having different interfacial scattering asymmetries, are shown to be able to controllably, and independently, 'invert' both the CPP-MR and the CIMS. In 'normal' CPP-MR, R(AP) > R(P), where R(AP) and R(P) are the nanopillar resistances for the anti-parallel (AP) and parallel (P) orientations of the Fi and F2 magnetic moments. In 'inverse' CPP-MR, R(P) > R(AP). In 'normal' CIMS, positive current switches the nanopillar from the P to the AP state. In 'inverse' CIMS, positive current switches the nanopillar from AP to P. All four possible combinations of CPP-MR and CIMS---(a) 'normal'-'normal', (b) 'normal'- 'inverse', 'inverse'-'normal', and (d) 'inverse'-'inverse' are shown and explained. These results rule out the self-Oersted field as the switching source, since the direction of that field is independent of the bulk or interfacial scattering asymmetries. Successful use of impurities to reverse the bulk scattering asymmetry shows the importance of scattering off of impurities within the bulk F1 and F2 metals---i.e. that the transport must be treated as 'diffusive' rather than 'ballistic'. The GHz studies consist of five parts: (1) designing a sample geometry that allows reliable measurements; (2) making nanopillar samples with this geometry; (3) constructing a system for measuring frequencies up to 12 GHz and measuring current-driven GHz radiation data with it; (4) showing 'scaling' behavior of GHz data with the critical fields and currents for nominally identical (but actually slightly different) samples, and

  11. Simulation of motional eddy current phenomena in soft magnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gersem, Herbert; Hameyer, Kay

    2001-05-01

    The finite element simulation of conductors moving in a magnetic field at elevated speeds, yields oscillatory solutions. To overcome the effect of the huge convection terms, the partial differential equation is stabilised by adding artificial diffusion. Accurate results are obtained by applying adaptive mesh refinement. A rotational magnetic brake with a solid ferromagnetic rotor is simulated.

  12. Simulation of motional eddy current phenomena in soft magnetic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersem, Herbert de; Hameyer, Kay

    2001-01-01

    The finite element simulation of conductors moving in a magnetic field at elevated speeds, yields oscillatory solutions. To overcome the effect of the huge convection terms, the partial differential equation is stabilised by adding artificial diffusion. Accurate results are obtained by applying adaptive mesh refinement. A rotational magnetic brake with a solid ferromagnetic rotor is simulated

  13. Do current and former cigarette smokers have an attentional bias for e-cigarette cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Wileyto, E Paul; Tang, Kathy Z; Mercincavage, Melissa; Cappella, Joseph N; Strasser, Andrew A

    2018-03-01

    The similarity of e-cigarettes to tobacco cigarettes with regard to shape and usage raises the question of whether e-cigarette cues have the same incentive motivational properties as tobacco cigarette cues. The objective of the present study was to examine whether e-cigarette cues capture and hold smokers' and former smokers' attention and whether the attentional focus is associated with subsequent craving for tobacco cigarettes. It was also examined whether device type (cigalike or mod) moderated this relationship. Participants (46 current daily smokers, 38 former smokers, 48 non-smokers) were randomly assigned to a device type condition in which their eye-movements were assessed while completing a visual probe task. Craving was assessed before and after the task. Smokers, but not former or non-smokers, maintained their gaze longer on e-cigarette than on neutral pictures ( p = 0.004). No difference in dwell time was found between device type. None of the smoking status groups showed faster initial fixations or faster reaction times to e-cigarette compared with neutral cues. Baseline craving was associated with dwell time on e-cigarette cues ( p = 0.004). Longer dwell time on e-cigarette cues was associated with more favorable attitudes towards e-cigarettes. These findings indicate that e-cigarette cues may contribute to craving for tobacco cigarettes and suggest the potential regulation of e-cigarette marketing.

  14. Magnetic field manipulation of spin current in a single-molecule magnet tunnel junction with two-electron Coulomb interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Yao, Hui; Nie, Yi-Hang; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Niu, Peng-Bin

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we study the generation of spin-current in a single-molecule magnet (SMM) tunnel junction with Coulomb interaction of transport electrons and external magnetic field. In the absence of field the spin-up and -down currents are symmetric with respect to the initial polarizations of molecule. The existence of magnetic field breaks the time-reversal symmetry, which leads to unsymmetrical spin currents of parallel and antiparallel polarizations. Both the amplitude and polarization direction of spin current can be controlled by the applied magnetic field. Particularly when the magnetic field increases to a certain value the spin-current with antiparallel polarization is reversed along with the magnetization reversal of the SMM. The two-electron occupation indeed enhances the transport current compared with the single-electron process. However the increase of Coulomb interaction results in the suppression of spin-current amplitude at the electron-hole symmetry point. We propose a scheme to compensate the suppression with the magnetic field.

  15. The effect of cathode bias (field effect) on the surface leakage current of CdZnTe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Hubert Chen, C.M.; Cook, W.R.; Harrison, F.A.; Kuvvetli, I.; Schindler, S.M.; Stahle, C.M.; Parker, B.H.

    2003-01-01

    Surface resistivity is an important parameter of multi-electrode CZT detectors such as coplanar-grid, strip, or pixel detectors. Low surface resistivity results in a high leakage current and affects the charge collection efficiency in the areas near contacts. Thus, it is always desirable to have the surface resistivity of the detector as high as possible. In the past the most significant efforts were concentrated to develop passivation techniques for CZT detectors. However, as we found, the field-effect caused by a bias applied on the cathode can significantly reduce the surface resistivity even though the detector surface was carefully passivated. In this paper we illustrate that the field-effect is a common feature of the CZT multi-electrode detectors, and discuss how to take advantage of this effect to improve the surface resistivity of CZT detectors

  16. Electromagnetic Screening and Skin-Current Distribution with Magnetic and Non-Magnetic Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, E [Dept. of Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (SE)

    1974-12-15

    In many applications it is permissible to assume that eddy currents are essentially confined to the skin of the conductor. However, the perfect-conductor approach, commonly employed for skin-current estimates, requires that also mud << L{sub t}, where mu is the relative permeability of the conductor, d its skin depth, and L{sub t} a characteristic length along its surface. The need for this restriction does not seem to be sufficiently well known. In this note simple formulae giving quantitative estimates - valid for arbitrary mud/L - for far-field skin-currents, eddy current losses and screening efficiency are derived for several simple configurations. Boundary conditions that should allow calculations for more complicated configurations are also presented. The parameter mud is important also for non-magnetic materials. Thus, the equivalence of a thin real screen (thickness D) and an infinitely thin screen with the same rhoomegaD will be improved if - in addition - mud is the same for both

  17. Cyanide single-molecule magnets exhibiting solvent dependent reversible "on" and "off" exchange bias behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkowicz, Dawid; Southerland, Heather I.; Avendaño, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of four new complex salts, (PPN){[Mn(III)(salphen)(MeOH)]2[M(III)(CN)6]}·7MeOH (Mn2M·7MeOH) (M = Fe, Ru, Os and Co; PPN(+) = bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene)ammonium cation; H2salphen = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-diaminobenzene), and a mixed metal...

  18. Probing spin-polarized tunneling at high bias and temperature with a magnetic tunnel transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, B.G.; Banerjee, T.; Min, B.C.; Sanderink, Johannes G.M.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic tunnel transistor (MTT) is a three terminal hybrid device that consists of a tunnel emitter, a ferromagnetic (FM) base, and a semiconductor collector. In the MTT with a FM emitter and a single FM base, spin-polarized hot electrons are injected into the base by tunneling. After

  19. The dependence of potential well formation on the magnetic field strength and electron injection current in a polywell device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, S.; Gummersall, D.; Carr, M.; Khachan, J.

    2014-01-01

    A capacitive probe has been used to measure the plasma potential in a polywell device in order to observe the dependence of potential well formation on magnetic field strength, electron injection current, and polywell voltage bias. The effectiveness of the capacitive probe in a high energy electron plasma was determined by measuring the plasma potential of a planar diode with an axial magnetic field. The capacitive probe was translated along the axis of one of the field coils of the polywell, and the spatial profile of the potential well was measured. The confinement time of electrons in the polywell was estimated with a simple analytical model which used the experimentally observed potential well depths, as well as a simulation of the electron trajectories using particle orbit theory

  20. A simple process to obtain anisotropic self-biased magnets constituted of stacked barium ferrite single domain particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Jean-Luc; Le, Cong Nha; Chevalier, Alexis; Maalouf, Azar; Noutehou, Nathan; Queffelec, Patrick; Laur, Vincent

    2018-04-01

    An efficient and inexpensive process is presented that produces highly oriented bulk compacts made of BaM particles. Barium hexaferrite particles (BaM, nominal composition BaFe11O19) were prepared by a chemical coprecipitation method, using different rates and types of precipitating agents (NaOH and Na2CO3). It was demonstrated that when a large excess of Na2CO3 is used, a noteworthy packing of hexagonal BaM platelets is obtained, after mechanical compaction and firing at moderate temperature (1140 °C), without including any more steps than those required for a conventional sintering process. The hysteresis loop displays a very competitive squareness of 0.88 (normalized remanent magnetization) and a coercivity of 215 kA/m, which make this BaM bulk ferrite suitable for self-biased applications.

  1. Bias voltage dependence of magnetic tunnel junctions comprising amorphous ferromagnetic CoFeSiB layer with double barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, H.I.; Lee, S.Y.; Hwang, J.Y.; Rhee, J.R.; Chun, B.S.; Wang, K.L.; Kim, Y.K.; Kim, T.W.; Lee, S.S.; Hwang, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    Double-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (DMTJs) with and without an amorphous ferromagnetic material such as CoFeSiB 10, CoFe 5/CoFeSiB 5, and CoFe 10 (nm) were prepared and compared to investigate the bias voltage dependence of the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio. Typical DMTJ structures were Ta 45/Ru 9.5/IrMn 10/CoFe 7/AlO x /free layer 10/AlO x /CoFe 7/IrMn 10/Ru 60 (in nanometers). The interlayer coupling field and the normalized TMR ratios at the applied voltages of +0.4 and -0.4 V of the amorphous CoFeSiB free-layer DMTJ offer lower and higher values than that of the polycrystalline CoFe free-layer DMTJ, respectively. An amorphous ferromagnetic CoFeSiB layer improves the interface roughness of the free layer/tunnel barrier and, as a result, the interlayer coupling field and bias voltage dependence of the TMR ratio are suppressed at a given voltage. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Self-biased broadband magnet-free linear isolator based on one-way space-time coherency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taravati, Sajjad

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces a self-biased broadband magnet-free and linear isolator based on one-way space-time coherency. The incident wave and the space-time-modulated medium share the same temporal frequency and are hence temporally coherent. However, thanks to the unidirectionally of the space-time modulation, the space-time-modulated medium and the incident wave are spatially coherent only in the forward direction and not in the opposite direction. As a consequence, the energy of the medium strongly couples to the propagating wave in the forward direction, while it conflicts with the propagating wave in the opposite direction, yielding strong isolation. We first derive a closed-form solution for the wave scattering from a spatiotemporally coherent medium and then show that a perfectly coherent space-time-modulated medium provides a moderate isolation level which is also subject to one-way transmission gain. To overcome this issue, we next investigate the effect of space-coherency imperfection between the medium and the wave, while they are still perfectly temporally coherent. Leveraging the spatial-coherency imperfection, the medium exhibits a quasiarbitrary and strong nonreciprocal transmission. Finally, we present the experimental demonstration of the self-biased version of the proposed broadband isolator, exhibiting more than 122 % fractional operation bandwidth.

  3. Development of eddy-current-free MR imaging system with 0.3-T permanent magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, M.; Takeuchi, H.; Nishimura, H.; Yanaka, S.; Takeshima, H.; Yoshino, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Sakurai, H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the eddy current induced by the magnetic gradient field which causes various problems associated with a permanent magnet, the permanent magnetic circuit with new pole pieces has been studied. The magnetic circuit was composed of a permanent magnet, a yoke, and pole pieces. The pole pieces were magnetically connected to the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet. To study for eddy current, read-size magnetic circuits with pole pieces of various material, such as (a) steel, (b) divided steel, (c) toroidal-shaped silicon steel, and (d) composite material were assembled. The whole 0.3-T MR imaging system consists of only three units, Gantry with coach, MR unit, and operational console with image processor. We have evaluated the frequency characteristics, rise time, spatial homogeneity of magnetic field, and image quality with respect to real-size magnetic circuits with various pole pieces. We have obtained following order for frequency characteristics: (d), (c), (b), (a). We have also made an effort to adjust uniformity of magnetic field for magnetic circuits with toroidal-shaped silicon steel. We have obtained crisp and accurate images with use of the new pole pieces, without causing an eddy current. Especially, MR angio imaging, which is sensitive for eddy current, can be obtained with remarkable improvement

  4. Measurement of 3-Axis Magnetic Fields Induced by Current Wires Using a Smartphone in Magnetostatics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, B.; Septianto, R. D.; Suhendra, D.; Iskandar, F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the use of an inexpensive smartphone's magnetic sensor to measure magnetic field components (B[subscript x], B[subscript y] and B[subscript z]) induced by current wires in magnetostatic experiments. The variable parameters used to measure the magnetic sensor's capabilities were: the geometrical shapes of the wire, current…

  5. Magnetization reversal and tunable exchange bias in GdCr{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0−0.50)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, Bibhuti B.; Ravi, S., E-mail: sravi@iitg.ernet.in

    2017-05-01

    Single phase samples of GdCr{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0−0.50) were prepared and their magnetic properties were studied by measuring temperature and field variations of magnetization. The Neel temperature, T{sub N} is found to decrease from T{sub N}=174 K for x=0 to 91 K for x=0.50. The magnetization reversal persists upto 5 at% of Mn substitution with a magnetic compensation temperature, T{sub comp} of 136 K and 139 K for x=0 and 0.05 respectively. However, spin reorientation induced magnetization reversal emerges for x=0.40 and 0.50 samples around 30 K. Tunable positive and negative exchange bias fields in the range of −1.0 kOe to +1.6 kOe have been observed. The origin of magnetization reversal and exchange bias field is explained in terms of antiparallel alignment of canted ferromagnetic component of Cr{sup 3+} ions and the paramagnetic moments of Gd{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 3+} ions under the influence of negative internal field due to antiferromagnetically ordered Cr{sup 3+} ions. - Highlights: • Magnetization reversal and bipolar switching in Mn substituted GdCrO{sub 3} • Tunable exchange bias field in the range of −1.0 kOe to +1.6 kOe. • Low temperature spin reorientation transition is observed.

  6. Observation of magnetization and exchange bias reversals in NdFe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharannia, M.P.; De, Santanu [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Singh, Ripandeep; Das, A. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Nirmala, R. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Santhosh, P.N., E-mail: santhosh@iitm.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Polycrystalline NdFe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} has orthorhombic structure with Pnma space group and is magnetically ordered at room temperature as confirmed by neutron diffraction. The magnetic structure involves C{sub x}G{sub y}F{sub z} type ordering of Fe{sup 3+}/Cr{sup 3+} ions. NdFe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} shows magnetization reversal and sign reversal of exchange bias at ~16 K. Nd{sup 3+} moments that get induced by the internal field of |Fe+Cr| sublattice couple antiferromagnetically with the ferromagnetic component of |Fe+Cr| sublattice. Nd{sup 3+} moments overcome the |Fe+Cr| moments at ~16 K below which the material shows negative magnetization and positive exchange bias. - Highlights: • Neutron diffraction confirms magnetic ordering at 300 K in NdFe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}. • Magnetic structure involves C{sub x}G{sub y}F{sub z} type ordering of Fe{sup 3+}/Cr{sup 3+} ions. • Nd{sup 3+} moments couple antiferromagnetically with |Fe+Cr| ferromagnetic moments. • Shows magnetization reversal and exchange bias reversal.

  7. Magnetic properties of Co-N films deposited by ECR nitrogen/argon plasma with DC negative-biased Co target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Zhang, Y.C.; Yang, K.; Liu, H.X.; Zhu, X.D., E-mail: xdzhu@ustc.edu.cn; Zhou, H.Y.

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • A new method of synthesizing Co-N films containing Co{sub 4}N phase. • Tunable magnetic properties achieved in ECR plasma CVD. • The change of magnetic properties is related to atoms mobility on substrate and the concentration of active species in plasma vapor. - Abstract: By introducing DC negative-biased Co target in the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) nitrogen/argon plasma, the Co-N films containing Co{sub 4}N phase were synthesized on Si(100) substrate. Effects of processing parameters on magnetic properties of the films are investigated. It is found that magnetic properties of Co-N films vary with N{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio, substrate temperature, and target biasing voltage. The saturation magnetization M{sub s} decreased by increasing the N{sub 2}/Ar gas flow ratio or decreasing target biasing voltage, while the coercive field H{sub c} increased, which is ascribed to the variation of relative concentration for N or Co active species in plasma vapor. The magnetic properties present complex dependency with growth temperature, which is related to the atom mobility on the substrate affected by the growth temperature. This study exhibits a potential of ECR plasma chemical vapor deposition to synthesize the interstitial compounds and tune magnetic properties of films.

  8. Quench protection and design of large high-current-density superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1981-03-01

    Although most large superconducting magnets have been designed using the concept of cryostability, there is increased need for large magnets which operate at current densities above the cryostable limit (greater than 10 8 Am -2 ). Large high current density superconducting magnets are chosen for the following reasons: reduced mass, reduced coil thickness or size, and reduced cost. The design of large high current density, adiabatically stable, superconducting magnets requires a very different set of design rules than either large cryostable superconducting magnets or small self-protected high current density magnets. The problems associated with large high current density superconducting magnets fall into three categories; (a) quench protection, (b) stress and training, and (c) cryogenic design. The three categories must be considered simultaneously. The paper discusses quench protection and its implication for magnets of large stored energies (this includes strings of smaller magnets). Training and its relationship to quench protection and magnetic strain are discussed. Examples of magnets, built at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and elsewhere using the design guidelines given in this report, are presented

  9. Exchange biased Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires: A new insight into its magnetic core–shell nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S., E-mail: senoythomas@gmail.com [Materials Science and Technology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695019 (India); Jose, A.; Thanveer, T. [Materials Science and Technology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695019 (India); Anantharaman, M.R. [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires were synthesised within the channels of mesoporous silica, SBA 15. • Magnetometry measurements indicated a magnetic core-shell structure for Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires. • The core has characteristics of a 2D-DAFF and uncompensated surface spins constitutes the shell. • Exchange coupling between the core-shell magnetic phases results in exchange bias effect. - Abstract: We investigated interfacial exchange coupling effect in nano casted Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires. Magnetometry measurements indicated that the magnetic response of the wires has two contributions. First one from the core of the wire which has characteristics of a 2D-DAFF(two-dimensional diluted antiferromagnet in a field). The second one is from uncompensated surface spins which get magnetically ordered towards the field direction once field cooled below 25 K. Below 25 K, the net magnetization of the core of the wire gets exchange coupled with the uncompensated surface spins giving rise to exchange bias effect. The unique 2D-DAFF/spin-glass core/shell heterostructure showed a pronounced training effect in the first field cycling itself. The magnitude of exchange bias field showed a maximum at intermediate cooling fields and for the higher cooling field, exchange bias got reduced.

  10. Compensation of the magnetization current induced sextupole error at LHC injection field by short lumped permanent sextupole magnets, incorporated into the end configuration of superconducting dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, A

    1985-01-01

    Compensation of the magnetization current induced sextupole error at LHC injection field by short lumped permanent sextupole magnets, incorporated into the end configuration of superconducting dipoles

  11. Fluxball magnetic field analysis using a hybrid analytical/FEM/BEM with equivalent currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, João F.P.; Camilo, Fernando M.; Machado, V. Maló

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a fluxball electric machine is analyzed concerning the magnetic flux, force and torque. A novel method is proposed based in a special hybrid FEM/BEM (Finite Element Method/Boundary Element Method) with equivalent currents by using an analytical treatment for the source field determination. The method can be applied to evaluate the magnetic field in axisymmetric problems, in the presence of several magnetic materials. Same results obtained by a commercial Finite Element Analysis tool are presented for validation purposes with the proposed method. - Highlights: • The Fluxball machine magnetic field is analyzed by a new FEM/BEM/Analytical method. • The method is adequate for axisymmetric non homogeneous magnetic field problems. • The source magnetic field is evaluated considering a non-magnetic equivalent problem. • Material magnetization vectors are accounted by using equivalent currents. • A strong reduction of the finite element domain is achieved.

  12. Heavy metal multilayers for switching of magnetic unit via electrical current without magnetic field, method and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qinli; Li, Yufan; Chien, Chia-ling

    2018-02-20

    Provided is an electric-current-controllable magnetic unit, including: a substrate, an electric-current channel disposed on the substrate, the electric-current channel including a composite heavy-metal multilayer comprising at least one heavy-metal; a capping layer disposed over the electric-current channel; and at least one ferromagnetic layer disposed between the electric-current channel and the capping layer.

  13. An Investigation of Hall Currents Associated with Tripolar Magnetic Fields During Magnetospheric Kelvin Helmholtz Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturner, A. P.; Eriksson, S.; Newman, D. L.; Lapenta, G.; Gershman, D. J.; Plaschke, F.; Ergun, R.; Wilder, F. D.; Torbert, R. B.; Giles, B. L.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Burch, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Kinetic simulations and observations of magnetic reconnection suggest the Hall term of Ohm's Law is necessary for understanding fast reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. During high (>1) guide field plasma conditions in the solar wind and in Earth's magnetopause, tripolar variations in the guide magnetic field are often observed during current sheet crossings, and have been linked to reconnection Hall magnetic fields. Two proposed mechanisms for these tripolar variations are the presence of multiple nearby X-lines and magnetic island coalescence. We present results of an investigation into the structure of the electron currents supporting tripolar guide magnetic field variations during Kelvin-Helmholtz wave current sheet crossings using the Magnetosphere Multiscale (MMS) Mission, and compare with bipolar magnetic field structures and with kinetic simulations to understand how these tripolar structures may be used as tracers for magnetic islands.

  14. Mathematical model of voltage-current characteristics of Bi(2223)/Ag magnets under an external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Pitel, J; Lehtonen, J; Kovács, P

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a mathematical model, which enables us to predict the voltage-current V(I) characteristics of a solenoidal high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet subjected to an external magnetic field parallel to the magnet axis. The model takes into account the anisotropy in the critical current-magnetic field (I sub c (B)) characteristic and the n-value of Bi(2223)Ag multifilamentary tape at 20 K. From the power law between the electric field and the ratio of the operating and critical currents, the voltage on the magnet terminals is calculated by integrating the contributions of individual turns. The critical current of each turn, at given values of operating current and external magnetic field, is obtained by simple linear interpolation between the two suitable points of the I sub c (B) characteristic, which corresponds to the angle alpha between the vector of the resulting magnetic flux density and the broad tape face. In fact, the model is valid for any value and orientation of external magneti...

  15. Assisted extraction of the energy level spacings and lever arms in direct current bias measurements of one-dimensional quantum wires, using an image recognition routine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesage, A. A. J.; Smith, L. W.; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G.; Al-Taie, H.; Kelly, M. J.; See, P.

    2015-01-01

    A multiplexer technique is used to individually measure an array of 256 split gates on a single GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. This results in the generation of large volumes of data, which requires the development of automated data analysis routines. An algorithm is developed to find the spacing between discrete energy levels, which form due to transverse confinement from the split gate. The lever arm, which relates split gate voltage to energy, is also found from the measured data. This reduces the time spent on the analysis. Comparison with estimates obtained visually shows that the algorithm returns reliable results for subband spacing of split gates measured at 1.4 K. The routine is also used to assess direct current bias spectroscopy measurements at lower temperatures (50 mK). This technique is versatile and can be extended to other types of measurements. For example, it is used to extract the magnetic field at which Zeeman-split 1D subbands cross one another

  16. Bias voltage dependence of tunneling magnetoresistance in granular C60–Co films with current-perpendicular-to-plane geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Seiji; Mitani, Seiji; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Entani, Shiro; Avramov, Pavel; Ohtomo, Manabu; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Takanashi, Koki

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-dependence of the tunneling magnetoresistance effect in the granular C 60 –Co films has been investigated for the samples with the current-perpendicular-to-plane geometry. The transport measurements under this geometry demonstrate that the granular C 60 –Co films show an unusual exponential bias voltage dependence of the magnetoresistance ratio down to zero voltage. Small characteristic energies of less than 10's meV are derived from the temperature dependences of the characteristic voltage in the exponential relationship. Considering the magnitudes of the voltage drop between Co nanoparticles and also the effect of cotunneling on the energy values, the characteristic energies for the voltage-induced degradation of the spin polarization are found to show a satisfactory agreement with that for the thermally-induced one. It can be reasonably expected that the onset of magnetic disorder to the localized d-electron spins at the interface region of the C 60 -based matrix (C 60 –Co compound) with Co nanoparticles leading to the unusual voltage and temperature dependence of the magnetoresistance ratio and the spin polarization at low temperatures. - Highlights: ► Unusual voltage dependence of the TMR effect in granular C 60 –Co films is studied. ► Linear temperature-characteristic voltage dependence in the MR–V relationship. ► Spin-flip scattering by the exchange-coupled d-electron spins at the interface.

