WorldWideScience

Sample records for current literature supports

  1. Support management in schizophrenia: a systematic review of current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompili M

    2012-12-01

    techniques have more rapid remission and relapse less frequently than patients treated only pharmacologically.Keywords: schizophrenia, support management, nonpharmacological treatment, cognitive behavioral therapy

  2. MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES DURING AIR TRAVEL: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW OF CURRENT RECOMMENDATIONS AND THEIR SUPPORTING EVIDENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, James; Suresh, Rahul; Blue, Rebecca S; Mathers, Charles H; Belalcazar, L Maria

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with diabetes are increasingly seeking pretravel advice, but updated professional recommendations remain scant. We performed a systematic review on diabetes management during air travel to summarize current recommendations, assess supporting evidence, and identify areas of future research. A systematic review of the English literature on diabetes management during air travel was undertaken utilizing PubMed and MEDLINE. Publications regarding general travel advice; adjustment of insulin and noninsulin therapies; and the use of insulin pumps, glucometers and subcutaneous glucose sensors at altitude were included. Gathered information was used to create an updated summary of glucose-lowering medication adjustment during air travel. Sixty-one publications were identified, most providing expert opinion and few offering primary data (47 expert opinion, 2 observational studies, 2 case reports, 10 device studies). General travel advice was uniform, with increasing attention to preflight security. Indications for oral antihyperglycemic therapy adjustments varied. There were few recommendations on contemporary agents and on nonhypoglycemic adverse events. There was little consensus on insulin adjustment protocols, many antedating current insulin formulations. Most publications advocated adjusting insulin pump time settings after arrival; however, there was disagreement on timing and rate adjustments. Glucometers and subcutaneous glucose sensors were reported to be less accurate at altitude, but not to an extent that would preclude their clinical use. Recommendations for diabetes management during air travel vary significantly and are mostly based on expert opinion. Data from systematic investigation on glucose-lowering medication adjustment protocols may support the development of a future consensus statement. CSII = continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (device) DPP-4 = dipeptidyl peptidase 4 EGA = error grid analysis GDH = glucose dehydrogenase GOX = glucose

  3. Consideration of Culture and Context in School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: A Review of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Lindsay M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Sugai, George

    2012-01-01

    A review of the literature related to culture and student behavior reveals a number of interesting observations that are not surprising. First, culture is a difficult construct to define and has been defined variably over the years. Second, schools are becoming increasingly diverse, and evidence-based behavior management practices have been…

  4. Predicting future discoveries from current scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrič, Ingrid; Cestnik, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in biomedicine is a time-consuming process starting from the basic research, through preclinical testing, towards possible clinical applications. Crossing of conceptual boundaries is often needed for groundbreaking biomedical research that generates highly inventive discoveries. We demonstrate the ability of a creative literature mining method to advance valuable new discoveries based on rare ideas from existing literature. When emerging ideas from scientific literature are put together as fragments of knowledge in a systematic way, they may lead to original, sometimes surprising, research findings. If enough scientific evidence is already published for the association of such findings, they can be considered as scientific hypotheses. In this chapter, we describe a method for the computer-aided generation of such hypotheses based on the existing scientific literature. Our literature-based discovery of NF-kappaB with its possible connections to autism was recently approved by scientific community, which confirms the ability of our literature mining methodology to accelerate future discoveries based on rare ideas from existing literature.

  5. Mantle cell lymphoma-current literature overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejcic, Ivica; Petkovic, Ivan; Vrbic, Svetislav; Filipovic, Sladjana; Balic, Mirjana; Cvetanovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a distinct subtype of lymphoma identified as a particular entity in the early 1990s. The prognosis of MCL is generally poor, and is considered one of the worst among all B-cell lymphomas. In general, conventional chemotherapy is only palliative and the median duration of remissions is only 1-2 years. With the exception of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), current treatment approaches are not curative and the corresponding survival curve is characterized by a relatively steep and continuous decline, with a median survival of about 4 years and watch and wait strategy. Optimal first-line therapy in MCL is not established yet. Very intensive regimens, including autologous (auto-SCT) and allo-SCT, seem to be required to improve the outcome. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is the only therapy that can achieve a plateau in the survival curve, but, however, it is not applicable in most of the cases due to the patients' older age when the disease mostly occurs. Molecular knowledge of MCL has progressed and therefore a large number of molecular targeted therapies have been introduced in relapsed and refractory disease.

  6. Veganism and osteoporosis: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Annabelle M

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the current literature regarding calcium and Vitamin D deficiencies in vegan diets and the possible relationship to low bone mineral density and incidence for fracture. Prominent databases were searched for original research publications providing data capable of answering these questions: (i) Do vegans have lower-than-recommended levels of calcium/Vitamin D? (ii) Do vegans have lower bone mineral density than their non-vegan counterparts? (iii) Are vegans at a greater risk for fractures than non-vegans? The findings gathered consistently support the hypothesis that vegans do have lower bone mineral density than their non-vegan counterparts. However, the evidence regarding calcium, Vitamin D and fracture incidence is inconclusive. More research is needed to definitively answer these questions and to address the effects of such deficiencies on the medical and socioeconomic aspects of life.

  7. Creating Value through Virtual Teams: A Current Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Takeoka Chatfield

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, virtual teams (VT as ICT-enabled emergent network organisation forms have gained international validity by innovative organisations, with a corresponding surge of interest in understanding how organisations can leverage VT to create business value. Despite growing deliberations in VT literature on managing VT, tasks and outcomes, however, creating business value through VT remains an unresolved theoretical and pragmatic conundrum. A review of prior relevant literature is essential to advancing knowledge. The paucity of published review articles seems to have impeded the field’s accumulation of VT knowledge. This research, therefore, reviews the current literature on case studies of VT to address the question: What are organisational challenges in creating business value through VT in the organisation? The key challenges found in the literature are effective communication, knowledge sharing, trust, and interpersonal skills in the new virtual boundary-less environment. Drawing on the IT business value model, we also discuss their resource-based implications.

  8. How to Use Current Medical Literature and APA Format Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Robin

    Directives and guidance in obtaining current medical literature are provided in this publication with special emphasis given to locating material in the Portland, Oregon area. The uses and types of periodical indexes are identified and periodical index citation examples are indicated. Explanations are offered on: (1) how to conduct an effective…

  9. Midwives' support for Complementary and Alternative Medicine: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Helen G; McKenna, Lisa G; Griffiths, Debra L

    2012-03-01

    There is evidence that the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by childbearing women is becoming increasingly popular in industrialised countries. The aim of this is paper is to review the research literature investigating the midwives' support for the use of these therapies. A search for relevant research published from 2000 to 2009 was undertaken using a range of databases and by examining relevant bibliographies. A total of thirteen studies were selected for inclusion in this review. The findings indicate that the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine is widespread in midwifery practice. Common indications for use include; labour induction and augmentation, nausea and vomiting, relaxation, back pain, anaemia, mal-presentation, perineal discomfort, postnatal depression and lactation problems. The most popular therapies recommended by midwives are massage therapy, herbal medicines, relaxation techniques, nutritional supplements, aromatherapy, homeopathy and acupuncture. Midwives support the use Complementary and Alternative Medicine because they believe it is philosophically congruent; it provides safe alternatives to medical interventions; it supports the woman's autonomy, and; incorporating Complementary and Alternative Medicine can enhance their own professional autonomy. There is considerable support by midwives for the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by expectant women. Despite this enthusiasm, currently there are few educational opportunities and only limited research evidence regarding CAM use in midwifery practice. These shortfalls need to be addressed by the profession. Midwives are encouraged to have an open dialogue with childbearing women, to document use and to base any advice on the best available evidence. Copyright © 2010 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Current evidence supporting "letrozole" for ovulation induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatase inhibitor "letrozole" was first introduced as a potential ovulation induction (OI drug almost a decade back. Large number of studies has been published using letrozole for OI: In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS women, clomiphene citrate (CC resistant women, for intrauterine insemination and also in various protocols of mild stimulation for in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI. Letrozole appears to be a good option, with its oral route of administration, cost, shorter half-life and negligible side effects. However, the verdict on efficacy and safety of letrozole is still uncertain. This review explores the current scientific data supporting letrozole for OI.

  11. Redesigning Journal Clubs to Staying Current with the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Roland N; Wood, G Christopher; Swanson, Joseph M; Brown, Rex O

    2017-11-06

    Staying current with the literature is of paramount importance to the pharmacist engaged in an evidence-based clinical practice. Given the expanding roles and responsibilities of today's pharmacists combined with exponential growth in new medical and health sciences literature, staying current has become an extremely daunting task. Traditional journal clubs have focused upon their role as a training vehicle for teaching critical reading skills to residents. However, schools of pharmacy are now required to provide instruction in biostatistics, research design, and interpretation. We present a paradigm shift in the traditional journal club model whereby a collection of periodicals is screened and a short synopsis of the pertinent articles is provided. The associated tasks for screening and presenting of the primary literature are shared among a group of clinicians and trainees with similar practice interests resulting in a more reasonable workload for the individual. This journal club method was effective in identifying a significant majority of articles judged to be pertinent by independent groups of clinicians in the same practice arenas. Details regarding the shared core practice and knowledge base elements, journal club format, identification of journals, and evaluation of the success of the journal club technique are provided.

  12. The mechanisms underpinning peer support: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emma

    2017-12-20

    The employment of Peer Support Workers, who themselves have experience of significant emotional distress, can promote recovery at an individual and organisational level. While research examining the benefits of peer support within mental health services continues to grow, an understanding of how, and through what processes, these benefits are reached remains under-developed. To review the published research literature relating to the process of peer support and its underpinning mechanisms to better understand how and why it works. A scoping review of published literature identified studies relating to peer support mechanisms, processes and relationships. Studies were summarised and findings analysed. Five mechanisms were found to underpin peer support relationships (lived experience, love labour, the liminal position of the peer worker, strengths-focussed social and practical support, and the helper role). The identified mechanisms can underpin both the success and difficulties associated with peer support relationships. Further research should review a broader range of literature and clarify how these mechanisms contribute to peer support in different contexts.

  13. Current Evidence Supporting Obstetric Fistula Prevention Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidences from the articles were linked to prevention strategies retrieved from grey literature. The strategies were classified using an innovative target-focused method. Gaps in the literature show the need for fistula prevention research to aim at systematically measuring incidence and prevalence of the disease, identify the ...

  14. Low-Frequency Pulsed Current Versus Kilohertz-Frequency Alternating Current: A Scoping Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Frasson, Viviane Bortoluzzi

    2018-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of low-frequency pulsed current versus kilohertz-frequency alternating current in terms of evoked force, discomfort level, current intensity, and muscle fatigability; to discuss the physiological mechanisms of each neuromuscular electrical stimulation type; and to determine if kilohertz-frequency alternating current is better than low-frequency pulsed current for clinical treatment. Articles were obtained from PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and SPORTSDiscus databases using the terms Russian current or kilohertz current or alternating current or pulsed current or Aussie current and torque or discomfort or fatigue or current intensity, and through citation tracking up to July 2017. Two independent reviewers selected studies comparing the use of the 2 neuromuscular electrical stimulation currents. Studies describing maximal current intensity tolerated and the main effects of the 2 different current types on discomfort, muscle force, and fatigability were independently reviewed. Data were systematized according to (1) methodology; (2) electrical current characteristics; and (3) outcomes on discomfort level, evoked force, current intensity, and muscle fatigability. The search revealed 15 articles comparing the 2 current types. Kilohertz-frequency alternated current generated equal or less force, similar discomfort, similar current intensity for maximal tolerated neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and more fatigue compared with low-frequency pulsed current. Similar submaximal levels of evoked force revealed higher discomfort and current intensity for kilohertz-frequency alternated current compared with low-frequency pulsed current. Available evidence does not support the idea that kilohertz-frequency alternated current is better than low-frequency pulsed current for strength training and rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  15. High-throughput literature mining to support read-across ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building scientific confidence in the development and evaluation of read-across remains an ongoing challenge. Approaches include establishing systematic frameworks to identify sources of uncertainty and ways to address them. One source of uncertainty is related to characterizing biological similarity. Many research efforts are underway such as structuring mechanistic data in adverse outcome pathways and investigating the utility of high throughput (HT)/high content (HC) screening data. A largely untapped resource for read-across to date is the biomedical literature. This information has the potential to support read-across by facilitating the identification of valid source analogues with similar biological and toxicological profiles as well as providing the mechanistic understanding for any prediction made. A key challenge in using biomedical literature is to convert and translate its unstructured form into a computable format that can be linked to chemical structure. We developed a novel text-mining strategy to represent literature information for read across. Keywords were used to organize literature into toxicity signatures at the chemical level. These signatures were integrated with HT in vitro data and curated chemical structures. A rule-based algorithm assessed the strength of the literature relationship, providing a mechanism to rank and visualize the signature as literature ToxPIs (LitToxPIs). LitToxPIs were developed for over 6,000 chemicals for a varie

  16. Connecting the Canon to Current Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, Katie; Roccanti, Rikki

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the respective roles of young adult literature and literary texts in the secondary level English Language Arts classroom and explore the connections that can be made between popular young adult books and the traditional canon. We provide examples showing how young adult literature bestsellers such as "The Book…

  17. New beginnings in Zulu literature | Mathonsi | Current Writing: Text ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay seeks to present and explore new works in Zulu literature. We consider what is innovative about these works in terms of the changes that have taken place in South Africa generally and in Zulu society in particular. Although we focus on Zulu literature, our observations will be found to have general applicability ...

  18. Clinical Ethics Support for Healthcare Personnel: An Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoal, Dara; Skovdahl, Kirsti; Gifford, Mervyn; Kihlgren, Annica

    2017-12-01

    This study describes which clinical ethics approaches are available to support healthcare personnel in clinical practice in terms of their construction, functions and goals. Healthcare personnel frequently face ethically difficult situations in the course of their work and these issues cover a wide range of areas from prenatal care to end-of-life care. Although various forms of clinical ethics support have been developed, to our knowledge there is a lack of review studies describing which ethics support approaches are available, how they are constructed and their goals in supporting healthcare personnel in clinical practice. This study engages in an integrative literature review. We searched for peer-reviewed academic articles written in English between 2000 and 2016 using specific Mesh terms and manual keywords in CINAHL, MEDLINE and Psych INFO databases. In total, 54 articles worldwide described clinical ethics support approaches that include clinical ethics consultation, clinical ethics committees, moral case deliberation, ethics rounds, ethics discussion groups, and ethics reflection groups. Clinical ethics consultation and clinical ethics committees have various roles and functions in different countries. They can provide healthcare personnel with advice and recommendations regarding the best course of action. Moral case deliberation, ethics rounds, ethics discussion groups and ethics reflection groups support the idea that group reflection increases insight into ethical issues. Clinical ethics support in the form of a "bottom-up" perspective might give healthcare personnel opportunities to think and reflect more than a "top-down" perspective. A "bottom-up" approach leaves the healthcare personnel with the moral responsibility for their choice of action in clinical practice, while a "top-down" approach risks removing such moral responsibility.

  19. Scientific Support of Terrorist Actions by Commercial Grey Area Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzung, W.

    2007-01-01

    The publication of the Al-Quaida handbook and time and time again notes of the possibility for getting special scientific knowledge from the internet have decreased the attention for an other important source of scientific support for terrorist education and/or actions. This is the commercial available and distributed grey area literature provided by a huge amount of (book) sellers and publishing houses. Most of this literature (hard copies and CDs) with dangerous subject matter is published in the US and may be ordered fast and with low costs using the internet. This kind of support for real and potential terrorists stands strongly in contradiction to the official policy and the 'unconditional' war against terrorism. With the presented poster the above described problem should be a little bit put in the focus of the CBMTS community and so to the authorities, too. By means of selected examples from different branches, such as Narcotics, Explosives, unusual Killing Methods, special Poisons / Toxins and, last not least, CW agents inclusive application methods and devices the highly charged situation is tried to shown. (author)

  20. Medical Consequences of Marijuana Use: A Review of Current Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Adam J.; Conley, James W.; Gordon, Joanne M.

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of legalization of marijuana for medicinal and recreational purposes, and the increase use of marijuana, healthcare providers will be increasingly confronted with marijuana users as patients in clinical environments. While there is vast literature regarding the societal and mental health harms associated with marijuana use, there is a paucity of reviews of the potential consequences of marijuana use on physical health or medical conditions. We examine the recent literature on ...

  1. Current practice in paediatric basic life support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heczková Jana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although the incidence of cardiac arrest in children is much lower than in adults, the condition is still considered a major health problem with a very low chance for survival. As in adults, the timely provision of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in children is crucial. Current guidelines for CPR in children were published along with the guidelines for CPR in adults in 2015. As in previous years, they are based on consensus provided by International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR. Guidelines of particular ILCOR member councils may vary and reflect regional characteristic such as different access to health care, education methods or willingness of population to provide emergency assistance. Moreover, the conditions requiring CPR in children are characterized not only by different incidence, but also by aetiology or techniques used for different age groups. Therefore, emphasis is put on simplicity and feasibility as well as on consistency with adult guidelines to improve retention of the paediatric sequences. Nurses may be first rescuers not only in health care facilities. Better understanding of CPR guidelines might help them to improve their ability to detect conditions requiring CRP and also initiate and provide effective emergency care.

  2. Teaching About Women in Hispanic Literature: Current Methods and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Carol

    Awareness of a new and altered method of teaching literature, similar to that described by Adrienne Rich, grew from the experience of teaching a small introductory course in twentieth century Hispanic women writers to students with diverse language, cultural, and economic backgrounds. Although about half the students were native Spanish speakers,…

  3. Current status and a short history of grey literature. Focusing on the international conference on grey literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    'Grey literature' is a loosely defined term whose application is rather complex, but it is also an important source of information for academic researchers. Today, the spread of the Internet has led to changes not only in the circulation but also in the role and definition of 'grey literature'. This article therefore presents a short history of the definition of 'grey literature', with central focus on topics discussed by the International Conference on Grey Literature. After this, the current status and future prospects of 'grey literature' in the digital society are described. Finally, the article introduces the JAEA Library's activities on 'grey literature', particularly the acquisition of proceedings and the editing and dissemination of the JAEA Reports (technical reports of JAEA). (author)

  4. Review of current literature related to GSI-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    EG and G Idaho is evaluating the structural integrity of Reactor Pressure Vessel Supports as part of its resolution of NRC Generic Safety Issue (GSI) 15, 'Radiation effects on Reactor Vessel Supports'. Structural analyses have been performed by the NRC, ORNL, LLNL, Portland General Electric Co., and several consultants. Two methods of analyses were used. This paper contains a short discussion of the analyses and the merits of the two analysis methods. (author)

  5. Robotic Buccal Ureteroplasty: a Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldorf, Benjamin; Lee, Ziho; Kidd, Laura; Kaplan, Joshua; Harris, Andrew; Metro, Michael; Liu, Jeffrey; Eun, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to provide an overview of the literature on buccal mucosal ureteroplasty for ureteral stricture disease, with a specific focus on the application of the robotic platform to buccal ureteroplasty. In our review, we highlight the results of Zhao et al. from the New York University School of Medicine Department of Urology, as well as our own results from Temple University Hospital. Zhao et al. published the first series of four patients who underwent robotic buccal ureteroplasty. Mean stricture length was 3.0 cm, and at a mean follow-up of 15 months, all repairs remained patent. We also describe our results in 10 patients who underwent robotic buccal ureteroplasty at Temple University Hospital. Median stricture length was 3.0 cm, and at a median follow-up of 5 months, all repairs remain patent. Robotic buccal ureteroplasty offers a promising option for repair of complex ureteral strictures.

  6. Current aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR HUGO LOPES DE ANDRADE

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder with variable prevalence, affecting about one in every 15 women worldwide. The diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome requires at least two of the following criteria: oligoovulation and/or anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism and morphology of polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS appear to have a higher risk of developing metabolic disorders, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this article was to present a review of the literature by searching the databases Pubmed and Scielo, focusing on publications related to polycystic ovaries, including its pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic aspects, as well as its association with cardiovascular and arterial hypertensive disorders.

  7. Aortopathy associated with congenital heart disease: A current literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Francois

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients born with congenital heart disease, dilatation of the aorta is a frequent feature at presentation and during follow-up after surgical intervention. This review provides an overview of the pathologies associated with aortopathy, and discusses the current knowledge on pathophysiology, evolution, and treatment guidelines of the aortic disease associated with congenital heart defects.

  8. Aortopathy associated with congenital heart disease: A current literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Katrien

    2015-01-01

    In patients born with congenital heart disease, dilatation of the aorta is a frequent feature at presentation and during follow-up after surgical intervention. This review provides an overview of the pathologies associated with aortopathy, and discusses the current knowledge on pathophysiology, evolution, and treatment guidelines of the aortic disease associated with congenital heart defects

  9. Patellofemoral Arthroplasty: Current Concepts and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Gabriele; Rosso, Federica; Bertolo, Corrado; Dettoni, Federico; Blonna, Davide; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Rossi, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA) can be associated with anterior knee pain, stiffness, and functional impairment. Some authors report that PFOA affects approximately 9% of patients older than 40 years with a greater prevalence in females. Etiology of PFOA is multifactorial and is related to the presence of abnormal stresses at the PF joint due to knee- and patient-related factors. The need for a joint preserving treatment by isolated replacement of the injured compartment of the knee led to the development of PF arthroplasty (PFA). When a correct PF replacement is performed, PFA preserves physiologic tibiofemoral joint, thus allowing patients for a rapid recovery with a high satisfaction. The outcomes for PFA are quite variable with a trend toward good to excellent results, mainly owing to the improvement in surgical techniques, patient selection, and implant design. The development of the second generation of PFA improved the outcomes, which is attributed to the different trochlear designs. Recently, encouraging results have been provided by the association of PFA and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). In many studies, the main cause of PFA failure is progression of tibiofemoral OA. The aim of this brief review of literature is to summarize the clinical features, indications and contraindications, surgical techniques, complications, and outcomes of PFA. PMID:29270562

  10. Nurses' clinical reasoning practices that support safe medication administration: An integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Emily; Domm, Elizabeth

    2018-02-01

    To review the current literature about nurses' clinical reasoning practices that support safe medication administration. The literature about medication administration frequently focuses on avoiding medication errors. Nurses' clinical reasoning used during medication administration to maintain medication safety receives less attention in the literature. As healthcare professionals, nurses work closely with patients, assessing and intervening to promote mediation safety prior to, during and after medication administration. They also provide discharge teaching about using medication safely. Nurses' clinical reasoning and practices that support medication safety are often invisible when the focus is medication errors avoidance. An integrative literature review was guided by Whittemore and Knafl's (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 5, 2005 and 546) five-stage review of the 11 articles that met review criteria. This review is modelled after Gaffney et al.'s (Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25, 2016 and 906) integrative review on medical error recovery. Health databases were accessed and systematically searched for research reporting nurses' clinical reasoning practices that supported safe medication administration. The level and quality of evidence of the included research articles were assessed using The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Rating Scale©. Nurses have a central role in safe medication administration, including but not limited to risk awareness about the potential for medication errors. Nurses assess patients and their medication and use knowledge and clinical reasoning to administer medication safely. Results indicated nurses' use of clinical reasoning to maintain safe medication administration was inadequately articulated in 10 of 11 studies reviewed. Nurses are primarily responsible for safe medication administration. Nurses draw from their foundational knowledge of patient conditions and organisational processes and use clinical reasoning that

  11. A literature review of the twinning approach in supporting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to review international literature and to contextualise it to South Africa's water services institutions. On the basis of the literature evidence, the following questions will be discussed: • How is “twinning” to be conceptualised and operationalised • What are the expected outputs and outcomes of ...

  12. Magnetic resonance neurography. Current perspectives and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Avneesh [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Radiology and Orthopedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Johns Hopkins University, Adjunct Faculty, Baltimore, MD (United States); Madhuranthakam, Ananth J. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Advanced Imaging Research Institute, Dallas, TX (United States); Andreisek, Gustav [University of Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2018-02-15

    Magnetic resonance neurography (also called MRN or MR neurography) refers to MR imaging dedicated to the peripheral nerves. It is a technique that enhances selective multiplanar visualisation of the peripheral nerve and pathology by encompassing a combination of two-dimensional, three-dimensional and diffusion imaging pulse sequences. Referring physicians who seek imaging techniques that can depict and diagnose peripheral nerve pathologies superior to conventional MR imaging are driving the demand for MRN. This article reviews the pathophysiology of peripheral nerves in common practice scenarios, technical considerations of MRN, current indications of MRN, normal and abnormal neuromuscular appearances, and imaging pitfalls. Finally, the emerging utility of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging is discussed and future directions are highlighted. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic resonance neurography. Current perspectives and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J.; Andreisek, Gustav

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance neurography (also called MRN or MR neurography) refers to MR imaging dedicated to the peripheral nerves. It is a technique that enhances selective multiplanar visualisation of the peripheral nerve and pathology by encompassing a combination of two-dimensional, three-dimensional and diffusion imaging pulse sequences. Referring physicians who seek imaging techniques that can depict and diagnose peripheral nerve pathologies superior to conventional MR imaging are driving the demand for MRN. This article reviews the pathophysiology of peripheral nerves in common practice scenarios, technical considerations of MRN, current indications of MRN, normal and abnormal neuromuscular appearances, and imaging pitfalls. Finally, the emerging utility of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging is discussed and future directions are highlighted. (orig.)

  14. Improving menstrual hygiene management in emergency contexts: literature review of current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLeeuwen, Crystal; Torondel, Belen

    2018-01-01

    Management of menstruation in contexts of humanitarian emergencies can be challenging. A lack of empirical research about effective interventions which improve menstrual hygiene management (MHM) among female populations in humanitarian emergencies and a lack of clarity about which sectors within a humanitarian response should deliver MHM interventions can both be attributable to the lack of clear guidance on design and delivery of culturally appropriate MHM intervention in settings of humanitarian emergencies. The objective of this review was to collate, summarize, and appraise existing peer-reviewed and gray literature that describes the current scenario of MHM in emergency contexts in order to describe the breadth and depth of current policies, guidelines, empirical research, and humanitarian aid activities addressing populations' menstrual needs. A structured-search strategy was conducted for peer-reviewed and gray literature to identify studies, published reports, guidelines, and policy papers related to menstrual response in emergency humanitarian contexts. Of the 51 articles included in the review, 16 were peer-reviewed papers and 35 were gray literature. Most of the literature agreed that hardware interventions should focus on the supply of adequate material (not only absorbent material but also other supportive material) and adequate sanitation facilities, with access to water and private space for washing, changing, drying, and disposing menstrual materials. Software interventions should focus on education in the usage of materials to manage menstruation hygienically and education about the female body's biological processes. There was clear agreement that the needs of the target population should be assessed before designing any intervention. Although there is insight about which factors should be included in an effective menstrual hygiene intervention, there is insufficient empirical evidence to establish which interventions are most effective in

  15. The Impact on Informal Supporters of Domestic Violence Survivors: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alison Clare; Williamson, Emma; Feder, Gene

    2017-12-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is experienced by 1 in 4 women in the United Kingdom during their lifetime, and most survivors will seek informal support from the people around them, even if they choose not to access help from professionals. Support from these relatives, friends, neighbors, and colleagues can provide a buffer against effects on the survivor's physical health, mental health, and quality of life, and has been shown to be protective against future abuse. There has been an absence of research studying members of survivors' networks and, in particular, investigating how the impact of DV might diffuse to affect them. A systematic literature review of reported research (either in peer-reviewed journals or in gray literature) was undertaken to explore the impacts of DV on survivor networks. Of the articles found, 24 had data relating to the topic area, though no study addressed the question directly. Framework analysis and meta-ethnography generated the following themes: physical health impacts, negative impacts on psychological well-being, direct impacts from the perpetrator, and beneficial impacts on psychological well-being. The studies in this review indicated that informal supporters may be experiencing substantial impact, including vicarious trauma and the risk of physical harm. Currently, there is little support available which is directly aimed at informal supporters of DV survivors, thus these findings have practical and policy implications, in order to acknowledge and meet their needs.

