WorldWideScience

Sample records for current living conditions

  1. Influence of parental education, childhood adversities, and current living conditions on daily smoking in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestilä, Laura; Koskinen, Seppo; Martelin, Tuija; Rahkonen, Ossi; Pensola, Tiina; Pirkola, Sami; Patja, Kristiina; Aromaa, Arpo

    2006-12-01

    To assess the association of parental education, childhood living conditions and adversities with daily smoking in early adulthood and to analyse the effect of the respondent's own education, main economic activity, and current family structure on these associations. The study is based on a representative two-stage cluster sample (N = 1894, participation rate 79%) of young adults aged 18-29, in 2000, in Finland. The outcome measure is daily smoking. Parental smoking and the respondent's own education had the strongest effects on daily smoking. If both parents of the respondent were smokers, then the respondent was most likely to be a smoker too (for men OR (odds ratio) = 3.01, for women OR = 2.41 after all adjustments). Young adults in the lowest educational category had a much higher risk of daily smoking than those in the highest category (OR = 5.88 for women, 4.48 for men). For women parental divorce (OR = 2.31) and current family structure also determined daily smoking. Parental education had a strong gradient in daily smoking and the effect appeared to be mediated largely by the respondent's own educational level. Childhood living conditions are strong determinants of daily smoking. Much of their influence seems to be mediated through current living conditions, which are also determined by childhood conditions. Determinants of smoking behaviour are developed throughout the life course. The findings stress the importance of the respondent's education and parental smoking as determinants of smoking behaviour. Our results support the notion that intervention on smoking initiation and cessation should be considered throughout the life course. Parental involvement in fostering non-smoking would be important.

  2. Lifetime Doctor-Diagnosed Mental Health Conditions and Current Substance Use Among Gay and Bisexual Men Living in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowsky, Nathan J; Dulai, Joshun J S; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Rich, Ashleigh; Patterson, Thomas L; Corneil, Trevor T; Montaner, Julio S G; Roth, Eric A; Hogg, Robert S; Moore, David M

    2017-05-12

    Studies have found that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM) have higher rates of mental health conditions and substance use than heterosexual men, but are limited by issues of representativeness. To determine the prevalence and correlates of mental health disorders among GBM in Metro Vancouver, Canada. From 2012 to 2014, the Momentum Health Study recruited GBM (≥16 years) via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to estimate population parameters. Computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI) collected demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral information, while nurse-administered structured interviews asked about mental health diagnoses and treatment. Multivariate logistic regression using manual backward selection was used to identify covariates for any lifetime doctor diagnosed: (1) alcohol/substance use disorder and (2) any other mental health disorder. Of 719 participants, 17.4% reported a substance use disorder and 35.2% reported any other mental health disorder; 24.0% of all GBM were currently receiving treatment. A lifetime substance use disorder diagnosis was negatively associated with being a student (AOR = 0.52, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 0.27-0.99) and an annual income ≥$30,000 CAD (AOR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21-0.67) and positively associated with HIV-positive serostatus (AOR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.63-3.96), recent crystal methamphetamine use (AOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.69-4.40) and recent heroin use (AOR = 5.59, 95% CI: 2.39-13.12). Any other lifetime mental health disorder diagnosis was negatively associated with self-identifying as Latin American (AOR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.81), being a refugee or visa holder (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.05-0.65), and living outside Vancouver (AOR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.33-0.82), and positively associated with abnormal anxiety symptomology scores (AOR = 3.05, 95% CI: 2.06-4.51). Mental health conditions and substance use, which have important implications for clinical and public health practice, were highly prevalent and co-occurring.

  3. Evaluating the Consistency of Current Mainstream Wearable Devices in Health Monitoring: A Comparison Under Free-Living Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dong; Zhang, Xingting; Liu, Xingyu; Lei, Jianbo

    2017-03-07

    ). Although wearable devices are developing rapidly, the current mainstream devices are only reliable in measuring the number of steps and distance, which can be used as health assessment indicators. However, the measurement consistencies of activity duration, EE, sleep quality, and so on, are still inadequate, which require further investigation and improved algorithms. ©Dong Wen, Xingting Zhang, Xingyu Liu, Jianbo Lei. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 07.03.2017.

  4. Decentralization and Living Conditions in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.S. de; Goymen, K.; Sazak, O.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of decentralization on living conditions in core cities in the European Union. It uses data from the Urban Audit to investigate whether the level of local expenditures relative to central government expenditures has an impact on the subjective appreciation of

  5. Changing living conditions, life style and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Kvernmo, Siv; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    . The aim of the paper is to illustrate the influence of environmental change on living conditions and life style and some of the mechanisms through which such changes affect physical and mental health. The interrelationship between environmental and societal change is illustrated by an example from a small......Human health is the result of the interaction of genetic, nutritional, socio-cultural, economic, physical infrastructure and ecosystem factors. All of the individual, social, cultural and socioeconomic factors are influenced by the environment they are embedded in and by changes in this environment...... community in Greenland, where changing environmental conditions have influenced fishing and employment opportunities to the extent that the size of the population has changed dramatically. The link between social change and health is shown with reference to studies on education, housing and occupation...

  6. Ecology and living conditions of groundwater fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thulin, Barbara; Hahn, Hans Juergen

    2008-09-01

    This report presents the current state of ecological knowledge and applied research relating to groundwater. A conceptual picture is given of groundwater fauna occurrence in regard to Swedish environmental conditions. Interpretation features for groundwater fauna and applications are outlined. Groundwater is one of the largest and oldest limnic habitats populated by a rich and diverse fauna. Both very old species and species occurring naturally in brackish or salt water can be found in groundwater. Groundwater ecosystems are heterotrophic; the fauna depends on imports from the surface. Most species are meiofauna, 0.3-1 mm. The food chain of groundwater fauna is the same as for relatives in surface water and salt water. Smaller animals graze biofilms and detritus, larger animals act facutatively as predators. A difference is that stygobiotic fauna has become highly adapted to its living space and tolerates very long periods without food. Oxygen is a limiting factor, but groundwater fauna tolerates periods with low oxygen concentrations, even anoxic conditions. For longer periods of time a minimum oxygen requirement of 1 mg/l should be fulfilled. Geographic features such as Quaternary glaciation and very old Pliocene river systems are important for distribution patterns on a large spatial scale, but aquifer characteristics are important on a landscape scale. Area diversity is often comparable to surface water diversity. However, site diversity is low in groundwater. Site specific hydrological exchange on a geological facies level inside the aquifer, e.g. porous, fractured and karstic aquifers as well as the hyporheic zone, controls distribution patterns of groundwater fauna. For a better understanding of controlling factors indicator values are suggested. Different adequate sampling methods are available. They are representative for the aquifer, but a suitable number of monitoring wells is required. The existence of groundwater fauna in Sweden is considered as very

  7. Ecology and living conditions of groundwater fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thulin, Barbara [Geo Innova AB (Sweden); Hahn, Hans Juergen [Arbeitsgruppe Grundwasseroekologie, Univ. of Koblenz-Landau (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    This report presents the current state of ecological knowledge and applied research relating to groundwater. A conceptual picture is given of groundwater fauna occurrence in regard to Swedish environmental conditions. Interpretation features for groundwater fauna and applications are outlined. Groundwater is one of the largest and oldest limnic habitats populated by a rich and diverse fauna. Both very old species and species occurring naturally in brackish or salt water can be found in groundwater. Groundwater ecosystems are heterotrophic; the fauna depends on imports from the surface. Most species are meiofauna, 0.3-1 mm. The food chain of groundwater fauna is the same as for relatives in surface water and salt water. Smaller animals graze biofilms and detritus, larger animals act facutatively as predators. A difference is that stygobiotic fauna has become highly adapted to its living space and tolerates very long periods without food. Oxygen is a limiting factor, but groundwater fauna tolerates periods with low oxygen concentrations, even anoxic conditions. For longer periods of time a minimum oxygen requirement of 1 mg/l should be fulfilled. Geographic features such as Quaternary glaciation and very old Pliocene river systems are important for distribution patterns on a large spatial scale, but aquifer characteristics are important on a landscape scale. Area diversity is often comparable to surface water diversity. However, site diversity is low in groundwater. Site specific hydrological exchange on a geological facies level inside the aquifer, e.g. porous, fractured and karstic aquifers as well as the hyporheic zone, controls distribution patterns of groundwater fauna. For a better understanding of controlling factors indicator values are suggested. Different adequate sampling methods are available. They are representative for the aquifer, but a suitable number of monitoring wells is required. The existence of groundwater fauna in Sweden is considered as very

  8. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock living conditions. 205.239 Section 205.239... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain livestock living...

  9. Ignalina NPP: living and working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiuzhas, A.

    1998-01-01

    The conference was devoted to discuss the social problems related with the operation of Ignalina NPP. The main topics are the following: analysis of public opinion of surrounding region of Ignalina NPP including neighbouring Daugavpils district in Latvia, environment impact evaluation of Daugavpils district, assessment of the influence of Ignalina NPP operation to the development of business in the region, investigation of problems of Visaginas town - residence of Ignalina NPP personnel. The specificity of Visaginas (former Sniechkus) is defined by the majority of non-native Lithuanians living there. Cultural transformation and political organization of the region were surveyed as well

  10. Quadrant I description of current conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    In accordance with the requirements of the Consent Decree issued by the Ohio Attorney General's office on August 29, 1989 and with the RCRA Section 3008(h) Consent Order issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region V (USEPA) on September 29, 1989, this report, which provides a Description of Current Conditions within Quadrant I of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) located in Piketon, Ohio, has been developed and submitted for approval. The objectives of this report are to provide data concerning: (1) the current state of knowledge of the environmental setting of Quadrant I of PORTS including ground water, surface water, soil and air; and (2) the extent of known, potential and suspected contamination of these segments of the environment in Quadrant I of the facility. This report is the initial step in the comprehensive RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI) currently underway at PORTS, and will provide a foundation for all subsequent activities related to the RFI in Quadrant I

  11. Inmates perception of the living conditions in a medium security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inmates perception of the living conditions in a medium security prison in North ... and adopted a number of International legal instruments to protect and guarantee ... Data analysis was done with Statistical Package for Social Sciences version ...

  12. Internal migration and household living conditions in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Uchenna Mberu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the 1998 Migration, Gender and Health Survey in Five Regions of Ethiopia, and multivariate regression techniques, this paper examines the relationship between internal migration and household living conditions. The analysis finds significant living condition advantage of permanent and temporary migrants over non-migrants. These advantages are primarily linked to migration selectivity by education and non-agricultural income. Once the independent effects of these variables are controlled, no statistical significant independent association exists between migration status and living conditions. Government policies of resettlement in the 1980s and ethnic federalism of the 1990s may have engendered stress migration and exacerbated poor living outcomes for return migrants. The resort to migration and/or resettlement as an individual or government policy response to periodic unfavorable conditions in places of origin is not strongly supported by this analysis as the key to improved living conditions. Promoting higher education and opportunities for employment outside the agricultural sector are more likely to yield improved living conditions in Ethiopia.

  13. Oral Health Condition of Children Living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Spillere Rovaris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AIDS progression is faster in children than adults. Little is known about the oral health status of children living with HIV. Aim: To carry out a literature review about the oral health conditions of children living with HIV in order to observe if this specific population presents different oral health conditions compared to children without HIV infection. Methods: A documental study of literature review was carried out. Studies were searched at PubMed using “oral health”, “children”, “HIV” and “AIDS” as keywords. Papers published between 2001 and 2011 were included. After applying the exclusion criteria and complete reading of the selected studies, other articles were selected from the references lists of the first ones. Results: Firstly, 24 studies were identified. Among them, 65.5% were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. From the five selected articles, another five from the references of these were included. Only one article compared the oral health conditions of children living with HIV with controls without HIV infection. Conclusions: Only 10 papers contained information on the oral health conditions of children living with HIV, and just one compared the results with controls. The few studies found were insufficient to establish the oral health condition profile of children living with HIV. This lack of information could represent the lack of interest of researchers and health authorities in more integrative care and can result in neglect with this specific population of children.

  14. The socioeconomic and ethnic segregation of living conditions in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Iver Hornemann; Larsen, Jørgen Elm

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the discrepancies between certain aspects of living conditions of ethnic Danes and immigrants in Copenhagen. Copenhagen is quite prosperous and fares well in the globalized economy but is at the same time experiencing increasing poverty and ethnic segregation...

  15. [Living conditions and pattern of acute poisonings in Oslo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolvik, Hallgeir Mæsel; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Bjørnaas, Mari Asphjell; Hovda, Knut Erik; Jacobsen, Dag; Ekeberg, Øivind

    2011-08-09

    Hospitalized patients with acute poisoning come from all classes of society. The relationship between living conditions and pattern of poisoning is, however, unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the connection between living conditions in Oslo and the pattern of acute poisonings, measured by incidence, main toxic agents and intention. A one-year multi-centre study with prospective inclusion of all patients ≥ 18 years of age with a registered address in Oslo admitted to an Oslo hospital with acute poisoning from 1 April 2003 through 31 March 2004. The 15 city districts were grouped into three, according to the official living conditions index in Oslo: city district group 1 (best living conditions), city district group 2 (average living conditions) and city district group 3 (most difficult living conditions). Of a total of 947 patients admitted with acute poisoning as their main diagnosis in the study period, 691 were included in the study, 660 of whom had self-inflicted poisoning. In city district group 3, the annual incidence of acute poisonings was 2.14 per 1000 inhabitants, significantly higher than city district group 2, with 1.50 (p < 0.001), and city district group 1, with 1.36 (p < 0.001). Measured as intention assessed by the treating physician, suicidal and drug related poisonings and those induced by a "cry for help" were more common in city district group 3 (0.74, 0.59 and 0.74 per 1000 inhabitants, respectively) than in city district group 2 (0.62, 0.40 and 0.41, respectively) and city district group 1 (0.52, 0.32 and 0.45, respectively). The main toxic agents were predominantly benzodiazepines (20 %), ethanol (18 %) and paracetamol (12 %). There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of main toxic agents between the city district groups. The findings show a social gradient, with the highest incidence of poisonings in the city district group with the most difficult living conditions.

  16. Quantifying short-lived events in multistate ionic current measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balijepalli, Arvind; Ettedgui, Jessica; Cornio, Andrew T; Robertson, Joseph W F; Cheung, Kin P; Kasianowicz, John J; Vaz, Canute

    2014-02-25

    We developed a generalized technique to characterize polymer-nanopore interactions via single channel ionic current measurements. Physical interactions between analytes, such as DNA, proteins, or synthetic polymers, and a nanopore cause multiple discrete states in the current. We modeled the transitions of the current to individual states with an equivalent electrical circuit, which allowed us to describe the system response. This enabled the estimation of short-lived states that are presently not characterized by existing analysis techniques. Our approach considerably improves the range and resolution of single-molecule characterization with nanopores. For example, we characterized the residence times of synthetic polymers that are three times shorter than those estimated with existing algorithms. Because the molecule's residence time follows an exponential distribution, we recover nearly 20-fold more events per unit time that can be used for analysis. Furthermore, the measurement range was extended from 11 monomers to as few as 8. Finally, we applied this technique to recover a known sequence of single-stranded DNA from previously published ion channel recordings, identifying discrete current states with subpicoampere resolution.

  17. CURRENT AND KINETIC HELICITY OF LONG-LIVED ACTIVITY COMPLEXES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komm, Rudolf; Gosain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    We study long-lived activity complexes and their current helicity at the solar surface and their kinetic helicity below the surface. The current helicity has been determined from synoptic vector magnetograms from the NSO/SOLIS facility, and the kinetic helicity of subsurface flows has been determined with ring-diagram analysis applied to full-disk Dopplergrams from NSO/GONG and SDO/HMI. Current and kinetic helicity of activity complexes follow the hemispheric helicity rule with mainly positive values (78%; 78%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 31%) in the southern hemisphere and negative ones (80%; 93%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 22% and 14%, respectively) in the northern hemisphere. The locations with the dominant sign of kinetic helicity derived from Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and SDO/HMI data are more organized than those of the secondary sign even if they are not part of an activity complex, while locations with the secondary sign are more fragmented. This is the case for both hemispheres even for the northern one where it is not as obvious visually due to the large amount of magnetic activity present as compared to the southern hemisphere. The current helicity shows a similar behavior. The dominant sign of current helicity is the same as that of kinetic helicity for the majority of the activity complexes (83% with a 95% confidence level of 15%). During the 24 Carrington rotations analyzed here, there is at least one longitude in each hemisphere where activity complexes occur repeatedly throughout the epoch. These ''active'' longitudes are identifiable as locations of strong current and kinetic helicity of the same sign

  18. Live attenuated vaccines: Historical successes and current challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minor, Philip D., E-mail: Philip.Minor@nibsc.org

    2015-05-15

    Live attenuated vaccines against human viral diseases have been amongst the most successful cost effective interventions in medical history. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980; poliomyelitis is nearing global eradication and measles has been controlled in most parts of the world. Vaccines function well for acute diseases such as these but chronic infections such as HIV are more challenging for reasons of both likely safety and probable efficacy. The derivation of the vaccines used has in general not been purely rational except in the sense that it has involved careful clinical trials of candidates and subsequent careful follow up in clinical use; the identification of the candidates is reviewed. - Highlights: • Live vaccines against human diseases caused by viruses have been very successful. • They have been developed by empirical clinical studies and problems identified in later use. • It can be difficult to balance ability to cause disease and ability to immunise for a strain. • There is currently no reliable basis for predicting success from pure virological studies. • Vaccinia, which eradicated smallpox, is the paradigm for all successes and issues.

  19. Live attenuated vaccines: Historical successes and current challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines against human viral diseases have been amongst the most successful cost effective interventions in medical history. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980; poliomyelitis is nearing global eradication and measles has been controlled in most parts of the world. Vaccines function well for acute diseases such as these but chronic infections such as HIV are more challenging for reasons of both likely safety and probable efficacy. The derivation of the vaccines used has in general not been purely rational except in the sense that it has involved careful clinical trials of candidates and subsequent careful follow up in clinical use; the identification of the candidates is reviewed. - Highlights: • Live vaccines against human diseases caused by viruses have been very successful. • They have been developed by empirical clinical studies and problems identified in later use. • It can be difficult to balance ability to cause disease and ability to immunise for a strain. • There is currently no reliable basis for predicting success from pure virological studies. • Vaccinia, which eradicated smallpox, is the paradigm for all successes and issues

  20. Women waste pickers: living conditions, work, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Alexa Pupiara Flores; Beck, Carmem Lúcia Colomé; Fernandes, Marcelo Nunes da Silva; Freitas, Natiellen Quatrin; Prestes, Francine Cassol; Tonel, Juliana Zancan

    2016-09-29

    To know the elements of work, health, and living conditions of women who pick recyclable waste and are members of a waste cooperative in a town of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study with seven subjects. Data were collected through participative observation, semi structured interview, and a focus group from July to August of 2013. The data were subjected to content analysis. The following thematic categories emerged: Women's work, informality and precariousness; Experiences of job satisfaction; and Working conditions and health: experiences with accidents, illness and health services. It was concluded that the women who collect recyclable material are exposed to precarious work conditions and potential health risks, such as work overload, accidents, illness, and social insecurity, and that nurses are responsible for promoting actions that ensure the health and inclusion of these workers.

  1. Preventive Vaccination in Russia under Current Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kaplina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the vaccination not only does not lose its value, but also becoming more in-demand allowing to prevent mass infection, disability, and mortality due to them, oncological and somatic diseases. The variety of medicinal vaccines is actively developed. The particular importance is given to the vaccination as a key mean to prevent the antibiotic resistance. That is why it is important for every health worker to know the up-to-date approaches to the immunization in whole, and especially for the risk groups, to understand and compare reasonably the risks of the infections and vaccinations, to be able to explain this to their patients and parents. The most important is a common understanding of the importance of the preventive vaccination of the health workers of all specialties and levels. 

  2. The first metazoa living in permanently anoxic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Iben

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several unicellular organisms (prokaryotes and protozoa can live under permanently anoxic conditions. Although a few metazoans can survive temporarily in the absence of oxygen, it is believed that multi-cellular organisms cannot spend their entire life cycle without free oxygen. Deep seas include some of the most extreme ecosystems on Earth, such as the deep hypersaline anoxic basins of the Mediterranean Sea. These are permanently anoxic systems inhabited by a huge and partly unexplored microbial biodiversity. Results During the last ten years three oceanographic expeditions were conducted to search for the presence of living fauna in the sediments of the deep anoxic hypersaline L'Atalante basin (Mediterranean Sea. We report here that the sediments of the L'Atalante basin are inhabited by three species of the animal phylum Loricifera (Spinoloricus nov. sp., Rugiloricus nov. sp. and Pliciloricus nov. sp. new to science. Using radioactive tracers, biochemical analyses, quantitative X-ray microanalysis and infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations on ultra-sections, we provide evidence that these organisms are metabolically active and show specific adaptations to the extreme conditions of the deep basin, such as the lack of mitochondria, and a large number of hydrogenosome-like organelles, associated with endosymbiotic prokaryotes. Conclusions This is the first evidence of a metazoan life cycle that is spent entirely in permanently anoxic sediments. Our findings allow us also to conclude that these metazoans live under anoxic conditions through an obligate anaerobic metabolism that is similar to that demonstrated so far only for unicellular eukaryotes. The discovery of these life forms opens new perspectives for the study of metazoan life in habitats lacking molecular oxygen.

  3. Restricted Social Engagement among Adults Living with Chronic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla P. Meek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social engagement is key to health and quality of life. Little is known about social engagement patterns of middle-aged and older adults who live with one or more chronic illnesses. This study investigated social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions and factors associated with these restrictions. Methods: Cross-sectional representative data from the National Council on Aging Chronic Care Survey were examined for relationships between social engagement restrictions and chronic conditions, health status, support, quality of life implications, self-care barriers, caregiving, and demographics. Associations were tested using bivariate analyses and binary logistic regression. Results: Participants were 793 middle-aged (age 44–64 and older adults (age 65+ with one or more chronic conditions. Factors associated with social engagement restrictions included having higher education, receiving care, having more physician visits and hospitalizations, being disabled, being unemployed, and having higher Emotional and Physical Problems Scale scores. Conclusions: Findings reveal the prevalence of social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions. Results highlight the importance of promoting research, assessments, and interventions to increase social engagement among this aging population.

  4. Living under a democracy: participation and its impact on the living conditions of the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avritzer, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian democratization took place between 1985 and 1988. In 1985, the authoritarian power holders transferred political power to civilians, and in 1988, a new democratic constitution was enacted, thus finalizing the transition. The end of the transition triggered processes of participation in different Brazilian cities, such as São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Recife, and Rio de Janeiro. However, only in Porto Alegre could the political context in the postdemocratization period generate a process of reverting priorities, that is to say, of inverting the pattern of democratic participation and the pattern of public investment at the urban level. In this article, I show the social conditions of the poor in the city of Porto Alegre in 1985, explain the emergence of participatory budgeting in the city, and show how democracy made a difference in the living conditions of the urban poor in the city of Porto Alegre. In the second part of the article, I analyze the recent expansion of participatory budgeting in Brazil and its recent expansion to midsize cities. In the final part of the article, I show how new participatory institutions are being introduced at the federal level of government. Participation at the local and national levels is making a difference in the living conditions of the Brazilian poor.

  5. Current and future contraceptive options for women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rena C; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Baeten, Jared M

    2018-01-01

    Among women living with HIV, half of the pregnancies are unintended. Effective contraception can prevent unintended pregnancies and consequently reduce maternal mortality and perinatal transmission of HIV. While contraceptive options available for all women also apply to women living with HIV, specific considerations exist to the use of contraception by women living with HIV. Areas covered: First, general principles guiding the use of contraception among women living with HIV are discussed, such as choice, method mix, relative effectiveness, and drug-drug interactions. Second, a detailed discussion of each contraceptive method and issues surrounding the use of that method, such as drug-drug interactions, follows. Third, future contraceptive options in advanced development for use by women or men are briefly discussed. Expert opinion: Contraceptive methods available to all women should also be accessible to women living with HIV. When the relative effectiveness of a contraceptive method is reduced, for example due to drug-drug interactions with antiretrovirals, the method should still be made available to women living with HIV with the appropriate information sharing and counseling. Greater research on various aspects of contraceptive use by women living with HIV and more comprehensive testing of co-administration of hormonal contraceptives and common medications used by these women are warranted.

  6. Dental health state of children living in different anthropogenic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Luchynskyі

    2015-11-01

    I. Y. Horbachevskyy Ternopil State Medical University of Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Ukraine, Ternopil (Ternopil, Maydan Voli, 1, 46001   Abstract   The purpose of the work is to study dental health of children living in conditions of combined negative impact of natural and technological factors. Materials and methods. It was performed an epidemiological dental examination of 2,551 children aged 6 to 15 years, who settled in different regions of the Precarpathians, in conditions of iodine and fluoride deficiency (plain - 1087 children, foothills - 730 and mountain - 734 children. Results. Comprehensive epidemiological studies found low levels of dental health of children living in different geochemical and anthropogenic conditions of Ivano-Frankivsk region (48,83 ± 0,36% in the general observation, that is not statistically different by regions examination, moreover girls level is lower, than that of boys in examined regions (48,14 ± 0,50 and (49,51 ± 0,52%, respectively. It was founded, that the main diseases, which contribute to the reduction of dental health in children, is dental caries and its complications and abnormalities of dentoalveolar system. It was found, that the frequency and severity of dentoalveolar abnormalities depend on anthropogenic environmental conditions: in children of plain and foothill regions, that suffer from greater anthropogenic pressure, dentoalveolar abnormalities where found in (67,99 ± 1,42 and (65,21 ± 1,76%, against (45,91 ± 1,84% in children of conditionally pure mountain region. These same children also often recorded more severe pathology – combined anomalies (24,09 ± 1,57 and (22,06 ± 1,90%, against (12,17 ± 1,78%, respectively. It was found the connection between the dentoalveolar abnormalities and the presence of caries (r = + 0,95; p <0,01 and periodontal tissue diseases (r = + 0,79; p <0,05.   Keywords: children, dental health, dentoalveolar abnormalities, dental caries, periodontal disease, hypoplasia.

  7. Crisis, Living Conditions and Health in Mexico: New Challenges for Social Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva López Arellano

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years, Mexico has faced major crises in its political, economic, and social life. These crises have affected living conditions and health. With the implementation in the 1980's of structural adjustment and economic stabilization policies, Mexico saw a rapid growth of poverty accelerating trends toward social polarization and social division. The current crisis, fueled by deregulation of the global financial markets, only deepens the tendency towards economic stagnation. It has led to an increase in unemployment, worsening income inequalities, and generalized inflation. The increase in food prices, in particular, has made life more difficult for the Mexican population. The crisis has had a palpable and concrete impact on living conditions, health status, and food security for diverse social groups.

  8. Live attenuated vaccines: Historical successes and current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Philip D

    2015-05-01

    Live attenuated vaccines against human viral diseases have been amongst the most successful cost effective interventions in medical history. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980; poliomyelitis is nearing global eradication and measles has been controlled in most parts of the world. Vaccines function well for acute diseases such as these but chronic infections such as HIV are more challenging for reasons of both likely safety and probable efficacy. The derivation of the vaccines used has in general not been purely rational except in the sense that it has involved careful clinical trials of candidates and subsequent careful follow up in clinical use; the identification of the candidates is reviewed. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Working conditions, living conditions and physical health problems declared among penitentiary administration personnel in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, P; Landre, M F; David, S; Goldberg, M; Dassa, S; Marne, M J

    1996-06-01

    A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted among prison staff in France to investigate the relationships between working conditions and health. The sample included men and women 20 to 64 years old belonging to all categories of prison personnel: prison guards, administrative staff, socioeducational workers, technicians, health care workers, and managers (n = 4587, response rate 45.7%). A mailed self-administered questionnaire was used to assess sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, and physical and mental disorders. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the effects of working conditions and social relationships on health of prison staff. However, the results reported here only concern 17 health disorders: body mass index, sick leave, medication use, accidents, digestive disorders, lower extremities and back disorders, hypertension, hemorrhoids, arthritis, skin disorders, urinary infections, chronic bronchitis, cholesterol, gastric ulcer, respiratory infections, ocular disorders. The living non professional conditions mostly associated with health disorders were financial difficulties (OR: 1.9 for digestive disorders, 1.8 for gastric ulcer, 1.7 for medication use) and irregularity of meals (OR = 1.5 for digestive disorders, and hypertension). In the occupational environment, the factors most associated with health disorders are seniority (OR = 4.2 for arthritis, 2.3 for cholesterol) and constraints (OR = 1.7 for lower extremities disorders). In spite of some limits associated to this kind of study, relationships between occupational and non occupational factors and physical health conditions were observed; the results also pointed out the protective role of the social relationships for health conditions.

  10. Indian Adolescent Living with HIV-AIDS: Current Clinical Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kavita S; Bhaware, Bhushan D; Pazare, Amar R

    2017-07-01

    Statistics suggest that, HIV has now largely become the disease of young patients. Hence, the adolescent HIV/AIDS needs to be handled and managed separately from adult HIV. Relatively fewer Indian data exist to characterize the associations in adolescents and young adults infected with HIV disease. The present study explores the current challenges in the management of HIV infected adolescents. The study was aimed at evaluating, relationship between CD4 count and duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART), effects of ART on body mass index and the adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs in adolescent HIV positive patients. This was a cross-sectional study involving 60 HIV positive adolescent patients attending tertiary care Institute KEM Hospital, Parel over duration of one year conducted at Mumbai. Patients on ART between age group 12 to 19 years. ART naïve patients were excluded from the study. 60 adolescent HIV positive patients attended our OPD including 37 males (61.67%) and 23 females (38.33%).The most common mode of transmission was vertical (80%). Education level was: school dropouts - 15%, primary education - 30%, Completed SSC - 31.7%, higher secondary - 23%. Among ADRs were 12 (63.15%) cases of anaemia due to Zidovudine, 4 (21.05%) hepatitis due to Nevirapine, 2 (10.52%) Tenofovir induced AKI and 1 (5.26%) Nevirapine rash. Wilcoxon matched pairs test showed a highly significant increase in the BMI (p ART under government programme has increased the duration of survival of the adolescent population with HIV. Treatment with HAART showed a favourable response with a statistical significant increase in CD4 count. Longer the duration of HAART, higher was the gain in CD4 count. Indian adolescent receiving long term ART, Lipodystrophy is not a troubling issue. Indian adolescent seems to be more tolerance of ART than the other parts of world.

  11. Immobilisation of living bacteria for AFM imaging under physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louise Meyer, Rikke; Zhou, Xingfei; Tang, Lone; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Kingshott, Peter; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) holds great potential for studying the nanoscale surface structures of living cells, and to measure their interactions with abiotic surfaces, other cells, or specific biomolecules. However, the application of AFM in microbiology is challenging due to the difficulty of immobilising bacterial cells to a flat surface without changing the cell surface properties or cell viability. We have performed an extensive and thorough study of how to functionalise surfaces in order to immobilise living bacteria for AFM studies in liquid environments. Our aim was to develop a scheme which allows bacterial cells to be immobilised to a flat surface with sufficient strength to avoid detachment during the AFM scanning, and without affecting cell surface chemistry, structure, and viability. We compare and evaluate published methods, and present a new, reproducible, and generally applicable scheme for immobilising bacteria cells for an AFM imaging. Bacterial cells were immobilised to modified glass surfaces by physical confinement of cells in microwells, physisorption to positively charged surfaces, covalent binding to amine- or carboxyl-terminated surfaces, and adsorption to surfaces coated with highly adhesive polyphenolic proteins originating from the mussel Mytilus edulis. Living cells could be immobilised with all of these approaches, but many cells detached when immobilised by electrostatic interactions and imaged in buffers like PBS or MOPS. Cells were more firmly attached when immobilised by covalent binding, although some cells still detached during AFM imaging. The most successful method revealed was immobilisation by polyphenolic proteins, which facilitated firm immobilisation of the cells. Furthermore, the cell viability was not affected by this immobilisation scheme, and adhesive proteins thus provide a fast, reproducible, and generally applicable scheme for immobilising living bacteria for an AFM imaging.

  12. Fault Current Characteristics of the DFIG under Asymmetrical Fault Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During non-severe fault conditions, crowbar protection is not activated and the rotor windings of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG are excited by the AC/DC/AC converter. Meanwhile, under asymmetrical fault conditions, the electrical variables oscillate at twice the grid frequency in synchronous dq frame. In the engineering practice, notch filters are usually used to extract the positive and negative sequence components. In these cases, the dynamic response of a rotor-side converter (RSC and the notch filters have a large influence on the fault current characteristics of the DFIG. In this paper, the influence of the notch filters on the proportional integral (PI parameters is discussed and the simplified calculation models of the rotor current are established. Then, the dynamic performance of the stator flux linkage under asymmetrical fault conditions is also analyzed. Based on this, the fault characteristics of the stator current under asymmetrical fault conditions are studied and the corresponding analytical expressions of the stator fault current are obtained. Finally, digital simulation results validate the analytical results. The research results are helpful to meet the requirements of a practical short-circuit calculation and the construction of a relaying protection system for the power grid with penetration of DFIGs.

  13. Peculiarities of the risk management system organization in current conditions

    OpenAIRE

    MIKHIN P.O.

    2014-01-01

    Risk-management system organization problem is topical nowadays. The innovation activity is defined as an activity vulnerable to risk and needs more attention. The basic approaches and elements of organization structure development in risk-management system are considered to find out the best structure for business modelling usage. Balance and combination of risk-management system types are required in current conditions.

  14. Modeling current climate conditions for forest pest risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Koch; John W. Coulston

    2010-01-01

    Current information on broad-scale climatic conditions is essential for assessing potential distribution of forest pests. At present, sophisticated spatial interpolation approaches such as the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) are used to create high-resolution climatic data sets. Unfortunately, these data sets are based on 30-year...

  15. Better housing and living conditions for older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    housing stock and local neighbourhood facilites be made more responsive to the demands of older people? How can housing and planning measures contribute to the integration of older people in local communities? How can urban renewal be implemented in elderly-friendly forms? What forms of coordination......There is an increasing emphasis on strategies designed to combat the exclusion of older people from society. The development of social policies oriented towards community care and community living has important consequences for housing policies and urban planning policies. How can the general...

  16. America's Families and Living Arrangements: 2003. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. P20-553

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The data in this report is from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the 2003 Current Population Survey (CPS). The population represented (the population universe) in the ASEC is the civilian non institutionalized population living in the United States. Members of the Armed Forces living off post or with their families on post are…

  17. Conditional live virus as a novel approach towards a safe live attenuated HIV vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Atze T.; Zhou, Xue; Vink, Monique; Klaver, Bep; Berkhout, Ben

    2002-01-01

    To control the worldwide spread of HIV, a safe and effective prophylactic vaccine is urgently needed. Studies with the simian immunodeficiency virus demonstrated that a live attenuated virus can be effective as a vaccine, but serious concerns about the safety of such a vaccine virus have arisen. We

  18. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... selected to receive a transplant, the center must document in the patient's medical record the patient... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Patient and living... Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection. The transplant center must use written...

  19. Health conditions and support needs of persons living in residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Intellectual disability (ID) is a relatively high-incidence disability, with an increased risk of poor physical and mental health. Persons with ID also have lifelong support needs that must be met if they are to achieve an acceptable quality of life. Little is known about these health conditions and support needs in the ...

  20. Beyond urban penalty and urban sprawl: back to living conditions as the focus of urban health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2005-02-01

    Researchers have long studied urban health, both to describe the consequences of urban living and to design interventions to promote the health of people living in cities. Two approaches to understanding the impact of cities on health have been dominant, namely, urban health penalty and urban sprawl. The urban penalty approach posits that cities concentrate poor people and expose them to unhealthy physical and social environments. Urban sprawl focuses on the adverse health and environmental effects of urban growth into outlying areas. We propose a model that integrates these approaches and emphasizes urban living conditions as the primary determinant of health. The aim of the model is to move beyond describing the health-related characteristics of various urban populations towards identifying opportunities for intervention. Such a shift in framework enables meaningful comparisons that can inform public health activities at the appropriate level and evaluate their effectiveness in improving the health of urban populations. The model is illustrated with two examples from current urban public health practice.

  1. Condition monitoring of machinery using motor current signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryter, R.C.; Haynes, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is a powerful monitoring tool for motor-driven equipment that provides a nonintrusive means for detecting the presence of mechanical and electrical abnormalities in the motor and the driven equipment, including altered conditions in the process ''downstream'' of the motor-driven equipment. It was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a means for determining the effects of aging and service wear systems, but it is applicable to a broad range of machinery. MCSA is based on the recognition that an electric motor (ac or dc) driving a mechanical load acts as an efficient and permanently available transducer by sensing mechanical load variations, large and small, long-term and rapid, and converting them into variations in the induced current generated in the motor windings. These motor current variations are carried by the electrical cables processes as desired. Motor current signatures, obtained in both time and over time to provide early indication of degradation. Successful applications of MCSA technology (patent applied for) include not only motor-operated valves but also pumps of various designs, blowers, and air conditioning systems. Examples are presented briefly, and speculation regarding the applicability of MCSA to a broader range of equipment monitoring and production line testing is also given. 1 ref., 13 figs

  2. Wall conditioning for ITER: Current experimental and modeling activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douai, D., E-mail: david.douai@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, Association Euratom-CEA, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Kogut, D. [CEA, IRFM, Association Euratom-CEA, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Wauters, T. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Association Belgian State, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Brezinsek, S. [FZJ, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung Plasmaphysik, 52441 Jülich (Germany); Hagelaar, G.J.M. [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d’Energie, UMR5213, Toulouse (France); Hong, S.H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Lomas, P.J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Lyssoivan, A. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Association Belgian State, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Nunes, I. [Associação EURATOM-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pitts, R.A. [ITER International Organization, F-13067 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Rohde, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Vries, P.C. de [ITER International Organization, F-13067 St. Paul lez Durance (France)

    2015-08-15

    Wall conditioning will be required in ITER to control fuel and impurity recycling, as well as tritium (T) inventory. Analysis of conditioning cycle on the JET, with its ITER-Like Wall is presented, evidencing reduced need for wall cleaning in ITER compared to JET–CFC. Using a novel 2D multi-fluid model, current density during Glow Discharge Conditioning (GDC) on the in-vessel plasma-facing components (PFC) of ITER is predicted to approach the simple expectation of total anode current divided by wall surface area. Baking of the divertor to 350 °C should desorb the majority of the co-deposited T. ITER foresees the use of low temperature plasma based techniques compatible with the permanent toroidal magnetic field, such as Ion (ICWC) or Electron Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ECWC), for tritium removal between ITER plasma pulses. Extrapolation of JET ICWC results to ITER indicates removal comparable to estimated T-retention in nominal ITER D:T shots, whereas GDC may be unattractive for that purpose.

  3. Toroidal current asymmetry and boundary conditions in disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Henry

    2014-10-01

    It was discovered on JET that disruptions were accompanied by toroidal asymmetry of the plasma current. The toroidal current asymmetry ΔIϕ is proportional to the vertical current moment ΔMIZ , with positive sign for an upward vertical displacement event (VDE) and negative sign for a downward VDE. It was claimed that this could only be explained by Hiro current. It is shown that instead it is essentially a kinematic effect produced by the VDE displacement of a 3D magnetic perturbation. This is verified by M3D simulations. The simulation results do not require penetration of plasma into the boundary, as in the Hiro current model. It is shown that the normal velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field vanishes at the wall, in the small Larmor radius limit of electromagnetic sheath boundary conditions. Plasma is absorbed into the wall only via the parallel velocity, which is small, penetrates only an infinitesimal distance into the wall, and does not affect forces exerted by the plasma on the wall. Supported by USDOE and ITER.

  4. Some potentialities of living organisms under simulated Martian conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozina-Lozinsky, L K; Bychenkova, V N; Zaar, E I; Levin, V L; Rumyantseva, V M

    1971-01-01

    Temperature, humidity, pressure, composition of the atmosphere and radiation are the main factors conditioning life on the surface of Mars. When studying the Martian ecology, one must know the total effect of these factors. One may expect that, as a result of adaptation to low temperatures, there is a corresponding shift in the temperature optimum of enzymatic activity. Dryness is the main obstacle to active life. We suggest the presence of some soil moisture and water vapour. Moreover, there can be areas of permafrost. This minimum supply of water and periodic fluctuations of humidity may create conditions for the existence of drought-resistant organisms. Decreased atmospheric pressure alone does not affect micro-organisms, plants, protozoa and even insects. Ciliates reproduce in a flowing atmosphere of pure nitrogen containing 0.0002-0.0005% oxygen as an impurity. Protozoa may also develop in an atmosphere of 98-99% carbon dioxide mixed with 1% O2. Therefore, even traces of oxygen in the Martian atmosphere would be sufficient for aerobic unicellular organisms. Cells and organisms on earth have acquired various ways of protection from uv light, and therefore may increase their resistance further by adaptation or selection. The resistance of some organisms to ionizing radiation is high enough to enable them to endure hard ionizing radiation of the sun. Experiments with unicellular [correction of unicellar] organisms show that the effect of short wave uv radiation depends on the intensity of visible light, long-wave solar uv radiation, temperatures, cell repair processes, and the state of cell components, i.e. whether the cell was frozen, dried or hydrated.

  5. Mutual relationships among body condition score, live weight, and back tissue development in meat sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ptáček

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Body tissue development and proportion affect predisposition to optimum functioning of production attributes, health, and fertility of sheep. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine relationships among indicators of mature ewes’ nutritional status documented by the body condition score and live weight using ultrasonic evaluation of backfat thickness and depth of musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis. The monitoring was carried out in Suffolk sheep (n = 942 for a period of 2 years. A significant increase (P P P P in vivo. Results of the present study could serve in flock management as a tool for evaluation of the current nutritional status as well as a basic ground for further research focused on development of sheep fattiness and carcass traits evaluation.

  6. Live Reporting in a News / Current Affairs TV Show as a Factor of (Non Credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tena Perišin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a perfunctory glance at the content of current aff airs/news programs makes it clear that in just a few years time, live reporting on Croatian TV news shows has increased dramatically. Technologicaladvancements, the equipping of TV stations with mobile satellite vans, and the pressure of competition have all resulted in increased instances of live reporting. When investigating news values, pictureand sound, as well as the possibility of immediate, timely reporting represent the key characteristics of TV journalism. In this context, live reports, as part of a news segment, should add to the authenticity and credibility of the program. Currently, however, TV broadcasting houses attempt to best one another in the number of live broadcasts as a means to purport a higher quality of their program. The direct address to the camera turns a reporter from an anonymous bearer of information into the “main star”. The figures accumulated on the extent of this form used in a news show do not determine the professional level of the editorial policy. Live reporting cannot be regarded as news value if other news values are neglected in the process. Recent research shows that live reports, in most cases, have been stripped of the initial notion of reporting on important and recent events. As such, they are becoming less of a justifi ed element in the creation of news.

  7. Current State-of-the-Art MRI for Comprehensive Evaluation of Potential Living Liver Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Kartik S; Guo, Lijun; Guimarães, Luís

    2017-07-01

    This review focuses on the role of state-of-the-art MRI-based techniques for comprehensive evaluation of living donors providing single-visit assessment of the liver vasculature via MR angiography, of the biliary tract via conventional T2-weighted MR cholangiography and T1-weighted gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR cholangiography, and of hepatic steatosis via T2*-corrected multiecho chemical shift-based water-fat separation MRI and high-speed T2-corrected multiecho MR spectroscopy. By using current state-of-the-art techniques, MRI can provide a one-stop-shop method for evaluation of the potential living liver donors.

  8. The influence on birthweight of maternal living conditions a decade prior to giving birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Singhammer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study’s aim was to correlate measures of mothers’ socio-economic status, a decade prior to giving birth, with their children’s birthweight. As part of a larger study, information on birth characteristics from 706 babies born 1970-73 were linked with census data obtained from their mothers near the time of birth as well as one decade earlier. The 706 individuals were selected at random from two national surveys in 1998 and 2000 and traced back to the time of birth in the period 1970-73. Information on birth characteristics was linked to census data obtained from the mothers in 1960 and 1970. Included was information on parent’s living conditions (e.g. income, type of dwelling, indoor plumbing, telephone, number of people in the household. Information on mother’s health during pregnancy, a decade before childbirth and near childbirth, and data on mothers’ and the infants’ health at birth was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. In analysis that included both early and current socio-economic conditions maternal education and rural residency at the time of giving birth were observed as statistical significant predictors of birthweight. Results were adjusted for maternal age, parity, plurality, gender and diagnoses before and during pregnancy, all factors observed to attenuate birthweight. Indicators of women’s socio-economic conditions a decade prior to giving birth were not significantly associated with birthweight. These findings do not clearly support suggestions in the literature that an infant’s vitality may be influenced by the family’s socio-economic conditions years before birth.

  9. Necessary and sufficient liveness condition of GS3PR Petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, GaiYun; Barkaoui, Kamel

    2015-05-01

    Structural analysis is one of the most important and efficient methods to investigate the behaviour of Petri nets. Liveness is a significant behavioural property of Petri nets. Siphons, as structural objects of a Petri net, are closely related to its liveness. Many deadlock control policies for flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) modelled by Petri nets are implemented via siphon control. Most of the existing methods design liveness-enforcing supervisors by adding control places for siphons based on their controllability conditions. To compute a liveness-enforcing supervisor with as much as permissive behaviour, it is both theoretically and practically significant to find an exact controllability condition for siphons. However, the existing conditions, max, max‧, and max″-controllability of siphons are all overly restrictive and generally sufficient only. This paper develops a new condition called max*-controllability of the siphons in generalised systems of simple sequential processes with resources (GS3PR), which are a net subclass that can model many real-world automated manufacturing systems. We show that a GS3PR is live if all its strict minimal siphons (SMS) are max*-controlled. Compared with the existing conditions, i.e., max-, max‧-, and max″-controllability of siphons, max*-controllability of the SMS is not only sufficient but also necessary. An example is used to illustrate the proposed method.

  10. [Differences in living conditions and health between cities: construction of a composite indicator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Heimann, Luiza Sterman; Boaretto, Roberta Cristina; Pacheco, Adriana Galvão; Pessoto, Umberto Catarino; Ibanhes, Lauro Cesar; Castro, Iracema Ester do Nascimento; Kayano, Jorge; Junqueira, Virginia; Rocha, Jucilene Leite da; Cortizo, Carlos Tato; Telesi Junior, Emílio

    2009-02-01

    To describe an index to identify inequities in living conditions and health and its relationship with health planning. Variables and indicators that would reflect demographic, economic, environment and education processes as well as supply and production of health services were applied for nondimensional scaling and clustering of 5,507 Brazilian municipalities. Data sources were the 2000 Census and the Brazilian Ministry of Health information systems. Z-score test statistic and cluster analysis were performed allowing to defining 4 groups of municipalities by living conditions. There was seen a polarization between the group with the best living conditions and health (Group 1) and the group with the worst living conditions (Group 4). Group 1 consisted of municipalities with larger populations while Group 4 comprised mainly the smallest municipalities. As for Brazilian macroregions, municipalities in Group 1 are clustered in the south and southeast and those in Group 4 are in the Northeast. The living conditions and health index comprises reality dimensions such as housing, environment and health which allows to identifying the most vulnerable municipalities and can provide input for setting priorities, and developing criteria for more equitable financing and resource allocation.

  11. Current active and passive smoking among adults living with same sex partners in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jaime; Checa, Irene; Espejo, Begoña

    2017-05-19

    To assess the association between current active and passive tobacco smoking and living with a same-sex partner in Spain. We analysed data from two cross-sectional national surveys of the Spanish population 15 years and older (2011-Encuesta Nacional de Salud en España and 2014-Encuesta Europea de Salud en España). Analyses included only people living with their partner. Associations were calculated using multiple logistic regressions adjusting for gender, social class and age. Current active and passive smoking were significantly associated with living with same sex partners (odds ratio: 2.71 and 2.88), and particularly strong among women. Spanish adults living with same-sex partners are at higher risk of active and passive smoking. This risk varies by gender. Spanish national surveys should include items on sexual orientation for improved data on health disparities. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. HEALTH STATUS, ENVIRONMENTAL LIVING CONDITIONS AND MICROBIAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY AMONG MIGRANT WORKER HOUSEHOLDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Suknongbung, Siranee; Vatanasomboon, Pisit; Sujirarut, Dusit

    2017-03-01

    A large number of migrants have move to cities in Thailand seeking employment. These people may be at increased risk for environmental health problems. We studied the health status, environmental living conditions and microbial indoor air quality (IAQ) among selected groups of migrant workers and their households in Mueang District, Samut Sakhon, central Thailand. We conducted a cross sectional study of 240 migrant workers and their households randomly selected by multistage sampling. The person responsible for hygiene at each studied household was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Two indoor air samples were taken from each household (480 indoor air samples) to determine bacterial and fungal counts using a Millipore air tester; 240 outdoor air samples were collected for comparison. Ninety-nine point six percent of study subjects were Myanmar, 74.2% were aged 21-40 years, 91.7% had a primary school level education or lower and 53.7% had stayed in Thailand less than 5 years. Eight point three percent had a history of an underlying disease, 20.8% had a recent history of pulmonary tuberculosis in a family member within the previous year. Forty-three point eight percent had a current illness related to IAQ during a previous month. Twenty-one point three were current cigarette smokers, 15.0% were current alcohol consumers, and 5.0% exercises ≥3 times per week. Forty-nine point two percent never opened the windows of their bedrooms or living rooms for ventilation, 45% never cleaned their window screens, and 38.3% never put their pillows or mattresses in the sunlight. The mean(±SD) air bacterial count was 230(±229) CFU/m3 (outdoor air = 128±82 CFU/ m3), and the mean fungal count was 630(±842) CFU/m3 (outdoor air = 138±94 CFU/ m3). When the bacterial and fungal counts were compared with the guidelines of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, the bacterial counts in 6.5% of houses surveyed and the fungal counts in 28.8% of house

  13. Addressing individual behaviours and living conditions: Four Nordic public health policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2011-01-01

    : Analyses of recent public health programmes in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Results: Focus is on either, or both, individual behaviour and living conditions as causes of ill health; the remedies are classical liberal as well as social democratic policies. None of the programmes is consistent...... approach to public health exists. All programmes contain contradictory policies and ideological statements with differences regarding the emphasis on individual behaviour versus choice and living conditions and political responsibility. The policies are not entirely predictable from the political stance...

  14. Factors That Condition the Attitude Toward Living Related Kidney Donation Among Santiago of Cuba's Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; Sánchez, Á; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    Living kidney donation is currently the most important kidney donor source in Latin America, and it is necessary to further increase its rates. To analyze the attitude toward living kidney donation among the Santiago de Cuba's population and to determine the sociopersonal factors with which it is associated. The population over 15 years old residing in Santiago de Cuba, stratified by sex and age, was screened. The "PCID-LKD Ríos" attitude questionnaire toward living kidney donation was administered to a random selection of the people surveyed according to the stratification and the census data. The completion was anonymized and self-administered. Verbal consent was obtained. The study was completed by 445 people, of whom the 86% (n = 389) were in favor of living related kidney donation. This attitude is associated with the level of education (P donation (P = .006); attitude toward cadaveric organ donation (P donation (P = .001); religious beliefs (P = .001); and assessment of the risk of living kidney donation (P donation; (3) carrying out of prosocial activities; and (4) risk assessment of living donation. Living related donation is very well accepted among the Santiago de Cuba's population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Microcephaly epidemic related to the Zika virus and living conditions in Recife, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Wayner Vieira de; Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de; Vazquez, Enrique; Bezerra, Luciana Caroline Albuquerque; Mendes, Antonio da Cruz Gouveia; Lyra, Tereza Maciel; Araujo, Thalia Velho Barreto de; Oliveira, André Luiz Sá de; Braga, Maria Cynthia; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros; Cabral Silva, Amanda Priscila de Santana; Rodrigues, Laura; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi

    2018-01-12

    Starting in August 2015, there was an increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly in Northeast Brazil. These findings were identified as being an epidemic of microcephaly related to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. The present study aims to analyse the spatial distribution of microcephaly cases in Recife (2015-2016), which is in Northeast Brazil, and its association with the living conditions in this city. This was an ecological study that used data from reported cases of microcephaly from the State Health Department of Pernambuco (August 2015 to July 2016). The basic spatial unit of analysis was the 94 districts of Recife. The case definition of microcephaly was: neonates with a head circumference of less than the cut-off point of -2 standard deviations below the mean value from the established Fenton growth curve. As an indicator of the living conditions of the 94 districts, the percentage of heads of households with an income of less than twice the minimum wage was calculated. The districts were classified into four homogeneous strata using the K-means clustering algorithm. We plotted the locations of each microcephaly case over a layer of living conditions. During the study period, 347 microcephaly cases were reported, of which 142 (40.9%) fulfilled the definition of a microcephaly case. Stratification of the 94 districts resulted in the identification of four strata. The highest stratum in relation to the living conditions presented the lowest prevalence rate of microcephaly, and the overall difference between this rate and the rates of the other strata was statistically significant. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test demonstrated that there was a strong association between a higher prevalence of microcephaly and poor living conditions. After the first 6 months of the study period, there were no microcephaly cases recorded within the population living in the richest socio-economic strata. This study showed that those residing in areas with

  16. A few philosophical ruminations on the human condition and choosing to live well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake E. Hestir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion that life is meaningful through choosing to live well has historically received substantive attention in various philosophical circles, notably the ancient Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, and more recently several of the existentialists. In some respects, the idea of choosing to live well is a “thematization” of two widely-recognized, independent components of a meaningful life: happiness and authenticity. I develop this notion of choosing to live well by exploring, developing, and relating these conceptions of happiness and authenticity. By appealing to a very basic account of human nature that has found favor among a great number of people, I show how happiness and authenticity complement each other as conditions for the possibility of living meaningfully.

  17. Participation and Well-Being among Older Adults Living with Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaby, Dana; Miller, William C.; Eng, Janice J.; Jarus, Tal; Noreau, Luc

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the unique contribution of participation (daily activities and social roles) in explaining well-being of older adults living with chronic conditions and examined which aspect of participation (accomplishment of participation or satisfaction with participation) was more important in describing their well-being. Two hundred older…

  18. The influence of housing characteristics on rural migrants’ living condition in Beijing Fengtai District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen Tao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the influence of housing characteristics on rural migrants’ living condition in Beijing Fengtai District, China. The researcher will identify rural migrants in Beijing, examine their housing characteristics (housing crowding, housing privacy and housing facility and the influence on their living condition. Also, some suggestions are given to improve their housing characteristics and living condition. The government should revise the migrant housing policy and hukou management. Also, the rural migrants should try to increase their education level and social skills. For the occupation, the local government should give the rural migrants more job opportunity. These issues are analyzed in relation to local government attitudes toward the rural migrants. The analysis is based on data collected from two types of interviews: rural migrants and management interviews which examine the rural migrants’ housing and managerial aspects of this research, respectively. It is also supported by the utilization of secondary data. The findings of the study indicate that the rural migrants’ housing characteristics (housing crowding, housing privacy and housing facility highly influence their living condition in Beijing Fengtai District. Therefore, the local government should give some assistance to this group people in the big cities. This paper reports on the findings of a study to seek acknowledged definitions of the terms Project and Project Management. The study was based on a conventional review and analysis of the definitions from a series of texts.

  19. Conditions of Living: Queer Youth Suicide, Homonormative Tolerance, and Relative Misery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing social tolerance accorded nonheterosexual persons in many Western countries, queer youth suicide rates remain high. This opens the need to question not only how broad social conditions continue to make lives unlivable for many queer youth but whether queer community formations and representations that emerge within a…

  20. The Current Working Conditions in Ugandan Apparel Assembly Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Tebyetekerwa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present rapid shift of industrialization from developed to developing countries requires developing countries to understand issues related to work organization, management, and working conditions. There are many factors slackening production, of which working conditions is part. A complete inquiry into the workers' working conditions can enable managements to reduce risks in the workplaces and improve productivity. Understanding and awareness of the benefits of workplace research and a probe into the working conditions in the Ugandan apparel assembly plants are urgently required. Methods: A total of 103 (70 women and 33 men workers from five different plants were interviewed. Together with the top management of various plants, questionnaires about the workers' opinions of their physical working conditions were prepared. Data was collected using two methods: (1 questionnaire; and (2 observation of the workers during their work. Results: The results indicated that poor plant working conditions were mainly contributed by the workers' social factors and the management policies. Conclusion: The government, together with the management, should work to improve the working conditions in the apparel assembly plants, as it greatly affects both. Keywords: apparel assembly plants, ergonomics, musculoskeletal disorders, Uganda, working conditions

  1. The Current Working Conditions in Ugandan Apparel Assembly Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebyetekerwa, Mike; Akankwasa, Nicholus Tayari; Marriam, Ifra

    2017-12-01

    The present rapid shift of industrialization from developed to developing countries requires developing countries to understand issues related to work organization, management, and working conditions. There are many factors slackening production, of which working conditions is part. A complete inquiry into the workers' working conditions can enable managements to reduce risks in the workplaces and improve productivity. Understanding and awareness of the benefits of workplace research and a probe into the working conditions in the Ugandan apparel assembly plants are urgently required. A total of 103 (70 women and 33 men) workers from five different plants were interviewed. Together with the top management of various plants, questionnaires about the workers' opinions of their physical working conditions were prepared. Data was collected using two methods: (1) questionnaire; and (2) observation of the workers during their work. The results indicated that poor plant working conditions were mainly contributed by the workers' social factors and the management policies. The government, together with the management, should work to improve the working conditions in the apparel assembly plants, as it greatly affects both.

  2. Effects of Poverty on Urban Residents’ Living and Housing Conditions in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Femi Akinyode

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of housing has made it received much attention worldwide among scholars and policy makers as a potential tool for man’s productivity. However, little is known about the poverty implications on the living and housing condition among Nigerian residents. This study aims at examining the effects of poverty among urban residents on their living and housing conditions in Nigeria. Questionnaires administration was made among 400 residents to assess residential attributes. Qualitatively supported with the aid of personal interview, observation and photographs. Correlation analysis was drawn between the residents’ socio-economic status and housing condition. Results through descriptive analysis established that majority of the housing exhibit deterioration condition. This resulted from the socio-economic situation and high poverty level of the residents. The result also showed robust and positive relationship between residents socio-economic and urban housing condition. This positive relationship demonstrates support for the negative impacts on the welfare of the residents. Urban housing attributes are of importance for residents’ safety, comfort and convenience to enhance productivity. In view of this, the authors are of opinion that, urgent attention is highly necessary if the residents are to live in an environment that is safe, convenience and comfortable in order to enhance their productivity.