  17. Effects of Transverse Magnetic Anisotropy on Current-Induced Spin Switching

    OpenAIRE

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnaś, Józef

    2013-01-01

    Spin-polarized transport through bistable magnetic adatoms or single-molecule magnets (SMMs), which exhibit both uniaxial and transverse magnetic anisotropy, is considered theoretically. The main focus is on the impact of transverse anisotropy on transport characteristics and the adatom's/SMM's spin. In particular, we analyze the role of quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) in the mechanism of the current-induced spin switching, and show that the QTM phenomenon becomes revealed as resonan...

  18. Eddy current loss calculation and thermal analysis of axial-flux permanent magnet couplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional magnetic field analytical model of axial-flux permanent magnet couplers is presented to calculate the eddy current loss, and the prediction of the copper plate temperature under various loads is analyzed. The magnetic field distribution is calculated, and then the eddy current loss is obtained, with the magnetic field analytical model established in cylindrical coordinate. The influence of various loads on eddy current loss is analyzed. Furthermore, a thermal model of axial-flux permanent magnet couplers is established by taking the eddy current loss as the heat source, using the electromagnetic-thermal coupled method. With the help of the thermal model, the influence of various loads on copper plate temperature rise is also analyzed. The calculated results are compared with the results of finite element method and measurement. The comparison results confirm the validity of the magnetic field analytical model and thermal model.

  19. Magnetic Field Dependence of the Critical Current in S-N Bilayer Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, John E.; Lee, Sang-Jun; Smith, Stephen James; Bandler, Simon; Chervenak, James; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Porter, Frederick S.; Kelley, Richard L.; Adams, Joseph S.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Here we investigate the effects a non-uniform applied magnetic field has on superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) critical current. This has implications on TES optimization. It has been shown that TESs resistive transition can be altered by magnetic fields. We have observed critical current rectification effects and explained these effects in terms of a magnetic self-field arising from asymmetric current injection into the sensor. Our TES physical model shows that this magnetic self-field can result in significantly degraded or improved TES performance. In order for this magnetically tuned TES strategy to reach its full potential we are investigating the effect a non-uniform applied magnetic field has on the critical current.

  20. Magnetic field cycling effect on the non-linear current-voltage characteristics and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance in α-Fe1.64Ga0.36O3 oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, R. N.; Vijayasri, G.

    2015-06-01

    We have studied current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of α-Fe1.64Ga0.36O3, a typical canted ferromagnetic semiconductor. The sample showed a transformation of the I-V curves from linear to non-linear character with the increase of bias voltage. The I-V curves showed irreversible features with hysteresis loop and bi-stable electronic states for up and down modes of voltage sweep. We report positive magnetoresistance and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance as the first time observed phenomena in metal doped hematite system. The magnitudes of critical voltage at which I-V curve showed peak and corresponding peak current are affected by magnetic field cycling. The shift of the peak voltage with magnetic field showed a step-wise jump between two discrete voltage levels with least gap (ΔVP) 0.345(± 0.001) V. The magnetic spin dependent electronic charge transport in this new class of magnetic semiconductor opens a wide scope for tuning large electroresistance (˜500-700%), magnetoresistance (70-135 %) and charge-spin dependent conductivity under suitable control of electric and magnetic fields. The electric and magnetic field controlled charge-spin transport is interesting for applications of the magnetic materials in spintronics, e.g., magnetic sensor, memory devices and digital switching.

  1. Magnetic field cycling effect on the non-linear current-voltage characteristics and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance in α-Fe{sub 1.64}Ga{sub 0.36}O{sub 3} oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, R. N., E-mail: rnbhowmik.phy@pondiuni.edu.in; Vijayasri, G. [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, R.Venkataraman Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry - 605 014 (India)

    2015-06-15

    We have studied current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of α-Fe{sub 1.64}Ga{sub 0.36}O{sub 3}, a typical canted ferromagnetic semiconductor. The sample showed a transformation of the I-V curves from linear to non-linear character with the increase of bias voltage. The I-V curves showed irreversible features with hysteresis loop and bi-stable electronic states for up and down modes of voltage sweep. We report positive magnetoresistance and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance as the first time observed phenomena in metal doped hematite system. The magnitudes of critical voltage at which I-V curve showed peak and corresponding peak current are affected by magnetic field cycling. The shift of the peak voltage with magnetic field showed a step-wise jump between two discrete voltage levels with least gap (ΔV{sub P}) 0.345(± 0.001) V. The magnetic spin dependent electronic charge transport in this new class of magnetic semiconductor opens a wide scope for tuning large electroresistance (∼500-700%), magnetoresistance (70-135 %) and charge-spin dependent conductivity under suitable control of electric and magnetic fields. The electric and magnetic field controlled charge-spin transport is interesting for applications of the magnetic materials in spintronics, e.g., magnetic sensor, memory devices and digital switching.

  2. Magnetic field cycling effect on the non-linear current-voltage characteristics and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance in α-Fe1.64Ga0.36O3 oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Bhowmik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied current-voltage (I-V characteristics of α-Fe1.64Ga0.36O3, a typical canted ferromagnetic semiconductor. The sample showed a transformation of the I-V curves from linear to non-linear character with the increase of bias voltage. The I-V curves showed irreversible features with hysteresis loop and bi-stable electronic states for up and down modes of voltage sweep. We report positive magnetoresistance and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance as the first time observed phenomena in metal doped hematite system. The magnitudes of critical voltage at which I-V curve showed peak and corresponding peak current are affected by magnetic field cycling. The shift of the peak voltage with magnetic field showed a step-wise jump between two discrete voltage levels with least gap (ΔVP 0.345(± 0.001 V. The magnetic spin dependent electronic charge transport in this new class of magnetic semiconductor opens a wide scope for tuning large electroresistance (∼500-700%, magnetoresistance (70-135 % and charge-spin dependent conductivity under suitable control of electric and magnetic fields. The electric and magnetic field controlled charge-spin transport is interesting for applications of the magnetic materials in spintronics, e.g., magnetic sensor, memory devices and digital switching.

  3. Potential Magnetic Field around a Helical Flux-rope Current Structure in the Solar Corona

    OpenAIRE

    Petrie, G. J. D.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the potential magnetic field associated with a helical electric line current flow, idealizing the near-potential coronal field within which a highly localized twisted current structure is embedded. It is found that this field has a significant axial component off the helical magnetic axis where there is no current flow, such that the flux winds around the axis. The helical line current field, in including the effects of flux rope writhe, is therefore more topologically complex tha...

  4. Computer circuit analysis of induced currents in the MFTF-B magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, G.D.; Woods, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis was made of the induced current behavior of the MFTF-B magnet system. Although the magnet system consists of 22 coils, because of its symmetry we considered only 11 coils in the analysis. Various combinations of the coils were dumped either singly or in groups, with the current behavior in all magnets calculated as a function of time after initiation of the dump

  5. Magnetic reconnection through the current sheets as the universal process for plasma dynamics in nonuniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.G.; Bogdanov, S.Yu.; Burilina, V.B.; Kyrie, N.P.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory experiments are reported, in which we studied the possibilities of the formation of current sheets (CS) in different magnetic configurations, as well as the magnetic reconnection phenomena. In 2D magnetic fields with null-lines the CS formation was shown to be a typical process in both linear and nonlinear regimes. The problem of CS formation is of a fundamental importance in the general case of 3D magnetic configurations. We have revealed experimentally, that the formation of CS occurs in the various 3D configurations, both containing magnetic null-points and without them. At the same time, the CS parameters essentially depend on the local characteristics of the configuration. We may conclude therefore, that the self-organization of CS represents the universal process for the plasma dynamics in the nonuniform magnetic fields. (author)

  6. Role of magnetic shear on the electrostatic current driven ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is widely recognized that the electric field plays an important role in the ... They consider a uniform zero order magnetic field (i.e., B ..... the Department of Ocean Development, Govt. of India, New Delhi for financial support through a project.

  7. Improved Eddy-current Field Loss Model and Scaling Index for Magnets of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives detailed systematic researches on the mechanism and key factors of eddy-current losses in rotor magnets of high power-density permanent magnet synchronous motors(PMSMs. Firstly, this paper establishes quantitative mathematic model of eddy-current losses for surface-mounted PMSM based on eddy current field model and Maxwell equations. Then, a scaling index is put forward to weigh the key factors relevant to the eddy-current losses in magnets. At the same time, the principles of eddy-current losses in prototype PMSM are analyzed by the finite element analysis (FEA software. The contents researched in the paper have practical reference values for design and reliability analysis of PMSMs.

  8. Globally optimal superconducting magnets part I: minimum stored energy (MSE) current density map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieng, Quang M; Vegh, Viktor; Brereton, Ian M

    2009-01-01

    An optimal current density map is crucial in magnet design to provide the initial values within search spaces in an optimization process for determining the final coil arrangement of the magnet. A strategy for obtaining globally optimal current density maps for the purpose of designing magnets with coaxial cylindrical coils in which the stored energy is minimized within a constrained domain is outlined. The current density maps obtained utilising the proposed method suggests that peak current densities occur around the perimeter of the magnet domain, where the adjacent peaks have alternating current directions for the most compact designs. As the dimensions of the domain are increased, the current density maps yield traditional magnet designs of positive current alone. These unique current density maps are obtained by minimizing the stored magnetic energy cost function and therefore suggest magnet coil designs of minimal system energy. Current density maps are provided for a number of different domain arrangements to illustrate the flexibility of the method and the quality of the achievable designs.

  9. Current status and future outlook for bonded neodymium permanent magnets (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croat, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Bonded neodymium magnets can provide significant size and weight reduction and/or performance enhancement over sintered and, particularly, bonded ferrite permanent magnets and, moreover, provide these benefits at reasonable cost. Primarily for these reasons, these bonded magnets are now used in a wide and growing range of computer peripheral, office automation, and consumer electronic applications and now constitute the fastest growing segment of the permanent magnet market. The current status of these materials will be reviewed. Included is a brief overview of the manufacture of these magnetically isotropic magnets and a discussion of their unique properties and features from the perspective of both bonded magnet producer and user. Major applications are discussed as are some of the factors that will drive the market for these materials in the future. New technical developments, including the status and outlook for anisotropic bonded materials, high remanance isotropic materials and high temperature bonded magnets will also be discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  10. Partial ring currents and cosmic ray magnetic cutoff rigidity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, M.

    1978-01-01

    A short introduction on cosmic ray modulation and a description of the magnetosphere, and of some physical processes occurring within its boundaries are presented. 20 geomagnetic storms are analysed together with the cosmic ray intensities during these storms as measured by Neutron Monitors. Using a semi-empirical method, the variations in the magnetic cutoff rigidity for the mountain stations Pic du Midi and Jungfraujoch are deduced. These stations are the most sensitive for measuring these variations. The analysis shows that all analyzed storms have an asymmetric development phase. Often the asymmetry even continues during part of the recovery phase. It is shown that variations in magnetic cutoff rigidity occur only during the asymmetric phase of the storm. The largest variations are found when the cosmic ray station is located in the late afternoon-midnight sector. (Auth.)

  11. Evidence for a New Magnetoelectric Effect of Current-Induced Magnetization in a Toroidal Magnetic Ordered State of UNi$_4$B

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Hiraku; Uenishi, Kenta; Miura, Naoyuki; Tabata, Chihiro; Hidaka, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Tatsuya; Amitsuka, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Magnetization measurements under direct electric currents were performed for toroidal magnetic ordered state of UNi$_4$B to test a recent theoretical prediction of current-induced magnetization in a metallic system lacking local inversion symmetry.We found that each of the electric currents parallel to [$2\\bar{1}\\bar{1}0$] and [$0001$] in the hexagonal 4-index notation induces uniform magnetization in the direction of [$01\\bar{1}0$].The observed behavior of the induced magnetization is essent...

  12. A differential-delay control for ramped magnet current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Olsen, R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    A differential-delay control system has been designed and implemented for the main dipole magnet power supply of the booster ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Lab. The control algorithm was implemented on a floating-point digital signal processor; in tests, the use of digital signal-processing techniques gave a factor of ten improvement in the tracking response time, together with a modest improvement in tracking accuracy.

  13. A differential-delay control for ramped magnet current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, J. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Olsen, R. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A differential-delay control system has been designed and implemented for the main dipole magnet power supply of the booster ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Lab. The control algorithm was implemented on a floating-point digital signal processor; in tests, the use of digital signal-processing techniques gave a factor of ten improvement in the tracking response time, together with a modest improvement in tracking accuracy.

  14. A high-current, high-voltage power supply with special output current waveform for APS injector synchrotron dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.; Despe, O.D.; McGhee, D.G.; Mills, F.E.; Turner, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a high-voltage, high-current power supply for the injector synchrotron dipole magnets at APS. In order to reset the dipole magnets in each cycle two different current waveforms are suggested. The first current waveform consists of three sections, namely: dc-reset, linear ramp, and recovery sections where injection is done ''on the fly''. The second current waveform consists of six different sections, dc-reset, transition to injection level, injection flat level, parabolic, linear ramp and recovery sections. The effect of such waveforms on the beam is discussed and the power supply limitations to follow such waveforms are given. The power supply limitations are due to the power components and control loops. The reference for the current loop is generated by a DAC which is discussed

  15. Thermal spin current generation and spin transport in Pt/magnetic-insulator/Py heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Tzu; Safranski, Christopher; Krivorotov, Ilya; Sun, Jonathan

    Magnetic insulators can transmit spin current via magnon propagation while blocking charge current. Furthermore, under Joule heating, magnon flow as a result of the spin Seeback effect can generate additional spin current. Incorporating magnetic insulators in a spin-orbit torque magnetoresistive memory device can potentially yield high switching efficiencies. Here we report the DC magneto-transport studies of these two effects in Pt/magnetic-insulator/Py heterostructures, using ferrimagnetic CoFexOy (CFO) and antiferromagnet NiO as the model magnetic insulators. We observe the presence and absence of the inverse spin-Hall signals from the thermal spin current in Pt/CFO/Py and Pt/NiO/Py structures. These results are consistent with our spin-torque FMR linewidths in comparison. We will also report investigations into the magnetic field-angle dependence of these observations.

  16. Analytical theory of neutral current sheets with a sheared magnetic field in collisionless relativistic plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocharovsky, V. V.; Kocharovsky, Vl V.; Martyanov, V. Yu; Nechaev, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    We derive and describe analytically a new wide class of self-consistent magnetostatic structures with sheared field lines and arbitrary energy distributions of particles. To do so we analyze superpositions of two planar current sheets with orthogonal magnetic fields and cylindrically symmetric momentum distribution functions, such that the magnetic field of one of them is directed along the symmetry axis of the distribution function of the other. These superpositions satisfy the pressure balance equation and allow one to construct configurations with an almost arbitrarily sheared magnetic field. We show that most of previously known current sheet families with sheared magnetic field lines are included in this novel class.

  17. Effects of magnetic core geometry on false detection in residual current sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, Bruno; Chillet, Christian; Kedous-Lebouc, Afef; Mas, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Under high-supply current, residual circuit breakers are subject to abnormal tripping, caused by false residual currents. Geometric or magnetic anomalies in the circuit breaker ring core seem to be responsible for these abnormal currents. This paper studies a few anomalies (spiral shape effect, conductor eccentricity, lamination effect) and calculates different contributions using the finite element simulations. The results show that the ring core, made of thin wound magnetic tape, is particularly sensitive to primary conductor eccentricity

  18. Magnetic Fluctuations during plasma current rise of divertor discharge in JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushigusa, Kenkichi; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Tsuji, Syunji; Hayashi, Kazuo.

    1986-03-01

    During a current rise phase in the JT-60 divertor discharge, a series of magnetic fluctuations which do not rotate poloidally (phase-locking) is observed. They cause a cooling of plasma periphery and an enhancement of H α emission in the divertor chamber. A significant increase in β P + 1 i /2 with minor disruptions during the phase-locked magnetic fluctuation suggests a relaxation of the current profile in the current rise phase of the divertor discharge. (author)

  19. All-electric-controlled spin current switching in single-molecule magnet-tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng-Zhong; Shen, Rui; Sheng, Li; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Wang, Bai-Gen; Xing, Ding-Yu

    2011-04-01

    A single-molecule magnet (SMM) coupled to two normal metallic electrodes can both switch spin-up and spin-down electronic currents within two different windows of SMM gate voltage. Such spin current switching in the SMM tunnel junction arises from spin-selected single electron resonant tunneling via the lowest unoccupied molecular orbit of the SMM. Since it is not magnetically controlled but all-electrically controlled, the proposed spin current switching effect may have potential applications in future spintronics.

  20. Pumping $ac$ Josephson current in the Single Molecular Magnets by spin nutation

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollahipour, B.; Abouie, J.; Rostami, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that an {\\it ac} Josephson current is pumped through the Single Molecular Magnets (SMM) by the spin nutation. The spin nutation is generated by applying a time dependent magnetic field to the SMM. We obtain the flowing charge current through the junction by working in the tunneling limit and employing Green's function technique. At the resonance conditions some discontinuities and divergencies are appeared in the normal and Josephson currents, respectively. Such discontinuities...

  1. Calculation of eddy-currents induced in a compact synchrotron superconducting magnet structure during a current ramp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, S.

    1991-01-01

    Under DARPA sponsorship, a compact Superconducting X-Ray Light Source (SXSL) is being designed and built by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with industry participation from Grumman Corporation and General Dynamics. The SXLS machine employs two 180 degrees curved 4 telsa superconducting dipole magnets. These magnets are required to produce a dipole field for bending the beam but at the same time they must produce finite amounts of higher multipoles which are required for conditioning the beam. In fact uniformity of the field to less than 1 part in 10,000 must be maintained under all operating conditions. When a superconducting magnet is ramped from zero to full field, the changing magnetic field produces eddy-currents in the magnet structure which in turn can produce undesirable multipoles. This paper discusses a simple method for estimating these eddy-currents and their effect on the field harmonics. The paper present the analysis basis and its application to the SXLS magnet support structure and to the beam chamber components. 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Calculation of eddy-currents induced in a compact synchrotron superconducting magnet structure during a current ramp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, S.; Heese, R.

    1991-01-01

    Under DARPA sponsorship, a compact Superconducting X-Ray Light Source (SXLS) is being designed and built by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with industry participation from Grumman Corporation and General Dynamics. The SXLS machine employs two 180 degree curved 4 tesla superconducting dipole magnets. These magnets are required to produce a dipole field for bending the beam but at the same time they must produce finite amounts of higher multipoles which are required for conditioning the beam. In fact, uniformity of the field to less than 1 part in 10,000 must be maintained under all operating conditions. When a superconducting magnet is ramped from zero to full field, the changing magnetic field produces eddy-currents in the magnet structure which in turn can produce undesirable multipoles. This paper discusses a simple method for estimating these eddy-currents and their effect on the field harmonics. The paper presents the analysis basis and its application to the SXLS magnet support structure and to the beam chamber components

  3. Effect of coupling currents on the dynamic inductance during fast transient in superconducting magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marinozzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present electromagnetic models aiming to calculate the variation of the inductance in a magnet due to dynamic effects such as the variation of magnetization or the coupling with eddy currents. The models are studied with special regard to the calculation of the inductance in superconducting magnets which are affected by interfilament coupling currents. The developed models have been compared with experimental data coming from tests of prototype Nb_{3}Sn magnets designed for the new generation of accelerators. This work is relevant for the quench protection study of superconducting magnets: quench is an unwanted event, when part of the magnet becomes resistive; in these cases, the current should be discharged as fast as possible, in order to maintain the resistive zone temperature under a safe limit. The magnet inductance is therefore a relevant term for the description of the current discharge, especially for the high-field new generation superconducting magnets for accelerators, and this work shows how to calculate the correct value during rapid current changes, providing a mean for simulations of the reached temperature.

  4. Low-noise pulse-mode current power supply for magnetic field measurements of magnets for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'yanenko, M.M.; Borisov, V.V.; Donyagin, A.M.; Kostromin, S.A.; Makarov, A.A.; Khodzhibagiyan, G.G.; Shemchuk, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    The described pulse-mode current power supply has been designed and fabricated for the magnetic field measurement system of superconducting magnets for accelerators. The power supply is based on a current regulator with pass transistor bank in linear mode. The output current pulses (0-100 A) are produced by using the energy of preliminary charged capacitor bank (5-40 V), which is charged additionally after each pulse. There is no AC-line frequency and harmonics ripple in the output current, the relative noise level is less than -100 dB (or 10 -5 ) of RMS value (it is defined as the ratio of output RMS noise current to the maximal output current 100 A within the operating bandwidth, expressed in dB).

  5. Magnetic field dependence of the critical superconducting current induced by the proximity effect in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, T.; Kawabe, U.; Yamada, E.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic field dependence of the critical superconducting current induced by the proximity effect in heavily-boron-doped Si is studied experimentally. It is found that the critical current flowing through the p-type-Si-coupled junction decreases with increasing applied magnetic field. The critical current can be expressed as the product of three factors: the current induced by de Gennes's proximity effect, the exponential decrease due to pair breaking by the magnetic field, and the usual diffraction-pattern-like dependence on the magnetic field due to the Josephson effect. The second factor depends on the carrier concentration in the semiconductor. The local critical current shows a rapid decrease at the edge of the electrodes

  6. Topological currents in neutron stars: kicks, precession, toroidal fields, and magnetic helicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, James; Zhitnitsky, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    The effects of anomalies in high density QCD are striking. We consider a direct application of one of these effects, namely topological currents, on the physics of neutron stars. All the elements required for topological currents are present in neutron stars: degenerate matter, large magnetic fields, and parity violating processes. These conditions lead to the creation of vector currents capable of carrying momentum and inducing magnetic fields. We estimate the size of these currents for many representative states of dense matter in the neutron star and argue that they could be responsible for the large proper motion of neutron stars (kicks), the toroidal magnetic field and finite magnetic helicity needed for stability of the poloidal field, and the resolution of the conflict between type-II superconductivity and precession. Though these observational effects appear unrelated, they likely originate from the same physics — they are all P-odd phenomena that stem from a topological current generated by parity violation

  7. Current-supported domain wall movement to the target spot with a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Chunghee; Jang, Y.M.; Lee, K.S.; Lee, S.K.; Kim, T.W.; Cho, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Current-driven domain wall (DW) motion in a submicron-size magnetic strip, which consists of Cu/IrMn/NiFe/Cu/NiFe/Cu pseudo-spin-valve with natural defects, was investigated by measuring the giant-magnetoresistance signal. The magnetic DW movement was induced by the injection of a high current density of 4x10 7 A/cm 2 . It was also found that a DW can be manipulated in more convenient way by the application of both current and magnetic field at the same time

  8. Coronal Heating Topology: The Interplay of Current Sheets and Magnetic Field Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Velli, M. [Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Matthaeus, W. H. [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Ruffolo, D. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Servidio, S., E-mail: rappazzo@ucla.edu [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, Cosenza I-87036 (Italy)

    2017-07-20

    The magnetic topology and field line random walk (FLRW) properties of a nanoflare-heated and magnetically confined corona are investigated in the reduced magnetohydrodynamic regime. Field lines originating from current sheets form coherent structures, called current sheet connected (CSC) regions, which extend around them. CSC FLRW is strongly anisotropic, with preferential diffusion along the current sheets’ in-plane length. CSC FLRW properties remain similar to those of the entire ensemble but exhibit enhanced mean square displacements and separations due to the stronger magnetic field intensities in CSC regions. The implications for particle acceleration and heat transport in the solar corona and wind, and for solar moss formation are discussed.

  9. One-pion exchange current corrections for nuclear magnetic moments in relativistic mean field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Yao, J.M.; Meng Jie; Arima, Akito

    2011-01-01

    The one-pion exchange current corrections to isoscalar and isovector magnetic moments of double-closed shell nuclei plus and minus one nucleon with A = 15, 17, 39 and 41 have been studied in the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory and compared with previous relativistic and non-relativistic results. It has been found that the one-pion exchange current gives a negligible contribution to the isoscalar magnetic moments but a significant correction to the isovector ones. However, the one-pion exchange current enhances the isovector magnetic moments further and does not improve the corresponding description for the concerned nuclei in the present work. (author)

  10. The application of bonded magnet MQP-0 on an electrical direct current motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridwan; Mujamilah; Gunawan

    2002-01-01

    Isotropic bonded magnet materials using NdFeB produced by rapid quench method, has advantages that can be easily adapted to the costumer demand. The synthesized bonded magnets are mixed of cpoxy resin or polyester as matrix binder with powder magnet of MQP-O The proportions of polymer and magnetic powder are 4060; 50:50; and 6040 volume % of magnet composites. The characterization of magnetic properties was determined by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) at P3IB-BATAN and the density was measured by piknometer. The highest energy product maximum, (BH) m ax of magnet composite synthesized by P3IB-BATAN in this activity is 435 MGOeThe quality of magnet components has been tested empirically by changing the magnetic components of an electric direct current motor found in the local market by magnetic components synthesized by P 3IB-BA TAN. The max imum rotation resulted by using P3IB-BATAN is 40 0 00 rpm The magnetic components synthesized in these research activities are functionally work and comparatively the same with the magnetic components found in the local market as an import commodities

  11. Current-Nonlinear Hall Effect and Spin-Orbit Torque Magnetization Switching in a Magnetic Topological Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, K.; Tsukazaki, A.; Yoshimi, R.; Kondou, K.; Takahashi, K. S.; Otani, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The current-nonlinear Hall effect or second harmonic Hall voltage is widely used as one of the methods for estimating charge-spin conversion efficiency, which is attributed to the magnetization oscillation by spin-orbit torque (SOT). Here, we argue the second harmonic Hall voltage under a large in-plane magnetic field with an in-plane magnetization configuration in magnetic-nonmagnetic topological insulator (TI) heterostructures, Crx (Bi1 -ySby )2 -xTe3 /(Bi1 -ySby )2Te3 , where it is clearly shown that the large second harmonic voltage is governed not by SOT but mainly by asymmetric magnon scattering without macroscopic magnetization oscillation. Thus, this method does not allow an accurate estimation of charge-spin conversion efficiency in TI. Instead, the SOT contribution is exemplified by current pulse induced nonvolatile magnetization switching, which is realized with a current density of 2.5 ×1010 A m-2 , showing its potential as a spintronic material.