  16. Using high-throughput literature mining to support read-across predictions of skin sensitization (WC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read-across predictions require high quality measured data for source analogues. These data are typically retrieved from structured databases, but biomedical literature data are often untapped because current literature mining approaches are resource intensive. Our high-throughpu...

  17. Special Collections of Children's Literature: A Justification for Their Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Ellen

    1986-01-01

    Describes the various purposes of special collections of children's literature including their value to historians, sociologists, psychologists, artists and authors, their reference purposes, and their value in preserving regional artistic and literary heritages. A bibliography of journal articles, pamphlets, and brochures listed by state is…

  18. Update on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and tic disorders: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Heather A; Jung, Leah; Murphy, Tanya K

    2011-10-01

    Tic disorders impact quality of life, but when they are co-occurring with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the combined impact takes a toll on psychosocial functioning and adds another layer of complexity to treatment approaches. A review of the current literature supports evidence of a unique relationship between comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and tic disorders, emphasizing the intricate phenotype and impairment associated with these co-occurring conditions. The complexity of these symptoms requires careful diagnosis and appropriate treatment as determined by the level of impairment and can include pharmacotherapy, behavioral interventions, or a combination of therapies. To achieve the greatest benefits in improving quality of life and eliminating further comorbidity, an ideal treatment plan would include a comprehensive evaluation as well as a hierarchical treatment approach involving education of the child, family, and teachers; careful medication management; and cognitive and behavioral training.

  19. Disaster Preparedness among Health Professionals and Support Staff: What is Effective? An Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, Jeremy R; Walker, Kim N; Elmer, Shandell L; Cummings, Elizabeth A

    2017-06-01

    Introduction It is important that health professionals and support staff are prepared for disasters to safeguard themselves and the community during disasters. There has been a significantly heightened focus on disasters since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in New York (USA); however, despite this, it is evident that health professionals and support staff may not be adequately prepared for disasters. Report An integrative literature review was performed based on a keyword search of the major health databases for primary research evaluating preparedness of health professionals and support staff. The literature was quality appraised using a mixed-methods appraisal tool (MMAT), and a thematic analysis was completed to identify current knowledge and gaps. Discussion The main themes identified were: health professionals and support staff may not be fully prepared for disasters; the most effective content and methods for disaster preparedness is unknown; and the willingness of health professionals and support staff to attend work and perform during disasters needs further evaluation. Gaps were identified to guide further research and the creation of new knowledge to best prepare for disasters. These included the need for: high-quality research to evaluate the best content and methods of disaster preparedness; inclusion of the multi-disciplinary health care team as participants; preparation for internal disasters; the development of validated competencies for preparedness; validated tools for measurement; and the importance of performance in actual disasters to evaluate preparation. The literature identified that all types of disaster preparedness activities lead to improvements in knowledge, skills, or attitude preparedness for disasters. Most studies focused on external disasters and the preparedness of medical, nursing, public health, or paramedic professionals. There needs to be a greater focus on the whole health care team, including allied health

  20. The current state of Lean implementation in health care: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poksinska, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the current state of implementation of Lean production in health care. The study focuses on the definition of Lean in health care and implementation process, barriers, challenges, enablers, and outcomes of implementing Lean production methods in health care. A comprehensive search of the literature concerning the implementation of Lean production in health care was used to generate a synthesis of the literature around the chosen research questions. Lean production in health care is mostly used as a process improvement approach and focuses on 3 main areas: (1) defining value from the patient point of view, (2) mapping value streams, and (3) eliminating waste in an attempt to create continuous flow. Value stream mapping is the most frequently applied Lean tool in health care. The usual implementation steps include conducting Lean training, initiating pilot projects, and implementing improvements using interdisciplinary teams. One of the barriers is lack of educators and consultants who have their roots in the health care sector and can provide support by sharing experience and giving examples from real-life applications of Lean in health care. The enablers of Lean in health care seem not to be different from the enablers of any other change initiative. The outcomes can be divided into 2 broad areas: the performance of the health care system and the development of employees and work environment.

  1. Improving menstrual hygiene management in emergency contexts: literature review of current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanLeeuwen C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Crystal VanLeeuwen, Belen Torondel Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK Abstract: Management of menstruation in contexts of humanitarian emergencies can be challenging. A lack of empirical research about effective interventions which improve menstrual hygiene management (MHM among female populations in humanitarian emergencies and a lack of clarity about which sectors within a humanitarian response should deliver MHM interventions can both be attributable to the lack of clear guidance on design and delivery of culturally appropriate MHM intervention in settings of humanitarian emergencies. The objective of this review was to collate, summarize, and appraise existing peer-reviewed and gray literature that describes the current scenario of MHM in emergency contexts in order to describe the breadth and depth of current policies, guidelines, empirical research, and humanitarian aid activities addressing populations’ menstrual needs. A structured-search strategy was conducted for peer-reviewed and gray literature to identify studies, published reports, guidelines, and policy papers related to menstrual response in emergency humanitarian contexts. Of the 51 articles included in the review, 16 were peer-reviewed papers and 35 were gray literature. Most of the literature agreed that hardware interventions should focus on the supply of adequate material (not only absorbent material but also other supportive material and adequate sanitation facilities, with access to water and private space for washing, changing, drying, and disposing menstrual materials. Software interventions should focus on education in the usage of materials to manage menstruation hygienically and education about the female body’s biological processes. There was clear agreement that the needs of the target population should be assessed before designing any intervention. Although there is insight about which factors should be

  2. Artificial Intelligence for Diabetes Management and Decision Support: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Ivan; Vehi, Josep

    2018-05-30

    Artificial intelligence methods in combination with the latest technologies, including medical devices, mobile computing, and sensor technologies, have the potential to enable the creation and delivery of better management services to deal with chronic diseases. One of the most lethal and prevalent chronic diseases is diabetes mellitus, which is characterized by dysfunction of glucose homeostasis. The objective of this paper is to review recent efforts to use artificial intelligence techniques to assist in the management of diabetes, along with the associated challenges. A review of the literature was conducted using PubMed and related bibliographic resources. Analyses of the literature from 2010 to 2018 yielded 1849 pertinent articles, of which we selected 141 for detailed review. We propose a functional taxonomy for diabetes management and artificial intelligence. Additionally, a detailed analysis of each subject category was performed using related key outcomes. This approach revealed that the experiments and studies reviewed yielded encouraging results. We obtained evidence of an acceleration of research activity aimed at developing artificial intelligence-powered tools for prediction and prevention of complications associated with diabetes. Our results indicate that artificial intelligence methods are being progressively established as suitable for use in clinical daily practice, as well as for the self-management of diabetes. Consequently, these methods provide powerful tools for improving patients' quality of life. ©Ivan Contreras, Josep Vehi. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 30.05.2018.

  3. Perceived organizational support: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Linda; Eisenberger, Robert

    2002-08-01

    The authors reviewed more than 70 studies concerning employees' general belief that their work organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being (perceived organizational support; POS). A meta-analysis indicated that 3 major categories of beneficial treatment received by employees (i.e., fairness, supervisor support, and organizational rewards and favorable job conditions) were associated with POS. POS, in turn, was related to outcomes favorable to employees (e.g., job satisfaction, positive mood) and the organization (e.g., affective commitment, performance, and lessened withdrawal behavior). These relationships depended on processes assumed by organizational support theory: employees' belief that the organization's actions were discretionary, feeling of obligation to aid the organization, fulfillment of socioemotional needs, and performance-reward expectancies.

  4. Emerging optical techniques in advanced cystoscopy for bladder cancer diagnosis: A review of the current literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauberg Evelyne, C. C.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; de Reijke, Theo M.

    2011-01-01

    The current standard for the diagnosis and followup of bladder cancer remains white light cystoscopy, despite its well-known limitations. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on three optical diagnostics that have been developed to improve the performance of white light

  5. Processing biological literature with customizable Web services supporting interoperable formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Rafal; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Carter, Jacob; Rowley, Andrew; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Web services have become a popular means of interconnecting solutions for processing a body of scientific literature. This has fuelled research on high-level data exchange formats suitable for a given domain and ensuring the interoperability of Web services. In this article, we focus on the biological domain and consider four interoperability formats, BioC, BioNLP, XMI and RDF, that represent domain-specific and generic representations and include well-established as well as emerging specifications. We use the formats in the context of customizable Web services created in our Web-based, text-mining workbench Argo that features an ever-growing library of elementary analytics and capabilities to build and deploy Web services straight from a convenient graphical user interface. We demonstrate a 2-fold customization of Web services: by building task-specific processing pipelines from a repository of available analytics, and by configuring services to accept and produce a combination of input and output data interchange formats. We provide qualitative evaluation of the formats as well as quantitative evaluation of automatic analytics. The latter was carried out as part of our participation in the fourth edition of the BioCreative challenge. Our analytics built into Web services for recognizing biochemical concepts in BioC collections achieved the highest combined scores out of 10 participating teams. Database URL: http://argo.nactem.ac.uk. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Mobile clinical decision support systems and applications: a literature and commercial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Sainz-de-Abajo, Beatriz; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The latest advances in eHealth and mHealth have propitiated the rapidly creation and expansion of mobile applications for health care. One of these types of applications are the clinical decision support systems, which nowadays are being implemented in mobile apps to facilitate the access to health care professionals in their daily clinical decisions. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to make a review of the current systems available in the literature and in commercial stores. Secondly, to analyze a sample of applications in order to obtain some conclusions and recommendations. Two reviews have been done: a literature review on Scopus, IEEE Xplore, Web of Knowledge and PubMed and a commercial review on Google play and the App Store. Five applications from each review have been selected to develop an in-depth analysis and to obtain more information about the mobile clinical decision support systems. Ninety-two relevant papers and 192 commercial apps were found. Forty-four papers were focused only on mobile clinical decision support systems. One hundred seventy-one apps were available on Google play and 21 on the App Store. The apps are designed for general medicine and 37 different specialties, with some features common in all of them despite of the different medical fields objective. The number of mobile clinical decision support applications and their inclusion in clinical practices has risen in the last years. However, developers must be careful with their interface or the easiness of use, which can impoverish the experience of the users.

  7. Perioperative antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing endoscopic urologic surgery: where do we stand with current literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naspro, Richard; Lerner, Lori B; Rossini, Roberta; Manica, Michele; Woo, Henry H; Calopedos, Ross J; Cracco, Cecilia M; Scoffone, Cesare M; Herrmann, Thomas R; de la Rosette, Jean J; Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; DA Pozzo, Luigi F

    2018-04-01

    The number of patients on chronic anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy requiring endoscopic urological surgery is increasing worldwide. Therefore, there is a strong demand to standardize the perioperative treatment of this cohort of patients, both from a surgical and cardiological point of view, balancing the risks of bleeding versus thrombosis, and the important possible clinical and medical legal repercussions therein. Although literature is scarce and the quality of evidence quite low, in line with other surgical specialties, guidelines and recommendations for the management of urological patients have begun to emerge. The aim of this review is to analyze current available literature and evidence on the most common endoscopic procedures performed in this high-risk group of patients, focusing on the perioperative management. In particular, to analyze the most frequently performed endoscopic procedures for the treatment of benign prostate enlargement (transurethral resection of the prostate, Thulium, Holmium and greenlight laser prostatectomy), bladder cancer (transurethral resection of the bladder), upper urinary tract urothelial cancer, and nephrolithiasis. Despite the lack of randomized studies, regardless of individual patient considerations, studies would support continuation of acetylsalicylic acid, which is recommended by cardiologists, in patients with intermediate/high risk of coronary thrombosis. In contrast, multiple studies found that bridging with light weight molecular weight heparin can potentially lead to more bleeding than continuation of the anticoagulant(s) and antiplatelet therapy, and caution with bridging is advised. All urologists should familiarize themselves with emerging guidelines and recommendations, and always be prepared to discuss specific cases or scenarios in a dedicated multidisciplinary team.

  8. Navigating the Role of Business Incubators: A Review on the Current Literature on Business Incubation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobekani Lose

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators (BIs are a significant tool in promoting the development of entrepreneurial firms, technology-based growth firms and economic growth in South Africa. The study reviewed the current literature on business incubation in South Africa. BIs in South Africa emerged as a popular strategy in the 1990s and most of the current literature was established in the same period. However, the current literature is still limited. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of existing knowledge on the role and effectiveness of business incubation in supporting the development of new small startup businesses. The quantitative and qualitative literature published by the academic and practitioner communities is reviewed. The searches indicated that incubation has encouraged many studies in South Africa. The studies can be categorised under the following themes: the role and contribution of incubators, success factors for business incubation, obstacles, and the relationship between incubators and entrepreneurship. The areas for further research are suggested. Two major areas that new research can explore focus on the creation of the model and selfsustainability of BIs.

  9. Evaluating clinical ethics support in mental healthcare: a systematic literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hem, M.H.; Pedersen, R.; Norvoll, R.; Molewijk, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review on evaluation of clinical ethics support services in mental healthcare is presented and discussed. The focus was on (a) forms of clinical ethics support services, (b) evaluation of clinical ethics support services, (c) contexts and participants and (d) results. Five

  10. Mindfulness-Based Mobile Applications: Literature Review and Analysis of Current Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Inmaculada; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in mindfulness has increased exponentially, particularly in the fields of psychology and medicine. The trait or state of mindfulness is significantly related to several indicators of psychological health, and mindfulness-based therapies are effective at preventing and treating many chronic diseases. Interest in mobile applications for health promotion and disease self-management is also growing. Despite the explosion of interest, research on both the design and potential uses of mindfulness-based mobile applications (MBMAs) is scarce. Objective Our main objective was to study the features and functionalities of current MBMAs and compare them to current evidence-based literature in the health and clinical setting. Methods We searched online vendor markets, scientific journal databases, and grey literature related to MBMAs. We included mobile applications that featured a mindfulness-based component related to training or daily practice of mindfulness techniques. We excluded opinion-based articles from the literature. Results The literature search resulted in 11 eligible matches, two of which completely met our selection criteria–a pilot study designed to evaluate the feasibility of a MBMA to train the practice of “walking meditation,” and an exploratory study of an application consisting of mood reporting scales and mindfulness-based mobile therapies. The online market search eventually analyzed 50 available MBMAs. Of these, 8% (4/50) did not work, thus we only gathered information about language, downloads, or prices. The most common operating system was Android. Of the analyzed apps, 30% (15/50) have both a free and paid version. MBMAs were devoted to daily meditation practice (27/46, 59%), mindfulness training (6/46, 13%), assessments or tests (5/46, 11%), attention focus (4/46, 9%), and mixed objectives (4/46, 9%). We found 108 different resources, of which the most used were reminders, alarms, or bells (21/108, 19.4%), statistics tools

  11. Mindfulness-based mobile applications: literature review and analysis of current features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Inmaculada; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola; García-Campayo, Javier

    2013-11-01

    Interest in mindfulness has increased exponentially, particularly in the fields of psychology and medicine. The trait or state of mindfulness is significantly related to several indicators of psychological health, and mindfulness-based therapies are effective at preventing and treating many chronic diseases. Interest in mobile applications for health promotion and disease self-management is also growing. Despite the explosion of interest, research on both the design and potential uses of mindfulness-based mobile applications (MBMAs) is scarce. Our main objective was to study the features and functionalities of current MBMAs and compare them to current evidence-based literature in the health and clinical setting. We searched online vendor markets, scientific journal databases, and grey literature related to MBMAs. We included mobile applications that featured a mindfulness-based component related to training or daily practice of mindfulness techniques. We excluded opinion-based articles from the literature. The literature search resulted in 11 eligible matches, two of which completely met our selection criteria-a pilot study designed to evaluate the feasibility of a MBMA to train the practice of "walking meditation," and an exploratory study of an application consisting of mood reporting scales and mindfulness-based mobile therapies. The online market search eventually analyzed 50 available MBMAs. Of these, 8% (4/50) did not work, thus we only gathered information about language, downloads, or prices. The most common operating system was Android. Of the analyzed apps, 30% (15/50) have both a free and paid version. MBMAs were devoted to daily meditation practice (27/46, 59%), mindfulness training (6/46, 13%), assessments or tests (5/46, 11%), attention focus (4/46, 9%), and mixed objectives (4/46, 9%). We found 108 different resources, of which the most used were reminders, alarms, or bells (21/108, 19.4%), statistics tools (17/108, 15.7%), audio tracks (15/108, 13

  12. Current Status of Mechanical Circulatory Support: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Spiliopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is a major public health problem and its management requires a significant amount of health care resources. Even with administration of the best available medical treatment, the mortality associated with the disease remains high. As therapeutical strategies for heart failure have been refined, the number of patients suffering from the disease has expanded dramatically. Although heart transplantation still represents the gold standard therapeutical approach, the implantation of mechanical circulatory support devices (MCSDs evolved to a well-established management for this disease. The limited applicability of heart transplantation caused by a shortage of donor organs and the concurrent expand of the patient population with end-stage heart failure led to a considerable utilization of MCSDs. This paper outlines the current status of mechanical circulatory support.

  13. The Use of Current Media in Literature and Composition at the Community College Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Jody

    Current media--films, videos, television programs, advertising in both print and television, and newspaper and magazine articles--can be successfully employed in college literature and composition classes, enhancing the learning environment by involving those students who might otherwise show disinterest. For example, a unit on pornography,…

  14. Addressing Prediabetes in Childhood Obesity Treatment Programs: Support from Research and Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, H. Mollie; Fernandez, Cristina; Lukasiewicz, Gloria J.; Rhodes, Erinn T.; Shaffer, Laura A.; Sweeney, Brooke; Woolford, Susan J.; Estrada, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes have increased in prevalence among overweight and obese children, with significant implications for long-term health. There is little published evidence on the best approaches to care of prediabetes among overweight youth or the current practices used across pediatric weight management programs. Methods: This article reviews the literature and summarizes current practices for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of prediabetes at childhood obesity treatment centers. Findings regarding current practice were based on responses to an online survey from 28 pediatric weight management programs at 25 children's hospitals in 2012. Based on the literature reviewed, and empiric data, consensus support statements on prediabetes care and T2DM prevention were developed among representatives of these 25 children's hospitals' obesity clinics. Results: The evidence reviewed demonstrates that current T2DM and prediabetes diagnostic parameters are derived from adult-based studies with little understanding of clinical outcomes among youth. Very limited evidence exists on preventing progression of prediabetes. Some evidence suggests that a significant proportion of obese youth with prediabetes will revert to normoglycemia without pharmacological management. Evidence supports lifestyle modification for children with prediabetes, but further study of specific lifestyle changes and pharmacological treatments is needed. Conclusion: Evidence to guide management of prediabetes in children is limited. Current practice patterns of pediatric weight management programs show areas of variability in practice, reflecting the limited evidence base. More research is needed to guide clinical care for overweight youth with prediabetes. PMID:25055134

  15. Supported Decision Making: A Synthesis of the Literature across Intellectual Disability, Mental Health, and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, Karrie A.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Lassmann, Heather; Forber-Pratt, Anjali J.

    2017-01-01

    Supported decision making (SDM) has begun to receive significant attention as means to enable people to exercise autonomy and self-determination over decisions about their life. Practice frameworks that can be used to promote the provision of supports for decision making are needed. This paper integrates the literature across intellectual and…

  16. Expanding the (kaleido)scope: exploring current literature trends for translating electroencephalography (EEG) based brain-computer interfaces for motor rehabilitation in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney-Lang, E.; Auyeung, B.; Escudero, J.

    2016-12-01

    Rehabilitation applications using brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have recently shown encouraging results for motor recovery. Effective BCI neurorehabilitation has been shown to exploit neuroplastic properties of the brain through mental imagery tasks. However, these applications and results are currently restricted to adults. A systematic search reveals there is essentially no literature describing motor rehabilitative BCI applications that use electroencephalograms (EEG) in children, despite advances in such applications with adults. Further inspection highlights limited literature pursuing research in the field, especially outside of neurofeedback paradigms. Then the question naturally arises, do current literature trends indicate that EEG based BCI motor rehabilitation applications could be translated to children? To provide further evidence beyond the available literature for this particular topic, we present an exploratory survey examining some of the indirect literature related to motor rehabilitation BCI in children. Our goal is to establish if evidence in the related literature supports research on this topic and if the related studies can help explain the dearth of current research in this area. The investigation found positive literature trends in the indirect studies which support translating these BCI applications to children and provide insight into potential pitfalls perhaps responsible for the limited literature. Careful consideration of these pitfalls in conjunction with support from the literature emphasize that fully realized motor rehabilitation BCI applications for children are feasible and would be beneficial. • BCI intervention has improved motor recovery in adult patients and offer supplementary rehabilitation options to patients. • A systematic literature search revealed that essentially no research has been conducted bringing motor rehabilitation BCI applications to children, despite advances in BCI. • Indirect studies discovered

  17. Expanding the (kaleido)scope: exploring current literature trends for translating electroencephalography (EEG) based brain-computer interfaces for motor rehabilitation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney-Lang, E; Auyeung, B; Escudero, J

    2016-12-01

    Rehabilitation applications using brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have recently shown encouraging results for motor recovery. Effective BCI neurorehabilitation has been shown to exploit neuroplastic properties of the brain through mental imagery tasks. However, these applications and results are currently restricted to adults. A systematic search reveals there is essentially no literature describing motor rehabilitative BCI applications that use electroencephalograms (EEG) in children, despite advances in such applications with adults. Further inspection highlights limited literature pursuing research in the field, especially outside of neurofeedback paradigms. Then the question naturally arises, do current literature trends indicate that EEG based BCI motor rehabilitation applications could be translated to children? To provide further evidence beyond the available literature for this particular topic, we present an exploratory survey examining some of the indirect literature related to motor rehabilitation BCI in children. Our goal is to establish if evidence in the related literature supports research on this topic and if the related studies can help explain the dearth of current research in this area. The investigation found positive literature trends in the indirect studies which support translating these BCI applications to children and provide insight into potential pitfalls perhaps responsible for the limited literature. Careful consideration of these pitfalls in conjunction with support from the literature emphasize that fully realized motor rehabilitation BCI applications for children are feasible and would be beneficial. •  BCI intervention has improved motor recovery in adult patients and offer supplementary rehabilitation options to patients. •  A systematic literature search revealed that essentially no research has been conducted bringing motor rehabilitation BCI applications to children, despite advances in BCI. •  Indirect studies

  18. Computer Simulations to Support Science Instruction and Learning: A critical review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Lara Kathleen; Bell, Randy L.

    2012-06-01

    Researchers have explored the effectiveness of computer simulations for supporting science teaching and learning during the past four decades. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, critical review of the literature on the impact of computer simulations on science teaching and learning, with the goal of summarizing what is currently known and providing guidance for future research. We report on the outcomes of 61 empirical studies dealing with the efficacy of, and implications for, computer simulations in science instruction. The overall findings suggest that simulations can be as effective, and in many ways more effective, than traditional (i.e. lecture-based, textbook-based and/or physical hands-on) instructional practices in promoting science content knowledge, developing process skills, and facilitating conceptual change. As with any other educational tool, the effectiveness of computer simulations is dependent upon the ways in which they are used. Thus, we outline specific research-based guidelines for best practice. Computer simulations are most effective when they (a) are used as supplements; (b) incorporate high-quality support structures; (c) encourage student reflection; and (d) promote cognitive dissonance. Used appropriately, computer simulations involve students in inquiry-based, authentic science explorations. Additionally, as educational technologies continue to evolve, advantages such as flexibility, safety, and efficiency deserve attention.

  19. Cholesterol Point-of-Care Testing for Community Pharmacies: A Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Lauren; Tran, Deanna

    2017-08-01

    To summarize the literature on cholesterol point-of-care tests (POCTs). This article would serve as a resource to assist community pharmacists in developing cholesterol point-of-care (POC) pharmacy services. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE Ovid, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane database using the following medical subject headings (MeSH) terms: point-of-care test, cholesterol, blood chemical analysis, rapid testing, collaborative practice, community pharmacy, and ambulatory care. Additional resources including device manufacturer web sites were summarized to supplement the current literature. All human research articles, review articles, meta-analyses, and abstracts published in English through September 1, 2014, were considered. A total of 36 articles were applicable for review. Information was divided into the following categories to be summarized: devices, pharmacists' impact, and operational cost for the pharmacy. The current literature suggests that POCTs in community pharmacies assist with patient outcomes by providing screenings and referring patients with dyslipidemia for further evaluation. The majority of studies on cholesterol POC devices focused on accuracy, revealing the need for further studies to develop best practices and practice models with successful reimbursement. Accuracy, device specifications, required supplies, and patient preference should be considered when selecting a POC device for purchase.

  20. Social Support and Mental Health in LGBTQ Adolescents: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kari

    2018-01-01

    LGBTQ adolescents experience higher rates of mental health disorders than their heterosexual peers. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature was to examine studies evaluating social support and its effects on mental health in the LGBTQ adolescent population. Higher levels of social support were associated with positive self-esteem. Lack of social support (or low social support) was associated with higher levels of depression, anxiety, alcohol or drug misuse, risky sexual behaviors, shame, and low self-esteem. Interdisciplinary research teams from multiple and diverse professions could provide valuable insight supporting the development of inclusive and comprehensive interventions programs for this population.

  1. Taxonomic Review of Classical and Current Literature on the Perennial American Family Forest Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Straka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental issues in American forest policy has been the small forest ownership problem. Early in the twentieth century, it was called the farm forestry problem, later, the nonindustrial private forest problem, and today, the family forest problem. Family forest owners are thought to manage their lands in a suboptimal manner resulting in low forest productivity relative to other ownership groups. This can lead to future timber supply problems. The exact nature of the problem, especially its social and economic basis, was a common subject of early forestry research studies. This article includes many of the major nonindustrial private forest or family forest studies, from early to current, and classifies them both by themes used by other authors and categories that relate to major research areas in the current literature. A major focus of this literature deals with promoting management on family forest holdings and possible land management incentives and disincentives. Natural trends in family forest ownership, like parcelization, also impact upon forest management opportunities. By developing a taxonomy that classifies these studies by research objective, methodology, owner motivation, and problem definition, this article serves to organize the family forest literature in a manner that provides a temporal framework for better understanding the historical motivation for and development of family forest research in the United States.

  2. Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: Current review of the technique and literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Iqbal

    2009-10-01

    To visit the operative technique and to review the current published English literature on the technique, and outcomes following robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN). We searched the published English literature and the PubMed(()) for published series of 'robotic partial nephrectomy' (RPN) using the keywords; robot, robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic surgery. The search yielded 15 major selected series of 'robotic partial nephrectomy'; these were reviewed, tracked and analysed in order to determine the current status and role of RPN in the management of early renal neoplasm(s), as a minimally invasive surgical alternative to open partial nephrectomy. A review of the initial peri-operative outcome of the 350 cases of select series of RPN reported in published English literature revealed a mean operating time, warm ischemia time, estimated blood loss and hospital stay, of 191 minutes, 25 minutes, 162 ml and 2.95 days, respectively. The overall computed mean complication rate of RPN in the present select series was about 7.4%. RPN is a safe, feasible and effective minimally invasive surgical alternative to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for early stage (T(1)) renal neoplasm(s). It has acceptable initial renal functional outcomes without the increased risk of major complications in experienced hands. Prospective randomised, controlled, comparative clinical trials with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) are the need of the day. While the initial oncological outcomes of RPN appear to be favourable, long-term data is awaited.