  3. Triggering of frequent turbidity currents in Monterey Canyon and the role of antecedent conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, M. A.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Talling, P.; Barry, J.; Maier, K. L.; Parsons, D. R.; Simmons, S.; Gales, J. A.; Gwiazda, R.; McGann, M.; Paull, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents pose a hazard to seafloor infrastructure, deliver organic carbon and nutrients to deep-sea communities, and form economically important deposits. Thus, determining the tempo of turbidity current activity and whether different triggers result in different flow modes is important. Identification of specific triggers is challenging, however, because most studies of turbidity currents are based on their deposits. New direct monitoring of flows and environmental conditions provides the necessary temporal constraints to identify triggering mechanisms. The Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE) in Monterey Canyon, offshore California is the most ambitious attempt yet to measure turbidity flows and their triggers. The CCE provides precise constraint on flow timing, initiation, and potential triggers based on measurements at 7 different instrumented moorings and 2 metocean buoys. Fifteen turbidity flows were measured in 18 months; with recorded velocities >8 m/s and run-outs of up to 50 km. Presence of live estuarine foraminifera within moored sediment traps suggests that that flows originated in water depths of Turbidity currents are thought to be triggered by processes including earthquakes, river floods and storm waves. Here we analyse seismicity, local river discharge, internal tides, wave height, direction and period data. We identify no clear control of any of these individual variables on flow timing. None of the recorded earthquakes (

  4. Living conditions in the districts of Oslo and poisonings by substances of abuse treated at casualty clinic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopian, Maja; Vallersnes, Odd Martin; Jacobsen, Dag; Ekeberg, Øivind; Brekke, Mette

    2015-11-17

    Use of and acute poisoning by substances of abuse represent a major health problem and are often linked to social destitution. We describe associations between place of residence, living conditions and the incidence of poisoning by substances of abuse in Oslo. All patients who were 12 years of age or older and resident in Oslo and who were treated for acute poisoning by substances of abuse at the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC) were included prospectively for a continuous period of one year, from October 2011 to September 2012. The 15 districts of Oslo were categorised into three groups of living conditions, from the best (I) to the poorest (III) living conditions, based on the City of Oslo's living conditions index. Homeless people were grouped separately. The incidence of poisoning by substances of abuse treated in the OAEOC was estimated. Of a total of 1,560 poisonings by substances of abuse, 1,094 cases (70%) affected men. The median age was 41 years. The most frequent toxic agents were ethanol, with 915 cases (59%), and heroin, with 249 cases (16%). The incidence of poisoning by substances of abuse treated in the OAEOC per year per 1,000 inhabitants amounted to 1.75 in living conditions group I, to 2.76 in living conditions group II and 3.41 in living conditions group III. Living conditions group III had a significantly higher incidence than living conditions group II (p < 0.001), and living conditions group II had a significantly higher incidence than living conditions group I (p < 0.001). The incidence of acute poisoning by substances of abuse was higher, the poorer the living conditions in the district.

  5. Live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines: Current status and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Calvert, Jay G; Roof, Michael; Lager, Kelly M

    2015-08-07

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) was reported in the late 1980s. PRRS still is a huge economic concern to the global pig industry with a current annual loss estimated at one billion US dollars in North America alone. It has been 20 years since the first modified live-attenuated PRRSV vaccine (PRRSV-MLV) became commercially available. PRRSV-MLVs provide homologous protection and help in reducing shedding of heterologous viruses, but they do not completely protect pigs against heterologous field strains. There have been many advances in understanding the biology and ecology of PRRSV; however, the complexities of virus-host interaction and PRRSV vaccinology are not yet completely understood leaving a significant gap for improving breadth of immunity against diverse PRRS isolates. This review provides insights on immunization efforts using infectious PRRSV-based vaccines since the 1990s, beginning with live PRRSV immunization, development and commercialization of PRRSV-MLV, and strategies to overcome the deficiencies of PRRSV-MLV through use of replicating viral vectors expressing multiple PRRSV membrane proteins. Finally, powerful reverse genetics systems (infectious cDNA clones) generated from more than 20 PRRSV isolates of both genotypes 1 and 2 viruses have provided a great resource for exploring many innovative strategies to improve the safety and cross-protective efficacy of live PRRSV vaccines. Examples include vaccines with diminished ability to down-regulate the immune system, positive and negative marker vaccines, multivalent vaccines incorporating antigens from other porcine pathogens, vaccines that carry their own cytokine adjuvants, and chimeric vaccine viruses with the potential for broad cross-protection against heterologous strains. To combat this devastating pig disease in the future, evaluation and commercialization of such improved live PRRSV vaccines is a shared goal among PRRSV researchers, pork

  6. Uganda: Current Conditions and the Crisis in North Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    2004/2005. The main industries include the processing of coffee, cotton, tea, sugar, tobacco, edible oils , dairy products, and grain milling as well as...weather conditions. The industrial sector has also expanded, with real output growth approaching 10% a year. Industry constituted 20.4% of GDP in...increasingly critical of governance issues and a rise in defense spending. The late June 2009 discovery of an oil reserve in the fields of western

  7. Relationship between self-esteem and living conditions among stroke survivors at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Junko; Sugawara, Kyoko; Goto, Junko; Sekito, Yoshiko

    2014-10-01

    To clarify the relationship between self-esteem of stroke survivors at home and their living conditions. Study participants were stroke survivors who lived at home and commuted to one of two medical facilities in the Tohoku region of Japan. Stroke survivors were recruited for the present study when they came to the hospital for a routine visit. The researcher or research assistant explained the study objective and methods to the stroke survivor, and the questionnaire survey was conducted. Survey contents included the Japanese version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and questions designed to assess living conditions. A total of 65 participants with complete RSE data were included in the analysis. The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 70.9 years (± 11.1), with a mean RSE score of 32.12 (± 8.32). Only a minor decrease in participant self-esteem was observed, even after having experienced a stroke. Factors associated with self-esteem, including "independent bathing" (standardized partial regression coefficient, β = 0.405, P self-esteem in stroke survivors living at home. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  8. Relationships of physical job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashis Bhattacherjee; Jean-Pierre Bertrand; Jean-Pierre Meyer (and others) [Indian Institute of Technology (India). Department of Mining Engineering

    2007-04-15

    This study assessed the relationships of job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries among coal miners. The sample included randomly selected 516 underground workers. They completed a standardized self-administred questionnaire. The data were analyzed via logistic regression method. The rate of injuries in the past two years was 29.8%. The job tasks with significant crude relative risks were: power hammer, vibrating hand tools, pneumatic tools, bent trunk, awkward work posture, heat, standing about and walking, job tasks for trunk and upper/lower limbs, pain caused by work, and muscular tiredness. Logistic model shows a strong relationship between the number of job tasks (JT) and injuries and significant ORs=1.71 for face work, not-good-health-status, and psychotropic drug use. Musculoskeletal disorders and certain personality traits were also significant in univariate analysis. Therefore job tasks and living conditions strongly increase the injuries, and occupational physicians could help workers to find remedial measures.

  9. Wake Survey of a Marine Current Turbine Under Steady Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Ethan; Luznik, Luksa; Flack, Karen

    2016-11-01

    A submersible particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to study the wake of a horizontal axis marine current turbine. The turbine was tested in a large tow tank facility at the United States Naval Academy. The turbine is a 1/25th scale model of the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Reference Model 1 (RM1) tidal turbine. It is a two-bladed turbine measuring 0.8 m in diameter and featuring a NACA 63-618 airfoil cross section. Separate wind tunnel testing has shown the foil section used on the turbine to be Reynolds number independent with respect to lift at the experimental parameters of tow carriage speed (Utow = 1 . 68 m/s) and tip speed ratio (TSR = 7). The wake survey was conducted over an area extending 0.25D forward of the turbine tip path to 2.0D aft, and to a depth of 1.0D beneath the turbine output shaft in the streamwise plane. Each field of view was approximately 30 cm by 30 cm, and each overlapped the adjacent fields of view by 5 cm. The entire flow field was then reconstructed into a single field of investigation. Results include streamwise and vertical ensemble average velocity fields averaged over approximately 1,000 realizations, as well as higher-order statistics. Turbine tip vortex centers were identified and plotted showing increasing aperiodicity with wake age. keywords: horizontal axis marine current turbine, particle image velocimetry, towing tank, wake survey

  10. Perception of change in living conditions and diet among rural Latino immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Hermosa, Maroly; Tineo, María; Aranda, Yesid; Posada, Germán

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen percent of the total population of the United States (US) is composed of immigrants. Mexicans accounted for about three-quarters of the increase in the Hispanic population from 2000 to 2010. The social and economic problems facing this population in their countries of origin are fueling migration to the US, in search of new opportunities. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the changes in living conditions (housing, health, education) and the dietary intake (ex - an...

  11. Study of Customer Satisfaction with Living Conditions in New Apartment Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Lepkova Natalija; Butkiene Egle; Bełej Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    The article aims to analyze the Lithuanian housing market and to look into the satisfaction of people with living conditions in new apartment buildings on this market. The article presents the concept of customer satisfaction in construction and the criteria that define the quality of dwellings; the benefits, consequences, merits and demerits of the assessment of customer satisfaction are also named. A survey of customer satisfaction helped to evaluate the quality of dwellings according to th...

  12. Sustainability in Health Condition of the People Living in Rural Province of Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kon, Sayuri; Kubo, Harutaka

    2010-01-01

    In Zambia, located in southern part of Africa, drought is frequently happened in dry season but recently heavy rainfall seriously damages crops in rainy season. Life of the people depending on farming are liable to be greatly affected by environmental change, which decrease provision of food, furthermore it affects their nutritional and health conditions. We have conducted longitudinal body measurements for the people living in rural villages to reveal the variation of nutritional status whic...

  13. Data Resource Profile: The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vishal S; Karanikolos, Marina; Clair, Amy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Social and economic policies are inextricably linked with population health outcomes in Europe, yet few datasets are able to fully explore and compare this relationship across European countries. The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey aims to address this gap using microdata on income, living conditions and health. EU-SILC contains both cross-sectional and longitudinal elements, with nationally representative samples of individuals 16 years and older in 28 European Union member states as well as Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Data collection began in 2003 in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Luxembourg and Austria, with subsequent expansion across Europe. By 2011, all 28 EU member states, plus three others, were included in the dataset. Although EU-SILC is administered by Eurostat, the data are output-harmonized so that countries are required to collect specified data items but are free to determine sampling strategies for data collection purposes. EU-SILC covers approximately 500,000 European residents for its cross-sectional survey annually. Whereas aggregated data from EU-SILC are publicly available [http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/income-and-living-conditions/data/main-tables], microdata are only available to research organizations subject to approval by Eurostat. Please refer to [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/microdata/eu_silc] for further information regarding microdata access. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  14. Topology of plasma equilibria and the current closure condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocic, S.; Mahajan, S.M.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    A virtually complete description of the topology of stationary incompressible Euler flows and the magnetic field satisfying the magnetostatic equation is given by a theorem due to Arnol'd. We apply this theorem to describe the topology of stationary states of plasmas with significant fluid flow, obeying the Hall magnetohydrodynamics model equations. In the context of the integrability (nonchaotic topology) of the magnetic and velocity fields, we discuss the validity of conditions analogous to that of Greene and Johnson, which, in the case of magnetostatic equations, states that the line integral ∫dl/B is the same for each closed magnetic field line on a given magnetic surface. We also show how this property follows from the existence of a continuous volume-preserving symmetry of the magnetic field

  15. Experimental Determination of Bed Conditions in Concentrated Pyroclastic Density Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winner, A.; Ferrier, K.; Dufek, J.

    2016-12-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are ground-hugging mixtures of hot gas and rock that can reach temperatures > 800 oC and speeds of 200 m/s. These flows are capable of eroding and entraining the underlying bed material into the flow, which can strongly influence flow momentum, runout distance, and hazards associated with PDCs. However, the mechanism of erosion remains poorly constrained, with proposed mechanisms including under-pressure following the head of the fluidized current, force chain enhanced stresses at the bed, and discrete particle impacts and friction. The interactions between PDCs and the bed have been difficult to observe in the field, as their infrequent occurrence, opacity, and hostile environment make real-time measurement difficult. This study is aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the interactions between PDCs and the bed through a quantitative analysis of bed forces. Our experimental apparatus consists of a rotating cylindrical flume of radius 22 cm, within which gas-rich granular material flows along the interior of the cylinder as it rotates. By using a rotating cylinder, we are able to simulate long-duration flows, allowing us to observe impact forces at the bed over timescales comparable to the flow duration of natural PDCs. To measure the distribution and evolution of forces imparted by the flow on the bed, we constructed a cylindrical insert with a non-erodible bed in which we embedded force sensor arrays parallel and perpendicular to the direction of flow. To measure the forces felt by the particles in the flow, we added "smart particles" 25 to 50 mm in diameter to the flow. Each smart particle contains a three-axis accelerometer and a micro SD card enclosed in a spherical plastic casing, and possesses a density similar to that of the pumice in the experimental flow. Each smart particle also contains a three-axis magnetometer which permits its location to be tracked by means of a unique applied magnetic field. Ultimately

  16. Plate waste of adults in the United States measured in free-living conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Roe

    Full Text Available We analyze food-item level data collected from 50 adults from the United States using the Remote Food Photography Method® to provide the first estimates of plate waste gathered from adults across multiple consecutive meals and days in free-living conditions, and during laboratory-based meals with fixed food items and quantities. We find average plate waste in free-living conditions is 5.6 grams (7.7 kcals per item and that 3.3% of all food selected is returned as plate waste, where the percent waste figure is substantially lower than previously published plate waste estimates gathered primarily from dine-out settings in the United States such as buffets and institutional settings with limited-choice meals (e.g., school cafeterias. Plate waste from the same participants during the laboratory-based meals is significantly higher with an average of 203.2 grams of solid plate waste per meal (531.3 kcals or 39.1% of the food provided, which is similar to the plate waste percentages found reported in some school cafeteria settings. The amount of plate waste generated in free-living conditions is significantly positively associated with portion size selected for an item. In a multivariate analysis that controls for macronutrient profile, items selected from the vegetables, fats/oils/dressings, and grains categories are associated with significantly greater amounts of plate waste per item. We find no significant associations between free-living plate waste and gender, age, race or body mass index but find that women leave more plate waste in the lab meal where portion sizes are pre-determined by the researcher and similar for all respondents. We discuss possible implications of these findings for programs focused on reducing plate waste and food waste among consumers.

  17. Living conditions in the contaminated territories of Bielorussia 8 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Girard, P.

    1997-01-01

    Living conditions in the contaminated territories of Bielorussia after the Chernobyl accident: evaluation of the situation in the district of Chetchersk in Bielorussia. This article presents an analysis of the social and economic aspects of radiological protection in the territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. It is based on the results of two surveys performed in 1994 on the living conditions of the inhabitants of a territorial community located in Bielorussia, 180 km north of Chernobyl. The first part presents the radiological post-accident situation of the district, together with an analysis of this situation's demographic impact since 1986. The second part presents a description of the modes of exposure of the inhabitants of the contaminated territories and an assessment of he various countermeasures programmes initiated by the authorities in the legislative framework of 1991. The last part addresses the economic aspects of the Chetchersk district and an evaluation of the consequences of the radiological situation on the economic, and above all agricultural, activities of the district.The conclusion highlights the difficulties that face the Byelorussian authorities today. The now definitive presence of inhabitants in a durably contaminated environment poses a new category of problems. The objectives of radiological protection have to be reshaped within a set of constraints of different types, notably social and economic. The development of radiological safety cannot be dissociated from a return to quality living in these territories. This necessarily entails re-establishing a climate of social confidence. The initial legislative plan for post-accident management must be adapted to give greater autonomy to local participants in the reconstruction of satisfactory living conditions. (authors)

  18. Plate waste of adults in the United States measured in free-living conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, H. Raymond

    2018-01-01

    We analyze food-item level data collected from 50 adults from the United States using the Remote Food Photography Method® to provide the first estimates of plate waste gathered from adults across multiple consecutive meals and days in free-living conditions, and during laboratory-based meals with fixed food items and quantities. We find average plate waste in free-living conditions is 5.6 grams (7.7 kcals) per item and that 3.3% of all food selected is returned as plate waste, where the percent waste figure is substantially lower than previously published plate waste estimates gathered primarily from dine-out settings in the United States such as buffets and institutional settings with limited-choice meals (e.g., school cafeterias). Plate waste from the same participants during the laboratory-based meals is significantly higher with an average of 203.2 grams of solid plate waste per meal (531.3 kcals) or 39.1% of the food provided, which is similar to the plate waste percentages found reported in some school cafeteria settings. The amount of plate waste generated in free-living conditions is significantly positively associated with portion size selected for an item. In a multivariate analysis that controls for macronutrient profile, items selected from the vegetables, fats/oils/dressings, and grains categories are associated with significantly greater amounts of plate waste per item. We find no significant associations between free-living plate waste and gender, age, race or body mass index but find that women leave more plate waste in the lab meal where portion sizes are pre-determined by the researcher and similar for all respondents. We discuss possible implications of these findings for programs focused on reducing plate waste and food waste among consumers. PMID:29444094

  19. Associations of demographics, living conditions, work and lifestyle, with levels of satisfaction of nursing personnel in Grahamstown, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hodgskiss, J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diverse demographics, living conditions, working conditions and lifestyles in the South African workforce are likely to affect levels of satisfaction and quality of life. Stressors facing nursing personnel include high mental and physical demands...

  20. [Living conditions: stumbling block or path to successful ageing? Results of the Augsburg regional conference "Living environment, age and health"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, R; Maier, W; Mielck, A; Fuchs, J; Richter-Kornweitz, A; Gostomzyk, J; Grill, E

    2014-09-01

    In addition to good medical care, living environment is of central importance in encouraging social participation among older people. Therefore, municipalities should prioritise the age-appropriate design of living environments. Results of the KORA Age study were presented at the regional conference "Living environment, age and health" in the Augsburg town hall on October 1, 2013. The results on participation and living environment were discussed with local policy makers and senior citizens' representatives from Augsburg and two surrounding regions. The study examined the impact of living environment on participation using two different approaches: qualitative findings from focus group discussions and quantitative findings based on telephone interviews and the use of a geographic information system. The results were complemented by contributions from a regional and national perspective. It was stressed in the closing discussion that a senior-friendly living environment can only be created by using a broad range of different measures. On the one hand physical barriers need to be removed, while at the same time the sense of community, neighborhood cohesion and solidarity should be encouraged further.

  1. Balanced Current Control Strategy for Current Source Rectifier Stage of Indirect Matrix Converter under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeongsu Bak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a balanced current control strategy for the current source rectifier (CSR stage of an indirect matrix converter (IMC under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. If the three-phase grid connected to the voltage source inverter (VSI of the IMC has unbalanced voltage conditions, it affects the currents of the CSR stage and VSI stage, and the currents are distorted. Above all, the distorted currents of the CSR stage cause instability in the overall system, which can affect the life span of the system. Therefore, in this paper, a control strategy for balanced currents in the CSR stage is proposed. To achieve balanced currents in the CSR stage, the VSI stage should receive DC power without ripple components from the CSR stage. This is implemented by controlling the currents in the VSI stage. Therefore, the proposed control strategy decouples the positive and negative phase-sequence components existing in the unbalanced voltages and currents of the VSI stage. Using the proposed control strategy under unbalanced grid voltage conditions, the stability and life span of the overall system can be improved. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is verified by simulation and experimental results.

  2. Evaporation Rates for Liquid Water and Ice Under Current Martian Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Moore, S. R.; Meier, A.; Chittenden, J.; Kareev, M.; Farmer, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    A number of studies have been concerned with the evaporation rates under martian conditions in order to place limits on the possible survival time of both liquid water and ice exposed on the surface of Mars. Such studies also aid in assessing the efficacy of an overlying layer of dust or loose regolith material in providing a barrier to free evaporation and thus prolong the lifetime of water in locations where its availability to putative living organisms would be significant. A better quantitative understanding of the effects of phase changes of water in the near surface environment would also aid the evaluation of the possible role of water in the formation of currently observed features, such as gullies in cliff walls and relatively short-term changes in the albedo of small surface areas ('dark stains'). Laboratory measurements aimed at refinement of our knowledge of these values are described here. The establishment of accurate values for evaporation rates and their dependence on the physical conditions of temperature, pressure and energy input, is an important benchmark for the further investigation of the efficacy of barriers to free evaporation in providing a prolonged period of survival of the water, particularly as a liquid.

  3. Life quality and living standards in big cities under conditions of high-rise construction development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeeva, Elena; Averina, Tatiana; Kochetova, Larisa

    2018-03-01

    Modern urbanization processes occurring on a global scale inevitably lead to an increase in population density in large cities. People assess the state of life quality and living standards of megalopolises under conditions of high-rise construction development ambiguously. Using SWOT analysis, the authors distinguished positive and negative aspects of high-rise construction, highlighted threats to its development and its opportunities. The article considers the model of development of the city's industry and infrastructure, which enables determining the optimal volume of production by sectors and branches of city economy in order to increase its innovative, production and economic potential and business activity.

  4. CORRECTION AND COMPENSATION ROLE OF RECREATION IN LIVING AND WORKING CONDITIONS OF A MODERN MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budimir Bijelić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, living and working conditions have reduced a modern man s motion and power activities in leisure and operating circumstances. Beside the dominant hypokinezis, there are many other factors which have negative infl uence on biological structure and health status of a modern man. Correction and compensation of the functions disturbed as well as a body structure can be performed effi ciently on a healthy basis only with adequate training programs. The training process is particularly effi cient when it is being performed under the direct infl uence of natural factors such as sun, fresh air and water.

  5. Live long and prosper? Childhood living conditions, marital status, social class in adulthood and mortality during mid-life: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fors, Stefan; Lennartsson, Carin; Lundberg, Olle

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of childhood living conditions, marital status, and social class in adulthood on the risk of mortality during mid-life. Two questions were addressed: Is there an effect of childhood living conditions on mortality risk during mid-life and if so, is the effect mediated or modified by social class and/or marital status in adulthood? A nationally representative, Swedish, level of living survey from 1968 was used as baseline. The study included those aged 25-69 at baseline (n = 4082). Social conditions in childhood and adulthood were assessed using self-reports. These individuals were then followed for 39 years using registry data on mortality. The results showed associations between childhood living conditions, marital status, social class in adulthood and mortality during mid life. Social class and familial conditions during childhood as well as marital status and social class in adulthood all contributed to the risk of mortality during mid-life. Individuals whose father's were manual workers, who grew up in broken homes, who were unmarried, and/or were manual workers in adulthood had an increased risk of mortality during mid life. The effects of childhood conditions were, in part, both mediated and modified by social class in adulthood. The findings of this study suggest that there are structural, social conditions experienced at different stages of the life course that affect the risk of mortality during mid-life.

  6. Influence of body condition score on live and carcass value of cull beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J K

    1999-10-01

    Mature beef cows (n = 88) were slaughtered to determine the influence of body condition score (BCS) on carcass and live animal value. Cows were weighed and assigned a BCS (9-point scale), 24 h before slaughter. Hide and by-products weights were recorded during harvest. After a 48-h chill period, the right side of each carcass was fabricated into boneless subprimal cuts, minor cuts, lean trim, fat, and bone. Weights were recorded at all stages of fabrication. Carcass values (U.S.$/100 kg of hot carcass weight) were calculated for U.S. Utility and U.S. Cutter grades, as well as for the Utility/Cutter mix for each BCS. Gross value included the carcass value and the value of the hide and byproducts, whereas net value was calculated after harvest and fabrication costs and by-product value were considered. Live value (U.S.$/100 kg of live weight) was computed by dividing the net value by the animal's live weight 24 h before harvest. The value of the hide and by-products for BCS-2 cows was greater (Pmix, cows designated with a BCS of 7 and 8 had greater (P.05) to BCS-7 cows. Information from this study can be used by the non-fed beef industry to establish a value-based marketing system. Data from this study would indicate that marketing cull beef cows at a BCS of 6 could optimize economic returns to both cow-calf producers and non-fed beef packers.

  7. Imagined futures in living with multiple conditions: Positivity, relationality and hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Lindsay-Ann; Atkinson, Sarah

    2018-02-01

    Hope serves as an overarching concept for a range of engagements that demonstrate the benefits of a positive outlook for coping with chronic conditions of ill-health and disability. A dominant engagement through medicine has positioned hope as a desirable attribute and its opposite, hopelessness, as pathological. In this engagement hope is individual, internally located and largely cognitive and able to be learned. Attaining hope reflects a process of coming to terms with the losses associated with long-term conditions and of imagining new meanings and purposes for the future ahead. This process is characterised by a set of linear temporal stages, from loss and denial to acceptance and reappraising the life-course, by an emphasis on the morally desirable exercise of self-care and by a desired outcome that, in the absence of cure, is hope. Through interviews, we aim to unsettle the privileged status given to a positive outlook through examining the expressions, contexts and negotiations of hopelessness of people living with multiple conditions of ill-health and/or disability. These narratives of hopelessness disclose the ways in which realistic imagined possibilities for the future are constrained by external structures of time and function that demand complex negotiations with places, bodies and other people. As a situated and relational narrative, hopelessness draws our attention to the need to rebalance the exclusive attention to individual, internal resources with a renewed attention to contexts and settings. Moreover, hopelessness can be generative for those living with multiple conditions in shaping alternatively framed priorities with respect to their temporal and interpersonal relations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. The case of value-based healthcare for people living with complex long-term conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elf, Marie; Flink, Maria; Nilsson, Marie; Tistad, Malin; von Koch, Lena; Ytterberg, Charlotte

    2017-01-11

    There is a trend towards value-based health service, striving to cut costs while generating value for the patient. The overall objective comprises higher-quality health services and improved patient safety and cost efficiency. The approach could align with patient-centred care, as it entails a focus on the patient's experience of her or his entire cycle of care, including the use of well-defined outcome measurements. Challenges arise when the approach is applied to health services for people living with long-term complex conditions that require support from various healthcare services. The aim of this work is to critically discuss the value-based approach and its implications for patients with long-term complex conditions. Two cases from clinical practice and research form the foundation for our reasoning, illustrating several challenges regarding value-based health services for people living with long-term complex conditions. Achieving value-based health services that provide the health outcomes that matter to patients and providing greater patient-centredness will place increased demands on the healthcare system. Patients and their informal caregivers must be included in the development and establishment of outcome measures. The outcome measures must be standardized to allow evaluation of specific conditions at an aggregated level, but they must also be sensitive enough to capture each patient's individual needs and goals. Healthcare systems that strive to establish value-based services must collaborate beyond the organizational boundaries to create clear patient trajectories in order to avoid fragmentation. The shift towards value-based health services has the potential to align healthcare-service delivery with patient-centred care if serious efforts to take the patient's perspective into account are made. This is especially challenging in fragmented healthcare systems and for patients with long-term- and multi-setting-care needs.

  9. Evaluation of the technical feasibility of new conditioning matrices for long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschanels, X.

    2004-01-01

    Several matrices have been selected for the conditioning of long-lived radioactive wastes: a compound made of a iodo-apatite core coated with a densified matrice of vanadium-phosphorus-lead apatite for iodine; the hollandite ceramic for cesium; the britholite, zirconolite, thorium phosphate diphosphate, and the monazite-brabantite solid solution for minor actinides; and a Nb-based metal alloy and phosphate or titanate-type ceramics for technetium. This report presents the results of the researches carried out between 2002-2004 during the technical feasibility step. The main points described are: - the behaviour of matrices under irradiation. These studies were performed thanks to an approach combining the characterization of natural analogues, the doping of matrices with short-lived radionuclides and the use of external irradiations; - the behaviour of these matrices with respect to water alteration; - the sensibility of these structures with respect to the incorporation of chemical impurities; - a package-process approach including the optimization of the process and preliminary studies about the package concept retained. These studies show that important work remains to be done to develop conditioning matrices suitable for iodine and technetium, while for cesium and minor actinides, the first steps of the technical feasibility are made. However, it remains impossible today to determine the structure having the best global behaviour. (J.S.)

  10. Uncertainty estimates of purity measurements based on current information: toward a "live validation" of purity methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Izydor; Kelner, Drew; Jiang, Xinzhao Grace; Huang, Gang; Wypych, Jette; Zhang, Xin; Gastwirt, Jessica; Chen, Kenneth; Fodor, Szilan; Hapuarachchi, Suminda; Meriage, Dave; Ye, Frank; Poppe, Leszek; Szpankowski, Wojciech

    2012-12-01

    To predict precision and other performance characteristics of chromatographic purity methods, which represent the most widely used form of analysis in the biopharmaceutical industry. We have conducted a comprehensive survey of purity methods, and show that all performance characteristics fall within narrow measurement ranges. This observation was used to develop a model called Uncertainty Based on Current Information (UBCI), which expresses these performance characteristics as a function of the signal and noise levels, hardware specifications, and software settings. We applied the UCBI model to assess the uncertainty of purity measurements, and compared the results to those from conventional qualification. We demonstrated that the UBCI model is suitable to dynamically assess method performance characteristics, based on information extracted from individual chromatograms. The model provides an opportunity for streamlining qualification and validation studies by implementing a "live validation" of test results utilizing UBCI as a concurrent assessment of measurement uncertainty. Therefore, UBCI can potentially mitigate the challenges associated with laborious conventional method validation and facilitates the introduction of more advanced analytical technologies during the method lifecycle.

  11. Current radiological simulation and dose assessment on the population living in the Techa Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, V.Yu.; Balonov, M.I.; Bruk, G.Ya.

    2002-01-01

    In the beginning of the fifties, planned releases of liquid radioactive wastes were performed from the radiochemical enterprise Mayak to the riverbed of the Techa river flowing in the area of the Chelyabinsk region. These releases caused high contamination of the riverbed and water meadows of the Techa river especially by 9 0S r and 1 37C s. After the termination of intensive releases, a part of the population living in the riverside settlements (15 settlements with total population of 72000 persons) was resettled from 1954-1962. Within the Chelyabinsk region, four inhabited settlements remained on the river: Muslyumovo, Brodokalmak, Russkaya Techa and Nizhnepetropavlovskoye with a total population of 9229 persons according to the census of 1989. The second, but much less significant, source of contamination to this environment was the dispersion and transport of contaminated sediments from Lake Karachay in 1967 [Romanov et al. 1995; Kryshev et al. 1998; Kravtsova et al. 1998]. The overall purpose of this work was determination of ways and estimation of current levels of exposure to population of two settlements, Muslyumovo and Brodokalmak, which is necessary for development of measures on radiation and social protection of population

  12. Social Media Use Among Living Kidney Donors and Recipients: Survey on Current Practice and Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Kazley, Abby Swanson; Hamidi, Bashir; Balliet, Wendy; Baliga, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Background In the United States, there is a national shortage of organs donated for transplant. Among the solid organs, most often kidneys are donated by living donors, but the lack of information and complicated processes limit the number of individuals who serve as living kidney donors. Social media can be a tool for advocacy, educating the public about the need, process, and outcomes of live kidney donors, yet little is known about social media use by kidney transplant patients. Objective ...

  13. Gender inequalities in health: exploring the contribution of living conditions in the intersection of social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmusi, Davide; Vives, Alejandra; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme

    2014-01-01

    Women experience poorer health than men despite their longer life expectancy, due to a higher prevalence of non-fatal chronic illnesses. This paper aims to explore whether the unequal gender distribution of roles and resources can account for inequalities in general self-rated health (SRH) by gender, across social classes, in a Southern European population. Cross-sectional study of residents in Catalonia aged 25-64, using data from the 2006 population living conditions survey (n=5,817). Poisson regression models were used to calculate the fair/poor SRH prevalence ratio (PR) by gender and to estimate the contribution of variables assessing several dimensions of living conditions as the reduction in the PR after their inclusion in the model. Analyses were stratified by social class (non-manual and manual). SRH was poorer for women among both non-manual (PR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09-1.76) and manual social classes (PR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.56). Adjustment for individual income alone eliminated the association between sex and SRH, especially among manual classes (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85-1.19; among non-manual 1.19, 0.92-1.54). The association was also reduced when adjusting by employment conditions among manual classes, and household material and economic situation, time in household chores and residential environment among non-manual classes. Gender inequalities in individual income appear to contribute largely to women's poorer health. Individual income may indicate the availability of economic resources, but also the history of access to the labour market and potentially the degree of independence and power within the household. Policies to facilitate women's labour market participation, to close the gender pay gap, or to raise non-contributory pensions may be helpful to improve women's health.

  14. The Exploration of Mars and the Improvement of Living Conditions in Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Space is the new frontier. The exploration of a new world, Mars, has been giving people on Earth valuable comparative information about climatic and geological processes occurring here on our home planet. With the Viking 1 and 2, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Sojourner, Spirit, Opportunity, Curiosity, etc., spacecrafts, which explored the Red Planet we obtained a great deal information about the extremely arid soil and dry air of Mars in the present, and its watery condition in the distant past. Now there is a decade-long, program of robotic exploration of the martian atmosphere and soil - the 'Mars Surveyor Program', which is a series of small, cheap and fast spacecrafts, carrying very few scientific instruments, to be launched about every two years. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we comment on this new phase of Mars exploration under development, which began in 1996, and its benefits to living conditions in developing countries with desert regions. A peaceful regular research of the arid Mars, will help us to understand much better the dynamics of formation of dry regions here on Earth. We suggest that, if the developing countries participate in that program, they will achieve the scientific understanding to create a practical technology, with which they will acquire ways to future transform their arid areas into a more humid places, and to slow the process of desertification of other regions. This, using their own natural resources and own scientific personnel. That would strongly benefit the living conditions in Western Asian countries, which have many desert regions.

  15. Lived experiences of parents caring for a child with a life-limiting condition in Australia: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anna; Hennessy-Anderson, Nicole; Hosking, Sarah; Hynson, Jenny; Remedios, Cheryl; Thomas, Kristina

    2016-12-01

    Experiential studies in paediatric palliative care are needed to enable an ongoing international agenda which supports the development of responsive family supports. To provide an in-depth exploration of the prevalent lived experiences of parents who are currently providing care for a child with a life-limiting condition in Australia. Cross-sectional, prospective, qualitative study guided by an advisory group and reported according to the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative studies. Transcripts were subjected to a thematic analysis, underpinned by an interpretative phenomenological framework. Purposively sampled parents (n = 14) recruited from a statewide paediatric hospice who self-identified as a 'primary caregiver' for one or more children and/or adolescents (⩽18 years) with a life-limiting condition. Four key themes represented the prevalent experiences of parents: (1) trapped inside the house, (2) the protector, (3) living with the shadow and (4) travelling a different pathway. They describe parents' physical and social isolation, exclusion from the workforce, pervasive grief and associated impacts to their health and well-being. Limited professional and diminished social supports resulted in full ownership of care responsibility. Yet, parents embraced their role as 'protector', reporting acquired meaning and purpose. This study builds upon the growing body of evidence available in paediatric palliative care internationally. The key themes highlight the substantial demand for both physical and emotional support beyond what is currently offered and call for the implementation of carefully planned support services and other societal initiatives which seek to alleviate the broad health impacts to caregivers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. New technique to determine beta half-lives in complex background conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernandez-Ordonez, M.; Pereira, J.; Schmidt, K.H.; Becker, F.; Henzlova, D.; Yordanov, O.; Audouin, L.; Blank, B.; Giovinazzo, J.; Jurado, B.; Rejmund, F.

    2008-01-01

    Very neutron-rich nuclei near the A = 195 r-process waiting point were produced as projectile fragments from a 208 Pb primary beam at GSI, Darmstadt, by cold fragmentation. After in-flight separation, the fragments were implanted in an active catcher, and time correlations to the subsequent beta-decay were established. Due to the periodic operation cycles of the synchrotron, providing the primary beam, the background shows a complex time structure, which prevents applying well established analytical methods to extract the half-life information. A new mathematical analysis method has been developed, which is based on a Monte Carlo code, simulating the time sequence of implantation and beta detection according to the experimental conditions, leaving the beta lifetimes and the beta detection efficiency as free parameters. In addition, both the analysis of the experimental data and the simulation were performed in time-reversed sequence. The ratio of forward/backward time spectra contains the information of the 'true' fragment-beta correlations. Half-lives were obtained from two-dimensional fits of the measured and simulated ratios of time correlations in forward- and backward-time direction by the least-squares method, being the lifetime and the beta-detection efficiency the two fitting parameters. Half-lives of 8 heavy neutron-rich nuclei approaching the r-process waiting point A = 195 have been determined. (authors)

  17. A smartphone-driven methodology for estimating physical activities and energy expenditure in free living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoux, Romain; Duclos, Martine; Fleury, Gérard; Lacomme, Philippe; Lamaudière, Nicolas; Manenq, Pierre-Henri; Paris, Ludivine; Ren, Libo; Rousset, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a function dedicated to the estimation of total energy expenditure (TEE) of daily activities based on data from accelerometers integrated into smartphones. The use of mass-market sensors such as accelerometers offers a promising solution for the general public due to the growing smartphone market over the last decade. The TEE estimation function quality was evaluated using data from intensive numerical experiments based, first, on 12 volunteers equipped with a smartphone and two research sensors (Armband and Actiheart) in controlled conditions (CC) and, then, on 30 other volunteers in free-living conditions (FLC). The TEE given by these two sensors in both conditions and estimated from the metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) in CC served as references during the creation and evaluation of the function. The TEE mean gap in absolute value between the function and the three references was 7.0%, 16.4% and 2.7% in CC, and 17.0% and 23.7% according to Armband and Actiheart, respectively, in FLC. This is the first step in the definition of a new feedback mechanism that promotes self-management and daily-efficiency evaluation of physical activity as part of an information system dedicated to the prevention of chronic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental release of living modified organisms: current approaches and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E; Nickson, Ph D

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology is being rapidly adopted as evidenced by the acreage of genetically modified (GM) crops planted and tonnes of product (grain and fiber) harvested. Concurrent with this technological progress, is a growing concern that the worlds biological diversity is coming under increasing threat from human activities. As such, ecological risk assessment approaches are being developed for GM crop plants as international agreements regulating the transboundary movements of these products are being implemented. This paper reviews the ecological risk assessment approach that has been used to date to approve GM crops to date. The process has been case-by-case, using a comparative, science-based approach balancing the potential risks and benefits of the new technology versus those present with the currently accepted practices. The approach used to evaluate and approve these products is consistent with the conditions and requirements outlined in the Cartagena Protocol.

  19. Living conditions, contraceptive use and the choice of induced abortion among pregnant women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Wielandt, Hanne; Knudsen, Lisbeth B

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: This study describes women with induced abortion and thereby elucidates how living conditions and contraceptive failure are associated with the choice of induced abortion in a population of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: The study population consisted of pregnant women attending Odense...... University Hospital. They were categorized in two groups: women with induced abortion (n = 373) and a reference group consisting of women with spontaneous abortion and antenatal care attendees (n = 2,176). The two groups were compared by use of a case-referent design. The variables studied comprise age......, number of children, partner relationship, education, occupation, economical situation, and contraceptive use. RESULTS: Being single, aged 15-24 or 35 and above, having either no children or two or more children, and the experience of contraceptive failure were parameters which were associated...

  20. Study of Customer Satisfaction with Living Conditions in New Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepkova Natalija

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the Lithuanian housing market and to look into the satisfaction of people with living conditions in new apartment buildings on this market. The article presents the concept of customer satisfaction in construction and the criteria that define the quality of dwellings; the benefits, consequences, merits and demerits of the assessment of customer satisfaction are also named. A survey of customer satisfaction helped to evaluate the quality of dwellings according to their technical and functional parameters, as well as the degree of cooperation between customers and contractors/builders. The customer satisfaction index (CSI and the degree of loyalty were calculated, and then a customer satisfaction matrix was built up.

  1. Mechanical, electrical and microstructural properties of cement-based materials in conditions of stray current flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, A.; Koleva, D.A.; Copuroglu, O.; Van Beek, C.; Van Breugel, K.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation presents a comparative study on mechanical properties, electrical resistivity and microstructure of mortar under DC current, compared to mortar in rest (no current) conditions. Monitoring was performed from 24h after casting until 84 days of cement hydration. A current density

  2. Report on the scientific feasibility of new matrices for the conditioning of long lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    New specific matrices for the conditioning of long lived radionuclides (I, Cs, Tc, minor actinides) have been developed. This report presents the conditions of their synthesis by sintering or melting and the quantifying of their crystallographic, physical and thermal properties. A 7% mass insertion of iodine can be reached with a phosphorus-vanadium-lead iodo-apatite. A 5% mass insertion of cesium is reached with the hollandite-type crystal structure (barium aluminate-titanate). An insertion level of at least 10% mass of rare earth oxides (simulating the presence of actinides) is reached for britholite, zirconolite, thorium phosphate, monazite, and zirconolite glass/ceramic materials. The chemical durability has been also determined. Enhanced aqueous corrosion resistance, 100 times better than for the glasses used today, are obtained for iodo-apatite (I), hollandite (Cs), britholite (actinides 3+/4+), thorium phosphate (actinides 4+) and monazite (3+/4+). The first elements of stability with respect to irradiation are reported for the minor actinide conditioning matrices. External post-irradiation examinations by heavy ion bombardment coupled to atomistic modeling have been performed. The characterization of self-irradiated natural analogues of britholite, zirconolite and monazite with more than 10 20 α/g disintegrations confirms the very long time stability of these mineral structures (>10 8 years). On the basis of the obtained results, it appears that the iodo-apatite, britholite, zirconolite, and thorium phosphate conditioning matrices have reached the stage of scientifical feasibility. The monazite matrice is on the way to reach the feasibility too. Other specific matrices for technetium (metal alloys) and cesium (hollandite) are also under development, but their long-term properties remain to be determined. (J.S.)

  3. Temperament and living conditions: a comparison study of Poles and Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajenkowska, Anna; Zajenkowski, Marcin

    2013-02-01

    The present investigation tested the temperament traits of 319 Polish and 315 South Korean students according to the regulative theory of temperament. Poland and South Korea are two countries with a similar rate of economic growth but with distinct cultures; for instance, they differ in terms of individualism and masculinity dimensions as well as living conditions. This means that they have achieved the same goal with different resources but presumably also with different side effects. The results indicate that the Poles had higher levels of briskness, sensor sensibility and endurance, as well as lower levels of emotional reactivity and perseveration in comparison with South Koreans. The structure of one's temperament determines one's ability to meet environmental requirements and also how one deals with stressful conditions. According to previous empirical data, Poles' temperament profile can be characterized as being less prone to stress perception and therefore more advantageous. It is possible that Koreans, as they have a less adaptive temperament structure, experience higher levels of stress in a more stimulating environment than Poles. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Energetic Assessment of the Nonexercise Activities under Free-Living Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonexercise activities (NAs are common types of physical activity in daily life and critical component in energy expenditure. However, energetic assessment of NA, particularly in free-living subjects, is a technical challenge. In this study, mechanical modeling and portable device were used to evaluate five common types of NA in daily life: sit to stand, lie to sit, bowing while standing, squat, and right leg over left. A human indirect calorimeter was used to measure the activity energy expenditure of NA. Mechanical work and mechanical efficiency of NA were calculated for mechanical modeling. Thirty-two male subjects were recruited for the study (20 subjects for the development of models and 12 subjects for evaluation of models. The average (mean ± SD mechanical work of 5 NAs was 2.31 ± 0.50, 2.88 ± 0.57, 1.75 ± 0.55, 3.96 ± 1.25, and 1.25 ± 0.51 J/kg·m, respectively. The mean mechanical efficiencies of those activities were 22.0 ± 3.3%, 26.5 ± 5.1%, 19.8 ± 3.7%, 24.0 ± 5.5%, and 26.3 ± 5.5%. The activity energy expenditure estimated by the models was not significantly different from the measurements by the calorimeter (p>0.05 with accuracies of 102.2 ± 20.7%, 103.7 ± 25.8%, 105.6 ± 14.6%, 101.1 ± 28.0%, and 95.8 ± 20.7%, respectively, for those activities. These findings suggest that the mechanical models combined with a portable device can provide an alternative method for the energetic analysis of nonexercise activities under free-living condition.

  5. Energetic Assessment of the Nonexercise Activities under Free-Living Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shijie; Tang, Qiang; Quan, Haiying; Lu, Qi; Sun, Ming; Zhang, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    Nonexercise activities (NAs) are common types of physical activity in daily life and critical component in energy expenditure. However, energetic assessment of NA, particularly in free-living subjects, is a technical challenge. In this study, mechanical modeling and portable device were used to evaluate five common types of NA in daily life: sit to stand, lie to sit, bowing while standing, squat, and right leg over left. A human indirect calorimeter was used to measure the activity energy expenditure of NA. Mechanical work and mechanical efficiency of NA were calculated for mechanical modeling. Thirty-two male subjects were recruited for the study (20 subjects for the development of models and 12 subjects for evaluation of models). The average (mean ± SD) mechanical work of 5 NAs was 2.31 ± 0.50, 2.88 ± 0.57, 1.75 ± 0.55, 3.96 ± 1.25, and 1.25 ± 0.51 J/kg·m, respectively. The mean mechanical efficiencies of those activities were 22.0 ± 3.3%, 26.5 ± 5.1%, 19.8 ± 3.7%, 24.0 ± 5.5%, and 26.3 ± 5.5%. The activity energy expenditure estimated by the models was not significantly different from the measurements by the calorimeter (p > 0.05) with accuracies of 102.2 ± 20.7%, 103.7 ± 25.8%, 105.6 ± 14.6%, 101.1 ± 28.0%, and 95.8 ± 20.7%, respectively, for those activities. These findings suggest that the mechanical models combined with a portable device can provide an alternative method for the energetic analysis of nonexercise activities under free-living condition.

  6. The health and living conditions of children in child-headed households in Siteki, Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, S; Njongwe, P Z; English, B; Worku, Z

    2009-04-01

    The focus of the study reported on here was to determine the health and living conditions of children living in child-headed households (CHHs) in Swaziland, where it is estimated that approximately 10-15 percent of the entire population will be orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) by 2010 and that one in ten households in the country today are child-headed because of the impact of HIV and AIDS. The population comprised 41 heads of household, caring for 97 siblings among them. Data was collected in a single period between the months of February and April 2007 using the convenience sampling method and employing a semi-structured questionnaire as the data-collection instrument. Children were generally physically healthy, despite not receiving adequate food or balanced diets. Most had access to health facilities or at least to sources of medication. Education assistance exists but is limited and abuse was generally not reported for fear of reprisal. Children generally relied on family and community networks for assistance, but the strain this put on those offering assistance meant that the assistance was not always consistent. Some children also relied on NGOs for food donations, but many of the children were unaware of the services offered by these organisations. There is a dearth of information on adolescents in Swaziland, the primary caregivers in most child-headed households. Children are not actively consulted and encouraged to participate in helping to solve the problems they are affected by. There is a lack of coordination between caregiver organisations, leading to ineffective and inefficient service provision for this particular vulnerable group.

  7. Magnetic Field Perturbations from Currents in the Dark Polar Regions During Quiet Geomagnetic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Finlay, Chris; Hesse, M.

    2017-01-01

    In the day-side sunlit polar ionosphere the varying and IMF dependent convection creates strong ionospheric currents even during quiet geomagnetic conditions. Observations during such times are often excluded when using satellite data to model the internal geomagneticmain field. Observations from...... the night-side or local winter during quiet conditions are, however, also influenced by variations in the IMF. In this paper we briefly review the large scale features of the ionospheric currents in the polar regions with emphasis on the current distribution during undisturbed conditions. We examine...

  8. Optimized calculation of the synergy conditions between electron cyclotron current drive and lower hybrid current drive on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Wei; Ding Bo-Jiang; Li Miao-Hui; Zhang Xin-Jun; Wang Xiao-Jie; Peysson, Y; Decker, J; Zhang Lei

    2016-01-01

    The optimized synergy conditions between electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) and lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) with normal parameters of the EAST tokamak are studied by using the C3PO/LUKE code based on the understanding of the synergy mechanisms so as to obtain a higher synergistic current and provide theoretical reference for the synergistic effect in the EAST experiment. The dependences of the synergistic effect on the parameters of two waves (lower hybrid wave (LHW) and electron cyclotron wave (ECW)), including the radial position of the power deposition, the power value of the LH and EC waves, and the parallel refractive indices of the LHW (N ∥ ) are presented and discussed. (paper)

  9. Living conditions, ability to seek medical treatment, and awareness of health conditions and healthcare options among homeless persons in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Toda, Ryouhei; Shiraishi, Tomonobu; Toyoda, Hirokuni; Toyozawa, Hideyasu; Kamioka, Yasuaki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shimada, Naoki; Shirasawa, Takako; Hoshino, Hiromi; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2011-12-01

    Empirical data indicative of the health conditions and medical needs of homeless persons are scarce in Japan. In this study, with the aim of contributing to the formulation of future healthcare strategies for the homeless, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey and interviews at a park in Shinjuku Ward, Tokyo, to clarify the living conditions of homeless persons and their health conditions and awareness about the availability of medical treatment. Responses from 55 homeless men were recorded (response rate: 36.7%). With the exception of one person, none of them possessed a health insurance certificate. Half of the respondents reported having a current income source, although their modal monthly income was 30,000 yen($1 was approximately 90 yen). The number of individuals who responded "yes" to the questions regarding "Consulting a doctor on the basis of someone's recommendation" and "Being aware of the location of the nearest hospital or clinic" was significantly higher among those who had someone to consult when they were ill than among those who did not (the odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] were 15.00 [3.05-93.57] and 11.45 [1.42-510.68], respectively). This showed that whether or not a homeless person had a person to consult might influence his healthcare-seeking behavior. When queried about the entity they consulted (multiple responses acceptable), respondents mentioned "life support organizations" (61.1%) and "public offices" (33.3%). Overall, 94.5% of the respondents were aware of swine flu (novel influenza A (H1N1)). Their main sources of information were newspapers and magazines. On the basis of these findings, with regard to the aim of formulating healthcare strategies for homeless persons, while life support organizations and public offices play significant roles as conduits to medical institutions, print media should be considered useful for communicating messages to homeless persons.

  10. Determinants of Current Account Deficit in Turkey: The Conditional and Partial Granger Causality Approach

    OpenAIRE

    YURDAKUL, Funda; CEVHER, Erdogan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the causality relations between the macro aggregates that affect current deficit using conditional and partial Granger causality test. Current deficit/GDP, growth rate, real effective exchange rate, direct foreign capital investment, openness, and energy import were selected as variables for this purpose. 2003.1-2014.2 quarterly data for Turkey’s economy were used for analysis. The results of the conditional and partial Granger causality test demonstrate that real ef...

  11. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036–1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037–1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981–2.460) were more likely to be anemic. PMID:27517045

  12. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghose Bishwajit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p=0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036–1.378 and microcredit membership (p=0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037–1.386. Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p<0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981–2.460 were more likely to be anemic.

  13. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. Bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs with the pipe in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, minimize excavation, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct safe repair operations on live mains.

  14. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Yaya, Sanni; Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda; Feng, Zhanchun

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036-1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037-1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981-2.460) were more likely to be anemic.

  15. The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) : Design, Current Status, and Selected Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Verhulst, Frank C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on

  16. The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): Design, Current Status, and Selected Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on continuity, discontinuity, risk, and protective…

  17. SEAFLOOR MORPHOLOGY INFLUENCES ON CURRENT CONDITION IN A SUNDA STRAIT BRIDGE PROJECT USING NUMERICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franto Novico

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been more than 50 years since the idea to construct the bridge of Sunda Strait was inspirited by Prof. Sedyatmo. This issued is very important due to accelerate the economic growth between Sumatera Island and Java Island which is known as the densest population in the Indonesia. However, until today the bridge is still not construct yet because the high budget and the lack of technical data are still being problems. One of the most important data is current condition along the Sunda Strait. Unfortunately, no one has been clearly studied about current condition along Sunda Strait. Therefore, the information about current condition would be completed to fulfil the lack of data and information. The RV Geomarine I, as a research vessel conducted the survey in October 2012 that one of the objectives is to get the impression about the current condition around the bridge plan. Attaching echo sounder of bathy 1500 to get the depth profile and applied the RD Instrument ADCP Mobile Workhorse Monitor 300 kHz to collect the real current data and analyze the current using numerical model by Mike 21 were carried out to describe the condition of the current around the bridge proposed. In addition, the detail flexible mesh of hydrodynamic model is applied along bridge plan to analyse the current condition that caused by seafloor morphology. Based on the ADCP data it would be seen that the highest velocity record of the current occurs at October 18th 2012 at line 19 with the value 2.63 m/sec. Nevertheless, the numerical model shown the highest current velocity occurs around the northwest of Sangiang Island where the speed attains more than 4.59 m/sec.

  18. Background fluorescence estimation and vesicle segmentation in live cell imaging with conditional random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécot, Thierry; Bouthemy, Patrick; Boulanger, Jérôme; Chessel, Anatole; Bardin, Sabine; Salamero, Jean; Kervrann, Charles

    2015-02-01

    Image analysis applied to fluorescence live cell microscopy has become a key tool in molecular biology since it enables to characterize biological processes in space and time at the subcellular level. In fluorescence microscopy imaging, the moving tagged structures of interest, such as vesicles, appear as bright spots over a static or nonstatic background. In this paper, we consider the problem of vesicle segmentation and time-varying background estimation at the cellular scale. The main idea is to formulate the joint segmentation-estimation problem in the general conditional random field framework. Furthermore, segmentation of vesicles and background estimation are alternatively performed by energy minimization using a min cut-max flow algorithm. The proposed approach relies on a detection measure computed from intensity contrasts between neighboring blocks in fluorescence microscopy images. This approach permits analysis of either 2D + time or 3D + time data. We demonstrate the performance of the so-called C-CRAFT through an experimental comparison with the state-of-the-art methods in fluorescence video-microscopy. We also use this method to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of Rab6 transport carriers at the cell periphery for two different specific adhesion geometries.

  19. Ensuring living condition for ageing population by public–private partnership (PPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konjar Miha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of financial resources has become one of the main issues in fulfilling social and physical needs in urban development. The declining levels of public resources make the collaboration between public and private investors necessary. When facing the challenges of ageing population, shared investment may contribute to the appropriate development of sheltered housing to meet the goals of spatial planning as well as certain standards at the level of urban design. By ensuring appropriate living conditions for all generations such urban PPP projects may contribute to the fulfilment of the public interest. The paper presents practice of PPP implementation in Ljubljana, Slovenia, where local authority with the collaboration of private partners ensured more than 400 sheltered apartments in the last years. Examples show the extension of the idea from the 70s onwards in finding new models of housing for the aging population. The development of new models can be a good example of strengthening the cooperation between public and private partners in the field of urban development practice.

  20. Invited commentary: co-occurring health conditions among women living with profound life challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2011-09-01

    People challenged by homelessness are living with several losses including the loss of a home, employment, economic security, health or well-being, and personal security. Assistance programs for people who are homeless consist of housing, emergency shelter, food services, employment assistance, peer support, medical care, and mental health services. An article by Riley et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2011;175(5):515-522) appearing in this issue of the Journal examines the relation between basic subsistence needs and health outcomes in a cohort of 129 human immunodeficiency virus-infected women who were recruited from a probability sample of low-income hotels, homeless shelters, and free food programs in San Francisco, California. The results of their study underscore the importance of addressing subsistence needs and providing access to medical and psychological treatment for homeless and unstably housed women. In addition to subsistence needs, more attention should be given to comorbid psychiatric and medical conditions that occur among homeless women, including trauma-related disorders.

  1. Ensuring living condition for ageing population by public-private partnership (PPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjar, Miha; Nikšič, Matej; Grom, Janez Peter; Mujkić, Sabina; Fikfak, Alenka

    2018-03-01

    Lack of financial resources has become one of the main issues in fulfilling social and physical needs in urban development. The declining levels of public resources make the collaboration between public and private investors necessary. When facing the challenges of ageing population, shared investment may contribute to the appropriate development of sheltered housing to meet the goals of spatial planning as well as certain standards at the level of urban design. By ensuring appropriate living conditions for all generations such urban PPP projects may contribute to the fulfilment of the public interest. The paper presents practice of PPP implementation in Ljubljana, Slovenia, where local authority with the collaboration of private partners ensured more than 400 sheltered apartments in the last years. Examples show the extension of the idea from the 70s onwards in finding new models of housing for the aging population. The development of new models can be a good example of strengthening the cooperation between public and private partners in the field of urban development practice.

  2. Perception of change in living conditions and diet among rural Latino immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroly Hermosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen percent of the total population of the United States (US is composed of immigrants. Mexicans accounted for about three-quarters of the increase in the Hispanic population from 2000 to 2010. The social and economic problems facing this population in their countries of origin are fueling migration to the US, in search of new opportunities. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the changes in living conditions (housing, health, education and the dietary intake (ex - ante and ex - post of the Latino immigrant population that emigrated from rural areas in Mexico. The participants were attendees of the Purdue Extension Learning Network of Clinton County, who filled out a questionnaire with open and closed questions. The results evidenced the perception of improved quality of life variables related to housing, access to utilities and education, and a change with a tendency for increases in their consumption of fast food, processed food and soda, generating negative effects in terms of an increase in being overweight and obesity, and particularly a lowered consumption of products from their traditional diet.

  3. Criterion for burn-up conditions in gas-cooled cryogenic current leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejan, A.; Cluss, E.M. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Superconducting magnets are energized through helium vapour-cooled cryogenic current leads operating at high ratios of current to mass flow. The high current operation where lead temperature, runaway, and eventual burn-up are likely to occur is investigated. A simple criterion for estimating the burn-up operation conditions (current, mass flow) for a given lead geometry (cross-sectional area, length, heat exchanger area) is presented. This article stresses the role played by the available heat exchanger area in avoiding burn-up at high ratios of current to mass flow. (author)

  4. Gate current for p+-poly PMOS devices under gate injection conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, A.J.; Holleman, J.; Woerlee, P.H.

    2001-01-01

    In current CMOS processing both n+-poly and p+-poly gates are used. The I-V –relationship and reliability of n+-poly devices are widely studied and well understood. Gate currents and reliability for p+-poly PMOS devices under gate injection conditions are not well understood. In this paper, the

  5. Current Percolation in Medium with Boundaries under Quantum Hall Effect Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. Malakeeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current percolation has been considered in the medium with boundaries under quantum Hall effect conditions. It has been shown that in that case the effective Hall conductivity has a nonzero value due to percolation of the Hall current through the finite number of singular points (in our model these are corners at the phase joints.

  6. Wood energy for residential heating in Alaska: current conditions, attitudes, and expected use

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Allen M. Brackley; Valerie. Barber

    2010-01-01

    This study considered three aspects of residential wood energy use in Alaska: current conditions and fuel consumption, knowledge and attitudes, and future use and conditions. We found that heating oil was the primary fuel for home heating in southeast and interior Alaska, whereas natural gas was used most often in south-central Alaska (Anchorage). Firewood heating...

  7. Reducing condition number by appropriate current decomposition on a multiplet of several wires

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a numerical investigation in connection with the dependency of the condition number of the impedance matrix on the decomposition of current on a junction with several attached wires (multiplet). It is shown that the condition...

  8. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari, Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management and Task 2--were completed in prior quarters while Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4--8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera) continued with additional in-pipe testing required to

  9. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera

  10. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-04-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management and Task 2--were completed in prior quarters while Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4--8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera) continued with additional in-pipe testing required to

  11. Research on the induction motor current signature for centrifugal pump at cavitation condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Luo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is a major undesirable phenomenon for centrifugal pump because it can cause hydraulic performance deterioration, pump damage by pitting and material erosion, and structural vibration and noise. Cavitation can appear within the entire range of the operating conditions; therefore, it must be prevented by all means. Sensorless monitoring technology based on motor current signature analysis is non-intrusive and economic for monitoring motor-driven equipment. Thus, this technology is suitable for centrifugal pump systems. The motor current signature for centrifugal pump load at the cavitation condition is the basis of this technology. However, systematic research is lacking on sensorless monitoring technology based on motor current signature. As a result, the tentative exploration for motor current signature at cavitation load was conducted in this study. The results show that the stator current is still a sinusoidal alternating current strictly to the law of sine. Moreover, the root mean square of the current fluctuates because of different flow regimes in the cavitation progress and decreases because vapor density is smaller than water density when cavitation is fully formed. For the stator current spectrum, the noise level, noise distribution, rotation speed, and vane pass frequency components show features in the cavitation process. These indicator indexes change according to the stage of cavitation development. Thus, the motor current signature analysis is found to be a feasible and cost-effective method for the stages of cavitation condition.

  12. Field study of visual and biological light conditions of independently-living elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.P.J.; Westerlaken, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    A field study was carried out to learn more about the influence of light on the lives of elderly people . The results should lead to the development and design of a light concept for elderly people that will improve their everyday health and well-being. Methods: Ninetyone independently-living

  13. Proletarianisation, land, income and living conditions of farm labourers in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Tellegen, N.