  12. Transresistance calibrations and temperature dependence evaluation of a magnetic bridge current sensor with shunt standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T; Kon, S; Tadatsu, T

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with a magnetic bridge current sensor for dc current measurements and a calibration system developed for the current sensor. The current sensor forms a magnetic bridge structure with a magnetic fluid core. The calibration system has been developed by using standard shunts for a test current range of 1 mA to 100 A and establishing a comparison method with a switching/sampling system. In the calibration system, the transresistances of the current sensor are measured and the uncertainties of the system are estimated for the input test current range. Also, the temperature dependence on the transresistances is investigated for temperatures ranging from −40 to 100 °C

  13. Rule-Based Reasoning Is Fast and Belief-Based Reasoning Can Be Slow: Challenging Current Explanations of Belief-Bias and Base-Rate Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ian R.; Gibb, Maia; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that belief-based reasoning is fast and automatic, whereas rule-based reasoning is slower and more effortful. Dual-Process theories of reasoning rely on this speed-asymmetry explanation to account for a number of reasoning phenomena, such as base-rate neglect and belief-bias. The goal of the current study was to test this…

  14. Magnetic penetration depth δ o and critical current density in Y-BA-Cu-O crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavaritsky, N.V.; Zavaritsky, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic penetration depthδ o ∼1.03 10 - 5 cm and critical current density (j c = 0.5 divided-by 1 x 10 5 A/cm 2 at T/T ∼0.98) are determined from low-field do magnetization measurements on Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 - crystals

  15. Strain and thermally induced magnetic dynamics and spin current in magnetic insulators subject to transient optical grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Guang; Chotorlishvili, Levan; Berakdar, Jamal

    2017-07-01

    We analyze the magnetic dynamics and particularlythe spin current in an open-circuit ferromagnetic insulator irradiated by two intense, phase-locked laser pulses. The interference of the laser beams generates a transient optical grating and a transient spatio-temporal temperature distribution. Both effects lead to elastic and heat waves at the surface and into the bulk of the sample. The strain induced spin current as well as the thermally induced magnonic spin current are evaluated numerically on the basis of micromagnetic simulations using solutions of the heat equation. We observe that the thermo-elastically induced magnonic spin current propagates on a distance larger than the characteristic size of thermal profile, an effect useful for applications in remote detection of spin caloritronics phenomena. Our findings point out that exploiting strain adds a new twist to heat-assisted magnetic switching and spin-current generation for spintronic applications.

  16. The current distribution in Bi-2223/Ag HTS conductors: comparing Hall probe and magnetic knife

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demencik, E.; Dhalle, Marc M.J.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Polak, M.

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed the current distribution in three Bi-2223/Ag tapes with different filament lay-out, comparing the results of magnetic knife and Hall probe experiments. Detailed knowledge of the current distribution can be useful for the diagnostics of HTS conductors. The lateral current distribution was

  17. Doping dependent magnetism and exchange bias in CaMn{sub 1−x}W{sub x}O{sub 3} manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovich, V., E-mail: markoviv@bgu.ac.il; Gorodetsky, G. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 84105 Beer-Sheva (Israel); Fita, I. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, National Academy of Sciences, 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Wisniewski, A.; Puzniak, R. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Mogilyansky, D. [The Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Naumov, S. V.; Mostovshchikova, E. V.; Telegin, S. V. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of RAS, Kovalevskaya Street 18, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Jung, G. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 84105 Beer-Sheva (Israel); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-09-07

    Magnetic properties of CaMn{sub 1−x}W{sub x}O{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) have been investigated, and the research was focused on the exchange bias (EB) phenomenon in CaMn{sub 0.93}W{sub 0.07}O{sub 3}. Magnetic ground state was found to be dependent on tungsten doping level and the following states were distinguished: (i) G-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) state with a weak ferromagnetic (FM) component at x = 0 and 0.04; (ii) mostly orbitally ordered C-type AFM at x = 0.07 and 0.1. For the studied manganites, spontaneous magnetization increases sharply with increasing doping level reaching M{sub 0} ≈ 9.5 emu/g at T = 10 K for x = 0.04, and then decreases rapidly reaching zero for x = 0.1. Exchange bias effect, manifested by vertical and horizontal shifts in the hysteresis loop for field cooled sample, has been observed in CaMn{sub 0.93}W{sub 0.07}O{sub 3}. Exchange bias field, coercivity, remanence asymmetry, and magnetic coercivity depend strongly on temperature, cooling field, and maximal measuring field. Horizontal and vertical shifts of magnetization loop sharply decrease with increasing temperature and vanish above 70 K, whereas coercivity and magnetic coercivity disappear only above 100 K (temperature of transition to the G-type AFM state). The exchange bias field H{sub EB} increases with increasing cooling field H{sub cool} and goes through a broad maximum at 40 kOe, while the remanence asymmetry increases monotonously in the entire investigated cooling field range, up to 50 kOe. For the compound with x = 0.07, the size of the FM regions ≈2 nm was estimated from the dependence of exchange bias field H{sub EB} upon H{sub cool}. It is suggested that the exchange bias originates from interface exchange coupling between small FM clusters and the G-type AFM phase inside the primary C-type orbitally ordered AFM phase.

  18. Current limitation and formation of plasma double layers in a non-uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plamondon, R.; Teichmann, J.; Torven, S.

    1986-07-01

    Formation of strong double layers has been observed experimentally in a magnetised plasma column maintained by a plasma source. The magnetic field is approximately axially homogenous except in a region at the anode where the electric current flows into a magnetic mirror. The double layer has a stationary position only in the region of non-uniform magnetic field or at the aperture separating the source and the plasma column. It is characterized by a negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic of the device. The parameter space,where the double layer exists, has been studied as well as the corresponding potential profiles and fluctuation spectra. The electric current and the axial electric field are oppositely directed between the plasma source and a potential minimum which is formed in the region of inhomogeneous magnetic field. Electron reflection by the resulting potential barrier is found to be an important current limitation mechanism. (authors)

  19. Effects of spin-polarized current on pulse field-induced precessional magnetization reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-fu Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate effects of a small DC spin-polarized current on the pulse field-induced precessional magnetization reversal in a thin elliptic magnetic element by micromagnetic simulations. We find that the spin-polarized current not only broadens the time window of the pulse duration, in which a successful precessional reversal is achievable, but also significantly suppresses the magnetization ringing after the reversal. The pulse time window as well as the decay rate of the ringing increase with increasing the current density. When a spin-polarized current with 5 MA/cm2 is applied, the time window increases from 80 ps to 112 ps, and the relaxation time of the ringing decreases from 1.1 ns to 0.32 ns. Our results provide useful information to achieve magnetic nanodevices based on precessional switching.

  20. SSWL and BWL: finite element models of compressed magnetic field current generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, T.J.; Leeman, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Documentation is presented for two new computer codes modeling the behavior of compressed magnetic field current generators. Code output results for the typical generator configurations are presented and compared to experimental results. (auth)

  1. Alpha-Effect, Current and Kinetic Helicities for Magnetically Driven ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Key words. Sun—dynamo, helicity, turbulent convection. Extended abstract. Recent numerical simulations lead to the result that turbulence is much more mag- netically driven than believed. ... positive (and negative in the northern hemisphere), this being just opposite to what occurs for the current helicity which is negative ...

  2. High performance current controller for particle accelerator magnets supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Bidoggia, Benoit; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The electromagnets in modern particle accelerators require high performance power supply whose output is required to track the current reference with a very high accuracy (down to 50 ppm). This demands very high bandwidth controller design. A converter based on buck converter topology is used...

  3. Current-voltage characteristics of quantum-point contacts in the closed-channel regime: Transforming the bias voltage into an energy scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloos, K.; Utko, P.; Aagesen, M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the I(V) characteristics (current versus bias voltage) of side-gated quantum-point contacts, defined in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures. These point contacts are operated in the closed-channel regime, that is, at fixed gate voltages below zero-bias pinch-off for conductance. Our....... Such a built-in energy-voltage calibration allows us to distinguish between the different contributions to the electron transport across the pinched-off contact due to thermal activation or quantum tunneling. The first involves the height of the barrier, and the latter also its length. In the model that we...

  4. Current-induced domain wall motion in magnetic nanowires with spatial variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieda, Jun'ichi; Sugishita, Hiroki; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2010-01-01

    We model current-induced domain wall motion in magnetic nanowires with the variable width. Employing the collective coordinate method we trace the wall dynamics. The effect of the width modulation is implemented by spatial dependence of an effective magnetic field. The wall destination in the potential energy landscape due to the magnetic anisotropy and the spatial nonuniformity is obtained as a function of the current density. For a nanowire of a periodically modulated width, we identify three (pinned, nonlinear, and linear) current density regimes for current-induced wall motion. The threshold current densities depend on the pulse duration as well as the magnitude of wire modulation. In the nonlinear regime, application of ns order current pulses results in wall displacement which opposes or exceeds the prediction of the spin transfer mechanism. The finding explains stochastic nature of the domain wall displacement observed in recent experiments.

  5. Outcomes in spasticity after repetitive transcranial magnetic and transcranial direct current stimulations

    OpenAIRE

    Gunduz, Aysegul; Kumru, Hatice; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulations mainly consist of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation exhibits satisfactory outcomes in improving multiple sclerosis, stroke, spinal cord injury and cerebral palsy-induced spasticity. By contrast, transcranial direct current stimulation has only been studied in post-stroke spasticity. To better validate the efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulations in improving ...

  6. NUMERICAL RESEARCH TECHNIQUES OF MAGNETIC FIELDS GENERATED BY INDUCTION CURRENTS IN A MASSIVE CONDUCTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Tchernykh A. G.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the technology of application of numerical methods in the educational process in physics on the example of a study of the magnetic field induced by induction currents in a cylindrical conductor in a quasi-stationary magnetic field. Here is given the numerical calculation of the real and imaginary parts of the Bessel functions of complex argument. The listing of the program of drawing the graphs of the radial dependence of the amplitude and phase shift of the inductive currents fie...

  7. Colour magnetic currents and the dual London equation in SU(3) lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skala, P.; Faber, M.; Zach, M.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a method for the determination of magnetic currents in non-Abelian gauge theories which does not need a projection to Abelian degrees of freedom. With this definition we are able to determine the distribution of magnetic currents and electric fields for the gluonic flux tube between a pair of static charges. Further we check the validity of the Gauss law and the dual London equation in a gauge-invariant formulation. (orig.)

  8. Current measurement system utilizing cryogenic techniques for the absolute measurement of the magnetic flux quantum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, T.; Murayama, Y.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sakuraba, T.; Shiota, F.

    1989-01-01

    A series of systems composed of cryogenic devices such as a Josephson potentiometer and a cryogenic current comparator has been proposed and developed to precisely measure a current with any value up to 1 A. These systems will be used to measure the injected electrical energy with an uncertainty of the order of 0.01 ppm or less in the absolute measurement of the magnetic flux quantum by superconducting magnetic levitation. Some preliminary experiments are described

  9. Current-Induced Switching of a Single-Molecule Magnet with Arbitrary Oriented Easy Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnas, Józef

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate theoretically how tilting of an easy axis of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) from the orientation collinear with magnetic moments of the leads affects the switching process induced by current flowing through the system. To do this we consider a model system that consists of a SMM embedded in the nonmagnetic barrier of a magnetic tunnel junction. The anisotropy axis of the SMM forms an arbitrary angle with magnetic moments of the leads (the latt...

  10. Development of a beam current monitor by using an amorphous magnetic core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Ueda, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Miya, K.; Tagawa, S.; Kobayashi, H.

    1993-01-01

    The high performance amorphous magnetic core monitor (ACM) for the measurement of electron beam currents has been developed. This monitor is composed of an amorphous magnetic core, radiation shields, a winding, magnetic absorbers, a ceramic vacuum duct and a SMA connecter. The ACM showed the very fast rise and fall times (< 1 ns), the high sensitivity (5 V/A at 50 Ω load), the good linearity, and good S/N ratio due to the high permeability of the amorphous magnetic core. The monitor works as a primary transformer. The time-response was simulated by an electric circuit analysis code. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: current indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalonde, L.; David, J.; Trop, I.

    2005-01-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an increasing role in the management of selecting breast cancer patients. MRI is recognized as the most sensitive modality for the detection of invasive breast cancer. Several valuable clinical applications of MRI have emerged for breast cancer detection and diagnosis from clinical investigations. Breast MRI is helpful for women diagnosed with breast cancer who contemplate breast conserving surgery; it provides valuable information on the extent of the disease. MRI can also help assess for residual invasive cancer in patients who have undergone lumpectomy with positive margins at pathology. It is very reliable in differentiating scar tissue from recurrence at the lumpectomy site. MRI is also reliable in finding a breast cancer in women with axillary nodal metastases and unknown primary tumour. MRI can help to monitor the response to chemotherapy. Breast MRI could be a better screening tool than mammography in women with very high risks of developing breast cancer, such as breast cancer gene carriers and patients treated with chest radiation. Other potential uses of MRI include evaluation of the integrity of silicone breast implants and evaluation of the parenchyma in women with silicone gel implants or free injection of silicone gel. However, like any other technique, breast MRI has some drawbacks, including low-to-moderate specificity, high costs, and variability in technique and interpretation. Radiologists must have a clear understanding of valid indications and selection criteria to use this technique appropriately. (author)

  12. Improvement of the detection limits in radio-frequency-powered glow discharge optical emission spectrometry associated with bias-current conduction method; Jiko bias denryu donyuho ni yoru koshuha glow hoden hakko bunseki ni okeru kenshutsu genkai no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagatsuma, K. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Research Institute for Materials

    1999-01-01

    A d.c. bias current driven by the self-bias voltage which is conducted through the r.f.-powered glow discharge plasma varies the emission characteristics drastically, leading to improvement of the detection power in the optical emission spectrometry. By conducting the bias currents of 20-30 mA, the emission intensities of the atomic resonance lines were 10-20 times larger than those obtained with conventional r.t.- powered plasmas. The detection limits for determination of alloyed elements in the re-based binary alloy samples were estimated to be l.6 x 10{sup -3}% Cr for CrI 425.43nm, 7 x 10{sup -4}% Mn for MnI 403.10nm, 1.9>10{sup -3}% Cu for CuI 327.40nm, 1.1 x 10{sup -3}% Al for AlI 396.16nm, and 6.6 x 10{sup -3}% Ni for NiI 352.45 nm. (author)

  13. Tunable exchange bias effect in magnetic Bi0.9Gd0.1Fe0.9Ti0.1O3 nanoparticles at temperatures up to 250K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basith, M. A.; Khan, F. A.; Ahmmad, Bashir

    2015-01-01

    that the strength of the exchange bias effect is tunable by the field cooling. The HEB values are also found to be dependent on the temperature. This magnetically tunable exchange bias obtained at temperatures up to 250K in Bi0.9Gd0.1Fe0.9Ti0.1O3 nanoparticles may be worthwhile for potential applications.......The exchange bias (EB) effect has been observed in magnetic Bi0.9Gd0.1Fe0.9Ti0.1O3 nanoparticles.The influence of magnetic field cooling on the exchange bias effect has also been investigated. The magnitude of the exchange bias field (HEB) increases with the cooling magnetic field, showing...

  14. Room temperature magnetic ordering, enhanced magnetization and exchange bias of GdMnO_3 nanoparticles in (GdMnO_3)_0_._7_0(CoFe_2O_4)_0_._3_0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, A.; Mahapatra, A.S.; Mallick, A.; Chakrabarti, P.K.

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles of GdMnO_3 (GMO) are prepared by sol-gel method. To enhance the magnetic property and also to obtain the magnetic ordering at room temperature (RT), nanoparticles of GMO are incorporated in the matrix of CoFe_2O_4 (CFO). Desired crystallographic phases of CFO, GMO and GMO-CFO are confirmed by analyzing X-ray diffractrograms (XRD) using Rietveld method. The average size of nanoparticles and their distribution, crystallographic phase, nanocrystallinity etc. are studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Magnetic hysteresis loops (M-H) of GMO-CFO under zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) conditions are observed at different temperatures down to 5 K. Magnetization vs. temperature (M-T) under ZFC and FC conditions are also recorded. Interestingly, exchange bias (EB) is found at low temperature which suggests the encapsulation of the ferromagnetic (FM) nanoparticles of GMO by the ferrimagnetic nanoparticles of CFO below ~100 K. Enhanced magnetization, EB effect and RT magnetic ordering of GMO-CFO would be interesting for both theoretical and experimental investigations. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of GdMnO_3 are incorporated in the matrix of CoFe_2O_4. • RT magnetic ordering of GMO nanoparticles in GMO-CFO is observed. • Magnetic property of GMO-CFO is highly enhanced compared to GMO. • Exchange bias is found in GMO-CFO at low temperature.

  15. Synergy of exchange bias with superconductivity in ferromagnetic-superconducting layered hybrids: the influence of in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic order on superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamopoulos, D; Manios, E; Pissas, M

    2007-01-01

    It is generally believed that superconductivity and magnetism are two antagonistic long-range phenomena. However, as was preliminarily highlighted in Stamopoulos et al (2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 014501), and extensively studied in this work, under specific circumstances these phenomena instead of being detrimental to each other may even become cooperative so that their synergy may promote the superconducting properties of a hybrid structure. Here, we have studied systematically the magnetic and transport behavior of such exchange biased hybrids that are comprised of ferromagnetic (FM) Ni 80 Fe 20 and low-T c superconducting (SC) Nb for the case where the magnetic field is applied parallel to the specimens. Two structures have been studied: FM-SC-FM trilayers (TLs) and FM-SC bilayers (BLs). Detailed magnetization data on the longitudinal and transverse magnetic components are presented for both the normal and superconducting states. These data are compared to systematic transport measurements including I-V characteristics. The comparison of the exchange biased BLs and TLs that are studied here with the plain ones studied in Stamopoulos et al (2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 184504) enable us to reveal an underlying parameter that may falsify the interpretation of the transport properties of relevant FM-SC-FM TLs and FM-SC BLs investigated in the recent literature: the underlying mechanism motivating the extreme magnetoresistance peaks in the TLs relates to the suppression of superconductivity mainly due to the magnetic coupling of the two FM layers as the out-of-plane rotation of their magnetizations takes place across the coercive field where stray fields emerge in their whole surface owing to the multidomain magnetic state that they acquire. The relative in-plane magnetization configuration of the outer FM layers exerts a secondary contribution on the SC interlayer. Since the exchange bias directly controls the in-plane magnetic order it also controls the out-of-plane rotation of

  16. A constitutive model for the forces of a magnetic bearing including eddy currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D. L.; Hebbale, K. V.

    1993-01-01

    A multiple magnet bearing can be developed from N individual electromagnets. The constitutive relationships for a single magnet in such a bearing is presented. Analytical expressions are developed for a magnet with poles arranged circumferencially. Maxwell's field equations are used so the model easily includes the effects of induced eddy currents due to the rotation of the journal. Eddy currents must be included in any dynamic model because they are the only speed dependent parameter and may lead to a critical speed for the bearing. The model is applicable to bearings using attraction or repulsion.

  17. Magnetic field dependence of the current flowing in the spin-coated chlorophyll thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, J. R. P.; Kusumandari; Purnama, B.

    2018-03-01

    The magnetic dependence of the current flowing in the spin coated chlorophyll films on a patterned Cu PCB substrate has been presented. Chlorophyll was isolated from Spirulina sp and deposited by spin coated methods. The reducing of current by the change of magnetic field (magneto conductance effect) was performed by inducing the magnetic field parallel to the inplane of film at room temp. The magnetoconductance ratio decreases as the increase of voltage. It was indicated that the origin of carrier charge in chlorophyll films should be different with the carrier charge injection (electron).

  18. Flux pinning and critical current in layered type-II superconductors in parallel magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokic, V.; Davidovic, D.; Dobrosavljevic-Grujic, L.

    1995-01-01

    We have shown, within the Ginzburg-Landau theory, that the interaction between vortices and normal-metal layers in high-T c superconductor--normal-metal superlattices can cause high critical-current densities j c . The interaction is primarily magnetic, except at very low temperatures T, where the core interaction is dominant. For a lattice of vortices commensurate with an array of normal-metal layers in a parallel magnetic field H, strong magnetic pinning is obtained, with a nonmonotonic critical-current dependence on H, and with j c of the order of 10 7 --10 8 A/cm 2

  19. Effects of the shape anisotropy and biasing field on the magnetization reversal process of the diamond-shaped NiFe nano films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sichen; Yin, Jianfeng; Tang, Rujun; Zhang, Wenxu; Peng, Bin; Zhang, Wanli

    2017-11-01

    The effects of the planar shape anisotropy and biasing field on the magnetization reversal process (MRP) of the diamond-shaped NiFe nano films have been investigated by micromagnetic simulations. Results show that when the length to width ratio (LWR) of the diamond-shaped film is small, the MRP of the diamond-shaped films are sensitive to LWR. But when LWR is larger than 2, a stable domain switching mode is observed which nucleates from the center of the diamond and then expands to the edges. At a fixed LWR, the magnitude of the switching fields decrease with the increase of the biasing field, but the domain switching mode is not affected by the biasing field. Further analysis shows that demagnetization energy dominates over the MRP of the diamond-shaped films. The above LWR dependence of MRP can be well explained by a variation of the shape anisotropic factor with LWR.

  20. Magnetic relaxation, flux pinning and critical currents in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberger, K.S.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic study of the magnetic flux pinning properties in superconductors has been undertaken in an attempt to understand the differences between the flux creep behavior of classical superconductors and high-temperature superconductors (HTSC's). In HTSC's, the ratio of the effective flux pinning energy to the thermal energy, U 0 /kT, is much smaller than that of conventional superconductors, often approaching unity. This results in much larger creep rates in HTSC's than in conventional superconductors. It is necessary to find suitable models that describe flux creep in both classical superconductors and HTSC's. Results show that while these two classes of materials are quantitatively very different, a single pinning barrier mode adequately describes both, within the proper region of the H-T plane. The model is applied to a variety of superconductors and the results are contrasted. Although the H-T plane appears to be very different HTSC's than for conventional superconductors, qualitatively the same physics describes both. In HTSC's, near the upper critical field there exists a relatively wide region of superconducting fluctuations, followed successively by regions of thermodynamic reversibility, thermally assisted flux, flux creep, and finally rigid flux lattice where little, if any, motion of the flux lattice occurs. All of these regions are also present in conventional superconductors, but often much more difficult, especially the irreversibility transition and the fluctuation region. The central finding of the flux creep analysis is that the region of flux creep is defined as a band in the H-T plane in which 2 ≤ U 0 /kT ≤ 100, and that the flux creep model applies best within this band

  1. Construction of high current density SC magnets and their thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, K.; Katase, A.; Kobayashi, M.; Wake, M.; Suzuki, K.

    1979-07-01

    Pancake type solenoid magnets are constructed which have a similar cooling characteristics to a pulsed dipole magnet for a synchrotron. A metal inpregnated braided cable is used to test a long sample of the cable. The detailed performances of the magnets and cable are examined with respect to achieved fields, training effect and ac losses. The stability theories which have been proposed so far are not adequate to these high current density magnets, so that a new method is developed to estimate the magnet stability. The minimum energy of thermal disturbances (MQE) which causes a quenching is measured by experiment and is compared with the calculation. The calculated values of MQE are in good agreement with the experimental results. The performance of the pancake magnet is discussed on the basis of MQE. (author)

  2. The Origin and Structure of the Magnetic Fields and Currents of AGN Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gabuzda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews observational evidence obtained to date about the overall structure of the magnetic fields in the jets of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN. Because they are sensitive to the line-of-sight magnetic-field component, Faraday rotation observations of AGN jets provide an effective tool for searching for toroidal jet magnetic fields, whose line-of-sight component changes systematically across the jet. Transverse Faraday rotation measure (RM gradients providing direct evidence for helical/toroidal magnetic fields have been reliably detected in nearly 40 AGN on parsec scales. Helical magnetic fields are believed to form due to the combined action of the rotation of the central black hole and accretion disk, and these observations demonstrate that at least some of this helical field survives to distances well beyond the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI core. Observations of reversals in the direction of the transverse RM gradients in a number of AGN provide evidence for a“return”magnetic field forming a nested helical-field structure with oppositely directed azimuthal components in the inner and outer regions of the helical magnetic field. The collected data now provide firm evidence for a predominance of inward jet currents on parsec scales and outward currents on scales greater than a few tens of parsecs. This suggests a global pattern of magnetic fields and currents with an inward current near the jet axis and an outward current farther from the jet axis, with these currents closing in the accretion disk and far out in the radio lobes, forming a self-consistent set of fields and currents together with the implied nested helical-field structure.