  3. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs

  4. Postural Control Impairments in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Critical Review of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Ghanouni, Parisa; Shayestehfar, Monir; Ghaheri, Banafsheh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Motor impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been frequently reported. In this review, we narrow our focus on postural control impairments to summarize current literature for patterns, underlying mechanisms, and determinants of posture in this population. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search was conducted through Medline, ISI web of Knowledge, Scopus and Google Scholar to include studies between 1992 and February 2013. Results: Individuals with ASD have problems in maintaining postural control in infancy that well persists into later years. However, the patterns and underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Conclusions: Examining postural control as an endophenotype or early diagnostic marker of autism is a conceptual premise which should be considered in future investigations. At the end of the review, methodological recommendations on the assessment of postural control have also been provided. PMID:25520765

  5. Does current provision of undergraduate education prepare UK medical students in ENT? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gary R; Bacila, Irina A; Swamy, Meenakshi

    2016-04-15

    To systematically identify and analyse all published literature relating to the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery, as perceived by medical students and clinicians in the UK. Systematic literature review. 5 major databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, Cochrane and Web of Science. The literature search was conducted from February to April 2015. Primary research or studies that report on the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ENT, from the perspective of medical students and clinicians in the UK. The timescale of searches was limited from 1999 onwards (ie, the past 15 years). The literature search was conducted by 2 independent reviewers. Search terms used involved the combination and variation of 5 key concepts, namely: medical student, clinician, ENT, undergraduate medical education and UK. A data extraction form was designed for and used in this study, based on guidelines provided by the UK National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Textual narrative synthesis was used for data analysis. A total of 7 studies were included in the final review. 4 main themes were identified: confidence in managing patients, teaching delivery, student assessment and duration of rotations. A consistent finding in this review was that the majority of final year medical students and junior doctors did not feel adequately prepared to practise ENT. Important factors influencing preparedness in ENT included the duration of clinical rotations, the opportunity for hands-on learning and formal assessment. The findings of this review suggest the need for further development of the ENT undergraduate curricula across the UK. However, there is insufficient evidence from which to draw strong conclusions; this in itself is beneficial as it highlights a gap in the existing literature and supports the need for primary research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  6. The Five Attributes of a Supportive Midwifery Practice Climate: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, E Brie; Flynn, Linda

    2018-01-01

    A supportive work climate is associated with decreased burnout and attrition, and increased job satisfaction and employee health. A review of the literature was conducted in order to determine the unique attributes of a supportive practice climate for midwives. The midwifery literature was reviewed and synthesized using concept analysis technique guided by literature from related professions. The search was conducted primarily in PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Articles were included if they were conducted between 2006 and 2016 and addressed perceptions of the midwifery practice climate as it related to patient, provider, and organizational outcomes. The literature identified 5 attributes consistent with a supportive midwifery practice climate: effective leadership, adequate resources, collaboration, control of one's work, and support of the midwifery model of care. Effective leadership styles include situational and transformational, and 9 traits of effective leaders are specified. Resources consist of time, personnel, supplies, and equipment. Collaboration encompasses relationships with all members of the health care team, including midwives inside and outside of one's practice. Additionally, the patients are considered collaborating members of the team. Characteristics of effective collaboration include a shared vision, role clarity, and respectful communication. Support for the midwifery model of care includes value congruence, developing relationships with women, and providing high-quality care. The attributes of a supportive midwifery practice climate are generally consistent with theoretical models of supportive practice climates of advanced practice nurses and physicians, with the exception of a more inclusive definition of collaboration and support of the midwifery model of care. The proposed Midwifery Practice Climate Model can guide instrument development, determining relationships between the attributes of the practice climate and

  7. Working and caring for a child with chronic illness: A review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, A M; Newcombe, P A; Haslam, D M

    2018-05-01

    Advances in medical knowledge have contributed to the increase in the number of children living with some form of long-term chronic illness or condition. As a consequence of these advancements, treatments that are more accessible and easier to administer, usually within a child's home, have been developed. However, this may mean that parents take on greater treatment responsibility and require extra time and energy to meet these tasks, additional to other responsibilities. This review paper aims to summarize and critique existing literature on working parents of children with a chronic condition, by focusing on patterns of parent work, the challenges experienced, and the flow-on consequences to well-being. Employing a narrative, meta-synthesis of the current literature, this review identified 3 key themes related to working parents of children with chronic illness. The paper first identifies that although employment is less common, these parents are not necessarily nonworking. Second, these parents experience numerous challenges including balancing work and family, time constraints, stress, and feelings of "doing it all." And third, the above challenges lead to additional impacts on parental quality of life. This review summarizes what is currently known about work patterns, challenges, and consequences in parents of children with chronic conditions. Employment is clearly impacted for these parents. Although workplace challenges have been extensively researched, other challenges (eg, personal and family) and impacts on their well-being have not. This review discusses the present standing of this research. It outlines the strengths and limitations of the current literature, makes recommendations for future research, and suggests theoretical and practical implications of the further findings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The effect of physical activity on mood - a review of current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Łakomski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of physical activity on human health has many benefits. Equally important in improving physical fitness and normalizing cardiovascular system seems to be the impact of exercise on mood of patients. Physical activity improves well-being, satisfaction and self-confidence. However, the condition of effective therapeutic intervention is due to its regularity, since only systematic exercises allow to maintain the beneficial effects of physical activity. Otherwise, the results achieved are only temporary. This article aims to review the current literature and show the most important aspects of motion therapy in improving the psychophysical condition of patients.

  9. Who should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems? A critical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Megan A; Malla, Ashok K; Iyer, Srividya N

    2018-05-01

    Individuals with mental health problems have many support needs that are often inadequately met; however, perceptions of who should be responsible for meeting these needs have been largely unexplored. Varying perceptions may influence whether, how, and to what extent relevant stakeholders support individuals with mental health problems. To critically evaluate the literature to determine who different stakeholders believe should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems, what factors shape these perceptions, and how they relate to one another. A critical literature review was undertaken. Following an extensive literature search, the conceptual contributions of relevant works were critically evaluated. A concept map was created to build a conceptual framework of the topic. Views of individual versus societal responsibility for need provision and health; the morality of caring; and attributions of responsibility for mental illness offered valuable understandings of the review questions. Creating a concept map revealed that various interrelated factors may influence perceptions of responsibility. Varying perceptions of who should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems may contribute to unmet support needs among this group. Our critical review helps build a much-needed conceptual framework of factors influencing perceptions of responsibility. Such a framework is essential as these views iteratively shape and reflect the complex divisions of mental healthcare roles and responsibilities. Understanding these perceptions can help define relevant stakeholders' roles more clearly, which can improve mental health services and strengthen stakeholder accountability.

  10. Current literature and imaging techniques of aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, P.J.; Burke, C.J.; Saha, S.; Moonim, M.; George, M.; Desai, A.; Houghton, R.

    2013-01-01

    Aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL) are a recognized complication of metal-on-metal bearing hip prostheses. There is an impending concern regarding the future investigation and management of patients who have received such implants. The current literature is discussed, and the current guidelines for management of these patients in the UK are reviewed. The various imaging techniques available, such as computed tomography, metal artefact reduction magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound are discussed and evaluated with respect to the assessment of patients with suspected ALVAL. The histopathological findings are discussed with images of the tissue changes provided. Images of the radiological findings are also provided for all general radiological methods. ALVAL and its radiological presentation is an important issue that unfortunately may become a significant clinical problem

  11. Robot-assisted pyeloplasty: review of the current literature, technique and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Iqbal; Hemal, Ashok K

    2010-04-01

    To review the global select data on the current technique, perioperative outcome and literature on the robot-assisted pyeloplasty (RAP). The published English literature (PubMed) was extensively searched using the key words; robot, robot-assisted pyeloplasty, laparoscopy, laparoscopic pyeloplasty and ureteropelvic junction obstruction. The selected studies were then reviewed, tracked and analyzed in order to determine the current role, outcome and status of robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty. The search yielded about 25 published series on RAP comprising about 740 cases with a mean operative time, estimated blood loss, crossing vessel prevalence, hospital stay,perioperative complication rate and follow up duration of 194 min, 50 mL, 47%, 2.3 days, 6% and 14.9 months respectively. The initial peri-operative results and intermediate follow up of cases of repair of the ureteropelvic junction obstruction with robot-assisted pyeloplasty appear to be favorable and comparable to that of open pyeloplasty, while long term outcome data is still awaited. The da Vinci surgical robotic system is a promising surgical armamentarium in the hands of the modern day urologist for the minimally invasive definitive surgical management of both primary and secondary ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

  12. Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: Current review of the technique and literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Iqbal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To visit the operative technique and to review the current published English literature on the technique, and outcomes following robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN. Materials and Methods: We searched the published English literature and the PubMed (TM for published series of ′robotic partial nephrectomy′ (RPN using the keywords; robot, robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic surgery. Results: The search yielded 15 major selected series of ′robotic partial nephrectomy′; these were reviewed, tracked and analysed in order to determine the current status and role of RPN in the management of early renal neoplasm(s, as a minimally invasive surgical alternative to open partial nephrectomy. A review of the initial peri-operative outcome of the 350 cases of select series of RPN reported in published English literature revealed a mean operating time, warm ischemia time, estimated blood loss and hospital stay, of 191 minutes, 25 minutes, 162 ml and 2.95 days, respectively. The overall computed mean complication rate of RPN in the present select series was about 7.4%. Conclusions: RPN is a safe, feasible and effective minimally invasive surgical alternative to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for early stage (T 1 renal neoplasm(s. It has acceptable initial renal functional outcomes without the increased risk of major complications in experienced hands. Prospective randomised, controlled, comparative clinical trials with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN are the need of the day. While the initial oncological outcomes of RPN appear to be favourable, long-term data is awaited.

  13. Supporting Students with Asperger Syndrome on College Campuses: Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Gena P.

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing number of students with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) enrolling in college, it has become apparent that support services are greatly needed to assist these students in navigating college life, both academically and socially. Yet, there is a dearth of research describing the specific supports needed…

  14. Social support networks and eating disorders: an integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidas, Carolina; Dos Santos, Manoel Antônio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the scientific literature about social networks and social support in eating disorders (ED). By combining keywords, an integrative review was performed. It included publications from 2006-2013, retrieved from the MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. The selection of articles was based on preestablished inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 24 articles were selected for data extraction. There was a predominance of studies that used nonexperimental and descriptive designs, and which were published in international journals. This review provided evidence of the fact that fully consolidated literature regarding social support and social networks in patients with ED is not available, given the small number of studies dedicated to the subject. We identified evidence that the family social network of patients with ED has been widely explored by the literature, although there is a lack of studies about other networks and sources of social support outside the family. The evidence presented in this study shows the need to include other social networks in health care. This expansion beyond family networks would include significant others - such as friends, colleagues, neighbors, people from religious groups, among others - who could help the individual coping with the disorder. The study also highlights the need for future research on this topic, as well as a need for greater investment in publications on the various dimensions of social support and social networks.

  15. Supporting parents of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zysberg L

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leehu Zysberg,1 Tali Lang21Graduate School, Gordon College of Education, 2Department of Nursing, University of Haifa, Haifa, IsraelAbstract: This review provides the reader with an integrative view of the literature on the challenges families of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus face, and the interventions proposed in research and practice to facilitate their coping and efficacy in supporting patient care. We present background information regarding the condition and the general challenges it poses, and then focus on younger patients and their families, while reviewing the literature and emerging patterns describing pitfalls and proposed interventions. We present directions for future thought and further research based on what we find (and fail to find in the literature. Keywords: challenges, interventions, patient care, blood sugar, emotional, psychological

  16. Loneliness and social support of older people in China: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Hicks, Allan; While, Alison E

    2014-03-01

    Loneliness is a serious problem for older people, which can be alleviated by social support. The dramatic population ageing together with social and economic change in China increases the likelihood of loneliness and the availability of different sources of social support of older people. The aim of this review was to identify the prevalence of loneliness and its related factors and sources of social support of older people in China. Electronic literature searches were conducted in September 2011 using Web of Science, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, China Academic Journal and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals. Twenty-six papers were identified and reviewed. The prevalence of loneliness varied across the studies, reflecting the different measurements and samples. Marital status, gender, age, educational level, economic level, living arrangements, health status and social support were significant factors related to loneliness. The family was the most important source of social support followed by friends. The receipt of family support improved subjective well-being and mental health, but the effects of support from friends were inconsistent. Chinese older people received relatively little support from neighbours, governmental or other social organisations. Further well-designed studies are needed to identify additional factors related to loneliness and to understand the support from friends, neighbours, formal organisations and other sources. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Support needs of patients with COPD: a systematic literature search and narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardener, A Carole; Ewing, Gail; Kuhn, Isla; Farquhar, Morag

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the breadth of patients' support needs is important for the delivery of person-centered care, particularly in progressive long-term conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Existing reviews identify important aspects of managing life with COPD with which patients may need support (support needs); however, none of these comprehensively outlines the full range of support needs that patients can experience. We therefore sought to systematically determine the full range of support needs for patients with COPD to inform development of an evidence-based tool to enable person-centered care. We conducted a systematic search and narrative review of the literature. Medline (Ovid), EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL were systematically searched for papers which included data addressing key aspects of support need, as identified by patients with COPD. Relevant data were extracted, and a narrative analysis was conducted. Thirty-one papers were included in the review, and the following 13 domains (broad areas) of support need were identified: 1) understanding COPD, 2) managing symptoms and medication, 3) healthy lifestyle, 4) managing feelings and worries, 5) living positively with COPD, 6) thinking about the future, 7) anxiety and depression, 8) practical support, 9) finance work and housing, 10) families and close relationships, 11) social and recreational life, 12) independence, and 13) navigating services. These 13 domains of support need were mapped to three of the four overarching categories of need commonly used in relevant national strategy documents (ie, physical, psychological, and social); however, support needs related to the fourth category (spiritual) were notably absent. This review systematically identifies the comprehensive set of domains of support need for patients with COPD. The findings provide the evidence base for a tool to help patients identify and express their support needs, which underpins a proposed

  18. Social support networks and eating disorders: an integrative review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Leonidas, Carolina; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Carolina Leonidas, Manoel Antônio dos Santos Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil Aims: This study aimed to analyze the scientific literature about social networks and social support in eating disorders (ED). Methods: By combining keywords, an integrative review was performed. It included publications from 2006–2013, retrieved from the MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, an...

  19. OpenAIRE Guidelines: Supporting Interoperability for Literature Repositories, Data Archives and CRIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Príncipe, Pedro; Rettberg, Najla; Rodrigues, Eloy

    2014-01-01

    OpenAIRE – Open Access Infrastructure for Research in Europe – is moving from a publication infrastructure to a more comprehensive infrastructure that covers all types of scientific output. To put this into practice an integrated suite of guidelines were developed with specific requirements suppo...... supporting the goal of OpenAIRE and the European Commission. This poster outlines the OpenAIRE Guidelines, highlighting the set of guidelines for Literature Repository Managers, for Data Archive Managers and for CRIS Managers....

  20. The Use of Medicinal Marijuana for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal marijuana has already been legalized in over 23 states with more considering legalization. Despite the trend toward legalization, to date, there has been no systematic review of the existing literature for the efficacy of medicinal marijuana for many of the conditions for which it is proposed to treat. This study seeks to understand the current literature regarding the use of medicinal marijuana in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data Sources: PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched until April 2014 for articles outlining outcomes of case files, control studies, and observational studies regarding the efficacy of medicinal marijuana in treating PTSD. Various combinations of the following search terms were used: marijuana, medicinal marijuana, cannabis, cannabinoid, PTSD, efficacy, trial, and neurobiology. Study Selection: Full text of each article was reviewed, and those directly addressing the question of efficacy of medicinal marijuana on PTSD symptomatology were included. Data were extracted from a total of 46 articles. Results: Analysis revealed that most reports are correlational and observational in basis with a notable lack of randomized, controlled studies. Many of the published studies suggest a decrease in PTSD symptoms with marijuana use. Though the directionality of cannabis use and PTSD could not be fully differentiated at this time, there appears to also be a correlation between PTSD and problematic cannabis use. Despite this finding, there is a growing amount of neurobiological evidence and animal studies suggesting potential neurologically based reasons for the reported efficacy. Conclusions: Posttraumatic stress disorder is 1 of the approved conditions for medicinal marijuana in some states. While the literature to date is suggestive of a potential decrease in PTSD symptomatology with the use of medicinal marijuana, there is a notable lack of large-scale trials, making any final conclusions difficult

  1. Micropapillary bladder cancer: current treatment patterns and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Daniel L; Flaig, Thomas W; Hansel, Donna E; Milowsky, Matthew I; Grubb, Robert L; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A; Plimack, Elizabeth R; Koppie, Theresa M; McConkey, David J; Dinney, Colin P; Hoffman, Vanessa A; Droller, Michael J; Messing, Edward; Kamat, Ashish M

    2014-08-01

    No guidelines exist for the management of micropapillary bladder cancer (MPBC) and most reports of this variant of urothelial carcinoma are case series comprising small numbers of patients. We sought to determine current practice patterns for MPBC using a survey sent to the Society of Urologic Oncology (SUO) and to present those results in the setting of a comprehensive review of the existing literature. A survey developed by the Translational Science Working Group of the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network-sponsored Think Tank meeting was distributed to members of the SUO. The results from 118 respondents were analyzed and presented with a literature review. Most survey respondents were urologists, with 80% considering bladder cancer their primary area of interest. Although 78% of the respondents reported a dedicated genitourinary pathologist at their institution, there were discrepant opinions on how a pathologic diagnosis of MPBC is determined as well as variability on the proportion of MPBC that is clinically significant. Among them, 78% treat MPBC differently than conventional urothelial carcinoma, with 81% reporting that they would treat cT1 MPBC with upfront radical cystectomy. However, the respondents had split opinions regarding the sensitivity of MPBC to cisplatin-based chemotherapy, which affected utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in muscle-invasive disease. The management of MPBC is diverse among members of the SUO. Although most favors early cystectomy for cT1 MPBC, there is no consensus on the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive MPBC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mindfulness interventions in the workplace: A critique of the current state of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Stephanie D; Tuckey, Michelle R

    2017-04-01

    There is growing research interest regarding the significance of mindfulness in the workplace. Within this body of knowledge, research investigating the effects of mindfulness interventions on employee health and well-being has strong practical implications for organizations. A sound understanding of the current state of the workplace mindfulness intervention literature will help inform the suitability of these interventions within the workplace domain, and how to improve the conduct and communication of intervention-oriented research. Accordingly, in this article, we systematically review 40 published articles of mindfulness interventions in the workplace to identify ways in which these interventions could be improved, and how to overcome methodological concerns that threaten study validity. Studies selected for review were published peer-reviewed, primary empirical research studies written in English, with a focus on a workplace mindfulness intervention. We discuss a range of issues evident within this body of literature, including conceptualizations of mindfulness; the adaptation of protocols to work settings; internal validity in relation to random allocation and control conditions; the use of manipulation checks; attrition, adherence, acceptability, and maintenance of interventions; utilizing objective cognitive measures; examining organizational and well-being outcomes; and establishing boundary conditions. Overall, this review provides a resource to inform scholars to advance this line of inquiry and practitioners who are considering implementing a mindfulness intervention for employees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy: current state of the field, review of the literature and clinical trial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A S; Fox, C K; Rudser, K D; Gross, A C; Ryder, J R

    2016-07-01

    Despite the increasing number of medications recently approved to treat obesity among adults, few agents have been formally evaluated in children or adolescents for this indication. Moreover, there is a paucity of guidance in the literature addressing best practices with regard to pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy clinical trial design, and only general recommendations have been offered by regulatory agencies on this topic. The purposes of this article are to (1) offer a background of the current state of the field of pediatric obesity medicine, (2) provide a brief review of the literature summarizing pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy clinical trials, and (3) highlight and discuss some of the unique aspects that should be considered when designing and conducting high-quality clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of obesity medications in children and adolescents. Suggestions are offered in the areas of target population and eligibility criteria, clinical trial end-point selection, trial duration, implementation of lifestyle modification therapy and recruitment and retention of participants. Efforts should be made to design and conduct trials appropriately to ensure that high-quality evidence is generated on the safety and efficacy of various medications used to treat pediatric obesity.

  4. Short fiber-reinforced composite restorations: A review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Gargoum, Ausama; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo

    2018-02-25

    A newly-recommended method for restoring large cavities is the biomimetic approach of using short fiber-reinforced composite (SFRC) as dentine-replacing material. The aim of the current review was to present an overview of SFRC and to give the clinician a detailed understanding of this new material and treatment strategy based on available-literature review. A thorough literature search was done up to December 2017. The range of relevant publications was surveyed using PubMed and Google Scholar. From the search results, articles related to our search terms were only considered. The search terms used were "short fiber-reinforced composite", "everX posterior", and "fiber-reinforced composite restorations". Of the assessed articles selected (N = 70), most were laboratory-based research with various test specimen designs prepared according to the ISO standard or with extracted teeth; only four articles were clinical reports. A common finding was that by combining the SFRC as a bulk base with conventional composite, the load-bearing capacity and failure mode of the material combination were improved, as compared to plain conventional composite restoration. In the reviewed studies, the biomimetic restoration technique of using SFRC showed promising characteristics, and therefore, might be recommended as an alternative treatment option for large cavities. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Current Debates on Variability in Child Welfare Decision-Making: A Selected Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Keddell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers selected drivers of decision variability in child welfare decision-making and explores current debates in relation to these drivers. Covering the related influences of national orientation, risk and responsibility, inequality and poverty, evidence-based practice, constructions of abuse and its causes, domestic violence and cognitive processes, it discusses the literature in regards to how each of these influences decision variability. It situates these debates in relation to the ethical issue of variability and the equity issues that variability raises. I propose that despite the ecological complexity that drives decision variability, that improving internal (within-country decision consistency is still a valid goal. It may be that the use of annotated case examples, kind learning systems, and continued commitments to the social justice issues of inequality and individualisation can contribute to this goal.

  6. Cervical spondylolysis: three cases and a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Poong Gee; Yoon, Do Heum; Shin, Hyun Chul; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yi, Seong; Lee, Dong Yup; Yang, Moon Sul; Ha, Yoon

    2010-02-01

    Case report. To describe a rare case of cervical spondylolysis with an adjacent secondary dysplastic change, and to review the current literature regarding cervical spondylolysis. Three patients presented with minor trauma history and radiographical C6 level spondylolysis. Cervical spines were analyzed with plain radiography, multidetector computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. In all 3 patients, plain radiographs revealed a bilateral cleft of the C6 articular mass. The patients presented with long-term minimal discomfort of the posterior neck. In 2 patients, a trauma event increased the pain and produced neurologic deficits. In addition, an adjacent dysplastic change was present on imaging studying in 2 of the patients, 1 of whom also presented with a cord signal change above the spondylolytic level. Early diagnosis and appropriate management of cases of spondylolysis are important. In addition, surgical plans for cervical spondylolysis should be considered if the adjacent levels are unstable or fragile.

  7. Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis and Cervical Adenitis Syndrome: Current Literature Review with a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Demirtaş

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis and Cervical Adenitis syndrome (PFAPA is a frequently seen, important medical condition, which must be kept in mind in periodic fever etiology. Although its etiology is not clearly understood, autoimmune etiology is suspected due to response to steroids. There is no specific test for the diagnosis of disease. Diagnosis is based on symptoms and physical examination. Although medical treatment is the first choice for the management of the disease, tonsillectomy take over in treatment options for termination of attacks and permanent results. We have presented a patient that was performed tonsillectomy in our clinic for frequent attacks despite recurrent medical therapy with diagnosis of PFAPA with review of current literature.

  8. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis: Current criteria for diagnosis and differentiation (Clinical case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Mendelevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a 44-year-old male patient with an about 6-year history of hypertrophic pachymeningitis. The major clinical symptoms were characterized by headache, exophthalmos, and blindness in one eye. The data for differential diagnosis of the disease are given. The current literature on the clinical manifestations of hypertrophic pachymeningitis, its differential diagnosis, and the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is reviewed. Diagnostic difficulties at the stage of a clinical observation are due to the nonspecificity of neurological manifestations and the need for a comprehensive examination to detect a somatic disease. MRI can diagnose the disease-specific phenomenon of damage to the meninges, which calls for further careful differentiation. Clinicians must be familiar with alternative differential diagnosis, as a rapid specific therapeutic approach will help avoid long-term or irreversible neurological complications.

  9. Factoring - financial instrument supporting the current activity of an enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Czerwińska-Kayzer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises have a difficult access to classic financial sources. Therefore the factoring could be a financial instrument supporting effective management of the liabilities. Factoring improves the financial situation of a company, first of all financial liquidity. Moreover, factoring improves structure of financial statement and creates a possibility of risk transfer of debtor insolvency on factor.

  10. Evaluating clinical ethics support in mental healthcare: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, Marit Helene; Pedersen, Reidar; Norvoll, Reidun; Molewijk, Bert

    2015-06-01

    A systematic literature review on evaluation of clinical ethics support services in mental healthcare is presented and discussed. The focus was on (a) forms of clinical ethics support services, (b) evaluation of clinical ethics support services, (c) contexts and participants and (d) results. Five studies were included. The ethics support activities described were moral case deliberations and ethics rounds. Different qualitative and quantitative research methods were utilized. The results show that (a) participants felt that they gained an increased insight into moral issues through systematic reflection; (b) there was improved cooperation among multidisciplinary team members; (c) it was uncertain whether clinical ethics support services led to better patient care; (d) the issue of patient and client participation is complex; and (e) the implementation process is challenging. Clinical ethics support services have mainly been studied through the experiences of the participating facilitators and healthcare professionals. Hence, there is limited knowledge of whether and how various types of clinical ethics support services influence the quality of care and how patients and relatives may evaluate clinical ethics support services. Based on the six excluded 'grey zone articles', in which there was an implicit focus on ethics reflection, other ways of working with ethical reflection in practice are discussed. Implementing and evaluating clinical ethics support services as approaches to clinical ethics support that are more integrated into the development of good practice are in focus. In order to meet some of the shortcomings of the field of clinical ethics support services, a research project that aims to strengthen ethics support in the mental health services, including patients' and caregivers' views on ethical challenges, is presented. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society (RESNA) position on the application of wheelchair standing devices: 2013 current state of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicianno, Brad E; Morgan, Amy; Lieberman, Jenny; Rosen, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This article, approved by the Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America Board of Directors on December 23, 2013, shares typical clinical applications and provides evidence from the literature supporting the use of wheelchair standers.