    1996-01-01

    In some areas in sub-Saharan Africa a rural proletariat has emerged, consisting mainly of labourers living and working on plantations and large mixed farms. Besides these fully proletarianized estate workers, there is also a category of workers that can be labelled 'semi-proletarianized'. They live

  14. Marital status and living condition as predictors of mortality and readmissions among African Americans with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Marvin Louis Roy; Davila, Carlos D; Shah, Mahek; Wheeler, David S; Ziccardi, Mary Rodriguez; Banerji, Sourin; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2016-11-01

    Socioeconomic factors, including social support, may partially explain why African Americans (AA) have the highest prevalence of heart failure and with worse outcomes compared to other races. AA are more likely to be hospitalized and readmitted for heart failure and have higher mortality. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the social factors of marital status and living condition affect readmission rates and all-cause mortality following hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) in AA patients. Medical records from 611 AA admitted to Einstein Medical Center Philadelphia from January, 2011 to February, 2013 for ADHF were reviewed. Patient demographics including living condition (nursing home residents, living with family or living alone) and marital status (married or non-married -including single, divorced, separated and widowed) were correlated with all-cause mortality and readmission rates. In this cohort (53% male, mean age 65±15, mean ejection fraction 32±16%) 25% (n=152) of subjects were unmarried. Unmarried patients had significantly higher 30-day readmission rates (16% vs. 6% p=0.0002) and higher 1-year mortality (17% vs. 11% p=0.047) compared with married patients. Fifty percent (n=303) of subjects were living with family members, while 40% (n=242) and 11% (n=66) were living alone or in a nursing facility, respectively. Patients living with family members had significantly lower 30-day readmission rates when compared with those living alone or in a nursing facility (7% vs 21% vs. 18% p=vs 32% for nursing facility patients and 17% for those living alone (p=0.0007). After controlling for traditional risk factors (age, gender, body mass index, peak troponin I, left ventricular ejection fraction, B-type natriuretic peptide, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease), being married was an indpendent predictor of 1-year mortality (OR 0.50 p=0.019) and living alone for 30-day readmission (OR 2

  15. Peculiarities on voltage - current characteristics of HTS tapes at overloading conditions cooled by liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotsky, V S; Fetisov, S S; Sytnikov, V E

    2008-01-01

    Electro - technical devices are considered as the most prospective use for high temperature superconductors. For such devices the overload currents due to faults in grids are the operational reality. In these cases the fault currents may forcibly go to superconductors being sometimes dozens times more than the critical currents of HTS. Overloads are the working modes for fault current limiters also. To understand the behavior of HTS devices at overloads it is important to study voltage-current characteristics (VCC) of basic HTS tapes in real cooling conditions. The knowledge of VCC permits to model and to simulate properly HTS devices behavior at overloads. We performed the study of VCC of several HTS tapes at currents several times more than their critical ones. Both, 1-G and 2-G tapes were tested. There were found peculiarities or 'spikes' on VCC at rising currents that vanished at decaying currents. It was shown that such peculiarities are determined by the change of cooling conditions from the convective heat exchange to the nucleate boiling. Nucleate boiling activation and development times were determined. Their dependencies on heat release were measured. The data obtained can be used in simulation of heating of real superconducting devices at overload conditions

  16. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-04-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed previously. Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in test cast-iron pipe segments. Efforts in the current quarter continued to be focused on Tasks 4-8. Highly valuable lessons were learned from field tests of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast-iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. (These field tests were conducted and reported previously.) Several design issues were identified which need to be implemented in both the small- and large-diameter repair

  17. Video-Recorded Validation of Wearable Step Counters under Free-living Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Lindsay P; Park, Susan; Springer, Cary M; Feyerabend, McKenzie D; Steeves, Jeremy A; Bassett, David R

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of 14-step counting methods under free-living conditions. Twelve adults (mean ± SD age, 35 ± 13 yr) wore a chest harness that held a GoPro camera pointed down at the feet during all waking hours for 1 d. The GoPro continuously recorded video of all steps taken throughout the day. Simultaneously, participants wore two StepWatch (SW) devices on each ankle (all programmed with different settings), one activPAL on each thigh, four devices at the waist (Fitbit Zip, Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200, New Lifestyles NL-2000, and ActiGraph GT9X (AG)), and two devices on the dominant and nondominant wrists (Fitbit Charge and AG). The GoPro videos were downloaded to a computer and researchers counted steps using a hand tally device, which served as the criterion method. The SW devices recorded between 95.3% and 102.8% of actual steps taken throughout the day (P > 0.05). Eleven step counting methods estimated less than 100% of actual steps; Fitbit Zip, Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200, and AG with the moving average vector magnitude algorithm on both wrists recorded 71% to 91% of steps (P > 0.05), whereas the activPAL, New Lifestyles NL-2000, and AG (without low-frequency extension (no-LFE), moving average vector magnitude) worn on the hip, and Fitbit Charge recorded 69% to 84% of steps (P 0.05), whereas the AG (LFE) on both wrists and the hip recorded 128% to 220% of steps (P < 0.05). Across all waking hours of 1 d, step counts differ between devices. The SW, regardless of settings, was the most accurate method of counting steps.

  18. Influence of socioeconomic position and gender on current cigarette smoking among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: disentangling context from composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan A. Uthman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is still gaining ground in Sub-Saharan Africa, especially among socially disadvantaged groups. People living with HIV represent a subgroup with a significantly elevated prevalence of cigarette smoking. The objective of the study was to examine the influence of individual-, neighbourhood- and country-level socioeconomic position on current cigarette smoking among people living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We applied multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data collected between 2003 and 2012 in sub-Saharan Africa. We identified 31,270 individual living with HIV (Level 1 nested within 7,054 neighbourhoods (Level 2 from 19 countries (Level 3. Results After adjustment for individual-, neighbourhood- and country-level factors, respondents, the following significant independent risk factors for increasing odds of being a current cigarette smokers among people living with HIV: male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 62.49; 95 % credible interval [CrI] 45.93 to 78.28, from the poorer households (OR = 1.62, 95 % CrI 1.38 to 1.90; living in urban areas (OR = 1.24, 95 % CrI 1.09 to 1.41, from neighbourhoods with low poverty rate (OR = 1.25, 95 % CrI 1.09 to 1.43, illiteracy rate (OR = 1.28, 95 % CrI 1.14 to 1.42, low unemployment rate (OR = 1.11, 95 % crI 1.01 to 1.43; and from countries with low socio-economic deprivation (OR = 1.53, 95 CrI 1.08 to 1.96. About 3.4 % and 39.4 % variation in cigarette smoking behaviour among people living with HIV is conditioned by differences between neighbourhoods and countries. Conclusions Gender, education and socioeconomic context are independently associated with current cigarette smoking among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Influence of socioeconomic position and gender on current cigarette smoking among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: disentangling context from composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthman, Olalekan A; Ekström, Anna Mia; Moradi, Tahereh T

    2016-09-20

    Smoking is still gaining ground in Sub-Saharan Africa, especially among socially disadvantaged groups. People living with HIV represent a subgroup with a significantly elevated prevalence of cigarette smoking. The objective of the study was to examine the influence of individual-, neighbourhood- and country-level socioeconomic position on current cigarette smoking among people living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. We applied multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data collected between 2003 and 2012 in sub-Saharan Africa. We identified 31,270 individual living with HIV (Level 1) nested within 7,054 neighbourhoods (Level 2) from 19 countries (Level 3). After adjustment for individual-, neighbourhood- and country-level factors, respondents, the following significant independent risk factors for increasing odds of being a current cigarette smokers among people living with HIV: male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 62.49; 95 % credible interval [CrI] 45.93 to 78.28), from the poorer households (OR = 1.62, 95 % CrI 1.38 to 1.90); living in urban areas (OR = 1.24, 95 % CrI 1.09 to 1.41), from neighbourhoods with low poverty rate (OR = 1.25, 95 % CrI 1.09 to 1.43), illiteracy rate (OR = 1.28, 95 % CrI 1.14 to 1.42), low unemployment rate (OR = 1.11, 95 % crI 1.01 to 1.43); and from countries with low socio-economic deprivation (OR = 1.53, 95 CrI 1.08 to 1.96). About 3.4 % and 39.4 % variation in cigarette smoking behaviour among people living with HIV is conditioned by differences between neighbourhoods and countries. Gender, education and socioeconomic context are independently associated with current cigarette smoking among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, E.; Cairney, John

    2016-01-01

    ) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable...... of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long-term support and routine management of depression, particularly for individuals at high risk. © 2016...

  1. Current status of research and development on partitioning of long-lived radionuclides in JNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funasaka, H.; Sano, Y.; Nomura, K.; Koma, Y.; Koyama, T.

    2000-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is conducting research and development on the partitioning of actinides and long-lived fission products for the Feasibility Study of the Advanced Fuel Cycle. The SETFICS process was compared with other neutral extractant system, and the effect of higher TBP concentration on the recovery and decontamination was examined. A soft donor ligands TPTZ was studied on the selectivity among the lanthanide series, and their protonation and coordination behavior. With regarding to electrolytic extraction of some platinum elements, the chemical form of the Ru, Re and Pd deposit was identified. (authors)

  2. Effect of live and dry food on rearing of tench (Tinca tinca L. larvae under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Żarski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper we present a method of rearing tench (Tinca tinca L. larvae under controlled conditions, fed on dry food (Gemma and Perla and Artemia nauplii or decapsulated cysts of Artemia. Tench larvae were obtained after artificial spawning by aid of Ovopel stimulation. Two experiments were conducted during which fish were divided into 4 groups (in duplicate and placed in 30 dm3 glass fish tanks set up in a recirculating system. The fish were fed ad libitum and reared for 25 days. Larvae were fed exclusively (experiment 1 or after 10 days (experiment 2 of receiving Artemia nauplii with two types of compound feeds and decapsulated cysts of Artemia. The best growth rate was observed in the control group fed on Artemia nauplii and in the group offered decapsulated cysts in both experiments. The highest survival rate, over 96%, occurred in the control group. A twofold worse survival rate was obtained in the group fed exclusively on dry food. Applied transition schedule had significant effect on survival rate among treatments, however it did not influence the percentage of body deformations occurring in groups receiving compound feed only. The results obtained indicate the necessity of applying gradual transition from live food to compound feed and the improvement of feeding schedules in common tench culture.

  3. New digital reference current generation for shunt active power filter under distorted voltage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdusalam, Mohamed; Karimi, Shahram; Saadate, Shahrokh [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN), CNRS UMR 7037 (France); Poure, Philippe [Laboratoire d' Instrumentation Electronique de Nancy (LIEN), EA 3440, Universite Henri Poincare - Nancy Universite, B.P. 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex (France)

    2009-05-15

    In this paper, a new reference current computation method suitable for shunt active power filter control under distorted voltage conditions is proposed. The active power filter control is based on the use of self-tuning filters (STF) for the reference current generation and on a modulated hysteresis current controller. This active filter is intended for harmonic compensation of a diode rectifier feeding a RL load under distorted voltage conditions. The study of the active filter control is divided in two parts. The first one deals with the harmonic isolator which generates the harmonic reference currents and is experimentally implemented in a DS1104 card of a DSPACE prototyping system. The second part focuses on the generation of the switching pattern of the inverter by using a modulated hysteresis current controller, implemented in an analogue card. The use of STF instead of classical extraction filters allows extracting directly the voltage and current fundamental components in the {alpha}-{beta} axis without phase locked loop (PLL). The performances are good even under distorted voltage conditions. First, the effectiveness of the new proposed method is mathematically studied and verified by computer simulation. Then, experimental results are presented using a DSPACE system associated with the analogue current controller for a real shunt active power filter. (author)

  4. Social life and sanitary risks: evolutionary and current ecological conditions determine waste management in leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Elizalde, Luciana; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2016-05-25

    Adequate waste management is vital for the success of social life, because waste accumulation increases sanitary risks in dense societies. We explored why different leaf-cutting ants (LCA) species locate their waste in internal nest chambers or external piles, including ecological context and accounting for phylogenetic relations. We propose that waste location depends on whether the environmental conditions enhance or reduce the risk of infection. We obtained the geographical range, habitat and refuse location of LCA from published literature, and experimentally determined whether pathogens on ant waste survived to the high soil temperatures typical of xeric habitats. The habitat of the LCA determined waste location after phylogenetic correction: species with external waste piles mainly occur in xeric environments, whereas those with internal waste chambers mainly inhabit more humid habitats. The ancestral reconstruction suggests that dumping waste externally is less derived than digging waste nest chambers. Empirical results showed that high soil surface temperatures reduce pathogen prevalence from LCA waste. We proposed that LCA living in environments unfavourable for pathogens (i.e. xeric habitats) avoid digging costs by dumping the refuse above ground. Conversely, in environments suitable for pathogens, LCA species prevent the spread of diseases by storing waste underground, presumably, a behaviour that contributed to the colonization of humid habitats. These results highlight the adaptation of organisms to the hygienic challenges of social living, and illustrate how sanitary behaviours can result from a combination of evolutionary history and current environmental conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Living Conditions and Psychological Distress in Latino Migrant Day Laborers: The Role of Cultural and Community Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organista, Kurt C; Ngo, Samantha; Neilands, Torsten B; Kral, Alex H

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between typically difficult living conditions and psychological distress in Latino migrant day laborers (LMDLs), with attention to the potentially protective roles of contact with family in country of origin (i.e., communication, sending money, etc.), availability of local culture (i.e., food, music, people from one's country of origin), and utilization of community resources perceived to be culturally competent (i.e., services that are respectful, able to serve Latinos, able to solve problems, in Spanish, etc.). Participants were 344 LMDLs surveyed in the San Francisco Bay Area. As hypothesized: (a) difficult living conditions were related to depression, anxiety, and desesperación [desperation], the latter a popular Latino idiom of psychological distress recently validated on LMDLs; (b) contact with family moderated the relation between difficult living conditions and depression and desesperación but not anxiety and (c) access to local culture, and utilization of community resources, mediated the relation between difficult living conditions and depression and desesperación but not anxiety. Implications for intervening at local and larger levels in order to provide some protection against distress built into the LMDL experience in the United States are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  6. A one-loop study of matching conditions for static-light flavor currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Dirk [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Parma Univ. (Italy); Sommer, Rainer [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration

    2012-11-15

    Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET) computations of semi-leptonic decays, e.g. B{yields}{pi}l{nu}, require the knowledge of the parameters in the effective theory for all components of the heavy-light flavor currents. So far non-perturbative matching conditions have been employed only for the time component of the axial current. Here we perform a check of matching conditions for the time component of the vector current and the spatial component of the axial vector current up to one-loop order of perturbation theory and to lowest order of the 1/m-expansion. We find that the proposed observables have small higher order terms in the 1/m-series and are thus excellent candidates for a non-perturbative matching procedure.

  7. Neutron transport assembly calculation with non-zero net current boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Chang Keun

    1993-02-01

    Fuel assembly calculation for the homogenized group constants is one of the most important parts in the reactor core analysis. The homogenized group constants of one a quarter assembly are usually generated for the nodal calculation of the reactor core. In the current nodal calculation, one or a quarter of the fuel assembly corresponds to a unit node. The homogenized group constant calculation for a fuel assembly proceeds through cell spectrum calculations, group condensation and cell homogenization calculations, two dimensional fuel assembly calculation, and then depletion calculations of fuel rods. To obtain the assembly wise homogenized group constants, the two dimensional transport calculation is usually performed. Most codes for the assembly wise homogenized group constants employ a zero net current boundary condition. CASMO-3 is such a code that is in wide use. The zero net current boundary condition is plausible and valid in an infinite reactor composed of the same kind of assemblies. However, the reactor is finite and the core is constructed by different kinds of assemblies. Hence, the assumption of the zero net current boundary condition is not valid in the actual reactor. The objective of this study is to develop a homogenization methodology that can treat any actual boundary condition, i.e. non-zero net current boundary condition. In order to treat the non-zero net current boundary condition, we modify CASMO-3. For the two-dimensional treatment in CASMO-3, a multigroup integral transport routine based on the method of transmission probability is used. The code performs assembly calculation with zero net current boundary condition. CASMO-3 is modified to consider the inhomogeneous source at the assembly boundary surface due to the non-zero net current. The modified version of CASMO-3 is called CASMO-3M. CASMO-3M is applied to several benchmark problems. In order to obtain the inhomogeneous source, the global calculation is performed. The local calculation

  8. Unified Subharmonic Oscillation Conditions for Peak or Average Current Mode Control

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Chung-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an extension of the author's recent research in which only buck converters were analyzed. Similar analysis can be equally applied to other types of converters. In this paper, a unified model is proposed for buck, boost, and buck-boost converters under peak or average current mode control to predict the occurrence of subharmonic oscillation. Based on the unified model, the associated stability conditions are derived in closed forms. The same stability condition can be applied to ...

  9. Development of a Multisensory Wearable System for Monitoring Cigarette Smoking Behavior in Free-Living Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masudul Haider Imtiaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and validation of a novel multi-sensory wearable system (Personal Automatic Cigarette Tracker v2 or PACT2.0 for monitoring of cigarette smoking in free-living conditions. The contributions of the PACT2.0 system are: (1 the implementation of a complete sensor suite for monitoring of all major behavioral manifestations of cigarette smoking (lighting events, hand-to-mouth gestures, and smoke inhalations; (2 a miniaturization of the sensor hardware to enable its applicability in naturalistic settings; and (3 an introduction of new sensor modalities that may provide additional insight into smoking behavior e.g., Global Positioning System (GPS, pedometer and Electrocardiogram(ECG or provide an easy-to-use alternative (e.g., bio-impedance respiration sensor to traditional sensors. PACT2.0 consists of three custom-built devices: an instrumented lighter, a hand module, and a chest module. The instrumented lighter is capable of recording the time and duration of all lighting events. The hand module integrates Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and a Radio Frequency (RF transmitter to track the hand-to-mouth gestures. The module also operates as a pedometer. The chest module monitors the breathing (smoke inhalation patterns (inductive and bio-impedance respiratory sensors, cardiac activity (ECG sensor, chest movement (three-axis accelerometer, hand-to-mouth proximity (RF receiver, and captures the geo-position of the subject (GPS receiver. The accuracy of PACT2.0 sensors was evaluated in bench tests and laboratory experiments. Use of PACT2.0 for data collection in the community was validated in a 24 h study on 40 smokers. Of 943 h of recorded data, 98.6% of the data was found usable for computer analysis. The recorded information included 549 lighting events, 522/504 consumed cigarettes (from lighter data/self-registered data, respectively, 20,158/22,207 hand-to-mouth gestures (from hand IMU/proximity sensor, respectively

  10. Parents' experiences of living with a child with a long-term condition: a rapid structured review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joanna; Cheater, Francine; Bekker, Hilary

    2015-08-01

    Living with a child with a long-term condition can result in challenges above usual parenting because of illness-specific demands. A critical evaluation of research exploring parents' experiences of living with a child with a long-term condition is timely because international health policy advocates that patients with long-term conditions become active collaborators in care decisions. A rapid structured review was undertaken (January 1999-December 2009) in accordance with the United Kingdom Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidance. Three data bases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PSYCINFO) were searched and also hand searching of the Journal of Advanced Nursing and Child: Care, Health and Development. Primary research studies written in English language describing parents' experiences of living with a child with a long-term condition were included. Thematic analysis underpinned data synthesis. Quality appraisal involved assessing each study against predetermined criteria. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. The impact of living with a child with a long-term condition related to dealing with immediate concerns following the child's diagnosis and responding to the challenges of integrating the child's needs into family life. Parents' perceived they are not always supported in their quest for information and forming effective relationships with health-care professionals can be stressful. Although having ultimate responsibility for their child's health can be overwhelming, parents developed considerable expertise in managing their child's condition. Parents' accounts suggest they not always supported in their role as manager for their child's long-term condition and their expertise, and contribution to care is not always valued. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Enhanced Decoupled Double Synchronous Reference Frame Current Controller for Unbalanced Grid-Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reyes, M.; Rodriguez, Pedro; Vazquez, S.

    2012-01-01

    . In these codes, the injection of positive- and negative-sequence current components becomes necessary for fulfilling, among others, the low-voltage ride-through requirements during balanced and unbalanced grid faults. However, the performance of classical dq current controllers, applied to power converters......, under unbalanced grid-voltage conditions is highly deficient, due to the unavoidable appearance of current oscillations. This paper analyzes the performance of the double synchronous reference frame controller and improves its structure by adding a decoupling network for estimating and compensating...

  12. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast-iron test pipe segments. Efforts in the current quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8. Highly valuable lessons were learned from field tests of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast-iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. (These field tests were conducted and reported last quarter.) These tests identified several design issues which need to be implemented in both the small- and large

  13. Maximum power point tracking for PV systems under partial shading conditions using current sweeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel approach for tracking the maximum power point of photovoltaic systems. • Able to handle both the uniform insolation and partial shading conditions. • Maximum power point tracking based on current sweeping. - Abstract: Partial shading on photovoltaic (PV) arrays causes multiple peaks on the output power–voltage characteristic curve and local searching technique such as perturb and observe (P&O) method could easily fail in searching for the global maximum. Moreover, existing global searching techniques are still not very satisfactory in terms of speed and implementation complexity. In this paper, a fast global maximum power point (MPPT) tracking method which is using current sweeping for photovoltaic arrays under partial shading conditions is proposed. Unlike conventional approach, the proposed method is current based rather than voltage based. The initial maximum power point will be derived based on a current sweeping test and the maximum power point can be enhanced by a finer local search. The speed of the global search is mainly governed by the apparent time constant of the PV array and the generation of a fast current sweeping test. The fast current sweeping test can easily be realized by a DC/DC boost converter with a very fast current control loop. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global searching scheme

  14. Assessing Lebanon's wildfire potential in association with current and future climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Mitri; Mireille G. Jazi; David McWethy

    2015-01-01

    The increasing occurrence and extent of large-scale wildfires in the Mediterranean have been linked to extended periods of warm and dry weather. We set out to assess Lebanon's wildfire potential in association with current and future climatic conditions. The Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) was the primary climate variable used in our evaluation of climate/fire...

  15. Critical condition for current-driven instability excited in turbulent heating of TRIAM-1 tokamak plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Y; Watanabe, T; Nagao, A; Nakamura, K; Kikuchi, M; Aoki, T; Hiraki, N; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Mitarai, O

    1982-02-01

    Critical condition for current-driven instability excited in turbulently heated TRIAM-1 tokamak plasma is investigated experimentally. Resistive hump in loop voltage, plasma density fluctuation and rapid increase of electron temperature in a skin layer are simultaneously observed at the time when the electron drift velocity amounts to the critical drift velocity for low-frequency ion acoustic instability.

  16. Modeling fire-driven deforestation potential in Amazonia under current and projected climate conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Page, Y.; van der Werf, G.R.; Morton, D.C.; Pereira, J.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Fire is a widely used tool to prepare deforested areas for agricultural use in Amazonia. Deforestation is currently concentrated in seasonal forest types along the arc of deforestation, where dry-season conditions facilitate burning of clear-felled vegetation. Interior Amazon forests, however, are

  17. Antishocks in the ASEP with open boundaries conditioned on low current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belitsky, V; Schütz, G M

    2013-01-01

    We study the time evolution of the ASEP on a finite lattice with L sites and open boundaries, conditioned on an atypically low current up to a finite time t. By an exact computation, we show that for a one-parameter family of boundary densities and a special value of the conditioned current, an initial product measure with an antishock at site k evolves into a convex combination of such antishocks at sites k′. The weights p(k′, t|k, 0) are shown to be the transition probabilities of simple biased random walk with reflecting boundaries. We compute explicitly these transition rates. Our result implies that the antishock remains microscopically stable under the locally conditioned dynamics. (paper)

  18. Living conditions of mine workers from eight mines in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pelders, Jodi L

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available interviews with labour representatives, 14 focus groups with mine workers, and 875 questionnaires completed by mine workers. The use of single-sex hostels and hostel room occupancy rates has reduced, while the use of living-out allowances (LOAs) has increased...

  19. Life Satisfaction among Ethnic Minorities in the Netherlands: Immigration Experience or Adverse Living Conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vroome, Thomas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323040969; Hooghe, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that immigrants' levels of life satisfaction tend to be lower than among natives. We do not know, however, whether this is due to the immigration experience as such, or rather is a result of the fact that on average this group is faced with less prosperous living

  20. More space and improved living conditions in cities with autonomous vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Bal, Frans

    2017-01-01

    Many people live in cities today. Many more will do so in future. This increases the demand for space and (space for) transport. Space to expand roads is usually scarce. Building tunnels or elevated bridges is very expensive. Solving one bottleneck creates another bottleneck downstream. More road

  1. More space and improved living conditions in cities with autonomous vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Bal, Frans

    2017-01-01

    Many people live in cities today. Many more will do so in future. This increases the demand for space and (space for) transport. Space to expand roads is usually scarce. Building tunnels or elevated bridges is very expensive. Solving one bottleneck creates a next bottleneck downstream. More road

  2. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-11-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8, with significant progress made in each as well as field testing of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. The field tests were conducted August 23-26, 2004 in Oradell, New Jersey. The field tests identified several design issues which need to be implemented in both the small

  3. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2003-06-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and attaching a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service (which results in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1-Program Management was previously completed. Two reports, one describing the program management plan and the other consisting of the technology assessment, were submitted to the DOE COR in the first quarter. Task 2-Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications and Task 3-Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves are now well underway. First-quarter activities included conducting detailed analyses to determine the capabilities of coiled-tubing locomotion for entering and repairing gas mains and the first design iteration of the joint-sealing sleeve. The maximum horizontal reach of coiled tubing inside a pipeline before buckling prevents further access was calculated for a wide

  4. Female infidelity is constrained by El Niño conditions in a long-lived bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiere, Lynna Marie; Drummond, Hugh

    2016-07-01

    activity. In addition to increasing general self-maintenance and reproductive costs, warm waters may increase costs specific to EP behaviours including divorce, reduced male parental care, or pathogen exposure. Our results suggest that female boobies strategically refrained from EP behaviours to avoid these or other longer-term costs, rather than being compelled by immediate constraints. This study demonstrates that current environmental conditions affect females' mating decisions, contributing to variation in EP behaviours, even in a long-lived, iteroparous species that can buffer against temporary adversity. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  5. Determination of gamma-ray exposure rate from short-lived fission products under criticality accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Hiroshi; Ohno, Akio; Aizawa, Eijyu

    2002-01-01

    For the assessment of γ-ray doses from short-lived fission products (FPs) under criticality accident conditions, γ-ray exposure rates varying with time were experimentally determined in the Transient Experiment Critical Facility (TRACY). The data were obtained by reactivity insertion in the range of 1.50 to 2.93$. It was clarified from the experiments that the contribution of γ-ray from short-lived FPs to total exposure during the experiments was evaluated to be 15 to 17%. Hence, the contribution cannot be neglected for the assessment of γ-ray doses under criticality accident conditions. Computational analyses also indicated that γ-ray exposure rates from short-lived FPs calculated with the Monte Carlo code, MCNP4B, and photon sources based on the latest FP decay data, the JENDL FP Decay Data File 2000, well agreed with the experimental results. The exposure rates were, however, extremely underestimated when the photon sources were obtained by the ORIGEN2 code. The underestimation is due to lack of energy-dependent photon emission data for major short-lived FP nuclides in the photon database attached to the ORIGEN2 code. It was also confirmed that the underestimation arose in 1,000 or less of time lapse after an initial power burst. (author)

  6. Conditions Influencing the Efficacy of Vaccination with Live Organisms against Leishmania major Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khaled S.; Peters, Nathan C.; Afrin, Farhat; Mendez, Susana; Bertholet, Sylvie; Belkaid, Yasmine; Sacks, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous experimental vaccines have been developed with the goal of generating long-term cell-mediated immunity to the obligate intracellular parasite Leishmania major, yet inoculation with live, wild-type L. major remains the only successful vaccine in humans. We examined the expression of immunity at the site of secondary, low-dose challenge in the ear dermis to determine the kinetics of parasite clearance and the early events associated with the protection conferred by vaccination with live L. major organisms in C57BL/6 mice. Particular attention was given to the route of vaccination. We observed that the rapidity, strength, and durability of the memory response following subcutaneous vaccination with live parasites in the footpad are even greater than previously appreciated. Antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing T cells infiltrate the secondary site by 1.5 weeks, and viable parasites are cleared as early as 2.5 weeks following rechallenge, followed by a rapid drop in IFN-γ+ CD4+ cell numbers in the site. In comparison, intradermal vaccination with live parasites in the ear generates immunity that is delayed in effector cell recruitment to the rechallenge site and in the clearance of parasites from the site. This compromised immunity was associated with a rapid recruitment of interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing CD4+ T cells to the rechallenge site. Treatment with anti-IL-10-receptor or anti-CD25 antibody enhanced early parasite clearance in ear-vaccinated mice, indicating that chronic infection in the skin generates a population of regulatory cells capable of influencing the level of resistance to reinfection. A delicate balance of effector and regulatory T cells may be required to optimize the potency and durability of vaccines against Leishmaniasis and other intracellular pathogens. PMID:16040984

  7. Operating modes of high-Tc composite superconductors and thermal runaway conditions under current charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovskii, V R; Watanabe, K

    2006-01-01

    The operating thermal and electric modes of a high-T c superconducting composite in partially and fully penetrated states induced by the charging current are investigated. They were studied under conditions in which the current charging rate, the volume fraction of the superconductor in a composite or the temperature of the cooling bath were changed. The transient behaviour of the voltage-current dependence, which is characteristic during stable and unstable increases in electric field inside the composite under a continuous current charging, is discussed. Simulations were done using zero- and one-dimensional steady and unsteady thermoelectric models with a power equation describing the virgin voltage-current characteristic of a superconductor. It is found that some thermoelectric trends underlie the shape of the voltage-current characteristic of the high-T c superconducting composite. These have to be considered during experiments in which the critical or quench currents are defined. First, in the initial stage of the fully penetrated regime (in the low voltage range), the electric field distribution does not have a uniform character. These states depend on the volume fraction of the superconductor and the current charging rate: the higher these quantities, the higher the heterogeneity of the electric field. Second, during the stable over-critical regime (in the high voltage range) occurring in complete penetration modes, the evolution of the electric field may depend on the relevant temperature increase of a composite according to the corresponding increase in its temperature-dependent heat capacity. Consequently, the shape of the voltage-current characteristic of a composite high-T c superconductor during continuous current charging, both before and after thermal runaway, has only a positive slope. Moreover, it is proved that the growth of the fully penetrated part of the voltage-current characteristic becomes less intensive when the current charging rate or the

  8. Sickle cell anaemia and the experiences of young people living with the condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Nicole; Ellis, Michelle

    2018-04-26

    Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a life-threatening haemoglobin disorder acknowledged for its unpredictability and painful episodes. The aim of this qualitative literature review was to explore the experiences of young people living with SCA and its effect on their lives. The objective was to critically review selected primary research and make recommendations for practice, education and research. After reviewing potential articles using EBSCOhost, inclusion and exclusion criteria were devised and six appropriate studies were found with most participants in the 10-25 years age range. These studies were conducted in the UK and the United States. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative research checklist was used to evaluate the articles. Thematic analysis identified three themes: acceptance, support and unpredictability, with sub-themes of spirituality and discrimination. It was clear that SCA affected multiple areas of young people's lives. Recommendations are made for practice, education and research. © 2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  9. The residential electricity sector in Denmark: A description of current conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Katz, Jonas; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    We provide an overview of the current conditions and framework for residential electricity consumption in Denmark. This includes a general overview of the sector, the retail market and the regulatory framework. We describe the regulations currently in place and changes which have been decided...... in the area, which are listed in the Glossary towards the end of the report. We also attach a list and description of the major sources of information and data that can be obtained and downloaded for analysis of the Danish residential electricity sector....

  10. Electromagnetic characterization of current transformer with toroidal core under sinusoidal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koprivica, Branko, E-mail: branko.koprivica@ftn.kg.ac.rs; Milovanovic, Alenka, E-mail: alenka.milovanovic@ftn.kg.ac.rs

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a new procedure for the electromagnetic analysis of a measuring current transformer under sinusoidal conditions in its electrical and magnetic circuit. The influence of the magnetic hysteresis has been taken into account using the measured inverse magnetization curve and phase lag between the time waveforms of the magnetic field and the magnetic induction. Using the proposed analysis, ratio and phase errors of the current transformer have been calculated. The results of the calculation have been compared with experimental results and a good agreement has been found.

  11. Using Freire's Participatory Educational Method to Understand the Experience of Living With Chronic Illness in the Current Age of Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo Plazas, Maria del Pilar; Cameron, Brenda L

    2015-06-01

    Many approaches and efforts have been used to better understand chronic diseases worldwide. Yet, little is known about the meaning of living with chronic illness under the pressures of globalization and neoliberal ideologies. Through Freire's participatory educational method, this article presents an innovative approach to understanding the multiple dimensions of living with chronic illness. In this way, we hope to use an innovative approach to address the impact of globalization on the daily life of chronically ill people and thus expand to the body of knowledge on nursing. This article uses Freire's participatory educational method to understand the multiple dimensions of living with chronic illness. This qualitative study follows an interpretive inquiry approach and uses a critical hermeneutic phenomenological method and critical research methodologies. Five participants were recruited for this participatory educational activity. Data collection methods included digitally recorded semistructured individual interviews and a Freire's participatory educational method session. Data analysis included a thematic analysis. Participants reported lacking adequate access to healthcare services because of insurance policies; a general perception that they were an unwanted burden on the healthcare system; and a general lack of government support, advocacy, and political interest. This research activity assisted participants to gain a new critical perspective about the condition of others with chronic diseases and thus provided an enlightening opportunity to learn about the illnesses and experiences of others and to realize that others experienced the same oppression from the healthcare system. Participants became agents of change within their own families and communities. Chronic diseases cause many economic and social consequences in their victims. These findings urge us to move from merely acknowledging the difficulties of people who live with chronic illness in an age of

  12. THE MODEL OF MOTOR ACTIVITY OPTIMIZATION OF YOUNGER SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN LIVING IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE NORTHERN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Ildarovna Busheva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Extreme conditions of the North, computerization, Internet and a gadget dependence, high physical and intellectual loads of children activities living in the north negatively affect younger generation health state. It is difficult to overestimate a role of motor activity in expansion of functionality of the developing organism as the lack of locomotion can lead to pathological shifts in an organism. Based on the study of the concept of a ‘motor activity’ and features North of the city the article suggests a model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children living in the conditions of the northern city. It consisted of 6 units related to goal-setting, diagnostic-analytical, concept, process-activity, reflexive-evaluative and effective. The research was conducted on the basis of Surgut city schools and the Surgut region of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Region-Yugra. During the research we revealed the most priority organization forms of motor activity of younger school age children living in conditions of the northern city. The model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children allows to create necessary optimum volume and to control of motor activity of children of younger school age. Purpose. The purpose of our research was to create model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children living in the conditions of the northern city. Methodology. Analysis and synthesis of the materials as well as the method of simulation are used as the main instruments. Results. A model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children has been elaborated in the course of study and its characteristics have been specified. Practical implications. The results can be of use for teachers at professional educational institutions.

  13. [A nationwide investigation needs for rehabilitation of schizophrenic outpatients--the patients' attribute and actual conditions of living].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, T; Kuroda, K; Hirano, W; Ueno, M; Yoshizumi, A; Inomata, Y; Komine, K

    1996-01-01

    In Japan we are very short of community resources for persons with mental disability. The authors, a board of resettlement, thought patients' actual conditions of living and needs for rehabilitation to let them live in the community had to be evaluated. Then in March 1993 the actual conditions of living and needs for rehabilitation of schizophrenic outpatients were investigated nationally. This article is the report on the patients' actual conditions of living. Investigation papers were sent to 358 institutions (286 hospitals and 72 clinics) which agreed to cooperate with the investigation. The 5186 investigation papers were received from 313 institutions. All of the papers except 18, which were lack of their ages, were analyzed. All of the schizophrenic outpatients, who consulted psychiatrists on one day during investigation, were considered objects of this research. Those who consented were included the research and psychiatrists filled in investigation papers. These institutions had a policy of intensive social resettlement activities and so on. Male patients were 55% and females were 45%. There were patients in the forties and females were older than males. Thirty-nine percent of them had been hospitalized once or twice. Thirty-four percent of them had been hospitalized for less than one year. Eighteen percent of them had not been hospitalized. Fifty percent of patients answered there was no friend and acquaintance, and had a tendency to stand alone. Fifty-three percent of patients lived with their parents, 21% with their spouses, and 17% alone. But 32% of females lived with their husbands. Sixteen percent worked for full-time jobs, 8% worked part-time jobs, 12% attended day care center 4% went to sheltered-workshops and only 1% went to rehabilitation-workshops for outpatients. While 13% didn't have a right to receive disability pension, the sources of income were job (30%), disability pension (30%), and welfare benefits (12%). Regarding the ability for living

  14. A comparison of the Actigraph GT1M and GT3X accelerometers under standardized and free-living conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, Leonard A; Ozemek, Cemal

    2012-01-01

    Prior to 2008, data collection from Actigraph accelerometers was only possible in the uniaxial mode. In 2009, Actigraph released the GT3X, which allows triaxial data collection. The purpose of this study was to determine if data collected by the GT3X in the uniaxial mode are comparable to its predecessor, the GT1M, under both standardized and free-living conditions. Thirty-four subjects (17 women and 17 men) provided complete data for this study. Subjects wore the accelerometers (one GT1M and one GT3X) on their waistband in line with the right and left anterior axillary lines. Each subject walked on a treadmill at speeds of 2.4, 3.2, 4.0, 4.8, 5.6 and 6.4 km h −1 for 5 min each, and then continued to wear both accelerometers for all waking hours for three consecutive days. Mean steady-state activity counts min –1 for both accelerometers were not statistically different for the standardized treadmill walking speeds and for mean minutes/day and activity counts/day for intensity classifications under the free-living condition. Based on comparisons made from both standardized walking speeds and free-living conditions, it is reasonable to compare data derived from either the GT1M or GT3X when collected in the uniaxial mode. (paper)

  15. Hypertension prevalence and living conditions related to air pollution: results of a national epidemiological study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Pascale; Chahine, Mirna; Hallit, Souheil; Farah, Rita; Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Asmar, Roland; Hosseiny, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor of several diseases, linked to high mortality and morbidity, particularly in developing countries. Some studies have linked indoor and outdoor pollution exposure items to hypertension, but results were inconsistent. Our objective was to assess the association of living conditions related to air pollution to hypertension in Lebanon, a Middle Eastern country. A national cross-sectional study was conducted all over Lebanon. Blood pressure and its related medications were assessed to be able to classify participants as hypertensive or not. Moreover, in addition to living conditions related to air pollution exposure, we assessed potential predictors of hypertension, including sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health information and biological measurements. Furthermore, we assessed dose-effect relationship of air pollution items in relation with hypertension. Living conditions related to indoor and outdoor air pollution exposures were associated with hypertension, with or without taking biological values into account. Moreover, we found a dose-effect relationship of exposure with risk of disease (15% increase in risk of disease for every additional pollution exposure item), after adjustment for sociodemographics and biological characteristics (Ora = 1.15 [1.03-1.28]). Although additional studies would be necessary to confirm these findings, interventions should start to sensitize the population about the effect of air pollution on chronic diseases. The work on reducing pollution and improving air quality should be implemented to decrease the disease burden on the population and health system.

  16. Charge and current transport in open field lines turbulence: Influence of plasma-surface boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futtersack, R., E-mail: romain.futtersack@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse, LAPLACE, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Hagelaar, G. [Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse, LAPLACE, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Ghendrih, Ph.; Simonin, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the impact of both parallel and transverse boundary conditions on the current and charge transport in open field line systems using the TOKAM2D code, which solves a minimal model for interchange turbulence. Various limit test cases are discussed and analyzed. In the parallel direction, the sheath conductivity is found to play an essential role in the stabilization of large-scale potential structures, leading to the formation of transport channel or transport barrier respectively for an insulating end wall or a wall with an enhanced sheath conductivity. On another hand, the addition of transverse boundary conditions intrinsically changes the transport characteristics, influencing both radial profiles and probability density functions. It underlines that in some cases a detailed description of the plasma-wall interaction process is required to get a proper description of the current loop pattern that determines electrostatic turbulent transport.

  17. Rehabilitation of the living conditions in the contaminated territories after Chernobyl: the ETHOS Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, Gilles; Schneider, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    European surveys undertaken in the context of the EU/CIS co-operation programme to evaluate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident (1991-1995), provided an extensive assessment of the social and psychological effects of the accident on liquidators, relocated populations and inhabitants of contaminated territories. Further investigations carried out in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia revealed strong social disturbance and stress phenomena amongst the populations of the contaminated areas. In these areas, the environmental contamination was a basic concern for most of the inhabitants and was creating a climate of widespread anxiety, focused on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident and especially that of the children. The inhabitants of the contaminated territories experienced an overall depreciation of many different types of values: social, economic, aesthetic, symbolic, ethical, political, etc. The quality of life was perceived as being irreversibly affected: some people expressed the situation by saying that 'Nothing will be the same again', when speaking about their lives 'before' and 'After' the accident. The feeling of insecurity, the lack of trust of the population in the scientific, medical and political authorities and the impression of being deprived of means to avoid radiological hazards perceived as all-pervasive in everyday life, created the general feeling of a loss of control over the situation. The ETHOS project ended in December 1998. Twelve missions representing about 600 man-days of the European participants have been performed. But the project also entailed a considerable involvement of the local population as well as from the local, regional and national authorities. The assessment of the outcomes of this project has been undertaken by the research team with its Belarussian partners. When considering globally the village of Olmany a first question was to determine to what extent some global objective changes have been observed with regard

  18. Enhanced D-T supershot performance at high current using extensive lithium conditioning in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, D.K.; Strachan, J.D.; Bell, M.G.; Scott, S.D.; Budny, R.; Bell, R.E.; Bitter, M.; Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.

    1995-05-01

    A substantial improvement in supershot fusion plasma performance has been realized by combining the enhanced confinement due to tritium fueling with the enhanced confinement due to extensive Li conditioning of the TFTR limiter. This combination has resulted in not only significantly higher global energy confinement times than had previously been obtained in high current supershots, but also the highest ratio of central fusion output power to input power observed to date

  19. The Development of Forms of Corporate Social Responsibility in Russia in the Current Economic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Arzumanova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the characteristic features of modern trends in the formation and implementation of corporate social responsibility in Russia in the current economic conditions, which is based on the fact that reasonable economic interests oriented business not only on maximizing profits, but also to improve their own macro - socio-economic, natural, political, through voluntary investment profits in the respective areas.

  20. DC Link Current Estimation in Wind-Double Feed Induction Generator Power Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN GAICEANU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the implementation of the DC link current estimator in power conditioning system of the variable speed wind turbine is shown. The wind turbine is connected to double feed induction generator (DFIG. The variable electrical energy parameters delivered by DFIG are fitted with the electrical grid parameters through back-to-back power converter. The bidirectional AC-AC power converter covers a wide speed range from subsynchronous to supersynchronous speeds. The modern control of back-to-back power converter involves power balance concept, therefore its load power should be known in any instant. By using the power balance control, the DC link voltage variation at the load changes can be reduced. In this paper the load power is estimated from the dc link, indirectly, through a second order DC link current estimator. The load current estimator is based on the DC link voltage and on the dc link input current of the rotor side converter. This method presents certain advantages instead of using measured method, which requires a low pass filter: no time delay, the feedforward current component has no ripple, no additional hardware, and more fast control response. Through the numerical simulation the performances of the proposed DC link output current estimator scheme are demonstrated.

  1. Current Needs for the Experimental Investigation of the CHF Phenomenon Relevant to LWR Core Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Corre, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The current achievements and needs toward the investigation, understanding and mechanistic prediction of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) event, under PWR and BWR core conditions, are addressed in this paper. It is shown that, even when using advanced 3-D CFD simulation tools, the current approach to CHF mechanistic modeling has serious limitations. This is mainly due to the lack of information regarding the relevant two-phase flow pattern(s) (in particular near the heated wall) and associated mechanisms (at the meso and micro-scale) leading to the CHF event. Areas of current experimental needs are identified in order to address these shortcomings. In addition, the use of 1-D and 3-D numerical tools to mechanistically predict the CHF is discussed. It is shown that 3-D two-phase CFD codes may not be superior to 1-D codes without proper consideration of relevant constitutive relations. (author)

  2. Optimal conditions for high current proton irradiations at the university of Wisconsin's ion beam laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetteland, C. J.; Field, K. G.; Gerczak, T. J.; Eiden, T. J.; Maier, B. R.; Albakri, O.; Sridharan, K.; Allen, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    The National Electrostatics Corporation's (NEC) Toroidal Volume Ion Source (TORVIS) source is known for exceptionally high proton currents with minimal service downtime as compared to traditional sputter sources. It has been possible to obtain over 150μA of proton current from the source, with over 70μA on the target stage. However, beam fluxes above ∼1×10 17 /m2-s may have many undesirable effects, especially for insulators. This may include high temperature gradients at the surface, sputtering, surface discharge, cracking or even disintegration of the sample. A series of experiments were conducted to examine the role of high current fluxes in a suite of ceramics and insulating materials. Results will show the optimal proton irradiation conditions and target mounting strategies needed to minimize unwanted macro-scale damage, while developing a procedure for conducting preliminary radiation experiments.

  3. Effects of Uncertainties in Electric Field Boundary Conditions for Ring Current Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Margaret W.; O'Brien, T. Paul; Lemon, Colby L.; Guild, Timothy B.

    2018-01-01

    Physics-based simulation results can vary widely depending on the applied boundary conditions. As a first step toward assessing the effect of boundary conditions on ring current simulations, we analyze the uncertainty of cross-polar cap potentials (CPCP) on electric field boundary conditions applied to the Rice Convection Model-Equilibrium (RCM-E). The empirical Weimer model of CPCP is chosen as the reference model and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program CPCP measurements as the reference data. Using temporal correlations from a statistical analysis of the "errors" between the reference model and data, we construct a Monte Carlo CPCP discrete time series model that can be generalized to other model boundary conditions. RCM-E simulations using electric field boundary conditions from the reference model and from 20 randomly generated Monte Carlo discrete time series of CPCP are performed for two large storms. During the 10 August 2000 storm main phase, the proton density at 10 RE at midnight was observed to be low (Dst index is bounded by the simulated Dst values. In contrast, the simulated Dst values during the recovery phases of the 10 August 2000 and 31 August 2005 storms tend to underestimate systematically the observed late Dst recovery. This suggests a need to improve the accuracy of particle loss calculations in the RCM-E model. Application of this technique can aid modelers to make efficient choices on either investing more effort on improving specification of boundary conditions or on improving descriptions of physical processes.

  4. Replacement Condition Detection of Railway Point Machines Using an Electric Current Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaewon; Choi, Younchang; Chung, Yongwha; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Daihee; Yoon, Sukhan

    2017-01-29

    Detecting replacement conditions of railway point machines is important to simultaneously satisfy the budget-limit and train-safety requirements. In this study, we consider classification of the subtle differences in the aging effect-using electric current shape analysis-for the purpose of replacement condition detection of railway point machines. After analyzing the shapes of after-replacement data and then labeling the shapes of each before-replacement data, we can derive the criteria that can handle the subtle differences between "does-not-need-to-be-replaced" and "needs-to-be-replaced" shapes. On the basis of the experimental results with in-field replacement data, we confirmed that the proposed method could detect the replacement conditions with acceptable accuracy, as well as provide visual interpretability of the criteria used for the time-series classification.

  5. Replacement Condition Detection of Railway Point Machines Using an Electric Current Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaewon; Choi, Younchang; Chung, Yongwha; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Daihee; Yoon, Sukhan

    2017-01-01

    Detecting replacement conditions of railway point machines is important to simultaneously satisfy the budget-limit and train-safety requirements. In this study, we consider classification of the subtle differences in the aging effect—using electric current shape analysis—for the purpose of replacement condition detection of railway point machines. After analyzing the shapes of after-replacement data and then labeling the shapes of each before-replacement data, we can derive the criteria that can handle the subtle differences between “does-not-need-to-be-replaced” and “needs-to-be-replaced” shapes. On the basis of the experimental results with in-field replacement data, we confirmed that the proposed method could detect the replacement conditions with acceptable accuracy, as well as provide visual interpretability of the criteria used for the time-series classification. PMID:28146057

  6. Age dynamic of physical condition changes in pre-school age girls, schoolgirls and students, living in conditions of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Y. Lebedinskiy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze dynamic of physical condition, considering sex (females and age of the tested, living in region with unfavorable ecology. Material: we studied pre school age girls (n=1580, age 4-7 years. In the research we did not include children with chronic diseases, who were under observation. We tested schoolgirls (n=3211, age 7-17 years and girl students (n=5827, age 17-21 years, 1-4 years of study. Girl students were divided into five age groups: from 17 to 21 years. All participants lived in conditions of Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk. This region is characterized by unfavorable ecology and climate geographic characteristics. Results: in dynamic of physical condition of pre-school girls, schoolgirls and students we marked out three substantial periods of it characteristics' changes. Age 7-8 years is critical (transition from 1st to 2nd stage. The least values of these characteristics are found in older (after 17-18 years ages. In students we observed relative stabilization of these indicators. Conclusions: the received results shall be considered in building physical education training process in pre-school educational establishments, secondary comprehensive schools and higher educational establishments.

  7. Optimizing FRET-FLIM Labeling Conditions to Detect Nuclear Protein Interactions at Native Expression Levels in Living Arabidopsis Roots

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Yuchen

    2018-05-15

    Protein complex formation has been extensively studied using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measured by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM). However, implementing this technology to detect protein interactions in living multicellular organism at single-cell resolution and under native condition is still difficult to achieve. Here we describe the optimization of the labeling conditions to detect FRET-FLIM in living plants. This study exemplifies optimization procedure involving the identification of the optimal position for the labels either at the N or C terminal region and the selection of the bright and suitable, fluorescent proteins as donor and acceptor labels for the FRET study. With an effective optimization strategy, we were able to detect the interaction between the stem cell regulators SHORT-ROOT and SCARECROW at endogenous expression levels in the root pole of living Arabidopsis embryos and developing lateral roots by FRET-FLIM. Using this approach we show that the spatial profile of interaction between two transcription factors can be highly modulated in reoccurring and structurally resembling organs, thus providing new information on the dynamic redistribution of nuclear protein complex configurations in different developmental stages. In principle, our optimization procedure for transcription factor complexes is applicable to any biological system.

  8. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Silveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious, and the supply of health services from the public primary care system.

  9. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cássio; Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2013-10-01

    Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious), and the supply of health services from the public primary care system.

  10. Combined spine and pelvis injuries in children living in conditions of harmful impact of aluminium industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Negreyeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The orthopedic and x-ray studies of children of different ages with combined diseases of the spine and pelvis, living under constant effects of the harmful production factors induced by the aluminium production of Irkutsk region, have been conducted. The priority factor of exogenous risk to health is fluoride compounds. It has been established that in the structure of the combined pathology, the pelvis asymmetry ranks first, scoliosis ranks second, Legg – Calve – Perthes disease ranks third. According to the assessment of age structure of combined pathology we can conclude that at the equal manifestations of scoliosis, Spina bifida, retrospondylolisthesis, pelvis asymmetry, children of 11–15 y.o. more often have Legg – Calve – Perthes disease, children of 16–21 y.o. – coxarthrosis. We established statistically significant correlation between Legg – Calve – Perthes disease and age and sex of the children (Pearson's χ 2 at p < 0.01 makes 15.821 and 21.228 correspondingly. It’s important to mention that Legg – Calve – Perthes disease was registered in all examined boys and only in 35.5 % of girls. Correlation between this pathology and ecological factors was also statistically proved (χ 2 = 5.264, p < 0.05: within the radius of 5 km from the production facility the proportion of avascular necrosis was the highest (75 % cases. I and II degrees of manifestation of clinicoroentgenologic disorders of combined spine and pelvis pathology prevail. The relevance of further search for evidence of the relationship of chemical risk factors and the development of diseases of the musculoskeletal system was determined. Regular medical follow-up monitoring of children living in ecologically unfavorable territories in terms of early diagnosis of combined orthopedic pathology is recommended, including its premorbid period of development.

  11. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  12. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service overview for operational monitoring of current crop conditions and production forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, J.

    2016-12-01

    The presentation will discuss the current status of the International Production Assessment Division of the USDA ForeignAgricultural Service for operational monitoring and forecasting of current crop conditions, and anticipated productionchanges to produce monthly, multi-source consensus reports on global crop conditions including the use of Earthobservations (EO) from satellite and in situ sources.United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) International Production AssessmentDivision (IPAD) deals exclusively with global crop production forecasting and agricultural analysis in support of the USDAWorld Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) lockup process and contributions to the World Agricultural Supply DemandEstimates (WASE) report. Analysts are responsible for discrete regions or countries and conduct in-depth long-termresearch into national agricultural statistics, farming systems, climatic, environmental, and economic factors affectingcrop production. IPAD analysts become highly valued cross-commodity specialists over time, and are routinely soughtout for specialized analyses to support governmental studies. IPAD is responsible for grain, oilseed, and cotton analysison a global basis. IPAD is unique in the tools it uses to analyze crop conditions around the world, including customweather analysis software and databases, satellite imagery and value-added image interpretation products. It alsoincorporates all traditional agricultural intelligence resources into its forecasting program, to make the fullest use ofavailable information in its operational commodity forecasts and analysis. International travel and training play animportant role in learning about foreign agricultural production systems and in developing analyst knowledge andcapabilities.

  13. Living under harsh conditions - finding your way as a public sector manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl; Larsen, Mette Vinther

    2014-01-01

    Harsh conditions for executing management can be a sensible interpretation of the daily managerial work for many public sector managers. This is an argument we, based on teaching and research, rely on from talking with a considerable number of managers in Danish municipalities, regions, state, un...

  14. 42 CFR 482.102 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... health, disability, or life insurance may be affected; (8) The donor's right to opt out of donation at... donor rights. 482.102 Section 482.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION FOR...

  15. Childhood conditions and current physical performance among non-institutionalized individuals aged 50+ in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Galit

    2016-12-01

    Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood have been previously linked with high risk of various health conditions. However, the association with future physical function has been less studied. Hand grip strength and chair-rising time are objective measures of physical capability indicating current and future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that perceived socio-economic status in childhood is related to current measures of physical function, among Israeli participants of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe project. The study included 2300 participants aged 50 years or older (mean age 68 ± 10; 56 % women). Generalized linear regression models were used to examine the associations of childhood wealth and number of books in residence with grip strength and time to complete five rises from a chair. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationships between the early life conditions and the ability to perform the physical tests. Adjustment was made for current income or household wealth, and for demographic, anthropometric, health, and life-style measures. Being wealthy and having a large number of books at home in childhood was associated with a stronger hand grip and a better chair-rise test performance. These associations were more robust in women compared to men, and persisted after adjustment for potential covariates. In addition, childhood wealth and number of books were associated with lower risk of being unable to perform the tests. Thus, early-life programming may contribute to physical function indicators in mid- and late-life.

  16. Tidal Stream Generators, current state and potential opportunities for condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappatos, Vassilios; Georgoulas, George; Avdelidis, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Tidal power industry has made significant progress towards commercialization over the past decade. Significant investments from sector leaders, strong technical progress and positive media coverage have established the credibility of this specific renewable energy source. However, its progress...... is being retarded by operation and maintenance problems, which results in very low operational availability times, as low as 25 %. This paper presents a literature review of the current state of tidal device operators as well as some commercial tidal turbine condition monitoring solutions. Furthermore......, an overview is given of the global tidal activity status (tidal energy market size and geography), the key industry activity and the regulations-standards related with tidal energy industry. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to provide a bird’s view of the current status of the tidal power industry...

  17. Estimation of Operating Condition of Appliances Using Circuit Current Data on Electric Distribution Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Yagita, Yoshie

    The Energy management systems (EMS) on demand sides are expected as a method to enhance the capability of supply and demand balancing of a power system under the anticipated penetration of renewable energy generation such as Photovoltaics (PV). Elucidation of energy consumption structure in a building is one of important elements for realization of EMS and contributes to the extraction of potential energy saving. In this paper, we propose the estimation method of operating condition of household appliances using circuit current data on an electric distribution board. Circuit current data are broken down by their shape using a self-organization map method and aggregated by appliance based on customers' information of appliance possessed. Proposed method is verified using residential energy consumption measurement survey data.

  18. Environmental impacts of barley cultivation under current and future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten; Saxe, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    for the increased impacts. This finding was confirmed by the sensitivity analysis. Because this study focused solely on the impacts of climate change, technological improvements and political measures to reduce impacts in the 2050 scenario are not taken into account. Options to mitigate the environmental impacts......The purpose of this work is to compare the environmental impacts of spring barley cultivation in Denmark under current (year 2010) and future (year 2050) climatic conditions. Therefore, a Life Cycle Assessment was carried out for the production of 1 kg of spring barley in Denmark, at farm gate....... Both under 2010 and 2050 climatic conditions, four subscenarios were modelled, based on a combination of two soil types and two climates. Included in the assessment were seed production, soil preparation, fertilization, pesticide application, and harvest. When processes in the life cycle resulted in co...

  19. Condition for the occurrence of phase slip centers in superconducting nanowires under applied current or voltage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michotte, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Piraux, L.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental results on the phase slip process in superconducting lead nanowires are presented under two different experimental conditions: constant applied current or constant voltage. Based on these experiments we established a simple model which gives us the condition of the appearance of phase...... slip centers in a quasi-one-dimensional wire. The competition between two relaxations times (relaxation time of the absolute value of the order parameter τ and relaxation time of the phase of the order parameter in the phase slip center τ) governs the phase slip process. Phase slips, as periodic...... oscillations in time of the order parameter, are only possible if the gradient of the phase grows faster than the value of the order parameter in the phase slip center, or equivalently if τ≤ τ....

  20. Anti-cyclic regulation of the Ukrainian economy under current conditions of the international markets volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Satsyk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are considered the theoretical and methodological basis of anti-cyclic regulation of the countries’ economy under conditions of the world economy globalization. It suggests the analysis of practices of implementing of anti-cyclic policy in highly developed states, its defining features and directions under current global financial and economic crisis. There has been researched a practical toolkit of economic cycles diagnostics and cyclic fluctuations of total business activity in Ukraine based on this study. There are suggested recommendations concerning the formation of the effective mechanism of anti-cyclic regulation of the Ukrainian economy.

  1. Do women in major cities experience better health? A comparison of chronic conditions and their risk factors between women living in major cities and other cities in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie E; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Inhabitants of rural areas can be tempted to migrate to urban areas for the type and range of facilities available. Although urban inhabitants may benefit from greater access to human and social services, living in a big city can also bring disadvantages to some residents due to changes in social and physical environments. We analysed data from 4,208 women aged >15 years old participating in the fourth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey. Chronic condition risk factors - systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), body mass index (BMI), and tobacco use - among women in four major cities in Indonesia (Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung) were compared against other cities. Fractional polynomial regression models were applied to examine the association between living in the major cities and SBP, DBP, BMI, and tobacco use. The models were also adjusted for age, education, employment status, migration status, ethnic groups, and religion. The patterns of SBP, DBP, and BMI were plotted and contrasted between groups of cities. Chronic condition prevalence was higher for women in major cities than in contrasting cities (p<0.005). Living in major cities increased the risk of having higher SBP, DBP, BMI and being a current smoker. Chronic disease risk factors in major cities were evident from younger ages. Women residing in Indonesia's major cities have a higher risk of developing chronic conditions, starting at younger ages. The findings highlight the challenges inherent in providing long-term healthcare with its associated cost within major Indonesian cities and the importance of chronic disease prevention programmes targeting women at an early age.

  2. Do women in major cities experience better health? A comparison of chronic conditions and their risk factors between women living in major cities and other cities in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yodi Christiani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inhabitants of rural areas can be tempted to migrate to urban areas for the type and range of facilities available. Although urban inhabitants may benefit from greater access to human and social services, living in a big city can also bring disadvantages to some residents due to changes in social and physical environments. Design: We analysed data from 4,208 women aged >15 years old participating in the fourth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey. Chronic condition risk factors – systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, body mass index (BMI, and tobacco use – among women in four major cities in Indonesia (Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung were compared against other cities. Fractional polynomial regression models were applied to examine the association between living in the major cities and SBP, DBP, BMI, and tobacco use. The models were also adjusted for age, education, employment status, migration status, ethnic groups, and religion. The patterns of SBP, DBP, and BMI were plotted and contrasted between groups of cities. Results: Chronic condition prevalence was higher for women in major cities than in contrasting cities (p<0.005. Living in major cities increased the risk of having higher SBP, DBP, BMI and being a current smoker. Chronic disease risk factors in major cities were evident from younger ages. Conclusions: Women residing in Indonesia's major cities have a higher risk of developing chronic conditions, starting at younger ages. The findings highlight the challenges inherent in providing long-term healthcare with its associated cost within major Indonesian cities and the importance of chronic disease prevention programmes targeting women at an early age.