  3. A β-Ta system for current induced magnetic switching in the absence of external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenzhe; Qian, Lijuan; Xiao, Gang

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic switching via Giant Spin Hall Effect (GSHE) has received great interest for its role in developing future spintronics logic or memory devices. In this work, a new material system (i.e. a transition metal sandwiched between two ferromagnetic layers) with interlayer exchange coupling is introduced to realize the deterministic field-free perpendicular magnetic switching. This system uses β-Ta, as the GSHE agent to generate a spin current and as the interlayer exchange coupling medium to generate an internal field. The critical switching current density at zero field is on the order of 106 A/cm2 due to the large spin Hall angle of β-Ta. The internal field, along with switching efficiency, depends strongly on the orthogonal magnetization states of two ferromagnetic coupling layers in this system.

  4. Peak divergence in the curve of magnetoelectric coefficient versus dc bias magnetic field at resonance region for bi-layer magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Zuo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoelectric (ME coefficient dependence on the bias magnetic field at resonance frequencies for the bi-layered bonded Terfenol-D/Pb(Zr,TiO3 composite was investigated. The resonance frequency decreases first and then increases with the bias magnetic field (HDC, showing a “V” shape in the range of 0 ∼ 5 kOe. Below the resonance frequency, the pattern of ME coefficient dependence on the HDC shows a single peak, but splits into a double-peak pattern when the testing frequency increases into a certain region. With increasing the frequency, a divergent evolution of the HDC patterns was observed. Domain motion and ΔE effect combined with magnetostriction-piezoelectric coupling effect were employed to explain this experimental result.

  5. Hall magnetohydrodynamic effects for current sheet flapping oscillations related to the magnetic double gradient mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkaev, N. V.; Semenov, V. S.; Biernat, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    Hall magnetohydrodynamic model is investigated for current sheet flapping oscillations, which implies a gradient of the normal magnetic field component. For the initial undisturbed current sheet structure, the normal magnetic field component is assumed to have a weak linear variation. The profile of the electric current velocity is described by hyperbolic functions with a maximum at the center of the current sheet. In the framework of this model, eigenfrequencies are calculated as functions of the wave number for the ''kink'' and ''sausage'' flapping wave modes. Because of the Hall effects, the flapping eigenfrequency is larger for the waves propagating along the electric current, and it is smaller for the opposite wave propagation with respect to the current. The asymmetry of the flapping wave propagation, caused by Hall effects, is pronounced stronger for thinner current sheets. This is due to the Doppler effect related to the electric current velocity.

  6. A magnetic vector potential corresponding to a centrally conservative current element force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minteer, Timothy M

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic vector potential (Coulomb gauge) is commonly introduced in magnetostatic chapters of electromagnetism textbooks. However, what is not typically presented are the infinite subsets of the Coulomb gauge associated with differential current elements. This work provides a comparison of various differential magnetic vector potentials, differential magnetostatic potential energies, as well as differential current element forces as a collective work not available elsewhere. The differential magnetic vector potential highlighted in this work is the Coulomb–Ampère gauge corresponding to the centrally conservative Ampère current element force. The centrally conservative force is modeled as a mean valued continual exchange of energy carrier mediators accounting for both the differential magnetostatic potential energy and Ampère current element force of two differential current elements. (paper)

  7. Current-induced switching of magnetic molecules on topological insulator surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locane, Elina; Brouwer, Piet W.

    2017-03-01

    Electrical currents at the surface or edge of a topological insulator are intrinsically spin polarized. We show that such surface or edge currents can be used to switch the orientation of a molecular magnet weakly coupled to the surface or edge of a topological insulator. For the edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator as well as for the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator the application of a well-chosen surface or edge current can lead to a complete polarization of the molecule if the molecule's magnetic anisotropy axis is appropriately aligned with the current direction. For a generic orientation of the molecule a nonzero but incomplete polarization is obtained. We calculate the probability distribution of the magnetic states and the switching rates as a function of the applied current.

  8. Switching Magnetism and Superconductivity with Spin-Polarized Current in Iron-Based Superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seokhwan; Choi, Hyoung Joon; Ok, Jong Mok; Lee, Yeonghoon; Jang, Won-Jun; Lee, Alex Taekyung; Kuk, Young; Lee, SungBin; Heinrich, Andreas J; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Bang, Yunkyu; Johnston, Steven; Kim, Jun Sung; Lee, Jhinhwan

    2017-12-01

    We explore a new mechanism for switching magnetism and superconductivity in a magnetically frustrated iron-based superconductor using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SPSTM). Our SPSTM study on single-crystal Sr_{2}VO_{3}FeAs shows that a spin-polarized tunneling current can switch the Fe-layer magnetism into a nontrivial C_{4} (2×2) order, which cannot be achieved by thermal excitation with an unpolarized current. Our tunneling spectroscopy study shows that the induced C_{4} (2×2) order has characteristics of plaquette antiferromagnetic order in the Fe layer and strongly suppresses superconductivity. Also, thermal agitation beyond the bulk Fe spin ordering temperature erases the C_{4} state. These results suggest a new possibility of switching local superconductivity by changing the symmetry of magnetic order with spin-polarized and unpolarized tunneling currents in iron-based superconductors.

  9. Circular Array of Magnetic Sensors for Current Measurement: Analysis for Error Caused by Position of Conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Qian, Zheng; Liu, Huayi; Qu, Jiaqi

    2018-02-14

    This paper analyzes the measurement error, caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor, of a circular array of magnetic sensors for current measurement. The circular array of magnetic sensors is an effective approach for AC or DC non-contact measurement, as it is low-cost, light-weight, has a large linear range, wide bandwidth, and low noise. Especially, it has been claimed that such structure has excellent reduction ability for errors caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor, crosstalk current interference, shape of the conduction cross-section, and the Earth's magnetic field. However, the positions of the current-carrying conductor-including un-centeredness and un-perpendicularity-have not been analyzed in detail until now. In this paper, for the purpose of having minimum measurement error, a theoretical analysis has been proposed based on vector inner and exterior product. In the presented mathematical model of relative error, the un-center offset distance, the un-perpendicular angle, the radius of the circle, and the number of magnetic sensors are expressed in one equation. The comparison of the relative error caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor between four and eight sensors is conducted. Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) sensors are used in the experimental prototype to verify the mathematical model. The analysis results can be the reference to design the details of the circular array of magnetic sensors for current measurement in practical situations.

  10. High magnetic field science and its application in the United States current status and future directions

    CERN Document Server

    National Research Council of the National Academies

    2013-01-01

    The Committee to Assess the Current Status and Future Direction of High Magnetic Field Science in the United States was convened by the National Research Council in response to a request by the National Science Foundation. This report answers three questions: (1) What is the current state of high-field magnet science, engineering, and technology in the United States, and are there any conspicuous needs to be addressed? (2) What are the current science drivers and which scientific opportunities and challenges can be anticipated over the next ten years? (3) What are the principal existing and planned high magnetic field facilities outside of the United States, what roles have U.S. high field magnet development efforts played in developing those facilities, and what potentials exist for further international collaboration in this area? A magnetic field is produced by an electrical current in a metal coil. This current exerts an expansive force on the coil, and a magnetic field is "high" if it challenges the str...

  11. Duality of the magnetic flux tube and electric current descriptions magnetospheric plasma and energy flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, G.

    1981-01-01

    The duality between electric current and magnetic flux tubes is outlined for the magnetosphere. Magnetic flux tubes are regarded as fluid elements subjected to various stresses. Current closure then becomes the dual of stress balance, and Poynting vector energy flow a dual of J x E dissipation. The stresses acting on a flux tube are magnetic stresses, which correspond to currents at a distance, and plasma stresses, which correspond to local currents. The duality between current and stress is traced for ionospheric ion drag forces, solar wind stresses at the magnetopause, inertial effects, and the effects of energetic plasma on flux tubes. The stress balance and dual current systems are outlined for idealized magnetospheres of increasing complexity. For a simple magnetosphere with no convective flow, the balance stresses are solar wind pressure and neutral sheet plasma pressure. The corresponding current systems are the Chapman-Ferraro magnetopause currents and the magetotail current system. The introduction of convective flow introduces further stresses: ionospheric ion drag. Alfven layer shielding, and an imbalance in day-night magnetic stresses due to transport of flux tubes to the nightside by the solar wind. These stresses balance, and hence the corresponding additional currents (the ionospheric Pedersen current and the electrojets, the partial ring current, and two other current systems from the magnetopause and tail) must form a closed current system and do so by the region I and II field-aligned currents of Iijima and Potemra. The energy flow in the above models is described in terms of both Poynting vectors and the above current systems. Temporal variations examined are (1) an increase in dayside merging and/or nightside reconnection, (2) an increase in the energy density of plasma in the plasma sheet, (3) an increase in ionospheric conductivity, and (4) an increase in solar wind pressure

  12. Stimulating the addicted brain : The effects of transcranial direct current stimulation and cognitive bias modification in alcohol users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Uyl, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    In this PhD project we investigated a new intervention in which we combined brain stimulation with cognitive training. We used a form of training called cognitive bias modification (CBM) aimed at retraining dysfunctional automatic reactions towards alcohol. We investigated whether transcranial

  13. Near-Earth Magnetic Field Effects of Large-Scale Magnetospheric Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehr, Hermann; Xiong, Chao; Olsen, Nils; Le, Guan

    2016-01-01

    Magnetospheric currents play an important role in the electrodynamics of near- Earth space. This has been the topic of many space science studies. Here we focus on the magnetic fields they cause close to Earth. Their contribution to the geomagnetic field is the second largest after the core field. Significant progress in interpreting the magnetic fields from the different sources has been achieved thanks to magnetic satellite missions like Ørsted, CHAMP and now Swarm. Of particular interest for this article is a proper representation of the magnetospheric ring current effect. Uncertainties in modelling its effect still produce the largest residuals between observations and present-day geomagnetic field models. A lot of progress has been achieved so far, but there are still open issues like the characteristics of the partial ring current. Other currents discussed are those flowing in the magnetospheric tail. Also their magnetic contribution at LEO orbits is non-negligible. Treating them as an independent source is a more recent development, which has cured some of the problems in geomagnetic field modelling. Unfortunately there is no index available for characterizing the tail current intensity. Here we propose an approach that may help to properly quantify the magnetic contribution from the tail current for geomagnetic field modelling. Some open questions that require further investigation are mentioned at the end.

  14. Drain Current Modulation of a Single Drain MOSFET by Lorentz Force for Magnetic Sensing Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Chow, Hwang-Cherng; Feng, Wu-Shiung

    2016-08-30

    This paper reports a detailed analysis of the drain current modulation of a single-drain normal-gate n channel metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (n-MOSFET) under an on-chip magnetic field. A single-drain n-MOSFET has been fabricated and placed in the center of a square-shaped metal loop which generates the on-chip magnetic field. The proposed device designed is much smaller in size with respect to the metal loop, which ensures that the generated magnetic field is approximately uniform. The change of drain current and change of bulk current per micron device width has been measured. The result shows that the difference drain current is about 145 µA for the maximum applied magnetic field. Such changes occur from the applied Lorentz force to push out the carriers from the channel. Based on the drain current difference, the change in effective mobility has been detected up to 4.227%. Furthermore, a detailed investigation reveals that the device behavior is quite different in subthreshold and saturation region. A change of 50.24 µA bulk current has also been measured. Finally, the device has been verified for use as a magnetic sensor with sensitivity 4.084% (29.6 T(-1)), which is very effective as compared to other previously reported works for a single device.

  15. Validation of Finite-Element Models of Persistent-Current Effects in Nb3Sn Accelerator Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Ambrosio, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Collings, E. W.; Dietderich, D. R.; DiMarco, J.; Felice, H.; Ghosh, A. K.; Godeke, A.; Gourlay, S. A.; Marchevsky, M.; Prestemon, S. O.; Sabbi, G.; Sumption, M. D.; Velev, G. V.; Xu, X.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent magnetization currents are induced in superconducting filaments during the current ramping in magnets. The resulting perturbation to the design magnetic field leads to field quality degradation, in particular at low field where the effect is stronger relative to the main field. The effects observed in NbTi accelerator magnets were reproduced well with the critical-state model. However, this approach becomes less accurate for the calculation of the persistent-current effects observed in Nb 3 Sn accelerator magnets. Here a finite-element method based on the measured strand magnetization is validated against three state-of-art Nb3Sn accelerator magnets featuring different subelement diameters, critical currents, magnet designs and measurement temperatures. The temperature dependence of the persistent-current effects is reproduced. Based on the validated model, the impact of conductor design on the persistent current effects is discussed. The performance, limitations and possible improvements of the approach are also discussed

  16. Breaking the current density threshold in spin-orbit-torque magnetic random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Yuan, H. Y.; Wang, X. S.; Wang, X. R.

    2018-04-01

    Spin-orbit-torque magnetic random access memory (SOT-MRAM) is a promising technology for the next generation of data storage devices. The main bottleneck of this technology is the high reversal current density threshold. This outstanding problem is now solved by a new strategy in which the magnitude of the driven current density is fixed while the current direction varies with time. The theoretical limit of minimal reversal current density is only a fraction (the Gilbert damping coefficient) of the threshold current density of the conventional strategy. The Euler-Lagrange equation for the fastest magnetization reversal path and the optimal current pulse is derived for an arbitrary magnetic cell and arbitrary spin-orbit torque. The theoretical limit of minimal reversal current density and current density for a GHz switching rate of the new reversal strategy for CoFeB/Ta SOT-MRAMs are, respectively, of the order of 105 A/cm 2 and 106 A/cm 2 far below 107 A/cm 2 and 108 A/cm 2 in the conventional strategy. Furthermore, no external magnetic field is needed for a deterministic reversal in the new strategy.

  17. Current drive by neutral beams, rotating magnetic fields and helicity injection in compact toroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farengo, R.; Arista, N.R.; Lifschitz, A.F.; Clemente, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of neutral beams (NB) for current drive and heating in spheromaks, the relaxed states of flux core spheromaks (FCS) sustained by helicity injection and the effect of ion dynamics on rotating magnetic field (RMF) current drive in spherical tokamaks (ST) are studied. (author)

  18. Characterization of a high-power/current pulsed magnetized arc discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, J. J.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Morgan, T. W.; D.C. Schram,; De Temmerman, G.

    2012-01-01

    A high-power pulsed magnetized arc discharge has been developed to allow the superimposition of a dc plasma and a high-power plasma impulse with a single plasma source. A capacitor bank (8400 mu F) is parallel-coupled to the current regulated power supply. The current is transiently increased from

  19. Characterization of a high-power/current pulsed magnetized arc discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, J.J.; Meiden, van der H.J.; Morgan, T.W.; Schram, D.C.; De Temmerman, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    A high-power pulsed magnetized arc discharge has been developed to allow the superimposition of a dc plasma and a high-power plasma impulse with a single plasma source. A capacitor bank (8400 µF) is parallel-coupled to the current regulated power supply. The current is transiently increased from its

  20. Acoustic emission in a superconductor (Nb-Ti) during magnetic field and current sweep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Harehiko

    1980-01-01

    Though superconducting magnets are indispensable in the fields of nuclear fusion, MHD power generation, high energy technology, and the trains using magnetic levitation, the safety of the magnets used for those fields is required to be fully investigated because their accumulating energy reaches up to several GJ. For this purpose, the improvement of monitoring techniques is extremely important to grasp exactly the magnetization of such large energy magnets. Although the detection of the terminal voltage of the magnets has been mainly used so far, the purpose has not yet been fulfilled because various phenomena appear in the form of noises in the terminal voltage. The authors have found the monitoring method using acoustic emission in a system completely independent from voltage observation. From this viewpoint, the experiments have been performed aiming at the generation of acoustic emission in conjunction with magnetization out of the fine structure of super-conductors, taking notice of the emitted sound frequency ranging over several hundred kHz. The results and investigation revealed that the superconductor itself emitted ultrasonic sound. It was found that the observation of this acoustic power intensity was able to monitor not only the magnetization of superconductors but also its current sweep. Since the motion of the magnetic flux is converted into the signal of acoustic field, this measuring method is less affected by noise disturbance from electromagnetic systems, and is expected to be useful for the researches on analyzing superconductor characteristics. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Magnetic Diagnostics for Equilibrium Reconstructions in the Presence of Nonaxisymmetric Eddy Current Distributions in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; Logan, N.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Zakharov, L.

    2010-01-01

    The lithium tokamak experiment (LTX) is a modest-sized spherical tokamak (R 0 = 0.4 m and a = 0.26 m) designed to investigate the low-recycling lithium wall operating regime for magnetically confined plasmas. LTX will reach this regime through a lithium-coated shell internal to the vacuum vessel, conformal to the plasma last-closed-flux surface, and heated to 300-400 C. This structure is highly conductive and not axisymmetric. The three-dimensional nature of the shell causes the eddy currents and magnetic fields to be three-dimensional as well. In order to analyze the plasma equilibrium in the presence of three-dimensional eddy currents, an extensive array of unique magnetic diagnostics has been implemented. Sensors are designed to survive high temperatures and incidental contact with lithium and provide data on toroidal asymmetries as well as full coverage of the poloidal cross-section. The magnetic array has been utilized to determine the effects of nonaxisymmetric eddy currents and to model the start-up phase of LTX. Measurements from the magnetic array, coupled with two-dimensional field component modeling, have allowed a suitable field null and initial plasma current to be produced. For full magnetic reconstructions, a three-dimensional electromagnetic model of the vacuum vessel and shell is under development.

  2. Alternating current loss reduction for rectangular busbars by covering their edges with low permeable magnetic caps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasada, Ichiro, E-mail: sasada@ence.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    A method to reduce ac conductive losses in a thin rectangular busbar made of copper is presented. The method is based on a technique, which makes the distribution of the ac current in the cross section of a busbar flatter. Edges of a thin busbar are covered with low permeability magnetic thin layers as caps. The magnetic cap makes the impedance experienced by the current flowing near the edge comparatively larger so that currents cannot get crowded near the edges of a busbar. This method is numerically verified.

  3. The R and D of half-sine pulser for eddy-current septum magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Luxin; Han Qian; Kang Wen

    2002-01-01

    The SSRF requires high-amplitude half-sine pulse current (10kA) and relatively narrow pulse width (∼60μs) for its eddy-current septum magnets. Moreover the machine will need a very high level of performance from the pulsers, particularly in terms of pulse amplitude stability and regulating range. For the convenience of maintenance the pulsers will be installed in the power supply hall and cabled to their eddy-current septum magnets by RG220/U. The author presents the pulser design and R and D results

  4. The R and D of half-sine pulser for eddy-current septum magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Fu Lu Xin; Kang Wen

    2002-01-01

    The SSRF requires high-amplitude half-sine pulse current (10kA) and relatively narrow pulse width (approx 60 mu s) for its eddy-current septum magnets. Moreover the machine will need a very high level of performance from the pulsers, particularly in terms of pulse amplitude stability and regulating range. For the convenience of maintenance the pulsers will be installed in the power supply hall and cabled to their eddy-current septum magnets by RG220/U. The author presents the pulser design and R and D results

  5. Measurement of weak magnetic field of corrosion current of isolated corrosion center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Bardin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A very small magnetic field of corrosion current, of the order of 10−4 Oe, generated by isolated zinc inclusion in a copper platelet placed in electrolyte has been measured for the first time with a highly sensitive giant magneto-impedance magnetometer. The total corrosion current of the inclusion is estimated comparing the measured magnetic field distribution with corresponding theoretical calculation. The estimated value of the total corrosion current turns out to be in reasonable agreement with that one obtained in the standard gravimetric measurement.

  6. Shot noise of charge current in a quantum dot responded by rotating and oscillating magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hong-Kang, E-mail: zhaohonk@yahoo.com; Zou, Wei-Ke [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Chen, Qiao [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104 (China)

    2014-09-07

    We have investigated the shot noise and Fano factor of the dynamic spin-polarized quantum dot under the perturbations of a rotating magnetic field (RMF), and an oscillating magnetic field (OMF) by employing the non-equilibrium Green's function approach. The shot noise is enhanced from sub-Poissonian to super-Poissonian due to the application of RMF and OMF, and it is controlled sensitively by the tilt angle θ of RMF. The magnitude of shot noise increases as the photon energy ℏω of OMF increases, and its valley eventually is reversed to peaks as the photon energy is large enough. Double-peak structure of Fano factor is exhibited as the frequency of OMF increases to cover a large regime. The Zeeman energy μ{sub 0}B{sub 0} acts as an effective gate bias to exhibit resonant behavior, and novel peak emerges associated with the applied OMF.

  7. Near-Earth Magnetic Field Effects of Large-Scale Magnetospheric Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Hermann; Xiong, Chao; Olsen, Nils

    2017-01-01

    . Significant progress in interpreting the magnetic fields from the different sources has been achieved thanks to magnetic satellite missions like Ørsted, CHAMP and now Swarm. Of particular interest for this article is a proper representation of the magnetospheric ring current effect. Uncertainties in modelling...... its effect still produce the largest residuals between observations and present-day geomagnetic field models. A lot of progress has been achieved so far, but there are still open issues like the characteristics of the partial ring current. Other currents discussed are those flowing......Magnetospheric currents play an important role in the electrodynamics of near-Earth space. This has been the topic of many space science studies. Here we focus on the magnetic fields they cause close to Earth. Their contribution to the geomagnetic field is the second largest after the core field...

  8. Harmonic current layer method for the design of superconducting quadrupole magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zizek, F.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic field of a superconducting quadrupole is investigated by the method of harmonic current layers of cylindrical shape. The superconducting winding is replaced by a system of thin current layers with a harmonically distributed density of the surface current along the circumference. The effect of the outer ferromagnetic circuit with an arbitrary constant permeability over the cross section is replaced analogically. The resultant magnetic field is then given by the superposition of the contributions from the individual current layers. The calculation method can be modified for the selection of the geometry of the winding for the latter to meet the demand for the high homogeneity of the gradient of magnetic induction in the working space of the superconducting quadrupole. (author)

  9. Study of eddy current power loss from outer-winding coils of a magnetic position sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-P.; Lin, T.-K.; Chang, Y.-H.; Yu, C.-S.; Wu, K.-T.; Wang, S.-J.; Ying, T.-F.; Huang, D.-R.

    2000-01-01

    The present analysis is concerned with eddy current power loss of a magnetic position sensor, which arises from a non-uniform flux linkage distribution between magnetic material and position sensor. In the paper, a magnetic position sensor system is simplified to be an outer-winding coil along the axial direction of a low carbon steel bar, and developed a numerical model to compute the electrical characteristics by an excited current source. According to the simulated and measured data in this proposed model from 2.52 to 11.37 Oes, eddy current power losses of conducting material have a variation of 6.1% and 9.77%, respectively. Finally, the phases of waveform of the induced output voltage will also be obtained in the conducting material, and have a variation of 3.68% obtained by using the current source in the proposed model

  10. Study of eddy current power loss from outer-winding coils of a magnetic position sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, C P; Chang, Y H; Yu, C S; Wu, K T; Wang, S J; Ying, T F; Huang, D R

    2000-01-01

    The present analysis is concerned with eddy current power loss of a magnetic position sensor, which arises from a non-uniform flux linkage distribution between magnetic material and position sensor. In the paper, a magnetic position sensor system is simplified to be an outer-winding coil along the axial direction of a low carbon steel bar, and developed a numerical model to compute the electrical characteristics by an excited current source. According to the simulated and measured data in this proposed model from 2.52 to 11.37 Oes, eddy current power losses of conducting material have a variation of 6.1% and 9.77%, respectively. Finally, the phases of waveform of the induced output voltage will also be obtained in the conducting material, and have a variation of 3.68% obtained by using the current source in the proposed model.

  11. Temperature dependence magnetic properties and exchange bias effect in CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles embedded in NiO matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Kashif [Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Physics Department, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Physics Department, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Sarfraz, A.K., E-mail: sarfraz.ak1@gmail.com [Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Physics Department, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Physics Department, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Ali, Atif; Mumtaz, A.; Hasanain, S.K. [Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Physics Department, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Physics Department, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan)

    2014-11-15

    The effect of temperature on the magnetic properties of CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/NiO nanocomposites of (1−x) NiO/xCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.5) has been investigated. The (1−x)NiO/xCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.5) nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation route and their crystallographic structure was confirmed through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The average crystallite sizes of the nanoparticles as determined from the XRD were found to lie in the range of 20–31 nm. Magnetic characterization including coercivity and magnetization were measured with effect of particle size and temperature. During magnetic measurement it is observed that the hysteresis loop displaces along negative field axis with exchange bias field (H{sub EB}) about 75 Oe at 5 K and vanish at 150 K which is irreversible temperature T{sub irr}. The temperature dependence of coercively follows Kneller's law while the saturation magnetization followed Bloch's law with exponent α=3/2. - Highlights: • Synthesis of (1−x)NiO/xCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.5) nanoparticles by co-precipitation route. • Magnetic characterization with particle size and temperature variation. • Exchange bias effect: monotonic decrease in exchange field with temperature. • Temperature dependence of coercivity follows Kneller's law. • Temperature dependence of saturation magnetization follows Bloch's law.