  12. Ethics support in institutional elderly care: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Dam, Sandra; Molewijk, Bert; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Abma, Tineke A

    2014-09-01

    Clinical ethics support mechanisms in healthcare are increasing but little is known about the specific developments in elderly care. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic literature review on the characteristics of existing ethics support mechanisms in institutional elderly care. A review was performed in three electronic databases (Pubmed, CINAHL/PsycINFO, Ethxweb). Sixty papers were included in the review. The ethics support mechanisms are classified in four categories: 'institutional bodies' (ethics committee and consultation team); 'frameworks' (analytical tools to assist care professionals); 'educational programmes and moral case deliberation'; and 'written documents and policies'. For each category the goals, methods and ways of organising are described. Ethics support often serves several goals and can be targeted at various levels: case, professional or organisation. Over the past decades a number of changes have taken place in the development of ethics support in elderly care. Considering the goals, ethics support has become more outreaching and proactive, aiming to qualify professionals to integrate ethics in daily care processes. The approaches in clinical ethics support have become more diverse, more focused on everyday ethical issues and better adapted to the concrete learning style of the nursing staff. Ethics support has become less centrally organised and more connected to local contexts and primary process within the organisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Social support networks and eating disorders: an integrative review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Leonidas, Manoel Antônio dos Santos Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil Aims: This study aimed to analyze the scientific literature about social networks and social support in eating disorders (ED. Methods: By combining keywords, an integrative review was performed. It included publications from 2006–2013, retrieved from the MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. The selection of articles was based on preestablished inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total of 24 articles were selected for data extraction. There was a predominance of studies that used nonexperimental and descriptive designs, and which were published in international journals. This review provided evidence of the fact that fully consolidated literature regarding social support and social networks in patients with ED is not available, given the small number of studies dedicated to the subject. We identified evidence that the family social network of patients with ED has been widely explored by the literature, although there is a lack of studies about other networks and sources of social support outside the family. Conclusion: The evidence presented in this study shows the need to include other social networks in health care. This expansion beyond family networks would include significant others – such as friends, colleagues, neighbors, people from religious groups, among others – who could help the individual coping with the disorder. The study also highlights the need for future research on this topic, as well as a need for greater investment in publications on the various dimensions of social support and social networks. Keywords: eating disorders, social networks, social support, family relations, peer relations

  14. An Investigation of the Variety and Complexity of Statistical Methods Used in Current Internal Medicine Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Roshni; Nugent, Rebecca; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines require internal medicine residents to develop skills in the interpretation of medical literature and to understand the principles of research. A necessary component is the ability to understand the statistical methods used and their results, material that is not an in-depth focus of most medical school curricula and residency programs. Given the breadth and depth of the current medical literature and an increasing emphasis on complex, sophisticated statistical analyses, the statistical foundation and education necessary for residents are uncertain. We reviewed the statistical methods and terms used in 49 articles discussed at the journal club in the Department of Internal Medicine residency program at Texas Tech University between January 1, 2013 and June 30, 2013. We collected information on the study type and on the statistical methods used for summarizing and comparing samples, determining the relations between independent variables and dependent variables, and estimating models. We then identified the typical statistics education level at which each term or method is learned. A total of 14 articles came from the Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine, 11 from the New England Journal of Medicine, 6 from the Annals of Internal Medicine, 5 from the Journal of the American Medical Association, and 13 from other journals. Twenty reported randomized controlled trials. Summary statistics included mean values (39 articles), category counts (38), and medians (28). Group comparisons were based on t tests (14 articles), χ2 tests (21), and nonparametric ranking tests (10). The relations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed with simple regression (6 articles), multivariate regression (11), and logistic regression (8). Nine studies reported odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, and seven analyzed test performance using sensitivity and specificity calculations

  15. The Impact of Sarcopenia on Survival and Complications in Surgical Oncology: A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOGLEKAR, SAVITA; NAU, PETER N.; MEZHIR, JAMES J.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the subclinical loss of skeletal muscle and strength and has been extensively studied in both the cancer and surgical literature. Specifically, sarcopenia has gained significant recognition as an important prognostic factor for both complications and survival in cancer patients. Herein, we review the current literature to date highlighting the specific impact of sarcopenia in patients undergoing oncologic procedures. PMID:26310812

  16. Current methods of non-invasive ventilatory support for neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ramadan A; Roehr, Charles Christoph; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2011-09-01

    Non-invasive ventilatory support can reduce the adverse effects associated with intubation and mechanical ventilation, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, sepsis, and trauma to the upper airways. In the last 4 decades, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used to wean preterm infants off mechanical ventilation and, more recently, as a primary mode of respiratory support for preterm infants with respiratory insufficiency. Moreover, new methods of respiratory support have been developed, and the devices used to provide non-invasive ventilation (NIV) have improved technically. Use of NIV is increasing, and a variety of equipment is available in different clinical settings. There is evidence that NIV improves gas exchange and reduces extubation failure after mechanical ventilation in infants. However, more research is needed to identify the most suitable devices for particular conditions; the NIV settings that should be used; and whether to employ synchronized or non-synchronized NIV. Furthermore, the optimal treatment strategy and the best time for initiation of NIV remain to be identified. This article provides an overview of the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in newborn infants, and the clinical applications of NIV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Patient knowledge, perceptions, and acceptance of generic medicines: a comprehensive review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrasheedy AA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alian A Alrasheedy,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,1 Kay Stewart,2 David CM Kong,2 Hisham Aljadhey,3 Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim,4 Saleh Karamah Al-Tamimi1 1Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Medication Safety Research Chair, Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Background: Generic medicines have the same quality, safety, and efficacy as their counterpart original brand medicines. Generic medicines provide the same therapeutic outcomes but at a much cheaper cost, so are promoted in many countries to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and sustain the health care system. Thus, the perspective of patients and medicine consumers as end users of these medicines is an important factor to enhance the use and utilization of generic medicines. The objective of this paper is to review patients’ and consumers’ knowledge, perceptions, acceptance, and views of generic medicines in the current literature. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed in several databases, namely Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and the Wiley online library, to identify relevant studies published in the English literature for the period 1990–2013. Results: A total of 53 studies were included in the review, comprising 24 studies from Europe, ten from North America, six from Asia, five from Australia and New Zealand, five from the Middle East, one from Africa, one from Latin America, and one from the Caribbean region. A large body of literature has reported misconceptions and negative perceptions about generic medicines on the part of patients and medicine consumers. Moreover, although it is reported in almost all countries, the percentage of consumers who had

  18. Geosensors to Support Crop Production: Current Applications and User Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammert Kooistra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensor technology, which benefits from high temporal measuring resolution, real-time data transfer and high spatial resolution of sensor data that shows in-field variations, has the potential to provide added value for crop production. The present paper explores how sensors and sensor networks have been utilised in the crop production process and what their added-value and the main bottlenecks are from the perspective of users. The focus is on sensor based applications and on requirements that users pose for them. Literature and two use cases were reviewed and applications were classified according to the crop production process: sensing of growth conditions, fertilising, irrigation, plant protection, harvesting and fleet control. The potential of sensor technology was widely acknowledged along the crop production chain. Users of the sensors require easy-to-use and reliable applications that are actionable in crop production at reasonable costs. The challenges are to develop sensor technology, data interoperability and management tools as well as data and measurement services in a way that requirements can be met, and potential benefits and added value can be realized in the farms in terms of higher yields, improved quality of yields, decreased input costs and production risks, and less work time and load.

  19. Intercultural Communicative Competence: A Brief Review of Current Thinking and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Kermani Kojour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to review current thinking and understanding of the issue of Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC especially in foreign language education contexts. There are serious stances on the part of scholars in foreign language contexts, which must be given some serious thinking and consideration in order to uncover the hidden agendas regarding ICC. After all, it seems still unclear in English as a Foreign Language (EFL contexts whether to try to improve the way of thinking regarding the perspective of current intercultural communicative competence, whether there should be a separation of the cultural values from the target language and only integrate language learners’ native culture with the target language. Given the development of technology and globalization, what is the right thing to do? This is a serious issue which needs much attention and contemplation by the interested scholars. By presenting the existing gaps in the literature, the paper maneuvers on the challenging notes on benefiting from culture in English Language Teaching (ELT and, on the other hand, dividing language and culture by merely elaborating on the communicative aspect of language learning and teaching. The study puts the audience into question that although recent views are focusing on taking English as an international means of communication, there exist serious beliefs regarding the separation of language and culture, which demands more thinking and probably serious revisions.

  20. Needs for everyday life support for brain tumour patients' relatives: systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karina; Poulsen, H S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to undertake a review of the everyday lives and the need for support felt by relatives of adults with malignant cerebral glioma. Through electronic literature searches we identified studies with qualitative, quantitative or mixed method designs. Fourteen studies were....... The relatives lacked information about how to provide day-to-day care and how to manage psychoses and neuropsychiatric problems at home. Likewise, they needed help from the professionals to talk with each other about potentially reduced life expectancy. Most relatives appeared to value specialist nurse support...... highly, and they found support groups helpful. Relatively few studies were identified, and extant research was found to be diverse in purpose, study design and study population. The majority of the studies focused only on the parts of the relatives' everyday lives in which they were taking care...

  1. Supporting Current Energy Conversion Projects through Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S. C.; Roberts, J.

    2016-02-01

    The primary goals of current energy conversion (CEC) technology being developed today are to optimize energy output and minimize environmental impact. CEC turbines generate energy from tidal and current systems and create wakes that interact with turbines located downstream of a device. The placement of devices can greatly influence power generation and structural reliability. CECs can also alter the environment surrounding the turbines, such as flow regimes, sediment dynamics, and water quality. These alterations pose potential stressors to numerous environmental receptors. Software is needed to investigate specific CEC sites to simulate power generation and hydrodynamic responses of a flow through a CEC turbine array so that these potential impacts can be evaluated. Moreover, this software can be used to optimize array layouts that yield the least changes to the environmental (i.e., hydrodynamics, sediment dynamics, and water quality). Through model calibration exercises, simulated wake profiles and turbulence intensities compare favorably to the experimental data and demonstrate the utility and accuracy of a fast-running tool for future siting and analysis of CEC arrays in complex domains. The Delft3D modeling tool facilitates siting of CEC projects through optimization of array layouts and evaluation of potential environmental effect all while provide a common "language" for academics, industry, and regulators to be able to discuss the implications of marine renewable energy projects. Given the enormity of any full-scale marine renewable energy project, it necessarily falls to modeling to evaluate how array operations must be addressed in an environmental impact statement in a way that engenders confidence in the assessment of the CEC array to minimize environmental effects.

  2. Support needs of patients with COPD: a systematic literature search and narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardener AC

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A Carole Gardener,1 Gail Ewing,2 Isla Kuhn,3 Morag Farquhar4 1Primary Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; 2Centre for Family Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; 3University of Cambridge Medical School Library, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; 4School of Health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Introduction: Understanding the breadth of patients’ support needs is important for the delivery of person-centered care, particularly in progressive long-term conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Existing reviews identify important aspects of managing life with COPD with which patients may need support (support needs; however, none of these comprehensively outlines the full range of support needs that patients can experience. We therefore sought to systematically determine the full range of support needs for patients with COPD to inform development of an evidence-based tool to enable person-centered care.Methods: We conducted a systematic search and narrative review of the literature. Medline (Ovid, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL were systematically searched for papers which included data addressing key aspects of support need, as identified by patients with COPD. Relevant data were extracted, and a narrative analysis was conducted.Results: Thirty-one papers were included in the review, and the following 13 domains (broad areas of support need were identified: 1 understanding COPD, 2 managing symptoms and medication, 3 healthy lifestyle, 4 managing feelings and worries, 5 living positively with COPD, 6 thinking about the future, 7 anxiety and depression, 8 practical support, 9 finance work and housing, 10 families and close relationships, 11 social and recreational life, 12 independence, and 13 navigating services. These 13 domains of support need were mapped to three of the four overarching categories of need

  3. Disorders of orgasm in women: a literature review of etiology and current treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Waguih William; Bokarius, Anna; Jeffrey, Jessica K; Davis, Michael C; Bakhta, Yekaterina

    2010-10-01

    Disorders of orgasm in women, defined as the persistent or recurrent delay in or absence of orgasm, affect up to a quarter of the female population. To review existing research findings on the etiology and treatments of disorders of orgasm in women to provide a useful reference tool for clinicians who evaluate and treat patients with these conditions. PubMed and PsycINFO search for articles published between 1980 and 2009 using the keywords "orgasm*,"anorgasmia," and "female*,"woman," or "women," in addition to "female orgasmic disorder" and "disorders of orgasm in women." Findings on the etiological factors and effects of a variety of treatment interventions on improving disorders of orgasm in women. Results.  Literature on prevalence and causes of disorders of orgasm in women is abundant, yet more reports of successful treatments are needed. Nevertheless, many promising approaches have been suggested, and data support several potential treatments such as bupropion, sildenafil, estrogen, and testosterone among others. Although more research is needed to better understand and manage disorders of orgasm in women, significant progress is being made. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review of Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Matteo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Santacroce, Rita; Cinosi, Eduardo; Carlucci, Maria; Marini, Stefano; Acciavatti, Tiziano; di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    New treatment options such as noninvasive brain stimulation have been recently explored in the field of substance use disorders (SUDs), including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In light of this, we have performed a review of the scientific literature to assess efficacy and technical and methodological issues resulting from applying tDCS to the field of SUDs. Our analysis highlighted the following selection criteria: clinical studies on tDCS and SUDs (alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and nicotine). Study selection, data analysis, and reporting were conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Exclusion criteria were as follows: clinical studies about tDCS among behavioral addiction; review and didactic articles; physiopathological studies; and case reports. Eighteen scientific papers were selected out of 48 articles. Among these, 16 studied the efficacy of tDCS applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and 8 suggested the efficacy of tDCS in reducing substance craving. In light of these data, it is premature to conclude that tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is a very efficient technique in reducing craving. Small sample size, different stimulation protocols, and study duration were the main limitations. However, the efficacy of tDCS in treating SUDs requires further investigation.

  5. Gender trends in dental practice patterns. A review of current U.S. literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, T A

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews three recent reports of national gender trends in dental practice patterns. Although the three independent cross-sectional studies were conducted at different points in time, used different sampling strategies, and used similar but independent survey instruments, findings were consistent across studies. In summary: Women dentists are less likely to be married and have fewer children. Women are more likely to assume child rearing and household responsibilities. Women are less likely to be practice owners. Women worked slightly fewer hours per week and weeks per year, and were more likely to take a leave of absence for illness or child rearing. However, women dentists demonstrate a far greater professional work commitment than was previously reported in the literature. Women earn significantly less income from the practice of dentistry, even after controlling for age, practice ownership, hours worked per week, and other personal characteristics. The most current "Gender Wage Gap" estimates range from 57.7% for specialists to 75.4% for general practitioners (8). delta.

  6. Community gardens as sites of solace and end-of-life support: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Pauline; Spinaze, Anna

    2016-05-01

    In a pilot project, members of a community garden explored how they might provide better end-of-life support for their regional community. As part of the project, a literature review was undertaken to investigate the nexus between community gardens and end-of-life experiences (including grief and bereavement) in academic research. This article documents the findings of that review. The authors discovered there is little academic material that focuses specifically on community gardens and end-of-life experiences, but nonetheless the two subjects were seen to intersect. The authors found three points of commonality: both share a need and capacity for a) social/informal support, b) therapeutic space, and c) opportunities for solace.

  7. Supportive care needs of rural individuals living with cancer: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughery, Joanne; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of geographic location, the cancer journey is an extremely difficult experience for both patients and their families. The aim of this literature review is to explore the impact of rural or remote residence on the supportive care needs of individuals living with cancer. This review included ten qualitative, seven quantitative, and six mixed design studies. Data collection, analysis, and evaluation were guided using a multi-domain supportive care framework based on seven domains: physical, emotional, informational, psychological, spiritual, social, and practical (Fitch, 2009). This review will suggest that there are distinct experiences that present both challenges and benefits to individuals living with cancer in rural areas. These findings will be detailed with recommendations, and grounding for future research outlined.

  8. Αpproach techniques and psychological support in pediatric patients: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthoula Patsiala

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective approaches and psychological support of pediatric patients provided by health professionals are complex processes. The negative reactions and fear that pediatric patients develop during their hospitalization hamper cooperation with health professionals. The pediatric nursing staff is called upon to apply appropriate techniques for managing these situations.The purpose of this paper was to investigate, through contemporary literature review, methods of technical and psychological support of pediatric patients, applied by nurses in everyday clinical practice. The management of negative reactions and fear of pediatric patients requires individualized approach, given the uniqueness of each one of them. However, there are some general measures which may bring the ultimate results. According to literature some of them are: creation of a sincere relationship through targeted discussion, application of documented interactive educational programs to familiarize with nursing and medical procedures, distraction during painful acts, such as venipuncture or bladder catheterization, and finally high perception to identify nonverbal reactions.Awareness and familiarization of health professionals with appropriate methods will improve the relationship between pediatric patients and healthcare providers.

  9. Anatomy and histology of apical support: a literature review concerning cardinal and uterosacral ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanah, Rajeev; Berger, Mitchell B; Parratte, Bernard M; DeLancey, John O L

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to collect and summarize relevant literature on the anatomy, histology, and imaging of apical support of the upper vagina and the uterus provided by the cardinal (CL) and uterosacral (USL) ligaments. A literature search in English, French, and German languages was carried out with the keywords apical support, cardinal ligament, transverse cervical ligament, Mackenrodt ligament, parametrium, paracervix, retinaculum uteri, web, uterosacral ligament, and sacrouterine ligament in the PubMed database. Other relevant journal and textbook articles were sought by retrieving references cited in previous PubMed articles. Fifty references were examined in peer-reviewed journals and textbooks. The USL extends from the S2 to the S4 vertebra region to the dorsal margin of the uterine cervix and/or to the upper third of the posterior vaginal wall. It has a superficial and deep component. Autonomous nerve fibers are a major constituent of the deep USL. CL is defined as a perivascular sheath with a proximal insertion around the origin of the internal iliac artery and a distal insertion on the cervix and/or vagina. It is divided into a cranial (vascular) and a caudal (neural) portions. Histologically, it contains mainly vessels, with no distinct band of connective tissue. Both the deep USL and the caudal CL are closely related to the inferior hypogastric plexus. USL and CL are visceral ligaments, with mesentery-like structures containing vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and adipose tissue.

  10. Support vector machine based estimation of remaining useful life: current research status and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hong Zhong; Wang, Hai Kun; Li, Yan Feng; Zhang, Longlong; Liu, Zhiliang

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) is helpful to manage life cycles of machines and to reduce maintenance cost. Support vector machine (SVM) is a promising algorithm for estimation of RUL because it can easily process small training sets and multi-dimensional data. Many SVM based methods have been proposed to predict RUL of some key components. We did a literature review related to SVM based RUL estimation within a decade. The references reviewed are classified into two categories: improved SVM algorithms and their applications to RUL estimation. The latter category can be further divided into two types: one, to predict the condition state in the future and then build a relationship between state and RUL; two, to establish a direct relationship between current state and RUL. However, SVM is seldom used to track the degradation process and build an accurate relationship between the current health condition state and RUL. Based on the above review and summary, this paper points out that the ability to continually improve SVM, and obtain a novel idea for RUL prediction using SVM will be future works.

  11. Unilateral hearing loss in children: a retrospective study and a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfs, Anna-Katharina; Friedhoff, Johannes; Bohnert, Andrea; Breitfuss, Achim; Hess, Markus; Müller, Frank; Strauch, Anke; Röhrs, Marianne; Wiesner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Despite the introduction of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS), unilateral hearing loss (UHL) is sometimes recognized late. This diagnostic delay has adverse repercussions, given the importance of binaural hearing for the development of normal auditory processing. It is incorrect to maintain that unilateral hearing is the minimum requirement for adequate speech development and that hearing aid provision is consequently unnecessary. In our retrospective study, hearing aid provision resulted in improved directional and selective hearing (quiet and noisy environments) and, compared with their chronically ill counterparts, the children in our study displayed superior health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores in all areas. On the basis of the results, the authors conclude that even mild hearing losses (from an auditory threshold of 30 to 40 dB) should have the opportunity for hearing aid provision. A selective literature review was conducted in PubMed and textbooks and with reference to national and international guidelines. Early diagnosis and treatment of UHL have a positive effect on verbal-cognitive, linguistic, communicative, and socio-emotional development, as demonstrated by neurophysiological studies. Among the treatment modalities with differing effects on the quality of binaural hearing, cochlear implants are now used increasingly in children with hearing loss bordering on deafness. Published evidence and clinical experience support early diagnosis and treatment. Wherever feasible, hearing aid provision before or at the end of the first year of life is recommended for children with UHL. What is Known: • Almost 30 years ago, poor academic performance was reported in children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL). • Despite improvements in treatment options, it is traditionally held that unilateral hearing is the minimum requirement for adequate speech development and hearing aid provision is unnecessary. What is New: • Academic and behavioral

  12. Social Work Literature Searching: Current Issues with Databases and Online Search Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Tony; Taylor, Brian; McColgan, Mary; McQuilkan, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the performance of a range of search facilities; and to illustrate the execution of a comprehensive literature search for qualitative evidence in social work. Context: Developments in literature search methods and comparisons of search facilities help facilitate access to the best available evidence for social workers.…

  13. Diversity Management Interventions and Organizational Performance: A Synthesis of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ellen Foster; Dreachslin, Janice L.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the growing body of literature focused on diversity management and its implications for career experiences and perceptions, team dynamics, customer service, and other dimensions of organizational performance, a significant gap remains. To address the gap, this article reviews the managing diversity literature published between January 2000…

  14. Automatic Decision Support for Clinical Diagnostic Literature Using Link Analysis in a Weighted Keyword Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuqing; Sun, Ying; Soergel, Dagobert

    2017-12-23

    We present a novel approach to recommending articles from the medical literature that support clinical diagnostic decision-making, giving detailed descriptions of the associated ideas and principles. The specific goal is to retrieve biomedical articles that help answer questions of a specified type about a particular case. Based on the filtered keywords, MeSH(Medical Subject Headings) lexicon and the automatically extracted acronyms, the relationship between keywords and articles was built. The paper gives a detailed description of the process of by which keywords were measured and relevant articles identified based on link analysis in a weighted keywords network. Some important challenges identified in this study include the extraction of diagnosis-related keywords and a collection of valid sentences based on the keyword co-occurrence analysis and existing descriptions of symptoms. All data were taken from medical articles provided in the TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) clinical decision support track 2015. Ten standard topics and one demonstration topic were tested. In each case, a maximum of five articles with the highest relevance were returned. The total user satisfaction of 3.98 was 33% higher than average. The results also suggested that the smaller the number of results, the higher the average satisfaction. However, a few shortcomings were also revealed since medical literature recommendation for clinical diagnostic decision support is so complex a topic that it cannot be fully addressed through the semantic information carried solely by keywords in existing descriptions of symptoms. Nevertheless, the fact that these articles are actually relevant will no doubt inspire future research.

  15. The Interaction Network Ontology-supported modeling and mining of complex interactions represented with multiple keywords in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Arzucan; Hur, Junguk; He, Yongqun

    2016-01-01

    The Interaction Network Ontology (INO) logically represents biological interactions, pathways, and networks. INO has been demonstrated to be valuable in providing a set of structured ontological terms and associated keywords to support literature mining of gene-gene interactions from biomedical literature. However, previous work using INO focused on single keyword matching, while many interactions are represented with two or more interaction keywords used in combination. This paper reports our extension of INO to include combinatory patterns of two or more literature mining keywords co-existing in one sentence to represent specific INO interaction classes. Such keyword combinations and related INO interaction type information could be automatically obtained via SPARQL queries, formatted in Excel format, and used in an INO-supported SciMiner, an in-house literature mining program. We studied the gene interaction sentences from the commonly used benchmark Learning Logic in Language (LLL) dataset and one internally generated vaccine-related dataset to identify and analyze interaction types containing multiple keywords. Patterns obtained from the dependency parse trees of the sentences were used to identify the interaction keywords that are related to each other and collectively represent an interaction type. The INO ontology currently has 575 terms including 202 terms under the interaction branch. The relations between the INO interaction types and associated keywords are represented using the INO annotation relations: 'has literature mining keywords' and 'has keyword dependency pattern'. The keyword dependency patterns were generated via running the Stanford Parser to obtain dependency relation types. Out of the 107 interactions in the LLL dataset represented with two-keyword interaction types, 86 were identified by using the direct dependency relations. The LLL dataset contained 34 gene regulation interaction types, each of which associated with multiple keywords. A

  16. LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) technology development program. Two ion exchange materials, spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) and engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), are being considered for use within the SCIX unit. Both ion exchange materials have been studied extensively and are known to have high affinities for cesium ions in caustic tank waste supernates. RF is an elutable organic resin and CST is a non-elutable inorganic material. Waste treatment processes developed for the two technologies will differ with regard to solutions processed, secondary waste streams generated, optimum column size, and waste throughput. Pertinent references, anticipated processing sequences for utilization in waste treatment, gaps in the available data, and technical comparisons will be provided for the two ion exchange materials to assist in technology selection for SCIX. The engineered, granular form of CST (UOP IE-911) was the baseline ion exchange material used for the initial development and design of the SRS SCIX process (McCabe, 2005). To date, in-tank SCIX has not been implemented for treatment of radioactive waste solutions at SRS. Since initial development and consideration of SCIX for SRS waste treatment an alternative technology has been developed as part of the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Research and Technology program (Thorson, 2006). Spherical RF resin is the baseline media for cesium removal in the RPP-WTP, which was designed for the treatment of radioactive waste supernates and is currently under construction in Hanford, WA

  17. LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W

    2007-11-30

    This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) technology development program. Two ion exchange materials, spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) and engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), are being considered for use within the SCIX unit. Both ion exchange materials have been studied extensively and are known to have high affinities for cesium ions in caustic tank waste supernates. RF is an elutable organic resin and CST is a non-elutable inorganic material. Waste treatment processes developed for the two technologies will differ with regard to solutions processed, secondary waste streams generated, optimum column size, and waste throughput. Pertinent references, anticipated processing sequences for utilization in waste treatment, gaps in the available data, and technical comparisons will be provided for the two ion exchange materials to assist in technology selection for SCIX. The engineered, granular form of CST (UOP IE-911) was the baseline ion exchange material used for the initial development and design of the SRS SCIX process (McCabe, 2005). To date, in-tank SCIX has not been implemented for treatment of radioactive waste solutions at SRS. Since initial development and consideration of SCIX for SRS waste treatment an alternative technology has been developed as part of the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Research and Technology program (Thorson, 2006). Spherical RF resin is the baseline media for cesium removal in the RPP-WTP, which was designed for the treatment of radioactive waste supernates and is currently under construction in Hanford, WA

  18. Types and Severity of Medication Errors in Iran; a Review of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Mansouri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Medication error (ME is the most common single preventable cause of adverse drug events which negatively affects patient safety. ME prevalence is a valuable safety indicator in healthcare system. Inadequate studies on ME, shortage of high-quality studies and wide variations in estimations from developing countries including Iran, decreases the reliability of ME evaluations. In order to clarify the status of MEs, we aimed to review current available literature on this subject from Iran. We searched Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOHOST and also Persian databases (IranMedex, and SID up to October 2012 to find studies on adults and children about prescription, transcription, dispensing, and administration errors. Two authors independently selected and one of them reviewed and extracted data for types, definitions and severity of MEs. The results were classified based on different stages of drug delivery process. Eighteen articles (11 Persian and 7 English were included in our review. All study designs were cross-sectional and conducted in hospital settings. Nursing staff and students were the most frequent populations under observation (12 studies; 66.7%. Most of studies did not report the overall frequency of MEs aside from ME types. Most of studies (15; 83.3% reported prevalence of administration errors between 14.3%-70.0%. Prescribing error prevalence ranged from 29.8%-47.8%. The prevalence of dispensing and transcribing errors were from 11.3%-33.6% and 10.0%-51.8% respectively. We did not find any follow up or repeated studies. Only three studies reported findings on severity of MEs. The most reported types of and the highest percentages for any type of ME in Iran were administration errors. Studying ME in Iran is a new area considering the duration and number of publications. Wide ranges of estimations for MEs in different stages may be because of the poor quality of studies with diversity in definitions, methods, and populations

  19. Radiology Physician Extenders: A Literature Review of the History and Current Roles of Physician Extenders in Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Vicki L; Flanagan, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the literature review was to assess the origins of radiology physician extenders and examine the current roles found in the literature of advanced practice physician extenders within medical imaging. Twenty-six articles relating to physician assistants (PAs), nurse practitioners (NPs), radiologist assistants (RAs), and nuclear medicine advanced associates (NMAAs) were reviewed to discern similarities and differences in history, scope of practice, and roles in the medical imaging field. The literature showed PAs and NPs are working mostly in interventional radiology. PAs, NPs, and RAs perform similar tasks in radiology, including history and physicals, evaluation and management, preprocedure work-up, obtaining informed consent, initial observations/reports, and post-procedure follow-up. NPs and PAs perform a variety of procedures but most commonly vascular access, paracentesis, and thoracentesis. RAs perform gastrointestinal, genitourinary, nonvascular invasive fluoroscopy procedures, and vascular access procedures. The review revealed NMAAs are working in an advanced role, but no specific performances of procedures was found in the literature, only suggested tasks and clinical competencies. PAs, NPs, and RAs are currently the three main midlevel providers used in medical imaging. These midlevel providers are being used in a variety of ways to increase the efficiency of the radiologist and provide diagnostic and therapeutic radiologic procedures to patients. NMAAs are being used in medical imaging but little literature is available on current roles in clinical practice. More research is needed to assess the exact procedures and duties being performed by these medical imaging physician extenders.