  3. A Model based Examination of Conditions for Ignition of Turbidity Currents on Slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, A. J.; Krishna, G.

    2009-12-01

    Turbidity currents form a major mechanism for the movement of sediment in the natural environment. Self-accelerating turbidity currents over continental slopes are of considerable scientific and engineering interest due to their role as agents for submarine sediment transportation from the shelf to the seabed. Such currents are called ignitive provided they eventually reach a catastrophic state as acceleration results in high sediment loads due to erosion of the sloping bed. A numerical model, which treats the fluid and the particles as two separate phases, is applied to investigate the effects of particle size, initial flow friction velocity and mild bed slope on the ignitive condition. Laboratory experimental data have been included as part of the analysis for qualitative comparison purposes. Ignition for the smallest of the three selected sizes (0.21mm) of medium sand typical of Florida beaches was found to depend on the initial conditions at the head of the slope as determined by the pressure gradient. Bed slope seemed to be of secondary importance. For the two sands with larger grain sizes (0.28mm and 0.35mm) the slope was found to play a more important role when compared to the initial pressure gradient. For a given pressure gradient, increasing the slope increased the likelihood of self-acceleration. It is concluded that in general ignition cannot be defined merely in terms of positive values of the velocity gradient and the sediment flux gradient along the slope. Depending on particle size the initial pressure gradient can also play a role. For the selected initial conditions (grain size, pressure gradient and bed slope), out of the 54 combinations tested, all except three satisfied the Knapp-Bagnold criterion for auto-suspension irrespective of whether the turbid current was ignitive or non-ignitive. In all 54 cases the current was found to erode the bed. Further use of the model will require accommodation of wider ranges of sediment size and bed density

  4. Imagined futures in living with multiple conditions : positivity, relationality and hopelessness.

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, L.A.; Atkinson, S.

    2018-01-01

    Hope serves as an overarching concept for a range of engagements that demonstrate the benefits of a positive outlook for coping with chronic conditions of ill-health and disability. A dominant engagement through medicine has positioned hope as a desirable attribute and its opposite, hopelessness, as pathological. In this engagement hope is individual, internally located and largely cognitive and able to be learned. Attaining hope reflects a process of coming to terms with the losses associate...

  5. Economic Conditions During Pregnancy and Adverse Birth Outcomes Among Singleton Live Births in the United States, 1990-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerison-Zilko, Claire E; Li, Yu; Luo, Zhehui

    2017-11-15

    We know little about the relationship between the macroeconomy and birth outcomes, in part due to the methodological challenge of distinguishing effects of economic conditions on fetal health from effects of economic conditions on selection into live birth. We examined associations between state-level unemployment rates in the first 2 trimesters of pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes, using natality data on singleton live births in the United States during 1990-2013. We used fixed-effect logistic regression models and accounted for selection by adjusting for state-level unemployment before conception and maternal characteristics associated with both selection and birth outcomes. We also tested whether associations between macroeconomic conditions and birth outcomes differed during and after (compared with before) the Great Recession (2007-2009). Each 1-percentage-point increase in the first-trimester unemployment rate was associated with a 5% increase in odds of preterm birth, while second-trimester unemployment was associated with a 3% decrease in preterm birth odds. During the Great Recession, however, first-trimester unemployment was associated with a 16% increase in odds of preterm birth. These findings increase our understanding of the effects of the Great Recession on health and add to growing literature suggesting that macro-level social and economic factors contribute to perinatal health. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Features of selenium metabolism in humans living under the conditions of North European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshukova, Olga; Potolitsyna, Natalya; Shadrina, Vera; Chernykh, Aleksei; Bojko, Evgeny

    2014-08-01

    Selenium supplementation and its effects on Northerners have been little studied. The aim of our study was to assess the selenium levels of the inhabitants of North European Russia, the seasonal aspects of selenium supplementation, and the interrelationships between selenium levels and the levels of thyroid gland hormones. To study the particular features of selenium metabolism in Northerners over the course of 1 year, 19 healthy male Caucasian volunteers (18-21 years old) were recruited for the present study. The subjects were military guards in a Northern European region of Russia (Syktyvkar, Russia, 62°N latitude) who spent 6-10-h outdoors daily. The study was conducted over a 12-month period. Selenium levels, glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity, as well as total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxin (T4), free thyroxin, free triiodothyronine, and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, were determined in the blood serum. The study subjects showed low levels of plasma selenium throughout the year. We observed a noticeable decrease in plasma selenium levels during the period from May to August, with the lowest levels in July. Selenium levels in the military guards correlated with the levels of selenium-dependent GP enzyme activity throughout the year. Additionally, we demonstrated a significant correlation between selenium and pituitary-thyroid axis hormones (total T3, free T4, and TSH) in periods in which plasma selenium levels were lower than the established normal ranges. Over the course of 1 year, low levels of plasma selenium affect GP activity and thyroid hormone levels in humans living in North European Russia.

  7. The CORE programme in Belarus. A new approach to the rehabilitation of living conditions in contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trafimchik, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Topical Project provides training in practical radioactive protection for pregnant women subjected to chronic low-dose radiation exposure. The CORE Programme Topical Projects include: Establishment of an association for development of bee-keeping in Slavgorod district The goal is to create an enabling environment for the development of bee-keeping in the affected district, Preservation and development of pottery-making traditions on the territory of the village Gorodnaia (Stolin district) The Project aims to create a Pottery Centre as a way to improve the living conditions of the affected population. In this case the community designed projects on their immediate needs and mobilised resources for its implementation

  8. Possibilities of bioplasmagraphy at mass preventive examination of population, living in ecological risk condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inyushin, V.M.; Shabaev, V.P.; Abishev, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    System of acupuncture points control (SAPC) of with using of weak-current high-frequent test-signal and so-named bioplasmagraphy is worked out. The system allows to conduct testing of men's all-body health. SAPC can be used for definition of radiation oppressing latent form of body bio-systems. Bioplasmagramms reflect both the statistical information the dynamical data about functional status of internal organs and tissues, as well as character and rate their damage from microbic infection. Express-diagnostic with help of SAPC considerably decrease of material, tense, and operation expenses

  9. Health conditions and lifestyle risk factors of adults living in Puerto Rico: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Josiemer; Tamez, Martha; Ríos-Bedoya, Carlos F; Xiao, Rui S; Tucker, Katherine L; Rodríguez-Orengo, José F

    2018-04-12

    Puerto Rico is experiencing an economic and healthcare crisis, yet there are scarce recent and comprehensive reports on the population's health profile. We aimed to describe prevalent risk factors and health conditions of adults living in Puerto Rico and assess their interrelationship. Participants (n = 380) aged 30-75y recruited from a 2015 convenience sample in primary care clinics in the San Juan, Puerto Rico metropolitan area answered cross-sectional interviewer-administered questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors, self-reported medically-diagnosed diseases, health services, and psychosocial factors. Anthropometric measures were obtained. Logistic regression models assessed factors associated with having ≥2 cardiometabolic conditions or ≥ 2 chronic diseases. Most participants had completed ≥college education (57%), had household income diabetes (21%). Higher odds of having ≥2 cardiometabolic conditions (37%) was observed among participants aged ≥50y, with sedentary physical activity, and self-rated fair/poor diet. Odds of having ≥2 chronic diseases (62%) were higher among ≥50y, sleeping difficulties, > 2 h/day television, and self-rated fair/poor diet. Participants obtained (79%) and trusted (92%) health information from physicians. While most participants with a cardiometabolic condition reported receiving medical recommendations on diet (> 73%) and physical activity (> 67%), fewer followed them ( 73%). Participants following medical recommendations were more likely to report healthy vs. poor behaviors (90% vs. 75%, self-rated diet); (73% vs. 56%, physical activity). Adults living in Puerto Rico have multiple lifestyles risk factors and high prevalence of chronic diseases, namely cardiometabolic and psychological conditions. Comprehensive epidemiological studies are needed to identify contributors to chronic disease, including lifestyle behaviors. Concerted multi-level public health and clinical

  10. Bora-induced currents corresponding to different synoptic conditions above the Adriatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Beg Paklar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bora wind field is characterised by strong vorticity and divergence. Several numerical experiments, in which an oceanographic model was forced with northeasterly winds having climatological alongshore variability, were performed in order to study the influence of spatial variability in the bora wind field on the surface currents in the northern Adriatic. Numerical model results showed that during bora episodes with lower speeds and fast offshore decay surface currents along transect Rovinj - Po River are predominantly in the downwind direction. On the other hand, during bora episodes with strong intensity and slow offshore decay, a cyclonic gyre due to the pronounced bora alongshore variability is formed in the northernmost part of the Adriatic Sea and the studied transect is influenced by the counter currents. Moreover, bora having a high speed and a short offshore range produces the same effect in the eastern part of the Rovinj - Po River transect as low-speed bora characterised by slow offshore decay. Eulerian current measurements performed in the northern Adriatic during bora episodes characterised by different synoptic conditions supported the numerical model findings. Surface currents during the bora episode of 8-11 February 1984 were directed downwind, whereas during the episode of 12-19 February 1984 they were directed upwind. The first episode was characterised by a deep bora layer with cyclonic activity over the western Mediterranean and Genoa Bay, whereas the second one was accompanied by temperature inversion and a southwesterly tropospheric wind above a shallow bora layer. According to the hydraulic theory developed by Smith (1985, an observed descent of isentropes during the second bora episode led to the stronger acceleration in the bora layer and its larger offshore extent. Different offshore bora decays during studied events were confirmed by a comparison of the wind data originating from the meteorological stations

  11. [Living conditions and gastroenteritis in the low income population of Tijuana, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiz Fernández, G; Barragán de Olaiz, C

    1989-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the low income population of certain areas of the city of Tijuana, Mexico. Data collected showed that these suburban areas are inhabited by people from rural areas of Mexico, with minimum education, that basically work at the "maquiladoras". General hygienic conditions were poor and the services insufficient. The prevalence of diarrheas among the population was extremely high in the two weeks previous to the study, being highest for children less than one year old, in which the proportion with at least one episode of diarrhea was 47 per cent.

  12. Should We Formulate an Incentivized Model Facilitating Kidney Donation from Living Donors? A Focus on Turkey's Current System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Ercan

    2018-04-23

    Kidney transplantation is a lifesaving medical treatment. However, very high demand for kidneys with low kidney donation causes a black market that exploits patients' desperation and donors' vulnerability. The current kidney donation programs fail to produce promising results to avoid illegal and unethical kidney trafficking and commercialism. Even though the primary goal of kidney donation is to increase the number of deceased organ donations, in some countries, like Turkey, due to religious or cultural concerns, it is impossible to supply adequate deceased kidney donations. In this view, the aim of this paper is to examine kidney trafficking in the scope of Turkey's current organ donation system and propose a new model, named the Incentivized Kidney Donation Model (IKDM), to increase kidney donation from living donors. The model encompasses the following benefits offered to kidney donors; lifetime health insurance, exemptions from copayments/contribution shares, priority when receiving an organ, priority when finding a job, income tax exemptions for salaried employees, and free or discounted public utilities. This normative model has the potential to promote donors' altruistic acts as well as the solidarity and loyalty among members of a society without violating ethical values and internationally accepted principles. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. E-waste management challenges in Iran: presenting some strategies for improvement of current conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Nowrouz, Parviz; Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari; Nazari, Jalil; Hashemi, Ahmad Asl; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Dehghanzadeh, Reza

    2012-11-01

    E-waste is one of the fastest-growing waste streams in Iran, owing to an increase in consumption of electrical and electronic equipment. Nevertheless, as is the case in some other countries, E-waste management has not received sufficient attention. For the successful implementation of any waste management plan (including an E-waste management plan), the availability of sufficient and accurate information on the quantities and composition of the waste generated and on current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. At present, in Iran, there is no available and accurate information that describes the characteristics and generation rate of E-waste or the actual practice of management and handling of the waste. For this initial study, eight electronic products were selected for the determination of their E-waste generation rate in the country, and two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessment of the current condition of E-waste management. The study found that the amount of E-waste generation in the country for the eight selected electronic items alone was 115,286, 112,914 and 115,151 metric tons in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. Of the types of electronic items included in the study, televisions, with an average of 42.42%, and PCs, with an average of 32.66% accounted for the greatest proportions of the total mass of E-waste generated during 2008-2010. Currently, despite the fact that primary legislation for E-waste management (as part of general waste legislation) exists in Iran, this primary legislation has not yet been implemented. In practical terms, there is no definite policy or plan for the allocation of funds to prepare suitable equipment and facilities for the management and recycling of E-waste at the end of the products' useful life. Proposed improvements in current conditions are identified, first by considering other countries' experiences and then suggesting specific practical policies, rules, and regulations that should be

  14. Characterizing drought stress and trait influence on maize yield under current and future conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Matthew T; Tardieu, François; Dong, Zhanshan; Messina, Carlos D; Hammer, Graeme L

    2014-03-01

    Global climate change is predicted to increase temperatures, alter geographical patterns of rainfall and increase the frequency of extreme climatic events. Such changes are likely to alter the timing and magnitude of drought stresses experienced by crops. This study used new developments in the classification of crop water stress to first characterize the typology and frequency of drought-stress patterns experienced by European maize crops and their associated distributions of grain yield, and second determine the influence of the breeding traits anthesis-silking synchrony, maturity and kernel number on yield in different drought-stress scenarios, under current and future climates. Under historical conditions, a low-stress scenario occurred most frequently (ca. 40%), and three other stress types exposing crops to late-season stresses each occurred in ca. 20% of cases. A key revelation shown was that the four patterns will also be the most dominant stress patterns under 2050 conditions. Future frequencies of low drought stress were reduced by ca. 15%, and those of severe water deficit during grain filling increased from 18% to 25%. Despite this, effects of elevated CO2 on crop growth moderated detrimental effects of climate change on yield. Increasing anthesis-silking synchrony had the greatest effect on yield in low drought-stress seasonal patterns, whereas earlier maturity had the greatest effect in crops exposed to severe early-terminal drought stress. Segregating drought-stress patterns into key groups allowed greater insight into the effects of trait perturbation on crop yield under different weather conditions. We demonstrate that for crops exposed to the same drought-stress pattern, trait perturbation under current climates will have a similar impact on yield as that expected in future, even though the frequencies of severe drought stress will increase in future. These results have important ramifications for breeding of maize and have implications for

  15. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doubova Svetlana V

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area. Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities

  16. Eliciting conditioned taste aversion in lizards: Live toxic prey are more effective than scent and taste cues alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Fear, Georgia; Thomas, Jai; Webb, Jonathan K; Pearson, David J; Shine, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an adaptive learning mechanism whereby a consumer associates the taste of a certain food with symptoms caused by a toxic substance, and thereafter avoids eating that type of food. Recently, wildlife researchers have employed CTA to discourage native fauna from ingesting toxic cane toads (Rhinella marina), a species that is invading tropical Australia. In this paper, we compare the results of 2 sets of CTA trials on large varanid lizards ("goannas," Varanus panoptes). One set of trials (described in this paper) exposed recently-captured lizards to sausages made from cane toad flesh, laced with a nausea-inducing chemical (lithium chloride) to reinforce the aversion response. The other trials (in a recently-published paper, reviewed herein) exposed free-ranging lizards to live juvenile cane toads. The effectiveness of the training was judged by how long a lizard survived in the wild before it was killed (fatally poisoned) by a cane toad. Both stimuli elicited rapid aversion to live toads, but the CTA response did not enhance survival rates of the sausage-trained goannas after they were released into the wild. In contrast, the goannas exposed to live juvenile toads exhibited higher long-term survival rates than did untrained conspecifics. Our results suggest that although it is relatively easy to elicit short-term aversion to toad cues in goannas, a biologically realistic stimulus (live toads, encountered by free-ranging predators) is most effective at buffering these reptiles from the impact of invasive toxic prey. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Features of thyroid regulation at children and teenagers living in conditions of chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, A.D.; Naumova, G.I.; Zabrodina, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Research of the hormones and their transport systems as markers of a functional condition of children and teenagers exposed to chronic low doze radiation are carried out. 229 children and teenagers 1976-1986 years of birth were surveyed. The concentration of common and free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, thyrotropic hormone, globulin, thypoglobulin, thypoglobulin antibodies were investigated by a method of the radioimmune analysis. Definition of thyroid transport of blood serum was carried out by the electrophoresis method. Is shown that the normal level of thyroids of blood serum is not always sufficient criterion of the physiological norm because their further action in many respects is determined by transport system of blood and varies at radiation action

  18. Factors influencing adult physical health after controlling for current health conditions: evidence from a british cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cheng

    Full Text Available This study explored a longitudinal data set of 6875 British adults examining the effects of parental social status (measured at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11 yrs, personality traits, education and occupational attainment on physical health and functioning (all measured at age 50 yrs, after taking account of current health conditions (number of illness. Correlation analysis showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and two personality traits (Emotional Stability/Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness were all significantly associated with adult physical health variables. Structural equation modelling showed that health conditions and personality traits were significantly, and inversely, associated with physical health (indicated by good daily physical functioning, relative absence of pain, perceived health, and low level of limitations at work due to physical health. Parental social status, childhood intelligence, educational and occupational attainment were all modestly, but significantly and directly, associated with adult physical health. The effect of childhood intelligence on adult physical health was, in part, mediated through Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness. After controlling for health conditions Emotional Stability was the strongest predictor of physical health. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  19. Living Well With a Long-Term Condition: Service Users' Perspectives of a Self-Management Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Nicola; Furness, Penny J

    2017-03-01

    The outcomes of self-management interventions are commonly assessed using quantitative measurement tools, and few studies ask people with long-term conditions to explain, in their own words, what aspects of the intervention they valued. In this Grounded Theory study, a Health Trainers service in the north of England was evaluated based on interviews with eight service-users. Open, focused, and theoretical coding led to the development of a preliminary model explaining participants' experiences and perceived impact of the service. The model reflects the findings that living well with a long-term condition encompassed social connectedness, changed identities, acceptance, and self-care. Health trainers performed four related roles that were perceived to contribute to these outcomes: conceptualizer, connector, coach, and champion. The evaluation contributes a grounded theoretical understanding of a personalized self-management intervention that emphasizes the benefits of a holistic approach to enable cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and social adjustments.

  20. Design and methods in a survey of living conditions in the Arctic - the SLiCA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliassen, Bent-Martin; Melhus, Marita; Kruse, Jack; Poppel, Birger; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild

    2012-03-19

    The main objective of this study is to describe the methods and design of the survey of living conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA), relevant participation rates and the distribution of participants, as applicable to the survey data in Alaska, Greenland and Norway. This article briefly addresses possible selection bias in the data and also the ways to tackle it in future studies. Population-based cross-sectional survey. Indigenous individuals aged 16 years and older, living in Greenland, Alaska and in traditional settlement areas in Norway, were invited to participate. Random sampling methods were applied in Alaska and Greenland, while non-probability sampling methods were applied in Norway. Data were collected in 3 periods: in Alaska, from January 2002 to February 2003; in Greenland, from December 2003 to August 2006; and in Norway, in 2003 and from June 2006 to June 2008. The principal method in SLiCA was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. A total of 663, 1,197 and 445 individuals were interviewed in Alaska, Greenland and Norway, respectively. Very high overall participation rates of 83% were obtained in Greenland and Alaska, while a more conventional rate of 57% was achieved in Norway. A predominance of female respondents was obtained in Alaska. Overall, the Sami cohort is older than the cohorts from Greenland and Alaska. Preliminary assessments suggest that selection bias in the Sami sample is plausible but not a major threat. Few or no threats to validity are detected in the data from Alaska and Greenland. Despite different sampling and recruitment methods, and sociocultural differences, a unique database has been generated, which shall be used to explore relationships between health and other living conditions variables.

  1. The influence of socio-living conditions and health factors on the level of life satisfaction in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimiera Zdziebło

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The period of late adulthood is a period in which many actions for the purpose of summing up and evaluating the life so far are taken. One of the aspects of life which is then evaluated is its quality. Under the influence of many factors, the quality of life decreases among the elderly and thus it influences their life satisfaction level. Aim of the research: To evaluate the influence of socio-living and health factors on the level of life satisfaction of the elderly. Material and methods: The research was conducted through a diagnostic survey, using an opinion poll technique. The applied research tool was a copyrighted questionnaire and life satisfaction scale – SWLS (the Satisfaction with Life Scale. The examined group consisted of persons in older age, benefiting from nurse care in various health facilities. Results : The majority of those examined showed a mean rate (satisfaction with life. There are major discrepancies among the studies on the extent of influence according to such factors as housing conditions, income and professional activity. Health factors, namely suffering from multiple diseases, the chronic character of the disease, handicap and disability correlate with the feeling of satisfaction with life. The more factors – health problems, the lower is the rate of satisfaction with life. Conclusions: The socio-living conditions to a major extent influence the evaluation of satisfaction with life of the examined persons. Health factors play a major role in the feeling of satisfaction with life. There are no major differences in the evaluation of the life lived so far between inhabitants of cities and the countryside.

  2. Assessment of the living and workplace health and safety conditions of site-resident construction workers in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Peyman Hossein; Farshad, Ali Asghar; Mirkazemi, Roksana; Orak, Rouhangiz Jamshidi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess living and workplace safety conditions of construction workers in Tehran, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 410 construction sites in a municipal area of Tehran whose municipal building permits were issued in 2011. Data on ventilation, workplace safety and hygiene were collected by direct observation and interviews with site foremen. Noise levels were estimated from 10 sound-level-meter stations in the municipality area. Lack of ventilation in the workers' rooms was abundant. Bathrooms were unhygienic and minimum requirements such as lighting and ventilation did not exist in 80% of the cases. In nearly 50% of large construction sites, sewage and garbage disposal were inappropriate. Elevator safety was poor at all sites and no measures for fall prevention were present in over 88% of active construction sites. This study showed that the mean 24-h equivalent continuous sound level Leq was over 70 dB in 80% of the sites during weekdays. The results of this study revealed poor health and safety living and working conditions of construction workers in Tehran.

  3. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS LINNAEUS, 1758 OF THE LOWER DNIEPER RIVER IN CURRENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Geina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze major biological characteristics of pike (Esox lucius L., 1758 stock in the lower Dnieper River in the conditions of transformed flow. Methodology. Collection of the ichthyological material was carried out in the lower Dnieper River from commercial fishing gears, including beach seines, drag seines, fyke-nets. Field, laboratory processing of samples and mathematical analysis of the obtained results were carried out according to generally accepted methods and guidelines with some assumptions regarding the duration of pike fattening directly in the lower Dnieper River. Findings. Recent years, there is an increase in the specific weight of younger age groups in the pike stock in the lower Dnieper River. Analysis of linear growth indicates on satisfactory environmental conditions for pike. Current commercial contingent of pike is based on size classes of 46–50 cm versus 22–32 cm in the first half of the last century. Reproductive properties of pike, in particular fecundity, egg size and maturity coefficients did not virtually change compared to those of the last century. Depending on linear sizes, the absolute fecundity is 32.3–155.8 thousand eggs and the maturation coefficient is 11.1–15.7%. Morphologic variability of pike in the lower Dnieper River during the period from 1980s to the present time was observed for plastic features, which characterized fin sizes. Sexual dimorphism in current conditions was observed only for maximum body depth. No significant differences for other plastic features between males and females of pike in the lower Dnieper River. Originality. The data on biological characteristics of pike stock from the lower Dnieper River have been updated. Current fecundity of females of different size groups recorded in commercial catches was been determined. An analysis of morphological variability of major plastic features of pike in the process of the transformation of the Dnieper River flow has been

  4. Rehabilitation of the living conditions in the contaminated territories after Chernobyl: the ETHOS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, Gilles [Mutadis, Paris (France); Schneider, Thierry [CEPN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2001-07-01

    European surveys undertaken in the context of the EU/CIS co-operation programme to evaluate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident (1991-1995), provided an extensive assessment of the social and psychological effects of the accident on liquidators, relocated populations and inhabitants of contaminated territories. Further investigations carried out in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia revealed strong social disturbance and stress phenomena amongst the populations of the contaminated areas. In these areas, the environmental contamination was a basic concern for most of the inhabitants and was creating a climate of widespread anxiety, focused on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident and especially that of the children. The inhabitants of the contaminated territories experienced an overall depreciation of many different types of values: social, economic, aesthetic, symbolic, ethical, political, etc. The quality of life was perceived as being irreversibly affected: some people expressed the situation by saying that 'Nothing will be the same again', when speaking about their lives 'before' and 'After' the accident. The feeling of insecurity, the lack of trust of the population in the scientific, medical and political authorities and the impression of being deprived of means to avoid radiological hazards perceived as all-pervasive in everyday life, created the general feeling of a loss of control over the situation. The ETHOS project ended in December 1998. Twelve missions representing about 600 man-days of the European participants have been performed. But the project also entailed a considerable involvement of the local population as well as from the local, regional and national authorities. The assessment of the outcomes of this project has been undertaken by the research team with its Belarussian partners. When considering globally the village of Olmany a first question was to determine to what extent some global objective changes

  5. Condition monitoring of a wind turbine doubly-fed induction generator through current signature analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigao, Estefania; Honrubia-Escribano, Andres; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio

    2017-11-01

    Operation and maintenance (O&M) of wind turbines is recently becoming the spotlight in the wind energy sector. While wind turbine power capacities continue to increase and new offshore developments are being installed, O&M costs keep raising. With the objective of reducing such costs, the new trends are moving from corrective and preventive maintenance toward predictive actions. In this scenario, condition monitoring (CM) has been identified as the key to achieve this goal. The induction generator of a wind turbine is a major contributor to failure rates and downtime where doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) are the dominant technology employed in variable speed wind turbines. The current work presents the analysis of an in-service DFIG. A one-year measurement campaign has been used to perform the study. Several signal processing techniques have been applied and the optimal method for CM has been identified. A diagnosis has been reached, the DFIG under study shows potential gearbox damage.

  6. Effects of sintering conditions on critical current properties and microstructures of MgB2 bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Ueda, Shinya; Katsura, Yukari; Iwayama, Isao; Horii, Shigeru; Kishio, Kohji

    2005-01-01

    The effects of heating conditions on critical current properties and microstructures of undoped MgB 2 bulks were systematically studied. Strong correlation was observed between J c and microstructures. The network structure with an excellent inter-grain connectivity of MgB 2 grains contributed to high-J c under low magnetic fields, and small grain size of MgB 2 enhanced the grain boundary flux pinning. Long time heating at low temperatures below the melting point of magnesium was discovered to be most effective for synthesis of MgB 2 bulks having strongly connected MgB 2 network structure with small grains. The sample heated at 550 deg. C for 1200 h recorded a high-J c of 4.02 x 10 5 A cm -2 at 20 K in self-field, while high-temperature and long time heating brought a significant grain growth which resulted in low J c

  7. Sarcopenia: An Undiagnosed Condition in Older Adults. Current Consensus Definition: Prevalence, Etiology, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the age associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, has considerable societal consequences for the development of frailty, disability and health care planning. A group of geriatricians and scientists from academia and industry met in Rome, Italy on November 18, 2009 to arrive at a consensus definition of sarcopenia. The current consensus definition was approved unanimously by the meeting participants and is as follows: Sarcopenia is defined as the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. The causes of sarcopenia are multi-factorial and can include disuse, altered endocrine function, chronic diseases, inflammation, insulin resistance, and nutritional deficiencies. While cachexia may be a component of sarcopenia, the two conditions are not the same. The diagnosis of sarcopenia should be considered in all older patients who present with observed declines in physical function, strength, or overall health. Sarcopenia should specifically be considered in patients who are bedridden, cannot independently rise from a chair, or who have a measured gait speed less that 1.0 m·s−1. Patients who meet these criteria should further undergo body composition assessment using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with sarcopenia being defined using currently validated definitions. A diagnosis of sarcopenia is consistent with a gait speed of less than 1 m·s−1 and an objectively measured low muscle mass (eg: appendicular mass relative to ht2 that is ≤ 7.23 kg/ m2 in men ≤ 5.67 kg/ m2 in men). Sarcopenia is a highly prevalent condition in older persons that leads to disability, hospitalization and death. PMID:21527165

  8. A global map of suitability for coastal Vibrio cholerae under current and future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Luis E; Ryan, Sadie J; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Finkelstein, Julia L; King, Christine A; Qiao, Huijie; Polhemus, Mark E

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a globally distributed water-borne pathogen that causes severe diarrheal disease and mortality, with current outbreaks as part of the seventh pandemic. Further understanding of the role of environmental factors in potential pathogen distribution and corresponding V. cholerae disease transmission over time and space is urgently needed to target surveillance of cholera and other climate and water-sensitive diseases. We used an ecological niche model (ENM) to identify environmental variables associated with V. cholerae presence in marine environments, to project a global model of V. cholerae distribution in ocean waters under current and future climate scenarios. We generated an ENM using published reports of V. cholerae in seawater and freely available remotely sensed imagery. Models indicated that factors associated with V. cholerae presence included chlorophyll-a, pH, and sea surface temperature (SST), with chlorophyll-a demonstrating the greatest explanatory power from variables selected for model calibration. We identified specific geographic areas for potential V. cholerae distribution. Coastal Bangladesh, where cholera is endemic, was found to be environmentally similar to coastal areas in Latin America. In a conservative climate change scenario, we observed a predicted increase in areas with environmental conditions suitable for V. cholerae. Findings highlight the potential for vulnerability maps to inform cholera surveillance, early warning systems, and disease prevention and control. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of transient discharges under atmospheric-pressure conditions applying nitrogen photoemission and current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Sandra; Rajasekaran, Priyadarshini; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The plasma parameters such as electron distribution function and electron density of three atmospheric-pressure transient discharges namely filamentary and homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges in air, and the spark discharge of an argon plasma coagulation (APC) system are determined. A combination of numerical simulation as well as diagnostic methods including current measurement and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) based on nitrogen emissions is used. The applied methods supplement each other and resolve problems, which arise when these methods are used individually. Nitrogen is used as a sensor gas and is admixed in low amount to argon for characterizing the APC discharge. Both direct and stepwise electron-impact excitation of nitrogen emissions are included in the plasma-chemical model applied for characterization of these transient discharges using OES where ambiguity arises in the determination of plasma parameters under specific discharge conditions. It is shown that the measured current solves this problem by providing additional information useful for the determination of discharge-specific plasma parameters. (paper)

  10. Effects of the current boundary conditions at the plasma-gun gap on density in SSPX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Roman; Lodestro, L. L.; Meyer, W. H.

    2012-10-01

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) was a toroidal magnetic-confinement device without toroidal magnetic-field coils or a central transformer but which generated core-plasma currents by dynamo processes driven by coaxial plasma-gun injection into a flux-conserving vessel. Record electron temperatures in a spheromak (Te˜500eV) were achieved, and final results of the SSPX program were reported in [1]. Plasma density, which depended strongly on wall conditions, was an important parameter in SSPX. It was observed that density rises with Igun and that confinement improved as the density was lowered. Shortly after the last experiments, a new feature was added to the Corsica code's solver used to reconstruct SSPX equilibria. Motivated by n=0 fields observed in NIMROD simulations of SSPX, an insulating boundary condition was implemented at the plasma-gun gap. Using this option we will perform new reconstructions of SSPX equilibria and look for correlations between the location of the separatrix (which moves up the gun wall and onto the insulating gap as Igun increases) and plasma density and magnetic-flux amplification [2].[4pt] [1] H. S. McLean, APS, DPP, Dallas, TX, 2008.[0pt] [2] E. B. Hooper et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, 1064 (2007).

  11. Depolarization current relaxation process of insulating dielectrics after corona poling under different charging conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As an insulating dielectric, polyimide is favorable for the application of optoelectronics, electrical insulation system in electric power industry, insulating, and packaging materials in space aircraft, due to its excellent thermal, mechanical and electrical insulating stability. The charge storage profile of such insulating dielectric is utmost important to its application, when it is exposed to electron irradiation, high voltage corona discharge or other treatments. These treatments could induce changes in physical and chemical properties of treated samples. To investigate the charge storage mechanism of the insulating dielectrics after high-voltage corona discharge, the relaxation processes responsible for corona charged polyimide films under different poling conditions were analyzed by the Thermally Stimulated Discharge Currents method (TSDC. In the results of thermal relaxation process, the appearance of various peaks in TSDC spectra provided a deep insight into the molecular status in the dielectric material and reflected stored space charge relaxation process in the insulating polymers after corona discharge treatments. Furthermore, the different space charge distribution status under various poling temperature and different discharge voltage level were also investigated, which could partly reflect the influence of the ambiance condition on the functional dielectrics after corona poling.

  12. Depolarization current relaxation process of insulating dielectrics after corona poling under different charging conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. W.; Zhou, T. C.; Wang, J. X.; Yang, X. F.; Zhu, F.; Tian, L. M.; Liu, R. T.

    2017-10-01

    As an insulating dielectric, polyimide is favorable for the application of optoelectronics, electrical insulation system in electric power industry, insulating, and packaging materials in space aircraft, due to its excellent thermal, mechanical and electrical insulating stability. The charge storage profile of such insulating dielectric is utmost important to its application, when it is exposed to electron irradiation, high voltage corona discharge or other treatments. These treatments could induce changes in physical and chemical properties of treated samples. To investigate the charge storage mechanism of the insulating dielectrics after high-voltage corona discharge, the relaxation processes responsible for corona charged polyimide films under different poling conditions were analyzed by the Thermally Stimulated Discharge Currents method (TSDC). In the results of thermal relaxation process, the appearance of various peaks in TSDC spectra provided a deep insight into the molecular status in the dielectric material and reflected stored space charge relaxation process in the insulating polymers after corona discharge treatments. Furthermore, the different space charge distribution status under various poling temperature and different discharge voltage level were also investigated, which could partly reflect the influence of the ambiance condition on the functional dielectrics after corona poling.

  13. Numerical simulation of wave-current interaction under strong wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Marco; Osuna, Pedro; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco Javier

    2017-04-01

    Although ocean surface waves are known to play an important role in the momentum and other scalar transfer between the atmosphere and the ocean, most operational numerical models do not explicitly include the terms of wave-current interaction. In this work, a numerical analysis about the relative importance of the processes associated with the wave-current interaction under strong off-shore wind conditions in Gulf of Tehuantepec (the southern Mexican Pacific) was carried out. The numerical system includes the spectral wave model WAM and the 3D hydrodynamic model POLCOMS, with the vertical turbulent mixing parametrized by the kappa-epsilon closure model. The coupling methodology is based on the vortex-force formalism. The hydrodynamic model was forced at the open boundaries using the HYCOM database and the wave model was forced at the open boundaries by remote waves from the southern Pacific. The atmospheric forcing for both models was provided by a local implementation of the WRF model, forced at the open boundaries using the CFSR database. The preliminary analysis of the model results indicates an effect of currents on the propagation of the swell throughout the study area. The Stokes-Coriolis term have an impact on the transient Ekman transport by modifying the Ekman spiral, while the Stokes drift has an effect on the momentum advection and the production of TKE, where the later induces a deepening of the mixing layer. This study is carried out in the framework of the project CONACYT CB-2015-01 255377 and RugDiSMar Project (CONACYT 155793).

  14. The role of chronic pain and current substance use in predicting negative social support among disadvantaged persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mary M; Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Nguyen, Trang Q; Isenberg, Sarina; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-10-01

    Chronic pain and substance use can strain the supportive relationships of persons with serious chronic illness, which may increase the likelihood of receiving negative, rather than positive, social support from informal caregivers and social network members. To our knowledge, this is the first study to longitudinally examine the effects of chronic pain and substance use on negative social support. The sample (N = 383) comprised disadvantaged, primarily African-American, persons living with HIV/AIDS with a history of injection drug use, 32.4% of whom reported frequent or constant pain in the prior 6 months. Using factor analysis and structural equation modeling, current substance use and greater levels of chronic pain positively predicted negative social support 12 months later, after controlling for baseline negative support, viral load, age and sex. We also found a significant interaction effect such that among those not using substances, there was a significant positive association between pain and negative support, but no such association among those currently using substances. The findings emphasize the importance of treatment of chronic pain and substance use in the supportive functioning of social networks of a disadvantaged population with serious chronic conditions and persistent health disparities.

  15. Determination of the Conditional-Constant Component of the Bank’s Current Liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Pavlovich Vozhzhov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the questions of the definition of the semi-constant component of current liabilities of a bank. The purpose of this article is to develop a scientific and methodological approach to determine the semi-constant component of the current liabilities of a bank under the conditions of the complexity of data acquisition and processing of the data on factors that influence on demand deposits. The main hypothesis is the assumption of the heterogeneity of the variance of the daily cumulative sum of demand deposits. The analysis of scientific and methodological approaches that allow determining a stable component of current liabilities proves the need for further improvement of scientific instruments. In particular, a coefficient analysis that is proposed by some of the scholars, mainly, considers the average values of turnover on accounts, which in turn, can vary considerably throughout the calendar year. The use of the probability distributions to determine the expected value of the constant sum of deposits is possible only in the case of “ideal” financial conditions, when the impact of factors on the aggregate sum of deposits is not taken into account. The developed statistical models leave out the possible heterogeneity of the dispersion of this balance. In the article, it is proposed to apply econometric methods, namely, the methods of time series analysis to test the hypothesis of the variance heterogeneity of the cumulative sum of demand deposits, using daily data. In particular, the formalization and evaluation of EGARCH-model parameters are conducted. The EGARCH-model allows to take into account the non-linear, asymmetric effects of fluctuations in the financial series. The determination of the conditionalconstant component of demand deposits is proposed on the basis of the revealed regularities. The results of the research prove the hypothesis of the non-stationary character of the variance in daily balance of demand

  16. [Types of families, living conditions, functioning of family systems and social maladjustment during latency and adolescence in underprivileged milieus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blanc, M; McDuff, P; Tremblay, R E

    1991-06-01

    Available data on the impact of certain types of families is lacking, and the results are often misleading with respect to maladjustment. Following a description of variations in delinquent activity and behaviour problems according to family type, the authors analyse the difficulties in the operation of family systems. Comparisons of six family types apply to data from 763 boys aged 10, 319 female and 426 male adolescents, aged 14 and 15: intact families, father-based and mother-based single-parent families, father-based and mother-based reconstituted families and substitute families. The article's data show that in the late eighties, nearly 40 per cent of children and adolescents living in low-income districts in Montreal belonged to disunited families. In addition, the data confirm a classic observation: in comparison with intact families, disunited families are underprivileged in relation to living conditions, deficient in relation to psychosocial functioning, and propitious to behaviour problems and delinquent activity. In addition, it has been established that certain disunited family types represent a considerable risk factor. The damaging effect of family structure increases in the following order: intact families, mother-based single-parent families, mother-based reconstituted families, substitute families, father-based reconstituted families and father-based single-parent families. Finally, certain intervention methods are suggested to help prevent behaviour and family problems.

  17. Three Gorges Reservoir Area: soil erosion under natural condition vs. soil erosion under current land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbrodt, Sarah; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Apparently, the current most prominent human-induced example for large scale environmental impact is the Three Gorges Dam in China. The flooding alongside the Yangtze River, and its tributaries results in a vast loss of settlement and farmland area with productive, fertile valley soils. Due to the associated high land use dynamic on uphill-sites, the soil resources are underlying high land use pressure. Within our study, the soil erosion under natural conditions is compared to the soil erosion under current land use after the impoundment. Both were modeled using the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) which is able to predict long-term annual soil loss with limited data. The database consists of digital terrain data (45 m resolution DEM, erosive slope length based on Monte-Carlo-Aggregation according to Behrens et al. (2008)), field investigations of recent erosion forms, and literature studies. The natural disposition to soil erosion was calculated considering the USLE factors R, S, and K. The soil erosion under current land use was calculated taking into account all USLE factors. The study area is the catchment of the Xiangxi River in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. Within the Xiangxi Catchment (3,200 km²) the highly dynamic backwater area (580 km²), and two micro-scale study sites (Xiangjiaba with 2.8 km², and Quyuan with 88 km²) are considered more detailed as they are directly affected by the river impoundment. Central features of the Xiangxi Catchment are the subtropical monsoon climate, an extremely steep sloping relief (mean slope angle 39°, SD 22.8°) artificially fractured by farmland terraces, and a high soil erodibility (mean K factor 0.37, SD 0.13). On the catchment scale the natural disposition to soil erosion makes up to mean 518.0 t ha-1 a-1. The maximum potential soil loss of 1,730.1 t ha-1 a-1 under natural conditions is reached in the Quyuan site (mean 635.8 t ha-1 a-1) within the backwater area (mean 582.9 t ha-1 a-1). In the

  18. Early stages of wind wave and drift current generation under non-stationary wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Diaz, Lucia; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Generation and amplification mechanisms of ocean waves are well understood under constant wind speed or limited fetch conditions. Under these situations, the momentum and energy transfers from air to water are also quite well known. However during the wind field evolution over the ocean, we may observe sometime high wind acceleration/deceleration situations (e.g. Mexican Tehuano or Mediterranean Mistral wind systems). The evolution of wave systems under these conditions is not well understood. The purpose of these laboratory experiments is to better understand the early stages of water-waves and surface-drift currents under non-stationary wind conditions and to determine the balance between transfers creating waves and surface currents during non-equilibrium situations. The experiments were conducted in the Institut Pythéas wind-wave facility in Marseille-France. The wave tank is 40 m long, 2.7 m wide and 1 m deep. The air section is 50 m long, 3 m wide and 1.8 m height. We used 11 different resistive wave-gauges located along the tank. The momentum fluxes in the air column were estimated from single and X hot-film anemometer measurements. The sampling frequency for wind velocity and surface displacement measurements was 256 Hz. Water-current measurements were performed with a profiling velocimeter. This device measures the first 3.5 cm of the water column with a frequency rate of 100Hz. During the experiments, the wind intensity was abruptly modified with a constant acceleration and deceleration over time. We observed that wind drag coefficient values for accelerated wind periods are lower than the ones reported in previous studies for constant wind speed (Large and Pond 1981; Ocampo-Torres et al. 2010; Smith 1980; Yelland and Taylor 1996). This is probably because the turbulent boundary layer is not completely developed during the increasing-wind sequence. As it was reported in some theoretical studies (Miles 1957; Phillips 1957; Kahma and Donelan 1988), we

  19. Influence of mountain pine beetle epidemic on winter habitat conditions for Merriam's turkeys: Management implications for current and future condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick P. Lehman; Mark A. Rumble; Michael A. Battaglia; Todd R. Mills; Lance A. Asherin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding response of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest development following a mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has important management implications for winter habitat conditions for Merriam’s wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami; hereafter, turkeys). Therefore, we quantified habitat changes over time for turkeys...

  20. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newth, J.L.; Rees, E.C.; Cromie, R.L.; McDonald, R.A.; Bearhop, S.; Pain, D.J.; Norton, G.J.; Deacon, C.; Hilton, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL"−"1) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL"−"1 (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot. - Highlights: • Elevated blood lead levels of >20 μg dL"−"1 were found in 41.7% of whooper swans. • Blood lead levels of ≥44 μg dL"−"1 were negatively associated with body condition. • Clinical effects were at lower levels than previously described for Anseriformes. • Reduction of lead shot in the environment would reduce the risk of lead exposure. - Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with the body condition of free-living whooper swans in winter when levels were ≥44 μg dL"−"1 (27/260 = 10% of birds were above this threshold).

  1. Qualitative overview of living conditions and health status of seasonal (mobile/temporary agricultural workers in two housing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this research we aimed to determine the status of seasonal agricultural workers located in two housing units in terms of living, working and health conditions.  Methods: This is a descriptive study using qualitative methods: in-depth interviews and in situ observations. It took place in provinces of Adana and Mersin located in the Çukurova region and the Şanlıurfa province. A common feature of these provinces is their high density of seasonal agricultural workers. Our field work was performed by going to places where seasonal agricultural workers live and work. The research was conducted during the dates of March 2014 and August 2014. Snowball sampling methods was used in this research. Data were collected by interviews with 26 seasonal agricultural workers who were older than 15. Results: Seasonal agricultural workers were working without social insurance, safe transportation facilities, or guarantee of employment and without any worker’s health and safety precautions being taken by the employees. Accommodation units lacked fundamental structural and safety features. Seasonal agricultural workers were faced with social alienation and could not access the basic health services such as vaccination, antenatal follow-up, reproductive health or outpatient services. Also, their diet was unbalanced and insufficient. Children could not take the benefit sufficiently from education and were employed in agricultural work. In addition to their agricultural work, women also were exploited in their domestic life. Conclusion: Seasonal agricultural workers were in an aggrieved position concerning topics such as transportation, accommodation, wages and social insurance. To eliminate these conditions, the opinion of agricultural middlemen, seasonal agricultural workers and employees should be taken into account with the financial support of local authorities under the scope of the law. 

  2. The Disposition of Water Supply and Demand in Cameroon: What Potential for what Standard of Living Conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Saidou Baba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - This paper attempts to appraise the potential of water resources for Cameroon and the standard of living conditions confronting people in the country. Design/methodology/approach - A simple descriptive method of data analysis is adopted using analytical tools such as percentages, tables, and means to achieve the objectives of the inquiry. Data for the study were generated from personal observations in one hand and collected from water resources literature, on the other hand. Findings - With the help of the data gathered, the paper establishes that despite the existence of abundant water resources in Cameroon the standard of living conditions of people with respect to basic needs of survival such as drinking water, improved sanitation services, and electricity supply is far below expectation. Research implications/limitations - The main implication of the study is that in spite of the surplus volume of water resources (325.96 km3 or 95.12% of annual total water resources endowment in Cameroon, the population benefits marginally from it due to the mismanagement of resources and misplacement of priorities as obtained in most sub-Saharan African countries. One limitation of this study is that the use of limited primary data in the investigation offers no room toward establishing the extent of water resources allocation to the various users of water in the country. Originality/value/contribution - The paper suggests that the government of Cameroon should encourage the population to run community basic social services projects and subsidize the activities of such ventures in kind through technical assistance or in cash.

  3. Effects of four-month handbike training under free-living conditions on physical fitness and health in wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Sven; Valent, Linda; Gobets, David; van der Woude, Lucas; de Groot, Sonja

    2017-08-01

    Recognizing the encouraging effect of challenging events, the HandbikeBattle (HBB) was created to promote exercise among wheelchair users. The purpose of this study was to reveal the effects on physical fitness and health outcomes of four-month handbike training under free-living conditions in preparation for the event. In this prospective cohort study, 59 relatively inexperienced handyclists participated in the HBB of 2013 or 2014. Incremental exercise tests were conducted, respiratory function was tested and anthropometrics were measured before and after the preparation period. Main outcome measures were peak power output (POpeak), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and waist circumference, of which the changes were tested using repeated measures ANOVA. To detect possible determinants of changes in physical fitness, a linear regression analysis was conducted with personal characteristics, executed training volume and upper-extremity complaints during the training period as independent variables. POpeak, VO2peak and waist circumference improved significantly with 17%, 7% and 4.1%, respectively. None of the included variables were significant determinants for the changes in POpeak found as a result of the training. A challenging event such as the HBB provokes training regimes among participants of sufficient load to realize substantial improvements in physical fitness and health outcomes. Implications for Rehabilitation Due to the often impaired muscle function in the lower-limbs and an inactive lifestyle, wheelchair users generally show considerably lower levels of fitness compared to able-bodied individuals. This prospective cohort study showed that four months of handbike training under free-living conditions in preparation for this event resulted in substantial improvements in physical fitness and health outcomes in wheelchair users. The creation of a challenging event such as the HandbikeBattle as part of a follow-up rehabilitation practice can therefore be a useful

  4. Current physical activity improves balance control during sensory conflicting conditions in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, S; Gauchard, G C; Aubry, C; Benetos, A; Perrin, P

    2007-01-01

    Aging process is characterized by difficulties in ensuring balance control, especially in conditions of reduced or conflicting sensory information, leading to an increased risk of falling. Conversely, the practise of physical activities (PA) has been recognized as a good approach to improve the quality of balance control. This study aimed to investigate the influence of current and/or past PA on balance-related neurosensorial organization in older adults on the maintenance of the upright stance, especially during sensory conflicting situations. Postural control was evaluated by means of the Sensory Organization Test on 130 healthy noninstitutionalized volunteers aged over 65, split into four groups according to the presence or absence of PA before or after retirement. Subjects who practised PA for a long time (Gr1) and subjects who started PA after retirement (Gr2) displayed the best postural performances and better managed sensory conflicting situations compared to subjects who had stopped PA for many years (Gr3) and subjects who had never practised PA (Gr4). Multiple regression analyses revealed that current PA was the major determinant for postural parameters during sensorial conflict compared to age, gender, body mass index and past PA. Regular PA, even when started late in life, allows appropriate reorganization of the different components of postural control during sensory conflicting situations. Indeed, active subjects were more able to compensate for suppressed or perturbed sensory information by an increased usage of another referential and so to correct their posture by adopting a more appropriate balance strategy. Thus, PA counteracts the age-related decline of postural control and could consequently reduce the risk of falling.

  5. The Current Condition and Possibilities of Development of Festival Tourism in the Lublin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pioš Katarzyna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The number, range, and diversity of events with a character of festivals have been growing in the Lublin Region over the last several years. The events are organised by various entities and institutions. Information about them is largely dispersed. No study has been conducted so far determining the spatial distribution of festivals at the regional scale, and analysing their offer in the context of possibilities of development of festival tourism. Therefore, a study in the scope was undertaken with consideration of the cultural conditionings of some of the events. Material and methods. In periods from July to December 2010 and from September to December 2013, secondary information was analysed (statistics, records, and scientific studies, and original material was collected (field inventory, interview, and diagnostic survey regarding the current condition of festival tourism in the Lublin Region. Results. The collected data on festival tourism offers suggest that the number of festivals in the Lublin Region has been continuously increasing from year to year. According to the obtained data, festivals with a duration of 3 and 5 days are dominant. The majority of festivals are held in summer months, usually on weekends. Music and interdisciplinary festivals with international, national, and regional range are prevalent. Some of them already have a history of 47 years. The analysis of the spatial distribution of the festivals subject to the inventory suggests that the majority of them are organised in the largest cities of the region, namely Lublin, Zamośæ, and Kazimierz Dolny. Conclusions. Due to the very diverse offer of festivals, and the manner of their promotion, they play an important role in the promotion of the Lublin Region. The offer, spatial distribution, and dynamics in the scope of organisation of festivals provide good perspectives for the development of festival tourism in the Lublin Region.

  6. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for improving function and activities of daily living in patients after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Bernhard; Kugler, Joachim; Pohl, Marcus; Mehrholz, Jan

    2013-11-15

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Functional impairment resulting in poor performance in activities of daily living (ADLs) among stroke survivors is common. Current rehabilitation approaches have limited effectiveness in improving ADL performance and function after stroke, but a possible adjunct to stroke rehabilitation might be non-invasive brain stimulation by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to modulate cortical excitability and hence to improve ADL performance and function. To assess the effects of tDCS on generic activities of daily living (ADLs) and motor function in people with stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (March 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, May 2013), MEDLINE (1948 to May 2013), EMBASE (1980 to May 2013), CINAHL (1982 to May 2013), AMED (1985 to May 2013), Science Citation Index (1899 to May 2013) and four additional databases. In an effort to identify further published, unpublished and ongoing trials, we searched trials registers and reference lists, handsearched conference proceedings and contacted authors and equipment manufacturers. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and randomised controlled cross-over trials (from which we analysed only the first period as a parallel-group design) that compared tDCS versus control in adults with stroke for improving ADL performance and function. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality (JM and MP) and extracted data (BE and JM). If necessary, we contacted study authors to ask for additional information. We collected information on dropouts and adverse events from the trial reports. We included 15 studies involving a total of 455 participants. Analysis of six studies involving 326 participants regarding our primary outcome, ADL, showed no evidence of an effect in favour of tDCS at the end of the intervention phase (mean difference (MD) 5.31 Barthel

  7. The current situation and environmental conditions of green mussel farming in the gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keawtawee, T.; Songsangjinda, P.; Sangnoi, Y.; Uppabullung, A.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated the current situation and environmental conditions of green mussel Perna viridis farming in Surat Thani, Phetchaburi and Samut Prakan provinces where were located in the gulf of Thailand. Samples were collected during April, August and November in 2014. Based on the results of this study, there were three major types of mussel culture patterns in Thailand: bouchot culture, longline culture (rope culture), and raft culture. Mussel farmers encountered problems on decreasing of larvae mussel in the water column, water quality degradation, high production cost and farmer’s lack of negotiation power to control the price. The water quality of the mussel farms, such as dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), fecal coliforms bacteria and the total coliforms bacteria met the standard for aquaculture. However, the nutrient, such as ammonium (NH4-N), nitri-nitrogen (NO2-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and soluble reactive phosphorus (PO4-P) were higher than the value of marine aquaculture standard. The results of the contamination of Salmonella spp. bacteria were not found in the mussel’s tissue, however Escherichia coli was found at very low level.

  8. TUBERCULOSIS EPIDEMIC SITUATION IN THE CHECHEN REPUBLIC IN CURRENT SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Mikhailovna Alekseeva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tuberculosis is one of the most important medical and social problems in the whole world as well as in Russia and its separate regions. Purpose. The study was aimed at assessment of tuberculosis epidemic situation in the Chechen Republic in the current socio-economic conditions after counterterrorist operations. Materials and methods. The authors analyzed the annual reports of the Ministry of Health of the Chechen Republic for 2010–2015, data of Rosstat, statistical data form for tuberculosis (№ 8 and № 30. Results. The results shown a threefold increase in the main tuberculosis indicators (incidence, prevalence and mortality after counterterrorist operations (1994–1996, and a decrease in these indicators in 2010–2015. The authors have found the cities and rural municipal districts with the most and the least favorable tuberculosis situation. The study results demonstrated an increase in the number of patients with bacillary, with fibrous-cavernous form, as well as patients with tuberculosis in combination with HIV infection. The authors proved the relation between the prevalence of fibrous-cavernous form of tuberculosis and mortality rate. Tuberculosis incidence in children (0–14 years and adolescents (15–17 years decreased in 2010–2015 while the incidence in adolescents remains higher than the incidence in children. Conclusion. Effective antituberculosis work in the Chechen Republic needs to improve the quality of medical examinations, early detection of tuberculosis, timely immunization, and health education.

  9. Epitaxial growth of zinc on ferritic steel under high current density electroplating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greul, Thomas; Comenda, Christian; Preis, Karl; Gerdenitsch, Johann; Sagl, Raffaela; Hassel, Achim Walter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •EBSD of electroplated Zn on Fe or steel was performed. •Zn grows epitaxially on electropolished ferritic steel following Burger's orientation relation. •Surface deformation of steel leads to multiple electroplated zinc grains with random orientation. •Zn grows epitaxially even on industrial surfaces with little surface deformation. •Multiple zinc grains on one steel grain can show identical orientation relations. -- Abstract: The dependence of the crystal orientation of electrodeposited zinc of the grain orientation on ferritic steel substrate at high current density deposition (400 mA cm −2 ) during a pulse-plating process was investigated by means of EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction) measurements. EBSD-mappings of surface and cross-sections were performed on samples with different surface preparations. Furthermore an industrial sample was investigated to compare lab-coated samples with the industrial process. The epitaxial growth of zinc is mainly dependent on the condition of the steel grains. Deformation of steel grains leads to random orientation while zinc grows epitaxially on non-deformed steel grains even on industrial surfaces

  10. Effects of extreme habitat conditions on otolith morphology: a case study on extremophile live bearing fishes (Poecilia mexicana, P. sulphuraria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Riesch, Rüdiger; García de León, Francisco J; Plath, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Our study was designed to evaluate if, and to what extent, restrictive environmental conditions affect otolith morphology. As a model, we chose two extremophile livebearing fishes: (i) Poecilia mexicana, a widespread species in various Mexican freshwater habitats, with locally adapted populations thriving in habitats characterized by the presence of one (or both) of the natural stressors hydrogen sulphide and darkness, and (ii) the closely related Poecilia sulphuraria living in a highly sulphidic habitat (Baños del Azufre). All three otolith types (lapilli, sagittae, and asterisci) of P. mexicana showed a decrease in size ranging from the non-sulphidic cave habitat (Cueva Luna Azufre), to non-sulphidic surface habitats, to the sulphidic cave (Cueva del Azufre), to sulphidic surface habitats (El Azufre), to P. sulphuraria. Although we found a distinct differentiation between ecotypes with respect to their otolith morphology, no clear-cut pattern of trait evolution along the two ecological gradients was discernible. Otoliths from extremophiles captured in the wild revealed only slight similarities to aberrant otoliths found in captive-bred fish. We therefore hypothesize that extremophile fishes have developed coping mechanisms enabling them to avoid aberrant otolith growth - an otherwise common phenomenon in fishes reared under stressful conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation on current-limiting performance of the YBCO thin-film wire considering electric coupling condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, H.-I.; Han, B.-S.; Kim, Y.-J.; Lee, D.-H.; Song, S.-S.; Han, T.-H.; Han, S.-C.

    2011-01-01

    The basic way to improve the performance of a superconducting current limiter is to apply and evaluate a superconducting device that is appropriate to the superconducting current limiter. Among the many types of superconducting devices, the YBCO thin film wire has excellent current-limiting performance that is appropriate for actual system application. For the application of the YBCO thin film wire to superconducting current limiters, its current-limiting performance as a unit device must be accurately evaluated, and measures to improve its current-limiting performance must be sought. Accordingly, to evaluate the current-limiting performance of the YBCO thin film wire, this study was conducted to evaluate its resistance-increasing trend, V max , T r , I max , I qt , and current-limiting rate as a unit device, after which the electric coupling condition that consists of a core and windings was used to evaluate the current-limiting performance of the YBCO thin film wire.

  12. Can I help you? Information sharing in online discussion forums by people living with a long-term condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol S Bond

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Peer-to-peer health care is increasing, especially amongst people living with a long-term condition. How information is shared is, however, sometimes of concern to health care professionals. Objective This study explored what information is being shared on health-related discussion boards and identified the approaches people used to signpost their peers to information. Methods This study was conducted using a qualitative content analysis methodology to explore information shared on discussion boards for people living with diabetes. Whilst there is debate about the best ethical lens to view research carried out on data posted on online discussion boards, the researchers chose to adopt the stance of treating this type of information as “personal health text”, a specific type of research data in its own right. Results Qualitative content analysis and basic descriptive statistics were used to analyse the selected posts. Two major themes were identified: ‘Information Sharing from Experience’ and ‘Signposting Other Sources of Information’. Conclusions People were actively engaging in information sharing in online discussion forums, mainly through direct signposting. The quality of the information shared was important, with reasons for recommendations being given. Much of the information sharing was based on experience, which also brought in information from external sources such as health care professionals and other acknowledged experts in the field. With the rise in peer-to-peer support networks, the nature of health knowledge and expertise needs to be redefined. People online are combining external information with their own personal experiences and sharing that for others to take and develop as they wish.