  12. Eddy current quality control of soldered current-carrying busbar splices of superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Kogan, L; Savary, F; Principe, R; Datskov, V; Rozenfel'd, E; Khudjakov, B

    2015-01-01

    The eddy current technique associated with a U-shaped transducer is studied for the quality control of soldered joints between superconducting busbars ('splices'). Two other quality control techniques, based on X-rays and direct measurement of the electrical resistance, are also studied for comparison. A comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of these three methods in relation to the quality control of soldered superconducting busbar cables enclosed in copper shells is used for benchmarking. The results of inspections with the U-shaped eddy current transducer carried out on several sample joints presenting different types of soldering defects show the potential of this type of nondestructive (ND) quality control technique.

  13. Ring current and auroral electrojets in connection with interplanetary medium parameters during magnetic storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Feldstein

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the auroral electrojet indices (AE and the ring current magnetic field (DR was investigated by observations obtained during the magnetic storm on 1-3 April 1973. During the storm main phase the DR development is accompanied by a shift of the auroral electrojets toward the equator. As a result, the standard AE indices calculated on the basis of data from auroral observatories was substantially lower than the real values (AE'. To determine AE' during the course of a storm main phase data from subauroral magnetic observatories should be used. It is shown that the intensity of the indices (AE' which take into account the shift of the electrojets is increased substantially relative to the standard indices during the storm main phase. AE' values are closely correlated with geoeffective solar wind parameters. A high correlation was obtained between AE' and the energy flux into the ring current during the storm main phase. Analysis of magnetic field variations during intervals with intense southward IMF components demonstrates a decrease of the saturation effect of auroral electrojet currents if subauroral stations magnetic field variations are taken into account. This applies both to case studies and statistical data. The dynamics of the electrojets in connection with the development of the ring current and of magnetospheric substorms can be described by the presence (absence of saturation for minimum (maximum AE index values during a 1-h interval. The ring current magnetic field asymmetry (ASY was calculated as the difference between the maximum and minimum field values along a parallel of latitude at low latitudes. The ASY value is closely correlated with geoeffective solar wind parameters and simultaneously is a more sensitive indicator of IMF Bz variations than the symmetric ring current. ASY increases (decreases faster during the main phase (the recovery phase than DR. The magnetic field decay at low latitudes in the

  14. Current distribution and giant magnetoimpedance in composite wires with helical magnetic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buznikov, N.A.; Antonov, A.S.; Granovsky, A.B.; Kim, C.G.; Kim, C.O.; Li, X.P.; Yoon, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The giant magnetoimpedance effect in composite wires consisting of a non-magnetic inner core and soft magnetic shell is studied theoretically. It is assumed that the magnetic shell has a helical anisotropy. The current and field distributions in the composite wire are found by means of a simultaneous solution of Maxwell equations and the Landau-Lifshitz equation. The expressions for the diagonal and off-diagonal impedance are obtained for low and high frequencies. The dependences of the impedance on the anisotropy axis angle and the shell thickness are analyzed. Maximum field sensitivity is shown to correspond to the case of the circular anisotropy in the magnetic shell. It is demonstrated that the optimum shell thickness to obtain maximum impedance ratio is equal to the effective skin depth in the magnetic material

  15. Current distribution and giant magnetoimpedance in composite wires with helical magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buznikov, N.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation) and Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: n_buznikov@mail.ru; Antonov, A.S. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Granovsky, A.B. [Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Kim, C.G. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: cgkim@cnu.ac.kr; Kim, C.O. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Li, X.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Yoon, S.S. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-01-15

    The giant magnetoimpedance effect in composite wires consisting of a non-magnetic inner core and soft magnetic shell is studied theoretically. It is assumed that the magnetic shell has a helical anisotropy. The current and field distributions in the composite wire are found by means of a simultaneous solution of Maxwell equations and the Landau-Lifshitz equation. The expressions for the diagonal and off-diagonal impedance are obtained for low and high frequencies. The dependences of the impedance on the anisotropy axis angle and the shell thickness are analyzed. Maximum field sensitivity is shown to correspond to the case of the circular anisotropy in the magnetic shell. It is demonstrated that the optimum shell thickness to obtain maximum impedance ratio is equal to the effective skin depth in the magnetic material.

  16. Studies of current-perpendicular-to-plane magnetoresistance (CPP-MR) and current-induced magnetization switching (CIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Huseyin

    2005-08-01

    We present two CPP-MR studies of spin-valves based upon ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic (F/N/F) trilayers. We measure the spin-diffusion lengths of N = Pd, Pt, and Au at 4.2K, and both the specific resistances (sample area A times resistance R) and spin-memory-loss of N/Cu interfaces. Pd, Pt and Au are of special device interest because they give perpendicular anisotropy when sandwiching very thin Co layers. Comparing our spin-memory-loss data at Pd/Cu and Pt/Cu interfaces with older data for Nb/Cu and W/Cu gives insight into the importance of spin-orbit coupling in producing such loss. We reproduce and extend prior studies by Eid of 'magnetic activity' at the interface of Co and N-metals (or combinations of N-metals), when the other side of the N-metal contacts a superconductor (S). Our data suggest that magnetic activity may require strong spin-flipping at the N/S interface. We present five studies of a new phenomenon, CIMS, in F1/N/F2 trilayers, with F1 a thick 'polarizing' layer and F2 a thin 'switching' layer. In all prior studies of CIMS, positive current caused the magnetization of F2 to switch from parallel (P) to anti-parallel (AP) to that of F1- 'normal' switching. By judicious addition of impurities to F-metals, we are able to controllably produce both 'normal' and 'inverse' switching- where positive current switches the magnetization of F2 from AP to P to that of F1. In the samples studied, whether the switching is normal or inverse is set by the 'net polarization' produced by F1 and is independent of the properties of F2. As scattering in the bulk of F1 and F2 is essential to producing our results, these results cannot be described by ballistic models, which allow scattering only at interfaces. Most CIMS experiments use Cu as the N-layer due to its low resistivity and long spin-diffusion length. We show that Ag and Au have low enough resistivities and long enough spin-diffusion lengths to be useful alternatives to Cu for some devices. While

  17. VME computer monitoring system of KEK-PS fast pulsed magnet currents and beam intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, T.; Akiyama, A.; Kadokura, E.; Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    For beam transfer from the KEK-PS Linac to the Booster synchrotron ring and from the Booster to the Main ring, many pulse magnets have been installed. It is very important for the machine operation to monitor the firing time, rising time and peak value of the pulsed magnet currents. It is also very important for magnet tuning to obtain good injection efficiency of the Booster and the Main ring, and to observe the last circulating bunched beam in the Booster as well as the first circulating in the Main. These magnet currents and beam intensity signals are digitized by a digital oscilloscope with signal multiplexers, and then shown on a graphic display screen of the console via a VME computer. (author)

  18. Eddy current damping for magnetic levitation: downscaling from macro- to micro-levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbuken, C; Khamesee, M B; Yavuz, M

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic levitation of miniaturized objects is investigated in this paper. A magnetic levitation setup is built to implement one-dimensional magnetic levitation motion. It was observed that as the levitated object becomes smaller, magnetic levitation suffers more from undesired vibrations. As a solution, eddy current damping is offered and implemented successfully by placing conductive plates close to the levitated object. An analytical expression for damping coefficient is derived. Experimentally, it is shown that eddy current damping can reduce the RMS positioning error to the level of more than one third of its original value for a 0.386 g object levitated in an air-gap region of 290 mm. The proposed system has the potential to be used for micro-manipulation purposes in a high motion range of 39.8 mm

  19. Eddy current damping for magnetic levitation: downscaling from macro- to micro-levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbuken, C; Khamesee, M B; Yavuz, M [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-09-21

    Magnetic levitation of miniaturized objects is investigated in this paper. A magnetic levitation setup is built to implement one-dimensional magnetic levitation motion. It was observed that as the levitated object becomes smaller, magnetic levitation suffers more from undesired vibrations. As a solution, eddy current damping is offered and implemented successfully by placing conductive plates close to the levitated object. An analytical expression for damping coefficient is derived. Experimentally, it is shown that eddy current damping can reduce the RMS positioning error to the level of more than one third of its original value for a 0.386 g object levitated in an air-gap region of 290 mm. The proposed system has the potential to be used for micro-manipulation purposes in a high motion range of 39.8 mm.

  20. Effects of Transverse Magnetic Anisotropy on Current-Induced Spin Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnaś, Józef

    2013-07-01

    Spin-polarized transport through bistable magnetic adatoms or single-molecule magnets (SMMs), which exhibit both uniaxial and transverse magnetic anisotropy, is considered theoretically. The main focus is on the impact of transverse anisotropy on transport characteristics and the adatom’s or SMM’s spin. In particular, we analyze the role of quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) in the mechanism of the current-induced spin switching, and show that the QTM phenomenon becomes revealed as resonant peaks in the average values of the molecule’s spin and in the charge current. These features appear at some resonant fields and are observable when at least one of the electrodes is ferromagnetic.

  1. Limitations on current ripple of the power supplies for the SSC bending magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    Noise and ripple in the bending magnets of large proton collider cause the beam emittance growth and the luminosity degradation. The emittance growth due to voltage ripple of the bending magnets power supplies is studied. The role of the collider transverse feedback system is shown to be very important to facilitate the requirements to value of ripple. The longitudinal emittance growth due to slow variations of power supply current is studied as well. 9 refs.; 15 figs

  2. Contactless estimation of critical current density and its temperature dependence using magnetic measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Youssef, A.; Baničová, L.; Švindrych, Zdeněk; Janů, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 5 (2010), s. 1036-1037 ISSN 0587-4246. [Czech and Slovak Conference on Magnetism /14./. Košice, 06.07.2010-09.07.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : superconductivity * critical state * Bean model * critical current density Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.467, year: 2010

  3. Optimized electrode configuration for current-in-plane characterization of magnetic tunnel junction stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Kjær, Daniel; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2017-01-01

    The current-in-plane tunneling technique (CIPT) has been a crucial tool in the development of magnetic tunnel junction stacks suitable for magnetic random access memories (MRAM) for more than a decade. The MRAM development has now reached the maturity to make the transition from the R&D phase...... of electrodes on a multi-electrode probe to reach up to 36% improvement on the repeatability for the resistance area product and the tunneling magnetoresistance measurement, without any hardware modification....

  4. Meson-exchange-current corrections to magnetic moments in quantum hadrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Corrections to the magnetic moments of the non-relativistic shell model (Schmidt lines) have a long history. In the early fifties calculations of pion exchange and core polarization contributions to nuclear magnetic moments were initiated. These calculations matured by the early eighties to include other mesons and the delta isobar. Relativistic nuclear shell model calculations are relatively recent. Meson exchange and the delta isobar current contributions to the magnetic moments of the relativistic shell model have remained largely unexplored. The disagreement between the valence values of spherical relativistic mean-field models and experiment was a major problem with early (1975-1985) quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) calculations of magnetic moments. Core polarization calculations (1986-1988) have been found to resolve the large discrepancy, predicting isoscalar magnetic moments to within typically five percent of experiment. The isovector magnetic moments, however, are about twice as far from experiment with an average discrepancy of about ten percent. The pion, being the lightest of the mesons, has historically been expected to dominate isovector corrections. Because this has been found to be true in non-relativistic calculations, the author calculated the pion corrections in the framework of QHD. The seagull and in-flight pion exchange current diagram corrections to the magnetic moments of eight finite nuclei (plus or minus one valence nucleon from the magic A = 16 and A = 40 doubly closed shell systems) are calculated in the framework of QHD, and compared with earlier non-relativistic calculations and experiment

  5. An eddy current-induced magnetic plucking for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Nam Ho; Baek, Yoon Su

    2016-01-01

    Frequency up-conversion is a very efficient method of energy harvesting in order to overcome low, non-periodic, or altered ambient vibration. In order to perform frequency up-conversion and transference of mechanical energy without contact, an eddy current-induced magnetic drag force is used. In this paper, we present a novel configuration of eddy current-induced magnetic plucking for piezoelectric energy harvesting. Our method consists of two permanent magnets, a piezoelectric beam, and a copper disk piece. We design our harvesting method to achieve loading, sudden release, and free vibration using the actuation of the piezoelectric beam through the magnetic mutual coupling between the magnet and copper disk piece. We present the principle of magnetic drag force-generation, characterize the energy harvesting performance of our harvesting method, and demonstrate our harvesting method’s capability of frequency up-conversion and transference of mechanical energy without contact under low, non-periodic, or altered ambient vibration. To that end, we describe the calculation of magnetic drag force with various geometric dimensions and material properties, model of the piezoelectric cantilever beam, comparison between estimation response and measured experiment response, and the measured voltage and power responses. (paper)

  6. Change in magnetic induction lines during the current-induced destruction of superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makiei, B; Golab, S; Sikora, A; Troinar, E; Zacharko, W [Polska Akademia Nauk, Wroclaw. Instytut Niskich Temperatur i Badan Strukturalnych

    1976-09-01

    Recent results of experimental investigations show that during the current-induced destruction of superconductivity in cylindrical samples a non-azimuthal component of the magnetic induction arises. This 'autoparamagnetic effect' is observable both in type I and type II superconductors. Assuming a helical form for the magnetic flux filaments the angle between the magnetic induction lines and the plane perpendicular to the Pb + In alloy sample axis is estimated in several cases. A conceptual explanation of the energy losses in the resistive state is.

  7. Change in magnetic induction lines during the current-induced destruction of superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makiej, B; Golab, S; Sikora, A; Trojnar, E; Zacharko, W

    1976-09-01

    Recent results of experimental investigations show that during the current-induced destruction of superconductivity in cylindrical samples a non-azimuthal component of the magnetic induction arises. This ''autoparamagnetic effect'' is observable both in type I and type II superconductors. Assuming a helical form for the magnetic flux filaments the angle between the magnetic induction lines and the plane perpendicular to the Pb + In alloy sample axis is estimated in several cases. A conceptual explanation of the energy losses in the resistive state is presented. 4 refs.

  8. Theory of current instability experiments in magnetic Taylor-Couette flows

    OpenAIRE

    Ruediger, G.; Schultz, M.; Shalybkov, D.; Hollerbach, R.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the linear stability of dissipative MHD Taylor-Couette flow with imposed toroidal magnetic fields. The inner and outer cylinders can be either insulating or conducting; the inner one rotates, the outer one is stationary. The magnetic Prandtl number can be as small as 10-5, approaching realistic liquid-metal values. The magnetic field destabilizes the flow, except for radial profiles of B$_\\phi$(R) close to the current-free solution. The profile with B$_{in}$=B$_{out}$ (the most un...

  9. Magnetic ripple and the modeling of lower-hybrid current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peysson, Y.; Arslanbekov, R.; Basiuk, V.; Carrasco, J.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D.; Bizarro, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Using ray-tracing, a detailed investigation of the lower hybrid (LH) wave propagation in presence of toroidal magnetic field ripple is presented. By coupling ray tracing with a one-dimensional relativistic Fokker-Planck code, simulations of LH experiments have been performed for the Tore Supra tokamak. Taking into account magnetic ripple in LH simulations, a better agreement is found between numerical predictions and experimental observations, such as non-thermal Bremsstrahlung emission, current profile, ripple-induced power losses in local magnetic mirrors, when plasma conditions correspond to the ' 'few passes' regime. (author)

  10. A current controlled matrix converter for wind energy conversion systems based on permanent magnet synchronous generator

    OpenAIRE

    Naggar H. Saad; Ahmed A. El-Sattar; Mohamed I. Marei

    2016-01-01

    The main challenges of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) are to maximize the energy capture from the wind and injecting reactive power during the fault. This paper presents a current controlled matrix converter to interface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (PMSG) based WECS with the grid. To achieve fast dynamic response with reduced current ripples, a hysteresis current control is utilized. The proposed control system decouples the active and reactive components of the PMSG curren...

  11. Thermoelectric-induced spin currents in single-molecule magnet tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Liang; Wang, Ruiqiang; Wang, Baigeng; Xing, D. Y.

    2010-12-01

    A molecular spin-current generator is proposed, which consists of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) coupled to two normal metal electrodes with temperature gradient. It is shown that this tunneling junction can generate a highly spin-polarized current by thermoelectric effects, whose flowing direction and spin polarization can be changed by adjusting the gate voltage applied to the SMM. This device can be realized with current technologies and may have practical use in spintronics and quantum information.

  12. Development of large high current density superconducting solenoid magnets for use in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1977-05-01

    The development of a unique type of large superconducting solenoid magnet, characterized by very high current density windings and a two-phase helium tubular cooling system is described. The development of the magnet's conceptual design and the construction of two test solenoids are described. The successful test of the superconducting coil and its tubular cooling refrigeration system is presented. The safety, environmental and economic impacts of the test program on future developments in high energy physics are shown. Large solid angle particle detectors for colliding beam physics will analyze both charged and neutral particles. In many cases, these detectors will require neutral particles, such as gamma rays, to pass through the magnet coil with minimum interaction. The magnet coils must be as thin as possible. The use of superconducting windings allows one to minimize radiation thickness, while at the same time maximizing charged particle momentum resolution and saving substantial quantities of electrical energy. The results of the experimental measurements show that large high current density solenoid magnets can be made to operate at high stored energies. The superconducting magnet development described has a positive safety and environmental impact. The use of large high current density thin superconducting solenoids has been proposed in two high energy physics experiments to be conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and Cornell University as a result of the successful experiments described

  13. Current-voltage characteristics of a superconducting slab under a superimposed small AC magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Teruo; Yamafuji, Kaoru; Sakamoto, Nobuyoshi.

    1977-01-01

    In case of applying superconductors to electric machinery or high intensity field magnets for fusion reactors, the superconductors are generally expected to be sensible to small field fluctuation besides DC magnetic field. The behavior of superconductors in DC magnetic field superimposed with small AC magnetic field has been investigated often experimentally, and the result has been obtained that the critical current at which DC flow voltage begins to appear extremely decreased or disappeared. Some theoretical investigations have been carried out on this phenomenon so far, however, their application has been limited to the region where frequency is sufficiently low or which is close to the critical magnetic field. Purpose of this report is to deal with the phenomenon in more unified way by analyzing the behavior of magnetic flux lines in a superconductor under a superimposed small AC field using the criticalstate model including viscous force. In order to solve the fundamental equation in this report, first the solution has been obtained in the quasi-static state neglecting viscous force, then about the cases that current density J is not more than Jc and J is larger than Jc, concerning the deviation from the quasi-static limit by employing successive approximation. Current-voltage characteristics have been determined by utilizing the above results. This method seems to be most promising at present except the case of extremely high frequency. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  14. Open-loop correction for an eddy current dominated beam-switching magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, K; Nakayama, H; Tawada, M

    2014-04-01

    A beam-switching magnet and the pulsed power supply it requires have been developed for the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. To switch bunched proton beams, the dipole magnetic field must reach its maximum value within 40 ms. In addition, the field flatness should be less than 5 × 10(-4) to guide each bunched beam to the designed orbit. From a magnetic field measurement by using a long search coil, it was found that an eddy current in the thick endplates and laminated core disturbs the rise of the magnetic field. The eddy current also deteriorates the field flatness over the required flat-top period. The measured field flatness was 5 × 10(-3). By using a double-exponential equation to approximate the measured magnetic field, a compensation pattern for the eddy current was calculated. The integrated magnetic field was measured while using the newly developed open-loop compensation system. A field flatness of less than 5 × 10(-4), which is an acceptable value, was achieved.

  15. Superconducting high current magnetic Circuit: Design and Parameter Estimation of a Simulation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kiefer, Alexander; Reich, Werner Dr

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) utilizes superconducting main dipole magnets that bend the trajectory of the particle beams. In order to adjust the not completely homogeneous magnetic feld of the main dipole magnets, amongst others, sextupole correctcorrector magnets are used. In one of the 16 corrector magnet circuits placed in the LHC, 154 of these sextupole corrector magnets (MCS) are connected in series. This circuit extends on a 3.35 km tunnel section of the LHC. In 2015, at one of the 16 circuits a fault was detected. The simulation of this circuit is helpful for fnding the fault by applying alternating current at different frequencies. Within this Thesis a PSpice model for the simulation of the superconducting corrector magnet circuit was designed. The physical properties of the circuit and its elements were analyzed and implemented. For the magnets and bus-bars, sub-circuits were created which reflect the parasitic effects of electrodynamics and electrostats. The inductance values and capacitance valu...

  16. Similarities between normal- and super-currents in topological insulator magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soodchomshom, Bumned; Chantngarm, Peerasak

    2010-01-01

    This work compares the normal-current in a NM/Fi/NM junction with the super-current in a SC/Fi/SC junction, where both are topological insulator systems. NM and Fi are normal region and ferromagnetic region of thickness d with exchange energy m playing a role of the mass of the Dirac electrons and with the gate voltage V G , respectively. SC is superconducting region induced by a s-wave superconductor. We show that, interestingly, the critical super-current passing through a SC/Fi/SC junction behaves quite similar to the normal-current passing through a NM/Fi/NM junction. The normal-current and super-current exhibit N-peak oscillation, found when currents are plotted as a function of the magnetic barrier strength χ ∼ md/hv F . With the barrier strength Z ∼ V G d/hv F , the number of peaks N is determined through the relation Z ∼ Nπ + σπ (with 0 < σ≤1 for χ < Z). The normal- and the super-currents also exhibit oscillating with the same height for all of peaks, corresponding to the Dirac fermion tunneling behavior. These anomalous oscillating currents due to the interplay between gate voltage and magnetic field in the barrier were not found in graphene-based NM/Fi/NM and SC/Fi/SC junctions. This is due to the different magnetic effect between the Dirac fermions in topological insulator and graphene.

  17. Modeling of Interfilament Coupling Currents and Their Effect on Magnet Quench Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Chlachidze, G; Maciejewski, M; Sabbi, G; Stoynev, S E; Verweij, A

    2017-01-01

    Variations in the transport current of a superconducting magnet cause several types of transitory losses. Due to its relatively short time constant, usually of the order of a few tens of milliseconds, interfilament coupling loss can have a significant effect on the coil protection against overheating after a quench. This loss is deposited in the strands and can facilitate a more homogeneous transition to the normal state of the coil turns. Furthermore, the presence of local interfilament coupling currents reduces the magnet's differential inductance, which in turn provokes a faster discharge of the transport current. The lumped-element dynamic electrothermal model of a superconducting magnet has been developed to reproduce these effects. Simulations are compared to experimental electrical transients and found in good agreement. After its validation, the model can be used for predicting the performance of quench protection systems based on energy extraction, quench heaters, the newly developed coupling-loss-in...

  18. The Properties of the Space-Charge and Net Current Density in Magnetized Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatami, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model is used to investigate the properties of positive space-charge and net current density in the sheath region of magnetized, collisional plasmas with warm positive ions. It is shown that an increase in the ion-neutral collision frequency, as well as the magnitude of the external magnetic field, leads to an increase in the net current density across the sheath region. The results also show that the accumulation of positive ions in the sheath region increases by increasing the ion-neutral collision frequency and the magnitude of the magnetic field. In addition, it is seen that an increase in the positive ion temperatures causes a decrease in the accumulation of positive ions and the net current density in the sheath region. (basic plasma phenomena)

  19. Local Magnetic Measurements of Trapped Flux Through a Permanent Current Path in Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller, Markus; Esquinazi, Pablo D.; Quiquia, José Barzola; Precker, Christian E.

    2018-04-01

    Temperature- and field-dependent measurements of the electrical resistance of different natural graphite samples suggest the existence of superconductivity at room temperature in some regions of the samples. To verify whether dissipationless electrical currents are responsible for the trapped magnetic flux inferred from electrical resistance measurements, we localized them using magnetic force microscopy on a natural graphite sample in remanent state after applying a magnetic field. The obtained evidence indicates that at room temperature a permanent current flows at the border of the trapped flux region. The current path vanishes at the same transition temperature T_c≈ 370 K as the one obtained from electrical resistance measurements on the same sample. This sudden decrease in the phase is different from what is expected for a ferromagnetic material. Time-dependent measurements of the signal show the typical behavior of flux creep of a permanent current flowing in a superconductor. The overall results support the existence of room-temperature superconductivity at certain regions in the graphite structure and indicate that magnetic force microscopy is suitable to localize them. Magnetic coupling is excluded as origin of the observed phase signal.