  20. Direct support workforce supporting individuals with IDD: current wages, benefits, and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Matthew D; Hewitt, Amy; Nord, Derek; Hepperlen, Renee

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Direct support professionals (DSPs) and frontline supervisors (FLSs) play an integral role in the lives of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and are often the individuals directly responsible for assisting people with IDD to live and fully participate in their communities. These two groups of workers have typically been employed at lower wages with limited access to fringe benefits, contributing to high rates of turnover compared to a similarly skilled worker in the United States. This article summarizes findings and is the first investigation in several years to systematically examine the wages, fringe benefits, and stability of the DSP and FLS workforces supporting individuals with IDD. Findings suggest that a typical DSP may expect to earn about $11.25 per hour, while FLSs may expect wages of about $15.45 hourly. Of concern, however, is that fringe benefit provision was quite limited in this sample. Implications, including relation to past reports of DSP workforce development, are discussed.

  1. Supporting Evidence-Informed Teaching in Biomedical and Health Professions Education Through Knowledge Translation: An Interdisciplinary Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E; Gordon, Morris

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: The purpose of "systematic" reviews/reviewers of medical and health professions educational research is to identify best practices. This qualitative article explores the question of whether systematic reviews can support "evidence informed" teaching and contrasts traditional systematic reviewing with a knowledge translation (KT) approach to this objective. Degrees of freedom analysis (DOFA) is used to examine the alignment of systematic review methods with educational research and the pedagogical strategies and approaches that might be considered with a decision-making framework developed to support valid assessment. This method is also used to explore how KT can be used to inform teaching and learning. The nature of educational research is not compatible with most (11/14) methods for systematic review. The inconsistency of systematic reviewing with the nature of educational research impedes both the identification and implementation of "best-evidence" pedagogy and teaching. This is primarily because research questions that do support the purposes of review do not support educational decision making. By contrast to systematic reviews of the literature, both a DOFA and KT are fully compatible with informing teaching using evidence. A DOFA supports the translation of theory to a specific teaching or learning case, so could be considered a type of KT. The DOFA results in a test of alignment of decision options with relevant educational theory, and KT leads to interventions in teaching or learning that can be evaluated. Examples of how to structure evaluable interventions are derived from a KT approach that are simply not available from a systematic review. Insights: Systematic reviewing of current empirical educational research is not suitable for deriving or supporting best practices in education. However, both "evidence-informed" and scholarly approaches to teaching can be supported as KT projects, which are inherently evaluable and can generate

  2. An Overview of the Current Status of Talent Care and Talent Support in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Fuszek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available After a short historical introduction, the article provides an overview of the current talent support trends in Hungary. It gives an insight into the legislation, guidelines and institutional system associated with the national talent support strategy, and presents the main NGO initiatives present in the early 21st century, in particular the organisations brought to life by the Hungarian Talent Support Council and their effect on current education policy. At the same time, the article seeks to present the strengths and weaknesses of the national talent support strategy and the Hungarian talent support cooperation model.

  3. Counselor's Information Service. A Quarterly Annotated Bibliography of Current Literature on Educational and Vocational Guidance. Volume 32, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B'nai B'rith, Washington, DC. Career and Counseling Services.

    This quarterly annotated bibliography of current literature on educational and vocational guidance describes various pamphlets, guides and brochures which provide occupational information, educational, vocational and personal guidance, guidance administration and procedures, information on student aids and aids for the teacher. Additional guidance…

  4. Sexuality Education and Implications for Quality of Care for Individuals with Adult Onset Disability: A Review of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglseder, Kate; Webb, Sheridan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the need for sexuality education for individuals with adult onset physical disabilities as it relates to quality of life and to identify current trends in the provision of sexuality education by health care providers relating to quality of care. Data Sources: Literature review from January 1986 to December 2016. Study…

  5. Quality of Life and Associated Factors of Cancer Patients in Malaysia: A review of current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husna Ahmad Ainuddin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Measuring quality of life provides information helpful for cancer patients. However, facts about the quality of life and its associated factors among cancer patients in Malaysia are inconclusive. The aim of this review of literature is to evaluate the quality of life of cancer patients and its associated factors. Based on this review of the literature, it identified 24 studies. Associated factors effecting quality of life of cancer patients include socio-demographic, health related, psychological and cancer treatment. In conclusion, there is a need for further research to focus on developing effective interventions to enhance the patients' quality of life.

  6. Gastrointestinal Side Effects of Antiarrhythmic Medications: A Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Waseem; Qureshi, Waqas; Farooq, Ali; Sohail, Umair; Khatoon, Salma; Pervaiz, Sarah; Narra, Pratyusha; Hasan, Syeda M; Ali, Farman; Ullah, Aman; Guttmann, Steven

    2017-09-03

    Antiarrhythmic drugs are commonly prescribed cardiac drugs. Due to their receptor mimicry with several of the gastrointestinal tract receptors, they can frequently lead to gastrointestinal side effects. These side effects are the most common reasons for discontinuation of these drugs by the patients. Knowledge of these side effects is important for clinicians that manage antiarrhythmic drugs. This review focuses on the gastrointestinal side effects of these drugs and provides a detailed up-to-date literature review of the side effects of these drugs. The review provides case reports reported in the literature as well as possible mechanisms that lead to gastrointestinal side effects.

  7. Reporting of funding sources and conflict of interest in the supportive and palliative oncology literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, David; Reddy, Akhila; Parsons, Henrique A; Bruera, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    The reporting of funding support and conflict of interest has not been examined in the supportive/palliative oncology literature. We examined the frequency of funding and conflict of interest reporting and various study characteristics associated with such reporting. We systematically searched MEDLINE PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, and CINAHL for original studies related to palliative care and cancer in the first six months of 2004 and 2009. For each article, we reviewed the study design, research topic, journal type, and reporting of funding and conflict of interest. Three hundred forty-four (41%) and 504 (59%) of 848 articles were from 2004 and 2009, respectively. Five hundred two of 848 (59%) studies reported no funding sources, whereas 216 (26%), 70 (8%), 34 (4%), and 26 (3%) reported one, two, three, and four or more sources, respectively. Key funding sources included governmental agencies (n=182/848, 21%), philanthropic foundations (n=163/848, 19%), university departments (n=76/848, 9%), and industry (n=27/848, 3%). Conflict of interest was not reported in 436 of 848 (51%) studies, and only 94 of 848 (11%) explicitly stated no conflict of interest. Other than extramural funding, conflict of interest reporting of any kind was extremely rare (mostly less than 1%). Conflict of interest reporting increased between 2004 and 2009 (39% vs. 55%, Pfunding and conflict of interest reporting were associated with prospective studies, larger sample sizes, nontherapeutic studies, North American authors, and publication in palliative care/oncology journals (P≤0.008 for all comparisons). A majority of supportive/palliative oncology studies did not report funding sources and conflict of interest, raising the need for standardization. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modal shift and high-speed rail : a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report provides a review of scholarly literature with direct relevance to the topic of modal shift and high-speed rail (HSR). : HSR systems are usually planned on the expectation that they will attract riders who would have chosen other modes (s...

  9. PreBIND and Textomy – mining the biomedical literature for protein-protein interactions using a support vector machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskin Berivan

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of experimentally verified molecular interaction and biological pathway data are present in the unstructured text of biomedical journal articles where they are inaccessible to computational methods. The Biomolecular interaction network database (BIND seeks to capture these data in a machine-readable format. We hypothesized that the formidable task-size of backfilling the database could be reduced by using Support Vector Machine technology to first locate interaction information in the literature. We present an information extraction system that was designed to locate protein-protein interaction data in the literature and present these data to curators and the public for review and entry into BIND. Results Cross-validation estimated the support vector machine's test-set precision, accuracy and recall for classifying abstracts describing interaction information was 92%, 90% and 92% respectively. We estimated that the system would be able to recall up to 60% of all non-high throughput interactions present in another yeast-protein interaction database. Finally, this system was applied to a real-world curation problem and its use was found to reduce the task duration by 70% thus saving 176 days. Conclusions Machine learning methods are useful as tools to direct interaction and pathway database back-filling; however, this potential can only be realized if these techniques are coupled with human review and entry into a factual database such as BIND. The PreBIND system described here is available to the public at http://bind.ca. Current capabilities allow searching for human, mouse and yeast protein-interaction information.

  10. Identifying potential types of guidance for supporting student inquiry when using virtual and remote labs in science: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Manoli, Constantinos; Xenofontos, Nikoletta; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Pedaste, Margus; van Riesen, Siswa; Kamp, E.T.; Kamp, Ellen T.; Mäeots, Mario; Siiman, Leo; Tsourlidaki, Eleftheria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to identify specific types of guidance for supporting student use of online labs, that is, virtual and remote labs, in an inquiry context. To do so, we reviewed the literature on providing guidance within computer supported inquiry learning (CoSIL) environments in science

  11. Strategic management of keloid disease in ethnic skin: a structured approach supported by the emerging literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ud-Din, S; Bayat, A

    2013-10-01

    Keloid disease (KD) is a common, benign, dermal fibroproliferative growth of unknown aetiology. Lesions tend to grow over time; they often recur following therapy and do not regress spontaneously. KD causes considerable discomfort due to pain, pruritus and inflammation, and a significant psychosocial impact with reduced quality of life. It is unique to humans and occurrence is higher in individuals with dark, pigmented, ethnic skin. There is a strong familial heritability, with a high ethnic predisposition in individuals of African, Asian and Hispanic descent. High recurrence rates and unknown resolution rates present a major problem for both the patient and clinician. Many treatment modalities exist; however, there is no single advocated therapy. Therefore, the aim of this review was to explore the most current literature regarding the range of treatment options for KD and to offer a structured approach in the management of KD, based on evidence and experience, to aid clinicians in their current practice. A focused history involving careful evaluation of the patient's symptoms, signs, quality of life and psychosocial well-being should direct targeted therapy, complemented with regular follow-up and re-evaluation. Many treatment modalities, such as intralesional steroid injection, silicone gel application, cryotherapy, lasers, 5-fluorouracil and, relatively recently, photodynamic therapy, are currently being used in clinical practice for the management of KD. Combination therapies have also been shown to be beneficial. However, there is a lack of robust, randomized, level-one, evidence-controlled trials evaluating these treatment options. Management of KD in ethnic pigmented skin remains a clinical challenge. Thus, a strategic approach with structured assessment, targeted therapy and focus on prevention of recurrence is highly recommended. Quality evidence is essential in order to tailor treatment effectively for the ethnic patient presenting with KD. © 2013 The

  12. Social support and protection from depression: systematic review of current findings in Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariépy, Geneviève; Honkaniemi, Helena; Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies report an association between social support and protection from depression, but no systematic review or meta-analysis exists on this topic. To review systematically the characteristics of social support (types and source) associated with protection from depression across life periods (childhood and adolescence; adulthood; older age) and by study design (cross-sectional v cohort studies). A systematic literature search conducted in February 2015 yielded 100 eligible studies. Study quality was assessed using a critical appraisal checklist, followed by meta-analyses. Sources of support varied across life periods, with parental support being most important among children and adolescents, whereas adults and older adults relied more on spouses, followed by family and then friends. Significant heterogeneity in social support measurement was noted. Effects were weaker in both magnitude and significance in cohort studies. Knowledge gaps remain due to social support measurement heterogeneity and to evidence of reverse causality bias. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  13. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume 8, Number 1. A Digest of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    magnetic fields at the cellular level of the nervous 0663 FALSE CLAIMS FOR MAGNETOTHERAPY (LETTER system have been studied in giant axons of lobsters, TO...of studies of EM field effects on different any usefulness of magnetotherapy . The units used mammals are reviewed. Effects observed in humans for...findings perceptions when the head is exposed to pulse-modu- in the literature concerning magnetotherapy often lated MW energy above a certain intensity

  14. Definition of "persistent vomiting" in current medical literature: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Mostafa Ebraheem; Elshafay, Abdelrahman; Kansakar, Aswin Ratna; Mehyar, Ghaleb Muhammad; Dang, Nguyen Phan Hoang; Mattar, Omar Mohamed; Iqtadar, Somia; Mostafa, Mostafa Reda; Hai, Vu Ngoc; Vu, Tran Le-Huy; Ghazy, Ahmed Abdelmotaleb; Kaboub, Fatima; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Hirayama, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    Persistent vomiting is mentioned as a symptom of a large variety of systemic disorders. It is commonly used interchangeably with chronic, recurrent, or intractable vomiting and widely used as a warning sign of severe illness in dengue infection. However, it has been poorly defined in the medical literature. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review a definition of persistent vomiting in the medical literature. A systematic search was done through; PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, VHL, WHO-GHL, Grey Literature Report, POPLINE, and SIGLE for the last 10 years. Consensus on the definition was considered to be reached if at least 50% of studies described the same definition using the Delphi consensus technique. Of 2362 abstracts reviewed, 15 studies were selected based on the inclusion criteria. Three studies used the same definition. Another 2 studies defined it as vomiting of all foods and fluid in 24 hours. Three studies defined persistent vomiting in the units of days or weeks. Four studies used the number of episodes: ≥2 episodes 15 minutes apart, >3 episodes in 12 hours, and >3 episodes within 24 hours. No consensus for the definition was found among authors. This is a point of concern that needs to be addressed by further studies.

  15. Fracture liaison services for osteoporosis in the Asia-Pacific region: current unmet needs and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y -F; Huang, C -F; Hwang, J -S; Kuo, J -F; Lin, K -M; Huang, H -C; Bagga, S; Kumar, A; Chen, F -P; Wu, C -H

    2018-04-01

    The analysis aimed to identify the treatment gaps in current fracture liaison services (FLS) and to provide recommendations for best practice establishment of future FLS across the Asia-Pacific region. The findings emphasize the unmet need for the implementation of new programs and provide recommendations for the refinement of existing ones. The study's objectives were to evaluate fracture liaison service (FLS) programs in the Asia-Pacific region and provide recommendations for establishment of future FLS programs. A systematic literature review (SLR) of Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library (2000-2017 inclusive) was performed using the following keywords: osteoporosis, fractures, liaison, and service. Inclusion criteria included the following: patients ≥ 50 years with osteoporosis-related fractures; randomized controlled trials or observational studies with control groups (prospective or retrospective), pre-post, cross-sectional and economic evaluation studies. Success of direct or indirect interventions was assessed based on patients' understanding of risk, bone mineral density assessment, calcium intake, osteoporosis treatment, re-fracture rates, adherence, and mortality, in addition to cost-effectiveness. Overall, 5663 unique citations were identified and the SLR identified 159 publications, reporting 37 studies in Asia-Pacific. These studies revealed the unmet need for public health education, adequate funding, and staff resourcing, along with greater cooperation between departments and physicians. These actions can help to overcome therapeutic inertia with sufficient follow-up to ensure adherence to recommendations and compliance with treatment. The findings also emphasize the importance of primary care physicians continuing to prescribe treatment and ensure service remains convenient. These findings highlight the limited evidence supporting FLS across the Asia-Pacific region, emphasizing the unmet need for new programs and/or refinement of

  16. A Computing Environment to Support Repeatable Scientific Big Data Experimentation of World-Wide Scientific Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Kulesz, James J [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Kruse, Kara L [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    A principal tenant of the scientific method is that experiments must be repeatable and relies on ceteris paribus (i.e., all other things being equal). As a scientific community, involved in data sciences, we must investigate ways to establish an environment where experiments can be repeated. We can no longer allude to where the data comes from, we must add rigor to the data collection and management process from which our analysis is conducted. This paper describes a computing environment to support repeatable scientific big data experimentation of world-wide scientific literature, and recommends a system that is housed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to provide value to investigators from government agencies, academic institutions, and industry entities. The described computing environment also adheres to the recently instituted digital data management plan mandated by multiple US government agencies, which involves all stages of the digital data life cycle including capture, analysis, sharing, and preservation. It particularly focuses on the sharing and preservation of digital research data. The details of this computing environment are explained within the context of cloud services by the three layer classification of Software as a Service , Platform as a Service , and Infrastructure as a Service .

  17. Chronic Disease Management Strategies of Early Childhood Caries: Support from the Medical and Dental Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Burton L; Ng, Man Wai

    2015-01-01

    An Institute of Medicine report places chronic disease management (CDM) as an intervention on a treatment spectrum between prevention and acute care. CDM commonly focuses on conditions in which patient self-care efforts are significant. Framing early childhood caries (ECC) as such a chronic condition invites dentistry to reconsider its approach to caries management and shift gears from a strictly surgical approach to one that also incorporates a medical approach. This paper's purpose was to explore the definition of and concepts inherent in CDM. An explanatory model is introduced to describe the multiple factors that influence ECC-CDM strategies. Reviewed literature suggests that early evidence from ECC-CDM interventions, along with results of pediatric asthma and diabetes CDM, supports CDM of ECC as a valid approach that is independent of both prevention and repair. Early results of ECC-CDM endeavors have demonstrated a reduction in rates of new cavitation, dental pain, and referral to the operating room compared to baseline rates. ECC-CDM strategies hold strong promise to curtail caries activity while complementing dental repair when needed, thereby reducing disease progression and cavity recurrence. Institutionalizing ECC-CDM will both require and benefit from evolving health care delivery and financing systems that reward positive health outcomes.

  18. Arterial hypertension and gout: the current state of the problem (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmina A.P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of the family doctor's work is the management of patients with comorbid pathology. Pathogenetic mechanisms of interrelation, as well as the bi-directionality of the association of arterial hypertension and gout are actively studied. By data analysis of literature, in many developed countries of the world there are shortcomings in the management of patients with gout at the primary stage. There is a need to improve the quality of management and prescription of combinations of basic therapy drugs for the treatment of patients with hypertension in combination with gout at the primary stage.

  19. Yellow Nail Syndrome: Report of Two Cases and a Brief Review of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Silva Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    We present two cases of undiagnosed YNS until the current admissions, despite several years of investigation. The authors wish to draw attention to this syndrome, of which diagnosis is clinical and of exclusion.

  20. An Overview of the Current Status of Talent Care and Talent Support in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuszek, Csilla

    2014-01-01

    After a short historical introduction, the article provides an overview of the current talent support trends in Hungary. It gives an insight into the legislation, guidelines and institutional system associated with the national talent support strategy, and presents the main NGO initiatives present in the early 21st century, in particular the…

  1. Marijuana and Breastfeeding: Applicability of the Current Literature to Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourh, Jasminder; Rowe, Hilary

    2017-12-01

    With recent legalization of marijuana in numerous U.S. states, the risk of marijuana exposure via breast milk is a rising concern. This review analyzes the available human and animal literature regarding maternal use of marijuana during lactation. The findings can be categorized into four areas of analysis: effects of marijuana on the mother, transfer into milk, transfer to the offspring, and effects on the offspring. Human and animal data have reported decreased prolactin levels as well as potential maternal psychological changes. Animal and human studies have reported transfer into milk; levels were detected in animal offspring, and metabolites were excreted by both human and animal offspring. Further, animal data have predominately displayed motor, neurobehavioral, and developmental effects, whereas human data suggested possible psychomotor outcomes; however, some studies reported no effect. Despite these results, many human studies were marred by limitations, including small sample sizes and confounding variables. Also, the applicability of animal data to the human population is questionable and the true risk of adverse effects is not entirely known. There are large gaps in the literature that need to be addressed; in particular, studies need to focus on evaluating the short- and long-term consequences of maternal marijuana use for the infant and the potential for different risks based on the frequency of maternal use. Until further evidence becomes available, practitioners need to weigh the benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child, with the potential influence of marijuana on infant development when determining the infant's most suitable form of nutrition.

  2. [Birth and succession of a current of learning in Korean medicine: the supporting yang current of learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chaekun

    2014-04-01

    In this study, I aim to reveal how Lee Gyoojoons medicine has given birth to a current of learning, the supporting yang current of learning, and describe its historical significance. Before anything, I'd like to throw the question of whether if there were any currents within the traditional Korean medicine. There are no records of medical currents being widely discussed until now in medical history of Korea; however, the current of Lee Jema's sasang medicine is the most noticeable one. Among the contemporaries of Lee Jema, during the late Chosun, there was also another famed medical practitioner called Lee Gyoojoon. Lee Gyoojoon mainly practiced his medicine within Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do area, his apprentices have formed a group and have succeeded his medical practice. Based on the analyses of Lee Gyoojoon's apprentices and the Somun Oriental Medical Society, which is known as a successor group to Lee Gyoojoon's medicine today, they are fully satisfying the five requirements to establish a medical current: first, they held Lee Gyoojoon as the first and foremost, representative practitioner of their current; second, they advocate the supporting yang theory suggested by Lee Gyoojoon, which is originated from his theory of Mind; third, books such as the Major Essentials of Huangdi's Internal Classic Plain Questions, and the Double Grinded Medical Mirror, were being used as the main textbooks to educate their students or to practice medicine. Fourth, Lee Gyoojoon's medical ideas were being transcended quite clearly within his group of apprentices, including Seo Byungoh, Lee Wonse, and the Somun Oriental Medical Society. Fifth, Lee Gyoojoon's apprentices were first produced through the Sukgok School, however, nowadays they are being produced through medical groups formed by Lee Wonse, the Somun Oriental Medical Society, regarding the propagation of medical theories, compilation of textbooks, publication of academic journals, etc. Then, what do the existence of the

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreaticobiliary intervention in patients with surgically altered anatomy and inaccessible papillae: A review of current literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Aaron; Kistler, Charles Andrew; Wrobel, Piotr; Yang, Juliana F.; Siddiqui, Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    The management of pancreaticobiliary disease in patients with surgically altered anatomy is a growing problem for gastroenterologists today. Over the years, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an important diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the treatment of pancreaticobiliary disease. Patient anatomy has become increasingly complex due to advances in surgical resection of pancreaticobiliary disease and EUS has emerged as the therapy of choice when endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography failed cannulation or when the papilla is inaccessible such as in gastric obstruction or duodenal obstruction. The current article gives a comprehensive review of the current literature for EUS-guided intervention of the pancreaticobiliary tract in patients with altered surgical anatomy. PMID:27386471

  4. Regression analysis of pulsed eddy current signals for inspection of steam generator tube support structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.; Underhill, P.R.; Mokros, S.G.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T.W.; Babbar, V.K.; Lepine, B.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear steam generator (SG) support structure degradation and fouling can result in damage to SG tubes and loss of SG efficiency. Conventional eddy current technology is extensively used to detect cracks, frets at supports and other flaws, but has limited capabilities in the presence of multiple degradation modes or fouling. Pulsed eddy current (PEC) combined with principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression models was examined for the inspection of support structure degradation and SG tube off-centering with the goal of extending results to include additional degradation modes. (author)

  5. An Annotated Bibliography of Current Literature Dealing with Stroke Education Programs in a Physical Rehabilitation Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Ann Teresa

    This study makes available to nurses and other rehabilitation team members pertinent information to meet stroke patients' educational needs. The study was conducted to support the theory that those patients and families who actively participate in a stroke education program will more positively cope with the losses resulting from the disability…

  6. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine: A concise report of current scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins. Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on a C27 cholestane skeleton. Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system. Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques. Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  7. Literature review supporting assessment of potential radionuclides in the 291-Z exhaust ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, L.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Jette, S.J.; Thomas, L.M. Glissmeyer, J.A.; Davis, W.E.

    1994-08-01

    This literature review was prepared to support a study conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assess the potential deposition and resuspension of radionuclides in the 291-Z ventilation exhaust building located in the 200 West Area of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Project near Richland, Washington. The filtered ventilation air from three of the facilities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex are combined together in the 291-Z building before discharge through a common stack. These three facilities contributing filtered exhaust air to the discharge stream are (1) the PFP, also known as the Z-Plant or 234-5Z, (2) the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF or 236-Z), and (3), the Waste Incinerator Building (WIB or 232-Z). The 291-Z building houses the exhaust fans that pull air from the 291-Z central collection plenum and exhausts the air to the stack. Section 2.0 of this report is a description of the physical characteristic of the ventilation system from the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters to the exhaust stack. A description of the processes performed in the facilities that are vented through 291-Z is given in Section 3.0. The description focuses on the chemical and physical forms of potential aerosols given off from the unit operations. A timeline of the operations and events that may have affected the deposition of material in the ventilation system is shown. Aerosol and radiation measurements taken in previous studies are also discussed. Section 4.0 discusses the factors that influence particle deposition and adhesion. Mechanisms of attachment and resuspension are covered with specific attention to the PFP ducts. Conclusions and recommendations are given in Section 5.0

  8. Decision support systems and applications in ophthalmology: literature and commercial review focused on mobile apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Martínez-Pérez, Borja; López-Coronado, Miguel; Díaz, Javier Rodríguez; López, Miguel Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    The growing importance that mobile devices have in daily life has also reached health care and medicine. This is making the paradigm of health care change and the concept of mHealth or mobile health more relevant, whose main essence is the apps. This new reality makes it possible for doctors who are not specialist to have easy access to all the information generated in different corners of the world, making them potential keepers of that knowledge. However, the new daily information exceeds the limits of the human intellect, making Decision Support Systems (DSS) necessary for helping doctors to diagnose diseases and also help them to decide the attitude that has to be taken towards these diagnoses. These could improve the health care in remote areas and developing countries. All of this is even more important in diseases that are more prevalent in primary care and that directly affect the people's quality of life, this is the case in ophthalmological problems where in first patient care a specialist in ophthalmology is not involved. The goal of this paper is to analyse the state of the art of DSS in Ophthalmology. Many of them focused on diseases affecting the eye's posterior pole. For achieving the main purpose of this research work, a literature review and commercial apps analysis will be done. The used databases and systems will be IEEE Xplore, Web of Science (WoS), Scopus, and PubMed. The search is limited to articles published from 2000 until now. Later, different Mobile Decision Support System (MDSS) in Ophthalmology will be analyzed in the virtual stores for Android and iOS. 37 articles were selected according their thematic (posterior pole, anterior pole, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), cloud, data mining, algorithms and structures for DSS, and other) from a total of 600 found in the above cited databases. Very few mobile apps were found in the different stores. It can be concluded that almost all existing mobile apps are focused on the eye's posterior

  9. Multicultural Competence: A Literature Review Supporting Focused Training for Preservice Teachers Teaching Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Cheryl L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on an in depth literature review based on preservice teachers perceptions of their multicultural competence in teaching diverse students. More specifically, the literature review was framed around findings from a study looking at the gap between increased diversity of students and the level of multicultural competence of…

  10. LMFBR safety. 6. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1977)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1978-01-01

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development. Selected bibliographic information on LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the year 1977. The bibliography consists of approximately 198 abstracts covering research and development, operating experience, and design practices. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  11. A review of the current literature on aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.M. van den; Feenstra, L.; Baat, C. de

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This work reviews the current knowledge of aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis. DATA: Halitosis is an unpleasant or offensive odour emanating from the breath. The condition is multifactorial and may involve both oral and non-oral conditions. SOURCES: A private, monthly with

  12. Are current coaching recommendations for cricket batting technique supported by biomechanical research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Melissa J; Spratford, Wayne

    2012-09-01

    Coaching manuals are an invaluable tool for coaches, used in player skill and technique development, especially at grass-roots level. Commonly developed by former players and coaches, this information is generally based on anecdotal evidence and in general lacks the scientific rigour of a peer-reviewed journal. Thus there is a need to establish the level of agreement and support between the coaching and biomechanical literature. In doing so, evidence-based coaching practices can be optimally developed. Moreover, this will ensure the technique and skill development practices implemented at grass-roots level are supported by successful performance in the later stages of player development. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the latest batting biomechanics research, providing a comprehensive and up-to-date insight into the kinematic and kinetic aspects of batting in cricket. Furthermore, this review compared and contrasted this research with a selection of coaching literature, establishing a strong level of support and agreement between the coaching and biomechanical literature in recommendations for cricket batting technique. Although the ambiguity in a number of coaching concepts still exists, coaches and players can be confident in the successful implementation of both sources of information in a player's technical development.