  13. Investments of Banks in Securities: the Essence and Development Trends under Current Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Vladimirovna Mazikova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of modern banking activities involves the realization of investments. Investment is a complex discussion economic category, characterized by a number of features. The types and forms of investment are manifold and can be transformed with account of the state of the economy and the level of development of industrial relations. The faster growth of the financial sector in the economy has stipulated the development of financial investment. Banks as financial and lending institutions actively make financial investments in securities. Banks’ investment in securities pursues a number of purposes which determine the selection of securities for investment and their quality. The article identified the targets of bank investments in securities and their development trends under current conditions on the basis of the analysis of the actual data for 2010–2014. Negative revaluation and the actual decrease in the value of corporate securities of Russian issuers reduce their commercial appeal. Banks refuse to speculate on the stock market in favor of the securities that ensure liquidity. Banks’ investments aim to purchasing securities from the Lombard List of the Bank of Russia in order to obtain loans and participate in the repo transactions. Thus, during the analyzed period, banks’ investments in securities transformed from systemically important assets that generate substantial profit into the mechanism that provides liquidity. It should be noted that a significant part of investment resources of Russian banks services the debt obligations of Russia’s Government. The article also identified a trend of banks’ increasing investment in the participation portfolios of subsidiaries and associated joint stock companies. The official data of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Bank of Russia [15], and the Federal State Statistics Service [14] were used as the information base for the study

  14. CONDICIONES ACTUALES DEL FINANCIAMIENTO DE LAS PYMES COSTARRICENSES. (Current financing conditions for costa rican SME companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizette Brenes Bonilla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los temas indagados en el Segundo estudio nacional realizado por el Observatorio Costarricense de Mipymes durante el 2011 corresponde al financiamiento de las micros, pequeñas y medianas empresas costarricenses. Se consultaron las fuentes de financiamiento más utilizadas, la presentación de solicitudes de crédito durante los últimos cinco años, la utilización que en general hacen estas empresas de los diferentes medios de financiamiento y sus requerimientos actuales. De forma similar a lo que ocurre en otros países, los fondos propios constituyen la principal opción para estas empresas. Por ello, en este trabajo han sido analizadas las condiciones que propician la autofinanciación o el uso de otras opciones. Por medio del análisis estadístico de la información recopilada en la encuesta, se comprueba que algunas variables relativas a la gestión empresarial, tales como la fuente de financiamiento inicial, la experiencia del (de la empresario(a y la prioridad que dan al manejo de aspectos financieros, presentan una asociación significativa con las estrategias de financiamiento en las mipymes costarricenses. ABSTRACT Financing was one of the areas investigated in the Second National Survey of micro, small and medium sized Costa Rican companies during 2011. The most used financing sources, credit applications during the last five years, end use of this credit, and current credit requirements in various financing institutions were investigated. Similar to other countries, own funding was the main option for these companies. Thus, this work examines the conditions that facilitate the use of self financing or other options available. Through statistic analysis of the information collected, variables like initial funding source, previous experience of the entrepreneur and priority given to financial management were shown to present a definite relationship to financing strategies for Costa Rican SMEs.

  15. Collecting conditions usage metadata to optimize current and future ATLAS software and processing

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00064378; The ATLAS collaboration; Formica, Andrea; Gallas, Elizabeth; Oda, Susumu; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rybkin, Grigori; Verducci, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Conditions data (for example: alignment, calibration, data quality) are used extensively in the processing of real and simulated data in ATLAS. The volume and variety of the conditions data needed by different types of processing are quite diverse, so optimizing its access requires a careful understanding of conditions usage patterns. These patterns can be quantified by mining representative log files from each type of processing and gathering detailed information about conditions usage for that type of processing into a central repository.

  16. Theoretical derivation of anodizing current and comparison between fitted curves and measured curves under different conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Bin; Yu, Dongliang; Jin, Rong; Wang, Yang; Li, Dongdong; Song, Ye; Gao, Mingqi; Zhu, Xufei

    2015-04-01

    Anodic TiO2 nanotubes have been studied extensively for many years. However, the growth kinetics still remains unclear. The systematic study of the current transient under constant anodizing voltage has not been mentioned in the original literature. Here, a derivation and its corresponding theoretical formula are proposed to overcome this challenge. In this paper, the theoretical expressions for the time dependent ionic current and electronic current are derived to explore the anodizing process of Ti. The anodizing current-time curves under different anodizing voltages and different temperatures are experimentally investigated in the anodization of Ti. Furthermore, the quantitative relationship between the thickness of the barrier layer and anodizing time, and the relationships between the ionic/electronic current and temperatures are proposed in this paper. All of the current-transient plots can be fitted consistently by the proposed theoretical expressions. Additionally, it is the first time that the coefficient A of the exponential relationship (ionic current jion = A exp(BE)) has been determined under various temperatures and voltages. And the results indicate that as temperature and voltage increase, ionic current and electronic current both increase. The temperature has a larger effect on electronic current than ionic current. These results can promote the research of kinetics from a qualitative to quantitative level.

  17. Theoretical derivation of anodizing current and comparison between fitted curves and measured curves under different conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Bin; Yu, Dongliang; Jin, Rong; Wang, Yang; Li, Dongdong; Song, Ye; Gao, Mingqi; Zhu, Xufei

    2015-04-10

    Anodic TiO2 nanotubes have been studied extensively for many years. However, the growth kinetics still remains unclear. The systematic study of the current transient under constant anodizing voltage has not been mentioned in the original literature. Here, a derivation and its corresponding theoretical formula are proposed to overcome this challenge. In this paper, the theoretical expressions for the time dependent ionic current and electronic current are derived to explore the anodizing process of Ti. The anodizing current-time curves under different anodizing voltages and different temperatures are experimentally investigated in the anodization of Ti. Furthermore, the quantitative relationship between the thickness of the barrier layer and anodizing time, and the relationships between the ionic/electronic current and temperatures are proposed in this paper. All of the current-transient plots can be fitted consistently by the proposed theoretical expressions. Additionally, it is the first time that the coefficient A of the exponential relationship (ionic current j(ion) = A exp(BE)) has been determined under various temperatures and voltages. And the results indicate that as temperature and voltage increase, ionic current and electronic current both increase. The temperature has a larger effect on electronic current than ionic current. These results can promote the research of kinetics from a qualitative to quantitative level.

  18. [Hygienic assessment of living conditions and morbidity of the population in the port cities of the Sakhalin region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikbayeva, L A; Kim, A V; Iakubova, Sh; Ok, Im En; Darizhapov, B B

    The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive hygienic assessment of environmental conditions in the port cities of the Sakhalin region to identify priority risk factors affecting on population health and management decisions for the optimization of living conditions. As a result of the assessment of risk and damages for public health from the effects of air pollution on the dose-response, effects were found to excess of impact on the target organs by 10 times. The main ecotoxicant was determined to be manganese oxide, which is associated with a priority manganese content in soil samples ofport cities. The positive dynamics of the gain in the accumulation of soil heavy metals according to the total index indicates to the existence of problems for soil contamination. Analysis of demographic variables shows that the population of the Sakhalin region in general and the port cities in particular relates to a regressive type. The main causes of the population decline are mortality and migration outflow of able-bodied population in other regions of Russia. However, in the port cities there is an increase in the number of work places, contributing to an increase in the labor force. The primary and general morbidity of the population ofport cities is characterized by higher levels compared with the average for the Sakhalin Region and the Far Eastern Federal District. Among all the classes of diseases as priority ones there are marked “neoplasm”, “diseases of the nervous system”, “respiratory diseases”, “diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue”. Port cities occupy the top ranking places on the incidence of malignant tumors among the cities of the Sakhalin region.

  19. At Work..., and Poor? A Look at the Czech Working Poor Population in the Living Conditions Survey (EU-SILC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarka Sustova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is to analyse the working poor employees and their household's social situation in the national income and living conditions survey (EU-SILC. The analysis starts with the definition of the two main groups of employees according to the number of months spent in the full-time employment - those working whole year and those employed for 6 to 11 months. Poverty in earned income concept is used to evaluate poverty at individual level, confronting employee's income with single person household poverty line benchmark. The study then moves to the household level poverty measure based on household's disposable equivalised income. When shifting from the individual income to the household's one the economies of scale represented by an implicit or explicit equivalence scale used in the construction of the household poverty measure play a crucial role. Therefore, attention is paid to the comparison of poverty level based on equivalised disposable income using equivalence scales and per-capita income. At the end, material deprivation of different subgroups of employees according to their poverty status is examined.

  20. Effects of exercise training and a hypocaloric diet on female monozygotic twins in free-living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Schmidt, Walter F J

    2011-10-24

    This paper aims to examine the similarities in effects of exercise training and a hypocaloric diet within overweight female monozygotic twin pairs and to assess differences in twin partners' responses depending on the timing of exercise bouts and main meals. Six previously untrained twin pairs (aged 20-37 years, body fat 35.8±6.3%) performed an identical exercise program (12 bouts endurance and 8 bouts resistance training) and took part in a nutrition counseling program for a period of 28 days. They pursued one identical goal: to lose body weight and fat. Each twin partner was randomly assigned to one of the two intervention groups: "exercise after dinner" (A) and "exercise before dinner" (B). Subjects followed a hypocaloric diet, supervised by a nutritionist, in free-living conditions. Reductions in body weight, waist and hip circumference, glucose tolerance, mean daily %fat intake, changes in morning resting energy rate and resting metabolic rate showed great variation between twin pairs, but only small variation within twin pairs. Thus, the genetic influence on the changes in most of the examined anthropometric and physiological variables was high. There was no influence of the specific timing on the dependent variables. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Connecting to Collections in Florida: Current Conditions and Critical Needs in Libraries, Archives, and Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Corinne; Marty, Paul F.; Braun, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents results from an IMLS-funded project to evaluate the current state of collections in Florida's libraries, archives, and museums, current practices to preserve and conserve these collections, and perceived needs to maintain and improve these collections for future generations. The survey, modeled after the Heritage Health Index…

  2. Decoupled Double Synchronous Reference Frame Current Controller for Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reyes, M.; Rodriguez, Pedro; Vazquez, S.

    2012-01-01

    -sequence current components is becoming necessary for achieving new capabilities like the reactive power injection during a grid fault. This paper deals with a fundamental issue in this topic, i.e., the performance of the current controller. Classical dq controllers, which are extensively used in industrial...

  3. Mechanical, electrical and microstructural properties of cement-based materials in conditions of current flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, A.; Koleva, D.A.; Copuroglu, O.; Van Beek, C.; Van Breugel, K.

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion in reinforced concrete structures is not only induced by the penetration of aggressive substances (e.g. chlorides and/or CO2) but also influenced by stray currents. Further, the degradation mechanisms in reinforced cement-based systems due to the combined effect of stray current and

  4. Effect of accelerating field third harmonic on microtron steady-state conditions and limiting current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kol'tsov, A.V.; Serov, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Setting the acceleration regime in a microtron with the resonator in which the third accelerating field harmonic is excited by accelerated clusters is considered. It is shown that excitation of the accelerating field third harmonic in the microtron resonator (E 011 mode) causes a 1.5 time increase of the range of field intensity values under which resonance particle acceleration is possible. Under moderate energies and accelerated currents (10-15 MeV, 50-80 mA) this leads to a reduction of requirements to the stability of power coming to the resonator and cathode temperature. Under accelerated currents of > 100 mA the third harmonic complicates the microtron transition to acceleration regime. The microtron transfers to stable autooscillation regime, but the current achieved in a single short pulse is increased. By varying the value of the resonator quality factor on the third harmonic one can change the current pulse duration and autooscillation period

  5. Surface current dynamics under sea breeze conditions observed by simultaneous HF radar, ADCP and drifter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentchev, Alexei; Forget, Philippe; Fraunié, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Ocean surface boundary layer dynamics off the southern coast of France in the NW Mediterranean is investigated by using velocity observations by high-frequency (HF) radars, surface drifting buoys and a downward-looking drifting acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The analysis confirms that velocities measured by HF radars correspond to those observed by an ADCP at the effective depth z f = k -1, where k is wavenumber of the radio wave emitted by the radar. The radials provided by the radars were in a very good agreement with in situ measurements, with the relative errors of 1 and 9 % and root mean square (RMS) differences of 0.02 and 0.04 m/s for monostatic and bistatic radar, respectively. The total radar-based velocities appeared to be slightly underestimated in magnitude and somewhat biased in direction. At the end of the survey period, the difference in the surface current direction, based on HF radar and ADCP data, attained 10°. It was demonstrated that the surface boundary layer dynamics cannot be reconstructed successfully without taking into the account velocity variation with depth. A significant misalignment of ˜30° caused by the sea breeze was documented between the HF radar (HFR-derived) surface current and the background current. It was also found that the ocean response to a moderate wind forcing was confined to the 4-m-thick upper layer. The respective Ekman current attained the maximum value of 0.15 m/s, and the current rotation was found to be lagging the wind by approximately 40 min, with the current vector direction being 15-20° to the left of the wind. The range of velocity variability due to wind forcing was found comparable with the magnitude of the background current variability.

  6. Sediment concentrations, flow conditions, and downstream evolution of two turbidity currents, Monterey Canyon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingping; Octavio E. Sequeiros,; Noble, Marlene A.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of turbidity currents to carry sand and coarser sediment from shallow to deep regions in the submarine environment has attracted the attention of researchers from different disciplines. Yet not only are field measurements of oceanic turbidity currents a rare achievement, but also the data that have been collected consist mostly of velocity records with very limited or no suspended sediment concentration or grain size distribution data. This work focuses on two turbidity currents measured in Monterey Canyon in 2002 with emphasis on suspended sediment from unique samples collected within the body of these currents. It is shown that concentration and grain size of the suspended material, primarily controlled by the source of the gravity flows and their interaction with bed material, play a significant role in shaping the characteristics of the turbidity currents as they travel down the canyon. Before the flows reach their normal or quasi-steady state, which is defined by bed slope, bed roughness, and suspended grain size, they might pass through a preliminary adjustment stage where they are subject to capacity-driven deposition, and release heavy material in excess. Flows composed of fine (silt/clay) sediments tend to be thicker than those with sands. The measured velocity and concentration data confirm that flow patterns differ between the front and body of turbidity currents and that, even after reaching normal state, the flow regime can be radically disrupted by abrupt changes in canyon morphology.

  7. Collecting conditions usage metadata to optimize current and future ATLAS software and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, Dario; The ATLAS collaboration; Gallas, Elizabeth; Oda, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Conditions data (for example: alignment, calibration, data quality) are used extensively in the processing of real and simulated data in ATLAS. The volume and variety of the conditions data needed by different types of processing are quite diverse, so optimizing its access requires a careful understanding of conditions usage patterns. These patterns can be quantified by mining representative log files from each type of processing and gathering detailed information about conditions usage for that type of processing into a central repository. In this presentation, we describe the systems developed to collect this conditions usage metadata per job type and describe a few specific (but very different) ways in which it has been used. For example, it can be used to cull specific conditions data into a much more compact package to be used by jobs doing similar types of processing: these customized collections can then be shipped with jobs to be executed on isolated worker nodes (such as HPC farms) that have no netwo...

  8. Setting up a safe deep repository for long-lived HLW and ILW in Russia: Current state of the works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, Yu.D.; Porsov, A.Yu.; Beigul, V.P.; Palenov, M.V.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of RW disposal in Russia in accordance with the Federal Law 'On Radioactive Waste Management and Amendments to Specific Legal Acts of the Russian Federation' No. 190-FL dated 11 July 2011, is oriented at the ultimate disposal of waste, without an intent for their subsequent retrieval. The law 190-FL has it as follows: - A radioactive waste repository is a radioactive waste storage facility intended for disposal of the radioactive wastes without an intent for their subsequent retrieval. - Disposal of solid long-lived high-level waste and solid long-lived intermediate-level waste is carried out in deep repositories for radioactive waste. - Import into the Russian Federation of radioactive waste for the purpose of its storage, processing and disposal, except for spent sealed sources of ionising radiation originating from the Russian Federation, is prohibited. For safe final disposal of long-lived HLW and ILW, it is planned to construct a deep repository for radioactive waste (DRRW) in a low-pervious monolith rock massif in the Krasnoyarsk region in the production territory of the Mining and Chemical Combine (FSUE 'Gorno-khimicheskiy kombinat'). According to the IAEA recommendations and in line with the international experience in feasibility studies for setting up of HLW and SNF underground disposal facilities, the first mandatory step is the construction of an underground research laboratory. An underground laboratory serves the following purposes: - itemised research into the characteristics of enclosing rock mass, with verification of massive material suitability for safe disposal of long-lived HLW and ILW; - research into and verification of the isolating properties of an engineering barrier system; - development of engineering solutions and transportation and process flow schemes for construction and running of a future RW ultimate isolation facility. (authors)

  9. A glucose model based on support vector regression for the prediction of hypoglycemic events under free-living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georga, Eleni I; Protopappas, Vasilios C; Ardigò, Diego; Polyzos, Demosthenes; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2013-08-01

    The prevention of hypoglycemic events is of paramount importance in the daily management of insulin-treated diabetes. The use of short-term prediction algorithms of the subcutaneous (s.c.) glucose concentration may contribute significantly toward this direction. The literature suggests that, although the recent glucose profile is a prominent predictor of hypoglycemia, the overall patient's context greatly impacts its accurate estimation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of a support vector for regression (SVR) s.c. glucose method on hypoglycemia prediction. We extend our SVR model to predict separately the nocturnal events during sleep and the non-nocturnal (i.e., diurnal) ones over 30-min and 60-min horizons using information on recent glucose profile, meals, insulin intake, and physical activities for a hypoglycemic threshold of 70 mg/dL. We also introduce herein additional variables accounting for recurrent nocturnal hypoglycemia due to antecedent hypoglycemia, exercise, and sleep. SVR predictions are compared with those from two other machine learning techniques. The method is assessed on a dataset of 15 patients with type 1 diabetes under free-living conditions. Nocturnal hypoglycemic events are predicted with 94% sensitivity for both horizons and with time lags of 5.43 min and 4.57 min, respectively. As concerns the diurnal events, when physical activities are not considered, the sensitivity is 92% and 96% for a 30-min and 60-min horizon, respectively, with both time lags being less than 5 min. However, when such information is introduced, the diurnal sensitivity decreases by 8% and 3%, respectively. Both nocturnal and diurnal predictions show a high (>90%) precision. Results suggest that hypoglycemia prediction using SVR can be accurate and performs better in most diurnal and nocturnal cases compared with other techniques. It is advised that the problem of hypoglycemia prediction should be handled differently for nocturnal

  10. Mycosporine-like amino acids in planktonic organisms living under different UV exposure conditions in Patagonian lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    TARTAROTTI, BARBARA; BAFFICO, GUSTAVO; TEMPORETTI, PEDRO; ZAGARESE, HORACIO E.

    2011-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were studied in zooplankton from 13 Argentinian lakes covering a broad range in altitude, maximum depth and physico-chemical properties of the water. Four to nine different MAAs (predominantly porphyra-334 and shinorine) were found in the copepods Boeckella gibbosa, B. gracilipes, B. meteoris and Parabroteas sarsi, and in the ciliate Stentor amethystinus, while MAAs were undetectable in the cladoceran Daphnia middendorffiana. Among the different copepods, maximum MAA concentrations accounted for 0.25–1.31% of the dry weight, and contents were generally about three to seven times (up to 43 times) higher in the animals living in the clearest lakes compared to those occurring in low-UV systems. This variability in the content of MAAs was related to the lake altitude (r2 = 0.71), and the fraction of the water column to which 1% of the surface UV radiation at 320 nm penetrated (r2 = 0.57). Our data therefore underscore the role of MAAs as sunscreens to decrease the potential negative effects of solar radiation, but they also indicate that other environmental factors besides UV transparency play a role in determining MAA concentrations. One lake was selected to obtain additional information on the qualitative composition of MAAs in seston of <100 μm between two sampling sites and over a 2 month study period (austral summer). Six different MAAs were detected in the samples, with porphyra-334 and palythine being predominant. In the copepods collected simultaneously, there was low variation in MAA concentrations between the two sites and over time. Thus, our results suggest that under similar UV exposure conditions MAA contents of planktonic organisms show low temporal variation. PMID:21258622

  11. The relationship between cadaver, living and forensic stature: A review of current knowledge and a test using a sample of adult Portuguese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Marinho, Luísa; Albanese, John

    2016-01-01

    The use of cadaver length and forensic stature as a proxy for living standing height has not been scrutinized in detail. In this paper we present a brief review of the current knowledge on the relationship between cadaver, living and forensic stature; assess the magnitude and nature of the differences between these three measures of stature; and investigate the potential impact of these differences in forensic contexts. The study uses a sample of 84 males who were autopsied in 2008 at the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (Porto, Portugal), where stature data were collected from three different sources: cadaver stature was obtained from the corpse prior to autopsy, living stature was obtained from military conscription records and forensic stature was obtained from national citizenship identification card records. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and linear regression are used to analyze the data. The results show that cadaver stature is the highest measure, followed by forensic and by living stature, and the difference between cadaver and living stature is greater than expected (4.3cm). Results also show considerable individual variation in the differences between the three measures of stature and that differences decrease with stature, although only slightly. This study has shown that the difference between cadaver and living stature is greater than previously thought and suggests that previously reported correction factors are a minimum rather than a mean correction. Forensic stature is likely to be incorrectly estimated and can jeopardize identification if methods estimate living rather than forensic stature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transition conditions for solid armatures in railguns with muzzle current feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kareev, Yu.A.; Zayatdinov, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Velocity skin effect is a principle reason that solid armatures in railguns transition from smooth metal-on-metal contact with the rails to arcing contact. Transition occurs when armature velocity reaches some critical value which depends weakly on current and strongly on the latent heat of evaporation and electrical conductivity of the armature material. Conductivity of the rail material is also a factor. The analysis shows that when current is fed to the armature from the muzzle of a railgun armature to rail current distribution is more uniform over the contact face than is the case with normal breech feed. The authors show that muzzle feed allows transition velocity to be increased three-fold

  13. Food safety and ecologization: practical solutions to problems at the regional level in current economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysochenko Alla, A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food security and greening both at the level of the country, and at the level of regions are main objectives of modern agroeconomic policy. The state support creates favorable conditions for dynamic development of agrarian and industrial complex, raises investment opportunities and competitiveness of agricultural producers. A realization of the actions directed on assistance to the enterprises making import-substituting production of the regional agro-industrial complex is actual in modern economic conditions. The solution of this problem consists of investment projects implementation and production expansion of the operating enterprises. Considering new economic conditions, the ensuring financial stability of agricultural producers, availability of the food to needy segments of the population, production of valeologically safe food, and also increase efficiency of use of natural resources and conditions along with preservation of quality of environment at the local, regional and global levels are particularly acute challenges. State regulation of development of an agrofood complex of Russia remains a necessary condition for its reproduction functioning, and the social and economic policy has to provide economic availability of the food to all groups of the population that causes need of standard and legal fixing of mechanisms offood security achievement at the regional level.

  14. Current activities on improving storage conditions of the research reactor RA spent fuel - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.V.; Kopecni, M.; Vukadin, Z.; Plecas, I.; Pavlovic, R.; Sotic, O.; Marinkovic, N.

    1998-01-01

    To minimize further corrosion and preserve integrity of aluminum barrels and the stainless steel channel-type containers that were found to contain leaking spent fuel, actions to improve conditions in the existing spent fuel storage pool at the RA research reactor were initiated. Technology was elaborated and equipment was produced and applied for removal of sludge and other debris from the bottom of the pool, filtration of the pool water, sludge conditioning in cement matrix and disposal at the low and medium waste repository at VINCA site. More sophisticated operations are to be performed together with foreign experts. Safety measures and precautions were determined. Subcriticality was proved under normal and/or possible abnormal conditions. (author)

  15. THE MATHEMATIC MODEL OF POTENTIAL RELAXATION IN COULOSTATIC CONDITIONS FOR LIMITING DIFFUSION CURRENT CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Kapitonov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of coulostatic relaxation of the potential for solid metallic electrode was presented. The solution in the case of limiting diffusion current was obtained. On the basis of this model the technique of concentration measurements for heavy metal ions in diluted solutions was suggested. The model adequacy was proved by experimental data.

  16. Benchmarking of codes for electron cyclotron heating and electron cyclotron current drive under ITER conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prater, R.; Farina, D.; Gribov, Y.; Harvey, R. W.; Ram, A. K.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Poli, E.; Smirnov, A. P.; Volpe, F.; Westerhof, E.; Zvonkovo, A.

    2008-01-01

    Optimal design and use of electron cyclotron heating requires that accurate and relatively quick computer codes be available for prediction of wave coupling, propagation, damping and current drive at realistic levels of EC power. To this end, a number of codes have been developed in laboratories

  17. Motor current and leakage flux signature analysis technique for condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, M.V.; Moorthy, R.I.K.; Mahajan, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Till recently analysis of vibration signals was the only means available to predict the state of health of plant equipment. Motor current and leakage magnetic flux signature analysis is acquiring importance as a technique for detection of incipient damages in the electrical machines and as a supplementary technique for diagnostics of driven equipment such as centrifugal and reciprocating pumps. The state of health of the driven equipment is assessed by analysing time signal, frequency spectrum and trend analysis. For example, the pump vane frequency, piston stroke frequency, gear frequency and bearing frequencies are indicated in the current and flux spectra. By maintaining a periodic record of the amplitudes of various frequency lines in the frequency spectra, it is possible to understand the trend of deterioration of parts and components of the pump. All problems arising out of inappropriate mechanical alignment of vertical pumps are easily identified by a combined analysis of current, flux and vibration signals. It is found that current signature analysis technique is a sufficient method in itself for the analysis of state of health of reciprocating pumps and compressors. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs

  18. Current and historical forest conditions and disturbance regimes in the Hoosier-Shawnee ecological assessment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R. Parker; Charles M. Ruffner

    2004-01-01

    We review the historical and current status of forests in the Hoosier-Shawnee Ecological Assessment Area. Native American people influenced the vegetation through fire and agricultural clearing across the region until the early 1800s when European settlers arrived. Clearing of the land for agriculture peaked in the early 1900s after which badly eroded land was...

  19. Understanding the connection between historic range of variation, current social values and developing desired conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry Blocker; Susan K. Hagle; Rick Lasko; Robert Keane; Barry Bollenbacher; Bruce Fox; Fred Samson; Randy Gay; Cynthia Manning

    2001-01-01

    Relationships between the development of desired conditions based on today’s social values, and an understanding of the historic range of variability (HRV) are key to the implementation of ecosystem management. Relevant to the discussion are wildlife habitat values, forage production, economics related to wood resources, aesthetics and visual quality, changes in...

  20. 76 FR 64109 - Comment Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection: Labor Condition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Information Form WH-4, OMB Control No. 1205-0310 AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION... for the information collection, Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Control Number 1205-0310... Condition Application for Nonimmigrants (electronic version); Form ETA 9035CP--General Instructions for the...

  1. Current Control Method for Distributed Generation Power Generation Plants under Grid Fault Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Pedro; Luna, Alvaro; Hermoso, Juan Ramon

    2011-01-01

    The operation of distributed power generation systems under grid fault conditions is a key issue for the massive integration of renewable energy systems. Several studies have been conducted to improve the response of such distributed generation systems under voltage dips. In spite of being less s...

  2. A comparative study of using spindle motor power and eddy current for the detection of tool conditions in milling processes

    OpenAIRE

    Abbass, JK; Al-Habaibeh, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the power of the driving motor of a CNC spindle in comparison to two perpendicular eddy current sensors for the detection of tool wear in milling processes. Monitoring the power through the current profile is a low cost system which has been utilised in this study as an attempt to detect the fluctuation in the motor load as a result of the conditions of the cutting tool. Eddy current sensors are dedicated sensors that are installed on the spindle to measure ...

  3. Optimizing FRET-FLIM Labeling Conditions to Detect Nuclear Protein Interactions at Native Expression Levels in Living Arabidopsis Roots

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Yuchen; Stahl, Yvonne; Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie; Smet, Wouter; Du, Yujuan; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.; Goedhart, Joachim; Scheres, Ben; Blilou, Ikram

    2018-01-01

    Protein complex formation has been extensively studied using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measured by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM). However, implementing this technology to detect protein interactions in living

  4. What is known about the health and living conditions of the indigenous people of northern Scandinavia, the Sami?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Sjölander

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sami are the indigenous ethnic population of northern Scandinavia. Their health condition is poorly known, although the knowledge has improved over the last decade.The aim was to review the current information on mortality, diseases, and risk factor exposure in the Swedish Sami population.Health-related research on Sami cohorts published in scientific journals and anthologies was used to compare the health condition among the Sami and the majority non-Sami population. When relevant, data from the Sami populations in Swedish were compared with corresponding data from Norwegian and Finnish Sami populations.Life expectancy and mortality patterns of the Sami are similar to those of the majority population. Small differences in incidences of cancer and cardiovascular diseases have been reported. The traditional Sami lifestyle seems to contain elements that reduce the risk to develop cancer and cardiovascular diseases, e.g. physical activity, diet rich in antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids, and a strong cultural identity. Reindeer herding is an important cultural activity among the Sami and is associated with high risks for accidents. Pain in the lower back, neck, shoulders, elbows, and hands are frequent among both men and women in reindeer-herding families. For men, these symptoms are related to high exposure to terrain vehicles, particularly snowmobile, whereas for women psychosocial risk factors seem to more important, e.g. poor social support, high effort, low reward, and high economical responsibilities.Although the health condition of the Sami population appears to be rather similar to that of the general Swedish population, a number of specific health problems have been identified, especially among the reindeer-herding Sami. Most of these problems have their origin in marginalization and poor knowledge of the reindeer husbandry and the Sami culture in the majority population. It is suggested that the most sustainable measure to

  5. Live Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Live Well Mental Health Substance Use Smoking Healthy Diet Physical Activity Family Planning Living with HIV: Travel ... to his or her health and well-being. Smoking - Tobacco use is the ... year. Healthy Diet - No matter your HIV status, healthy eating is ...

  6. Women in prison in Serbia: Living conditions for female prisoners in the correctional institution for women in Požarevac

    OpenAIRE

    Ćopić Sanja; Šaćiri Bejan

    2012-01-01

    The Correctional Institution for Women in Požarevac is the only institution in Serbia for serving prison sentence by female persons. In order to find out what the living conditions in this institution are, Victimology Society of Serbia conducted an action research in 2011 and 2012. The data was collected through observation of the conditions in the female prison and through interviews with female prisoners and the prison staff. The data was analyzed by the use of both qualitative and qu...

  7. Unique Nature of the Quality of Life in the Context of Extreme Climatic, Geographical and Specific Socio-Cultural Living Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Anastasia; Neyaskina, Yuliya; Frizen, Marina; Shiryaeva, Olga; Surikova, Yana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a detailed empirical research, aimed at studying the quality of life in the context of extreme climatic, geographical and specific sociocultural living conditions. Our research is based on the methodological approach including social, economical, ecological and psychological characteristics and reflecting…

  8. Genetic covariance functioners for live weight, condition score, and dry-matter intake measured at different lactations stages of Holstein-Friesian heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic parameters for live weight, body condition score and dry-matter intake of dairy heifers were estimated using covariance function methodology. Data were from 469 heifers of the Langhill Dairy Cattle Research Centre and included observations during the first 25 weeks in lactation. Genetic

  9. Wildfire Impacts Upon US Air Quality for Current and Future Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Abraham, R.; Chung, S. H.; Lamb, B. K.; Tao, I.; Avise, J. C.; Stavros, E. N.; Strand, T. T.; McKenzie, D.; Guenther, A. B.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Duhl, T.; Salathe, E. P.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Wildfires can have an important impact on regional air quality as they are large and intermittent sources of primary particulates, secondary aerosols, and ozone precursors. As part of an ongoing analysis on the effects of global change upon US air quality, we report results for current and future decade simulations of the inter-relationship among climate change, wildfires and air quality. The results are reported for the Northwest, Southwest, and Central Rockies regions of the US. Meteorological fields from the ECHAM5 global climate model for the IPCC A1B scenario were downscaled using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model to drive the MEGAN biogenic emissions model, a stochastic fire occurrence model, Fire Simulation Builder (FSB), and the CMAQ chemical transport model to predict ozone and aerosol concentrations. Simulations were completed for two nested domains covering most of the northern hemisphere from eastern Asia to North America at 220 km horizontal resolution (hemispheric domain) and covering the continental US at 36 km resolution (CONUS). Sensitivity studies were conducted for representative summer periods with fire occurrence generated from FSB within the current (1995-2004) and future decade (2045-2054) and using current decade historical fire data obtained from the Bureau of Land Management Database. Results are reported in terms of the effects of global change upon fire occurrence, fire plume transport and PM and ozone pollutant levels.

  10. The Current Mental State of School Students in Online Learning Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalevskaya E.V.,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of a study of actual mental state of high school students who are active subjects of career self-determination in terms of interactive learning. There are four groups of methods of interactive training: psychological training, art therapy, cognitive, and game training. The main task, which is solved by a researcher in a formative experiment with the use of each of these methods, is to establish significant differences in health, activity and mood as the indicators of current mental state of students in the classroom. As a result, we found that the most significant improvements in the current mental state takes place when using art and game therapy, so these techniques should be used in groups of students with low motivation to work, as well as in the adverse psychological climate. Less significant was the improvement of the current mental state after psychological training due to the fact that this method allow to update and seek solutions to the most important intrapersonal issues and require the implementation of a deeper reflection

  11. Disclosure of the differences of Mesorhizobium loti under the free-living and symbiotic conditions by comparative proteome analysis without bacteroid isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukami, Yohei; Nambu, Mami; Morisaka, Hironobu; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-07-31

    Rhizobia are symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria that show a symbiotic relationship with their host legume. Rhizobia have 2 different physiological conditions: a free-living condition in soil, and a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing condition in the nodule. The lifestyle of rhizobia remains largely unknown, although genome and transcriptome analyses have been carried out. To clarify the lifestyle of bacteria, proteome analysis is necessary because the protein profile directly reflects in vivo reactions of the organisms. In proteome analysis, high separation performance is required to analyze complex biological samples. Therefore, we used a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system, equipped with a long monolithic silica capillary column, which is superior to conventional columns. In this study, we compared the protein profile of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 under free-living condition to that of symbiotic conditions by using small amounts of crude extracts. We identified 1,533 and 847 proteins for M. loti under free-living and symbiotic conditions, respectively. Pathway analysis by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) revealed that many of the enzymes involved in the central carbon metabolic pathway were commonly detected under both conditions. The proteins encoded in the symbiosis island, the transmissible chromosomal region that includes the genes that are highly upregulated under the symbiotic condition, were uniquely detected under the symbiotic condition. The features of the symbiotic condition that have been reported by transcriptome analysis were confirmed at the protein level by proteome analysis. In addition, the genes of the proteins involved in cell surface structure were repressed under the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing condition. Furthermore, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) was found to be biosynthesized only in rhizobia under the symbiotic condition. The obtained protein profile appeared to reflect the difference in phenotypes under the

  12. High voltage with little current as an unconditional stimulus for taste avoidance conditioning in Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigami, Satoshi; Sunada, Hiroshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2013-10-25

    A new and better taste avoidance conditioning paradigm for Lymnaea has been developed that replaces the previously used tactile unconditional stimulus (US) with an brief electrical stimulus (1000V, 80μA), while continuing to use a sucrose application to the lips as the conditional stimulus (CS). With 15 paired CS-US presentations on a single day, we were able to elicit both short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). The LTM persisted for at least one week. While STM was elicited with 5, 8, or 10 paired presentations of the CS-US on a single day, LTM was not. The new US used here was more consistent than the previously used US, and this stimulus consistency may explain why 15 paired CS-US presentations now result in LTM formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An Improved Current Controller to ensure the robust performance of grid-connected converters under weak grid conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) operating in very weak grids with low Short Circuit Ratio (SCR) are known to meet stability challenges. This article investigates instability of a grid connected current-controlled converter under weak grid conditions, which is often attributed to the dynamic...

  14. Homeworking: Home Office or Home Sweatshop? Report on Current Conditions of Homeworkers in Toronto's Garment Industry. NALL Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Roxana; Wong, Renita Yuk-Lin; Choi, Angela

    The current conditions of home workers in the garment industry in Toronto, Canada, were examined through in-depth telephone interviews with 30 Chinese-speaking immigrant women who were employed as home workers in 1999. The paper dicusses the formal training and informal learning experiences of immigrant woman who are garment workers. A comparison…

  15. On the stability conditions of flexible current conductor tightened in a magnetic field for charged particle trajectory tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozodaev, M.S.

    1974-01-01

    Conditions of equilibrium stability in three-dimensional space for a stretched flexible current conductor, while tracing the trajectories of charged particles moving in a magnetic field, have been determined using variational principles. Formulas suitable for engineering calculations have been obtained that allow to determine the stability regions and to estimate errors in tracing due to the conductor weight and elasticity

  16. Electronic health records and online medical records: an asset or a liability under current conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Graham, Judith; Mitchell, Lauren; Heriot, Natalie; Armani, Roksana; Langton, David; Levinson, Michele; Young, Alan; Smith, Julian A; Kotsimbos, Tom; Wilson, John W

    2018-02-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to audit the current use of medical records to determine completeness and concordance with other sources of medical information. Methods Medical records for 40 patients from each of five Melbourne major metropolitan hospitals were randomly selected (n=200). A quantitative audit was performed for detailed patient information and medical record keeping, as well as data collection, storage and utilisation. Using each hospital's current online clinical database, scanned files and paperwork available for each patient audited, the reviewers sourced as much relevant information as possible within a 30-min time allocation from both the record and the discharge summary. Results Of all medical records audited, 82% contained medical and surgical history, allergy information and patient demographics. All audited discharge summaries lacked at least one of the following: demographics, medication allergies, medical and surgical history, medications and adverse drug event information. Only 49% of records audited showed evidence the discharge summary was sent outside the institution. Conclusions The quality of medical data captured and information management is variable across hospitals. It is recommended that medical history documentation guidelines and standardised discharge summaries be implemented in Australian healthcare services. What is known about this topic? Australia has a complex health system, the government has approved funding to develop a universal online electronic medical record system and is currently trialling this in an opt-out style in the Napean Blue Mountains (NSW) and in Northern Queensland. The system was originally named the personally controlled electronic health record but has since been changed to MyHealth Record (2016). In Victoria, there exists a wide range of electronic health records used to varying degrees, with some hospitals still relying on paper-based records and many using scanned medical records

  17. Relationships between neighbourhood characteristics and current STI status among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women living in the Southern USA: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Danielle F; Kramer, Michael R; Adimora, Adaora A; Haardörfer, Regine; Wingood, Gina M; Ludema, Christina; Rubtsova, Anna; Hickson, DeMarc A; Ross, Zev; Golub, Elizabeth; Bolivar, Hector; Cooper, Hannah Lf

    2017-12-01

    Neighbourhood characteristics (eg, high poverty rates) are associated with STIs among HIV-uninfected women in the USA. However, no multilevel analyses investigating the associations between neighbourhood exposures and STIs have explored these relationships among women living with HIV infection. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine relationships between neighbourhood characteristics and current STI status and (2) investigate whether the magnitudes and directions of these relationships varied by HIV status in a predominantly HIV-infected cohort of women living in the Southern USA. This cross-sectional multilevel analysis tests relationships between census tract characteristics and current STI status using data from 737 women enrolled at the Women's Interagency HIV Study's southern sites (530 HIV-infected and 207 HIV-uninfected women). Administrative data (eg, US Census) described the census tract-level social disorder (eg, violent crime rate) and social disadvantage (eg, alcohol outlet density) where women lived. Participant-level data were gathered via survey. Testing positive for a current STI was defined as a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis or syphilis. Hierarchical generalised linear models were used to determine relationships between tract-level characteristics and current STI status, and to test whether these relationships varied by HIV status. Eleven per cent of participants tested positive for at least one current STI. Greater tract-level social disorder (OR=1.34, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.87) and social disadvantage (OR=1.34, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.86) were associated with having a current STI. There was no evidence of additive or multiplicative interaction between tract-level characteristics and HIV status. Findings suggest that neighbourhood characteristics may be associated with current STIs among women living in the South, and that relationships do not vary by HIV status. Future research should establish the

  18. A condition for small bootstrap current in three-dimensional toroidal configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, M. I., E-mail: mikhaylov-mi@nrcki.ru [National Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Nührenberg, J.; Zille, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    It is shown that, if the maximum of the magnetic field strength on a magnetic surface in a threedimensional magnetic confinement configuration with stellarator symmetry constitutes a line that is orthogonal to the field lines and crosses the symmetry line, then the bootstrap current density is smaller compared to that in quasi-axisymmetric (qa) [J. Nührenberg et al., in Proc. of Joint Varenna−Lausanne Int. Workshop on Theory of Fusion Plasmas, Varenna, 1994, p. 3] and quasi-helically (qh) symmetric [J. Nührenberg and R. Zille, Phys. Lett. A 129, 113 (1988)] configurations.

  19. Possibilities of Monitoring the Technical Condition of the Combustion Engine with Starter Load Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jukl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the verification of relations between the electric current of engine starter and tightness of the combustion chamber and the possibility of its use for the evaluation of the state in terms of engine wear. Engine wear is closely related to the quality of fuel combustion and also with the amount of produced harmful emissions. On this basis, it would be possible to extend the technical requirements of the protocol OBD to include the indirect control of engine wear. To meet the objectives set out above measurement was carried out by a petrol engine, which was located in the vehicle Škoda Felicia Combi GLX 1.3 The whole measurement was divided into several parts. The first measurement was carried out on the abovementioned motor without simulating leakage. The second measurement was performed when the leakage of one cylinder was simulated. Simulated leakage was conducted at removing the spark plugs. Other measurements simulated “mild” leak of the whole engine – all cylinders. Leakage was implemented by loosing all the spark plugs about 8 turns against full tightening with the appropriate torque. The last, fourth measurement simulates a “large” leaks of engine cylinders. This leakage was induced by removing all the spark plugs from all cylinders. As the measurement results showed leakage of one cylinder, and also the whole engine is reflected not only in the individual amplitude of the starter current, but also the shape of the entire curve.

  20. Secondary current properties generated by wind-induced water waves in experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Sanjou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary currents such as the Langmuir circulation are of high interest in natural rivers and the ocean because they have striking impacts on scour, sedimentation, and mass transport. Basic characteristics have been well-studied in straight open-channel flows. However, little is known regarding secondary circulation induced by wind waves. The presented study describes the generation properties of wind waves observed in the laboratory tank. Wind-induced water waves are known to produce large scale circulations. The phenomenon is observed together with high-speed and low-speed streaks, convergence and divergence zones, respectively. Therefore, it is important to determine the hydrodynamic properties of secondary currents for wind-induced water waves within rivers and lakes. In this study, using two high-speed CMOS cameras, stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV measurements were conducted in order to reveal the distribution of all three components of velocity vectors. The experiments allowed us to investigate the three-dimensional turbulent structure under water waves and the generation mechanism of large-scale circulations. Additionally, a third CMOS camera was used to measure the spanwise profile of thefree-surface elevation. The time-series of velocity components and the free-surface were obtained simultaneously. From our experiments, free-surface variations were found to influence the instantaneous velocity distributions of the cross-sectional plane. We also considered thegeneration process by the phase analysis related to gravity waves and compared the contribution of the apparent stress.

  1. Microencapsulation for the Therapeutic Delivery of Drugs, Live Mammalian and Bacterial Cells, and Other Biopharmaceutics: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tomaro-Duchesneau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is a technology that has shown significant promise in biotherapeutics, and other applications. It has been proven useful in the immobilization of drugs, live mammalian and bacterial cells and other cells, and other biopharmaceutics molecules, as it can provide material structuration, protection of the enclosed product, and controlled release of the encapsulated contents, all of which can ensure efficient and safe therapeutic effects. This paper is a comprehensive review of microencapsulation and its latest developments in the field. It provides a comprehensive overview of the technology and primary goals of microencapsulation and discusses various processes and techniques involved in microencapsulation including physical, chemical, physicochemical, and other methods involved. It also summarizes the state-of-the-art successes of microencapsulation, specifically with regard to the encapsulation of microorganisms, mammalian cells, drugs, and other biopharmaceutics in various diseases. The limitations and future directions of microencapsulation technologies are also discussed.

  2. Microencapsulation for the Therapeutic Delivery of Drugs, Live Mammalian and Bacterial Cells, and Other Biopharmaceutics: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shyamali; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Kahouli, Imen; Prakash, Satya

    2013-01-01

    Microencapsulation is a technology that has shown significant promise in biotherapeutics, and other applications. It has been proven useful in the immobilization of drugs, live mammalian and bacterial cells and other cells, and other biopharmaceutics molecules, as it can provide material structuration, protection of the enclosed product, and controlled release of the encapsulated contents, all of which can ensure efficient and safe therapeutic effects. This paper is a comprehensive review of microencapsulation and its latest developments in the field. It provides a comprehensive overview of the technology and primary goals of microencapsulation and discusses various processes and techniques involved in microencapsulation including physical, chemical, physicochemical, and other methods involved. It also summarizes the state-of-the-art successes of microencapsulation, specifically with regard to the encapsulation of microorganisms, mammalian cells, drugs, and other biopharmaceutics in various diseases. The limitations and future directions of microencapsulation technologies are also discussed. PMID:26555963

  3. Problems of software financial resources agrarian sector in the current economic conditions of management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grischuk Nadiya Viktorivna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of financial science on questions providing of financial resources does not exhaust and needs a further study that acquires new descriptions and vectors of development constantly, what costing illuminations in the conditions of present time. Research of the state of provision of financial resources agrarian to the sector of economy with allocating of main segment – loan and attracted financial resources, today topically. In the article the essence funds are considered sources of agricultural enterprises financial resources and problems associated with the formation and use of financial resources in the modern world. Also the problems arising in improving the process of raising funds agricultural enterprises. Revealed that an effective tool to attract financial resources is the issue of convertible bonds and the introduction of agricultural receipts. It is well-proven that in the conditions of unstable environment forward development of the system of agrarian relations must be carried out on the basis of the government programs, and normatively-legal adjusting that take into account not only the existent state of affairs at the market of agroindustrial products but also economic provision of enterprises national agrarian to the sector.

  4. Simulation of Deep Water Renewal in Crater Lake, Oregon, USA under Current and Future Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Wood, T. M.; Wherry, S.; Girdner, S.

    2015-12-01

    We applied a 1-dimensional lake model developed to simulate deep mixing related to thermobaric instabilities in temperate lakes to Crater Lake, a 590-m deep caldera lake in Oregon's Cascade Range known for its stunning deep blue color and extremely clear water, in order to determine the frequency of deep water renewal in future climate conditions. The lake model was calibrated with 6 years of water temperature profiles, and then simulated 10 years of validation data with an RMSE ranging from 0.81°C at 50 m depth to 0.04°C at 350-460 m depth. The simulated time series of heat content in the deep lake accurately captured extreme years characterized by weak and strong deep water renewal. The lake model uses wind speed and lake surface temperature (LST) as boundary conditions. LST projections under six climate scenarios from the CMIP5 intermodel comparison project (2 representative concentration pathways X 3 general circulation models) were evaluated with air2water, a simple lumped model that only requires daily values of downscaled air temperature. air2water was calibrated with data from 1993-2011, resulting in a RMSE between simulated and observed daily LST values of 0.68°C. All future climate scenarios project increased water temperature throughout the water column and a substantive reduction in the frequency of deepwater renewal events. The least extreme scenario (CNRM-CM5, RCP4.5) projects the frequency of deepwater renewal events to decrease from about 1 in 2 years in the present to about 1 in 3 years by 2100. The most extreme scenario (HadGEM2-ES, RCP8.5) projects the frequency of deepwater renewal events to be less than 1 in 7 years by 2100 and lake surface temperatures never cooling to less than 4°C after 2050. In all RCP4.5 simulations the temperature of the entire water column is greater than 4°C for increasing periods of time. In the RCP8.5 simulations, the temperature of the entire water column is greater than 4°C year round by the year 2060 (HadGEM2

  5. [Pathological buying. A review of the current knowledge regarding this condition of behavioral excess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A; de Zwaan, M

    2010-04-01

    Compulsive buying is characterized by frequent excessive purchasing of items that are primarily not needed or used. The compulsive buying behavior results in mental, social, financial and often legal problems. Although compulsive buying affects a significant percentage of the general population and has received increasing attention in research, it has largely been ignored in clinical practice. Compulsive buying disorder is currently conceptualized as an"impulse control disorder not otherwise specified". However, the appropriate classification continues to be debated. Compulsive buying is associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity, especially with depressive, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, substance use, personality, and other impulse control disorders. Small controlled trials failed to confirm the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of compulsive buying disorder, whereas early evidence suggests that cognitive behavioral therapy is helpful in alleviating compulsive buying symptoms. Further research is needed to establish a better understanding of etiology, classification, and treatment strategies.

  6. Women in prison in Serbia: Living conditions for female prisoners in the correctional institution for women in Požarevac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Correctional Institution for Women in Požarevac is the only institution in Serbia for serving prison sentence by female persons. In order to find out what the living conditions in this institution are, Victimology Society of Serbia conducted an action research in 2011 and 2012. The data was collected through observation of the conditions in the female prison and through interviews with female prisoners and the prison staff. The data was analyzed by the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods. The aim f this paper is to present the results of the research in regard to the living conditions for female prisoners. The data is analyzed in the light of the Law on the execution of the criminal sanctions of the Republic of Serbia and the UN Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures for Women Offenders (the Bangkok Rules.

  7. Plasma conditions for non-Maxwellian electron distributions in high current discharges and laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, K.G.; Pulsifer, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    Results from the standard quasilinear theory of ion-acoustic and Langmuir plasma microturbulence are incorporated into the kinetic theory of the electron distribution function. The theory is then applied to high current discharges and laser-produced plasmas, where either the current flow or the nonlinear laser-light absorption acts, respectively, as the energy source for the microturbulence. More specifically, the theory is applied to a selenium plasma, whose charge state is determined under conditions of collisional-radiative equilibrium, and plasma conditions are found under which microturbulence strongly influences the electron kinetics. In selenium, we show that this influence extends over a wide range of plasma conditions. For ion-acoustic turbulence, a criterion is derived, analogous to one previously obtained for laser heated plasmas, that predicts when Ohmic heating dominates over electron-electron collisions. This dominance leads to the generation of electron distributions with reduced high-energy tails relative to a Maxwellian distribution of the same temperature. Ion-acoustic turbulence lowers the current requirements needed to generate these distributions. When the laser heating criterion is rederived with ion-acoustic turbulence included in the theory, a similar reduction in the laser intensity needed to produce non-Maxwellian distributions is found. Thus we show that ion-acoustic turbulence uniformly (i.e., by the same numerical factor) reduces the electrical and heat conductivities, as well as the current (squared) and laser intensity levels needed to drive the plasma into non-Maxwellian states

  8. Automatic Condition Monitoring of Industrial Rolling-Element Bearings Using Motor’s Vibration and Current Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    An automatic condition monitoring for a class of industrial rolling-element bearings is developed based on the vibration as well as stator current analysis. The considered fault scenarios include a single-point defect, multiple-point defects, and a type of distributed defect. Motivated by the pot...... characteristic frequencies, sideband effects, time-average of spectra, and selection of fault index and thresholds, are also discussed. The experimental work shows a huge potential to use some simple methods for successful diagnosis of industrial bearing systems.......An automatic condition monitoring for a class of industrial rolling-element bearings is developed based on the vibration as well as stator current analysis. The considered fault scenarios include a single-point defect, multiple-point defects, and a type of distributed defect. Motivated...... is extensively studied under diverse operating conditions: different sensor locations, motor speeds, loading conditions, and data samples from different time segments. The experimental results showed the powerful capability of vibration analysis in the bearing point defect fault diagnosis. The current analysis...

  9. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karabut, A.B. [FSUE ' LUCH' , 24 Zheleznodorozhnaya St., Podolsk, Moscow Region 142100 (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Experimental date from low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) in condensed media are presented. The nuclear reactions products were found in solid cathode media used in glow discharge. Apparently, the nuclear reactions were initiated when bombarding the cathode surface by plasma ions with the energy of 1.0 - 2.0 keV. Excess heat from a high current glow discharge reaction in D{sub 2}, Xe, and Kr using cathodes already charged with preliminary deuterium-charged Pd and Ti cathode samples are given. Excess heat up to 10-15 W and efficiency up to 130% were recorded under the experiments for Pd cathode samples in D{sub 2} discharge. Excess heat up to 5 W and efficiency up to 150% were recorded for Pd cathodes that were charged with deuterium before the run, in Xe and Kr discharges. At the same time excess heat was not observed for pure Pd cathode samples in Xe and Kr discharges. The formation of impurity nuclides ({sup 7}Li, {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N, {sup 20}Ne, {sup 29}Si, {sup 44}Ca, {sup 48}Ca, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 57}Fe, {sup 59}Co, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 66}Zn, {sup 75}As, {sup 107}Ag, {sup 109}Ag, {sup 110}Cd, {sup 111}Cd, {sup 112}Cd, {sup 114}Cd and {sup 115}In) with 'the efficiency up to 10{sup 13} at./s was recorded. The isotopic ratios of these new nuclides were quite different from the natural ratios. Soft X-ray radiation from the solid-state cathode with the intensity up to 0.01 Gy/s was recorded in experiments with discharges in H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, Ar, Xe, and Kr. The X-ray radiation was observed in bursts of up to 10{sup 6} photons, with up to 10{sup 5} bursts per second while the discharge was formed and within 100 ms after turning off the discharge current. The results of the X-ray radiation registration showed that the excited energy levels have a lifetime up to 100 ms or more, and the energy of 1.2 - 2.5 keV. A possible mechanism for producing excess heat and nuclear transmutation reactions in the solid medium with the excited energy levels is considered.

  10. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabut, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental date from low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) in condensed media are presented. The nuclear reactions products were found in solid cathode media used in glow discharge. Apparently, the nuclear reactions were initiated when bombarding the cathode surface by plasma ions with the energy of 1.0 - 2.0 keV. Excess heat from a high current glow discharge reaction in D 2 , Xe, and Kr using cathodes already charged with preliminary deuterium-charged Pd and Ti cathode samples are given. Excess heat up to 10-15 W and efficiency up to 130% were recorded under the experiments for Pd cathode samples in D 2 discharge. Excess heat up to 5 W and efficiency up to 150% were recorded for Pd cathodes that were charged with deuterium before the run, in Xe and Kr discharges. At the same time excess heat was not observed for pure Pd cathode samples in Xe and Kr discharges. The formation of impurity nuclides ( 7 Li, 13 C, 15 N, 20 Ne, 29 Si, 44 Ca, 48 Ca, 56 Fe, 57 Fe, 59 Co, 64 Zn, 66 Zn, 75 As, 107 Ag, 109 Ag, 110 Cd, 111 Cd, 112 Cd, 114 Cd and 115 In) with 'the efficiency up to 10 13 at./s was recorded. The isotopic ratios of these new nuclides were quite different from the natural ratios. Soft X-ray radiation from the solid-state cathode with the intensity up to 0.01 Gy/s was recorded in experiments with discharges in H 2 , D 2 , Ar, Xe, and Kr. The X-ray radiation was observed in bursts of up to 10 6 photons, with up to 10 5 bursts per second while the discharge was formed and within 100 ms after turning off the discharge current. The results of the X-ray radiation registration showed that the excited energy levels have a lifetime up to 100 ms or more, and the energy of 1.2 - 2.5 keV. A possible mechanism for producing excess heat and nuclear transmutation reactions in the solid medium with the excited energy levels is considered

  11. Modelling of the reactive sputtering process with non-uniform discharge current density and different temperature conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasina, P; Hytkova, T; Elias, M

    2009-01-01

    The majority of current models of the reactive magnetron sputtering assume a uniform shape of the discharge current density and the same temperature near the target and the substrate. However, in the real experimental set-up, the presence of the magnetic field causes high density plasma to form in front of the cathode in the shape of a toroid. Consequently, the discharge current density is laterally non-uniform. In addition to this, the heating of the background gas by sputtered particles, which is usually referred to as the gas rarefaction, plays an important role. This paper presents an extended model of the reactive magnetron sputtering that assumes the non-uniform discharge current density and which accommodates the gas rarefaction effect. It is devoted mainly to the study of the behaviour of the reactive sputtering rather that to the prediction of the coating properties. Outputs of this model are compared with those that assume uniform discharge current density and uniform temperature profile in the deposition chamber. Particular attention is paid to the modelling of the radial variation of the target composition near transitions from the metallic to the compound mode and vice versa. A study of the target utilization in the metallic and compound mode is performed for two different discharge current density profiles corresponding to typical two pole and multipole magnetics available on the market now. Different shapes of the discharge current density were tested. Finally, hysteresis curves are plotted for various temperature conditions in the reactor.

  12. New IES scheme for power conditioning at ultra-high currents: from concept to MHD modeling and first experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuvatin, Alexandre S.; Aranchuk, Leonid E.; Rudakov, Leonid I.; Kokshenev, Vladimir A.; Kurmaev, Nikolai E.; Fursov, Fiodor I.; Huet, Dominique; Gasilov, Vladimir A.; Krukovskii, Alexandre Yu.

    2002-01-01

    This work introduces an inductive energy storage (IES) scheme which aims pulsed-power conditioning at multi- MJ energies. The key element of the scheme represents an additional plasma volume, where a magnetically accelerated wire array is used for inductive current switching. This plasma acceleration volume is connected in parallel to a microsecond capacitor bank and to a 100-ns current ruse-time useful load. Simple estimates suggest that optimized scheme parameters could be reachable even when operating at ultra-high currents. We describe first proof-of-principle experiments carried out on GIT12 generator at the wire-array current level of 2 MA. The obtained confirmation of the concept consists in generation of a 200 kV voltage directly at an inductive load. This load voltage value can be already sufficient to transfer the available magnetic energy into kinetic energy of a liner at this current level. Two-dimensional modeling with the radiational MHD numerical tool Marple confirms the development of inductive voltage in the system. However, the average voltage increase is accompanied by short-duration voltage drops due to interception of the current by the low-density upstream plasma. Upon our viewpoint, this instability of the current distribution represents the main physical limitation to the scheme performance

  13. Assessment of the current internal dose due to 137Cs and 90Sr for people living within the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiochkina, N; Voigt, G; Mukusheva, M; Bruk, G; Travnikova, I; Strand, P

    2004-02-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site in Kazakhstan was one of the major sites used by the USSR for testing nuclear weapons for more than 40 y. Since the early 1990's, responsibility for the site has passed to the Kazakh authorities. There has been a gradual re-establishment of agricultural use such as horse and sheep farming. Therefore, it has become important to evaluate the current and future risk to people living on and using the contaminated area. Internal dose assessment is one of the main components of the total dose when deriving risk factors for population living within the test site. Internal doses based on food monitoring and whole body measurements were calculated for adults and are in the range of 13-500 microSv y(-1) due to radiocesium and radiostrontium.

  14. Economic evaluation of current conditions of competition and efficiency of automotive and rail systems in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasco Correa, Carlos Andrés

    2012-01-01

    This study uses microeconomic data from the transportation systems of land cargo in Colombia: rail and trucking, to determine their degree of allocative efficiency through the non-parametric method Data Envelopment Analysis DEA. The average overall efficiency found was 74.4% for trains and 20.56% for trucks. These figures indicate that rail is more efficient in the allocation of resources. This means that trains in Colombia use their input better than trucks to maximize their production, given the costs and technological characteristics of each system. This is a signal for the design of a public policy for investment in transportation infrastructure that seeks to raise the competitiveness of Colombian exports, investing not only in roads but in complementary systems such as railways too. - Highlights: ► Colombia is currently undergoing a backlog of transport infrastructure and high export costs. ► We perform a microeconomic study of transportation systems in Colombia: rail and trucking. ► As a result we found that the rail is much more efficient than the automotive system. ► As policy recommendation the government should consider the investment in railways. ► It is necessary to take into account the strategic value that investment in railways would bring.