  20. Towards a beyond 1 GHz solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance: External lock operation in an external current mode for a 500 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masato; Maeda, Hideaki; Ebisawa, Yusuke; Tennmei, Konosuke; Yanagisawa, Yoshinori; Nakagome, Hideki; Hosono, Masami; Takasugi, Kenji; Hase, Takashi; Miyazaki, Takayoshi; Fujito, Teruaki; Kiyoshi, Tsukasa; Yamazaki, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Achieving a higher magnetic field is important for solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). But a conventional low temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet cannot exceed 1 GHz (23.5 T) due to the critical magnetic field. Thus, we started a project to replace the Nb 3 Sn innermost coil of an existing 920 MHz NMR (21.6 T) with a Bi-2223 high temperature superconducting (HTS) innermost coil. Unfortunately, the HTS magnet cannot be operated in persistent current mode; an external dc power supply is required to operate the NMR magnet, causing magnetic field fluctuations. These fluctuations can be stabilized by a field-frequency lock system based on an external NMR detection coil. We demonstrate here such a field-frequency lock system in a 500 MHz LTS NMR magnet operated in an external current mode. The system uses a 7 Li sample in a microcoil as external NMR detection system. The required field compensation is calculated from the frequency of the FID as measured with a frequency counter. The system detects the FID signal, determining the FID frequency, and calculates the required compensation coil current to stabilize the sample magnetic field. The magnetic field was stabilized at 0.05 ppm/3 h for magnetic field fluctuations of around 10 ppm. This method is especially effective for a magnet with large magnetic field fluctuations. The magnetic field of the compensation coil is relatively inhomogeneous in these cases and the inhomogeneity of the compensation coil can be taken into account.

  1. Correlation of superconductor strand, cable, and dipole critical currents in CBA magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.; Garber, M.; Sampson, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    A calibration between vendor critical current data for 0.0268'' diameter superconductor strand supplied to Fermilab, and the BNL 10 -12 Ωcm critical current specification is presented. Vendor critical current data for over 400 Fermilab type billets are shown, both as supplied by the vendor and converted to BNL units. Predictions of cable critical current are made using the sum of the critical currents of the 23 strands, where all strands from the same half billet are assigned the same critical current. The measured critical current shows excellent correlation to the predicted value and is approximately 14 +- 2 percent below it. Colliding Beam Accelerator (CBA) full length dipoles reach the conductor critical current limit, essentially without training. Magnet performance is predictable from the measured critical current of a short sample of cable to within 2%

  2. Energy dissipation of composite multifilamentary superconductors for high-current ramp-field magnet applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gung, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Energy dissipation, which is also called AC loss, of a composite multifilamentary superconducting wire is one of the most fundamental concerns in building a stable superconducting magnet. Characterization and reduction of AC losses are especially important in designing a superconducting magnet for generating transient magnetic fields. The goal of this thesis is to improve the understanding of AC-loss properties of superconducting wires developed for high-current ramp-field magnet applications. The major tasks include: (1) building an advanced AC-loss measurement system, (2) measuring AC losses of superconducting wires under simulated pulse magnet operations, (3) developing an analytical model for explaining the new AC-loss properties found in the experiment, and (4) developing a computational methodology for comparing AC losses of a superconducting wire with those of a cable for a superconducting pulse magnet. A new experimental system using an isothermal calorimetric method was designed and constructed to measure the absolute AC losses in a composite superconductor. This unique experimental setup is capable of measuring AC losses of a brittle Nb 3 Sn wire carrying high AC current in-phase with a large-amplitude pulse magnetic field. Improvements of the accuracy and the efficiency of this method are discussed. Three different types of composite wire have been measured: a Nb 3 Sn modified jelly-roll (MJR) internal-tin wire used in a prototype ohmic heating coil, a Nb 3 Sn internal-tin wire developed for a fusion reactor ohmic heating coil, and a NbTi wire developed for the magnets in a particle accelerator. The cross sectional constructions of these wires represent typical commercial wires manufactured for pulse magnet applications

  3. Magnetic response and critical current properties of mesoscopic-size YBCO superconducting samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa-Filho, P N; Deimling, C V; Ortiz, W A

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution superconducting specimens of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ were synthesized by a modified polymeric precursor method, yielding a ceramic powder with particles of mesoscopic-size. Samples of this powder were then pressed into pellets and sintered under different conditions. The critical current density was analyzed by isothermal AC-susceptibility measurements as a function of the excitation field, as well as with isothermal DC-magnetization runs at different values of the applied field. Relevant features of the magnetic response could be associated to the microstructure of the specimens and, in particular, to the superconducting intra- and intergranular critical current properties.

  4. Magnetic response and critical current properties of mesoscopic-size YBCO superconducting samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisboa-Filho, P N [UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Grupo de Materiais Avancados, Departamento de Fisica, Bauru (Brazil); Deimling, C V; Ortiz, W A, E-mail: plisboa@fc.unesp.b [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    In this contribution superconducting specimens of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} were synthesized by a modified polymeric precursor method, yielding a ceramic powder with particles of mesoscopic-size. Samples of this powder were then pressed into pellets and sintered under different conditions. The critical current density was analyzed by isothermal AC-susceptibility measurements as a function of the excitation field, as well as with isothermal DC-magnetization runs at different values of the applied field. Relevant features of the magnetic response could be associated to the microstructure of the specimens and, in particular, to the superconducting intra- and intergranular critical current properties.

  5. Measurement of current density fluctuations and ambipolar particle flux due to magnetic fluctuations in MST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Weimin.

    1992-08-01

    Studies of magnetic fluctuation induced particle transport on Reversed Field Pinch plasmas were done on the Madison Symmetric Torus. Plasma current density and current density fluctuations were measured using a multi-coil magnetic probes. The low frequency (f parallel B r >. The result of zero net charged particle loss was obtained, meaning the flux is ambipolar. The ambipolarity of low frequency global tearing modes is satisfied through the phase relations determined by tearing instabilities. The ambipolarity of high frequency localized modes could be partially explained by the simple model of Waltz based on the radial average of small scale turbulence

  6. Quantum rings in magnetic fields and spin current generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cini, Michele; Bellucci, Stefano

    2014-04-09

    We propose three different mechanisms for pumping spin-polarized currents in a ballistic circuit using a time-dependent magnetic field acting on an asymmetrically connected quantum ring at half filling. The first mechanism works thanks to a rotating magnetic field and produces an alternating current with a partial spin polarization. The second mechanism works by rotating the ring in a constant field; like the former case, it produces an alternating charge current, but the spin current is dc. Both methods do not require a spin-orbit interaction to achieve the polarized current, but the rotating ring could be used to measure the spin-orbit interaction in the ring using characteristic oscillations. On the other hand, the last mechanism that we propose depends on the spin-orbit interaction in an essential way, and requires a time-dependent magnetic field in the plane of the ring. This arrangement can be designed to pump a purely spin current. The absence of a charge current is demonstrated analytically. Moreover, a simple formula for the current is derived and compared with the numerical results.

  7. Magnetization Dynamics in Two Novel Current-Driven Spintronic Memory Cell Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Velazquez-Rizo, Martin

    2017-07-01

    In this work, two new spintronic memory cell structures are proposed. The first cell uses the diffusion of polarized spins into ferromagnets with perpendicular anisotropy to tilt their magnetization followed by their dipolar coupling to a fixed magnet (Bhowmik et al., 2014). The possibility of setting the magnetization to both stable magnetization states in a controlled manner using a similar concept remains unknown, but the proposed structure poses to be a solution to this difficulty. The second cell proposed takes advantage of the multiple stable magnetic states that exist in ferromagnets with configurational anisotropy and also uses spin torques to manipulate its magnetization. It utilizes a square-shaped ferromagnet whose stable magnetization has preferred directions along the diagonals of the square, giving four stable magnetic states allowing to use the structure as a multi-bit memory cell. Both devices use spin currents generated in heavy metals by the Spin Hall effect present in these materials. Among the advantages of the structures proposed are their inherent non-volatility and the fact that there is no need for applying external magnetic fields during their operation, which drastically improves the energy efficiency of the devices. Computational simulations using the Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework (OOMMF) software package were performed to study the dynamics of the magnetization process in both structures and predict their behavior. Besides, we fabricated a 4-terminal memory cell with configurational anisotropy similar to the device proposed, and found four stable resistive states on the structure, proving the feasibility of this technology for implementation of high-density, non-volatile memory cells.

  8. Visualizing Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in vivo using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jog, Mayank Anant

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a low-cost, non-invasive neuromodulation technique that has been shown to treat clinical symptoms as well as improve cognition. However, no techniques exist at the time of research to visualize tDCS currents in vivo. This dissertation presents the theoretical framework and experimental implementations of a novel MRI technique that enables non-invasive visualization of the tDCS electric current using magnetic field mapping. The first chapter establishes the feasibility of measuring magnetic fields induced by tDCS currents. The following chapter discusses the state of the art implementation that can measure magnetic field changes in individual subjects undergoing concurrent tDCS/MRI. The final chapter discusses how the developed technique was integrated with BOLD fMRI-an established MRI technique for measuring brain function. By enabling a concurrent measurement of the tDCS current induced magnetic field as well as the brain's hemodynamic response to tDCS, our technique opens a new avenue to investigate tDCS mechanisms and improve targeting.

  9. Mechanism of orientation of stimulating currents in magnetic brain stimulation (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, S.; Matsuda, T.

    1991-04-01

    We made a functional map of the human motor cortex related to the hand and foot areas by stimulating the human brain with a focused magnetic pulse. We observed that each functional area in the cortex has an optimum direction for which stimulating currents can produce neural excitation. The present report focuses on the mechanism which is responsible for producing this anisotropic response to brain stimulation. We first obtained a functional map of the brain related to the left ADM (abductor digiti minimi muscles). When the stimulating currents were aligned in the direction from the left to the right hemisphere, clear EMG (electromyographic) responses were obtained only from the left ADM to magnetic stimulation of both hemisphere. When the stimulating currents were aligned in the direction from the right to the left hemisphere, clear EMG signals were obtained only from the right ADM to magnetic stimulation of both hemisphere. The functional maps of the brain were sensitive to changes in the direction of the stimulating currents. To explain the phenomena obtained in the experiments, we developed a model of neural excitation elicited by magnetic stimulation. When eddy currents which are induced by pulsed magnetic fields flow in the direction from soma to the distal part of neural fiber, depolarized area in the distal part are excited, and the membrane excitation propagates along the nerve fiber. In contrast, when the induced currents flow in the direction from the distal part to soma, hyperpolarized parts block or inhibit neural excitation even if the depolarized parts near the soma can be excited. The model explains our observation that the orientation of the induced current vectors reflect both the functional and anatomical organization of the neural fibers in the brain.

  10. Magnetization and critical currents of NbTi wires with fine filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Sampson, W.B.

    1985-01-01

    In high energy accelerators such as the SSC, the magnetization of the superconductor is an important component in determining the harmonic fields at injection (approx.0.3T). In an effort to reduce these residual fields, interest has focused on NbTi conductors with fine filaments which are expected to have a reduced magnetization as dictated by the critical state model. With this in view, the magnetization and critical currents were measured at 4.3K for a set of NbTi wires with filament diameters, d, ranging from 1.0 to 5.0 microns. The data show that, although the magnetization scales linearly with d, it does not do so with the product J/sub c/d for d less than 3 μm. However, at these d values, the critical transport current density, J/sub c/ of NbTi was observed to decrease rapidly as a function of d. The origin of this J/sub c/ degradation and its effect on the scaling of magnetization within the framework of the critical state model is explored. We also examine the question of the observed asymmetry of the hysteretic magnetization

  11. Magnetization switching and microwave oscillations in nanomagnets driven by spin-polarized currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertotti, G.; Magni, A.; Serpico, C.; d'Aquino, M.; Mayergoyz, I. D.; Bonin, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Considerable interest has been generated in recent years by the discovery that a current of spin-polarized electrons can apply appreciable torques to a nanoscale ferromagnet. This mechanism was theoretically predicted and subsequently confirmed by a number of experiments which have shown that spin transfer can indeed induce switching or microwave oscillations of the magnetization. Significant efforts have been devoted to the explanation of these results, in view of the new physics involved and of the possible applications to new types of current-controlled memory cells or microwave sources and resonators . However, the precise nature of magnetization dynamics when spin-polarized currents and external magnetic fields are simultaneously present has not yet been fully understood. The spin-transfer-driven nanomagnet is a nonlinear open system that is forced far from equilibrium by the injection of the current. Thus, the appropriate framework for the study of the problem is nonlinear dynamical system theory and bifurcation theory. In this talk, it is shown that within this framework the complexity and subtlety of spin-torque effects are fully revealed and quantified, once it is recognized that both intrinsic damping and spin transfer can be treated as perturbations of the free precessional dynamics typical of ferromagnetic resonance. Complete stability diagrams are derived for the case where spin torques and external magnetic fields are simultaneously present. Quantitative predictions are made for the critical currents and fields inducing magnetization switching; for the amplitude and frequency of magnetization self-oscillations; for the conditions leading to hysteretic transitions between self-oscillations and stationary states

  12. Calibration of magnetic force microscopy tips by using nanoscale current-carrying parallel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kebe, Th.; Carl, A.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental results on the characterization of commercially available magnetic force microscopy (MFM) thin film tips as a function of an external magnetic field are presented. Magnetic stray fields with a definitive z-component (perpendicular to the substrate) and a magnetic field strength of up to H z =±45 Oe are produced with current carrying parallel nanowires with a thickness of t=60 nm, which are fabricated by electron-beam lithography. The magnetic fields are generated by electrical dc-currents of up to ±6 mA which are directed antiparallel through the nanowires. The geometry and the dimensions of the nanowires are systematically varied by choosing different wire widths w as well as separations b between the parallel wires for two different sets of samples. On the one hand, the wire width w is varied within 380 nm< w<2460 nm while the separation b≅450 nm between the wires is kept constant. On the other hand the separation b between the parallel wires is varied within 120 nm< b<5100 nm, while the wire width w=960 nm is kept constant. For all the geometrical configurations of parallel wires the resulting magnetic contrast is imaged by MFM at various tip lift-heights. By treating the MFM tip as a point probe, the analysis of the image contrast as a function of both the magnetic field strength and the tip lift height allows one to quantitatively determine the effective magnetic dipole and monopole moments of the tip as well as their imaginary locations within the real physical tip. Our systematic study quantitatively relates the above point-probe parameters to (i) the dimensions of the parallel wires and (ii) to the characteristic decay length of the z-component of the magnetic field of parallel wires. From this the effective tip-volume of the real thin film tip is determined which is relevant in MFM-imaging. Our results confirm the reliability of earlier tip calibration schemes for which nanofabricated current carrying rings were used instead of parallel

  13. Critical current degradation in superconducting niobium-titanium alloys in external magnetic fields under loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojko, V.S.; Lazareva, M.B.; Starodubov, Ya.D.; Chernyj, O.V.; Gorbatenko, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of external magnetic fields on the stress at which the critical current starts to degrade (the degradation threshold σ 0 e ) under mechanical loads in superconducting Nb-Ti alloys is studied and a possible mechanism of realization of the effect observed is proposed.It is assumed that additional stresses on the transformation dislocation from the external magnetic fields are beneficial for the growth of martensite inclusions whose superconducting parameters (critical current density j k and critical temperature T k ) are lower then those in the initial material.The degradation threshold is studied experimentally in external magnetic fields H up to 7 T.The linear dependence σ 0 e (H) is observed.It is shown that external magnetic fields play an important role in the critical current degradation at the starting stages of deformation.This fact supports the assumption that the degradation of superconducting parameters under loading are due to the phenomenon of superelasticity,i.e. a reversible load-induced change in the martensite inclusions sizes rather than the reversible mechanical twinning.The results obtained are thought to be important to estimating superconducting solenoid stability in a wide range of magnetic fields

  14. Experimental and theoretical study of helical explosive electrical current generators with magnetic field compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, Bernard; Nazet, Christian.

    1975-07-01

    A generator of electrical energy in which magnetic field compression is achieved by a solid explosive is described. The magnetic flux losses have been calculated for generators of various configurations by the skin depth concept. Calculations take the Joule heating of conductors into account. In helical generators the magnetic flux losses are higher than those calculated by considering diffusion only. Additional losses approximately as important as diffusion losses have already been observed elsewhere on similar devices. Detailed calculations of the motion of the explosively driven inner conductor show that losses come from the jumps encountered by sliding contact moving along the helix. The jumps are caused by little geometrical defects and the consequence on losses is strongly dependent on current intensity. The jumps decrease when the pitch of helix increases. The jumps are detrimental to the efficient use of the explosive energy. With helical generators only 5% of the energy is transferred into magnetic energy [fr

  15. Hydrogen Permeation, and Mechanical and Tribological Behavior, of CrNx Coatings Deposited at Various Bias Voltages on IN718 by Direct Current Reactive Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor B. Kashkarov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current work, the microstructure, hydrogen permeability, and properties of chromium nitride (CrNx thin films deposited on the Inconel 718 superalloy using direct current reactive sputtering are investigated. The influence of the substrate bias voltage on the crystal structure, mechanical, and tribological properties before and after hydrogen exposure was studied. It was found that increasing the substrate bias voltage leads to densification of the coating. X-ray diffraction (XRD results reveal a change from mixed fcc-CrN + hcp-Cr2N to the approximately stoichiometric hcp-Cr2N phase with increasing substrate bias confirmed by wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS. The texture coefficients of (113, (110, and (111 planes vary significantly with increasing substrate bias voltage. The hydrogen permeability was measured by gas-phase hydrogenation. The CrN coating deposited at 60 V with mixed c-CrN and (113 textured hcp-Cr2N phases exhibits the lowest hydrogen absorption at 873 K. It is suggested that the crystal orientation is only one parameter influencing the permeation resistance of the CrNx coating together with the film structure, the presence of mixing phases, and the packing density of the structure. After hydrogenation, the hardness increased for all coatings, which could be related to the formation of a Cr2O3 oxide film on the surface, as well as the defect formation after hydrogen loading. Tribological tests reveal that hydrogenation leads to a decrease of the friction coefficient by up to 40%. The lowest value of 0.25 ± 0.02 was reached for the CrNx coating deposited at 60 V after hydrogenation.

  16. Magnetic islands and singular currents at rational surfaces in three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loizu, J., E-mail: joaquim.loizu@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton New Jersey 08543 (United States); Hudson, S.; Bhattacharjee, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton New Jersey 08543 (United States); Helander, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Using the recently developed multiregion, relaxed MHD (MRxMHD) theory, which bridges the gap between Taylor's relaxation theory and ideal MHD, we provide a thorough analytical and numerical proof of the formation of singular currents at rational surfaces in non-axisymmetric ideal MHD equilibria. These include the force-free singular current density represented by a Dirac δ-function, which presumably prevents the formation of islands, and the Pfirsch-Schlüter 1/x singular current, which arises as a result of finite pressure gradient. An analytical model based on linearized MRxMHD is derived that can accurately (1) describe the formation of magnetic islands at resonant rational surfaces, (2) retrieve the ideal MHD limit where magnetic islands are shielded, and (3) compute the subsequent formation of singular currents. The analytical results are benchmarked against numerical simulations carried out with a fully nonlinear implementation of MRxMHD.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging inside cylindrical metal containers with an eddy current self-compensated method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Hui; Balcom, Bruce J

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements inside cylindrical metal structures have recently been proposed and form the basis for new high-pressure MRI studies. The critical problem for MRI inside cylindrical metal structures is significant eddy currents induced by the switched magnetic field gradients, which usually corrupt spatial and motion encoding without appropriate correction. In this work a so-called standard SPRITE (single point ramped imaging with T 1 enhancement) technique is applied for imaging inside cylindrical metal structures. We show that the standard SPRITE technique is fundamentally immune to large-scale eddy current effects and yields artifact-free high-quality images with no eddy current correction required. Standard SPRITE image acquisition avoids the complications involved in the measurement and compensation of eddy current effects for MRI with cylindrical metal structures. This work is a substantial advance toward the extension of MRI to new challenging systems, which are of practical importance

  18. Coupling method of magnetic memory and eddy current nondestructive testing for retired crankshafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chen; Hua, Lin; Wang, Xiaokai; Wang, Zhou; Qin, Xunpeng; Fang, Zhou [Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To verify the validity of the Coupling method of magnetic memory and eddy current (CMMEC) testing for crankshafts, we use this technique to test a 12-cylinder V-design diesel crankshaft. First, the stress distribution in the crankshaft was obtained under 12 working conditions using a Finite element (FE) model that complied with the commercial FE code ABAQUS. Second, Magnetic memory testing (MMT) and Eddy current testing (ECT) were adopted to detect the regions of stress concentration in the crankshaft and the specific location of cracks based on simulation results. Lastly, magnetic particle testing was conducted to detect and display the corresponding crack to verify the CMMEC testing results. The MMT and ECT results can provide basis and guidance for the remanufacture and life evaluation of retired crankshafts.

  19. Nonlinear response of a neoclassical four-field magnetic reconnection model to localized current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaro, E.; Comisso, L.; Valdettaro, L.

    2010-01-01

    In tokamaks magnetic islands arise from an unstable process of tearing and reconnecting of helical field lines across rational surfaces. After a linear stage the magnetic instability develops through three characteristic nonlinear stages where increasingly complex topological alterations occur in the form of the magnetic islands. The problem of response of reconnection process to the injection of an external current suitably localized is addressed using a four-field model in a plane slab plasma, with a novel extension to account consistently of the relevant neoclassical effects, such as bootstrap current and pressure anisotropy. The results found have implications on the interpretation of the possible mechanism of present day experimental results on neoclassical tearing modes as well as on the concepts for their control or avoidance.

  20. Plasma confinement in a magnetic field of the internal ring current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafranov, Vitaly; Popovich, Paul; Samitov, Marat

    2000-01-01

    Plasma confinement in compact region surrounding an internal ring current is considered. As the limiting case of large aspect ratio system the cylindrical plasma is considered initially. Analysis of the cylindrical tubular plasma equilibrium and stability against the most dangerous flute (m=0) and kink (m=1) modes revealed the possibility of the MHD stable plasma confined by magnetic field of the internal rod current, with rather peaked plasma pressure and maximal local beta β(γ)=0.4. In case of the toroidal internal ring system an additional external magnetic field creates the boundary separatrix witch limits the plasma volume. The dependence of the plasma pressure profiles, marginally stable with respect to the flute modes, from the shape of the external plasma boundary (separatrix) in such kind closed toroidal systems is investigated. The internal ring system with circular poloidal magnetic mirror, where the ring supports could be placed, is proposed. (author)

  1. Coupling method of magnetic memory and eddy current nondestructive testing for retired crankshafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Chen; Hua, Lin; Wang, Xiaokai; Wang, Zhou; Qin, Xunpeng; Fang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    To verify the validity of the Coupling method of magnetic memory and eddy current (CMMEC) testing for crankshafts, we use this technique to test a 12-cylinder V-design diesel crankshaft. First, the stress distribution in the crankshaft was obtained under 12 working conditions using a Finite element (FE) model that complied with the commercial FE code ABAQUS. Second, Magnetic memory testing (MMT) and Eddy current testing (ECT) were adopted to detect the regions of stress concentration in the crankshaft and the specific location of cracks based on simulation results. Lastly, magnetic particle testing was conducted to detect and display the corresponding crack to verify the CMMEC testing results. The MMT and ECT results can provide basis and guidance for the remanufacture and life evaluation of retired crankshafts.

  2. Critical Current Properties in Longitudinal Magnetic Field of YBCO Superconductor with APC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, R.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E. S.; Matsushita, T.; Jha, A. K.; Matsumoto, K.

    The critical current density (Jc) properties of the Artificial Pinning Center (APC) introduced YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) films in the longitudinal magnetic field were measured. Y2O3 or Y2BaCuO5 (Y211) was introduced as APCs to YBCO, and YBCO films with APC were fabricated on SrTiO3 single crystal substrate. The sizes of Y2O3 and Y211 were 5-10 nm and 10-20 nm, respectively. As a result, Jc enhancement in the longitudinal magnetic field was observed in Y2O3 introduced YBCO films. However, it was not observed in Y211 introduced YBCO films. Therefore, it was considered that Jc properties in the longitudinal magnetic field were affected by introducing of small size APC, and it was necessary that APC does not disturb the current pathway in the superconductor.

  3. Current-induced magnetization switching in atom-thick tungsten engineered perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with large tunnel magnetoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengxing; Cai, Wenlong; Cao, Kaihua; Zhou, Jiaqi; Wrona, Jerzy; Peng, Shouzhong; Yang, Huaiwen; Wei, Jiaqi; Kang, Wang; Zhang, Youguang; Langer, Jürgen; Ocker, Berthold; Fert, Albert; Zhao, Weisheng

    2018-02-14

    Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions based on MgO/CoFeB structures are of particular interest for magnetic random-access memories because of their excellent thermal stability, scaling potential, and power dissipation. However, the major challenge of current-induced switching in the nanopillars with both a large tunnel magnetoresistance ratio and a low junction resistance is still to be met. Here, we report spin transfer torque switching in nano-scale perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with a magnetoresistance ratio up to 249% and a resistance area product as low as 7.0 Ω µm 2 , which consists of atom-thick W layers and double MgO/CoFeB interfaces. The efficient resonant tunnelling transmission induced by the atom-thick W layers could contribute to the larger magnetoresistance ratio than conventional structures with Ta layers, in addition to the robustness of W layers against high-temperature diffusion during annealing. The critical switching current density could be lower than 3.0 MA cm -2 for devices with a 45-nm radius.