  13. Effects of colchicine on pericardial diseases: a review of the literature and current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Raza Shah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Colchicine, extracted from the colchicum autumnale plant, used by the ancient Greeks more than 20 centuries ago, is one of the most ancient drugs still prescribed even today. The major mechanism of action is binding to microtubules thereby interfering with mitosis and subsequent modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte function. Colchicine has long been of interest in the treatment of cardiovascular disease; however, its efficacy and safety profile for specific conditions have been variably established in the literature. In the subset of pericardial diseases, colchicine has been shown to be effective in recurrent pericarditis and post-pericardiotomy syndrome (PPS. The future course of treatment and management will therefore highly depend on the results of the ongoing large randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of colchicine for the primary prevention of several postoperative complications and in the perioperative period. Also, given the positive preliminary outcomes of colchicine usage in pericardial effusions, the future therapeutical use of colchicine looks promising. Further study is needed to clarify its role in these disease states, as well as explore other its role in other cardiovascular conditions.

  14. Current State of Development of Electricity-Generating Technologies: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Lenzen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Electricity is perhaps the most versatile energy carrier in modern economies, and it is therefore fundamentally linked to human and economic development. Electricity growth has outpaced that of any other fuel, leading to ever-increasing shares in the overall mix. This trend is expected to continue throughout the following decades, as large—especially rural—segments of the world population in developing countries start to climb the “energy ladder” and become connected to power grids. Electricity therefore deserves particular attention with regard to its contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions, which is reflected in the ongoing development of low-carbon technologies for power generation. The focus of this updated review of electricity-generating technologies is twofold: (a to provide more technical information than is usually found in global assessments on critical technical aspects, such as variability of wind power, and (b to capture the most recent findings from the international literature. This report covers eight technologies. Seven of these are generating technologies: hydro-, nuclear, wind, photovoltaic, concentrating solar, geothermal and biomass power. The remaining technology is carbon capture and storage. This selection is fairly representative for technologies that are important in terms of their potential capacity to contribute to a low-carbon world economy.

  15. Interprofessional education and distance education: A review and appraisal of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Livia R M; Alzghari, Saeed K; Lee, Young R; Long, William G; Marquez, Robyn

    2017-07-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is becoming essential for students and healthcare professionals. An evolving approach to implement it is via distance education. Distance education can provide a viable solution to deliver IPE in a variety of settings. A literature search on PubMed and Academic Search Complete databases was conducted, revealing 478 articles ranging from the years of 1971-2015. The articles were screened for relevance using the following inclusion criteria: 1) Is this study implementing IPE? 2) Is this study utilizing the instructional delivery method of distance education? 3) Does this study contain students from two or more healthcare professions? Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were systematically analyzed to identify data relevant for this review. Findings from this review provide a description of the teaching methods involved in distance education in promoting IPE and an assessment of the continuing use of distance education to foster IPE. Success varied depending upon on the distance-based instructional model utilized to facilitate IPE. Incorporating distance education to implement IPE can be an opportunity to develop team collaboration and communication skills among students. Teaching models presented in this review have the potential to be adapted to methods that leverage the power of evolving technology. Further research is needed to understand which distance education instructional delivery models best maximize the IPE experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - March 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Hooks, Todd; Finnegan, Michelle; Grieve, Rob

    2016-04-01

    The worldwide interest in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and trigger points (TrPs) is reflected in the increasing number of publications. In this overview of the literature, we included 26 studies, case reports and review articles by authors from 18 different countries. Several research groups are exploring the characteristic of TrPs such as Chen and colleagues, who continued their work on the quantification of the taut bands. Meng and colleagues studied the relationships between TrPs and central sensitization, while Yu and colleagues examined the electrophysiological characteristics that occur as a result of active TrPs. Several researchers used objective measurements to determine clinical outcomes, such as Koppenhaver and colleagues who measured objective changes in the function and nociceptive sensitivity of lumbar multifidus muscle subjects with low back pain. Turo and colleagues quantified muscle tissue changes after dry needling in chronic myofascial pain using elastography. Multiple studies explored various treatment options for TrPs, such as dry needling, injections with lidocaine or granisetron, traditional Thai massage, self-myofascial release, kinesiotaping, and monochromatic infrared photo energy, among others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Balancing selection on immunity genes: review of the current literature and new analysis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croze, Myriam; Živković, Daniel; Stephan, Wolfgang; Hutter, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    Balancing selection has been widely assumed to be an important evolutionary force, yet even today little is known about its abundance and its impact on the patterns of genetic diversity. Several studies have shown examples of balancing selection in humans, plants or parasites, and many genes under balancing selection are involved in immunity. It has been proposed that host-parasite coevolution is one of the main forces driving immune genes to evolve under balancing selection. In this paper, we review the literature on balancing selection on immunity genes in several organisms, including Drosophila. Furthermore, we performed a genome scan for balancing selection in an African population of Drosophila melanogaster using coalescent simulations of a demographic model with and without selection. We find very few genes under balancing selection and only one novel candidate gene related to immunity. Finally, we discuss the possible causes of the low number of genes under balancing selection. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  18. Diffuse layer effects on the current in galvanic cells containing supporting electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soestbergen, M. van, E-mail: m.vansoestbergen@tudelft.n [Materials Innovation Institute, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Department of Precision and Microsystems Engineering, University of Technology Delft, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-02-01

    We study the effect of an inert supporting electrolyte on the steady-state ionic current through galvanic cells by solving the full Poisson-Nernst-Planck transport equation coupled to the generalized Frumkin-Butler-Volmer boundary equation for the electrochemical charge transfer at the electrodes. Consequently, the model presented here allows for non-zero space charge densities locally at the electrodes, thus extending the frequently used models based on the local electroneutrality condition by including diffuse layer (DL) effects. This extension is necessary since the DLs determine the ion concentration and electrical field at the reaction planes, which uniquely determine the charge transfer at the electrodes. In this work we present numerical results for systems which contain added inert supporting electrolyte using finite element discretization and compare those with semi-analytical results obtained using singular perturbation theory (limit of negligibly thin DLs). In case of negligibly thin DLs the presence of supporting electrolyte will introduce a limiting current below the classical diffusion-limiting current. Just as for systems without supporting electrolyte, the supporting electrolyte induced limiting current formally does not occur for systems having non-negligibly thin double DLs. For thin, however still finite, double layers this limit can still be seen as a steepening of the polarization curve for current vs. voltage.

  19. Diffuse layer effects on the current in galvanic cells containing supporting electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soestbergen, M. van

    2010-01-01

    We study the effect of an inert supporting electrolyte on the steady-state ionic current through galvanic cells by solving the full Poisson-Nernst-Planck transport equation coupled to the generalized Frumkin-Butler-Volmer boundary equation for the electrochemical charge transfer at the electrodes. Consequently, the model presented here allows for non-zero space charge densities locally at the electrodes, thus extending the frequently used models based on the local electroneutrality condition by including diffuse layer (DL) effects. This extension is necessary since the DLs determine the ion concentration and electrical field at the reaction planes, which uniquely determine the charge transfer at the electrodes. In this work we present numerical results for systems which contain added inert supporting electrolyte using finite element discretization and compare those with semi-analytical results obtained using singular perturbation theory (limit of negligibly thin DLs). In case of negligibly thin DLs the presence of supporting electrolyte will introduce a limiting current below the classical diffusion-limiting current. Just as for systems without supporting electrolyte, the supporting electrolyte induced limiting current formally does not occur for systems having non-negligibly thin double DLs. For thin, however still finite, double layers this limit can still be seen as a steepening of the polarization curve for current vs. voltage.

  20. Current status on behavioral and biological markers of PTSD: a search for clarity in a conflicting literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Diamond, David M

    2013-06-01

    Extensive research has identified stereotypic behavioral and biological abnormalities in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), such as heightened autonomic activity, an exaggerated startle response, reduced basal cortisol levels and cognitive impairments. We have reviewed primary research in this area, noting that factors involved in the susceptibility and expression of PTSD symptoms are more complex and heterogeneous than is commonly stated, with extensive findings which are inconsistent with the stereotypic behavioral and biological profile of the PTSD patient. A thorough assessment of the literature indicates that interactions among myriad susceptibility factors, including social support, early life stress, sex, age, peri- and post-traumatic dissociation, cognitive appraisal of trauma, neuroendocrine abnormalities and gene polymorphisms, in conjunction with the inconsistent expression of the disorder across studies, confounds attempts to characterize PTSD as a monolithic disorder. Overall, our assessment of the literature addresses the great challenge in developing a behavioral and biomarker-based diagnosis of PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. LMFBR safety. 3. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1972--1974)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-02-24

    The report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1972 through 1974. The bibliography consists of approximately 1380 abstracts covering research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included.

  2. LMFBR safety. 4. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1974--1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1974 through 1975. The bibliography consists of approximately 1554 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  3. Breast reconstruction with anatomical implants: A review of indications and techniques based on current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardani, Marco; Bertozzi, Nicolò; Grieco, Michele Pio; Pesce, Marianna; Simonacci, Francesco; Santi, PierLuigi; Raposio, Edoardo

    2017-09-01

    One important modality of breast cancer therapy is surgical treatment, which has become increasingly less mutilating over the last century. Breast reconstruction has become an integrated part of breast cancer treatment due to long-term psychosexual health factors and its importance for breast cancer survivors. Both autogenous tissue-based and implant-based reconstruction provides satisfactory reconstructive options due to better surgeon awareness of "the ideal breast size", although each has its own advantages and disadvantages. An overview of the current options in breast reconstruction is presented in this article.

  4. LMFBR safety. 4. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1974--1975)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-03-21

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1974 through 1975. The bibliography consists of approximately 1554 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  5. LMFBR safety. 2. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1970--1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1970 through 1972. The bibliography consists of approximately 1620 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  6. LMFBR safety. 3. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1972--1974)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1972 through 1974. The bibliography consists of approximately 1380 abstracts covering research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included

  7. LMFBR safety. 5. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1975--1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA), are discussed. Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the period 1975 through 1976. The bibliography consists of approximately 1618 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  8. Neurocognitive Processes and Pediatric Obesity Interventions: Review of Current Literature and Suggested Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L

    2016-06-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant problem in the United States, but current childhood obesity prevention approaches have limited efficacy. Self-regulation processes organize behavior to achieve a goal and may shape health behaviors and health outcomes. Obesity prevention approaches that focus on the cognitive and behavioral mechanisms that underlie self-regulation early in life may therefore lead to better outcomes. This article reviews the development of executive functioning (EF), identifies influences on EF development, discusses aspects of EF relating to increased risk for childhood obesity, and considers how EF-weight associations may change across development. Implications for intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. LMFBR safety. 2. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1970--1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-11-22

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1970 through 1972. The bibliography consists of approximately 1620 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  10. LMFBR safety. 5. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1975--1976)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-06-08

    The current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA), are discussed. Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the period 1975 through 1976. The bibliography consists of approximately 1618 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  11. LMFBR safety. 1. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1960--1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-08-16

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1960 through 1969. The bibliography consists of 1560 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  12. LMFBR safety. 1. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1960--1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1960 through 1969. The bibliography consists of 1560 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  13. Improved cardiac function and exercise capacity following correction of pectus excavatum: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maagaard, Marie; Heiberg, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Patients with pectus excavatum (PE) often describe improvements in exercise stamina following corrective surgery. Studies have investigated the surgical effect on physiological parameters; still, no consensus has yet been reached. Therefore, the aim of this literature review was to describe the cardiac outcome after surgical correction, both at rest and during exercise. In February 2016, a detailed search of the databases PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE was performed. We assessed clinical studies that described cardiac outcomes both before and after surgical correction of PE. We only included studies reporting either pre-defined echocardiographic or exercise test parameters. No exclusion criteria or statistical analyses were applied. Twenty-one full-text articles, published between 1972 and 2016, were selected, with cohort-ranges of 3-168 patients, mean age-ranges of 5-33 years, and mean follow-up-ranges from immediately to 4 years after surgery. Twelve studies described resting cardiac parameters. Four studies measured cardiac output, where one described 36% immediate increase after surgery, one reported 15% increase after Nuss-bar removal and two found no difference. Three studies demonstrated improvement in mean stroke volume ranges of 22-34% and two studies found no difference. Fifteen studies investigated exercise capacity, with 11 considering peak O 2 pr. kg, where five studies demonstrated improvements with the mean ranging from 8% to 15% after surgery, five studies demonstrated no difference, and one saw a decrease of 19% 3 months after Nuss-bar implantation. A measurable increase in exercise capacity exists following surgery, which may be caused by multiple factors. This may be owed to the relief of compressed cardiac chambers with the increased anterior-posterior thoracic dimensions, which could facilitate an improved filling of the heart. With these results, the positive physiological impact of the surgery is emphasized and the potential gain in cardiac

  14. Platelet Preparations for Use in Facial Rejuvenation and Wound Healing: A Critical Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony P; Azzi, James

    2015-08-01

    In facial plastic surgery, the potential for direct delivery of growth factors from platelet preparations has been of particular interest for use in facial rejuvenation, recovery after facial surgery, and wound healing. A literature search was conducted through PubMed for the terms PRP, PRFM, platelet-rich plasma, platelet-rich fibrin matrix, platelet preparations, platelet therapy, growth factors, platelet facial, platelet facial rejuvenation, platelet wound healing, platelet plastic surgery. Articles pertaining to the use of platelet preparations in facial surgery and wound healing in plastic surgery after 2001 were included. Thirteen in vitro studies showed use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) had a significant effect on cellular activity. Twenty-four out of 28 animal studies exhibited favorable results with use of a platelet preparation, including five of six studies that showed enhanced fat graft survival with addition of a platelet preparation. Twenty-three case series and clinical trials were identified, only two of which showed no differences. Twenty-one reported favorable results with use of various platelet preparations. A total of 47 studies used PRP, four studies evaluated Leukocyte-rich PRP, and fourteen studies used PRFM. The vast majority of studies examined show a significant and measurable effect on cellular changes, wound healing, and facial esthetic outcomes with use of platelet preparations, both topical and injectable. One must also consider possible publication bias against null results that may have had an influence on the data that were available for review. However, the preponderance of studies suggests that platelet preparations might represent an as-of-yet untapped adjunct in facial plastic surgery.

  15. Communities of practice: A means to support occupational therapists’ continuing professional development. A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barry, Margot; Kuijer-Siebelink, Wietske; Nieuwenhuis, Loek; Scherpbier-de Haan, Nynke

    2018-01-01

    Background: This literature review investigates what research reports about the contribution that communities of practice (CoPs) can make in the continuing professional development (CPD) of qualified occupational therapists. Methods: Academic databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE and ERIC) were searched

  16. Periodontal abscess during supportive periodontal therapy: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Geraldo L M; Soares, Rodrigo V; Zenóbio, Elton G

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this review is to present the current status of the occurrence and management of a periodontal abscess during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). A periodontal abscess depicts typical features and has been described in patients under SPT in clinical trials. Common periodontal pathogens have been observed in this lesion and some etiologic factors may be responsible for its recurrence. This condition can be isolated or associated with factors that can change the prognosis of affected teeth. Although it has been frequently noticed in untreated periodontitis, the periodontal abscess can also occur in patients under SPT and has been regarded as one of the possible complications of SPT. Patients with a high susceptibility to periodontal disease lost more teeth than those with a healthy periodontium. Early diagnosis and appropriate intervention for periodontal abscesses in patients under SPT are extremely important for the management of the periodontal abscess since this condition can lead to loss of the involved tooth. A single case of a tooth diagnosed with periodontal abscess that responds favorably to adequate treatment does not seem to affect its longevity. An accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment can preserve the longevity of affected teeth.

  17. The Current Use of Social Media in Undergraduate Nursing Education: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer Gunberg; Myers, Shannon Marie

    2017-07-01

    Social media, including blogs, Twitter, wikis, Facebook, YouTube, and Ning, provides an opportunity for nurse educators to engage undergraduate nursing students who are members of the millennial generation in active learning while enhancing knowledge and fostering communication. Despite the rise of social media usage in undergraduate nursing education, there is a significant deficiency of empirical evidence supporting the efficacy and outcomes of these teaching strategies. This article provides an overview of social media use in undergraduate nursing education and a review of the existing research related to social media use in prelicensure nursing education. Overall, undergraduate nursing students respond positively to social media use in nursing education; however, no outcome measures are available to determine the effect of these teaching strategies on student learning.

  18. The impacts of trail infrastructure on vegetation and soils: Current literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-12-01

    Reflecting the popularity of nature-based activities such as hiking and mountain biking, there are thousands of kilometres of recreational trails worldwide traversing a range of natural areas. These trails have environmental impacts on soils and vegetation, but where has there been research, what impacts have been found and how were they measured? Using a systematic quantitative literature review methodology, we assessed the impacts of trails on vegetation and soils, highlighting what is known, but also key knowledge gaps. Of the 59 original research papers identified on this topic that have been published in English language peer-reviewed academic journals, most were for research conducted in protected areas (71%), with few from developing countries (17%) or threatened ecosystems (14%). The research is concentrated in a few habitats and biodiversity hotspots, mainly temperate woodland, alpine grassland and Mediterranean habitats, often in the USA (32%) or Australia (20%). Most examined formal trails, with just 15% examining informal trails and 11% assessing both types. Nearly all papers report the results of observational surveys (90%), collecting quantitative data (66%) with 24% using geographic information systems. There was an emphasis on assessing trail impacts at a local scale, either on the trail itself and/or over short gradients away from the trail edge. Many assessed changes in composition and to some degree, structure, of vegetation and soils with the most common impacts documented including reduced vegetation cover, changes in plant species composition, trail widening, soil loss and soil compaction. There were 14 papers assessing how these local impacts can accumulate at the landscape scale. Few papers assessed differences in impacts among trails (7 papers), changes in impacts over time (4), species-specific responses (3) and only one assessed effects on plant community functioning. This review provides evidence that there are key research gaps

  19. Procalcitonin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in diabetic foot infection. A current literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Pantzaris, Nikolaos-Dimitrios; Platanaki, Christina; Antonopoulou, Nikolina; Gogos, Charalampos

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a very common cause of mortality and morbidity. The distinction between infected and non-infected DFU remains a very challenging task for clinicians in everyday practice. Even when infection is documented, the spectrum of diabetic foot infection is wide, ranging from cellulitis and soft tissue infection to osteomyelitis. Procalcitonin (PCT), a well-established sepsis biomarker, has been used in the diagnosis of several infections including osteomyelitis in patients with diabetes mellitus. This review gathers and presents all the relevant data, up until now, regarding the use of PCT as an assessment tool in diabetic patients with foot infection. Current evidence suggests that PCT levels could aid clinicians in distinguishing infected from non-infected DFUs as well as in the distinction between soft tissue infection and bone involvement, but further and larger studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  20. Developing an Integrated Conceptual Framework of Pro-Environmental Behavior in the Workplace through Synthesis of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye V. McDonald

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have begun to bridge the gap between general and workplace pro-environmental behavior by adapting specific existing behavioral models to the workplace environment. This conceptual article proposes a different approach by synthesizing the current general and workplace literature to develop a new model of the antecedents to pro-environmental behavior. Guided by this approach, this paper combines the insights of the current general and workplace models to develop an integrated framework of pro-environmental behavior in the workplace. In doing so, an overview of the current general and workplace literatures will be provided as well as their similarities and differences highlighted. The proposed framework will provide further insights into the antecedents of workplace pro-environmental behavior and identify common findings across the different existing workplace models. This theory can be the basis for further research in order to provide a comprehensive picture of the antecedents of pro-environmental behavior in the workplace. Lastly, implications for specific interventions to develop targeted Human Resource Management practices and work towards achieving environmental sustainability will be discussed.

  1. [Current recommendations for basic/advanced life support : Addressing unanswered questions and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, K; Schmid, B; Busch, H-J

    2016-11-01

    The revised guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation were implemented by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) in October 2015. There were few changes concerning basic and advanced life support; however, some issues were clarified compared to the ERC recommendations from 2010. The present paper summarizes the procedures of basic and advanced life support according to the current guidelines and highlights the updates of 2015. Furthermore, the article depicts future prospects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation that may improve outcome of patients after cardiac arrest in the future.

  2. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Stephanie K.; Rogers, Brooke G.; Webb Hooper, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and w...

  3. Supporting Transfer of Learning: Practice-based considerations on the applicability of transfer literature in online design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2014-01-01

    for school teachers. The PhD-project is inspired by design-based research and the research into learning transfer. It aims to evaluate if, how, and why an online facilitated, collaborative learning solution can improve the teaching practices of science teachers in Danish elementary schools. Based...... on the ethnographic study, this paper attempts to answer the following questions: what characterizes the work environment at the schools, specifically in regards to collegial support, organizational support, and manager support? How does the empirical research relate to the learning transfer literature? Do...... these characteristics give rise to reconsiderations of applying learning transfer research when designing for competence development?...

  4. Recurrent Direct Current Cardioversion Induced Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy. A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Smyrlis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress cardiomyopathy (SCM, also called broken heart syndrome and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an increasingly reported syndrome generally characterized by transient systolic dysfunction of the apical and or mid segments of the left ventricle that mimics myocardial infarction, in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Typically patients present within a few hours of exposure to physical or emotional stress. However, the mechanism by which these stressors result in myocardial dysfunction is unclear. Proposed factors include catecholamine excess and coronary vasospasm1. We present the case of a 61-year-old female who experienced acute pulmonary edema secondary to stress cardiomyopathy, on two occasions immediately after undergoing elective direct current cardioversion (DCCV for atrial fibrillation (Afib. After an urgent hospitalization for management of acute left ventricular failure, she made a complete clinical and echocardiographic recovery. The incidence, clinical implications and prognosis of DCCV induced SCM is unknown. Given DCCV for Afib is a common outpatient procedure and DCCV induced SCM can lead to acute clinical deterioration it is important that physicians are vigilant about this newly recognized DCCV complication.

  5. Effects of Need Supportive Teaching on Early Adolescents' Motivation and Engagement: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroet, Kim; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Minnaert, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we systematically review the corpus of evidence on the effects of need supportive teaching on early adolescents' motivation and engagement for school. Based on Self-Determination Theory, we define need supportive teaching in terms of teachers' provision of autonomy support, structure, and involvement. The results of an…

  6. Healthcare professional behaviour change using technological supports: A realist literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Keyworth; Jo Hart; Chris A. Armitage

    2015-01-01

    Background Changing healthcare professional behaviour is fundamental to effective patient management. Recent systematic reviews examining healthcare professional behaviour change interventions (such as audit and feedback) suggest that technological support is likely to be crucial in helping healthcare professionals to improve patient outcomes. However we know little about the effectiveness of technological support interventions, and whether the design of technological support interventions...

  7. Effects of need supportive teaching on early adolescents' motivation and engagement : A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroet, Kim; Opdenakker, Marie; Minnaert, Alexander

    In the present paper we systematically review the corpus of evidence on the effects of need supportive teaching on early adolescents' motivation and engagement for school. Based on Self-Determination Theory, we define need supportive teaching in terms of teachers' provision of autonomy support,

  8. Tamsulosin for urolithiasis: a review of the recent literature and current controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmand, Ali; Nadendla, Rahul; Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; O'Connell, Francis

    2016-11-01

    In the United States, urolithiasis affects approximately 1 in 11 people, and there is evidence that the prevalence is increasing. A relatively recent treatment strategy for urolithiasis involves using medical expulsive therapy (MET) to increase the likelihood of spontaneous passage of ureteral stones. The 2 leading drug classes for MET are alpha-1-andrenergic receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers. Tamsulosin, an alpha-1-adrenocepter blocking agent, is thought to induce spontaneous stone passage by relaxing ureteral smooth muscle tone. However, tamsulosin has not been proven effective for increasing ureteral stone passage and is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for this indication. There is a relative paucity of data on the efficacy of tamsulosin for urolithiasis, and of the published results, there are conflicting conclusions from the data. Because of the acute and often severe nature of symptoms from urolithiasis, emergency medicine physicians are frequently the first to diagnose and treat this condition. This has led to tamsulosin being frequently prescribed from the emergency department (ED) for off-label use without the support of high-quality evidence. If tamsulosin is proven effective, its use in the treatment of urolithiasis could offer several important advantages. The number of procedures, length of hospital stay, and health care costs after the initial ED visit could potentially be reduced. Tamsulosin may also increase patient satisfaction by reducing the invasive treatment and decreasing the time to stone passage. This review focuses on the efficacy of tamsulosin based on stone location, after shock wave lithotripsy, compared with other MET drugs and in the acute setting of the ED. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Kolar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%. Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy.

  10. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) infection of the liver mimicking malignancy: Presentation of a new case and review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkoulis, Nikolaos; Zerbinis, Helen; Simatos, Georgios; Nisiotis, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis or "pinworm" infection of the liver is an extremely rare condition with only five cases previously reported in literature. It is characterized by the presence of granulomas in the liver with a necrotic core, containing adult helminthes or their ova. Because of the relatively mild symptomatology associated with this disease, prior to the arrival of modern imaging methods hepatic enterobiasis was an incidental intra-operative finding during abdominal surgery for other conditions. In recent years however, with high-resolution abdominal imaging readily available and the improved safety of hepatic resection, a lower threshold for treating suspicious hepatic nodules aggressively with surgery is being adopted. We present the second case in international literature, where E. vermicularis of the liver was mistaken for malignancy and led to hepatic resection and perform a literature review of the five previously documented cases of hepatic enterobiasis. Our report identifies certain trends in this condition's aetiology and clinical behaviour, but due to its rarity definitive answers cannot yet be established. We do not advocate a change in the current approach of suspicious hepatic nodules, but we do feel that better understanding of the mechanisms involved with hepatic enterobiasis could, in the future, prevent unnecessary surgery.

  11. Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: A literature and data review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Urban; Münster, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat...... to establish and assess current and future EU (European Union) waste generation and management. Main conclusions are that more heat can be recovered from current Waste-to-Energy facilities operating at low average heat recovery efficiencies, that efficient incineration capacity is geographically concentrated...... heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed...

  12. Structures and Cultures: A Review of the Literature. Support Document 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Berwyn; Fisher, Thea; Harris, Roger; Bateman, Andrea; Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This literature review aims to assist registered training organizations (RTOs) who have realised that change is now the status quo, and who are actively seeking ways to deal with change to ensure an effective workforce for the future. It focuses on providing information on organizational structures and cultures that could help RTOs to do this. The…

  13. What's Wrong with Fairness? How Discourses in Higher Education Literature Support Gender Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoes, Kacey; Schimpf, Corey

    2018-01-01

    The role and influence of department heads on women in academia is understudied and weakly conceptualized. This article expounds on prior work, which identified limitations of department head literature, to put forth three problematic discourses that run through much of the department head research: the "discourse of fairness," the…

  14. Literature mining supports a next-generation modeling approach to predict cellular byproduct secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Zachary A.; O'Brien, Edward J.; Feist, Adam M.