  15. Employment and employment conditions in the current economic crisis in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vukšić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to analyze developments in employment and employment characteristics during the current crisis in Croatia. The main findings can be summarized as follows: (1 The primary (aggregate mode of adjustment to the crisis was a decline in employment. There are, however, considerable differences in adjustment patterns across economic activities. (2 During the crisis, jobs were lost in the, more dynamic, private sector, while the number of jobs in the public sector (entities in state ownership slightly increased. (3 Economic activities with comparatively larger shares of women in employment have experienced fewer employment cuts and the aggregate employment share of women rose during the crisis, especially in activities with a larger share of public sector workers.(4 There has been a declining share of younger workers during the crisis, justifying policy actions to facilitate their employment. (5 Employees with comparatively lower educational attainment face severe challenges in the labor market, which is a longer term trend, not specific to the crisis period. There are indications that this group of employees enjoys a higher level of protection in the public sector. (6 Analysis also shows a rising significance of more flexible forms of employment: increasing shares of fixed term employees (during the last two observed years, and of part time workers. (7 Working hours do not exhibit any strong trends specific to the crisis, except for the diminishing number of overtime hours per worker.

  16. Current State-of-the-Art 3D Tissue Models and Their Compatibility with Live Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, Katie; Deegan, Anthony J; El Haj, Alicia; Yang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian cells grow within a complex three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment where multiple cells are organized and surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM). The quantity and types of ECM components, alongside cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions dictate cellular differentiation, proliferation and function in vivo. To mimic natural cellular activities, various 3D tissue culture models have been established to replace conventional two dimensional (2D) culture environments. Allowing for both characterization and visualization of cellular activities within possibly bulky 3D tissue models presents considerable challenges due to the increased thickness and subsequent light scattering features of such 3D models. In this chapter, state-of-the-art methodologies used to establish 3D tissue models are discussed, first with a focus on both scaffold-free and scaffold-based 3D tissue model formation. Following on, multiple 3D live cell imaging systems, mainly optical imaging modalities, are introduced. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed, with the aim of stimulating more research in this highly demanding research area.

  17. The development of condition monitoring for the safety of rotating machine in PWR using motor current signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syaiful Bakhri

    2013-01-01

    Condition monitoring of rotating machine is essential to guarantee the safety operation as well as to improve the efficiency of nuclear power plants operations. One of the promising condition monitoring techniques which has been preferred currently since it is simple, non-invasive and inexpensive is Motor Stator Signature Analysis (MCSA). However, the investigation of the MCSA technique using a compact, low cost, and having industrial class hardware which is capable for nuclear power plant applications has been limited. The research is aimed to develop condition monitoring method based on MCSA utilizing a compact industrial class for nuclear power plant. The investigation includes development of condition monitoring based on real-time FPGA-CompatRIO hardware, development of a custom built display module for early warning system, testing of the monitoring hardware, fault frequency analysis of electric motors including the performances of fault detections. The condition monitoring system is able to execute a fault detection task around 164 ms, to recognize accurately fault frequencies of stator shorted turn for about 75%, broken rotor bar around 95%, eccentricity 65%, mechanical misalignment 85%, including supply voltage unbalances 100%. The condition monitoring system based on its performance assessments could become a suitable alternative not only for rotating machines but also condition monitoring for other nuclear reactor components. (author)

  18. Research project: State and Stimulation of Developmet in Chidren Aged 8-9 Living Under War Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vranešić

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available The somatic, functional and metabolic characteristics of children at 8 years of age have been established. These children have, for the previous three years, lived under stressful conditions of direct shelling, poor nutrition and movement. At the same time there has been an evaluation of the effects of programmed physical activities which have been applied in the aim of stimulating natural physical dynamics and functional developments and the elimination of stagnation of development which occurs from conditions of unfavorable factors. The research and the program of physical activities included 41 boys, starting at an average age of 8 years and four months. The somatic characteristics of the boys, according to 25 antropo-metric measures (IBP, show a lag in the boy’s physical development according to their age group by one year. The lagging behind is especially evident in volume dimensions and underskin tissue fat (Przulj, 1991., Bonacin, 1995. Blaha, 1982.. An improvement of conditions and a greater scope of movement activities for the duration of 8 months did not significantly influence on the improvement of the somatic and functional status of the boys in comparison with the controlled group (N=21 of the same average age during another measurement period. While resting, on the level of aerobic threshold, anaerobic threshold and maximal oxygen uptake, the value of ergonometric, functional and metabolic parameters were confirmed: V02 stpd, Ve btps. Ve * V02-1, Ve*VC02-l, RQ, fc (beats*min-l, work load in Watts and on the basis of these relative indicators were completed. The gradual growth of work load was completed with the help of bicyklergometer (Monark. After 3 minutes of easy pedaling (warming-up an initial work load was given of Watt*body mass and increased by 1/3 of the mass*Watt every minute until the achievement of maximal oxygen uptake. Individual aerobic and anaerobic thresholds (Aep and (Anp, for each person examined were confirmed

  19. Leakage current characterization for estimating the conditions of non-ceramic insulators' surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hag, Ayman H. [Electrical Engineering Department, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah (United Arab Emirate)

    2007-03-15

    In this work both detection of the beginning of dry-band arcing and correlating the average value of leakage current (LC) with non-ceramic insulator surface damage have been investigated. Silicone rubber insulators were tested in salt-fog under different voltage and conductivity levels. The autocorrelation function (ACF) was calculated for both the fundamental and third harmonic components of LC during the early aging period (EAP). It has been observed that distinct differences exist in the behavior of both the fundamental and that of the third harmonic components of the LC during EAP. Although the fundamental component of the LC begins to grow immediately after starting the test, the third harmonic requires a much longer period of time to begin. Dry-band arcing is highly correlated with distortion in the LC and hence to its third harmonic component. But it has been observed that the level of the fundamental component of LC at which the third harmonic component started to increase is different from one case to another. As such, it is more appropriate to use the ACF of the third harmonic component of LC as an indication of dry-band arcing rather than a simple threshold value. Moreover, the average value of LC during late aging period (LAP) was correlated with the damage of non-ceramic insulators. It has been found that the average level of both the fundamental and third harmonic component of LC is well correlated with the different degrees of damage of non-ceramic insulators' surface. (author)

  20. Formation of the Regional System of Small and Medium Enterprises in the Current Economic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Aleksandrovich Korobov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the growing importance of small and medium enterprises as a crucial element of innovation-oriented economy, the implementation of measures to support and promote small and medium enterprises at the regional level should be based on rational development of existing regional authorities’ resources. Therefore, for the development and adoption of effective (rational decisions in management development of small and medium business, it is important to use the cognitive tools of analysis – modern technologies of system analysis. The article assesses the government measures on the formation of a regional system of development of small and medium enterprises using 4 author’s criteria; provides a cognitive map of the interaction of resources at their development in the process of formation of regional system of development of small and medium enterprises; presents the algorithm of formation of regional system of small and medium business development. The study is based on comprehensive and comparative analysis of the state measures for formation of regional system of small and medium enterprises development in the context of the resource-oriented approach, graphical analysis in the framework of cognitive modeling causal relationships between existing regional authorities, resources, and stages of formation of regional system of development of small and medium enterprises in modern economic conditions, represented in the form of an algorithm. The author comes to the conclusion that the tools of cognitive analysis can be successfully applied in the formation of a regional system of development of small and medium enterprises, as they allow to provide the maximum socio-economic efficiency of harnessing the region’s resources.

  1. Efficiency of four currently used decontamination conditionings in Romania against Aspergillus and Candida strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorin, D; Cristina, R T; Teusdea, V; Mitrănescu, E; Muselin, F; Butnariu, M; David, G; Dumitrescu, E

    2017-09-01

    Efficacy of four commercial biocidal products (noted A to D), using manufacturers' recommendations, and a contact time of 30minutes, were evaluated in the purpose of standard SR EN1657: 2006 adapted. Were used four strains, two as reference: Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) (ATCC 16404) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and two isolates: Aspergillus flavus and respectively Aspergillus fumigatus. The inoculum plates containing Malt Extract Agar (MEA) were incubated 48h for C. albicans and 72hours for Aspergillus spp. The standard SR EN1657: 2006 adapted was conducted in two phases: the test cultures preparation and the method validation. Method validation included: the control of experimental conditions and of neutralizant solution, and the method verification. Results revealed that three from the four tested products (A, B and D) had exerted biocidal effect on the studied strains at the recommended concentrations, the registered CFU values being reduced by more than 4 log 10 , conversely in the case of the product (C), applied against A. fumigatus at the recommended concentration of 2%, the biocidal effect was not detected, fact confirmed also by the CFU's value (3.59 log 10 ). The biocide retested at a greater concentration (of 5%), showed a biocidal effect against A. fumigatus after 30minutes, the CFU value being reduced, by more than 5.29 log 10 , evidencing the resistance emergence of A. fumigatus under the repeated pressure of biocides. It is re-confirming that merely the "chemical" defense measures to defuse the fungi's strategies become unproductive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Groundwater resources of the Devils Postpile National Monument—Current conditions and future vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, Deborah

    2017-06-15

    This study presents an extensive database on groundwater conditions in and around Devils Postpile National Monument. The database contains chemical analyses of springs and the monument water-supply well, including major-ion chemistry, trace element chemistry, and the first information on a list of organic compounds known as emerging contaminants. Diurnal, seasonal, and annual variations in groundwater discharge and chemistry are evaluated from data collected at five main monitoring sites, where streams carry the aggregate flow from entire groups of springs. These springs drain the Mammoth Mountain area and, during the fall months, contribute a significant fraction of the San Joaquin River flow within the monument. The period of this study, from fall 2012 to fall 2015, includes some of the driest years on record, though the seasonal variability observed in 2013 might have been near normal. The spring-fed streams generally flowed at rates well below those observed during a sequence of wet years in the late 1990s. However, persistence of flow and reasonably stable water chemistry through the recent dry years are indicative of a sizeable groundwater system that should provide a reliable resource during similar droughts in the future. Only a few emerging contaminants were detected at trace levels below 1 microgram per liter (μg/L), suggesting that local human visitation is not degrading groundwater quality. No indication of salt from the ski area on the north side of Mammoth Mountain could be found in any of the groundwaters. Chemical data instead show that natural mineral water, such as that discharged from local soda springs, is the main source of anomalous chloride in the monument supply well and in the San Joaquin River. The results of the study are used to develop a set of recommendations for future monitoring to enable detection of deleterious impacts to groundwater quality and quantity

  3. Hall current and Joule heating effects on peristaltic flow of viscous fluid in a rotating channel with convective boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available The present article has been arranged to study the Hall current and Joule heating effects on peristaltic flow of viscous fluid in a channel with flexible walls. Both fluid and channel are in a state of solid body rotation. Convective conditions for heat transfer in the formulation are adopted. Viscous dissipation in energy expression is taken into account. Resulting differential systems after invoking small Reynolds number and long wavelength considerations are numerically solved. Runge-Kutta scheme of order four is implemented for the results of axial and secondary velocities, temperature and heat transfer coefficient. Comparison with previous limiting studies is shown. Outcome of new parameters of interest is analyzed. Keywords: Rotating frame, Hall current, Joule heating, Convective conditions, Wall properties

  4. A global assessment of gross and net land change dynamics for current conditions and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Prestele, Reinhard; Verburg, Peter H.

    2018-05-01

    The consideration of gross land changes, meaning all area gains and losses within a pixel or administrative unit (e.g. country), plays an essential role in the estimation of total land changes. Gross land changes affect the magnitude of total land changes, which feeds back to the attribution of biogeochemical and biophysical processes related to climate change in Earth system models. Global empirical studies on gross land changes are currently lacking. Whilst the relevance of gross changes for global change has been indicated in the literature, it is not accounted for in future land change scenarios. In this study, we extract gross and net land change dynamics from large-scale and high-resolution (30-100 m) remote sensing products to create a new global gross and net change dataset. Subsequently, we developed an approach to integrate our empirically derived gross and net changes with the results of future simulation models by accounting for the gross and net change addressed by the land use model and the gross and net change that is below the resolution of modelling. Based on our empirical data, we found that gross land change within 0.5° grid cells was substantially larger than net changes in all parts of the world. As 0.5° grid cells are a standard resolution of Earth system models, this leads to an underestimation of the amount of change. This finding contradicts earlier studies, which assumed gross land changes to appear in shifting cultivation areas only. Applied in a future scenario, the consideration of gross land changes led to approximately 50 % more land changes globally compared to a net land change representation. Gross land changes were most important in heterogeneous land systems with multiple land uses (e.g. shifting cultivation, smallholder farming, and agro-forestry systems). Moreover, the importance of gross changes decreased over time due to further polarization and intensification of land use. Our results serve as an empirical database for

  5. Extra-high short-circuit current for bifacial solar cells in sunny and dark-light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jialong; Duan, Yanyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; He, Benlin; Tang, Qunwei

    2017-09-05

    We present here a symmetrically structured bifacial solar cell tailored by two fluorescent photoanodes and a platinum/titanium/platinum counter electrode, yielding extra-high short-circuit current densities as high as 28.59 mA cm -2 and 119.9 μA cm -2 in simulated sunlight irradiation (100 mW cm -2 , AM1.5) and dark-light conditions, respectively.

  6. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie K. Y.; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Collins, Evan J.; Gardner, Sandra; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes. Results Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses. Conclusions Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario’s HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression) and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and

  7. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Collins, Evan J; Gardner, Sandra; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B

    2016-01-01

    Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals. We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes. Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses. Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario's HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression) and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long-term support and

  8. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Y Choi

    Full Text Available Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals.We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes.Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses.Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario's HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long

  9. Stabilizing the baseline current of a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor through overpotential control under non-toxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Nienke E; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees N J

    2010-04-01

    A MFC-based biosensor can act as online toxicity sensor. Electrical current is a direct linear measure for metabolic activity of electrochemically active microorganisms. Microorganisms gain energy from anodic overpotential and current strongly depends on anodic overpotential. Therefore control of anodic overpotential is necessary to detect toxic events and prevent false positive alarms. Anodic overpotential and thus current is influenced by anode potential, pH, substrate and bicarbonate concentrations. In terms of overpotential all factor showed a comparable effect, anode potential 1.2% change in current density per mV, pH 0.43%/mV, bicarbonate 0.75%/mV and acetate 0.8%/mV. At acetate saturation the maximum acetate conversion rate is reached and with that a constant bicarbonate concentration. Control of acetate and bicarbonate concentration can be less strict than control of anode potential and pH. Current density changes due to changing anode potential and pH are in the same order of magnitude as changes due to toxicity. Strict control of pH and anode potential in a small range is required. The importance of anodic overpotential control for detection of toxic compounds is shown. To reach a stable baseline current under nontoxic conditions a MFC-based biosensor should be operated at controlled anode potential, controlled pH and saturated substrate concentrations. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bias from conditioning on live birth in pregnancy cohorts: an illustration based on neurodevelopment in children after prenatal exposure to organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn; Cui, Xin; Ritz, Beate; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2015-01-01

    Only 60–70% of fertilized eggs may result in a live birth, and very early fetal loss mainly goes unnoticed. Outcomes that can only be ascertained in live-born children will be missing for those who do not survive till birth. In this article, we illustrate a common bias structure (leading to ‘live-birth bias’) that arises from studying the effects of prenatal exposure to environmental factors on long-term health outcomes among live births only in pregnancy cohorts. To illustrate this we used prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in school-aged children as an example. PFAS are persistent organic pollutants that may impact human fecundity and be toxic for neurodevelopment. We simulated several hypothetical scenarios based on characteristics from the Danish National Birth Cohort and found that a weak inverse association may appear even if PFAS do not cause ADHD but have a considerable effect on fetal survival. The magnitude of the negative bias was generally small, and adjusting for common causes of the outcome and fetal loss can reduce the bias. Our example highlights the need to identify the determinants of pregnancy loss and the importance of quantifying bias arising from conditioning on live birth in observational studies. PMID:25604449

  11. A Study on Living Conditions of the Seasonal Agricultural Workers: Hilvan County (Şanlıurfa Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Benek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is carried out to identify living standards of seasonal agricultural workers in Hilvan County of Şanlıurfa that largely rely on agriculture and have sufficient or little cultivable lands. Study sample is composed of families of the students who attend schools affiliated to Hilvan County Directorate of National Education and are involved in temporary migration before the school term ends in a year. “Face to face” interviews were held with and questionnaires were applied to heads of 523 families which live on seasonal agricultural labor. The results were assessed by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science through various statistical techniques required for the study purpose. Majority of the children of families who

  12. Association between current asthma and secondhand smoke exposure in vehicles among adults living in four US states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kimberly H; King, Brian A; Dube, Shanta R

    2015-07-01

    Many states have implemented laws prohibiting tobacco smoking in indoor public places. However, private settings remain a major source of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure for many people. We assessed the association between current asthma and SHS exposure in vehicles among adult never-smokers in Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana and Mississippi. Data came from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based telephone survey of US adults aged ≥18 years. Analyses were restricted to states (n=4) that administered an optional SHS module. Prevalence of self-reported asthma and past 7-day SHS exposure in vehicles was calculated by demographics, voluntary smoke-free vehicle rules and SHS exposure in homes, public places and workplaces. Logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted association between asthma and SHS exposure in vehicles. Among 17 863 never-smoking adults, 7.4% reported having current asthma, whereas 12.3% reported past 7-day SHS exposure in vehicles. Among adults with asthma, SHS exposure in vehicles was lower among those with voluntary smoke-free rules compared with those without voluntary smoke-free rules (9.5% vs 56.7%, psmoke-free rules in vehicles, especially among adults with asthma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Optimal conditions for high current proton irradiations at the university of Wisconsin's ion beam laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetteland, C. J.; Field, K. G.; Gerczak, T. J. [Materials Science Program, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Eiden, T. J.; Maier, B. R.; Albakri, O.; Sridharan, K.; Allen, T. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    The National Electrostatics Corporation's (NEC) Toroidal Volume Ion Source (TORVIS) source is known for exceptionally high proton currents with minimal service downtime as compared to traditional sputter sources. It has been possible to obtain over 150{mu}A of proton current from the source, with over 70{mu}A on the target stage. However, beam fluxes above {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17}/m2-s may have many undesirable effects, especially for insulators. This may include high temperature gradients at the surface, sputtering, surface discharge, cracking or even disintegration of the sample. A series of experiments were conducted to examine the role of high current fluxes in a suite of ceramics and insulating materials. Results will show the optimal proton irradiation conditions and target mounting strategies needed to minimize unwanted macro-scale damage, while developing a procedure for conducting preliminary radiation experiments.

  14. Automatic Condition Monitoring of Industrial Rolling-Element Bearings Using Motor’s Vibration and Current Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic condition monitoring for a class of industrial rolling-element bearings is developed based on the vibration as well as stator current analysis. The considered fault scenarios include a single-point defect, multiple-point defects, and a type of distributed defect. Motivated by the potential commercialization, the developed system is promoted mainly using off-the-shelf techniques, that is, the high-frequency resonance technique with envelope detection and the average of short-time Fourier transform. In order to test the flexibility and robustness, the monitoring performance is extensively studied under diverse operating conditions: different sensor locations, motor speeds, loading conditions, and data samples from different time segments. The experimental results showed the powerful capability of vibration analysis in the bearing point defect fault diagnosis. The current analysis also showed a moderate capability in diagnosis of point defect faults depending on the type of fault, severity of the fault, and the operational condition. The temporal feature indicated a feasibility to detect generalized roughness fault. The practical issues, such as deviations of predicted characteristic frequencies, sideband effects, time-average of spectra, and selection of fault index and thresholds, are also discussed. The experimental work shows a huge potential to use some simple methods for successful diagnosis of industrial bearing systems.

  15. Elicitors as alternative strategy to pesticides in grapevine? Current knowledge on their mode of action from controlled conditions to vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunois, Bertrand; Farace, Giovanni; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan; Cordelier, Sylvain

    2014-04-01

    Development and optimisation of alternative strategies to reduce the use of classic chemical inputs for protection against diseases in vineyard is becoming a necessity. Among these strategies, one of the most promising consists in the stimulation and/or potentiation of the grapevine defence responses by the means of elicitors. Elicitors are highly diverse molecules both in nature and origins. This review aims at providing an overview of the current knowledge on these molecules and will highlight their potential efficacy from the laboratory in controlled conditions to vineyards. Recent findings and concepts (especially on plant innate immunity) and the new terminology (microbe-associated molecular patterns, effectors, etc.) are also discussed in this context. Other objectives of this review are to highlight the difficulty of transferring elicitors use and results from the controlled conditions to the vineyard, to determine their practical and effective use in viticulture and to propose ideas for improving their efficacy in non-controlled conditions.

  16. Current experiences and educational preferences of general practitioners and staff caring for people with dementia living in residential facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christopher; Horner, Barbara; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Scherer, Samuel; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Bretland, Nick; Flett, Penelope; Schaper, Frank; Flicker, Leon

    2009-08-12

    Residential care is important for older adults, particularly for those with advanced dementia and their families. Education interventions that achieve sustainable improvement in the care of older adults are critical to quality care. There are few systematic data available regarding the educational needs of Residential Care Facility (RCF) staff and General Practitioners (GPs) relating to dementia, or the sustainability of educational interventions. We sought to determine participation in dementia education, perceived levels of current knowledge regarding dementia, perceived unmet educational needs, current barriers, facilitators and preferences for dementia education. A mixed methods study design was utilised. A survey was distributed to a convenience sample of general practitioners, and staff in 223 consecutive residential care facilities in Perth, Western Australia. Responses were received from 102 RCF staff working in 10 facilities (out of 33 facilities who agreed to distribute the survey) and 202 GPs (19% of metropolitan GPs). Quantitative survey data were summarised descriptively and chi squared statistics were used to analyse the distribution of categorical variables. Qualitative data were collected from general practitioners, staff in residential care facilities and family carers of people with dementia utilizing individual interviews, surveys and focus groups. Qualitative data were analysed thematically. Among RCF staff and GPs attending RCF, participation in dementia education was high, and knowledge levels generally perceived as good. The individual experiences and needs of people with dementia and their families were emphasised. Participants identified the need for a person centred philosophy to underpin educational interventions. Limited time was a frequently mentioned barrier, especially in relation to attending dementia care education. Perceived educational needs relating to behaviours of concern, communication, knowledge regarding dementia, aspects of

  17. Employment-related difficulties and distressed living condition in patients with hepatitis B virus: A qualitative and quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeko Oka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan, an estimated 400,000 people have the hepatitis B virus (HBV, many of whom were infected as a result of group vaccinations. People with HBV face many challenges, including disease progression, employment-related difficulties, and increased medical expenses. The relationship between HBV victims’ daily life suffering and poverty associated with HBV-related employment changes has not been examined. We aimed to clarify the employment-related hardships experienced by Japanese HBV victims, and the relationships between these hardships and daily life suffering, including poverty, through qualitative and quantitative analyses. Methods The study population comprised 11,046 people infected with HBV via group vaccination who filed lawsuits in Japan’s District Courts by 2014. First, we conducted a qualitative study (2013 using the KJ method, with 107 participants (68 men, mean age 58.9 years; 39 women, mean age 55.3 years. Semi-structured interviews were conducted covering participants’ current condition, treatment, medical expenses, and life difficulties (employment- and family-related problems. In 2014, we conducted a quantitative study. We mailed questionnaires to the entire study population, investigating the topics covered in the interviews (response rate 60.1%. Daily life suffering was determined by responses to the question “What do you think about your everyday life situation?” We performed binomial logistic regression analyses to verify the relationships between daily life suffering and disease, employment, and income status. Results Interview data were integrated into seven islands: intention to work, lack of understanding of HBV in the workplace, inability to buy life insurance, burden due to medical expenses, life failure, dissatisfaction with the system, and wishing for life balance. The quantitative analyses showed significant positive correlations between daily life suffering and liver cancer (odds

  18. Employment-related difficulties and distressed living condition in patients with hepatitis B virus: A qualitative and quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Taeko; Enoki, Hiroaki; Tokimoto, Yukari; Kawanishi, Teruaki; Minami, Meguru; Okuizumi, Takahiro; Katahira, Kiyohiko

    2017-06-12

    In Japan, an estimated 400,000 people have the hepatitis B virus (HBV), many of whom were infected as a result of group vaccinations. People with HBV face many challenges, including disease progression, employment-related difficulties, and increased medical expenses. The relationship between HBV victims' daily life suffering and poverty associated with HBV-related employment changes has not been examined. We aimed to clarify the employment-related hardships experienced by Japanese HBV victims, and the relationships between these hardships and daily life suffering, including poverty, through qualitative and quantitative analyses. The study population comprised 11,046 people infected with HBV via group vaccination who filed lawsuits in Japan's District Courts by 2014. First, we conducted a qualitative study (2013) using the KJ method, with 107 participants (68 men, mean age 58.9 years; 39 women, mean age 55.3 years). Semi-structured interviews were conducted covering participants' current condition, treatment, medical expenses, and life difficulties (employment- and family-related problems). In 2014, we conducted a quantitative study. We mailed questionnaires to the entire study population, investigating the topics covered in the interviews (response rate 60.1%). Daily life suffering was determined by responses to the question "What do you think about your everyday life situation?" We performed binomial logistic regression analyses to verify the relationships between daily life suffering and disease, employment, and income status. Interview data were integrated into seven islands: intention to work, lack of understanding of HBV in the workplace, inability to buy life insurance, burden due to medical expenses, life failure, dissatisfaction with the system, and wishing for life balance. The quantitative analyses showed significant positive correlations between daily life suffering and liver cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-2.17, p

  19. Determining heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and their waste management challenges: Some strategies for improving current conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Amjad, Zahra; Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari; Gholampour, Akbar; Norouz, Prviz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) determined. • Current waste management condition of CFLs in Iran assessed. • Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. • We propose extended producer responsibility (EPR) for CFLs waste management. - Abstract: From environmental viewpoint, the most important advantage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is reduction of green house gas emissions. But their significant disadvantage is disposal of spent lamps because of containing a few milligrams of toxic metals, especially mercury and lead. For a successful implementation of any waste management plan, availability of sufficient and accurate information on quantities and compositions of the generated waste and current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. In this study, CFLs were selected among 20 different brands in Iran. Content of heavy metals including mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was determined by inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessing the current waste management condition of CFLs. The study found that waste generation amount of CFLs in the country was about 159.80, 183.82 and 153.75 million per year in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Waste generation rate of CFLs in Iran was determined to be 2.05 per person in 2012. The average amount of mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was 0.417, 2.33, 0.064, 0.056 and 0.012 mg per lamp, respectively. Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. For improving the current conditions, we propose by considering the successful experience of extended producer responsibility (EPR) in other electronic waste management. The EPR program with advanced recycling fee (ARF) is implemented for collecting and then recycling CFLs. For encouraging consumers to take the spent CFLs back at the end of the products’ useful life, a proportion of

  20. Determining heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and their waste management challenges: Some strategies for improving current conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghipour, Hassan, E-mail: hteir@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amjad, Zahra [Student Research Committee, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari [Medical Education Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholampour, Akbar [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norouz, Prviz [Environmental Health Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) determined. • Current waste management condition of CFLs in Iran assessed. • Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. • We propose extended producer responsibility (EPR) for CFLs waste management. - Abstract: From environmental viewpoint, the most important advantage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is reduction of green house gas emissions. But their significant disadvantage is disposal of spent lamps because of containing a few milligrams of toxic metals, especially mercury and lead. For a successful implementation of any waste management plan, availability of sufficient and accurate information on quantities and compositions of the generated waste and current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. In this study, CFLs were selected among 20 different brands in Iran. Content of heavy metals including mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was determined by inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessing the current waste management condition of CFLs. The study found that waste generation amount of CFLs in the country was about 159.80, 183.82 and 153.75 million per year in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Waste generation rate of CFLs in Iran was determined to be 2.05 per person in 2012. The average amount of mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was 0.417, 2.33, 0.064, 0.056 and 0.012 mg per lamp, respectively. Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. For improving the current conditions, we propose by considering the successful experience of extended producer responsibility (EPR) in other electronic waste management. The EPR program with advanced recycling fee (ARF) is implemented for collecting and then recycling CFLs. For encouraging consumers to take the spent CFLs back at the end of the products’ useful life, a proportion of

  1. The eMouveRecherche application competes with research devices to evaluate energy expenditure, physical activity and still time in free-living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoux, Romain; Duclos, Martine; Fleury, Gérard; Lacomme, Philippe; Lamaudière, Nicolas; Saboul, Damien; Ren, Libo; Rousset, Sylvie

    2017-05-01

    The proliferation of smartphones is creating new opportunities to monitor and interact with human subjects in free-living conditions since smartphones are familiar to large segments of the population and facilitate data collection, transmission and analysis. From accelerometry data collected by smartphones, the present work aims to estimate time spent in different activity categories and the energy expenditure in free-living conditions. Our research encompasses the definition of an energy-saving function (Pred EE ) considering four physical categories of activities (still, light, moderate and vigorous), their duration and metabolic cost (MET). To create an efficient discrimination function, the method consists of classifying accelerometry-transformed signals into categories and of associating each category with corresponding Metabolic Equivalent Tasks. The performance of the Pred EE function was compared with two previously published functions (f(η,d)aedes,f(η,d)nrjsi), and with two dedicated sensors (Armband® and Actiheart®) in free-living conditions over a 12-h monitoring period using 30 volunteers. Compared to the two previous functions, Pred EE was the only one able to provide estimations of time spent in each activity category. In relative value, all the activity categories were evaluated similarly to those given by Armband®. Compared to Actiheart®, the function underestimated still activities by 10.1% and overestimated light- and moderate-intensity activities by 7.9% and 4.2%, respectively. The total energy expenditure error produced by Pred EE compared to Armband® was lower than those given by the two previous functions (5.7% vs. 14.1% and 17.0%). Pred EE provides the user with an accurate physical activity feedback which should help self-monitoring in free-living conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The particularities of vegetative regulation of central haemodynamic at children living in condition of chronic radiation and chemical influence in low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherko, O.M.

    2000-01-01

    398 children 7-16 years old living in condition of environmental threats have been examined. The most essential changes of the vegetative regulation of central haemodynamic have been found at children 7-13 years old. The distortion of vegetative regulation of the central haemodynamic have been revealed: sympatcotonia in case of arterial hypotensia and deficiency of sympathetic regulation of arterial hypertensia. Level of hormones of the sympatoadrenality system was fall. (authors)

  3. Injection current dependences of electroluminescence transition energy in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light emitting diodes under pulsed current conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng; Ikeda, Masao, E-mail: mikeda2013@sinano.ac.cn; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Shuming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Key Lab of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhou, Kun; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Key Lab of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Institute of Semiconductors (CAS), Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Zongshun [Institute of Semiconductors (CAS), Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-07-21

    Injection current dependences of electroluminescence transition energy in blue InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light emitting diodes (LEDs) with different quantum barrier thicknesses under pulsed current conditions have been analyzed taking into account the related effects including deformation caused by lattice strain, quantum confined Stark effects due to polarization field partly screened by carriers, band gap renormalization, Stokes-like shift due to compositional fluctuations which are supposed to be random alloy fluctuations in the sub-nanometer scale, band filling effect (Burstein-Moss shift), and quantum levels in finite triangular wells. The bandgap renormalization and band filling effect occurring at high concentrations oppose one another, however, the renormalization effect dominates in the concentration range studied, since the band filling effect arising from the filling in the tail states in the valence band of quantum wells is much smaller than the case in the bulk materials. In order to correlate the carrier densities with current densities, the nonradiative recombination rates were deduced experimentally by curve-fitting to the external quantum efficiencies. The transition energies in LEDs both with 15 nm quantum barriers and 5 nm quantum barriers, calculated using full strengths of theoretical macroscopic polarization given by Barnardini and Fiorentini [Phys. Status Solidi B 216, 391 (1999)] are in excellent accordance with experimental results. The LED with 5 nm barriers has been shown to exhibit a higher transition energy and a smaller blue shift than those of LED with 15 nm barriers, which is mainly caused by the smaller internal polarization field in the quantum wells.

  4. Exploring representations and experiences of case-management users: towards difficulties and solutions to leading qualitative interviews with older people with complex living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balard, Frédéric; Corre, Stéphanie Pin Le; Trouvé, Hélène; Saint-Jean, Olivier; Somme, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    By matching needs to resource services, case management could be a useful tool for improving the care of older people with complex living conditions. Collecting and analysing the users' experiences represents a good way to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of a case-management service. However, in the literature, fieldwork is very rarely considered and the users included in qualitative research seem to be the most accessible. This study was undertaken to describe the challenges of conducting qualitative research with older people with complex living conditions in order to understand their experiences with case-management services. Reflective analysis was applied to describe the process of recruiting and interviewing older people with complex living conditions in private homes, describing the protocol with respect to fieldwork chronology. The practical difficulties inherent in this type of study are addressed, particularly in terms of defining a sample, the procedure for contacting the users and conducting the interview. The users are people who suffer from a loss of autonomy because of cognitive impairment, severe disease and/or psychiatric or social problems. Notably, most of them refuse care and assistance. Reflective analysis of our protocol showed that the methodology and difficulties encountered constituted the first phase of data analysis. Understanding the experience of users of case management to analyse the outcomes of case-management services requires a clear methodology for the fieldwork.

  5. Determining heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and their waste management challenges: some strategies for improving current conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Amjad, Zahra; Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari; Gholampour, Akbar; Norouz, Prviz

    2014-07-01

    From environmental viewpoint, the most important advantage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is reduction of green house gas emissions. But their significant disadvantage is disposal of spent lamps because of containing a few milligrams of toxic metals, especially mercury and lead. For a successful implementation of any waste management plan, availability of sufficient and accurate information on quantities and compositions of the generated waste and current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. In this study, CFLs were selected among 20 different brands in Iran. Content of heavy metals including mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was determined by inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessing the current waste management condition of CFLs. The study found that waste generation amount of CFLs in the country was about 159.80, 183.82 and 153.75 million per year in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Waste generation rate of CFLs in Iran was determined to be 2.05 per person in 2012. The average amount of mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was 0.417, 2.33, 0.064, 0.056 and 0.012 mg per lamp, respectively. Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. For improving the current conditions, we propose by considering the successful experience of extended producer responsibility (EPR) in other electronic waste management. The EPR program with advanced recycling fee (ARF) is implemented for collecting and then recycling CFLs. For encouraging consumers to take the spent CFLs back at the end of the products' useful life, a proportion of ARF (for example, 50%) can be refunded. On the other hand, the government and Environmental Protection Agency should support and encourage recycling companies of CFLs both technically and financially in the first place. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Current experiences and educational preferences of general practitioners and staff caring for people with dementia living in residential facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer Samuel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residential care is important for older adults, particularly for those with advanced dementia and their families. Education interventions that achieve sustainable improvement in the care of older adults are critical to quality care. There are few systematic data available regarding the educational needs of Residential Care Facility (RCF staff and General Practitioners (GPs relating to dementia, or the sustainability of educational interventions. We sought to determine participation in dementia education, perceived levels of current knowledge regarding dementia, perceived unmet educational needs, current barriers, facilitators and preferences for dementia education. Methods A mixed methods study design was utilised. A survey was distributed to a convenience sample of general practitioners, and staff in 223 consecutive residential care facilities in Perth, Western Australia. Responses were received from 102 RCF staff working in 10 facilities (out of 33 facilities who agreed to distribute the survey and 202 GPs (19% of metropolitan GPs. Quantitative survey data were summarised descriptively and chi squared statistics were used to analyse the distribution of categorical variables. Qualitative data were collected from general practitioners, staff in residential care facilities and family carers of people with dementia utilizing individual interviews, surveys and focus groups. Qualitative data were analysed thematically. Results Among RCF staff and GPs attending RCF, participation in dementia education was high, and knowledge levels generally perceived as good. The individual experiences and needs of people with dementia and their families were emphasised. Participants identified the need for a person centred philosophy to underpin educational interventions. Limited time was a frequently mentioned barrier, especially in relation to attending dementia care education. Perceived educational needs relating to behaviours of concern

  7. Comparison between current and ideal condition of educational justice from the students' viewpoints at Jahrom Nursing and Paramedical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaseri, Mohammad Ali; Hojat, Mohsen; Karimyar Jahromi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Educational justice is a process by which all those involved in education are pondering and seeking to establish it in their regulatory environments. This study aimed to investigate effective factors in an ideal educational justice and the current condition of educational justice from the students' viewpoint and ultimately increase the awareness and understanding of authorities and educational planners of the existing shortcomings.  This is a descriptive-analytical study. Samples include all nursing, operating room, and anesthesia students of nursing and paramedical college who had passed at least 5 semesters. Data collection was carried out through a scholar questionnaire. Validity was assessed through content validity and reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated using a pilot study.  In order to determine the status of the scores, 5 points (very high), 4 (often), 3 (moderate), 2 (low) and 1 (very low) were assigned, respectively. To determine the justice level, a 35 score interval was considered as very low, low, medium, high and very high. SPSS software, descriptive statistics, independent t-test and ANOVA were used to analyze the data.  There was a significant difference between the ideal and the current conditions in all items (p≤0.001) and also in the total mean score of ideal condition  and mean score of current condition (p=0.010). In an educational system, educational methods and aims should be regulated in a way that principles and components of justice are attainable and distribution and allocation of educational facilities of justice are considered thoroughly.

  8. The role of large and small cometary showers in the changes of living conditions on the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.; Stepahno, I. V.; Steklov, E. A.; Slipchenko, A. S.; Romaniuk, Ya. O.

    2016-10-01

    1. The supremum of astrophysical problems in modern astronomy. With the introduction into service in 1974, of the largest at that time, six-meter telescope BTA at Zelenchukskaya Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) - Department of Extragalactic Research and relativistic astrophysics was established. Its main task was to study the so-called super-distant boundary fields and extreme states of substances of stars, galactic nuclei in the early epoch of the Universe. Now, after 40 years, these tasks are as popular and relevant: quasars, pulsars, gravitational lenses, black holes, active galactic nuclei, etc. Already established telescopes with diameters of multicomponent mirrors of 8-10 meters or more. Astronomical observatories had gone high into the mountains, to the special mountain on the islands in the oceans, in the alpine desert and into space. Extreme problems on the supremum still attracts the strongest efforts of astrophysicists in the world. But what about the other side of extreme tasks: with the tasks of astrophysics for "infimum"? Let us consider the astrophysical problems of "infimum" in more detail. 2. Infinum of astrophysical problems in modern astronomy. We believe that among the tasks of modern astrophysics can be super-close latent invasion (SCLI). If SCLI develop the concepts of cosmology, our views on the entire universe, on special times and special state of substance, then the infimum problem solving and must save the people and all living creatures on the planet against various types of aerospace dangerous intruders. SСLІ tasks are vital for all of us. These problems must be solved by leaders of countries and of concrete cities. The essence of these tasks determined the real threats and real fears against quite possibly over-close encounters with deadly consequences for all mankind intrusion of comets nucleus and asteroids, as well as the hidden, latent threat against far more numerous invasions of fragments of these bodies. And it is a

  9. Secondary health conditions and quality of life in persons living with spinal cord injury for at least ten years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaansen, Jacinthe J. E.; Ruijs, Laura E. M.; van Koppenhagen, Casper F.; van Asbeck, Floris W. A.; Snoek, Govert J.; van Kuppevelt, Dirk; Visser-Meily, Johanna M. A.; Post, Marcel W. M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of secondary health conditions among persons with long-term spinal cord injury, and the relationship between these secondary health conditions and quality of life. DESIGN: Multicentre, cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Individuals (n = 282) with traumatic or

  10. Gene expression and physiological changes of different populations of the long-lived bivalve Arctica islandica under low oxygen conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva E R Philipp

    Full Text Available The bivalve Arctica islandica is extremely long lived (>400 years and can tolerate long periods of hypoxia and anoxia. European populations differ in maximum life spans (MLSP from 40 years in the Baltic to >400 years around Iceland. Characteristic behavior of A. islandica involves phases of metabolic rate depression (MRD during which the animals burry into the sediment for several days. During these phases the shell water oxygen concentrations reaches hypoxic to anoxic levels, which possibly support the long life span of some populations. We investigated gene regulation in A. islandica from a long-lived (MLSP 150 years German Bight population and the short-lived Baltic Sea population, experimentally exposed to different oxygen levels. A new A. islandica transcriptome enabled the identification of genes important during hypoxia/anoxia events and, more generally, gene mining for putative stress response and (anti- aging genes. Expression changes of a antioxidant defense: Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, manganese and copper-zinc Superoxide dismutase; b oxygen sensing and general stress response: Hypoxia inducible factor alpha, Prolyl hydroxylase and Heat-shock protein 70; and c anaerobic capacity: Malate dehydrogenase and Octopine dehydrogenase, related transcripts were investigated. Exposed to low oxygen, German Bight individuals suppressed transcription of all investigated genes, whereas Baltic Sea bivalves enhanced gene transcription under anoxic incubation (0 kPa and, further, decreased these transcription levels again during 6 h of re-oxygenation. Hypoxic and anoxic exposure and subsequent re-oxygenation in Baltic Sea animals did not lead to increased protein oxidation or induction of apoptosis, emphasizing considerable hypoxia/re-oxygenation tolerance in this species. The data suggest that the energy saving effect of MRD may not be an attribute of Baltic Sea A. islandica chronically exposed to high environmental variability (oxygenation

  11. Correlation Between the Concentration of Lead in the Blood of Dogs and People Living in the Same Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monkiewicz Jerzy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The studies, conducted between 2010 and 2012, involved 102 dogs and 505 people from Lower Silesia (LS, 104 dogs and 578 people from the Legnica - Głogów Copper Mining Region (LGCMR, and 101 dogs and 897 people from the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (USIR. A significant positive correlation between blood lead concentration (BLC in dogs and people living in the same environment was found. Moreover, the data revealed an increase in BLC in dogs and people with the progressive aging of the body. The highest average BLC in dogs and humans were reported in the LGCMR followed by USIR and LS.

  12. Living conditions and health. A population-based study of labour migrants and Latin American refugees in Sweden and those who were repatriated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, J

    1995-06-01

    To examine whether there are differences in living conditions and self-rated health between South European labour migrants and Latin American refugees and those who were repatriated to Latin America. Analysis of data from a survey (face-to-face interviews) in 1991 of 338 Latin American refugees and 60 repatriated refugees. A random sample of 161 South European and 396 Finnish labour migrants from the Swedish Annual Level-of-Living Surveys 1980-1981 and 1988-89 was analysed. A random sample of 1,159 age-, sex- and education-matched Swedes served as controls. Lund, a medium-sized town in southern Sweden, Santiago and Montevideo, capitals of Chile and Uruguay, respectively, and Sweden. Labour migrants and refugees in particular lived in rented flats while Swedes lived in privately-owned one-family homes. All immigrants and in particular repatriated Latin Americans had low material standard and meagre economic resources compared with Swedes. Being a Latin American refugee, a South European or Finnish labour migrant were independent risk indicators of self-rated poor health in logistic regression (multivariate analyses). Not feeling secure in everyday life and poor leisure opportunities were independent risk factors for poor health with an estimated odds ratio of 3.13(2.09-4.45) and 1.57(1.22-2.00), respectively. This study shows a clear ethnic segregation in housing and other living conditions between Swedes and immigrants, where Latin American refugees and repatriated Latin Americans were most vulnerable. All immigrants had increased self-rated poor health compared with Swedes. Being an immigrant was a risk factor for poor health of equal importance to more traditional risk factors such as lifestyle factors.

  13. Previous success and current body condition determine breeding propensity in Lesser Scaup: evidence for the individual heterogeneity hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.; Cutting, Kyle A.; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Williams, Tony D.; Koons, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The decision to breed influences an individual's current and future reproduction, and the proportion of individuals that breed is an important determinant of population dynamics. Age, experience, individual quality, and environmental conditions have all been demonstrated to influence breeding propensity. To elucidate which of these factors exerts the greatest influence on breeding propensity in a temperate waterfowl, we studied female Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) breeding in southwestern Montana. Females were captured during the breeding seasons of 2007–2009, and breeding status was determined on the basis of (1) presence of an egg in the oviduct or (2) blood plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels. Presence on the study site in the previous year, a proxy for adult female success, was determined with stable isotope signatures of a primary feather collected at capture. Overall, 57% of females had evidence of breeding at the time of capture; this increased to 86% for females captured on or after peak nest initiation. Capture date and size-adjusted body condition positively influenced breeding propensity, with a declining body-condition threshold through the breeding season. We did not detect an influence of age on breeding propensity. Drought conditions negatively affected breeding propensity, reducing the proportion of breeding females to 0.85 (SE = 0.05) from 0.94 (SE = 0.03) during normal-water years. A female that was present in the previous breeding season was 5% more likely to breed than a female that was not present then. The positive correlation between age and experience makes it difficult to differentiate the roles of age, experience, and individual quality in reproductive success in vertebrates. Our results indicate that individual quality, as expressed by previous success and current body condition, may be among the most important determinants of breeding propensity in female Lesser Scaup, providing further support for the individual heterogeneity hypothesis.

  14. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don’t report their migration status? a population-based study in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabieses Baltica

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Methods Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. Outcomes: any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables; and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables. Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income, and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality. Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. Results About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV. The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs’ chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as

  15. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don't report their migration status? A population-based study in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Pickett, Kate E; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-11-21

    Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional) asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables); and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables). Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income), and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality). Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV). The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs' chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as indicated by wide confidence intervals, prevented the identification

  16. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don’t report their migration status? a population-based study in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional) asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Methods Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. Outcomes: any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables); and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables). Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income), and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality). Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. Results About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV). The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs’ chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as indicated by wide confidence

  17. Impact of the health and living conditions of migrant and non-migrant Senegalese adolescent girls on their nutritional status and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Denis; Simondon, Kirsten B; Hoarau, Thierry; Benefice, Eric

    2003-09-01

    To describe the living conditions of Senegalese adolescent girls according to their migration status, and to define the main socio-economic and biological determinants of their nutritional and growth status. Health and living conditions, sexual maturation, and nutritional and growth status of adolescent girls were determined within the framework of a longitudinal study on growth. The capital city of Senegal (Dakar) and a rural community (Niakhar), 120 km south-east of Dakar. Three hundred and thirty-one girls, 14.5-16.6 years of age, were recruited from the same villages. Thirty-six per cent of the sample remained in the villages to attend school and/or to help with household subsistence tasks (non-migrants). The remaining (64%) migrated to cities to work as maids (migrants) and lived in two different socio-economic environments: at the home of a guardian during the night and in the house of the employer during the daytime. Family rural environment and guardian and employer urban environments were socio-economically different (P environment was socio-economically more favourable. Migrants had more advanced sexual maturation and higher body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and mid-upper arm circumference than non-migrants. However, migrants were smaller than non-migrants. BMI, FMI and weight-for-age were related to socio-economic levels and duration of migration. Schooling was positively related to height and negatively related to BMI. Migrants enjoyed better living conditions than non-migrants. This could be partly due to the better socio-economic environment of the employer. It was associated with earlier puberty and better nutritional status, but not with a better growth.

  18. Living conditions, including life style, in primary-care patients with nonacute, nonspecific spinal pain compared with a population-based sample: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Lindell

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Odd Lindell, Sven-Erik Johansson, Lars-Erik Strender1Center for Family and Community Medicine, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, SwedenBackground: Nonspecific spinal pain (NSP, comprising back and/or neck pain, is one of the leading disorders behind long-term sick-listing, including disability pensions. Early interventions to prevent long-term sick-listing require the identification of patients at risk. The aim of this study was to compare living conditions associated with long-term sick-listing for NSP in patients with nonacute NSP, with a nonpatient population-based sample. Nonacute NSP is pain that leads to full-time sick-listing>3 weeks.Methods: One hundred and twenty-five patients with nonacute NSP, 2000–2004, were included in a randomized controlled trial in Stockholm County with the objective of comparing cognitive–behavioral rehabilitation with traditional primary care. For these patients, a cross-sectional study was carried out with baseline data. Living conditions were compared between the patients and 338 nonpatients by logistic regression. The conditions from univariate analyses were included in a multivariate analysis. The nonsignificant variables were excluded sequentially to yield a model comprising only the significant factors (P <0.05. The results are shown as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals.Results: In the univariate analyses, 13 of the 18 living conditions had higher odds for the patients with a dominance of physical work strains and Indication of alcohol over-consumption, odds ratio (OR 14.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2–67.6. Five conditions qualified for the multivariate model: High physical workload, OR 13.7 (CI 5.9–32.2; Hectic work tempo, OR 8.4 (CI 2.5–28.3; Blue-collar job, OR 4.5 (CI 1.8–11.4; Obesity, OR 3.5 (CI 1.2–10.2; and Low education, OR 2.7 (CI 1.1–6.8.Conclusions: As most of the living conditions have previously been

  19. Conditions and life experiences of indigent pregnant women living in the northwest metropolitan of San José

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Granados Hernández

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of an investigation into the conditions and life experiences ofindigent women. Involved four indigent pregnant women. The investigation was prompted by aphenomenological, qualitative design. The data collection was carried out by applying depth interviews, usingrecording for repeated observations, then the data were analyzed and contrasted with the framework. Among themost important characteristics that form a profile of a indigent pregnant woman found common factors:alcoholism, drug addiction, prostitution, physical violence, sexual and psychological and crime. We conclude thatthe conditions of life are intertwined with the life experiences of homeless pregnant women, from the conditionwhich determines their profile.

  20. Early life events carry over to influence pre-migratory condition in a free-living songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg W Mitchell

    Full Text Available Conditions experienced during development can have long-term consequences for individual success. In migratory songbirds, the proximate mechanisms linking early life events and survival are not well understood because tracking individuals across stages of the annual cycle can be extremely challenging. In this paper, we first use a 13 year dataset to demonstrate a positive relationship between 1(st year survival and nestling mass in migratory Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis. We also use a brood manipulation experiment to show that nestlings from smaller broods have higher mass in the nest relative to individuals from larger broods. Having established these relationships, we then use three years of field data involving multiple captures of individuals throughout the pre-migratory period and a multi-level path model to examine the hypothesis that conditions during development limit survival during migration by affecting an individual's ability to accumulate sufficient lean tissue and fat mass prior to migration. We found a positive relationship between fat mass during the pre-migratory period (Sept-Oct and nestling mass and a negative indirect relationship between pre-migratory fat mass and fledging date. Our results provide the first evidence that conditions during development limit survival during migration through their effect on fat stores. These results are particularly important given recent evidence showing that body condition of songbirds at fledging is affected by climate change and anthropogenic changes to landscape structure.

  1. Melanin and carotenoid ornaments are related to the individual condition in free-living grey partridges (Perdix perdix)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, J.; Gabrielová, B.; Hyršl, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Vinkler, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 4 (2016), s. 1007-1015 ISSN 0021-8375 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : complement * Condition-dependent sexual signalling * Carotenoid and melanin colouration * Game bird * Haematology * Phytohaemagglutinin Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2016

  2. Impact of urban WWTP and CSO fluxes on river peak flow extremes under current and future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keupers, Ingrid; Willems, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The impact of urban water fluxes on the river system outflow of the Grote Nete catchment (Belgium) was studied. First the impact of the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) and the Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) outflows on the river system for the current climatic conditions was determined by simulating the urban fluxes as point sources in a detailed, hydrodynamic river model. Comparison was made of the simulation results on peak flow extremes with and without the urban point sources. In a second step, the impact of climate change scenarios on the urban fluxes and the consequent impacts on the river flow extremes were studied. It is shown that the change in the 10-year return period hourly peak flow discharge due to climate change (-14% to +45%) was in the same order of magnitude as the change due to the urban fluxes (+5%) in current climate conditions. Different climate change scenarios do not change the impact of the urban fluxes much except for the climate scenario that involves a strong increase in rainfall extremes in summer. This scenario leads to a strong increase of the impact of the urban fluxes on the river system.

  3. The interaction between reproductive cost and individual quality is mediated by oceanic conditions in a long-lived bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandre; Paiva, Vitor H; Bolton, Mark; Jiguet, Frédéric; Bried, Joël

    2012-08-01

    Environmental variability, costs of reproduction, and heterogeneity in individual quality are three important sources of the temporal and interindividual variations in vital rates of wild populations. Based on an 18-year monitoring of an endangered, recently described, long-lived seabird, Monteiro's Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma monteiroi), we designed multistate survival models to separate the effects of the reproductive cost (breeders vs. nonbreeders) and individual quality (successful vs. unsuccessful breeders) in relation to temporally variable demographic and oceanographic properties. The analysis revealed a gradient of individual quality from nonbreeders, to unsuccessful breeders, to successful breeders. The survival rates of unsuccessful breeders (0.90 +/- 0.023, mean +/- SE) tended to decrease in years of high average breeding success and were more sensitive to oceanographic variation than those of both (high-quality) successful breeders (0.97 +/- 0.015) and (low-quality) nonbreeders (0.83 +/- 0.028). Overall, our results indicate that reproductive costs act on individuals of intermediate quality and are mediated by environmental harshness.

  4. [Control of Chagas' disease in Guarani communities: knowledge and hygiene habits within the Project to Improve Living Conditions in Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, J; Ruiz, M T

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify knowledge and control of vectorial transmission (Triatoma infestans, known as vinchuca) of Chagas' disease in Guaraní Communities in Bolivia. We performed a descriptive study of a series of 98 individuals through a semi-structured questionnaire. Interviewees were asked about their familiarity with vinchuca, whether they thought vinchuca produced disease, the name of the disease and its consequences, as well as behavior related to eliminating the domestic insect vectors, such as cleaning of the home, backyard and corral.The insect vector was sufficiently well known (98%), although the name of the disease was identified by only 14.3% of the interviewees. Although the dwellings favored insect proliferation, they were not frequently cleaned: 28.6% cleaned their homes while and 42.9% cleaned the backyard and 7.1% cleaned the corral. Gender differences were found in the division of labor: women cleaned the homes and backyards, while men clean the corral. Experience has shown that the usefulness of projects for building healthy living areas and for health education depends on the value given to these projects by the community. Women are probably the best target group, because they perform a greater number of preventive tasks and seldom leave the community for extended periods of time.

  5. Effect of a temperature gradient on Sphagnum fallax and its associated living microbial communities: a study under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassey, Vincent E J; Gilbert, Daniel; Binet, Philippe; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Chiapusio, Geneviève

    2011-03-01

    Microbial communities living in Sphagnum are known to constitute early indicators of ecosystem disturbances, but little is known about their response (including their trophic relationships) to climate change. A microcosm experiment was designed to test the effects of a temperature gradient (15, 20, and 25°C) on microbial communities including different trophic groups (primary producers, decomposers, and unicellular predators) in Sphagnum segments (0-3 cm and 3-6 cm of the capitulum). Relationships between microbial communities and abiotic factors (pH, conductivity, temperature, and polyphenols) were also studied. The density and the biomass of testate amoebae in Sphagnum upper segments increased and their community structure changed in heated treatments. The biomass of testate amoebae was linked to the biomass of bacteria and to the total biomass of other groups added and, thus, suggests that indirect effects on the food web structure occurred. Redundancy analysis revealed that microbial assemblages differed strongly in Sphagnum upper segments along a temperature gradient in relation to abiotic factors. The sensitivity of these assemblages made them interesting indicators of climate change. Phenolic compounds represented an important explicative factor in microbial assemblages and outlined the potential direct and (or) indirect effects of phenolics on microbial communities.

  6. Significance of Mangrove Biodiversity Conservation in Fishery Production and Living Conditions of Coastal Communities in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Sarathchandra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka is an island nation where ~59% of the population live in coastal regions. The main income source in these areas is fishing, which contributes to ~44% of the national GDP. Fishery resources depend on mangroves, especially in estuaries and lagoons, as mangroves provide the best nursery grounds for both brackish and marine species that are significant for the island’s fishing industry. However, growing pressures from an increasing population and development are causing substantial damage to mangroves resulting in loss of mangrove diversity. We analyzed whether variation in mangrove diversity within a lagoon system affects fishery production and livelihoods. Along the lagoon we selected three sites, which were 5 km apart from each other, for the survey. We used three 50 m long transects at each site for faunal and floral diversity assessments. The fishery catch was recorded from three crafts in each side. The socio-economic survey was conducted in 30 households per site using a standard questionnaire. In the site with the highest floral and faunal diversity, we also recorded the highest fish catch, but not the highest crab or shrimp catches. Our results confirm that higher mangrove diversity—and not just area—supports higher income generation. Thus, future development should prioritize biodiversity conservation in coastal regions.

  7. Analysis of the relation between low fertility and living conditions among never-married women : Empirical evidence from survey data

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUDA Shigeki; SASAKI Takayuki; TAKAMURA Shizuka; OOSAWA Akiko; ONODA Hiromu; FUJISAWA Miho; UEMURA Hideki; ISHIDA Ayako

    2015-01-01

    The decline of birthrate since the mid-1970s is mainly due to the growing percentage of people not getting married. It is therefore essential to understand the factors underlying the trend of not marrying and enhance countermeasures against the falling fertility rate to stop the trend in order to recover the birthrate. With the purpose of figuring out the current trend of the declining birthrate and the situation of unmarried people, the Economic and Social Research Institute conducted the se...

  8. Current status of the FASTGRASS/PARAGRASS models for fission product release from LWR fuel during normal and accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, J.; Zawadski, S.A.; Piasecka, M.

    1983-10-01

    The theoretical FASTGRASS model for the prediction of the behavior of the gaseous and volatile fission products in nuclear fuels under normal and transient conditions has undergone substantial improvements. The major improvements have been in the atomistic and bubble diffusive flow models, in the models for the behavior of gas bubbles on grain surfaces, and in the models for the behavior of the volatile fission products iodine and cesium. The thoery has received extensive verification over a wide range of fuel operating conditions, and can be regarded as a state-of-the-art model based on our current level of understanding of fission product behavior. PARAGRASS is an extremely efficient, mechanistic computer code with the capability of modeling steady-state and transient fission-product behavior. The models in PARAGRASS are based on the more detailed ones in FASTGRASS. PARAGRASS updates for the FRAPCON (PNL), FRAP-T (INEL), and SCDAP (INEL) codes have recently been completed and implemented. Results from an extensive FASTGRASS verification are presented and discussed for steady-state and transient conditions. In addition, FASTGRASS predictions for fission product release rate constants are compared with those in NUREG-0772. 21 references, 13 figures

  9. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newth, J L; Rees, E C; Cromie, R L; McDonald, R A; Bearhop, S; Pain, D J; Norton, G J; Deacon, C; Hilton, G M

    2016-02-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL(-1)) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL(-1) (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Excessive physical demands in modern worklife and characteristics of work and living conditions of persons at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlqvist, Lena K; Härenstam, Annika; Leijon, Ola; Schéele, Patrik

    2003-10-01

    This study attempted to identify work and leisure-time conditions and life-style factors associated with excess metabolic levels (metabolic demands exceeding one-third of a person's aerobic capacity) at work among men and women. The study focused upon psychological, ergonomic, and physically loading factors and chemical and physical environmental conditions. Data were obtained through self-reports, interviews, workplace analyses, technical measurements, and observations. Gender-specific calculations were used in univariate analyses and in stepwise logistic regression models for excess metabolic level. Twenty-seven percent of the men and twenty-two percent of the women worked at an excess metabolic level during their workday. Awkward work postures, heavy manual materials handling, high circulatory strain, chemical exposures, noise levels, much routine work, and many obstacles to job performance characterized their work conditions. The women had low skill discretion and more often atypical workhours, while the men showed high circulatory strain during leisure-time activities. Important negative life-style factors were a high consumption of alcohol for the men and a high body mass index and no or little regular physical exercise for the women. Metabolic demands in worklife today remain high. The women who exceeded the recommended metabolic level at work in this study were characterized by low pay, poor health, and children at home, in addition to high physical load and psychosocial strain at work. These characteristics indicate a group with few possibilities to leave a hazardous job for a less physically demanding one. The men who worked at an excess metabolic level seemed to be characterized more by a life-style common in some male-dominated work cultures with monotonous work.