  4. Effect of electric and magnetic fields on current-voltage characteristics of a lyotropic liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minasyants, M.Kh.; Badalyan, G. G.; Shahinian, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of electric and magnetic fields on current-voltage characteristics is studied for the lamellar phase in the lyotropic liquid-crystal sodium pentadecylsulfonate (SPDS)-water and lecithin-water systems. It has been found that the current-voltage characteristics of both systems have hysteresis. In the case of ionogenic SPDS, the hysteresis is formed due to ion current caused by the spatial reorientation of domains consisting of parallel lamellar fragments; in the case of lecithin, whose molecules contain dipoles, the hysteresis is formed due to the spatial reorientation of domains caused by the interaction of the resultant dipole moment of the domains with the electric field. It is shown that the introduction into lamellae of cetylpyridine bromide, which has an intrinsic magnetic moment, changes the resultant magnetic moment of domains and, thus, also the hysteresis loop of the current-voltage characteristic. The systems studied show the 'memory' effect with respect to both the electric and magnetic fields. Field-induced processes of domain reorientation were recorded by the method of small-angle x-ray scattering

  5. Computation of magnetic fields within source regions of ionospheric and magnetospheric currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engels, U.; Olsen, Nils

    1998-01-01

    A general method of computing the magnetic effect caused by a predetermined three-dimensional external current density is presented. It takes advantage of the representation of solenoidal vector fields in terms of toroidal and poloidal modes expressed by two independent series of spherical harmon...

  6. Enhancement of critical currents in superconducting cylindrical samples by circular magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, A; Makiej, B

    1986-07-16

    Evidence is presented for an enhancement of the critical current by a circular magnetization in cylindrical samples of superconductors such as Sn, In, and In-Pb alloy containing 20 wt% ferromagnetic carbon steel particles. The mechanism of this phenomenon is explained.

  7. Stored Energy of Coupled Electric and Magnetic Currents and the Lower Bound on Q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2015-01-01

    —New expressions for the stored energy and radiated power of an arbitrary combination of electric and magnetic currents in free space are presented. These expressions enable the calculation of the fundamental lower bound on Q for arbitraryshaped electrically small antennas of finite size....

  8. Eddy Current, Magnetic Particle and Hardness Testing, Aviation Quality Control (Advanced): 9227.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This unit of instruction includes the principles of eddy current, magnetic particle and hardness testing; standards used for analyzing test results; techniques of operating equipment; interpretation of indications; advantages and limitations of these methods of testing; care and calibration of equipment; and safety and work precautions. Motion…

  9. Current in the plasma moving in an arbitrary direction across a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samokhin, M.V.

    1991-01-01

    Condition under which freezing-in equation is satisfied in case of arbitrarily changeable direction of rate of plasma flow across the magnetic field is considered. It is shown that in the ideally frozen-in plasma there should exist current independent on the flow rate

  10. High current density ion beam measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W.C.; Sawatzky, E.

    1976-01-01

    High ion beam current measurements are difficult due to the presence of the secondary particles and beam neutralization. For long Faraday cages, true current can be obtained only by negative bias on the target and by summing the cage wall and target currents; otherwise, the beam will be greatly distorted. For short Faraday cages, a combination of small magnetic field and the negative target bias results in correct beam current. Either component alone does not give true current

  11. Magnetic field oscillations of the critical current in long ballistic graphene Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakyta, Péter; Kormányos, Andor; Cserti, József

    2016-06-01

    We study the Josephson current in long ballistic superconductor-monolayer graphene-superconductor junctions. As a first step, we have developed an efficient computational approach to calculate the Josephson current in tight-binding systems. This approach can be particularly useful in the long-junction limit, which has hitherto attracted less theoretical interest but has recently become experimentally relevant. We use this computational approach to study the dependence of the critical current on the junction geometry, doping level, and an applied perpendicular magnetic field B . In zero magnetic field we find a good qualitative agreement with the recent experiment of M. Ben Shalom et al. [Nat. Phys. 12, 318 (2016), 10.1038/nphys3592] for the length dependence of the critical current. For highly doped samples our numerical calculations show a broad agreement with the results of the quasiclassical formalism. In this case the critical current exhibits Fraunhofer-like oscillations as a function of B . However, for lower doping levels, where the cyclotron orbit becomes comparable to the characteristic geometrical length scales of the system, deviations from the results of the quasiclassical formalism appear. We argue that due to the exceptional tunability and long mean free path of graphene systems a new regime can be explored where geometrical and dynamical effects are equally important to understand the magnetic field dependence of the critical current.

  12. Direct Reconstruction of Two-Dimensional Currents in Thin Films from Magnetic-Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Alexander Y.; Levin, Eitan; Zeldov, Eli

    2017-12-01

    An accurate determination of microscopic transport and magnetization currents is of central importance for the study of the electric properties of low-dimensional materials and interfaces, of superconducting thin films, and of electronic devices. Current distribution is usually derived from the measurement of the perpendicular component of the magnetic field above the surface of the sample, followed by numerical inversion of the Biot-Savart law. The inversion is commonly obtained by deriving the current stream function g , which is then differentiated in order to obtain the current distribution. However, this two-step procedure requires filtering at each step and, as a result, oversmooths the solution. To avoid this oversmoothing, we develop a direct procedure for inversion of the magnetic field that avoids use of the stream function. This approach provides enhanced accuracy of current reconstruction over a wide range of noise levels. We further introduce a reflection procedure that allows for the reconstruction of currents that cross the boundaries of the measurement window. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated by several numerical examples.

  13. Method for confining the magnetic field of the cross-tail current inside the magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotirelis, T.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Stern, D. P.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for analytically representing the magnetic field due to the cross-tail current and its closure on the magnetopause. It is an extension of a method used by Tsyganenko (1989b) to confine the dipole field inside an ellipsoidal magnetopause using a scalar potential. Given a model of the cross-tail current, the implied net magnetic field is obtained by adding to the cross-tail current field a potential field B = - del gamma, which makes all field lines divide into two disjoint groups, separated by the magnetopause (i.e., the combined field is made to have zero normal component with the magnetopause). The magnetopause is assumed to be an ellipsoid of revolution (a prolate spheroid) as an approximation to observations (Sibeck et al., 1991). This assumption permits the potential gamma to be expressed in spheroidal coordinates, expanded in spheroidal harmonics and its terms evaluated by performing inversion integrals. Finally, the field outside the magnetopause is replaced by zero, resulting in a consistent current closure along the magnetopause. This procedure can also be used to confine the modeled field of any other interior magnetic source, though the model current must always flow in closed circuits. The method is demonstrated on the T87 cross-tail current, examples illustrate the effect of changing the size and shape of the prescribed magnetopause and a comparison is made to an independent numerical scheme based on the Biot-Savart equation.

  14. Calculation of induced current densities for humans by magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Om P.; Kang, Gang

    2001-11-01

    This paper illustrates the use of the impedance method to calculate the electric fields and current densities induced in millimetre resolution anatomic models of the human body, namely an adult and 10- and 5-year-old children, for exposure to nonuniform magnetic fields typical of two assumed but representative electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices at 1 and 30 kHz, respectively. The devices assumed for the calculations are a solenoid type magnetic deactivator used at store checkouts and a pass-by panel-type EAS system consisting of two overlapping rectangular current-carrying coils used at entry and exit from a store. The impedance method code is modified to obtain induced current densities averaged over a cross section of 1 cm2 perpendicular to the direction of induced currents. This is done to compare the peak current densities with the limits or the basic restrictions given in the ICNIRP safety guidelines. Because of the stronger magnetic fields at lower heights for both the assumed devices, the peak 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the CNS tissues such as the brain and the spinal cord are increasingly larger for smaller models and are the highest for the model of the 5-year-old child. For both the EAS devices, the maximum 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the brain of the model of the adult are lower than the ICNIRP safety guideline, but may approach or exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for models of 10- and 5-year-old children if sufficiently strong magnetic fields are used.

  15. Calculation of induced current densities for humans by magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, O P; Kang, G

    2001-11-01

    This paper illustrates the use of the impedance method to calculate the electric fields and current densities induced in millimetre resolution anatomic models of the human body, namely an adult and 10- and 5-year-old children, for exposure to nonuniform magnetic fields typical of two assumed but representative electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices at 1 and 30 kHz, respectively. The devices assumed for the calculations are a solenoid type magnetic deactivator used at store checkouts and a pass-by panel-type EAS system consisting of two overlapping rectangular current-carrying coils used at entry and exit from a store. The impedance method code is modified to obtain induced current densities averaged over a cross section of 1 cm2 perpendicular to the direction of induced currents. This is done to compare the peak current densities with the limits or the basic restrictions given in the ICNIRP safety guidelines. Because of the stronger magnetic fields at lower heights for both the assumed devices, the peak 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the CNS tissues such as the brain and the spinal cord are increasingly larger for smaller models and are the highest for the model of the 5-year-old child. For both the EAS devices, the maximum 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the brain of the model of the adult are lower than the ICNIRP safety guideline, but may approach or exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for models of 10- and 5-year-old children if sufficiently strong magnetic fields are used.

  16. Exploration of a possible cause of magnetic reconfiguration/reconnection due to generation, rather than annihilation, of magnetic field in a nun-uniform thin current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. C.; Lyu, L. H.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic reconfiguration/reconnection plays an important role on energy and plasma transport in the space plasma. It is known that magnetic field lines on two sides of a tangential discontinuity can connect to each other only at a neutral point, where the strength of the magnetic field is equal to zero. Thus, the standard reconnection picture with magnetic field lines intersecting at the neutral point is not applicable to the component reconnection events observed at the magnetopause and in the solar corona. In our early study (Yu, Lyu, & Wu, 2011), we have shown that annihilation of magnetic field near a thin current sheet can lead to the formation of normal magnetic field component (normal to the current sheet) to break the frozen-in condition and to accelerate the reconnected plasma flux, even without the presence of a neutral point. In this study, we examine whether or not a generation, rather than annihilation, of magnetic field in a nun-uniform thin current sheet can also lead to reconnection of plasma flux. Our results indicate that a non-uniform enhancement of electric current can yield formation of field-aligned currents. The normal-component magnetic field generated by the field-aligned currents can yield reconnection of plasma flux just outside the current-enhancement region. The particle motion that can lead to non-uniform enhancement of electric currents will be discussed.

  17. Ring current and auroral electrojets in connection with interplanetary medium parameters during magnetic storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Feldstein

    Full Text Available The relationship between the auroral electrojet indices (AE and the ring current magnetic field (DR was investigated by observations obtained during the magnetic storm on 1-3 April 1973. During the storm main phase the DR development is accompanied by a shift of the auroral electrojets toward the equator. As a result, the standard AE indices calculated on the basis of data from auroral observatories was substantially lower than the real values (AE'. To determine AE' during the course of a storm main phase data from subauroral magnetic observatories should be used. It is shown that the intensity of the indices (AE' which take into account the shift of the electrojets is increased substantially relative to the standard indices during the storm main phase. AE' values are closely correlated with geoeffective solar wind parameters. A high correlation was obtained between AE' and the energy flux into the ring current during the storm main phase. Analysis of magnetic field variations during intervals with intense southward IMF components demonstrates a decrease of the saturation effect of auroral electrojet currents if subauroral stations magnetic field variations are taken into account. This applies both to case studies and statistical data. The dynamics of the electrojets in connection with the development of the ring current and of magnetospheric substorms can be described by the presence (absence of saturation for minimum (maximum AE index values during a 1-h interval. The ring current magnetic field asymmetry (ASY was calculated as the difference between the maximum and minimum field values along a parallel of latitude at low latitudes. The ASY value is closely correlated with geoeffective solar wind parameters and simultaneously is a more sensitive indicator of IMF Bz variations than the symmetric ring current.

  18. Estimating Attitude, Trajectory, and Gyro Biases in an Extended Kalman Filter using Earth Magnetic Field Data from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally satellite attitude and trajectory have been estimated with completely separate systems, using different measurement data. The estimation of both trajectory and attitude for low earth orbit satellites has been successfully demonstrated in ground software using magnetometer and gyroscope data. Since the earth's magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computed and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of both the spacecraft trajectory and attitude errors. Therefore, these errors can be used to estimate both trajectory and attitude. This work further tests the single augmented Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) which simultaneously and autonomously estimates spacecraft trajectory and attitude with data from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) magnetometer and gyro-measured body rates. In addition, gyro biases are added to the state and the filter's ability to estimate them is presented.

  19. Effects of toroidal currents upon magnetic configurations and stability in Wendelstein 7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, A.; Anton, M.; Brakel, R.; Geiger, J.; Hirsch, M.; Jaenicke, R.; Klose, S.; Werner, A.; Sallander, E.

    2001-01-01

    The proposal of new concepts for current carrying hybrid stellarators has raised the issue if current driven instabilities, in particular major disruptions, may be suppressed or mitigated by the externally provided poloidal magnetic field. In W7-AS the internal toroidal currents such as bootstrap and Okhawa currents are cancelled by opposite currents driven inductively or by electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). In this way the edge rotational transform is controlled, and net current-free stable plasmas are maintained. On the other hand, the current drive systems provide a flexible tool to investigate current driven instabilities as well as various issues concerning the effect of magnetic shear on confinement and MHD mode behaviour. The stability studies in the presence of significant toroidal currents have been made in the accessible range of the external rotational transform slash-l ext =0.30...0.56 involving the low order rational surfaces slash-l = 1/2, 3/2, 3/4 and 1. In addition the rational surfaces slash-l=1/3 and 1/4 could be accessed by reverse current drive. Target plasmas heated by electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), neutral beam injection (NBI) or both were investigated in order to assess to which extent the stability depends on particular current density profiles. Disruption-like events, preceded by tearing mode activity, have been observed in a wide range of the external rotational transform. The mode structures have been analyzed by X-ray tomography, electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics and magnetic measurements. The experimental data are roughly consistent with stability calculations on the basis of a cylindrical Δ'-analysis. In contrast to the tokamak case the plasma equilibrium is maintained even after a thermal collapse enabling a recovery of plasma energy and inductive current. The improved positional stability can result in the formation of very large magnetic islands. Severe disruption-like effects may be controlled by

  20. Magnetic proximity control of spin currents and giant spin accumulation in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simranjeet

    Two dimensional (2D) materials provide a unique platform to explore the full potential of magnetic proximity driven phenomena. We will present the experimental study showing the strong modulation of spin currents in graphene layers by controlling the direction of the exchange field due to the ferromagnetic-insulator (FMI) magnetization in graphene/FMI heterostructures. Owing to clean interfaces, a strong magnetic exchange coupling leads to the experimental observation of complete spin modulation at low externally applied magnetic fields in short graphene channels. We also discover that the graphene spin current can be fully dephased by randomly fluctuating exchange fields. This is manifested as an unusually strong temperature dependence of the non-local spin signals in graphene, which is due to spin relaxation by thermally-induced transverse fluctuations of the FMI magnetization. Additionally, it has been a challenge to grow a smooth, robust and pin-hole free tunnel barriers on graphene, which can withstand large current densities for efficient electrical spin injection. We have experimentally demonstrated giant spin accumulation in graphene lateral spin valves employing SrO tunnel barriers. Nonlocal spin signals, as large as 2 mV, are observed in graphene lateral spin valves at room temperature. This high spin accumulations observed using SrO tunnel barriers puts graphene on the roadmap for exploring the possibility of achieving a non-local magnetization switching due to the spin torque from electrically injected spins. Financial support from ONR (No. N00014-14-1-0350), NSF (No. DMR-1310661), and C-SPIN, one of the six SRC STARnet Centers, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  1. Altering critical depinning current via domain wall pile-up in magnetic nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M.

    2015-01-01

    An important role of domain wall pile-up in current-driven domain wall depinning in magnetic nanowires is revealed using micromagnetic simulations. It is found that the critical current for domain wall depinning can be substantially reduced and conveniently tuned by controlling domain wall number in the pile-up at pinning site, in analogy to dislocation pile-up responsible for Hall–Petch effect in mechanical strength. Domain wall pinning and depinning at an s-shape bend is considered, and the effects of curvature and current crowding in magnetic circuit on domain wall behaviors are discussed. - Highlights: • Advance fundamental knowledge of current-driven domain wall phenomena. • Provide a novel approach to drastically reduce the critical depinning current. • Solve an outstanding problem of effective control of domain wall pinning/depinning. • Report appealing new findings of magnetic domain wall pile-up mechanism. • Overcome the limitations of materials properties for domain wall-based devices

  2. Current densities in a pregnant woman model induced by simultaneous ELF electric and magnetic field exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, R; Leitgeb, N; Pediaditis, M

    2008-01-01

    The pregnant woman model SILVY was studied to ascertain to what extent the electric current densities induced by 50 Hz homogeneous electric and magnetic fields increase in the case of simultaneous exposure. By vectorial addition of the electric current densities, it could be shown that under worst case conditions the basic restrictions recommended by ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) guidelines are exceeded within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother, whereas in sole field exposure they are not. However, within the foetus the induced current densities do not comply with basic restrictions, either from single reference-level electric fields or from simultaneous exposure to electric and magnetic fields. Basic limits were considerably exceeded

  3. A Novel Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Approach for Measuring Weak Electric Currents Inside the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Cihan

    of individual ohmic conductivity values may open up the possibility of creating more realistic and accurate head models, which may ameliorate the simulations and practical use of NIBS techniques. Magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI) and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT......Knowing the electrical conductivity and current density distribution inside the human brain will be useful in various biomedical applications, i.e. for improving the efficiency of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, the accuracy of electroencephalography (EEG......) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) source localization, or localization of pathological tissues. For example, the accuracy of electric field simulations for NIBS techniques is currently reduced by assigning inaccurate ohmic conductivity values taken from literature to different brain tissues. Therefore, the knowledge...

  4. Method of correcting eddy current magnetic fields in particle accelerator vacuum chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, Gordon T.; Jackson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    A method for correcting magnetic field aberrations produced by eddy currents induced in a particle accelerator vacuum chamber housing is provided wherein correction windings are attached to selected positions on the housing and the windings are energized by transformer action from secondary coils, which coils are inductively coupled to the poles of electro-magnets that are powered to confine the charged particle beam within a desired orbit as the charged particles are accelerated through the vacuum chamber by a particle-driving rf field. The power inductively coupled to the secondary coils varies as a function of variations in the power supplied by the particle-accelerating rf field to a beam of particles accelerated through the vacuum chamber, so the current in the energized correction coils is effective to cancel eddy current flux fields that would otherwise be induced in the vacuum chamber by power variations in the particle beam.

  5. Coupling between eddy current and deflection in cantilevered beams in magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, T.Q.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the coupling between eddy currents and deflection in cantilevered beams in longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields. This coupling effect reduces the current, deflection, and material stress to levels far less severe than would be predicted if coupling is disregarded. The experiments were conducted using the FELIX (Fusion ELectromagnetic Induction experiment) facility at the Argonne National Laboratory. The beams, which provide a simple model for the limiter blades in a tokamak fusion reactor, are subjected to crossed time-varying and constant magnetic fields. The time-varying field simulates the decaying field during a plasma disruption and the constant field models the toroidal field. Several test pieces are employed to allow variations in thicknesses and mechanical and electrical properties. Various magnetic field levels and decay time constants of time-varying are used to study the extent of the coupling from weak to strong coupling. The ratios of constant field to time-varying field are kept in the range from 10:1 to 20:1 as would be appropriate to tokamak limiters. Major parameters measured as functions of time are beam deflection, measured with an electro-optical device; total circulating current, measured with a Rogowski coil; strain recorded by strain gauges; and magnetic fields measured with Hall probes

  6. On the linear stability of sheared and magnetized jets without current sheets - relativistic case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Lyutikov, Maxim; Komissarov, Serguei S.

    2018-03-01

    In our prior series of papers, we studied the non-relativistic and relativistic linear stability analysis of magnetized jets that do not have current sheets. In this paper, we extend our analysis to relativistic jets with a velocity shear and a similar current sheet free structure. The jets that we study are realistic because we include a velocity shear, a current sheet free magnetic structure, a relativistic velocity and a realistic thermal pressure so as to achieve overall pressure balance in the unperturbed jet. In order to parametrize the velocity shear, we apply a parabolic profile to the jets' 4-velocity. We find that the velocity shear significantly improves the stability of relativistic magnetized jets. This fact is completely consistent with our prior stability analysis of non-relativistic, sheared jets. The velocity shear mainly plays a role in stabilizing the short wavelength unstable modes for the pinch as well as the kink instability modes. In addition, it also stabilizes the long wavelength fundamental pinch instability mode. We also visualize the pressure fluctuations of each unstable mode to provide a better physical understanding of the enhanced stabilization by the velocity shear. Our overall conclusion is that combining velocity shear with a strong and realistic magnetic field makes relativistic jets even more stable.

  7. Theory of current-driven instability experiments in magnetic Taylor-Couette flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdiger, Günther; Schultz, Manfred; Shalybkov, Dima; Hollerbach, Rainer

    2007-11-01

    We consider the linear stability of dissipative magnetic Taylor-Couette flow with imposed toroidal magnetic fields. The inner and outer cylinders can be either insulating or conducting; the inner one rotates, the outer one is stationary. The magnetic Prandtl number can be as small as 10(-5) , approaching realistic liquid-metal values. The magnetic field destabilizes the flow, except for radial profiles of B(phi)(R) close to the current-free solution. The profile with B(in)=B(out) (the most uniform field) is considered in detail. For weak fields the Taylor-Couette flow is stabilized, until for moderately strong fields the m=1 azimuthal mode dramatically destabilizes the flow again so that a maximum value for the critical Reynolds number exists. For sufficiently strong fields (as measured by the Hartmann number) the toroidal field is always unstable, even for the nonrotating case with Re=0 . The electric currents needed to generate the required toroidal fields in laboratory experiments are a few kA if liquid sodium is used, somewhat more if gallium is used. Weaker currents are needed for wider gaps, so a wide-gap apparatus could succeed even with gallium. The critical Reynolds numbers are only somewhat larger than the nonmagnetic values; hence such experiments would work with only modest rotation rates.

  8. Effect of screening current induced pair breaking on magnetization of superconducting lead nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashwant, G.; Prajapat, C.L. [Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 085 (India); Jayakumar, O.D. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 085 (India); Singh, M.R.; Gupta, S.K. [Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 085 (India); Tyagi, A.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 085 (India); Ravikumar, G. [Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 085 (India)], E-mail: gurazada@barc.gov.in

    2008-06-15

    Magnetization measurements on lead nanoparticles in the size range 35-45 nm are presented. It is shown that the critical fields in these nanoparticles are enhanced significantly above their bulk values with temperature dependence also distinct from that of bulk. The observed 'type II' like shape of the magnetization curves is explained on the basis of the Ginzburg-Landau phenomenology by invoking the pair breaking effect of the London screening currents, which makes the effective penetration depth an increasing function of the field. The temperature dependence of critical field is found to be consistent with our explanation.

  9. Stable explicit coupling of the Yee scheme with a linear current model in fluctuating magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Filipe da; Pinto, Martin Campos; Després, Bruno; Heuraux, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    This work analyzes the stability of the Yee scheme for non-stationary Maxwell's equations coupled with a linear current model with density fluctuations. We show that the usual procedure may yield unstable scheme for physical situations that correspond to strongly magnetized plasmas in X-mode (TE) polarization. We propose to use first order clustered discretization of the vectorial product that gives back a stable coupling. We validate the schemes on some test cases representative of direct numerical simulations of X-mode in a magnetic fusion plasma including turbulence

  10. Current status of research on power-frequency electric and magnetic fields of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Recent scientific literature has suggested a number of possible human health effects which might be associated with exposure to power frequency electric and magnetic fields. Several authoritative reviews of this subject have been published. currently, the major uncertainty and the major research effort is directed to the issue of these fields and cancer. Therefore, this review will be limited to examining the evidence relating prolonged power-frequency electric and magnetic field exposure to cancer in human populations. This paper reports that the CIGRE expert Group has assessed the research literature in the following areas: epidemiological evidence, animal studies, cellular effects, knowledge of mechanisms

  11. [Magnetic helicity and current drive in fusion devices]. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The research program focused on two main themes: (i) magnetic helicity and (ii) current drive by low-frequency waves. At first these themes seemed unrelated, but as time progressed, they became interwoven, and ultimately closely connected. A sub-theme is that while the MHD model of a plasma stimulates many intriguing counter-intuitive ideas for creating and sustaining magnetic confinement configurations, usually the crux of these schemes involves some sort of breakdown of MHD, i.e., involves physics which transcends MHD

  12. Zero-Bias Offsets in the Low-Temperature Dark Current of Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Anjali

    1999-01-01

    .... In this environment, the detector arrays may need to be operated at temperatures lower then 77 K. At these temperatures, tunneling mechanisms such as Fowler-Nordheim and trap-assisted tunneling could dominate the dark current...