    2017-01-01

    metabolic byproduct secretion with bottom-up reconstructions of metabolic networks. However, owing to a lack of data, it has not been possible to validate these predictions across a wide range of strains and conditions. Through literature mining, we were able to generate a database of Escherichia coli...

  15. The Impact of Childhood Trauma on Brain Development: A Literature Review and Supporting Handouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirouac, Samantha; McBride, Dawn Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on the brain and how trauma impacts brain development, structures, and functioning. A basic exploration of childhood trauma is outlined in this project, as it is essential in making associations and connections to brain development. Childhood trauma is processed in the…

  16. Review of current status for designing severe accident management support system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwang Sub

    2000-05-01

    The development of operator support system (OSS) is ongoing in many other countries due to the complexity both in design and in operation for nuclear power plant. The computerized operator support system includes monitoring of some critical parameters, early detection of plant transient, monitoring of component status, plant maintenance, and safety parameter display, and the operator support system for these areas are developed and are being used in some plants. Up to now, the most operator support system covers the normal operation, abnormal operation, and emergency operation. Recently, however, the operator support system for severe accident is to be developed in some countries. The study for the phenomena of severe accident is not performed sufficiently, but, based on the result up to now, the operator support system even for severe accident will be developed in this study. To do this, at first, the current status of the operator support system for normal/abnormal/emergency operation is reviewed, and the positive aspects and negative aspects of systems are analyzed by their characteristics. And also, the major items that should be considered in designing the severe accident operator support system are derived from the review. With the survey of domestic and foreign operator support systems, they are reviewed in terms of the safety parameter display system, decision-making support system, and procedure-tracking system. For the severe accident, the severe accident management guideline (SAMG) which is developed by Westinghouse is reviewed; the characteristics, structure, and logical flow of SAMG are studied. In addition, the critical parameters for severe accident, which are the basis for operators decision-making in severe accident management and are supplied to the operators and the technical support center, are reviewed, too.

  17. Review of current status for designing severe accident management support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwang Sub

    2000-05-01

    The development of operator support system (OSS) is ongoing in many other countries due to the complexity both in design and in operation for nuclear power plant. The computerized operator support system includes monitoring of some critical parameters, early detection of plant transient, monitoring of component status, plant maintenance, and safety parameter display, and the operator support system for these areas are developed and are being used in some plants. Up to now, the most operator support system covers the normal operation, abnormal operation, and emergency operation. Recently, however, the operator support system for severe accident is to be developed in some countries. The study for the phenomena of severe accident is not performed sufficiently, but, based on the result up to now, the operator support system even for severe accident will be developed in this study. To do this, at first, the current status of the operator support system for normal/abnormal/emergency operation is reviewed, and the positive aspects and negative aspects of systems are analyzed by their characteristics. And also, the major items that should be considered in designing the severe accident operator support system are derived from the review. With the survey of domestic and foreign operator support systems, they are reviewed in terms of the safety parameter display system, decision-making support system, and procedure-tracking system. For the severe accident, the severe accident management guideline (SAMG) which is developed by Westinghouse is reviewed; the characteristics, structure, and logical flow of SAMG are studied. In addition, the critical parameters for severe accident, which are the basis for operators decision-making in severe accident management and are supplied to the operators and the technical support center, are reviewed, too

  18. Education and training to support the use of clinical telehealth: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirippulige, S; Armfield, N R

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Despite a growing literature base, substantial investment, and policy changes within governments, the integration of telehealth into routine clinical care has been limited. The availability of appropriate systematic education and training for practitioners has been highlighted as necessary for strong adoption. However, the availability and nature of telehealth-related education and training for practitioners is not understood. By reviewing the literature, we aimed to describe the delivery of education and training in telehealth, with particular focus on content, modes of delivery, types of institutions, and target clinician groups. Methods We performed searches using PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and ERIC. We included studies that were focused on the delivery of telehealth-related academic or vocational education and training. We extracted information pertaining to country, programs and their participants, and tabulated the results. Results Altogether 388 articles were identified, of which nine studies were selected for final review. Programs from five countries were represented and articles were spread across telemedicine and clinically oriented journals. Education and training in telehealth has been provided as both university level and vocational courses using conventional classroom based delivery methods and e-learning. Reported curriculum items included terminology, clinical applications, the evidence-base, and technological aspects. Conclusions Published evidence in peer-reviewed literature on telehealth education and training is limited. According to this review, a number of topics relating to telehealth have been covered by existing education programs both within tertiary and professional development levels.

  19. Gender differences in computer-mediated communication: a systematic literature review of online health-related support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Malik, Sumaira H; Coulson, Neil S

    2009-04-01

    Previous research has contended that the unique characteristics of the Internet might remove some of the gender differences that exist in face-to-face healthcare. The aims of the present study were to systematically review studies that have examined gender differences in communication within online health communities. A literature search was conducted to identify studies addressing gender differences in messages posted to online health-related support groups. Out of the 1186 articles identified, twelve were retrieved for review. Half of the studies examined gender differences by comparing male and female cancer discussion boards. The literature review revealed that some gender differences were observed in these studies. However, for studies that analysed mixed-gender communities, gender differences were less evident. Results seemed to reveal gender differences in communications in single-sex online health support groups, and similarities in communication patterns in mixed-sex online health support groups. However, findings should be treated with caution due to the diversity in studies and methodological issues highlighted in the present review. There is a need for health care professionals to take into account a range of situational and contextual factors that may affect how men and women use online health support groups. However, more robust research is needed before concrete guidelines can be developed to help health care professionals develop effective online support interventions.

  20. A Comprehensive Review of the Literature Supporting Recommendations From the Canadian Diabetes Association for the Use of a Plant-Based Diet for Management of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Sylvia; Campbell, Emily E; Fournier, John; O'Connor, Colleen; Madill, Janet

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is considered one of the fastest growing diseases in Canada, representing a serious public health concern. Thus, clinicians have begun targeting modifiable risk factors to manage type 2 diabetes, including dietary patterns such as a plant-based diets (PBDs). The Canadian Diabetes Association has included PBDs among the recommended dietary patterns to be used in medical nutrition therapy for persons with type 2 diabetes. To support knowledge translation, this review summarizes the current literature relating to PBDs and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, its clinical applications and its acceptability in the management of type 2 diabetes as well as its application in community settings. This comprehensive review seeks to close the literature gap by providing background and rationale to support the use of PBDs as medical nutrition therapy. Within this review is support from large observational studies, which have shown that PBDs were associated with lower prevalence of type 2 diabetes. As well, intervention studies have shown that PBDs were just as effective, if not more effective, than other diabetes diets in improving body weight, cardiovascular risk factors, insulin sensitivity, glycated hemoglobin levels, oxidative stress markers and renovascular markers. Furthermore, patient acceptability was comparable to other diabetes diets, and PBDs reduced the need for diabetes medications. Diabetes education centres in Canada could improve patients' perceptions of PBDs by developing PBD-focused education and support as well as providing individualized counselling sessions addressing barriers to change. The development of more standardized and user-friendly PBD practice guidelines could overcome the disparity in recommendations and, thereby, increase how frequently practitioners recommend PBDs. Based on current published research, PBDs lend support in the management of type 2 diabetes. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Current trends in using Internet and mobile technology to support the treatment of substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciare, Michael A; Weingardt, Kenneth R; Greene, Carolyn J; Hoffman, Julia

    2012-09-01

    By allowing for the efficient delivery of instructional content and the secure collection of self-report data regarding substance use and related problems, the Internet has tremendous potential to improve the effectiveness and accessibility of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) treatment and recovery-oriented services. This article discusses some of the ways in which Internet and mobile technology can facilitate, complement and support the process of traditional clinician-delivered treatment for individuals with SUDs. Internet applications are being used to support a range of activities including (a) the assessment and feedback process that constitutes a key feature of brief motivational interventions; and (b) the concurrent monitoring of patients who are receiving treatment for SUDs, to support continuing care, and the ongoing recovery of SUD patients who have completed face-to-face treatment. Internet technology is also being used to (c) support efficient delivery of clinical training in evidence-based practices for treating individuals who may have SUDs. This emerging body of literature suggests that SUD treatment providers and program administrators can enhance the quality of clinician-delivered treatment by incorporating internet applications into existing processes of care and recovery oriented services. Internet applications provide an unparalleled opportunity to engage patients in the treatment process, incorporate real-time data into treatment planning, prevent relapse, and promote evidence-based treatment approaches.

  2. Review of current design methodologies to improve the safety of roof support systems, particularly in the face area in collieries.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Canbulat, I

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available This research report summarizes an extensive literature survey on roofbolt support design methods used worldwide, and presents the findings of extensive underground roof monitoring conducted in 29 sites at five collieries. An analysis of fall...

  3. Critical Analysis of the Supportive and Suppressive Factors for the Children’s Literature Program in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Salina Mustakim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Literature in Education (LIE is aimed at enhancing the pupils’ linguistic competence by providing an early beginning to a foundation in literature and literary works.  In 2006, the literature component was introduced to pupils in Malaysian primary schools through two programs: Contemporary Children’s Literature (CCL and Extensive Reading Program.  The literature program is viewed as a vehicle to provide an early exposure to pupils on literary genres to enhance their understanding and appreciation of people’s cultures, values, and traditions.  The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the provision of support, resources, training, and time allocation in the implementation of children’s literature among upper primary school teachers in Malaysia via the utilization of survey questionnaires, classroom observations and interviews.  This study was conducted in a district in the state of Selangor.  A sample of 56 upper primary school teachers from 19 schools were selected to answer the survey questionnaires.  Interviews were conducted in one selected school in the District.   The school was chosen based on the highest academic performance in the Malaysia Standard Examination for Primary Schools.   Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19, and coded manually.  Findings from survey indicated that 75% of the school management understand the objectives and goals of CCL in order to provide effective support to the program.  Majority of the respondents (82% agreed that the school management has allowed the English Language Department to manage its own expenses or resources for the program.   Almost three-fourths (71.4% of the respondents agreed that the provision of training and resources has produced capable and knowledgeable teachers to teach literature. However, the majority of the respondents (76.8% disagreed that the time allocation provides sufficient time for them to fulfil the requirements of teaching two textbooks in a year

  4. Managing severe behavioral symptoms of a patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis: case report and findings in current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Lima Monteiro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psychiatric symptoms emerge in the early stages of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and patients often seek treatment in psychiatric departments before visiting any other general medical services. Numerous articles about anti-NMDAR encephalitis have been published in the scientific community worldwide, but few emphasize the role of psychiatry in symptom management.Case description: We describe the case of a patient with anti- -NMDAR encephalitis seen in our service and discuss the management of behavioral symptoms based on current scientific literature. High doses of atypical antipsychotics and benzodiazepines were used to control agitation, and trazodone was administered to treat insomnia.Comments: Consultation-liaison psychiatry may help the healthcare team adjust the management of neuropsychiatric complications that might affect inpatients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

  5. [Subjective Needs of Support in Families with a Mentally Ill Parent – A Literature Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Patricia; Bruland, Dirk; Bauer, Ulrich; Lenz, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Mentally ill parents are often sceptical about professional help for their children although these children face an increased risk to develop a mental disease themselves. To get a better understanding of needs and help-seeking behaviour in those families a systematic literature review was conducted. Four databases (FIS, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, PubPsych) were scanned for international and national research literature. Out of 18,057 articles 56 were included which report quantitative or qualitative studies taking the children's and parents' perspectives into account. A thematic synthesis was done to categorize the needs. Results concerning the help-seeking behaviour and the influence of demographic variables were extracted and summarized. Our results were limited by the aspect that no evaluation of study quality had been made and influences on the categorizing process by the authors' subjective perceptions are likely. There were a lot of hints regarding the needs of the families, but little report was found about help-seeking behaviour and demographic variables. The "health literacy" concept was discussed as a basis for further research in this area.

  6. A Systematic Scoping Literature Review of Publications Supporting Treatment Guidelines for Pediatric Atopic Dermatitis in Contrast to Clinical Practice Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Elaine C; Jaworski, Jennifer C; Mina-Osorio, Paola

    2018-06-01

    Treatment guidelines endorse a variety of strategies for atopic dermatitis (AD) which may vary from published data and clinical practice patterns. The objective of this review was to quantify the volume of available medical literature supporting pediatric AD treatments and compare these patterns to those recommended by published guidelines and/or clinical practice patterns. Searches of Embase (2005-2016) and abstracts from selected meetings (2014-2016) related to AD treatment in patients younger than 17 years of age yielded references that were assessed by study design, primary treatment, age groups, and AD severity. Published literature partially supports clinical guidelines, with emollients and topical medications being the most investigated. There were disproportionately more publications for topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCI) compared with topical corticosteroids (TCS); however, the search interval may have biased the results toward treatments approved near the beginning of the time frame. In contrast, publications documenting clinical practice patterns reflect greater use of emollients and TCS (over TCI), as well as systemic corticosteroids. Data is relatively limited for long-term and combination treatment, treatment of severe AD, and patients younger than 2 years of age, and completely lacking for systemic corticosteroids. This scoping review demonstrates that available medical literature largely supports published guidelines for topical therapy; however, clinical practice patterns are less aligned. There is a lack of data for older, more frequently used generic treatments, including oral antihistamines, oral antibiotics, and systemic corticosteroids. Overall, literature is lacking for long-term treatment, treatment for patients younger than 2 years of age, and for systemic treatment for severe disease. Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc.

  7. Delivering "Just-In-Time" Smoking Cessation Support Via Mobile Phones: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Felix

    2016-05-28

    Smoking lapses early on during a quit attempt are highly predictive of failing to quit. A large proportion of these lapses are driven by cravings brought about by situational and environmental cues. Use of cognitive-behavioral lapse prevention strategies to combat cue-induced cravings is associated with a reduced risk of lapse, but evidence is lacking in how these strategies can be effectively promoted. Unlike most traditional methods of delivering behavioral support, mobile phones can in principle deliver automated support, including lapse prevention strategy recommendations, Just-In-Time (JIT) for when a smoker is most vulnerable, and prevent early lapse. JIT support can be activated by smokers themselves (user-triggered), by prespecified rules (server-triggered) or through sensors that dynamically monitor a smoker's context and trigger support when a high risk environment is sensed (context-triggered), also known as a Just-In-Time Adaptive Intervention (JITAI). However, research suggests that user-triggered JIT cessation support is seldom used and existing server-triggered JIT support is likely to lack sufficient accuracy to effectively target high-risk situations in real time. Evaluations of mobile phone cessation interventions that include user and/or server-triggered JIT support have yet to adequately assess whether this improves management of high risk situations. While context-triggered systems have the greatest potential to deliver JIT support, there are, as yet, no impact evaluations of such systems. Although it may soon be feasible to learn about and monitor a smoker's context unobtrusively using their smartphone without burdensome data entry, there are several potential advantages to involving the smoker in data collection. This commentary describes the current knowledge on the potential for mobile phones to deliver automated support to help smokers manage or cope with high risk environments or situations for smoking, known as JIT support. The article

  8. GAPscreener: An automatic tool for screening human genetic association literature in PubMed using the support vector machine technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoury Muin J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthesis of data from published human genetic association studies is a critical step in the translation of human genome discoveries into health applications. Although genetic association studies account for a substantial proportion of the abstracts in PubMed, identifying them with standard queries is not always accurate or efficient. Further automating the literature-screening process can reduce the burden of a labor-intensive and time-consuming traditional literature search. The Support Vector Machine (SVM, a well-established machine learning technique, has been successful in classifying text, including biomedical literature. The GAPscreener, a free SVM-based software tool, can be used to assist in screening PubMed abstracts for human genetic association studies. Results The data source for this research was the HuGE Navigator, formerly known as the HuGE Pub Lit database. Weighted SVM feature selection based on a keyword list obtained by the two-way z score method demonstrated the best screening performance, achieving 97.5% recall, 98.3% specificity and 31.9% precision in performance testing. Compared with the traditional screening process based on a complex PubMed query, the SVM tool reduced by about 90% the number of abstracts requiring individual review by the database curator. The tool also ascertained 47 articles that were missed by the traditional literature screening process during the 4-week test period. We examined the literature on genetic associations with preterm birth as an example. Compared with the traditional, manual process, the GAPscreener both reduced effort and improved accuracy. Conclusion GAPscreener is the first free SVM-based application available for screening the human genetic association literature in PubMed with high recall and specificity. The user-friendly graphical user interface makes this a practical, stand-alone application. The software can be downloaded at no charge.

  9. Current perspectives on the ethics of selling international surrogacy support services

    OpenAIRE

    Fronek,Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Patricia Fronek1,2 1Law Futures Centre, 2School of Human Services and Social Work, Griffith University, Southport, QLD, Australia Abstract: This review presents current knowledge on selling surrogacy support services in developing countries. Rather than focusing on dichotomous positions, ethical issues that are present and unresolved are discussed by following the journey of surrogate mothers and highlighting the position of children whose well-being is generally assumed in surrogacy arrangem...

  10. Tracheal cuff pressure monitoring in the ICU: a literature review and survey of current practice in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talekar, C R; Udy, A A; Boots, R J; Lipman, J; Cook, D

    2014-11-01

    The application of tracheal cuff pressure monitoring is likely to vary between institutions. The aim of this study was therefore to review current evidence concerning this intervention in the intensive care unit (ICU) and to appraise regional practice by performing a state-wide survey. Publications for review were identified through searches of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane (1977 to 2014). All studies in English relevant to critical care and with complete data were included. Survey questions were developed by small-group consensus. Public and private ICUs across Queensland were contacted, with responses obtained from a representative member of the medical or nursing staff. Existing literature suggests significant variability in tracheal cuff pressure monitoring in the ICU, particularly in the applied technique, frequency of assessment and optimal intra-cuff pressures. Twenty-nine respondents completed the survey, representing 80.5% (29/36) of ICUs in Queensland. Twenty-eight out of twenty-nine respondents reported routinely monitoring tracheal cuff function, primarily employing cuff pressure measurement (26/28). Target cuff pressures varied, with 3/26 respondents aiming for 10 to 20 cmH2O, 10/26 for 21 to 25 cmH2O, and 13/26 for 26 to 30 cmH2O. Fifteen out of twenty-nine reported they had no current guideline or protocol for tracheal cuff management and only 16/29 indicated there was a dedicated area in the clinical record for reporting cuff intervention. Our results indicate that many ICUs across Queensland routinely measure tracheal cuff function, with most utilising pressure monitoring devices. Consistent with existing literature, the optimum cuff pressure remains uncertain. Most, however, considered that this should be a routine part of ICU care.

  11. Literature review of baseline information to support the risk assessment of RNAi-based GM plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pačes, Jan; Nic, M.; Novotný, T.; Svoboda, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 1246E. ISSN 2397-8325 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : miRNA, , ,, , , * RNAi * siRNA * Dicer * Argonaute * dsRNA * off-targeting Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology

  12. THE FLAVOURS OF LITERATURE OR: HOW GASTRONOMY SUPPORTS ITSELF ON WAYS OF SAYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alzira Seixo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the relation between the concepts of savoir and saveur (savoir [to know] and saveur [savor, flavor] have the same root in Latin, addressed since the already classic The Pleasure of the Text, by Roland Barthes, this work comprises two reflexive movements: the first is about the way Lite­rature, and specially Portuguese Literature, represents Gastronomy, con­cerning authors such as Camilo Castelo Branco, Eça de Queirós, Vitorino Nemésio, José Saramago, and António Lobo Antunes; in the second, what is emphasized is the way how Gastronomy uses the word to make itself ex­plicit in terms that imply a knowledge that appeals to the “literariness”, i.e., to the insistence on the literary “flavor/ saveur”.

  13. Nutritional support for chronic myelogenous and other leukemias: a review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steriti, Ronald

    2002-10-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a slowly progressive disease characterized by the overproduction of granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils). A blood smear shows moderate elevations in white blood cell counts that may persist for years and be benign. Platelets are increased in number, although their function is impaired, resulting in symptoms of easy bleeding (purpura, swollen gums). Conventional medical treatment is a marrow transplant and alkylating agents, which are usually prescribed only during crisis. Several nutrients and botanicals have been studied for use in CML, including vitamin A and all-trans retinoic acid (Retin-A), vitamin D3, vitamin E, vitamin B12, indirubin (found in herbs including Indigofera tinctoria and Isatis tinctoria), and Curcuma longa. This article briefly reviews the scientific literature on the therapeutic use of these nutrients for CML.

  14. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Mathematics Manipulatives to Support Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Park, Jiyoon

    2018-01-01

    Manipulatives are considered a common tool for mathematics teaching and learning, for both students with and without disabilities. Yet, a systematic review of the current state of research regarding manipulatives for students with disabilities did not exist prior to this article. This manuscript presents a systematic review of the literature…

  15. Human Resource Management in Australian Registered Training Organisations: Literature Review and Discussion Starter. Support Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This project seeks to establish the current state of human resource management practice in RTOs in Australia. The project takes a strategic approach, particularly in the case study phase where the research will attempt to examine the links between human resource management and the strategy of the organisation. The results of the project will…

  16. Healthcare professional behaviour change using technological supports: A realist literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Keyworth

    2015-10-01

    Thirteen of the 19 (68% studies using computerised decision support showed positive effects; 8 of the 12 (67% studies using reminders alone showed positive effects. One of 3 (33% studies using diagnostic/risk assessment tools showed positive effects. Only two (4% of the fifty studies identified were informed by recognised behaviour change theories in the design of the intervention, both of which showed positive effects in changing professional behaviour. O

  17. An integrative literature review to examine the provision of self-management support following transient ischaemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Dorothy; Liddy, Clare

    2017-11-01

    To identify the types of self-management support that have been provided to persons with transient ischaemic attack and the evidence for the effectiveness of these programmes. Self-management is a key element for the effective management of chronic conditions. For persons with transient ischaemic attack, secondary stroke prevention is a recognised standard of care. Best practice guidelines indicate that persons who have experienced transient ischaemic attack should be supported to develop self-management skills. However, it is not clear how best to support the development of these skills. An integrative literature review was conducted. A search was conducted using Medline, Embase, HealthSTAR, CINAHL and PsycINFO. Published quantitative and qualitative studies, abstracts or dissertations describing the provision, experience or outcomes of self-management interventions for people with transient ischaemic attack, and published in English before March 2016, were included. Articles were selected and rated separately by two reviewers. The American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine Level of Evidence and Conduct Rating tools were used for rating. Interventions were described and compared, and evidence was presented using the traffic lighting system. Sixteen interventions representing a variety of group- and individual-based interventions were identified. Interventions differed in target population, content, structure, duration and outcomes. Only four interventions were specifically designed for persons with transient ischaemic attack. While evidence to support self-management interventions is promising, there is limited evidence to support any one intervention. However, one good-quality randomised controlled trial supports the provision of a group self-management programme for improving blood pressure control. There are numerous interventions to support self-management by persons with transient ischaemic attack. More research is needed to determine

  18. Categorization of psychoactive substances into "hard drugs" and "soft drugs": a critical review of terminology used in current scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Peter; Kosticova, Michaela; Pecenak, Jan; Turcek, Michal

    2017-11-01

    Precise terminology and definitions are important components of scientific language. Although the terms "hard drugs" and "soft drugs" are used widely by professionals, neither the International Classification of Diseases nor the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual classify psychoactive substances into the categories "hard" and "soft." To analyze the occurrence of the terms "hard drugs" and "soft drugs" in recent scientific literature and to establish the degree of consensus in labeling psychoactive substances as "hard" or "soft." A critical review of scientific papers listed in PubMed and Scopus between 2011 and 2015. Three hundred thirty-four articles were initially identified as potentially relevant for review, 132 of which were included in the final analysis. One hundred twenty-four articles used the term "hard drugs" and 84.7% provided examples of substances considered "hard." Forty-four articles used the term "soft drugs" and 90.9% provided examples of substances considered "soft." Citations of relevant articles supporting categorization as "hard" or "soft" were not given in 90% of the articles. The authors often provided no or only very sparse information on their reasons for considering specific drugs as "hard" or "soft." Although it initially appeared that there is substantial agreement as to which psychoactive substances should be regarded as "hard" and "soft," closer inspection shows that the dividing line is blurred without clear criteria for categorization. At this time, it remains uncertain whether these terms should persist in the scientific literature. We therefore recommend these terms should be avoided or, if used, be clearly and precisely defined.

  19. Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: A literature and data review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Urban; Münster, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat generation; energy recovery from waste represents an effective measure to reduce landfilling and avoid disposal emissions while simultaneously reducing the equivalent demand for primary energy supply. A key factor for obtaining the full synergetic benefits of this energy recovery is the presence of local heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed to establish and assess current and future EU (European Union) waste generation and management. Main conclusions are that more heat can be recovered from current Waste-to-Energy facilities operating at low average heat recovery efficiencies, that efficient incineration capacity is geographically concentrated, and that waste available for heat recovery in 2030 is equally determined by total generation volumes by this year as by future EU deployment levels of district heating. - Highlights: • European municipal solid waste time series data analysed from 1995 to 2012. • Review of modelling approaches to assess future European waste generation. • Weather corrected district heat data for EU Member States in 1995 and 2012. • Low average heat recovery efficiency in current European waste incineration. • Future heat recovery efficiencies as determinant as future generation volumes.

  20. Developing genomic knowledge bases and databases to support clinical management: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Vojtech; Sincan, Murat; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    Personalized medicine, the ability to tailor diagnostic and treatment decisions for individual patients, is seen as the evolution of modern medicine. We characterize here the informatics resources available today or envisioned in the near future that can support clinical interpretation of genomic test results. We assume a clinical sequencing scenario (germline whole-exome sequencing) in which a clinical specialist, such as an endocrinologist, needs to tailor patient management decisions within his or her specialty (targeted findings) but relies on a genetic counselor to interpret off-target incidental findings. We characterize the genomic input data and list various types of knowledge bases that provide genomic knowledge for generating clinical decision support. We highlight the need for patient-level databases with detailed lifelong phenotype content in addition to genotype data and provide a list of recommendations for personalized medicine knowledge bases and databases. We conclude that no single knowledge base can currently support all aspects of personalized recommendations and that consolidation of several current resources into larger, more dynamic and collaborative knowledge bases may offer a future path forward.

  1. Clinical decision support systems in hospital care using ubiquitous devices: Current issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Moqeem, Aasia A; Mirza, Farhaan; Lindén, Maria

    2017-11-01

    Supporting clinicians in decision making using advanced technologies has been an active research area in biomedical engineering during the past years. Among a wide range of ubiquitous systems, smartphone applications have been increasingly developed in healthcare settings to help clinicians as well as patients. Today, many smartphone applications, from basic data analysis to advanced patient monitoring, are available to clinicians and patients. Such applications are now increasingly integrating into healthcare for clinical decision support, and therefore, concerns around accuracy, stability, and dependency of these applications are rising. In addition, lack of attention to the clinicians' acceptability, as well as the low impact on the medical professionals' decision making, are posing more serious issues on the acceptability of smartphone applications. This article reviews smartphone-based decision support applications, focusing on hospital care settings and their overall impact of these applications on the wider clinical workflow. Additionally, key challenges and barriers of the current ubiquitous device-based healthcare applications are identified. Finally, this article addresses current challenges, future directions, and the adoption of mobile healthcare applications.

  2. Prosthetic Consideration in Implant-supported Prosthesis: A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowd, Manga Snigdha; Shankar, Thatapudi; Ranjan, Rajeev; Singh, Arpita

    2017-06-01

    Modern dentistry has changed tremendously with implant therapy. For the successful implant therapy, making a proper treatment plan considering both surgical and prosthetic part in mind is the key of success. Often practitioners tend to create a treatment plan overlooking the basic principles of prosthetic part. This present review has discussed various prosthetic consideration of implant-supported prosthesis. A step-by-step detailed prosthetic option with their indications has been discussed to help all dental implant practitioners in making of an optimal treatment plan for each case.