  11. What's down below? Current and potential future applications of geophysical techniques to identify subsurface permafrost conditions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, T. A.; Bjella, K.; Campbell, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    For infrastructure design, operations, and maintenance requirements in the North the ability to accurately and efficiently detect the presence (or absence) of ground ice in permafrost terrains is a serious challenge. Ground ice features including ice wedges, thermokarst cave-ice, and segregation ice are present in a variety of spatial scales and patterns. Currently, most engineering applications use borehole logging and sampling to extrapolate conditions at the point scale. However, there is high risk of over or under estimating the presence of frozen or unfrozen features when relying on borehole information alone. In addition, boreholes are costly, especially for planning linear structures like roads or runways. Predicted climate warming will provide further challenges for infrastructure development and transportation operations where permafrost degradation occurs. Accurately identifying the subsurface character in permafrost terrains will allow engineers and planners to cost effectively create novel infrastructure designs to withstand the changing environment. There is thus a great need for a low cost rapidly deployable, spatially extensive means of 'measuring' subsurface conditions. Geophysical measurements, both terrestrial and airborne, have strong potential to revolutionize our way of mapping subsurface conditions. Many studies in continuous and discontinuous permafrost have used geophysical measurements to identify discrete features and repeatable patterns in the subsurface. The most common measurements include galvanic and capacitive coupled resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and multi frequency electromagnetic induction techniques. Each of these measurements has strengths, weaknesses, and limitations. By combining horizontal geophysical measurements, downhole geophysics, multispectral remote sensing images, LiDAR measurements, and soil and vegetation mapping we can start to assemble a holistic view of how surface conditions and standoff measurements

  12. DEVELOPMENTAL STABILITY AND CYTOGENETIC HOMEOSTASIS OF FISH FAUNA OF THE SLUCH RIVER IN CURRENT CONDITIONS OF ANTHROPOGENIC STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bedunkova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the developmental stability and cytogenetic homeostasis of fish populations in the Sluch River in the watercourse areas subjected to anthropogenic stress of different intensities. Methodology. Studies of fish populations in the Sluch River were carried out within Berezne district of Rivne region. The condition of individual fish in the populations were evaluated integrally using morphological (evaluation of the stability of development based on the level of fluctuating asymmetry (FA and cytogenetic (micronucleus (MN test of peripheral blood erythrocytes of fish methods. The methods used allowed identifying the destabilization level of organism development, even in the cases when there is no direct disturbance of population homeostasis. Findings. The found FA levels reflect minor (initial deviations from the normal developmental processes of fish populations in in the studied watercourse areas. Especially significantly this is reflected in a high proportion of individuals with FA in the samples of roach (Rutilus rutilus, bleak (Alburnus alburnus, bream (Abramis brama and perch (Perca fluviatilis. An excess in the frequency of MN erythrocyte cells in roach and pike (Esox lucius blood relatively the level of spontaneous mutagenesis was observed in the cross section №2, which is exposed to sewage waters. The observed manifestation of degenerative processes in fish organisms at this stage can be evaluated as an increased reactivity of sensitive species to the presence of mutagenic agents in the composition of river pollution. The functioning of spawning populations gives reason to believe that the current level of human impact is not critical for the hydroecosystem. Originality. For the first time we obtained data on the stability of development and cytogenetic homeostasis of fish populations in the hydroecosystem of Rivne region in current conditions of anthropogenic stress. Practical value. The obtained results can be used for

  13. Living with, managing and minimising treatment burden in long term conditions: a systematic review of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, Sara; Gonçalves, Ana-Carolina; Areia, Carlos; Oliveira, Rúben; Marcos, Ana Jorge; Marques, Alda; Parmar, Ranj; Hunt, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    'Treatment burden', defined as both the workload and impact of treatment regimens on function and well-being, has been associated with poor adherence and unfavourable outcomes. Previous research focused on treatment workload but our understanding of treatment impact is limited. This research aimed to systematically review qualitative research to identify: 1) what are the treatment generated disruptions experienced by patients across all chronic conditions and treatments? 2) what strategies do patients employ to minimise these treatment generated disruptions? The search strategy centred on: treatment burden and qualitative methods. Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and PsychINFO were searched electronically from inception to Dec 2013. No language limitations were set. Teams of two reviewers independently conducted paper screening, data extraction, and data analysis. Data were analysed using framework synthesis informed by Cumulative Complexity Model. Eleven papers reporting data from 294 patients, across a range of conditions, age groups and nationalities were included. Treatment burdens were experienced as a series of disruptions: biographical disruptions involved loss of freedom and independence, restriction of meaningful activities, negative emotions and stigma; relational disruptions included strained family and social relationships and feeling isolated; and, biological disruptions involved physical side-effects. Patients employed "adaptive treatment work" and "rationalised non-adherence" to minimise treatment disruptions. Rationalised non-adherence was sanctioned by health professionals at end of life; at other times it was a "secret-act" which generated feelings of guilt and impacted on family and clinical relationships. Treatments generate negative emotions and physical side effects, strain relationships and affect identity. Patients minimise these disruptions through additional adaptive work and/or by non-adherence. This affects physical outcomes and care

  14. Living with, managing and minimising treatment burden in long term conditions: a systematic review of qualitative research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Demain

    Full Text Available 'Treatment burden', defined as both the workload and impact of treatment regimens on function and well-being, has been associated with poor adherence and unfavourable outcomes. Previous research focused on treatment workload but our understanding of treatment impact is limited. This research aimed to systematically review qualitative research to identify: 1 what are the treatment generated disruptions experienced by patients across all chronic conditions and treatments? 2 what strategies do patients employ to minimise these treatment generated disruptions?The search strategy centred on: treatment burden and qualitative methods. Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and PsychINFO were searched electronically from inception to Dec 2013. No language limitations were set. Teams of two reviewers independently conducted paper screening, data extraction, and data analysis. Data were analysed using framework synthesis informed by Cumulative Complexity Model. Eleven papers reporting data from 294 patients, across a range of conditions, age groups and nationalities were included. Treatment burdens were experienced as a series of disruptions: biographical disruptions involved loss of freedom and independence, restriction of meaningful activities, negative emotions and stigma; relational disruptions included strained family and social relationships and feeling isolated; and, biological disruptions involved physical side-effects. Patients employed "adaptive treatment work" and "rationalised non-adherence" to minimise treatment disruptions. Rationalised non-adherence was sanctioned by health professionals at end of life; at other times it was a "secret-act" which generated feelings of guilt and impacted on family and clinical relationships.Treatments generate negative emotions and physical side effects, strain relationships and affect identity. Patients minimise these disruptions through additional adaptive work and/or by non-adherence. This affects physical outcomes and

  15. Oral conditions and dysphagia in Japanese, community-dwelling middle- and older- aged adults, independent in daily living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Akinari; Takahashi, Ippei; Kurauchi, Sizuka; Soma, Yuki; Oyama, Toshiaki; Tamura, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Takao; Murashita, Kouichi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Prevention, early detection and effective rehabilitation of dysphagia are important issues to be considered in an aging society. Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the association between dysphagia and its potential risk factors, including age, malnutrition, oral conditions, lifestyle and medical history. Herein, we assessed the prevalence and association of dysphagia with potential risk factors in 50- to 79-year-old adults dwelling in a community in Japan. Patients and methods In this study, there were 532 participants (185 males and 347 females). Participants who responded positively to the question “Do you sometimes choke on drinks/food such as tea and soup?” or those who presented with abnormal repetitive saliva swallowing test findings were diagnosed with dysphagia. The data collected from these participants included the following: number of teeth, occurrence of oral dryness, age, body mass index, serum albumin concentration, smoking, drinking and exercise habits, presence of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and questions from the Mini–Mental State Examination. Results Dysphagia was observed in 33 males (17.8%) and 76 females (21.9%). To explore the effect of the potential risk factors on the prevalence of dysphagia, a model was built by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Using the forced entry method, oral dryness (odds ratio [OR] =3.683 and P=0.003 in males; OR =1.797 and P=0.032 in females) and the number of teeth (OR =0.946 and P=0.038 in males) were found to be significantly related to dysphagia. Conclusion This cross-sectional study demonstrated associations between oral conditions and dysphagia. Factors such as oral dryness and number of teeth may contribute to dysphagia more so than aging, lifestyle and comorbidity in community-dwelling adults over the age of 50. PMID:28352164

  16. Analysis of the equilibrium conditions of a double rotor turbine prototype designed for the exploitation of the tidal currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarelli, Silvio; Amelio, Mario; Castiglione, Teresa; Florio, Gaetano; Scornaienchi, Nino M.; Cutrupi, Antonino; Lo Zupone, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A design a new self-balancing turbine collecting energy from tidal currents has been presented. • The equilibrium in the sea is guaranteed by a central deflector inserted in the blades disc. • The sizing procedure of the turbine needs the knowledge of lift and drag coefficients of the deflector. • A CDF analysis has been carried out for estimating these parameters. • The feasibility of a first pilot plant in the Calabrian site of Punta Pezzo (Italy) has been evaluated. - Abstract: For several years the Department of Mechanical, Energy and Management Engineering (DIMEG), in collaboration with SintEnergy Srl, has been performing researches for the exploitation of tidal currents. An innovative turbine has been developed, anchored to the coast, which does not require the supporting structures on the seabed and should reduces installation costs and environmental impact. This machine, in its latest version, proposes the use of two concentric and contra-rotating rotors, in order to require a small, or non-existent, stabilizing torque. In the present work the machine equilibrium conditions have been defined and, by a CFD analysis, the lift and drag coefficients of the central deflector have been calculated, together with a final machine design procedure. As a case study, applying the above procedure for a machine installed on the Messina strait, the energy output and the payback period have been estimated

  17. Enhancement of Operating Efficiency Of The Central Coal-Preparation Plant of "MMK - UGOL" Ltd. Under Current Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basarygin, Maksim

    2017-11-01

    In this article the subject of enhancement of operating efficiency of the central coal-preparation plant of OOO "MMK-UGOL" is encompassed. Modern trends in the development of technologies and equipment for coal beneficiation are due to the following requirements: improving competitiveness of coal products, improvement of quality of marketable products, reduction of coal production cost, environmental requirements: polluting emission abatement, prepared coal saving, improvement of the effectiveness of resource conservation; complex mechanization and beneficiation process automation. In the article the contemporary problems of raw coal benefication under current conditions of the increased dilution of withdrawable coals with rock fractions are considered. Comparative analysis of efficiency of application of modern concentrating equipment under the conditions of the CCPP of OOO "MMK-UGOL" is carried out on the basis of research works. Particular attention is paid to dehydration of produced coal concentrate with content of volatile agents of more than 35.0% and content of fine-dispersed particles in flotation concentrate of more than 50.0%. Comparative analysis of the coal concentrate dehydration technologies is conducted.

  18. Snacks containing whey protein and polydextrose induce a sustained reduction in daily energy intake over 2 wk under free-living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astbury, Nerys M; Taylor, Moira A; French, Stephen J; Macdonald, Ian A

    2014-05-01

    The manipulation of the composition of foods consumed as between-meal snacks may aid daily energy restriction. We compared the effects of the consumption of 2 energy-matched snack bars on appetite, energy intake (EI), and metabolic and endocrine responses. In addition, we investigated whether the acute effects of the consumption of snacks were maintained under free-living conditions and whether the habitual daily consumption of the snack over 14 d influenced these effects. Ten lean men [mean ± SD age: 30.7 ± 9.7 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 23.2 ± 2.8] consumed a whey protein and polydextrose (PPX) snack bar or an isoenergetic control snack bar as a midmorning, between-meal snack for 14 consecutive days in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. The two 14-d intervention phases were separated by a 14-d washout period. On the first (day 1) and last (day 15) days of each intervention phase, appetite, food intake, and blood metabolite and endocrine responses were assessed under laboratory conditions. Free-living EI was recorded on days 4, 8, and 12 of interventions. Total daily EI was significantly lower when the PPX snack was consumed during experimental days (10,149 ± 831 compared with 11,931 ± 896 kJ; P snack was consumed during the free-living part of the intervention (7904 ± 610 compared with 9041 ± 928 kJ; P snack was associated with lower glucose and ghrelin and higher glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine responses. The manipulation of the composition of foods consumed as snacks is an effective way to limit subsequent EI. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01927926.

  19. Prevalence of dental caries in 5-year-old Greek children and the use of dental services: evaluation of socioeconomic, behavioural factors and living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantonanaki, Magdalini; Koletsi-Kounari, Haroula; Mamai-Homata, Eleni; Papaioannou, William

    2013-04-01

    To assess dental caries and use of dental services experience in 5-year-old children attending public kindergartens in Attica, Greece and to examine the influence of certain socioeconomic factors and living conditions as well as dental behaviours and attitudes. In this cross-sectional study, a random and stratified sample of 605 Greek children was examined using decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces and simplified debris indices. The use of dental services was measured by children's dental visits (any dental visit up to the age of 5 years). Care Index was also calculated. Risk indicators were assessed by a questionnaire. Zero-inflated Poisson and Logistic Regression Analysis were generated to test statistical significant associations. The prevalence of dental caries was 16.5%. Care Index was 32% and dental visits were reported for the 84% of the children. Medium Socio-Economic Level (SEL) was associated with no detectable caries. High SEL was related to decreased decayed, missing, filled teeth values, while female gender and rented houses had the opposite effect. The age of the mother (35-39 years) and the higher SEL were related to higher levels of dental services use. It is suggested that there are differences in the experience of dental caries and use of dental services among preschool children in Attica, which are related to demographic, socioeconomic factors and living conditions. Dental public polices should focus on groups with specific characteristics in order to improve oral health levels of disease-susceptible populations. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  20. Physiological And Blood Biochemical Responses To Dried Live Yeast Plus Vitamin E As A Dietary Supplement To Bovine Baladi Calves Under Hot Summer Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDALLA, E.B.; EL-MASRY, K.A.; TEAMA, F.E.; EMARA, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study the effect of supplemented dried live yeast (DLY) + vitamin E to the diet of growing calves under hot summer conditions in Egypt. Six bovine Baladi calves with 115 kg initial body weight and 8-10 months old were used during two periods. In the first period, the calves were offered the concentrated basal diet only for one month and considered as a control period. In the second period, the calves were fed the same basal diet which supplemented with 15 g dried live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) + 600 IU vitamin E (alpha- tocopherol) per calf daily for one month and considered as a treated period. Body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of each period, and daily gain was calculated for each animal. Blood samples were collected from each animal at the end of each period to determine some blood biochemical parameters and T 3 and T 4 concentrations as well as some immunological indices.The results showed that supplementation of DLY + 600 IU vitamin E to the diet of calves reduced significantly (P 3 and T 4 levels and improved feed efficiency and daily gain. It is concluded that supplementation of growing calves with 15 g DLY + 600 IU vitamin E / calf / day under Egyptian hot summer conditions reduced the effect of heat stress as shown by a decline in RT and modified most blood constituents and thyroid function which leads to an improvement in growing calves

  1. Current Guidelines Have Limited Applicability to Patients with Comorbid Conditions: A Systematic Analysis of Evidence-Based Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugtenberg, Marjolein; Burgers, Jako S.; Clancy, Carolyn; Westert, Gert P.; Schneider, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Guidelines traditionally focus on the diagnosis and treatment of single diseases. As almost half of the patients with a chronic disease have more than one disease, the applicability of guidelines may be limited. The aim of this study was to assess the extent that guidelines address comorbidity and to assess the supporting evidence of recommendations related to comorbidity. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a systematic analysis of evidence-based guidelines focusing on four highly prevalent chronic conditions with a high impact on quality of life: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depressive disorder, diabetes mellitus type 2, and osteoarthritis. Data were abstracted from each guideline on the extent that comorbidity was addressed (general comments, specific recommendations), the type of comorbidity discussed (concordant, discordant), and the supporting evidence of the comorbidity-related recommendations (level of evidence, translation of evidence). Of the 20 guidelines, 17 (85%) addressed the issue of comorbidity and 14 (70%) provided specific recommendations on comorbidity. In general, the guidelines included few recommendations on patients with comorbidity (mean 3 recommendations per guideline, range 0 to 26). Of the 59 comorbidity-related recommendations provided, 46 (78%) addressed concordant comorbidities, 8 (14%) discordant comorbidities, and for 5 (8%) the type of comorbidity was not specified. The strength of the supporting evidence was moderate for 25% (15/59) and low for 37% (22/59) of the recommendations. In addition, for 73% (43/59) of the recommendations the evidence was not adequately translated into the guidelines. Conclusions/Significance Our study showed that the applicability of current evidence-based guidelines to patients with comorbid conditions is limited. Most guidelines do not provide explicit guidance on treatment of patients with comorbidity, particularly for discordant combinations. Guidelines should be more

  2. Oral conditions and dysphagia in Japanese, community-dwelling middle- and older- aged adults, independent in daily living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inui A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Akinari Inui,1 Ippei Takahashi,2 Sizuka Kurauchi,2 Yuki Soma,2 Toshiaki Oyama,1 Yoshihiro Tamura,1 Takao Noguchi,1 Kouichi Murashita,3 Shigeyuki Nakaji,2 Wataru Kobayashi1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2Department of Social Medicine, 3COI Research Initiatives Organization, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori Prefecture, Japan Purpose: Prevention, early detection and effective rehabilitation of dysphagia are important issues to be considered in an aging society. Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the association between dysphagia and its potential risk factors, including age, malnutrition, oral conditions, lifestyle and medical history. Herein, we assessed the prevalence and association of dysphagia with potential risk factors in 50- to 79-year-old adults dwelling in a community in Japan. Patients and methods: In this study, there were 532 participants (185 males and 347 females. Participants who responded positively to the question “Do you sometimes choke on drinks/food such as tea and soup?” or those who presented with abnormal repetitive saliva swallowing test findings were diagnosed with dysphagia. The data collected from these participants included the following: number of teeth, occurrence of oral dryness, age, body mass index, serum albumin concentration, smoking, drinking and exercise habits, presence of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and questions from the Mini–Mental State Examination. Results: Dysphagia was observed in 33 males (17.8% and 76 females (21.9%. To explore the effect of the potential risk factors on the prevalence of dysphagia, a model was built by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Using the forced entry method, oral dryness (odds ratio [OR] =3.683 and P=0.003 in males; OR =1.797 and P=0.032 in females and the number of teeth (OR =0.946 and P=0.038 in males were found to be significantly related to dysphagia

  3. Amplification of 9q34 in childhood adrenocortical tumors: a specific feature unrelated to ethnic origin or living conditions

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    Figueiredo B.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical tumors (ACT in children under 15 years of age exhibit some clinical and biological features distinct from ACT in adults. Cell proliferation, hypertrophy and cell death in adrenal cortex during the last months of gestation and the immediate postnatal period seem to be critical for the origin of ACT in children. Studies with large numbers of patients with childhood ACT have indicated a median age at diagnosis of about 4 years. In our institution, the median age was 3 years and 5 months, while the median age for first signs and symptoms was 2 years and 5 months (N = 72. Using the comparative genomic hybridization technique, we have reported a high frequency of 9q34 amplification in adenomas and carcinomas. This finding has been confirmed more recently by investigators in England. The lower socioeconomic status, the distinctive ethnic groups and all the regional differences in Southern Brazil in relation to patients in England indicate that these differences are not important to determine 9q34 amplification. Candidate amplified genes mapped to this locus are currently being investigated and Southern blot results obtained so far have discarded amplification of the abl oncogene. Amplification of 9q34 has not been found to be related to tumor size, staging, or malignant histopathological features, nor does it seem to be responsible for the higher incidence of ACT observed in Southern Brazil, but could be related to an ACT from embryonic origin.

  4. Assessment of Power Potential of Tidal Currents and Impacts of Power Extraction on Flow Conditions in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Kadir; Mayerle, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is an urgent and potentially irreversible threat to human societies and the planet and thus requires an effective and appropriate response, with a view to accelerating the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. At this point, a worldwide shift to renewable energy is crucial. In this study, a methodology comprising of the estimates of power yield, evaluation of the effects of power extraction on flow conditions, and near-field investigations to deliver wake characteristics, recovery and interactions is described and applied to several straits in Indonesia. Site selection is done with high-resolution, three-dimensional flow models providing sufficient spatiotemporal coverage. Much attention has been given to the meteorological forcing, and conditions at the open sea boundaries to adequately capture the density gradients and flow fields. Model verifications using tidal records show excellent agreement. Sites with adequate depth for the energy conversion using horizontal axis tidal turbines, average kinetic power density greater than 0.5 kW/m2, and surface area larger than 0.5km2 are defined as energy hotspots. Spatial variation of the average extractable electric power is determined, and annual tidal energy resource is estimated for the straits in question. The results showed that the potential for tidal power generation in Indonesia is likely to exceed previous predictions reaching around 4,800MW. Models with higher resolutions have been developed to assess the impacts of devices on flow conditions and to resolve near-field turbine wakes in greater detail. The energy is assumed to be removed uniformly by sub-grid scale arrays of turbines. An additional drag force resulting in dissipation of the pre-existing kinetic power from 10% to 60% within a flow cross-section is introduced to capture the impacts. k-ɛ model, which is a second order turbulence closure model is selected to involve the effects of the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent

  5. Living with a crab: effect of Austinotheres angelicus (Brachyura, Pinnotheridae infestation on the condition of Saccostrea palmula (Ostreoida, Ostreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Mena

    Full Text Available Some members of the Pinnotheridae family exhibit close symbiotic relationships with bivalves, which may cause severe damage to the mollusk. The condition index (CI is a tool that serves to evaluate the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on the morphology and physiology of mollusks, including those caused by symbiotic organisms. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of the infestation of the pinnotherid crab Austinotheres angelicus on the oyster Saccostrea palmula through monthly sampling (April to November 2012 in Punta Morales, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. A total of 245 oysters were analyzed, of which 38% were infested by the pinnotherid crab. Most of the oysters analyzed (92% varied in depth between 1.5 and 15.0 mm; 89% of the infested oysters were in this depth range. The prevalence was positively correlated with the depth of the oyster. Our results revealed that crab infestation could reduce the CI by 11 to 33%. The obtained findings suggest that the infestation by A. angelicus provokes alterations of the flesh production of the oyster, especially when the association is with a pair of crabs including an ovigerous female. The association of A. angelicus with S. palmula is best described as facultative parasitism for male crabs and obligatory parasitism for females.

  6. Medium activity long-lived nuclear waste; microbial paradise or hadean environment - Evaluation of biomass and impact on redox conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.; Libert, M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The evaluation of the impact of possible microbial activity in nuclear waste cells has been a subject for more than a quarter of a century. Some of the items of interest in relation to microbial impact on near field biogeochemistry indicated in Table 1 had already been known as pertinent. Recently, it became clear that a distinction needed to be made between high-level, vitrified waste and organic matter containing intermediate-level waste, of which the bituminized waste is used as an example here. For high-level waste the canister walls play an important safety role and the most probable limiting aspects, next to space and water, are the low concentrations in organic matter as a carbon source and phosphorous and nitrogen as essential elements. In this particular case, microbially induced corrosion is of primary concern. In the case of the French intermediate bituminized waste, primary interest is on the impact of microbial activity on redox reactions, with the high pH environment, as a consequence of the concrete engineered barrier, as the most probable limiting condition. The canister wall has no explicit long-term safety role and all components for microbial activity will become readily available. The presence of nitrates, sulphates and Fe(III) as electron acceptors and organic matter, hydrogen gas and zero-valent metals (i.e. Fe) as electron donors allows the system to supply energy for bacterial activity and to move through the entire redox sequence from O 2 (present only shortly after waste-cell closure) to nitrate, Fe(III), sulphate and organic matter reduction. Prevailing uncertainties do not allow specification of timing for the redox-changes. These uncertainties are essentially related to the lack of knowledge regarding microbial catalysis. As no natural or anthropogenic analogues are available, parameters need to be obtained from experiments. Two approaches will be presented that allow estimation of the

  7. CT Scan of Thirteen Natural Mummies Dating Back to the XVI-XVIII Centuries: An Emerging Tool to Investigate Living Conditions and Diseases in History.

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    Enrico Petrella

    Full Text Available To correlate the radiologic findings detected with computed tomography scan with anthropological data in 13 naturally mummified bodies discovered during works of recovery of an ancient church in a crypt in Roccapelago, in the Italian Apennines.From a group of about sixty not-intentionally mummified bodies, thirteen were selected to be investigated with volumetric computed tomography (CT. Once CT scan was performed, axial images were processed to gather MPR and Volume Rendering reconstructions. Elaborations of these images provided anthropometric measurements and a non-invasive analysis of the residual anatomical structures. For each body the grade of preservation and the eventual pathological changes were recorded. Furthermore, in order to identify nutritional and occupational markers, radiologic signs of bone tropism and degenerative changes were analysed and graded.Mummies included seven females and six males, with an estimated age ranging from 20 to 60 years. The first relevant finding identified was a general low grade of preservation, due to the lack of anatomic tissues different from bones, tendons and dehydrated skin. The low grade of preservation was related to the natural process of mummification. Analysing bone degenerative changes on CT scan, the majority of the bodies had significant occupational markers consisting of arthritis in the spine, lower limbs and shoulders even in young age. Few were the pathological findings identified. Among these, the most relevant included a severe bilateral congenital hip dysplasia and a wide osteolytic lesion involving left orbit and petrous bone that was likely the cause of death.Although the low grade of preservation of these mummies, the multidisciplinary approach of anthropologists and radiologists allowed several important advances in knowledge for the epidemiology of Roccapelago. First of all, a profile of living conditions was delineated. It included occupational and nutritional conditions

  8. Association between Satisfaction with State of Health and Meals, Physical Condition and Food Diversity, Health Behavior, and Perceptions of Shopping Difficulty among Older People Living Alone in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M; Yokoyama, T; Takemi, Y; Fukuda, Y; Nakaya, T; Kusama, K; Yoshiike, N; Nozue, M; Yoshiba, K; Murayama, N

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine perceptions of shopping difficulty, and the relationships with satisfaction with state of health and meals, physical condition, food diversity and health behavior in older people living alone in Japan. A cross-sectional, multilevel survey was designed. The questionnaire was distributed by mail and self-completed by participants. The sample was drawn from seven towns and cities across Japan. A geographic information system was used to select the sample of older people living alone, by proximity to a supermarket. In total, 2,346 older people (827 men and 1,519 women) completed the questionnaire. The dependent variable was whether shopping was easy or difficult. A logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, socioeconomic status and proximity of residence to a supermarket using stepwise variable analyses. The response rate was 67.8%. Overall, 14.5% of men and 21.7% of women considered shopping difficult. The stepwise logistic analysis showed that the factors most strongly related to shopping difficulty were a subjective feeling of poor health (men: OR = 3.01, women: OR = 2.16) and lack of satisfaction with meals (men: OR = 2.82, women: OR = 3.69). Other related physical condition and dietary factors were requiring nursing care (men: OR = 3.69, women: OR = 1.54), a high level of frailty, measured using the frailty index score (women: OR = 0.36) and low food diversity score (men: OR = 1.84, women: OR = 1.36). The study found that older people's assessment of their shopping difficulty was related to satisfaction aspects, including a subjective feeling of poor health, and lack of satisfaction with meals, as well as physical condition. These have a greater influence on shopping difficulty than income in both sexes, and proximity to a supermarket in women.

  9. Basin-scale simulation of current and potential climate changed hydrologic conditions in the Lake Michigan Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Daniel E.; Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) is the largest public investment in the Great Lakes in two decades. A task force of 11 Federal agencies developed an action plan to implement the initiative. The U.S. Department of the Interior was one of the 11 agencies that entered into an interagency agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as part of the GLRI to complete scientific projects throughout the Great Lakes basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, a bureau within the Department of the Interior, is involved in the GLRI to provide scientific support to management decisions as well as measure progress of the Great Lakes basin restoration efforts. This report presents basin-scale simulated current and forecast climatic and hydrologic conditions in the Lake Michigan Basin. The forecasts were obtained by constructing and calibrating a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model of the Lake Michigan Basin; the PRMS model was calibrated using the parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis (PEST) software suite. The calibrated model was used to evaluate potential responses to climate change by using four simulated carbon emission scenarios from eight general circulation models released by the World Climate Research Programme’s Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3. Statistically downscaled datasets of these scenarios were used to project hydrologic response for the Lake Michigan Basin. In general, most of the observation sites in the Lake Michigan Basin indicated slight increases in annual streamflow in response to future climate change scenarios. Monthly streamflows indicated a general shift from the current (2014) winter-storage/snowmelt-pulse system to a system with a more equally distributed hydrograph throughout the year. Simulated soil moisture within the basin illustrates that conditions within the basin are also expected to change on a monthly timescale. One effect of increasing air temperature as a result of the changing

  10. Modeling Nitrogen Losses in Conventional and Advanced Soil-Based Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems under Current and Changing Climate Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ivan; Cooper, Jennifer; Amador, José A; Boving, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    Most of the non-point source nitrogen (N) load in rural areas is attributed to onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). Nitrogen compounds cause eutrophication, depleting the oxygen in marine ecosystems. OWTS rely on physical, chemical and biological soil processes to treat wastewater and these processes may be affected by climate change. We simulated the fate and transport of N in different types of OWTS drainfields, or soil treatment areas (STA) under current and changing climate scenarios, using 2D/3D HYDRUS software. Experimental data from a mesocosm-scale study, including soil moisture content, and total N, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, were used to calibrate the model. A water content-dependent function was used to compute the nitrification and denitrification rates. Three types of drainfields were simulated: (1) a pipe-and-stone (P&S), (2) advanced soil drainfields, pressurized shallow narrow drainfield (PSND) and (3) Geomat (GEO), a variation of SND. The model was calibrated with acceptable goodness-of-fit between the observed and measured values. Average root mean square error (RSME) ranged from 0.18 and 2.88 mg L-1 for NH4+ and 4.45 mg L-1 to 9.65 mg L-1 for NO3- in all drainfield types. The calibrated model was used to estimate N fluxes for both conventional and advanced STAs under current and changing climate conditions, i.e. increased soil temperature and higher water table. The model computed N losses from nitrification and denitrification differed little from measured losses in all STAs. The modeled N losses occurred mostly as NO3- in water outputs, accounting for more than 82% of N inputs in all drainfields. Losses as N2 were estimated to be 10.4% and 9.7% of total N input concentration for SND and Geo, respectively. The highest N2 losses, 17.6%, were estimated for P&S. Losses as N2 increased to 22%, 37% and 21% under changing climate conditions for Geo, PSND and P&S, respectively. These findings can provide practitioners

  11. Benefits of Substituting Sitting with Standing and Walking in Free-Living Conditions for Cardiometabolic Risk Markers, Cognition and Mood in Overweight Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard M. F. M. Duvivier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: We investigated whether substituting sitting with standing and self-perceived light walking in free-living conditions would improve cardiometabolic risk factors, mood, and cognition in overweight/obese adults.Methods: In a randomized, cross-over study, 24 (m/f: 13/11 sedentary overweight/obese participants (64 ± 7 years, BMI 29 ± 2 kg/m2 followed two activity regimens of each 4 days in free-living conditions: “Sit”: sitting 13.5 h/day, standing 1.4 h/day, self-perceived light-intensity walking 0.7 h/day; for “SitLess” these activities lasted 7.6, 4.0, and 4.3 h/day, respectively. Meals were standardized and physical activity was assessed by accelerometry (activPAL. Insulin sensitivity (expressed as Matsuda-index based on an oral glucose tolerance test, circulating lipids, blood pressure, mood (pleasantness and arousal, and cognition were assessed on the morning after the activity regimens. Quality of life and sleep were assessed on the last day of the activity regimens.Results: We observed that AUC (0–190 min for insulin decreased by 20% after SitLess vs. Sit [10,125 (656 vs. 12,633 (818; p = 0.006]. Insulin sensitivity improved by 16% after SitLess vs. Sit [Matsuda-index, mean (SEM: 6.45 (0.25 vs. 5.58 (0.25 respectively; p = 0.007]. Fasting triglycerides, non-HDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B decreased by 32, 7, and 4% respectively, whereas HDL-cholesterol increased by 7% after SitLess vs. Sit (all p < 0.01. Diastolic blood pressure was lower after SitLess vs. Sit (p < 0.05. Pleasantness (as one marker of mood status after the oral glucose tolerance test was higher after SitLess vs. Sit (p < 0.05. There was no significant difference between regimens for cognition, quality of life and sleep.Conclusions: Reducing sitting time in free-living conditions markedly improved insulin sensitivity, circulating lipids, and diastolic blood pressure. Substituting sitting with standing and self-perceived light walking is an

  12. Associations Between Self-Efficacy and Secondary Health Conditions in People Living With Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diemen, Tijn; Crul, Tim; van Nes, Ilse; Geertzen, Jan H; Post, Marcel W

    2017-12-01

    To describe the association between self-efficacy and secondary health conditions (SHCs) in people living with spinal cord injury (SCI). PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and CINAHL were systematically searched from database inception to September 2016. Studies describing patients living with SCI in which self-efficacy was measured by a standardized questionnaire and an association was made with somatic or psychological SHCs. An independent extraction by multiple observers was performed based on the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statements checklist. A meta-analysis concerning the association between self-efficacy and SHCs in people with SCI was performed if a minimum of 4 comparable studies were available. Of 670 unique articles screened, 22 met the inclusion criteria. Seven of these 22 studies investigated associations between self-efficacy and somatic SHCs. Only a trend toward an association between higher self-efficacy and less pain, fatigue, number of SHCs, and limitations caused by SHCs was found. Twenty-one studies described the association between self-efficacy and psychological SHCs. All correlations of higher self-efficacy with fewer depressive (18 studies) and anxiety symptoms (7 studies) were significant, and meta-analysis showed a strong negative correlation of -.536 (-.584 to -.484) and -.493 (-.577 to -.399), respectively. A small number of studies (2) showed a trend toward a positive correlation between self-efficacy and quality of life. Self-efficacy is negatively associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms in SCI. Therefore, self-efficacy seems an important target in the rehabilitation of patients living with SCI. More research is necessary to clarify the associations between self-efficacy and somatic SHCs. Future research should also focus on different types of self-efficacy and their association with SHCs. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  13. Endolithic algae in living stony corals: algal concentrations under influence of depth-dependent light conditions and coral tissue fluorescence in Agaricia agaricites (L.) and Meandrina meandrites (L.) (Scleractinia, Anthozoa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delvoye, Laurent

    1992-01-01

    DELVOYE, L., 1992. Endolithic algae in living stony corals: Algal concentrations under influence of depth-dependent light conditions and coral tissue fluorescence in Agaricia agaricites (L) and Meandrina meandrites (L.) (Sclereactinia, Anthozoa). Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 71, Amsterdam

  14. Experimental Investigation of an Automobile Air-Conditioning System using Integrated Brushless Direct Current Motor Rotary Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukri M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents an experimental investigation on the effect of condenser air inlet temperature and dimensionless parameter of X on the performance of automobile air-conditioning (AAC system using integrated brushless direct current motor-rotary compressor and electronic expansion valve. The other components of AAC system are from original component of AAC system used for medium size passenger car. The experimental results showed that the increment of the condenser air inlet temperature and X caused an increase in condensing temperature, cooling capacity and compressor work, while decreasing the coefficient of performance (COP. Meanwhile, the evaporating temperature increase with the increment of condenser air inlet temperature, but decrease with decrement of X. In general, AAC system have to work at higher value of X in order to produce more cooling capacity, thereby increment in compressor work also occurs due to energy balance. However, at higher value of X, the COP of the system dropped due to dominant increase in compressor power, as opposed to a rise in cooling capacity. Due to this reason, the best operation of this compressor occurs at X = 4.96 for constant T5 (35ºC, or at T5 = 30ºC for constant X (4.96.

  15. Analysis of influence of heat exchange conditions on the outer surface of the lithium-ion battery to electrolyte temperature under the conditions of high current loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoshlykov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of thermal conditions of a lithium-ion battery using the software package ANSYS Electric and ANSYS Fluent has been carried out. Time dependence of the electrolyte temperature on the various heat exchange conditions on the outer surface has been obtained.

  16. Mitigation potential of horizontal ground coupled heat pumps for current and future climatic conditions: UK environmental modelling and monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, Raquel; Verhoef, Anne; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Gan, Guohui; Wu, Yupeng; Hughes, Andrew; Mansour, Majdi; Blyth, Eleanor; Finch, Jon; Main, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    model predictions of soil moisture content and soil temperature with measurements at different GCHP locations over the UK. The combined effect of environment dynamics and horizontal GCHP technical properties on long-term GCHP performance will be assessed using a detailed land surface model (JULES: Joint UK Land Environment Simulator, Meteorological Office, UK) with additional equations embedded describing the interaction between GCHP heat exchangers and the surrounding soil. However, a number of key soil physical processes are currently not incorporated in JULES, such as groundwater flow, which, especially in lowland areas, can have an important effect on the heat flow between soil and HE. Furthermore, the interaction between HE and soil may also cause soil vapour and moisture fluxes. These will affect soil thermal conductivity and hence heat flow between the HE and the surrounding soil, which will in turn influence system performance. The project will address these issues. We propose to drive an improved version of JULES (with equations to simulate GCHP exchange embedded), with long-term gridded (1 km) atmospheric, soil and vegetation data (reflecting current and future environmental conditions) to reliably assess the mitigation potential of GCHPs over the entire domain of the UK, where uptake of GCHPs has been low traditionally. In this way we can identify areas that are most suitable for the installation of GCHPs. Only then recommendations can be made to local and regional governments, for example, on how to improve the mitigation potential in less suitable areas by adjusting GCHP configurations or design.

  17. Validity of Garmin Vívofit and Polar Loop for measuring daily step counts in free-living conditions in adults

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    Adam Šimůnek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wrist activity trackers (WATs are becoming popular and widely used for the monitoring of physical activity. However, the validity of many WATs in measuring steps remains unknown. Objective: To determine the validity of the following WATs: Garmin Vívofit (Vívofit and Polar Loop (Loop, by comparing them with well-validated devices, Yamax Digiwalker SW-701 pedometer (Yamax and hip-mounted ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer (ActiGraph, in healthy adults. Methods: In free-living conditions, adult volunteers (N = 20 aged 25 to 52 years wore two WATs (Vívofit and Loop with Yamax and ActiGraph simultaneously over a 7 day period. The validity of Vívofit and Loop was assessed by comparing each device with the Yamax and ActiGraph, using a paired samples t-test, mean absolute percentage errors, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and Bland-Altman plots. Results: The differences between average steps per day were significant for all devices, except the difference between Vívofit and Yamax (p = .06; d = 0.2. Compared with Yamax and ActiGraph, the mean absolute percentage errors of Vívofit were -4.0% and 12.5%, respectively. For Loop the mean absolute percentage error was 8.9% compared with Yamax and 28.0% compared with ActiGraph. Vívofit showed a very strong correlation with both Yamax and ActiGraph (ICC = .89. Loop showed a very strong correlation with Yamax (ICC = .89 and a strong correlation with ActiGraph (ICC = .70. Conclusions: Vívofit showed higher validity than Loop in measuring daily step counts in free-living conditions. Loop appears to overestimate the daily number of steps in individuals who take more steps during a day.

  18. Benefits of Substituting Sitting with Standing and Walking in Free-Living Conditions for Cardiometabolic Risk Markers, Cognition and Mood in Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvivier, Bernard M F M; Schaper, Nicolaas C; Koster, Annemarie; van Kan, Linh; Peters, Harry P F; Adam, Jos J; Giesbrecht, Timo; Kornips, Esther; Hulsbosch, Martine; Willems, Paul; Hesselink, Matthijs K C; Schrauwen, Patrick; Savelberg, Hans H C M

    2017-01-01

    Background: We investigated whether substituting sitting with standing and self-perceived light walking in free-living conditions would improve cardiometabolic risk factors, mood, and cognition in overweight/obese adults. Methods: In a randomized, cross-over study, 24 (m/f: 13/11) sedentary overweight/obese participants (64 ± 7 years, BMI 29 ± 2 kg/m 2 ) followed two activity regimens of each 4 days in free-living conditions: "Sit": sitting 13.5 h/day, standing 1.4 h/day, self-perceived light-intensity walking 0.7 h/day; for "SitLess" these activities lasted 7.6, 4.0, and 4.3 h/day, respectively. Meals were standardized and physical activity was assessed by accelerometry (activPAL). Insulin sensitivity (expressed as Matsuda-index based on an oral glucose tolerance test), circulating lipids, blood pressure, mood (pleasantness and arousal), and cognition were assessed on the morning after the activity regimens. Quality of life and sleep were assessed on the last day of the activity regimens. Results: We observed that AUC (0-190 min) for insulin decreased by 20% after SitLess vs. Sit [10,125 (656) vs. 12,633 (818); p = 0.006]. Insulin sensitivity improved by 16% after SitLess vs. Sit [Matsuda-index, mean (SEM): 6.45 (0.25) vs. 5.58 (0.25) respectively; p = 0.007]. Fasting triglycerides, non-HDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B decreased by 32, 7, and 4% respectively, whereas HDL-cholesterol increased by 7% after SitLess vs. Sit (all p walking is an effective strategy to improve cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese subjects.

  19. Book Review Who lives where. Habitability conditions of the population living in the great Andalusian cities / Reseña Del Libro Quién vive dónde. Las condiciones de habitabilidad de la población que vive en las grandes ciudades andaluzas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sánchez González

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Who lives where. Habitability conditions of the population living in the great Andalusian cities Reseña Del Libro Quién vive dónde. Las condiciones de habitabilidad de la población que vive en las grandes ciudades andaluzas

  20. Interference effects of transcranial direct current stimulation over the right frontal cortex and adrenergic system on conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Soltanpour, Reyhaneh; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrabian, Shahram; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-11-01

    The effects of pharmacological interventions on fear memory have widely been studied, but there are very few studies about the effects of brain electrical stimulation on fear memory function. Therefore, our aim was to determine whether anodal/cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right frontal cortex would modify propranolol-induced contextual and auditory fear memory deficits, before or after training. The adult NMRI male mice were randomly assigned into three groups: the sham group, the anodal tDCS group, and the cathodal tDCS group. Fear memories were evaluated using a classical fear conditioning apparatus. While the anodal stimulation did not affect fear retrieval, post-training cathodal stimulation improved fear memory retrieval. Regardless of when propranolol (0.1 mg/kg) was administered, it impaired fear memory retrieval. However, when anodal stimulation and propranolol were applied prior to the training, contextual fear memory retrieval was increased and auditory fear memory was reversed. An enhanced contextual retrieval was also observed when propranolol was administered prior to the training and stimulation occurred after the training. Only when the stimulation occurred prior to the training and propranolol was administered after the training was there a selective improvement in contextual fear memory retrieval, leaving the auditory fear memory retrieval impaired. Interestingly, cathodal stimulation improved the effects of propranolol on auditory fear memory only when it occurred prior to the training. The results highlight possible improving effects for anodal/cathodal tDCS on propranolol-induced deficits on fear memories. The timing of the interventions related to the specific phases of memory formation is important in modulating fear behaviors.

  1. Branch age and light conditions determine leaf-area-specific conductivity in current shoots of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2016-08-01

    Shoot size and other shoot properties more or less follow the availability of light, but there is also evidence that the topological position in a tree crown has an influence on shoot development. Whether the hydraulic properties of new shoots are more regulated by the light or the position affects the shoot acclimation to changing light conditions and thereby to changing evaporative demand. We investigated the leaf-area-specific conductivity (and its components sapwood-specific conductivity and Huber value) of the current-year shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in relation to light environment and topological position in three different tree classes. The light environment was quantified in terms of simulated transpiration and the topological position was quantified by parent branch age. Sample shoot measurements included length, basal and tip diameter, hydraulic conductivity of the shoot, tracheid area and density, and specific leaf area. In our results, the leaf-area-specific conductivity of new shoots declined with parent branch age and increased with simulated transpiration rate of the shoot. The relation to transpiration demand seemed more decisive, since it gave higher R(2) values than branch age and explained the differences between the tree classes. The trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with simulated transpiration was closely related to Huber value, whereas the trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with parent branch age was related to a similar trend in sapwood-specific conductivity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Fault Ride Though Control of Photovoltaic Grid-connected Inverter with Current-limited Capability under Offshore Unbalanced Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzhao; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) inverter installed on board experiences the excessive current stress in case of the offshore unbalanced voltage fault ride through (FRT), which significantly affects the operation reliability of the power supply system. In order to solve the problem, the inherent mechanism...... of the excessive current phenomenon with the conventional fault ride through control is discussed. The quantitative analysis of the current peak value is conducted and a new current-limiting control strategy is proposed to achieve the flexible power control and successful fault ride through in a safe current...

  3. Web-Based Interventions to Improve Mental Health, General Caregiving Outcomes, and General Health for Informal Caregivers of Adults With Chronic Conditions Living in the Community: Rapid Evidence Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeg, Jenny; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Valaitis, Ruta; McAiney, Carrie; Duggleby, Wendy; Bartholomew, Amy; Sherifali, Diana

    2017-07-28

    Most adults with chronic conditions live at home and rely on informal caregivers to provide support. Caregiving can result in negative impacts such as poor mental and physical health. eHealth interventions may offer effective and accessible ways to provide education and support to informal caregivers. However, we know little about the impact of Web-based interventions for informal caregivers of community-dwelling adults with chronic conditions. The purpose of this rapid evidence review was to assess the impact of Web-based interventions on mental health, general caregiving outcomes, and general health for informal caregivers of persons with chronic conditions living in the community. A rapid evidence review of the current literature was employed to address the study purpose. EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane, and Ageline were searched covering all studies published from January 1995 to July 2016. Papers were included if they (1) included a Web-based modality to deliver an intervention; (2) included informal, unpaid adult caregivers of community-living adults with a chronic condition; (3) were either a randomized controlled trial (RCT) or controlled clinical trial (CCT); and (4) reported on any caregiver outcome as a result of use or exposure to the intervention. A total of 20 papers (17 studies) were included in this review. Study findings were mixed with both statistically significant and nonsignificant findings on various caregiver outcomes. Of the 17 included studies, 10 had at least one significant outcome. The most commonly assessed outcome was mental health, which included depressive symptoms, stress or distress, and anxiety. Twelve papers examined the impact of interventions on the outcome of depressive symptoms; 4 found a significant decrease in depressive symptoms. Eight studies examined the outcome of stress or distress; 4 of these found a significant reduction in stress or distress as a result of the intervention. Three studies examined the

  4. Informing the Design of "Lifestyle Monitoring" Technology for the Detection of Health Deterioration in Long-Term Conditions: A Qualitative Study of People Living With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Sarah; Hawley, Mark S; Haywood, Annette; Enderby, Pamela M

    2017-06-28

    Health technologies are being developed to help people living at home manage long-term conditions. One such technology is "lifestyle monitoring" (LM), a telecare technology based on the idea that home activities may be monitored unobtrusively via sensors to give an indication of changes in health-state. However, questions remain about LM technology: how home activities change when participants experience differing health-states; and how sensors might capture clinically important changes to inform timely interventions. The objective of this paper was to report the findings of a study aimed at identifying changes in activity indicative of important changes in health in people with long-term conditions, particularly changes indicative of exacerbation, by exploring the relationship between home activities and health among people with heart failure (HF). We aimed to add to the knowledge base informing the development of home monitoring technologies designed to detect health deterioration in order to facilitate early intervention and avoid hospital admissions. This qualitative study utilized semistructured interviews to explore everyday activities undertaken during the three health-states of HF: normal days, bad days, and exacerbations. Potential recruits were identified by specialist nurses and attendees at an HF support group. The sample was purposively selected to include a range of experience of living with HF. The sample comprised a total of 20 people with HF aged 50 years and above, and 11 spouses or partners of the individuals with HF. All resided in Northern England. Participant accounts revealed that home activities are in part shaped by the degree of intrusion from HF symptoms. During an exacerbation, participants undertook activities specifically to ease symptoms, and detailed activity changes were identified. Everyday activity was also influenced by a range of factors other than health. The study highlights the importance of careful development of LM

  5. Live-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Richard

    2014-01-01

    It would be hard to argue that live-cell imaging has not changed our view of biology. The past 10 years have seen an explosion of interest in imaging cellular processes, down to the molecular level. There are now many advanced techniques being applied to live cell imaging. However, cellular health is often under appreciated. For many researchers, if the cell at the end of the experiment has not gone into apoptosis or is blebbed beyond recognition, than all is well. This is simply incorrect. There are many factors that need to be considered when performing live-cell imaging in order to maintain cellular health such as: imaging modality, media, temperature, humidity, PH, osmolality, and photon dose. The wavelength of illuminating light, and the total photon dose that the cells are exposed to, comprise two of the most important and controllable parameters of live-cell imaging. The lowest photon dose that achieves a measureable metric for the experimental question should be used, not the dose that produces cover photo quality images. This is paramount to ensure that the cellular processes being investigated are in their in vitro state and not shifted to an alternate pathway due to environmental stress. The timing of the mitosis is an ideal canary in the gold mine, in that any stress induced from the imaging will result in the increased length of mitosis, thus providing a control model for the current imagining conditions.

  6. Socio-demographic transformations and living conditions among two indigenous and black populations in Northern Cauca during the period of 1993-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrea Giraldo, Fernando; Rodríguez Sánchez, Diego Alejandro

    2012-04-01

    To describe the changes that occurred in some patterns of socio-demographic variables and in living conditions among the Nasa, Guambiana and Afrocolombian populations in the northern region of the Department of Cauca, and those occurring in two residential communities, one white-mestizo and one black, in Cali during the 1993-2005 period. This paper presents a descriptive study that analyzes several socio-demographic indicators from the census of 1993 and 2005, the specific data include: rate of juvenile dependency; total masculinity index; average size of the household; specific global and local birth rates, and infant mortality rates; life expectancy at birth; average years of schooling; health cover age status; and percentage of the population with unmet basic needs (UBN). In this way, it is possible to note differences in the course of socio-demographic evolution and in the standard of living trends in the differing populations under study. The Guambiana Indian population in the municipality of Silvia presents lower birth rates than the Nasa population, characterized by their seasonal birth rates. Differing from the pattern of the indigenous people of Northern Cauca, the Afro-Colombian population both from this region and from the population residing in the urban zones of Cali's tend to show similar socio-demographic patterns. Although there have been profound changes recorded during this period among these populations under study, the ethnic-racial inequalities and those of social class seem to persist. From this first diagnosis, attention is called to the need for a more adequate reproductive health policy to attend the specific needs presented by the indigenous population.

  7. β-Decay half-lives and nuclear structure of exotic proton-rich waiting point nuclei under rp-process conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Böyükata, Mahmut

    2016-03-01

    We investigate even-even nuclei in the A ∼ 70 mass region within the framework of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) and the interacting boson model-1 (IBM-1). Our work includes calculation of the energy spectra and the potential energy surfaces V (β , γ) of Zn, Ge, Se, Kr and Sr nuclei with the same proton and neutron number, N = Z. The parametrization of the IBM-1 Hamiltonian was performed for the calculation of the energy levels in the ground state bands. Geometric shape of the nuclei was predicted by plotting the potential energy surfaces V (β , γ) obtained from the IBM-1 Hamiltonian in the classical limit. The pn-QRPA model was later used to compute half-lives of the neutron-deficient nuclei which were found to be in very good agreement with the measured ones. The pn-QRPA model was also used to calculate the Gamow-Teller strength distributions and was found to be in decent agreement with the measured data. We further calculate the electron capture and positron decay rates for these N = Z waiting point (WP) nuclei in the stellar environment employing the pn-QRPA model. For the rp-process conditions, our total weak rates are within a factor two compared with the Skyrme HF +BCS +QRPA calculation. All calculated electron capture rates are comparable to the competing positron decay rates under rp-process conditions. Our study confirms the finding that electron capture rates form an integral part of the weak rates under rp-process conditions and should not be neglected in the nuclear network calculations.

  8. Suitability of current definitions of ambulatory care sensitive conditions for research in emergency department patients: a secondary health data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Johann; Möckel, Martin; Muller, Reinhold; Searle, Julia; Somasundaram, Rajan; Slagman, Anna

    2017-10-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of existing definitions of ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) in the setting of an emergency department (ED) by assessing ACSC prevalence in patients admitted to hospital after their ED stay. The secondary aim was to identify ACSC suitable for specific application in the ED setting. Observational clinical study with secondary health data. Two EDs of the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin. All medical ED patients of the 'The Charité Emergency Medicine Study' (CHARITEM) study, who were admitted as inpatients during the 1-year study period (n=13 536). Prevalence of ACSC. Prevalence of ACSC in the study population differed significantly depending on the respective ACSC set used. Prevalence ranged between 19.1% (95% CI 18.4% to 19.8%; n=2586) using the definition by Albrecht et al and 36.6% (95% CI 35.8% to 37.5%; n=4960) using the definition of Naumann et al . (pdefinitions) was 48.1% (95% CI 47.2% to 48.9%; n=6505). Some frequently observed diagnoses such as ' convulsion and epilepsy ' (prevalence: 3.4%, 95% CI 3.1% to 3.7%; n=455), ' diseases of the urinary system ' (prevalence: 1.4%; 95% CI 1.2% to 1.6%; n=191) or ' atrial fibrillation and flutter ' (prevalence: 1.0%, 95% CI 0.8% to 1.2%, n=134) are not included in all of the current ACSC definitions. The results highlight the need for an optimised, ED-specific ACSC definition. Particular ACSC diagnoses (such as ' convulsion and epilepsy ' or ' diseases of the urinary system ' and others) seem to be of special relevance in an ED population but are not included in all available ACSC definitions. Further research towards the development of a suitable and specific ACSC definition for research in the ED setting seems warranted. German Clinical Trials Register Deutsches Register für Klinische Studien: DRKS-ID: DRKS00000261. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved

  9. Stabilizing the baseline current of a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor through overpotential control under non-toxic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, N.E.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    A MFC-based biosensor can act as online toxicity sensor Electrical current is a direct linear measure for metabolic activity of electrochemically active microorganisms Microorganisms gain energy from anodic overpotential and current strongly depends on anodic overpotential Therefore control of

  10. Conditions for the occurrence of intense turbidity currents in the benthic boundary layer over a sloping bottom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhmur, VV

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of density currents over the continental slope of the ocean is investigated with allowance for the entrainment of the bottom sediments and background liquid in motion. A simple criterion is proposed for determining the possibility of evolving initially weak density currents into bottom

  11. A novel bioenergy feedstock in Latin America? Cultivation potential of Acrocomia aculeata under current and future climate conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plath, Mirco; Moser, Christine; Bailis, Rob; Brandt, Patric; Hirsch, Heidi; Klein, Alexandra Maria; Walmsley, David; Wehrden, von Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Plant oil is a key commodity in the global economy, particularly for food and bioenergy markets. However, current production practices often impair smallholder livelihoods, cause land use changes, and compete for food production. The neotropical palm Acrocomia aculeata is currently being promoted

  12. A robust predictive current controller for healthy and open-circuit faulty conditions of five-phase BLDC drives applicable for wind generators and electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi Arashloo, Ramin; Salehifar, Mehdi; Romeral, Luis; Sala, Vicent

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Model predictive deadbeat control of generator stator phase currents. • Fault tolerant control of five-phase BLDC generator. • Control of stator phase currents under normal and open-circuit faulty conditions. • MATLAB simulation and experimental verification of proposed control method. • Verification of robustness and fast respond of proposed controlling method. - Abstract: Fault tolerant control of five-phase brushless direct current (BLDC) machines is gaining more importance in high-safety applications such as offshore wind generators and automotive industries. In many applications, traditional controllers (such as PI controllers) are used to control the stator currents under faulty conditions. These controllers have good performance with dc signals. However, in the case of missing one or two of the phases, appropriate reference currents of these machines have oscillatory dynamics both in phase- and synchronous-reference frames. Non-constant nature of these reference values requires the implication of fast current controllers. In this paper, model predictive deadbeat controllers are proposed to control the stator currents of five-phase BLDC machines under normal and faulty conditions. Open circuit fault is considered for both one and two stator phases, and the behaviour of proposed controlling method is evaluated. This evaluation is generally focused on first, sensitivity of proposed controlling method and second, its speed in following reference current values under transient states. Proposed method is simulated and is verified experimentally on a five-phase BLDC drive

  13. DC-Voltage Fluctuation Elimination Through a DC-Capacitor Current Control for DFIG Converters Under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Changjin; Xu, Dehong; Zhu, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Unbalanced grid voltage causes a large second-order harmonic current in the dc-link capacitors as well as dc-voltage fluctuation, which potentially will degrade the lifespan and reliability of the capacitors in voltage source converters. This paper proposes a novel dc-capacitor current control...... method for a grid-side converter (GSC) to eliminate the negative impact of unbalanced grid voltage on the dc-capacitors. In this method, a dc-capacitor current control loop, where a negative-sequence resonant controller is used to increase the loop gain, is added to the conventional GSC current control...... loop. The rejection capability to the unbalanced grid voltage and the stability of the proposed control system are discussed. The second-order harmonic current in the dc capacitor as well as dc-voltage fluctuation is very well eliminated. Hence, the dc capacitors will be more reliable under unbalanced...

  14. Using historical simulations of vegetation to assess departure of current vegetation conditions across large landscapes[Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Holsinger; Robert E. Keane; Brian Steele; Matthew C. Reeves; Sarah Pratt

    2006-01-01

    The Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Prototype Project, or LANDFIRE Prototype Project, was conceived, in part, to identify areas across the nation where existing landscape conditions are markedly different from historical conditions (Keane and Rollins, Ch. 3). This objective arose from the recognition that over 100 years of land use and wildland...

  15. Ensemble perturbation smoother for optimizing tidal boundary conditions by assimilation of High-Frequency radar surface currents – application to the German Bight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available High-Frequency (HF radars measure the ocean surface currents at various spatial and temporal scales. These include tidal currents, wind-driven circulation, density-driven circulation and Stokes drift. Sequential assimilation methods updating the model state have been proven successful to correct the density-driven currents by assimilation of observations such as sea surface height, sea surface temperature and in-situ profiles. However, the situation is different for tides in coastal models since these are not generated within the domain, but are rather propagated inside the domain through the boundary conditions. For improving the modeled tidal variability it is therefore not sufficient to update the model state via data assimilation without updating the boundary conditions. The optimization of boundary conditions to match observations inside the domain is traditionally achieved through variational assimilation methods. In this work we present an ensemble smoother to improve the tidal boundary values so that the model represents more closely the observed currents. To create an ensemble of dynamically realistic boundary conditions, a cost function is formulated which is directly related to the probability of each boundary condition perturbation. This cost function ensures that the boundary condition perturbations are spatially smooth and that the structure of the perturbations satisfies approximately the harmonic linearized shallow water equations. Based on those perturbations an ensemble simulation is carried out using the full three-dimensional General Estuarine Ocean Model (GETM. Optimized boundary values are obtained by assimilating all observations using the covariances of the ensemble simulation.

  16. Optimization of Experimental Conditions of the Pulsed Current GTAW Parameters for Mechanical Properties of SDSS UNS S32760 Welds Based on the Taguchi Design Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefieh, M.; Shamanian, M.; Saatchi, A.

    2012-09-01

    Taguchi design method with L9 orthogonal array was implemented to optimize the pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding parameters for the hardness and the toughness of super duplex stainless steel (SDSS, UNS S32760) welds. In this regard, the hardness and the toughness were considered as performance characteristics. Pulse current, background current, % on time, and pulse frequency were chosen as main parameters. Each parameter was varied at three different levels. As a result of pooled analysis of variance, the pulse current is found to be the most significant factor for both the hardness and the toughness of SDSS welds by percentage contribution of 71.81 for hardness and 78.18 for toughness. The % on time (21.99%) and the background current (17.81%) had also the next most significant effect on the hardness and the toughness, respectively. The optimum conditions within the selected parameter values for hardness were found as the first level of pulse current (100 A), third level of background current (70 A), first level of % on time (40%), and first level of pulse frequency (1 Hz), while they were found as the second level of pulse current (120 A), second level of background current (60 A), second level of % on time (60%), and third level of pulse frequency (5 Hz) for toughness. The Taguchi method was found to be a promising tool to obtain the optimum conditions for such studies. Finally, in order to verify experimental results, confirmation tests were carried out at optimum working conditions. Under these conditions, there were good agreements between the predicted and the experimental results for the both hardness and toughness.