  13. Effect of magnetic field-aligned currents on VLF emissions in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, V.H.

    1988-01-01

    The dispersion relation for the electromagnetic electron cyclotron waves in the presence of magnetic field-aligned currents has been obtained. The kinetic distribution of electrons for the main body of plasma with a temperature anisotropy and a loss cone distribution have been considered. In general, it has been seen that the current moving along the direction of resonant electrons reduce the growth rate. This effect has been analysed in the case of magnetospheric plasma to suggest possible correlations between the Birkeland currents and the emissions of very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic waves. (author). 19 refs

  14. Photocurrent, Rectification, and Magnetic Field Symmetry of Induced Current Through Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DiCarlo, L.; M. Marcus, C.; Harris jr, J.

    2003-01-01

    We report mesoscopic dc current generation in an open chaotic quantum dot with ac excitation applied to one of the shape-defining gates. For excitation frequencies large compared to the inverse dwell time of electrons in the dot (i.e., GHz), we find mesoscopic fluctuations of induced current...... that are fully asymmetric in the applied perpendicular magnetic field, as predicted by recent theory. Conductance, measured simultaneously, is found to be symmetric in field. In the adiabatic (i.e., MHz) regime, in contrast, the induced current is always symmetric in field, suggesting its origin is mesoscopic...

  15. Analysis of persistent current in the superconducting magnets on an EDS Maglev vehicle for high-speed passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azukizawa, Teruo [R and D Center, Toshiba Corp. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In an electrodynamic suspension system using superconducting magnets, an air core system is employed to effectively use strong magnetic fields produced by the superconducting magnets. This paper proposes an analysis method for the fluctuating persistent current in an superconducting soil, considering electromagnetic effects of the conductive cryostat. (HW)

  16. Current error vector based prediction control of the section winding permanent magnet linear synchronous motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Junjie, E-mail: hongjjie@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li Liyi, E-mail: liliyi@hit.edu.cn [Dept. Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150000 (China); Zong Zhijian; Liu Zhongtu [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} The structure of the permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (SW-PMLSM) is new. {yields} A new current control method CEVPC is employed in this motor. {yields} The sectional power supply method is different to the others and effective. {yields} The performance gets worse with voltage and current limitations. - Abstract: To include features such as greater thrust density, higher efficiency without reducing the thrust stability, this paper proposes a section winding permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (SW-PMLSM), whose iron core is continuous, whereas winding is divided. The discrete system model of the motor is derived. With the definition of the current error vector and selection of the value function, the theory of the current error vector based prediction control (CEVPC) for the motor currents is explained clearly. According to the winding section feature, the motion region of the mover is divided into five zones, in which the implementation of the current predictive control method is proposed. Finally, the experimental platform is constructed and experiments are carried out. The results show: the current control effect has good dynamic response, and the thrust on the mover remains constant basically.

  17. Amorphous FeCoSiB for exchange bias coupled and decoupled magnetoelectric multilayer systems: Real-structure and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrkac, V.; Strobel, J.; Kienle, L.; Lage, E.; Köppel, G.; McCord, J.; Quandt, E.; Meyners, D.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of field annealing for exchanged biased multilayer films is studied with respect to the resultant structural and magnetic film properties. The presented multilayer stacks comprise repeating sequences of Ta/Cu/(1 1 1) textured antiferromagnetic Mn 70 Ir 30 /amorphous ferromagnetic Fe 70.2 Co 7.8 Si 12 B 10 . Within the ferromagnetic layers crystalline filaments are observed. An additional Ta layer between the antiferromagnet and ferromagnet is used in order to investigate and separate the influence of the common Mn 70 Ir 30 /Fe 70.2 Co 7.8 Si 12 B 10 interface on the occurring filaments and structural changes. In situ and ex situ transmission electron microscopy is used for a comprehensive structure characterization of multilayer stacks for selected temperature stages. Up to 250 °C, the multilayers are structurally unaltered and preserve the as-deposited condition. A deliberate increase to 350 °C exhibits different crystallization processes for the films, depending on the presence of crystal nuclei within the amorphous ferromagnetic layer. The influence of volume-to-surface ratio of the multilayer stacks to the crystallization process is emphasized by the comparison of in situ and ex situ investigations as the respective specimen thickness is changed. Complementary magnetic studies reveal a defined exchange bias obtained at the first annealing step and a decrease of total anisotropy field with partial crystallization after the subsequent annealing at 350 °C.

  18. Time scales of bias voltage effects in FE/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions with voltage-dependent perpendicular anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytvynenko, Ia.M.; Hauet, T.; Montaigne, F.; Bibyk, V.V.; Andrieu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Interplay between voltage-induced magnetic anisotropy transition and voltage-induced atomic diffusion is studied in epitaxial V/Fe (0.7 nm)/ MgO/ Fe(5 nm)/Co/Au magnetic tunnel junction where thin Fe soft electrode has in-plane or out-of-plane anisotropy depending on the sign of the bias voltage. We investigate the origin of the slow resistance variation occurring when switching bias voltage in opposite polarity. We demonstrate that the time to reach resistance stability after voltage switching is reduced when increasing the voltage amplitude or the temperature. A single energy barrier of about 0.2 eV height is deduced from temperature dependence. Finally, we demonstrate that the resistance change is not correlated to a change in soft electrode anisotropy. This conclusion contrasts with observations recently reported on analogous systems. - Highlights: • Voltage-induced time dependence of resistance is studied in epitaxial Fe/MgO/Fe. • Resistance change is not related to the bottom Fe/MgO interface. • The effect is thermally activated with an energy barrier of the order of 0.2 eV height

  19. Study on the Electronic Magnetic Field Oriented Control Based on D-axis Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Feng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the magnetic field orientation accuracy and system performance, the electronic field oriented control has been a hot research field of the induction motor speed control. Although the vector control of AC machines has many excellent properties, the researchers have been attempting to simplify the calculating steps and the structure of the control system to improve the accuracy of filed-oriented and the performance of AC machine drives. Based on the analysis of the conventional induction motor magnetic field oriented control, this paper puts forward a novel method of stator magnetic field orientation control. By analytical methods, the given current of d-axis can be calculated directly, and the stator flux can be controlled precisely. This method has a fast flux and torque response, and the control performance is unaffected by the rotor parameters.

  20. Magnetic effects of magnetospheric currents at ground and in low orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolle, Claudia; Naemi Willer, Anna; Finlay, Chris

    to diminish with reducing solar activity (as was previously noted by Lühr & Maus, 2010), while the slope is hardly affected. There have been several suggestions for the origin of this systematic difference between ground and space based observations of magnetospheric fields. We compare magnetic residuals...... of selected observatories with those of CHAMP satellite observations at times of conjunctions, separating the data pairs by criteria including local time and longitude, season, solar and magnetic activity. Obtaining rough estimates of the ionospheric conductivity in this way, we are able to discuss possible...... field model from Magsat vector data. Geophys. Res. Lett. 7:793-96 Lühr H, Maus S. 2010. Solar cycle dependence of quiet-time magnetospheric currents and a model of their near-Earth magnetic fields. Earth Planets Space 62:843-48...

  1. Mapping the earth's magnetic and gravity fields from space Current status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, M.; Taranik, J. V.

    1983-01-01

    The principal magnetic fields encountered by earth orbiting spacecraft include the main (core) field, external fields produced by electrical currents within the ionosphere and magnetosphere, and the crustal (anomaly) field generated by variations in the magnetization of the outermost portions of the earth. The first orbital field measurements which proved to be of use for global studies of crustal magnetization were obtained by a series of three satellites launched and operated from 1965 to 1971. Each of the satellites, known as a Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), carried a rubidium vapor magnetometer. Attention is also given to Magsat launched in 1979, the scalar anomaly field derived from the Magsat measurements, satellite tracking studies in connection with gravity field surveys, radar altimetry, the belt of positive free air gravity anomalies situated along the edge of the Pacific Ocean basin, future technological capabilities, and information concerning data availability.

  2. Numerical simulation of dipolar magnetic field inflation due to equatorial ring-current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajimura, Yoshihiro; Funaki, Ikkoh; Shinohara, Iku; Usui, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Masaharu; Yamakawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Magneto Plasma Sail (MPS) is one of the next generation space propulsion systems which generates a propulsive force using the interaction between the solar wind plasma and an artificial inflated magnetosphere generated by a superconductive coil. In the MPS system, the magnetosphere as a sail must be inflated by the plasma injection from the spacecraft in order to obtain the thrust gain. In the present study, the magnetic inflation concept is numerically tested by so-called ion one-component plasma model. As a simulation result, the magnetic moment of the system is drastically increased up to 45 times that of the coil current at plasma-β = 20 and r Li /L (radius of gyro motion / characteristics length of the magnetic field) = 0.01, and this is the first successful magnetosphere inflation obtained by numerical simulation. Corresponding maximum thrust gain is also estimated to be about 45. (author)

  3. Low bias negative differential conductance and reversal of current in coupled quantum dots in different topological configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Sushila; Brogi, B. B.; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Chand, S.

    2018-06-01

    Electronic transport through asymmetric parallel coupled quantum dot system hybridized between normal leads has been investigated theoretically in the Coulomb blockade regime by using Non-Equilibrium Green Function formalism. A new decoupling scheme proposed by Rabani and his co-workers has been adopted to close the chain of higher order Green's functions appearing in the equations of motion. For resonant tunneling case; the calculations of current and differential conductance have been presented during transition of coupled quantum dot system from series to symmetric parallel configuration. It has been found that during this transition, increase in current and differential conductance of the system occurs. Furthermore, clear signatures of negative differential conductance and negative current appear in series case, both of which disappear when topology of system is tuned to asymmetric parallel configuration.

  4. Current induced magnetization switching in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar with orange peel coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravinthan, D.; Daniel, M. [Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli - 620 024 (India); Sabareesan, P. [Centre for Nonlinear Science and Engineering, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur - 613 401 (India)

    2015-07-15

    The impact of orange peel coupling on spin current induced magnetization switching in a Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar device is investigated by solving the switching dynamics of magnetization of the free layer governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation. The value of the critical current required to initiate the magnetization switching is calculated analytically by solving the LLGS equation and verified the same through numerical analysis. Results of numerical simulation of the LLGS equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure shows that the presence of orange peel coupling between the spacer and the ferromagnetic layers reduces the switching time of the nanopillar device from 67 ps to 48 ps for an applied current density of 4 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2}. Also, the presence of orange peel coupling reduces the critical current required to initiate switching, and in this case, from 1.65 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2} to 1.39 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2}.

  5. Testing of high current by-pass diodes for the LHC magnet quench protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berland, V.; Hagedorn, D.; Rodriguez-Mateos, F.

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) R and D program, CERN is performing experiments to establish the current carrying capability of irradiated diodes at liquid Helium temperatures for the superconducting magnet protection. Even if the diodes are degraded by radiation dose and neutron fluence, they must be able to support the by-pass current during a magnet quench and the de-excitation of the superconducting magnet ring. During this discharge, the current in the diode reaches a maximum value up to 13 kA and decreased with an exponential time constant of 100 s. Two sets of 75 mm wafer diameter epitaxial diodes, one irradiated and one non-irradiated, were submitted to this experiment. The irradiated diodes have been exposed to radiation in the accelerator environment up to 20 kGy and then annealed at room temperature. After the radiation exposure the diodes had shown a degradation of forward voltage of 50% which reduced to about 14% after the thermal annealing. During the long duration high current tests, one of the diodes was destroyed and the other two irradiated diodes showed a different behavior compared with non-irradiated diodes

  6. Design and Application of Hybrid Magnetic Field-Eddy Current Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Wallace, Terryl; Newman, Andy; Leser, Paul; Simpson, John

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation of magnetic field sensors into eddy current probes can result in novel probe designs with unique performance characteristics. One such example is a recently developed electromagnetic probe consisting of a two-channel magnetoresistive sensor with an embedded single-strand eddy current inducer. Magnetic flux leakage maps of ferrous materials are generated from the DC sensor response while high-resolution eddy current imaging is simultaneously performed at frequencies up to 5 megahertz. In this work the design and optimization of this probe will be presented, along with an application toward analysis of sensory materials with embedded ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles. The sensory material is designed to produce a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition in the FSMA particles under strain. Mapping of the stray magnetic field and eddy current response of the sample with the hybrid probe can thereby image locations in the structure which have experienced an overstrain condition. Numerical modeling of the probe response is performed with good agreement with experimental results.

  7. Current induced magnetization switching in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar with orange peel coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravinthan, D.; Daniel, M.; Sabareesan, P.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of orange peel coupling on spin current induced magnetization switching in a Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar device is investigated by solving the switching dynamics of magnetization of the free layer governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation. The value of the critical current required to initiate the magnetization switching is calculated analytically by solving the LLGS equation and verified the same through numerical analysis. Results of numerical simulation of the LLGS equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure shows that the presence of orange peel coupling between the spacer and the ferromagnetic layers reduces the switching time of the nanopillar device from 67 ps to 48 ps for an applied current density of 4 × 10 12 Am −2 . Also, the presence of orange peel coupling reduces the critical current required to initiate switching, and in this case, from 1.65 × 10 12 Am −2 to 1.39 × 10 12 Am −2

  8. Inversion of exchange bias and complex magnetization reversal in full-nitride epitaxial γ′-Fe{sub 4}N/CoN bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.R. [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparation Technology, Institute of Advanced Materials Physics, Faculty of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Mi, W.B., E-mail: miwenbo@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparation Technology, Institute of Advanced Materials Physics, Faculty of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang, X.C. [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic & Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384, China (China); Bai, H.L. [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparation Technology, Institute of Advanced Materials Physics, Faculty of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Exchange bias has been observed in the full-nitride epitaxial γ′-Fe{sub 4}N/CoN bilayers. With the increase of temperature, the sign of exchange bias (EB) is inverse, which is independent on the cooling field and training effect. This novel behavior appears in the bilayers with different CoN and γ′-Fe{sub 4}N thicknesses. The inversion of EB sign not only occurs at low temperatures, but also takes place even at 200 K for the 10 and 12 nm thick CoN layer. With the decreased γ′-Fe{sub 4}N layer thickness, the inversion temperature of EB sign shows a roughly increased tendency. For the bilayer with a 4 nm-thick γ′-Fe{sub 4}N, the interfacial magnetization reversal presents a complex trend, which is considered as the combined actions of the disordered ferromagnetic spins and various competed magnetic structures. This new manifestation of EB has been discussed in terms of the complicated interfacial spin structures and frustration effects due to the competition between the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions at the interface. - Highlights: • Exchange bias (EB) sign reverses from negative to positive with increasing temperature in epitaxial γ′-Fe{sub 4}N/CoN bilayers. • The positive EB can be attributed to the antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling and frustrated interfacial spin structures. • The EB transition temperature is not monotonically dependent on CoN thickness t{sub CoN}. • For a 4-nm γ′-Fe{sub 4}N, the unusual hysteresis loops are observed.

  9. The effect of cathode bias (field effect) on the surface leakage current of CdZnTe detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Chen, C.M.H.; Cook, W.R.

    2003-01-01

    Surface resistivity is an important parameter of multi-electrode CZT detectors such as coplanar-grid, strip, or pixel detectors. Low surface resistivity results in a high leakage current and affects the charge collection efficiency in the areas near contacts. Thus, it is always desirable to have ...

  10. Non-uniform current distribution in a force-cooled superconductor under changing magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Norikiyo

    2000-02-01

    Strands in a large current force-cooled superconductor, referred to a CICC (cable-in-conduit conductor) hereafter, are coated with formvar (insulated layer) or chrome plating (high resistive layer) to reduce coupling current loss due to magnetic field variation. The author first carried out an experiment of the large superconducting coil consisting of such CICCs for demonstration of their applicability to a large superconducting coil. These CICCs exhibited instability, i.e. the normal zone propagation with thermal runaway (quench), at 1/20 and 1/5 of the expected conductor critical currents, respectively. The author constructed the database of this instability and studies its reason through experimental and theoretical investigations and then finds such instability is caused as a result of non-uniform current distribution in the conductor. Joule heating loss at electrical connections at the ends of the conductor should be small. Therefore, the strands in the CICC are electrically connected from each other with low resistance there. Circulation current is induced in the loop composed of the strands electrically connected at the ends of the conductor if its leakage magnetic flux is not completely vanished. The non-uniform current distribution is caused as a result of superimposition of the circulation and transport currents. The strand carrying large current becomes the normal state when it reaches or approaches to its critical current. Thus, the strands are twisted in order to vanish the leakage magnetic flux. The instability due to the current imbalance was not observed in the middle-scale coil (an element coil, such as a single double-pancake, of a large superconducting coil) consisting of the conductor in which the formvar-coated strands were twisted as above-mentioned. Consequently, it was believed that the leakage magnetic flux could be vanished by the normal twisting. However, the magnetic field increases in a large coil as a result of piling element coils

  11. Amplification of perpendicular and parallel magnetic fields by cosmic ray currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J. H.; Bell, A. R.; Blundell, K. M.; Araudo, A. T.

    2017-08-01

    Cosmic ray (CR) currents through magnetized plasma drive strong instabilities producing amplification of the magnetic field. This amplification helps explain the CR energy spectrum as well as observations of supernova remnants and radio galaxy hotspots. Using magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we study the behaviour of the non-resonant hybrid (NRH) instability (also known as the Bell instability) in the case of CR currents perpendicular and parallel to the initial magnetic field. We demonstrate that extending simulations of the perpendicular case to 3D reveals a different character to the turbulence from that observed in 2D. Despite these differences, in 3D the perpendicular NRH instability still grows exponentially far into the non-linear regime with a similar growth rate to both the 2D perpendicular and 3D parallel situations. We introduce some simple analytical models to elucidate the physical behaviour, using them to demonstrate that the transition to the non-linear regime is governed by the growth of thermal pressure inside dense filaments at the edges of the expanding loops. We discuss our results in the context of supernova remnants and jets in radio galaxies. Our work shows that the NRH instability can amplify magnetic fields to many times their initial value in parallel and perpendicular shocks.

  12. Detection of oxygen vacancy defect states in capacitors with ultrathin Ta2O5 films by zero-bias thermally stimulated current spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, W.S.; Leong, L.L.; Han, Taejoon; Sandler, Nathan P.

    2003-01-01

    Defect state D (0.8 eV) was experimentally detected in Ta 2 O 5 capacitors with ultrathin (physical thickness 2 O 5 films using zero-bias thermally stimulated current spectroscopy and correlated with leakage current. Defect state D can be more efficiently suppressed by using N 2 O rapid thermal annealing (RTA) instead of using O 2 RTA for postdeposition annealing and by using TiN instead of Al for top electrode. We believe that defect D is probably the first ionization level of the oxygen vacancy deep double donor. Other important defects are Si/O-vacancy complex single donors and C/O-vacancy complex single donors

  13. Angular and magnetic field dependences of critical current in irradiated YBaCuO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrusenko, Yu.

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of mechanisms responsible for the current-carrying capability of irradiated high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) was realized. For the purpose, experiments were made to investigate the effect of point defects generated by high-energy electron irradiation on the critical temperature and the critical current in high-Tc superconducting single crystals YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . The transport current density measured in HTSC single crystals YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x by the dc-method was found to exceed 80000 A/cm 2 . The experiments have demonstrated a more than 30-fold increase in the critical current density in single crystals irradiated with 2.5 MeV electrons to a dose of 3·10 18 el/cm 2 . Detailed studies were made into the anisotropy of critical current and the dependence of critical current on the external magnetic field strength in irradiated single crystals. A high efficiency of point defects as centers of magnetic vortex pinning in HTSC single crystals was first demonstrated.

  14. Domain wall manipulation in magnetic nanotubes induced by electric current pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otálora, J A; López-López, J A; Landeros, P; Núñez, A S

    2012-01-01

    We propose that the injection of electric currents can be used to independently manipulate the position and chirality of vortex-like domain walls in metallic ferromagnetic nanotubes. We support this proposal upon theoretical and numerical assessment of the magnetization dynamics driven by such currents. We show that proper interplay between the tube geometry, magnitude of the electric current and the duration of a current pulse, can be used to manipulate the position, velocity and chirality of a vortex domain wall. Our calculations suggest that domain wall velocities greater than 1 km s -1 can be achieved for tube diameters of the order of 30 nm and increasing with it. We also find that the transition from steady to precessional domain wall motion occurs for very high electric current densities, of the order of 10 13 A m -2 . Furthermore, the great stability displayed by such chiral magnetic configurations, and the reduced Ohmic loses provided by the current pulses, lead to highly reproducible and efficient domain wall reversal mechanisms.

  15. Eddy current and total power loss separation in the iron-phosphate-polyepoxy soft magnetic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghvaei, A.H.; Shokrollahi, H.; Janghorban, K.; Abiri, H.

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates the magnetic properties of iron-phosphate-polyepoxy soft magnetic composite materials. FTIR spectra, EDX analysis, distribution maps, X-ray diffraction pattern and density measurements show that the particles surface layer contains a thin layer of nanocrystalline/amorphous phosphate with high coverage of powders surface. In this paper, a formula for calculating the eddy current loss and total loss components by loss separation method is presented and finally the different parts of power losses are calculated. The results show that, the contribution of eddy current in the bulk material for single coating layer (k b = 0.18) is higher in comparison with double coating layer (k b = 0.09). Moreover, iron-phosphate-polyepoxy composites (P = 0.000004f 2 ) have lower power loss in comparison with iron-phosphate composites (P = 0.00002f 2 ).

  16. Bias voltage induced resistance switching effect in single-molecule magnets’ tunneling junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Liang

    2014-09-01

    An electric-pulse-induced reversible resistance change effect in a molecular magnetic tunneling junction, consisting of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) sandwiched in one nonmagnetic and one ferromagnetic electrode, is theoretically investigated. By applying a time-varying bias voltage, the SMM's spin orientation can be manipulated with large bias voltage pulses. Moreover, the different magnetic configuration at high-resistance/low-resistance states can be ‘read out’ by utilizing relative low bias voltage. This device scheme can be implemented with current technologies (Khajetoorians et al 2013 Science 339 55) and has potential application in molecular spintronics and high-density nonvolatile memory devices.

  17. On Multiple Hall-Like Electron Currents and Tripolar Guide Magnetic Field Perturbations During Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturner, Andrew P.; Eriksson, Stefan; Nakamura, Takuma; Gershman, Daniel J.; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Ergun, Robert E.; Wilder, Frederick D.; Giles, Barbara; Pollock, Craig; Paterson, William R.; Strangeway, Robert J.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Burch, James L.

    2018-02-01

    Two magnetopause current sheet crossings with tripolar guide magnetic field signatures were observed by multiple Magnetosphere Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft during Kelvin-Helmholtz wave activity. The two out-of-plane magnetic field depressions of the tripolar guide magnetic field are largely supported by the observed in-plane electron currents, which are reminiscent of two clockwise Hall current loop systems. A comparison with a three-dimensional kinetic simulation of Kelvin-Helmholtz waves and vortex-induced reconnection suggests that MMS likely encountered the two Hall magnetic field depressions on either side of a magnetic reconnection X-line. Moreover, MMS observed an out-of-plane current reversal and a corresponding in-plane magnetic field rotation at the center of one of the current sheets, suggesting the presence of two adjacent flux ropes. The region inside one of the ion-scale flux ropes was characterized by an observed decrease of the total magnetic field, a strong axial current, and significant enhancements of electron density and parallel electron temperature. The flux rope boundary was characterized by currents opposite this axial current, strong in-plane and converging electric fields, parallel electric fields, and weak electron-frame Joule dissipation. These return current region observations may reflect a need to support the axial current rather than representing local reconnection signatures in the absence of any exhausts.

  18. Meson exchange current corrections to magnetic moments in quantum hadro-dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, T M; Price, C E; Shepard, J R [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1990-11-15

    We have calculated pion exchange current corrections to the magnetic moments of closed shell {plus minus}1 particle nuclei near A=16 and 40 within the framework of quantum hadro-dynamics (QHD). We find that the correction is significant and that, in general, the agreement of the QHD isovector moments with experiment is worsened. Comparisons to previous non-relativistic calculations are also made. (orig.).

  19. COMPASS-D magnetic equilibria with LH and NBI current drive

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hronová-Bilyková, Olena; Fuchs, Vladimír; Pánek, Radomír; Urban, Jakub; Žáček, František; Stöckel, Jan; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Valovič, M.; Fitzgerald, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, suppl.B (2006), B24-B30 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/22nd./. Praha, 26.6.2006-29.6.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : tokamak * COMPASS-D * magnetic equilibrium * ACCOME code * ASTRA code * Neutral Beam Injection * Low Hybrid Current Drive Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  20. Simulation of electron and ion bipolar flow in high current diode with magnetic insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrba, P.; Engelko, V.I.

    1990-08-01

    Numerical simulation of the formation of the collector ion flow in a magnetically insulated ion diode (MID) with a hollow cylindrical and cone-shaped cathode was studied. Such cathodes are often used for the production of tubular high current microsecond electron beams. The ions, emitted by the collector and born as a result of ionization of the residual gas by the electron beam, are focused into the cathode plasma region. This effect can adversely influence the diode operation