  17. Graft-to-recipient weight ratio lower to 0.7% is safe without portal pressure modulation in right-lobe living donor liver transplantation with favorable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Duk; Kim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Young-Kyu; Lee, Soon-Ae; Park, Sang-Jae

    2014-02-01

    The low graft-to-recipient weight ratio (GRWR) in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is one of the major risk factors affecting graft survival. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether the lower limit of the GRWR can be safely reduced without portal pressure modulation in right-lobe LDLT. From 2005 to 2011, 317 consecutive patients from a single institute underwent LDLT with right-lobe grafts without portal pressure modulation. Of these, 23 had a GRWR of less than 0.7% (group A), 27 had a GRWR of ≥0.7%, recipient, donor, operation factors, laboratory findings and complications were reviewed retrospectively. The baseline demographics showed low model for end-stage liver disease score (mean 16.3+/-8.9) and high percentage of hepatocellular carcinoma (231 patients, 72.9%). Three groups by GRWR demonstrated similar characteristics except recipient body mass index and donor gender. For small-for-size syndrome, there were 3 (13.0%) in group A, 1 (3.7%) in group B, and 2 patients (0.7%) in group C (Pneed to modulate portal pressure in adult-to-adult LDLT using the right-lobe in favorable conditions including low model for end-stage liver disease score.

  18. Gender and socio-economic inequalities in health and living conditions among co-resident informal caregivers: a nationwide survey in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajo, María; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Malmusi, Davide; Salvador, María; Borrell, Carme

    2017-03-01

    To explore the associations between social determinants, caregiver's network support, burden of care and their consequences in health and living conditions of informal caregivers. The socio-demographic trends regarding population ageing and changes in family models trigger an increased demand for care. Cross-sectional study based on the 2008 edition of the National Disability, Independence and Dependency Situations Survey (DIDSS-2008) conducted by the National Statistics Institute in Spain. Analyses focused on persons identified as primary caregivers who co-reside with the dependent person. The associations between social determinants of caregivers, burden of care, support network and problems attributed to informal care (impaired health, depression, professional, economic and personal issues) were estimated by fitting robust Poisson regression models. Analyses were conducted separately for women and men. The study sample included 6923 caregivers, 73% of women and 27% of men. Gender and socio-economic inequalities were found in assumption of responsibilities and burden of caring for dependents, which tend to fall more on women and persons of lower socio-economic level, who in turn have less access to formal support. These aspects translate into a higher prevalence of health, professional, economic and personal problems. The study highlights gender and socio-economic inequalities in informal caregiving and its negative consequences. These findings may be useful in the design of policies and support programmes targeting the most affected groups of informal caregivers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. An azine based sensor for selective detection of Cu2 + ions and its copper complex for sensing of phosphate ions in physiological conditions and in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Karishma; Kumar, Sumit; Kumar, Vipan; Kaur, Jeevanjot; Arora, Saroj; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2018-02-01

    A simple and cost effective unsymmetrical azine based Schiff base, 5-diethylamino-2-[(2-hydroxy-benzylidene)hydrazonomethyl]-phenol (1) was synthesized which selectively detect Cu2 + ions in the presence of other competitive ions through ;naked eye; in physiological conditions (EtOH-buffer (1:1, v/v, HEPES 10 mM, pH = 7.4)). The presence of Cu2 + induce color change from light yellow green to yellow with the appearance of a new band at 450 nm in UV-Vis spectra of Schiff base 1. The fluorescence of Schiff base 1 (10 μM) was quenched completely in the presence of 2.7 equiv. of Cu2 + ions. Sub-micromolar limit of detection (LOD = 3.4 × 10- 7 M), efficient Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV = 1.8 × 105 L mol- 1) and strong binding constant (log Kb = 5.92) has been determined with the help of fluorescence titration profile. Further, 1 - Cu2 + complex was employed for the detection of phosphate ions (PO43 -, HPO42 - and H2PO4-) at micromolar concentrations in EtOH-buffer of pH 7.4 based on fluorescence recovery due to the binding of Cu2 + with phosphate ions. Solubility at low concentration in aqueous medium, longer excitation (406 nm) and emission wavelength (537 nm), and biocompatibility of Schiff base 1 formulates its use in live cell imaging.

  20. Organismal effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems: developmental instability, clinical hematology, body condition, and blood parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Mineau, Pierre

    2004-06-01

    This is the second of two articles reporting the results of a nonlethal biomonitoring study that quantified the effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems of the Ottawa/Gatineau region (ON and PQ, Canada, respectively). In the present article, we describe results of measurements regarding developmental instability (e.g., fluctuating asymmetry), congenital birth defects (e.g., skeletal terata), clinical hematology (e.g., differential counts), general body condition (e.g., body mass-length relationships), and blood parasite load (Trypanosoma sp. and Bartonella spp.). Voles were captured during the year 2001 to 2003 at six golf courses and two reference sites. Once voles were fully sedated using isoflurane, blood was collected, radiographs taken, and morphometric measurements recorded. Three animals from each course were euthanized to determine body burdens of historically used organochlorine (OC) and metal-based pesticides. Exposure to in-use pesticides was determined from detailed golf course pesticide-use records. None of the endpoints measured was significantly related to body burdens of OC pesticides and metals historically used, nor did any endpoint significantly vary among capture sites in relation to total pesticide application to the capture site or to the number of days since the last application of pesticide. Based on these findings, it appears that voles from golf courses were no less healthy than their conspecifics from reference sites.

  1. An improved synchronous reference frame current control strategy for a photovoltaic grid-connected inverter under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderipour, Amirreza; Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, Abdullah; Bin Habibuddin, Mohd Hafiz

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, renewable energy sources have been considered the most encouraging resources for grid and off-grid power generation. This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverter (GCI) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions....... It is challenging to suppress the harmonic content in the output current below a pre-set value in the GCI. It is also difficult to compensate for unbalanced loads even when the grid is under disruption due to total harmonic distortion (THD) and unbalanced loads. The primary advantage and objective of this method...... is to effectively compensate for the harmonic current content of the grid current and microgrid without the use of any compensation devices, such as active and passive filters. This method leads to a very low THD in both the GCI currents and the current exchanged with the grid. The control approach is designed...

  2. A novel and smart design of superconducting fault current controller : implementation and verification for various fault condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babar, M.; Al-Ammar, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    By the advent of the Smart Grid and integration of distributed generators, electrical networks are facing uncountable challenges. The existing protection schemes that simply limit the fault current to the predetermined set values may not perform optimally, and even the existing protection

  3. Analysis of the Conditions for the Appearance of the 'Overshootö Phenomenon in Counter-Current Packed Columns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akramov, T. A.; Svoboda, Petr; Jiřičný, Vladimír; Staněk, Vladimír

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 18 (2004), s. 5899-5903 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/03/1558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : counter-current flow * holdup overshoot * mathematical analysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.424, year: 2004

  4. Bias from conditioning on live birth in pregnancy cohorts: an illustration based on neurodevelopment in children after prenatal exposure to organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn; Cui, Xin; Ritz, Beate; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2015-01-01

    Only 60-70% of fertilized eggs may result in a live birth, and very early fetal loss mainly goes unnoticed. Outcomes that can only be ascertained in live-born children will be missing for those who do not survive till birth. In this article, we illustrate a common bias structure (leading to

  5. Mathematical Models of Absorption of Poorly Soluble Gas in Co-Current Packed Bed Column under Periodically Changing Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vychodilová, Hana; Jiřičný, Vladimír; Staněk, Vladimír

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2004), s. 117-127 ISSN 0352-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/03/1558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : trickle bed * oxygen absorption * transient conditions Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.328, year: 2004

  6. Status of the U.S. nuclear option, conditions leading to its resurgence, and current licensing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidi, J.

    2007-01-01

    The projected increase in electricity demand, increased concern over emissions along with more stringent emission requirements, volatility of the gas and oil supplies and prices, and the convergence of favourable conditions and legislation make nuclear power a practical option for meeting future electricity base-load demands. (author)

  7. Size dependence of the thermo-electrodynamics states of composite high-T c superconductors and its effect on the current instability conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovskii, V.R.; Watanabe, K.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of transverse geometries of the slab of composite high-T c superconductors on their stable and unstable thermal and electrodynamics transient states in the incomplete and complete penetration modes during the current charging are discussed. The transient period when the electric field that is induced by the charged current becomes more homogeneous during the initial stage of the complete penetration mode in the sub-critical voltage range is studied. In the over-critical voltage range, the cross-section shape of the slab affects its stable and unstable temperature variation. As a result, the current instability condition is not identical for high-T c superconducting composite tapes that have the same cross-sectional area with various shapes of the cross-section. The condition depends on their thickness: the less thickness, the more stable the current distribution in the composite superconductors with the same cross-sectional area. This feature is a result of the unavoidable reduction of the current-carrying capacity of a high-T c superconducting composite by the temperature increase. This reduction is caused by the relevant temperature dependence of electrodynamics states of the composite. This temperature dependence happens even during a stable stage of the current charging. These mechanisms must be considered during experiments at which the critical or quenching currents are defined

  8. Rehabilitation of living conditions in the post-Chernobyl context: Implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system in the Bragin district in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouail, Pascal; Bataille, C.

    2008-01-01

    Just after the Chernobyl accident, in the mid nineties, a radiation monitoring system was introduced to allow the Belarusian authorities to manage the situation but it failed to involve the general population. This resulted in the fact that a significant fraction of people living in contaminated areas continued to receive exposures that could have been avoided or reduced, if authorities had better taken into account the individual behaviours. Face to this situation, the goal of this project is to contribute to the development of a sustainable system of radiological monitoring handled by the local professionals and the population. It was launched in 2004 in the Bragin district (Belarus) in the framework of the CORE Programme (Cooperation for Rehabilitation) whose general objective is to improve the living conditions of the inhabitants of the territories affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe. The Bragin district is adjacent to the 30-kilometre exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Beginning in April 2004, existing infrastructure and means of measurement in the Bragin district were significantly modernised and completed. Today, the monitoring system relies on measurements of contamination of the body and measurements of the radiological quality of food stuffs (measurements of the caesium-137 concentration). In particular, whole-body scan measurement campaigns are carried out every six months in the schools in the district. On the basis of the results of measurements, the most severely contaminated children are systematically identified. Local health professionals and specialists of measurements work, with their families, to determine causes of the contamination and identify the scope for practical reduction of the intake of caesium. In a general manner, they periodically diffuse the results of measurements in the villages of the district via brochures or articles in newspapers. They also constitute a solid network that provides people with reliable

  9. Cólera e condições de vida da população Cholera and living conditions, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Gerolomo

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Fatores relacionados às condições de vida da população e condições ambientais precárias são freqüentemente citados como os maiores obstáculos para o controle de surtos e epidemias por cólera. Nesse sentido, realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de avaliar o peso de fatores referentes às condições de vida da população, relacionando questões ambientais com a instalação e o impacto da cólera. MÉTODO: Através de uma regressão linear múltipla, pelo método "backward stepwise", com influência do investigador, foram correlacionados os indicadores socioeconômicos com as taxas de incidência por cólera observadas nos municípios do Estado de Pernambuco, no ano de 1992. RESULTADOS/CONCLUSÕES: O modelo ajustado indica que a proporção de domicílios que utilizam água não proveniente de uma rede geral é a variável que tem maior peso na flutuação positiva das taxas de incidência de cólera. As variáveis "proporção de domicílios não ligados à rede geral de esgotos" e "proporção de chefes de família com renda igual ou menor do que um salário-mínimo mensal" também se associam positivamente, com coeficientes de regressão estatisticamente significativos, às taxas de incidência de cólera. A proporção de domicílios sem nenhuma instalação sanitária, por outro lado, se associa negativamente às taxas de incidência de cólera, sugerindo que instalações sanitárias, sem existência de rede de esgoto, aumentam o risco de contaminação ambiental. Os resultados apontam que a maior prioridade em saneamento é a oferta de água de boa qualidade.INTRODUCTION: Factors associated with precarious living and environmental conditions are frequently cited as major obstacles for the control of cholera outbreaks and epidemics. The purposes of the study are to evaluate the contribution of factors associated with the population living conditions and correlate the environmental problems with the onset of cholera

  10. Current distributions in superconducting wires subject to a random orientation magnetic field, and corresponding to the Tokamak usual conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    The main themes of this thesis are: review of superconductivity principles; critical current in a random orientation magnetic field; the MHD model applied to superconductors (with comprehensive calculation of the field in a plate type conductor); the magnetization created by a variation of a random orientation magnetic field; the electric field in a superconductor in steady or quasi-steady state (MHD displacement, pinning and thermal effects). 145 figs., 166 refs

  11. Experimental study on a wide range of wave and current conditions of the WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the results of an experimental study that was performed on small scale model that was a replication of the full-scale Weptos WEC intended for DanWEC. The tests were performed in the circular basin at FloWave at Edinburgh University in October 2014. The laboratory facilities h...... the capabilities to have simultaneously currents and waves from any possible direction and also to produce advanced wave specifications....

  12. Behavioral Responses Of Fish To A Current-Based Hydrokinetic Turbine Under Mutlipe Operational Conditions: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shen, Haixue [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Zydlewski, Gayle [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Rao, Shivanesh [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Goodwin, Andy [United States Army Engineer R & D Center, Vicksburg, MI (United States)

    2017-02-01

    There is significant interest in the interaction of aquatic organisms with current-based marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies. Determining the potential impacts of MHK devices on fish behavior is critical to addressing the environmental concerns that could act as barriers to the permitting and deployment of MHK devices. To address these concerns, we use field monitoring and fish behavior models to characterize the behavioral responses of fish to MHK turbines and infer potential stimuli that may have elicited the observed behavioral changes.

  13. Influence of Li conditioning on Lower Hybrid Current Drive efficiency in H-mode and L- mode plasmas on EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goniche Marc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower hybrid current drive efficiency on the EAST tokamak is estimated on a large database of low loop voltage discharges (VL of these discharges, can account for the high efficiency according to the expected scaling with Zeff and . Modelling with a ray-tracing code coupled to a Fokker-Planck solver supports this result, assuming that the fast electron transport is reduced in the zero loop voltage discharge with high efficiency.

  14. Comparison of uniaxial and triaxial accelerometry in the assessment of physical activity among adolescents under free-living conditions: the HELENA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhelst Jérémy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different types of devices are available and the choice about which to use depends on various factors: cost, physical characteristics, performance, and the validity and intra- and interinstrument reliability. Given the large number of studies that have used uniaxial or triaxial devices, it is of interest to know whether the different devices give similar information about PA levels and patterns. The aim of this study was to compare physical activity (PA levels and patterns obtained simultaneously by triaxial accelerometry and uniaxial accelerometry in adolescents in free-living conditions. Methods Sixty-two participants, aged 13-16 years, were recruited in this ancillary study, which is a part of the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA. All participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer (ActiGraph GT1M®, Pensacola, FL and a triaxial accelerometer (RT3®, Stayhealthy, Monrovia, CA simultaneously for 7 days. The patterns were calculated by converting accelerometer data output as a percentage of time spent at sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous PA per day. Analysis of output data from the two accelerometers were assessed by two different tests: Equivalence Test and Bland & Altman method. Results The concordance correlation coefficient between the data from the triaxial accelerometer and uniaxial accelerometer at each intensity level was superior to 0.95. The ANOVA test showed a significant difference for the first three lower intensities while no significant difference was found for vigorous intensity. The difference between data obtained with the triaxial accelerometer and the uniaxial monitor never exceeded 2.1% and decreased as PA level increased. The Bland & Altman method showed good agreement between data obtained between the both accelerometers (p Conclusions Uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers do not differ in their measurement of PA in population studies, and either could be used in such

  15. Attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, and making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival: Swedish interview survey of living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygren, L O; Konlaan, B B; Johansson, S E

    To investigate the possible influence of attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival. A simple random sample was drawn of 15,198 individuals aged 16-74 years. Of these, 85% (12,982) were interviewed by trained non-medical interviewers between 1982 and 1983 about cultural activities. They were followed up with respect to survival until 31 December 1991. Swedish interview survey of living conditions comprising a random sample of the adult Swedish population. 12,675 people interviewed between 1982 and 1983. Survival of subjects after controlling for eight confounding variables: age, sex, education level, income, long term disease, social network, smoking, and physical exercise. 6,301 men and 6,374 women were followed up; 533 men and 314 women died during this period. The control variables influenced survival in the expected directions except for social network for men; a significant negative effective was found when the analysis was made separately for men and women. We found an influence on mortality when the eight control variables were controlled for in people who rarely attended events compared with those attending most often, the relative risk being 1.57 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.09). Attendance at cultural events may have a positive influence on survival. Long term follow up of large samples with confounders that are well controlled for and with the cultural stimulation more highly specified should be used to try to falsify the hypothesis before experiments start.

  16. Determining the efficacy of the chronic disease self-management programme and readability of 'living a healthy life with chronic conditions' in a New Zealand setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J J-Y; Arenhold, F; Braakhuis, A J

    2016-11-01

    Self-management programmes are an increasingly popular way of treating chronic diseases. This study aims to determine the efficacy of the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (CDSMP) in a New Zealand context by assessing course outcomes and readability of the accompanying reference guide Living a Healthy Life with Chronic Conditions, 4th Edition. This is a cross-sectional pre-post study conducted in Auckland between August 2009 and September 2015, using CDSMP participants' baseline and follow-up Health Education Intervention Questionnaire (heiQ TM ) data. Readability of the guide was assessed using the Gunning Fog Index, Coleman Liau, Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch Kincaid Grade Level and Simplified Measure of Gobbledygook scores. Significant evidence of improvement (P ≤ 0.001) was observed in seven of the eight domains measured by the heiQ TM (Deakin University, Centre for Population Health Research, Melbourne, Vic., Australia). The greatest improvements were seen in skill and technique acquisition (mean change score 0.25, P ≤ 0.001) and self-monitoring and insight (0.18, P ≤ 0.001). There was little evidence of improvement in health service navigation (0.04, P = 0.17). Readability analyses indicate that a person needs to be reading at a minimum of U.S. 8th grade level in order to understand the text, and possibly up to 11th grade. The CDSMP is effective for improving patient self-efficacy in the New Zealand setting. However, adaptation of the programme to support better health service navigation is warranted. The readability of the reference guide is not suitable for this setting and requires further improvement. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  17. Precarity: causes, effects and consequences of insecure working and living conditions in a multicultural, rural area of northern Italy (South Tyrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Tschöll

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research project deals with the current issue of precarity, its mechanisms, risks, effects, coping strategies as well as coping competences and addresses the impact of work-based insecurities, rising social inequalities within and across nations, with a specific regional focus on South Tyrol - a multicultural, rural area in northern Italy, bordering with Austria. Finally, it is important to identify possible innovative solutions for the labour market, Human Resources strategies and social policies. The concept of work will be related to all securitized fundamental rights, their socialization context, the global change of values and the social change in the welfare state. The recent transformation from discourses on inequality and poverty towards social exclusion and inclusion indicates a conceptual shift in the societal management of social inequalities. The global financial crisis has highlighted the connectedness between corporate and household risk behaviour and management, and their socially inequitable effects. The interdisciplinary view enables a focus on multiple insecurities and how they interact to produce precarious work relations, in reference to working conditions and the experience of social exclusion, the links between de-regulation, liberalization and the individualization of employment risks, but also the development of interest representation and social organizations for supporting labour market outsiders. The paper describes the current process of defining the research design, preliminary reflections for the case study and shows first outcomes of the project.

  18. Chapter 2. The history of uranium tailings formation in the North of Tajikistan, their current condition. 2.4. Degmai uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.

    2012-01-01

    Present article is devoted to Degmai uranium tailings. The history of Degmai uranium tailings is presented. The current condition of uranium tailings is described. During the last 6-7 years, together with IAEA experts, monitoring is permanently carried out and the tailings influence on the environment is defined. Radiation and dosimetric investigation results from Degmai tailing' surface (June 2006) are considered.

  19. A Galvanic Sensor for Monitoring the Corrosion Condition of the Concrete Reinforcing Steel: Relationship Between the Galvanic and the Corrosion Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Vaz Pereira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a study carried out on the design and performance of galvanic and polarization resistance sensors to be embedded in concrete systems for permanent monitoring of the corrosion condition of reinforcing steel, aiming to establish a correlation between the galvanic currents, Igal, and the corrosion currents, Icorr, estimated from the polarization resistance, Rp. Sensors have been tested in saturated Ca(OH2 aqueous solutions, under a variety of conditions, simulating the most important parameters that can accelerate the corrosion of concrete reinforcing steel, such as carbonation, ingress of chloride ions, presence or absence of O2. For all the conditions, the influence of temperature (20 to 55 ºC has also been considered. From this study, it could be concluded that the galvanic currents are sensitive to the various parameters following a trend similar to that of the Rp values. A relationship between the galvanic and the corrosion current densities was obtained and the limiting values of the Igal, indicative of the state condition of the reinforcing steel for the designed sensor, were established.

  20. The trauma of ongoing conflict and displacement in Chechnya: quantitative assessment of living conditions, and psychosocial and general health status among war displaced in Chechnya and Ingushetia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Kaz; van der Kam, Saskia; Ford, Nathan; Hargreaves, Sally; van Oosten, Richard; Cunningham, Debbie; Boots, Gerry; Andrault, Elodie; Kleber, Rolf

    2007-03-13

    Conflict in Chechnya has resulted in over a decade of violence, human rights abuses, criminality and poverty, and a steady flow of displaced seeking refuge throughout the region. At the beginning of 2004 MSF undertook quantitative surveys among the displaced populations in Chechnya and neighbouring Ingushetia. Surveys were carried out in Ingushetia (January 2004) and Chechnya (February 2004) through systematic sampling. Various conflict-related factors contributing to ill health were researched to obtain information on displacement history, living conditions, and psychosocial and general health status. The average length of displacement was five years. Conditions in both locations were poor, and people in both locations indicated food shortages (Chechnya (C): 13.3%, Ingushetia (I): 11.3%), and there was a high degree of dependency on outside help (C: 95.4%, I: 94.3%). Most people (C: 94%, I: 98%) were confronted with violence in the past. Many respondents had witnessed the killing of people (C: 22.7%, I: 24.1%) and nearly half of people interviewed witnessed arrests (C: 53.1%, I: 48.4%) and maltreatment (C: 56.2%, I: 44.5%). Approximately one third of those interviewed had directly experienced war-related violence. A substantial number of people interviewed - one third in Ingushetia (37.5%) and two-thirds in Chechnya (66.8%) - rarely felt safe. The violence was ongoing, with respondents reporting violence in the month before the survey (C: 12.5%, I: 4.6%). Results of the general health questionnaire (GHQ 28) showed that nearly all internally displaced persons interviewed were suffering from health complaints such as somatic complaints, anxiety/insomnia, depressive feelings or social dysfunction (C: 201, 78.5%, CI: 73.0% - 83.4%; I: 230, 81.3%, CI: 76.2% - 85.6%). Poor health status was reflected in other survey questions, but health services were difficult to access for around half the population (C: 54.3%, I: 46.6%). The study demonstrates that the health needs of

  1. The trauma of ongoing conflict and displacement in Chechnya: quantitative assessment of living conditions, and psychosocial and general health status among war displaced in Chechnya and Ingushetia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boots Gerry

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflict in Chechnya has resulted in over a decade of violence, human rights abuses, criminality and poverty, and a steady flow of displaced seeking refuge throughout the region. At the beginning of 2004 MSF undertook quantitative surveys among the displaced populations in Chechnya and neighbouring Ingushetia. Methods Surveys were carried out in Ingushetia (January 2004 and Chechnya (February 2004 through systematic sampling. Various conflict-related factors contributing to ill health were researched to obtain information on displacement history, living conditions, and psychosocial and general health status. Results The average length of displacement was five years. Conditions in both locations were poor, and people in both locations indicated food shortages (Chechnya (C: 13.3%, Ingushetia (I: 11.3%, and there was a high degree of dependency on outside help (C: 95.4%, I: 94.3%. Most people (C: 94%, I: 98% were confronted with violence in the past. Many respondents had witnessed the killing of people (C: 22.7%, I: 24.1% and nearly half of people interviewed witnessed arrests (C: 53.1%, I: 48.4% and maltreatment (C: 56.2%, I: 44.5%. Approximately one third of those interviewed had directly experienced war-related violence. A substantial number of people interviewed – one third in Ingushetia (37.5% and two-thirds in Chechnya (66.8% – rarely felt safe. The violence was ongoing, with respondents reporting violence in the month before the survey (C: 12.5%, I: 4.6%. Results of the general health questionnaire (GHQ 28 showed that nearly all internally displaced persons interviewed were suffering from health complaints such as somatic complaints, anxiety/insomnia, depressive feelings or social dysfunction (C: 201, 78.5%, CI: 73.0% – 83.4%; I: 230, 81.3%, CI: 76.2% – 85.6%. Poor health status was reflected in other survey questions, but health services were difficult to access for around half the population (C: 54.3%, I: 46

  2. Three-phase current transformer rectifier sets. High-voltage power supplies for difficult conditions in electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stackelberg, Josef von [Rico-Werk Eiserlo und Emmrich GmbH, Toenisvorst (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The precipitation rate of electrostatic precipitators (ESP) highly depends on the consistency of waste gas. Among other things, electrical conductivity plays an important role as well as the ability of particles to be electrically charged or ionised. Within certain limits, common ESPs are able to clean waste gas satisfactorily. If the dust attributes exceed these limits, more sophisticated technical solutions are required in the ESP to meet the demands for the gas cleaning equipment. In these cases, a three phase transformer rectifier system offers an alternative to the conventional single phase system, as it delivers a smooth direct current voltage over a wide voltage range. (orig.)

  3. The Problematics of Implementing Innovation Activities by National Economic Actors in Conditions of the Currently Effective Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosovets Oleksandra I.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the problematics of current effective legislation on the issues of regulating the innovation activities as to assessing the extent of obstacles and the ways of eliminating them, along with encouraging enterprises to move from an innovative focus to the actual commercialization of innovations. Systems of facilitating as well as impediment factors for the corresponding economic activities in Ukraine are presented in the format of grouping and structuring the elements of influence according to the principle of subordination of relations between them together with description of «bottlenecks» in the legal support and institutional provision, in the financing and preparedness of business entities to implement innovations. The chain of appearance of the low quality innovation supply in the marketplace starting from actors in innovative processes and weak formation of innovation demand for the transition to an innovative type of entrepreneurial activity has been substantiated.

  4. Ca2+-currents in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes - effects of two different culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Umur Uzun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM provide a unique opportunity to study human heart physiology and pharmacology and repair injured hearts. The suitability of hiPSC-CM critically depends on how closely they share physiological properties of human adult cardiomyocytes (CM. Here we investigated whether a 3D engineered heart tissue (EHT culture format favors maturation and addressed the L-type Ca2+-current (ICa,L as a readout. The results were compared with hiPSC-CM cultured in conventional monolayer (ML and to our previous data from human adult atrial and ventricular CM obtained when identical patch-clamp protocols were used. HiPSC-CM were 2-3 fold smaller than adult CM, independently of culture format (capacitance ML 45±1 pF (n=289, EHT 45±1 pF (n=460, atrial CM 87±3 pF (n=196, ventricular CM 126±8 pF (n=50. Only 88% of ML cells showed ICa, but all EHT. Basal ICa density was 10±1 pA/pF (n=207 for ML and 12±1 pA/pF (n=361 for EHT and was larger than in adult CM (7±1 pA/pF (p<0.05, n=196 for atrial CM and 6±1 pA/pF (p<0.05, n=47 for ventricular CM. However, ML and EHT showed robust T-type Ca2+-currents (ICa,T. While (--Bay K 8644, that activates ICa,L directly, increased ICa,L to the same extent in ML and EHT, β1- and β2-adrenoceptor effects were marginal in ML, but of same size as (--Bay K 8644 in EHT. The opposite was true for serotonin receptors. Sensitivity to β1 and β2-adrenoceptor stimulation was the same in EHT as in adult CM (-logEC50: 5.9 and 6.1 for norepinephrine (NE and epinephrine (Epi, respectively, but very low concentrations of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS were sufficient to suppress effects (-logEC50: 5.3 and 5.3 respectively for NE and Epi. Taken together, hiPSC-CM express ICa,L at the same density as human adult CM, but, in contrast, possess robust ICa,T. Increased effects of catecholamines in EHT suggest more efficient maturation.

  5. The role of radiation protection in the rehabilitation of living conditions in contaminated territories after a nuclear accident or a radiological event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of radiation protection programmes in long -term contaminated territories is raising difficult technical, methodological, but also ethical questions, which commit the responsibility of the radiation protection professionals and the way they are exercising their expertise in such situation. The presence of contamination in the environment is a new reality which is profoundly affecting the living conditions of the population in all aspects: health, environment but also the psychological, social and economical cultural dimensions of daily life. In such a context, the classical radiation protection approach is inoperative to restore the normality of the ante accident situation On the contrary, the scientific and technological expertise and the prescriptive administrative arrangements, including the radiation protection ones, which are heavily mobilized to respond to the many challenges facing the society induce a progressive de -qualification of the environment and goods and a loss of control of the situation by the population which turn into a social depression. The paper illustrates how radiation protection programmes for managing long term contaminated territories have an ambivalent impact: on the one hand they ensure the protection of the population against the potential health impacts of radiations, on the other hand they re -enforce the loss of control, de-qualification and exclusion processes which results in a weakening of the resilience capacity of the population and the territories. The recent experience of co-expertise and co-operation implemented in the contaminated territories of Belarus have demonstrated that the direct engagement of local professionals and the population in the daily management of the radiological situation is not only feasible but also necessary to stop this vicious circle of loss of control and exclusion. To be effective and sustainable this engagement must rely on the diffusion among the population of a 'practical

  6. Thermodynamic inversion origin of living systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kompanichenko, Vladimir N

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the theory, general principles, and energy source conditions allowing for the emergence of life in planetary systems. The author examines the material conditions found in natural hydrothermal sites, the appropriate analogs of prebiotic environments on early Earth. He provides an overview of current laboratory experiments in prebiotic materials chemistry and substantiation of a new direction for the experiments in the origin of life field. Describes thermodynamic inversion and how it relates to the living cell; Examines the current direction of experiments on prebiotic materials chemistry; Introduces and substantiates necessary conditions for the emergence of life.

  7. An improved synchronous reference frame current control strategy for a photovoltaic grid-connected inverter under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderipour, Amirreza; Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, Abdullah; Bin Habibuddin, Mohd Hafiz; Miveh, Mohammad Reza; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, renewable energy sources have been considered the most encouraging resources for grid and off-grid power generation. This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverter (GCI) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions. It is challenging to suppress the harmonic content in the output current below a pre-set value in the GCI. It is also difficult to compensate for unbalanced loads even when the grid is under disruption due to total harmonic distortion (THD) and unbalanced loads. The primary advantage and objective of this method is to effectively compensate for the harmonic current content of the grid current and microgrid without the use of any compensation devices, such as active and passive filters. This method leads to a very low THD in both the GCI currents and the current exchanged with the grid. The control approach is designed to control the active and reactive power and harmonic current compensation, and it also corrects the system unbalance. The proposed control method features the synchronous reference frame (SRF) method. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effective performance of the proposed method. PMID:28192436

  8. An improved synchronous reference frame current control strategy for a photovoltaic grid-connected inverter under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderipour, Amirreza; Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, Abdullah; Bin Habibuddin, Mohd Hafiz; Miveh, Mohammad Reza; Guerrero, Josep M

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, renewable energy sources have been considered the most encouraging resources for grid and off-grid power generation. This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverter (GCI) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions. It is challenging to suppress the harmonic content in the output current below a pre-set value in the GCI. It is also difficult to compensate for unbalanced loads even when the grid is under disruption due to total harmonic distortion (THD) and unbalanced loads. The primary advantage and objective of this method is to effectively compensate for the harmonic current content of the grid current and microgrid without the use of any compensation devices, such as active and passive filters. This method leads to a very low THD in both the GCI currents and the current exchanged with the grid. The control approach is designed to control the active and reactive power and harmonic current compensation, and it also corrects the system unbalance. The proposed control method features the synchronous reference frame (SRF) method. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effective performance of the proposed method.

  9. Development of a towing tank PIV system and a wake survey of a marine current turbine under steady conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Ethan; Luznik, Luksa; Flack, Karen

    2015-11-01

    A submersible particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was designed and built at the U.S. Naval Academy. The system was used to study the wake of a scale-independent horizontal axis marine current turbine. The turbine is a 1/25th scale model of the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Reference Model 1 (RM1) tidal turbine. It is a two-bladed turbine measuring 0.8 m in diameter and featuring a NACA 63-618 airfoil cross-section. The wake survey was conducted over an area extending 0.25D forward of the turbine tip path to 2.0D aft to a depth of 1.0D beneath the turbine output shaft in the streamwise plane. Each field of view was approximately 30 cm by 30 cm, and each overlapped the adjacent fields of view by 5 cm. The entire flow field was then reconstructed by registering the resultant vector fields together into a single field of investigation. Results include the field of investigation from a representative case, for the mean velocity field averaged over approximately 1,000 realizations, and turbulent statistics including turbulence intensities, Reynolds shear stresses, and turbulent kinetic energy. This research was funded by the Office of Naval Research.

  10. Neuromodulation of conditioned placebo/nocebo in heat pain: anodal vs cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Natalia; Yu, Rongjun; Kaur, Navneet; Vangel, Mark; Gollub, Randy L; Dougherty, Darin D; Kong, Jian; Camprodon, Joan A

    2015-07-01

    Placebo and nocebo play an important role in clinical practice and medical research. Modulating placebo/nocebo responses using noninvasive brain stimulation methods, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has the potential to harness these effects to therapeutic benefit in a clinical setting. In this study, we assessed the effect of anodal and cathodal tDCS over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) on conditioned placebo/nocebo cue response to heat pain. Two matched groups of healthy volunteers were subjected to an identical session of conditioning, during which low and high cues (abstract images) were associated with low and high pain levels, respectively. Twenty-minute 2-mA tDCS (either anodal or cathodal) over the rDLPFC was applied. The influence of tDCS current polarity (anodal vs cathodal) on placebo and nocebo was assessed, using subjects' pain ratings in response to identical pain preceded by the conditioned high or low cues. The duration of cue presentation varied to allow either fully conscious or subliminal processing. Significant placebo and nocebo effects in the anodal but not the cathodal group were elicited with the conditioning paradigm. This study provides evidence of a possibility to modulate the conditioned placebo and nocebo effect by changing the excitability of the rDLPFC using tDCS.

  11. Current Assessment of Integrated Content of Long-Lived Radionuclides in Soils of the Head Part of the East Ural Radioactive Trace - Current Assessment of Integrated Stocks of Long-Lived Radionuclides in Soils of the Head Part of the East-Ural Radioactive Trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, Konstantin L. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, 620990 Kovalevskoy St., 20, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Molchanova, Inna V.; Mikhailovskaya, Lyudmila N.; Pozolotina, Vera N.; Antonova, Elena V. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS, 8 Marta St., 202, 620144 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The East Ural Radioactive Trace is a result of the accident at the Production Association Mayak in 1957(the Kyshtym accident). The {sup 90}Sr was the main contaminant among long-lived radionuclides. Most of it was concentrated in the zone closest to the accident epicentre to the north-west (a narrow sector of about 15 deg., 35 km long). Later, in 1967, the EURT area was contaminated again with air-borne radioactive sediments from Lake Karachay, which had been used by the PA Mayak for storage of liquid radioactive waste. At this case the primary contaminant was {sup 137}Cs most of which was spread within 60 deg. sector oriented in the same direction (Aarkrog et al., 1997; Romanov et al., 1990). Our earlier radioecological studies included the assessment of integrated quantities of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 239,240}Pu within the central axis of the trace (Pozolotina et al., 2008; Molchanova et al., 2009). The aim of this investigation was the current assessment of integrated stocks of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 239,240}Pu in soils of the head part of the EURT along the central axis and the adjacent areas, to map the contamination data of the studied area using established geostatistical models by ArcGIS 9.3 (ESRI, USA). An inventory of the existing data (38 sampling locations) was performed earlier (Molchanova et al., 2009). Currently the database has information on 102 soil profile cuts. Taking into account the presence of global trends and anisotropy in the source data, ordinary kriging interpolation method was used. Geostatistical data analysis was performed for the determination of the basic parameters of spatial dependencies and the integral assessment of long-lived radionuclides in soils of the central, east peripheral, and west one parts of the trace. This analysis employed simplified geometric models (sector- and rectangle-shaped areas). The Monte Carlo technique was used for quantitatively assesses the uncertainty of the integrated stocks to

  12. A quality assurance study on the accuracy of measuring physical function under current conditions for use of clinical video telehealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, Helen; Tate, Latoya; Dumbleton, Sarina; Montgomery, Christy; Morgan, Michelle; Landerman, Lawrence R; Caves, Kevin

    2013-05-01

    To determine whether conditions for use of clinical video telehealth technology might affect the accuracy of measures of physical function. Repeated measures. Veterans Administration Medical Center. Three healthy adult volunteers for a sample size of n=30 independent trials for each of 3 physical function tasks. None. Three tasks capturing differing aspects of physical function: fine-motor coordination (number of finger taps in 30s), gross-motor coordination (number of gait deviations in 10ft [3.05m]), and clinical spatial relations (identifying the proper height for a cane randomly preset ±0-2in [5.1cm] from optimal), with performance simultaneously assessed in person and video recorded. Interrater reliability and criterion validity were determined for the measurement of these 3 tasks scored according to 5 methods: (1) in person (community standard), (2) slow motion review of the video recording (criterion standard), and (3-5) full speed review at 3 Internet bandwidths (64kps, 384kps, and 768kps). Fine-motor coordination-Interrater reliability was variable (r=.43-.81) and criterion validity was poor at 64kps and 384kps, but both were acceptable at 768kps (reliability r=.74, validity β=.81). Gross-motor coordination-Interreliability was variable (range r=.53-.75) and criterion validity was poor at all bandwidths (β=.28-.47). Motionless spatial relations-Excellent reliability (r=.92-.97) and good criterion validity (β=.84-.89) at all the tested bandwidths. Internet bandwidth had differing effects on measurement validity and reliability for the fine-motor task, the gross-motor task, and spatial relations, with results for some tasks at some transmission speeds well below acceptable quality standards and community standards. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A global assessment of gross and net land change dynamics for current conditions and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuchs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The consideration of gross land changes, meaning all area gains and losses within a pixel or administrative unit (e.g. country, plays an essential role in the estimation of total land changes. Gross land changes affect the magnitude of total land changes, which feeds back to the attribution of biogeochemical and biophysical processes related to climate change in Earth system models. Global empirical studies on gross land changes are currently lacking. Whilst the relevance of gross changes for global change has been indicated in the literature, it is not accounted for in future land change scenarios. In this study, we extract gross and net land change dynamics from large-scale and high-resolution (30–100 m remote sensing products to create a new global gross and net change dataset. Subsequently, we developed an approach to integrate our empirically derived gross and net changes with the results of future simulation models by accounting for the gross and net change addressed by the land use model and the gross and net change that is below the resolution of modelling. Based on our empirical data, we found that gross land change within 0.5° grid cells was substantially larger than net changes in all parts of the world. As 0.5° grid cells are a standard resolution of Earth system models, this leads to an underestimation of the amount of change. This finding contradicts earlier studies, which assumed gross land changes to appear in shifting cultivation areas only. Applied in a future scenario, the consideration of gross land changes led to approximately 50 % more land changes globally compared to a net land change representation. Gross land changes were most important in heterogeneous land systems with multiple land uses (e.g. shifting cultivation, smallholder farming, and agro-forestry systems. Moreover, the importance of gross changes decreased over time due to further polarization and intensification of land use. Our results serve as

  14. Biogeochemical reactive-transport modelling of the interactions of medium activity long-lived nuclear waste in fractured argillite and the effect on redox conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, J.S.; Steele, H.; Kwong, S.; Albrecht, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The role of anaerobic microbial processes in mediating gas generation and redox reactions in organic (cellulose) containing low level activity nuclear wastes (LLW) is well established through monitoring of operational near-surface LLW disposal sites and municipal waste disposal sites. Modelling approaches based on Monod kinetic growth models to represent the complex suite of anaerobic processes have been developed and these models are able to reproduce the evolving biogeochemistry and gas generation of large scale and long term (10 year) experiments on cellulose waste degradation. In the case of geological disposal of medium activity long-lived nuclear waste (MAVL) microbial processes have the potential to exploit metabolic energy sources present in the waste, engineered barriers and host geological formation and as a consequence influence redox potential. Several electron donors and electron acceptors may be present in MAVL. Electron donors include; hydrogen (resulting from radiolysis and anaerobic corrosion of metals), and hydrolysis products of organic waste materials. Sulphate, nitrate and Fe(III) containing minerals and corrosion products are examples of electron acceptors present in intermediate level wastes. Significant amounts of organic matter, sulphate and iron minerals may also be present in host geological formations and have the potential to act as microbial energy sources once the system is perturbed by electron donors/acceptors from the waste. The construction of a geological disposal facility will physically disturb the host formation, potentially causing fracturing of the excavation damage zone (EDZ). The EDZ may thus provide environmental conditions, such as space and free water that together with nutrient and energy sources to promote microbial activity. In this study the Generalised Repository Model (GRM) developed to simulate the coupled microbiological, chemical and transport processes in near

  15. Motor current signature analysis for gearbox condition monitoring under transient speeds using wavelet analysis and dual-level time synchronous averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Imaz, Inaki; Davari Ardakani, Hossein; Liu, Zongchang; García-Arribas, Alfredo; Arnaiz, Aitor; Lee, Jay

    2017-09-01

    This paper focuses on analyzing motor current signature for fault diagnosis of gearboxes operating under transient speed regimes. Two different strategies are evaluated, extensively tested and compared to analyze the motor current signature in order to implement a condition monitoring system for gearboxes in industrial machinery. A specially designed test bench is used, thoroughly monitored to fully characterize the experiments, in which gears in different health status are tested. The measured signals are analyzed using discrete wavelet decomposition, in different decomposition levels using a range of mother wavelets. Moreover, a dual-level time synchronous averaging analysis is performed on the same signal to compare the performance of the two methods. From both analyses, the relevant features of the signals are extracted and cataloged using a self-organizing map, which allows for an easy detection and classification of the diverse health states of the gears. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of both methods for diagnosing gearbox faults. A slightly better performance was observed for dual-level time synchronous averaging method. Based on the obtained results, the proposed methods can used as effective and reliable condition monitoring procedures for gearbox condition monitoring using only motor current signature.

  16. Interventions targeting sexual and reproductive health and rights outcomes of young people living with HIV: a comprehensive review of current interventions from sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Leandri; Gibbs, Andrew; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Willan, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of young people (ages 10-24) are living with HIV (YPLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). These YPLWH have particular needs and challenges related to their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). Contextual factors including gender inequalities, violence, stigma, and discrimination and lack of tailored services undermine YPLWH's SRHR. Understand the scope and impact of interventions targeting YPLWH to improve SRH-related outcomes in SSA. We undertook a review to synthesise evaluated interventions (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods) aimed at improving the SRH outcomes of YPLWH in SSA with outcomes based on a World Health Organization framework of comprehensive SRHR approaches for women living with HIV. Using inclusion criteria, only six interventions were identified. Interventions sought to improve a range of direct and indirect SRH outcomes, including sexual behaviour, adherence, disclosure, and mental health. Four overarching issues emerged: 1) all interventions were structured according to cognitive behavioural therapy theories of behaviour change - while showing promise they do not tackle the wider gender, social, and economic contexts that shape YPLWH's SRH; 2) 'significant others' were included in two of the interventions, but further work needs to consider how to leverage parental/guardian support appropriately; 3) interventions only accessed young people who were already linked to care, participants were likely to have better SRH outcomes than those potentially more vulnerable YPLWH; and 4) none of the interventions explored the sexuality of young people. There have been a limited number of evaluated interventions to strengthen SRH of YPLWH in SSA, and gaps exist in addressing the SRHR needs of YPLWH. Intervention approaches require greater scope and depth, including the need to address structural and contextual challenges.

  17. Interventions targeting sexual and reproductive health and rights outcomes of young people living with HIV: a comprehensive review of current interventions from sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandri Pretorius

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing number of young people (ages 10–24 are living with HIV (YPLWH in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. These YPLWH have particular needs and challenges related to their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR. Contextual factors including gender inequalities, violence, stigma, and discrimination and lack of tailored services undermine YPLWH's SRHR. Objective: Understand the scope and impact of interventions targeting YPLWH to improve SRH-related outcomes in SSA. Design: We undertook a review to synthesise evaluated interventions (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods aimed at improving the SRH outcomes of YPLWH in SSA with outcomes based on a World Health Organization framework of comprehensive SRHR approaches for women living with HIV. Using inclusion criteria, only six interventions were identified. Results: Interventions sought to improve a range of direct and indirect SRH outcomes, including sexual behaviour, adherence, disclosure, and mental health. Four overarching issues emerged: 1 all interventions were structured according to cognitive behavioural therapy theories of behaviour change – while showing promise they do not tackle the wider gender, social, and economic contexts that shape YPLWH's SRH; 2 ‘significant others’ were included in two of the interventions, but further work needs to consider how to leverage parental/guardian support appropriately; 3 interventions only accessed young people who were already linked to care, participants were likely to have better SRH outcomes than those potentially more vulnerable YPLWH; and 4 none of the interventions explored the sexuality of young people. Conclusions: There have been a limited number of evaluated interventions to strengthen SRH of YPLWH in SSA, and gaps exist in addressing the SRHR needs of YPLWH. Intervention approaches require greater scope and depth, including the need to address structural and contextual challenges.

  18. Evaluation of an intervention programme addressing ability to perform activities of daily living among persons with chronic conditions: study protocol for a feasibility trial (ABLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidetti, Susanne; Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; von Bülow, Cecilie

    2018-01-01

    version of the ABLE intervention programme was developed. Methods and analysis This feasibility study examine the perceived value and acceptability of the ABLE programme by evaluating the fidelity, reach, dose and potential outcomes using a pretest and post-test design involving 30 persons living...

  19. Assessing the relationship between child sexual abuse and marginal living conditions on HIV/AIDS-related risk behavior among women prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullings, J L; Marquart, J W; Brewer, V E

    2000-05-01

    There were two aims in this research. First, to examine the relationships between childhood sexual abuse and HIV drug and sexual risk taking behaviors among female prisoners, and second, to examine the relationship between a marginal adult living context and HIV drug and sexual risk taking behavior among female prisoners. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a random sample of 500 women at admission to prison in 1994. Differences between women who were sexually abused while growing up (n = 130) were compared to women who reported no sexual abuse (n = 370) along various demographic, and HIV drug and sexual risk taking dimensions. A history of sexual abuse while growing up was associated with increased sexual risk taking behaviors in adulthood. A marginal adult living situation also emerged as an important factor increasing the risk for HIV infection. Examining the co-occurrence of both childhood sexual abuse and adult marginal living context revealed a strong relationship between these two factors and HIV risk taking activities. The findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse may be a predictor for HIV sexual risk taking behaviors among incarcerated women. The marginal and chaotic adult living style of these women was also associated the extent of their HIV drug and sexual risk taking behaviors. Our research suggests that the co-occurrence of sexual victimization and marginality is a stronger predictor of HIV risk than each variable alone.

  20. An examination of current practices and gender differences in strength and conditioning in a sample of varsity high school athletic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Monica L; Ransdell, Lynda B; Lucas, Shelley M; Petlichkoff, Linda M; Gao, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Currently, little is known about strength and conditioning programs at the high school level. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to explore current practices in strength and conditioning for varsity high school athletes in selected sports. The following were specifically examined: who administers programs for these athletes, what kinds of training activities are done, and whether the responsible party or emphasis changes depending on the gender of the athletes. Coaches of varsity soccer, basketball, softball, and baseball in 3 large Idaho school districts were asked to complete an online survey. Sixty-seven percent (32/48) of the questionnaires were completed and used for the study. The majority of coaches (84%) provided strength and conditioning opportunities for their athletes, although only 37% required participation. Strength training programs were designed and implemented primarily by either physical education teachers or head coaches. Compared with coaches of male athletes, coaches of female athletes were less likely to know the credentials of their strength coaches, and they were less likely to use certified coaches to plan and implement their strength and conditioning programs. Most programs included dynamic warm-ups and cool-downs, plyometrics, agility training, speed training, and conditioning, and most programs were conducted 3 d·wk(-1) (76%) for sessions lasting between 30 and 59 minutes (63%). Compared with their female counterparts, male athletes were more likely to have required training, participate in strength training year round, and train using more sessions per week. This study provides additional information related to the practice of strength and conditioning in a sample of high school athletic teams.

  1. What Online User Innovation Communities Can Teach Us about Capturing the Experiences of Patients Living with Chronic Health Conditions. A Scoping Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Amann

    Full Text Available In order to adapt to societal changes, healthcare systems need to switch from a disease orientation to a patient-centered approach. Virtual patient networks are a promising tool to favor this switch and much can be learned from the open and user innovation literature where the involvement of online user communities in the innovation process is well-documented.The objectives of this study were 1 to describe the use of online communities as a tool to capture and harness innovative ideas of end users or consumers; and 2 to point to the potential value and challenges of these virtual platforms to function as a tool to inform and promote patient-centered care in the context of chronic health conditions.A scoping review was conducted. A total of seven databases were searched for scientific articles published in English between 1995 and 2014. The search strategy was refined through an iterative process.A total of 144 studies were included in the review. Studies were coded inductively according to their research focus to identify groupings of papers. The first set of studies focused on the interplay of factors related to user roles, motivations, and behaviors that shape the innovation process within online communities. Studies of the second set examined the role of firms in online user innovation initiatives, identifying different organizational strategies and challenges. The third set of studies focused on the idea selection process and measures of success with respect to online user innovation initiatives. Finally, the findings from the review are presented in the light of the particularities and challenges discussed in current healthcare research.The present paper highlights the potential of virtual patient communities to inform and promote patient-centered care, describes the key challenges involved in this process, and makes recommendations on how to address them.

  2. What Online User Innovation Communities Can Teach Us about Capturing the Experiences of Patients Living with Chronic Health Conditions. A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Julia; Zanini, Claudia; Rubinelli, Sara

    2016-01-01

    In order to adapt to societal changes, healthcare systems need to switch from a disease orientation to a patient-centered approach. Virtual patient networks are a promising tool to favor this switch and much can be learned from the open and user innovation literature where the involvement of online user communities in the innovation process is well-documented. The objectives of this study were 1) to describe the use of online communities as a tool to capture and harness innovative ideas of end users or consumers; and 2) to point to the potential value and challenges of these virtual platforms to function as a tool to inform and promote patient-centered care in the context of chronic health conditions. A scoping review was conducted. A total of seven databases were searched for scientific articles published in English between 1995 and 2014. The search strategy was refined through an iterative process. A total of 144 studies were included in the review. Studies were coded inductively according to their research focus to identify groupings of papers. The first set of studies focused on the interplay of factors related to user roles, motivations, and behaviors that shape the innovation process within online communities. Studies of the second set examined the role of firms in online user innovation initiatives, identifying different organizational strategies and challenges. The third set of studies focused on the idea selection process and measures of success with respect to online user innovation initiatives. Finally, the findings from the review are presented in the light of the particularities and challenges discussed in current healthcare research. The present paper highlights the potential of virtual patient communities to inform and promote patient-centered care, describes the key challenges involved in this process, and makes recommendations on how to address them.

  3. Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Menu Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... Lessons Topics Expand Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ...

  4. Concomitant contraceptive implant and efavirenz use in women living with HIV: perspectives on current evidence and policy implications for family planning and HIV treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rena C; Morroni, Chelsea; Scarsi, Kimberly K; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Kiarie, James; Cohen, Craig R

    2017-05-11

    Preventing unintended pregnancies is important among all women, including those living with HIV. Increasing numbers of women, including HIV-positive women, choose progestin-containing subdermal implants, which are one of the most effective forms of contraception. However, drug-drug interactions between contraceptive hormones and efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) may reduce implant effectiveness. We present four inter-related perspectives on this issue. First, as a case study, we discuss how limited data prompted country-level guidance against the use of implants among women concomitantly using efavirenz in South Africa and its subsequent negative effects on the use of implants in general. Second, we discuss the existing clinical data on this topic, including the observational study from Kenya showing women using implants plus efavirenz-based ART had three-fold higher rates of pregnancy than women using implants plus nevirapine-based ART. However, the higher rates of pregnancy in the implant plus efavirenz group were still lower than the pregnancy rates among women using common alternative contraceptive methods, such as injectables. Third, we discuss the four pharmacokinetic studies that show 50-70% reductions in plasma progestin concentrations in women concurrently using efavirenz-based ART as compared to women not on any ART. These pharmacokinetic studies provide the biologic basis for the clinical findings. Fourth, we discuss how data on this topic have marked implications for both family planning and HIV programmes and policies globally. This controversy underlines the importance of integrating family planning services into routine HIV care, counselling women appropriately on increased risk of pregnancy with concomitant implant and efavirenz use, and expanding contraceptive method mix for all women. As global access to ART expands, greater research is needed to explore implant effectiveness when used concomitantly with newer ART regimens. Data on how

  5. Relative importance of current and past landscape structure and local habitat conditions for plant species richness in dry grassland-like forest openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husáková, Iveta; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    In fragmented landscapes, plant species richness may depend not only on local habitat conditions but also on landscape structure. In addition, both present and past landscape structure may be important for species richness. There are, however, only a few studies that have investigated the relative importance of all of these factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of current and past landscape structures and habitat conditions on species richness at dry grassland-like forest openings in a forested landscape and to assess their relative importance for species richness. We analyzed information on past and present landscape structures using aerial photographs from 1938, 1973, 1988, 2000 and 2007. We calculated the area of each locality and its isolation in the present and in the past and the continuity of localities in GIS. At each locality, we recorded all vascular plant species (296 species in 110 forest openings) and information on abiotic conditions of the localities. We found that the current species richness of the forest openings was significantly determined by local habitat conditions as well as by landscape structure in the present and in the past. The highest species richness was observed on larger and more heterogeneous localities with rocks and shallow soils, which were already large and well connected to other localities in 1938. The changes in the landscape structure in the past can thus have strong effects on current species richness. Future studies attempting to understand determinants of species diversity in fragmented landscapes should also include data on past landscape structure, as it may in fact be more important than the present structure.

  6. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home ... Primarily, older persons or their families pay the cost of assisted living. Some health and long-term care insurance policies ...

  7. Live visualizations of single isolated tubulin protein self-assembly via tunneling current: effect of electromagnetic pumping during spontaneous growth of microtubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Satyajit; Ghosh, Subrata; Fujita, Daisuke; Bandyopadhyay, Anirban

    2014-12-03

    As we bring tubulin protein molecules one by one into the vicinity, they self-assemble and entire event we capture live via quantum tunneling. We observe how these molecules form a linear chain and then chains self-assemble into 2D sheet, an essential for microtubule, --fundamental nano-tube in a cellular life form. Even without using GTP, or any chemical reaction, but applying particular ac signal using specially designed antenna around atomic sharp tip we could carry out the self-assembly, however, if there is no electromagnetic pumping, no self-assembly is observed. In order to verify this atomic scale observation, we have built an artificial cell-like environment with nano-scale engineering and repeated spontaneous growth of tubulin protein to its complex with and without electromagnetic signal. We used 64 combinations of plant, animal and fungi tubulins and several doping molecules used as drug, and repeatedly observed that the long reported common frequency region where protein folds mechanically and its structures vibrate electromagnetically. Under pumping, the growth process exhibits a unique organized behavior unprecedented otherwise. Thus, "common frequency point" is proposed as a tool to regulate protein complex related diseases in the future.

  8. Current assessment of integrated content of long-lived radionuclides in soils of the head part of the East Ural Radioactive Trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molchanova, I.; Mikhailovskaya, L.; Antonov, K.; Pozolotina, V.; Antonova, E.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the datasets obtained during investigations from 2003 to 2012, the spatial distributions of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239,240 Pu content in the soils of the head part of the East Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) were mapped using the geographic information system ArcGIS. Taking into account the presence of spatial autocorrelation and anisotropy in the source data, an ordinary kriging method was applied to interpolate values of radionuclide contamination density at unsampled places. Further geostatistical data analysis was performed to determine the basic parameters of spatial dependencies and to integrally assess the contamination by long-lived radionuclides in soils of the central, east peripheral, and west peripheral parts of the trace. This analysis was based on simplified geometric models (sector- and rectangle-shaped areas). The Monte Carlo method was used to quantitatively assess the uncertainty of the values for the integrated quantities resulting from the statistical errors of the source data approximation. - Highlights: • We investigated 102 soil samples in 2003–2012 at different distances from PA Mayak. • We mapped spatial distribution of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239,240 Pu at this area by ArcGIS. • Integrated content based on sector- and rectangle-shaped models are similar. • The studied area clearly split into central, west, and east parts. • Radionuclide content of the central part is higher two orders than of west and east. - Capsule abstract: The spatial distribution of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239,240 Pu at the EURT area by ArcGIS

  9. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  10. Storing data encoded DNA in living organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong,; Pak C. , Wong; Kwong K. , Foote; Harlan, P [Richland, WA

    2006-06-06

    Current technologies allow the generation of artificial DNA molecules and/or the ability to alter the DNA sequences of existing DNA molecules. With a careful coding scheme and arrangement, it is possible to encode important information as an artificial DNA strand and store it in a living host safely and permanently. This inventive technology can be used to identify origins and protect R&D investments. It can also be used in environmental research to track generations of organisms and observe the ecological impact of pollutants. Today, there are microorganisms that can survive under extreme conditions. As well, it is advantageous to consider multicellular organisms as hosts for stored information. These living organisms can provide as memory housing and protection for stored data or information. The present invention provides well for data storage in a living organism wherein at least one DNA sequence is encoded to represent data and incorporated into a living organism.

  11. Liquid helium boil-off measurements of heat leakage from sinter-forged BSCCO current leads under DC and AC conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Y.S.; Niemann, R.C.; Hull, J.R.; Youngdahl, C.A.; Lanagan, M.T.; Nakade, M.; Hara, T.

    1995-06-01

    Liquid helium boil-off experiments are conducted to determine the heat leakage rate of a pair of BSCCO 2223 high-temperature superconductor current leads made by sinter forging. The experiments are carried out in both DC and AC conditions and with and without an intermediate heat intercept. Current ranges are from 0-500 A for DC tests and 0-1,000 A rms for AC tests. The leads are self-cooled. Results show that magnetic hysteresis (AC) losses for both the BSCCO leads and the low-temperature superconductor current jumper are small for the current range. It is shown that significant reduction in heat leakage rate (liquid helium boil-off rate) is realized by using the BSCCO superconductor leads. At 100 A, the heat leakage rate of the BSCCO/copper binary lead is approximately 29% of that of the conventional copper lead. Further reduction in liquid helium boil-off rate can be achieved by using an intermediate heat intercept. For example, at 500 K, the heat leakage rate of the BSCCO/copper binary lead is only 7% of that of the conventional copper lead when an intermediate heat intercept is used

  12. Conditioning of BPM pickup signals for operations of the Duke storage ring with a wide range of single-bunch current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Jing-Yi; Huang, Sen-Lin; Z. Wu, W.; Hao, H.; P., Wang; K. Wu, Y.

    2014-10-01

    The Duke storage ring is a dedicated driver for the storage ring based oscillator free-electron lasers (FELs), and the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS). It is operated with a beam current ranging from about 1 mA to 100 mA per bunch for various operations and accelerator physics studies. High performance operations of the FEL and γ-ray source require a stable electron beam orbit, which has been realized by the global orbit feedback system. As a critical part of the orbit feedback system, the electron beam position monitors (BPMs) are required to be able to precisely measure the electron beam orbit in a wide range of the single-bunch current. However, the high peak voltage of the BPM pickups associated with high single-bunch current degrades the performance of the BPM electronics, and can potentially damage the BPM electronics. A signal conditioning method using low pass filters is developed to reduce the peak voltage to protect the BPM electronics, and to make the BPMs capable of working with a wide range of single-bunch current. Simulations and electron beam based tests are performed. The results show that the Duke storage ring BPM system is capable of providing precise orbit measurements to ensure highly stable FEL and HIGS operations.<