  3. Are Metals Emitted from Electronic Cigarettes a Reason for Health Concern? A Risk-Assessment Analysis of Currently Available Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have found that metals are emitted to the electronic cigarette (EC aerosol. However, the potential health impact of exposure to such metals has not been adequately defined. The purpose of this study was to perform a risk assessment analysis, evaluating the exposure of electronic cigarette (EC users to metal emissions based on findings from the published literature. Methods: Two studies were found in the literature, measuring metals emitted to the aerosol from 13 EC products. We estimated that users take on average 600 EC puffs per day, but we evaluated the daily exposure from 1200 puffs. Estimates of exposure were compared with the chronic Permissible Daily Exposure (PDE from inhalational medications defined by the U.S. Pharmacopeia (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel, the Minimal Risk Level (MRL defined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (manganese and the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (aluminum, barium, iron, tin, titanium, zinc and zirconium. Results: The average daily exposure from 13 EC products was 2.6 to 387 times lower than the safety cut-off point of PDEs, 325 times lower than the safety limit of MRL and 665 to 77,514 times lower than the safety cut-off point of RELs. Only one of the 13 products was found to result in exposure 10% higher than PDE for one metal (cadmium at the extreme daily use of 1200 puffs. Significant differences in emissions between products were observed. Conclusions: Based on currently available data, overall exposure to metals from EC use is not expected to be of significant health concern for smokers switching to EC use, but is an unnecessary source of exposure for never-smokers. Metal analysis should be expanded to more products and exposure can be further reduced through improvements in product quality and appropriate choice of materials.

  4. Multi-criteria decision making to support waste management: A critical review of current practices and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart Coelho, Lineker M; Lange, Liséte C; Coelho, Hosmanny Mg

    2017-01-01

    Solid waste management is a complex domain involving the interaction of several dimensions; thus, its analysis and control impose continuous challenges for decision makers. In this context, multi-criteria decision-making models have become important and convenient supporting tools for solid waste management because they can handle problems involving multiple dimensions and conflicting criteria. However, the selection of the multi-criteria decision-making method is a hard task since there are several multi-criteria decision-making approaches, each one with a large number of variants whose applicability depends on information availability and the aim of the study. Therefore, to support researchers and decision makers, the objectives of this article are to present a literature review of multi-criteria decision-making applications used in solid waste management, offer a critical assessment of the current practices, and provide suggestions for future works. A brief review of fundamental concepts on this topic is first provided, followed by the analysis of 260 articles related to the application of multi-criteria decision making in solid waste management. These studies were investigated in terms of the methodology, including specific steps such as normalisation, weighting, and sensitivity analysis. In addition, information related to waste type, the study objective, and aspects considered was recorded. From the articles analysed it is noted that studies using multi-criteria decision making in solid waste management are predominantly addressed to problems related to municipal solid waste involving facility location or management strategy.

  5. Eddy current and mechanical support of the wendelstein 7-X thermal shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, S. Y.; Nagel, M.; Schauer, F.

    2004-01-01

    The machine which equipped huge magnet such as fusion reactor must be in need of special care on the emergency process. Rapid drop down magnetic field generate noticeable induced current, eddy current, and it causes strong electromagnetic forces on mechanical structure. The Wendelstein 7-X consists with 5 pentagonal shaped modules, plasma vessel, and each module can be divided into two symmetric half modules. Each half-module is going to be covered by 20 pieces of plasma vessel thermal shield (PVTS). The subject of this calculation is to find appropriate support positions for PVTS which can withstand self-weight of PVTS and electromagnetic force during the emergency case within our design criterion. We report the calculation procedure and results with half-module of PVTS

  6. Study on practical of eddy current testing of core and core support graphite components in HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Ooka, Norikazu; Shindo, Yoshihisa; Kawae, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Motomitsu; Kambe, Mamoru; Takahashi, Masaaki; Ide, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    Core and core support graphite components in the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) are mainly made of nuclear-grade IG-110 and PGX graphites. Nondestructive inspection with Eddy Current Testing (ECT) is planned to be applied to these components. The method of ECT has been already established for metallic components, however, cannot be applied directly to the graphite ones, because the characteristics of graphite are quite different in micro-structure from those of metals. Therefore, ECT method and condition were studied for the application of the ECT to the graphite components. This paper describes the study on practical method and conditions of ECT for above mentioned graphite structures. (author)

  7. EPA Leadership on Science, Innovation, and Decision Support Tools for Addressing Current and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Alan D; Ferster, Aaron; Summers, Kevin

    2017-10-16

    When the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established nearly 50 years ago, the nation faced serious threats to its air, land, and water, which in turn impacted human health. These threats were effectively addressed by the creation of EPA (in 1970) and many subsequent landmark environmental legislations which in turn significantly reduced threats to the Nation's environment and public health. A key element of historic legislation is research aimed at dealing with current and future problems. Today we face national and global challenges that go beyond classic media-specific (air, land, water) environmental legislation and require an integrated paradigm of action and engagement based on (1) innovation based on science and technology, (2) stakeholder engagement and collaboration, and (3) public education and support. This three-pronged approach recognizes that current environmental problems, include social as well as physical and environmental factors, are best addressed through collaborative problem solving, the application of innovation in science and technology, and multiple stakeholder engagement. To achieve that goal, EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) is working directly with states and local communities to develop and apply a suite of accessible decision support tools (DST) that aim to improve environmental conditions, protect human health, enhance economic opportunity, and advance a resilient and sustainability society. This paper showcases joint EPA and state actions to develop tools and approaches that not only meet current environmental and public health challenges, but do so in a way that advances sustainable, healthy, and resilient communities well into the future. EPA's future plans should build on current work but aim to effectively respond to growing external pressures. Growing pressures from megatrends are a major challenge for the new Administration and for cities and states across the country. The recent hurricanes hitting

  8. Role of Motorcycle Running Lights in Reducing Motorcycle Crashes during Daytime; A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Seyed Rasoul; Hossayni, Seyed Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    In comparison to other transportation modes, riding motorcycle is prone to accidents. Motorcyclists are more exposed to physical injury than the car drivers. Many multi-vehicle motorcycles crashes occur, there is right-of- way violation takes place in which another vehicle turns in fronts of a motorcycle, or a sudden cross of path of an on-coming motorcycle. One main factor which leads to high rate of motorcycle crashes is lack of conspicuity of motorcycles by other road users especially during day time traffic. This paper highlights previous studies on the implementation of motorcycle DRLs, focusing on the efficacy of the DRLs to improve motorcycle conspicuity. This paper reviews the impacts of DRL by motorcyclists on multi-vehicle motorcycle crash. The three categories of effects of motorcycle DRLs were reviewed. All literature, supporting that operating headlights during daytime appears to be an influential and effective approach to reduce rate of collision by improving motorcycle’s conspicuity in traffic. The motorcycle DRLs managed to reduce about 4 to 20% of motorcycle crash risk. This paper also recommends that motorcycle DRLs must be used globally, especially in countries with high motorcycle accidents to improve the safety of the riders as well as their pillion riders. PMID:27162907

  9. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Gunalp; Mutluoglu, Mesut; Ersen, Omer; Yildiz, Senol

    2016-01-01

    To review the current literature on the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy in the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). We searched PubMed, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), EMBASE, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL and MEDLINE through April 2015. We hand-searched relevant textbooks, conference proceedings and the reference lists of review articles and clinical studies Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies (cohort study, case-control study, case series) that reported the outcome of patients who received HBO₂therapy for ONFH were included. Only English-language articles were included. Study quality was not used as an exclusion criterion. Two authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and presented to other authors. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. We identified eight clinical studies; two randomized controlled trials (RCTs); one historically controlled study; and five case series. The majority of the studies were small-scale, heterogeneous and methodologically weak. In four of the studies HBO₂therapy was combined with other treatment modalities, making it impossible to draw firm conclusions on the specific effects of HBO₂therapy. Hip survivorship in studies wherein HBO₂therapy was used alone was 95.5% in Steinberg Stage I lesions, 89% in Steinberg Stage II lesions and 100% in Ficat Stage II lesions. There is a room for HBO₂therapy in the management ONFH. Further RCTs, however, are required to better elucidate the role of HBO₂therapy in the treatment of ONFH.

  10. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of vulvovaginitis in girls: a current approach and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyitler, İlke; Kavukcu, Salih

    2017-04-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause of gynecological complaints in children and young girls. Some of the factors which cause vulvovaginitis include hypoestrogenism, the anatomical proximity of rectum and delicate vulvar skin and vaginal mucosa. We made a literature search with Pubmed, Medline and Cochrane database from January 2002 to May 2015 in English language using the key words vulvovaginitis, children, clinical, diagnosis and treatment. Vulvovaginitis in girls is usually caused by non-specific factors and hygiene measures, bioyoghurt and avoidance of chemical irritants are generally useful. Weight control if necessary and prevention of voiding dysfunction are effective. Vaginal flora is important in girls and results should be interpreted with clinical features to decide whether an isolated microorganism is part of the normal microflora or is the cause of symptomatic vulvovaginitis. Specific treatment is generally considered in case of a detected pathogen microorganism. Isolation of a sexually transmitted organism requires further investigation. Persistent disease may not always indicate a foreign body but it must be taken into account. Girls and parents are encouraged psychologically in all steps of evaluation, diagnosis and treatment. Probiotics, nanotechnology and petroleum jelly are other important treatment options used in vulvovaginitis. In this review, we present current approach to the presentation and management of vulvovaginitis in childhood. This disorder requires a comprehensive evaluation in all steps of diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Identifying Measures Used for Assessing Quality of YouTube Videos with Patient Health Information: A Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron, Elia; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Armayones, Manuel; Lau, Annie Ys

    2013-02-28

    Recent publications on YouTube have advocated its potential for patient education. However, a reliable description of what could be considered quality information for patient education on YouTube is missing. To identify topics associated with the concept of quality information for patient education on YouTube in the scientific literature. A literature review was performed in MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and PsychINFO. Abstract selection was first conducted by two independent reviewers; discrepancies were discussed in a second abstract review with two additional independent reviewers. Full text of selected papers were analyzed looking for concepts, definitions, and topics used by its authors that focused on the quality of information on YouTube for patient education. In total, 456 abstracts were extracted and 13 papers meeting eligibility criteria were analyzed. Concepts identified related to quality of information for patient education are categorized as expert-driven, popularity-driven, or heuristic-driven measures. These include (in descending order): (1) quality of content in 10/13 (77%), (2) view count in 9/13 (69%), (3) health professional opinion in 8/13 (62%), (4) adequate length or duration in 6/13 (46%), (5) public ratings in 5/13 (39%), (6) adequate title, tags, and description in 5/13 (39%), (7) good description or a comprehensive narrative in 4/13 (31%), (8) evidence-based practices included in video in 4/13 (31%), (9) suitability as a teaching tool in 4/13 (31%), (10) technical quality in 4/13 (31%), (11) credentials provided in video in 4/13 (31%), (12) enough amount of content to identify its objective in 3/13 (23%), and (13) viewership share in 2/13 (15%). Our review confirms that the current topics linked to quality of information for patient education on YouTube are unclear and not standardized. Although expert-driven, popularity-driven, or heuristic-driven measures are used as proxies to estimate the quality of video information

  12. Concepts and definitions for "supportive care," "best supportive care," "palliative care," and "hospice care" in the published literature, dictionaries, and textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, David; De La Cruz, Maxine; Mori, Masanori; Parsons, Henrique A; Kwon, Jung Hye; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Kim, Sun Hyun; Dev, Rony; Hutchins, Ronald; Liem, Christiana; Kang, Duck-Hee; Bruera, Eduardo

    2013-03-01

    Commonly used terms such as "supportive care," "best supportive care," "palliative care," and "hospice care" were rarely and inconsistently defined in the palliative oncology literature. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to further identify concepts and definitions for these terms. We searched MEDLINE, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and CINAHL for published peer-reviewed articles from 1948 to 2011 that conceptualized, defined, or examined these terms. Two researchers independently reviewed each citation for inclusion and then extracted the concepts/definitions when available. Dictionaries/textbooks were also searched. Nine of 32 "SC/BSC," 25 of 182 "PC," and 12 of 42 "HC" articles focused on providing a conceptual framework/definition. Common concepts for all three terms were symptom control and quality-of-life for patients with life-limiting illness. "SC" focused more on patients on active treatment compared to other categories (9/9 vs. 8/37) and less often involved interdisciplinary care (4/9 vs. 31/37). In contrast, "HC" focused more on volunteers (6/12 vs. 6/34), bereavement care (9/12 vs. 7/34), and community care (9/12 vs. 6/34). Both "PC" and "SC/BSC" were applicable earlier in the disease trajectory (16/34 vs. 0/9). We found 13, 24, and 17 different definitions for "SC/BSC," "PC," and "HC," respectively. "SC/BSC" was the most variably defined, ranging from symptom management during cancer therapy to survivorship care. Dictionaries/textbooks showed similar findings. We identified defining concepts for "SC/BSC," "PC," and "HC" and developed a preliminary conceptual framework unifying these terms along the continuum of care to help build consensus toward standardized definitions.

  13. Peer-led training and assessment in basic life support for healthcare students: synthesis of literature review and fifteen years practical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P R; Higenbottam, C V; Owen, A; Hulme, J; Bion, J F

    2012-07-01

    In 1995, the University of Birmingham, UK, School of Medicine and Dentistry replaced lecture-based basic life support (BLS) teaching with a peer-led, practical programme. We present our 15-yr experience of peer-led healthcare undergraduate training and examination with a literature review. A literature review of healthcare undergraduate peer-led practical skills teaching was performed though Pubmed. The development of the Birmingham course is described, from its inception in 1995-2011. Training methods include peer-led training and assessment by senior students who complete an European Resuscitation Council-endorsed instructor course. Student assessors additionally undergo training in assessment and communication skills. The course has been developed by parallel research evaluation and peer-reviewed publication. Course administration is by an experienced student committee with senior clinician support. Anonymous feedback from the most recent courses and the current annual pass rates are reported. The literature review identified 369 publications of which 28 met our criteria for inclusion. Largely descriptive, these are highly positive about peer involvement in practical skills teaching using similar, albeit smaller, courses to that described below. Currently approximately 600 first year healthcare undergraduates complete the Birmingham course; participant numbers increase annually. Successful completion is mandatory for students to proceed to the second year of studies. First attempt pass rate is 86%, and close to 100% (565/566 students, 99.8%) following re-assessment the same day. 97% of participants enjoyed the course, 99% preferred peer-tutors to clinicians, 99% perceived teaching quality as "good" or "excellent", and felt they had sufficient practice. Course organisation was rated "good" or "excellent" by 91%. Each year 3-4 student projects have been published or presented internationally. The annual cost of providing the course is currently £15,594.70 (Eur 18

  14. Parenthood, information and support on the internet. A literature review of research on parents and professionals online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daneback Kristian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this article was to address questions on how parents use the internet to find information and support regarding children, health and family life. Another aim was to find out how professionals use the internet to provide support and information to parents. This was done by a literature review. Methods Articles were searched for in five databases with a search strategy called "building block" approach. Results The review showed that the majority of today's parents search for both information and social support on the internet. However, there are considerable differences due to gender, age and socio-economic differences. First time middle class mothers aged 30–35 are most active in looking up health and parent information on the internet. In the same time, several studies report diminishing class differences on parent web sites. An important reason to the increasing number of parents who turn to the internet for information and interaction has shown to be the weakened support many of today's parents experience from their own parents, relatives and friends. Professionals have recognized the parents' great interest for going online and offer both information and support on the net. Conclusion Many benefits are reported, for example the possibility to reach out to a wider audience and to increase access to organisations without an increase in costs. Other benefits include the possibility for parents to remain anonymous in their contacts with professionals and that parents' perceived need for information can be effectively met around the clock. Interventions for wider groups of parents, such as parent training on the net, are still very rare and more research is needed to evaluate different types of interventions on the net. However, most studies were empirical and lacked theoretical frameworks which leave questions on how we can more fully understand this phenomenon unanswered.

  15. Newborn screening for proximal urea cycle disorders: Current evidence supporting recommendations for newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, J Lawrence; Brody, Linnea L; Pino, Gisele; Rinaldo, Piero

    2018-04-20

    Current newborn screening (NBS) for urea cycle disorders (UCD) is incomplete as only distal UCDs are included in most NBS programs by measuring elevated amino acid concentrations. NBS for the proximal UCDs involves the detection in NBS spots of low citrulline values, a finding which is often overlooked because it is considered to be inadequate. We retrospectively analyzed NBS blood spots from known UCD patients comparing the utility of the Region 4 Stork (R4S) interpretive tools to conventional cutoff based interpretation. This study shows the utility of R4S tools in detecting all UCDs, and provides evidence to support the nomination to add proximal UCDs to the recommended uniform screening panel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Social, Organizational, and Contextual Characteristics of Clinical Decision Support Systems for Intensive Insulin Therapy: A Literature Review and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Thomas R.; Waitman, Lemuel R.; May, Addison K.; Ozdas, Asli; Lorenzi, Nancy M.; Gadd, Cynthia S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluations of computerized clinical decision support systems (CDSS) typically focus on clinical performance changes and do not include social, organizational, and contextual characteristics explaining use and effectiveness. Studies of CDSS for intensive insulin therapy (IIT) are no exception, and the literature lacks an understanding of effective computer-based IIT implementation and operation. Results: This paper presents (1) a literature review of computer-based IIT evaluations through the lens of institutional theory, a discipline from sociology and organization studies, to demonstrate the inconsistent reporting of workflow and care process execution and (2) a single-site case study to illustrate how computer-based IIT requires substantial organizational change and creates additional complexity with unintended consequences including error. Discussion: Computer-based IIT requires organizational commitment and attention to site-specific technology, workflow, and care processes to achieve intensive insulin therapy goals. The complex interaction between clinicians, blood glucose testing devices, and CDSS may contribute to workflow inefficiency and error. Evaluations rarely focus on the perspective of nurses, the primary users of computer-based IIT whose knowledge can potentially lead to process and care improvements. Conclusion: This paper addresses a gap in the literature concerning the social, organizational, and contextual characteristics of CDSS in general and for intensive insulin therapy specifically. Additionally, this paper identifies areas for future research to define optimal computer-based IIT process execution: the frequency and effect of manual data entry error of blood glucose values, the frequency and effect of nurse overrides of CDSS insulin dosing recommendations, and comprehensive ethnographic study of CDSS for IIT. PMID:19815452

  17. Social, organizational, and contextual characteristics of clinical decision support systems for intensive insulin therapy: a literature review and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Thomas R; Waitman, Lemuel R; May, Addison K; Ozdas, Asli; Lorenzi, Nancy M; Gadd, Cynthia S

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of computerized clinical decision support systems (CDSS) typically focus on clinical performance changes and do not include social, organizational, and contextual characteristics explaining use and effectiveness. Studies of CDSS for intensive insulin therapy (IIT) are no exception, and the literature lacks an understanding of effective computer-based IIT implementation and operation. This paper presents (1) a literature review of computer-based IIT evaluations through the lens of institutional theory, a discipline from sociology and organization studies, to demonstrate the inconsistent reporting of workflow and care process execution and (2) a single-site case study to illustrate how computer-based IIT requires substantial organizational change and creates additional complexity with unintended consequences including error. Computer-based IIT requires organizational commitment and attention to site-specific technology, workflow, and care processes to achieve intensive insulin therapy goals. The complex interaction between clinicians, blood glucose testing devices, and CDSS may contribute to workflow inefficiency and error. Evaluations rarely focus on the perspective of nurses, the primary users of computer-based IIT whose knowledge can potentially lead to process and care improvements. This paper addresses a gap in the literature concerning the social, organizational, and contextual characteristics of CDSS in general and for intensive insulin therapy specifically. Additionally, this paper identifies areas for future research to define optimal computer-based IIT process execution: the frequency and effect of manual data entry error of blood glucose values, the frequency and effect of nurse overrides of CDSS insulin dosing recommendations, and comprehensive ethnographic study of CDSS for IIT. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Current evidence does not support the use of Kinesio Taping in clinical practice: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia do Carmo Silva Parreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Questions: Is Kinesio Taping more effective than a sham taping/placebo, no treatment or other interventions in people with musculoskeletal conditions? Is the addition of Kinesio Taping to other interventions more effective than other interventions alone in people with musculoskeletal conditions? Design: Systematic review of randomised trials. Participants: People with musculoskeletal conditions. Intervention: Kinesio Taping was compared with sham taping/placebo, no treatment, exercises, manual therapy and conventional physiotherapy. Outcome measures: Pain intensity, disability, quality of life, return to work, and global impression of recovery. Results: Twelve randomised trials involving 495 participants were included in the review. The effectiveness of the Kinesio Taping was tested in participants with: shoulder pain in two trials; knee pain in three trials; chronic low back pain in two trials; neck pain in three trials; plantar fasciitis in one trial; and multiple musculoskeletal conditions in one trial. The methodological quality of eligible trials was moderate, with a mean of 6.1 points on the 10-point PEDro Scale score. Overall, Kinesio Taping was no better than sham taping/placebo and active comparison groups. In all comparisons where Kinesio Taping was better than an active or a sham control group, the effect sizes were small and probably not clinically significant or the trials were of low quality. Conclusion: This review provides the most updated evidence on the effectiveness of the Kinesio Taping for musculoskeletal conditions. The current evidence does not support the use of this intervention in these clinical populations. PROSPERO registration: CRD42012003436. [Parreira PdCS, Costa LdCM, Hespanhol Junior LC, Lopes AD, Costa LOP (2014 Current evidence does not support the use of Kinesio Taping in clinical practice: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 31–39

  19. Depression and Anxiety During Pregnancy: Evaluating the Literature in Support of Clinical Risk-Benefit Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalke, Katharine Baratz; Wenzel, Amy; Kim, Deborah R

    2016-06-01

    Depression and anxiety during pregnancy are common, and patients and providers are faced with complex decisions regarding various treatment modalities. A structured discussion of the risks and benefits of options with the patient and her support team is recommended to facilitate the decision-making process. This clinically focused review, with emphasis on the last 3 years of published study data, evaluates the major risk categories of medication treatments, namely pregnancy loss, physical malformations, growth impairment, behavioral teratogenicity, and neonatal toxicity. Nonpharmacological treatment options, including neuromodulation and psychotherapy, are also briefly reviewed. Specific recommendations, drawn from the literature and the authors' clinical experience, are also offered to help guide the clinician in decision-making.

  20. Support time-dependent transformations for surveying and GIS : current status and upcoming challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudabadi, H.; Lercier, D.; Vielliard, S.; Mein, N.; Briggs, G.

    2016-12-01

    The support of time-dependent transformations for surveying and GIS is becoming a critical issue. We need to convert positions from the realizations of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame to any national reference frame. This problem is easy to solve when all of the required information is available. But it becomes really complicated in a worldwide context. We propose an overview of the current ITRF-aligned reference frames and we describe a global solution to support time-dependent transformations between them and the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. We focus on the uncertainties of station velocities used. In a first approximation, we use a global tectonic plate model to calculate point velocities. We show the impact of the velocity model on the coordinate accuracies. Several countries, particularly in active regions, are developing semi-dynamic reference frames. These frames include local displacement models updated regularly and/or after major events (such as earthquakes). Their integration into surveying or GIS applications is an upcoming challenge. We want to encourage the geodetic community to develop and use standard formats.

  1. PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE CURRENT CONTEXT: PRELIMINARY REMARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana-Lacramioara TINCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union appears, in the context of a conceptual and transformational change, in the shape of a fluid structure that is continuously shaped by a wide variety of factors. Under the current redefining process, the present article pursues the amplitude of the social force in the Union’s configuration. The EU can be currently viewed as a reality found at crossroads, due to a growing fragility of public support for integration and the increasing contestation of the EU through the amplification of Eurosceptic attitudes and the rising popularity of the populist-nationalist parties. In the conditions of a populism-terrorism-migration triad that is threatening the European integration project, this article represents an attempt to provide a preliminary insight on the forces that shape the configuration of this supranational structure, with regard to the factors that are accountable for the growing scepticism among the European citizens and have shifted the citizens’ approach on the EU from a permissive consensus to a constraining dissensus.

  2. Technical support to the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) demonstration projects: assessment of current research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M.S.; Rodgers, B.R.; Brown, C.H.; Carlson, P.K.; Gambill, W.R.; Gilliam, T.M.; Holmes, J.M.; Krishnan, R.P.; Parsly, L.F.

    1980-12-01

    A program to demonstrate Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) technology has been initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with two industrial groups. Project management responsibility has been assigned to the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) of DOE. ORO requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory assess current research and development (R and D) activities and develop recommendations for those activities that might contribute to successful completion of the SRC demonstration plant projects. The objectives of this final report are to discuss in detail the problem areas in SRC; to discuss the current and planned R and D investigations relevant to the problems identified; and to suggest appropriate R and D activities in support of designs for the SRC demonstration plants. Four types of R and D activities are suggested: continuation of present and planned activities; coordination of activities and results, present and proposed; extension/redirection of activities not involving major equipment purchase or modifications; and new activities. Important examples of the first type of activity include continuation of fired heater, slurry rheology, and slurry mixing studies at Ft. Lewis. Among the second type of activity, coordination of data acquisition and interpretation is recommended in the areas of heat transfer, vapor/liquid equilibria, and physical properties. Principal examples of recommendations for extension/redirection include screening studies at laboratory scale on the use of carbonaceous precoat (e.g., anthracite) infiltration, and 15- to 30-day continuous tests of the Texaco gasifier at the Texaco Montebello facility (using SRC residues).

  3. Audiologia do envelhecimento: revisão da literatura e perspectivas atuais Audiology and aging: literature review and current horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Peixoto Veras

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar a literatura sobre a perda auditiva associada ao envelhecimento e suas implicações, numa perspectiva atual. REVISÃO DA LITERATURA: Nos estudos realizados no Brasil, a presbiacusia vem sendo apontada como causa mais freqüente da deficiência auditiva em pessoas idosas, implicando em uma dificuldade de compreensão durante a comunicação verbal. Estudos internacionais também mostram alta prevalência da perda auditiva em pessoas idosas. DISCUSSÃO: Segundo pesquisas recentes, à medida que o quantitativo da população idosa vem aumentando, também aumenta a prevalência da presbiacusia que interfere na qualidade de vida do idoso. Mesmo entre os profissionais de saúde, ainda é grande o desconhecimento em relação às vantagens e ganhos que a reeducação auditiva específica para idosos com perda auditiva pode oferecer. CONCLUSÃO: Os artigos aqui analisados mostraram que os serviços de saúde da rede pública, que envolvem médicos e fonoaudiólogos, devem estabelecer diretrizes para o desenvolvimento de programas de diagnóstico, aquisição de aparelhos de amplificação sonora individual e, principalmente, de reeducação auditiva para os idosos portadores de presbiacusia, para que eles possam participar e desfrutar das relações sociais, mantendo uma boa qualidade de vida. Entretanto, no Brasil, os estudos e pesquisas nesta área estão apenas começando.AIM: to review the literature on aging-related hearing loss and its current impacts. LITERATURE REVIEW: In studies carried out in Brazil, presbycusis has been blamed for being the most frequent cause of hearing loss in the elderly, causing verbal communication impairment. International studies also show the high prevalence of hearing loss in the elderly. DISCUSSION: According to recent investigations, as the number of elderly people increase, the prevalence of presbycusis interfering in the life quality of this population also increases. Even among health care

  4. Features of Mobile Diabetes Applications: Review of the Literature and Analysis of Current Applications Compared Against Evidence-Based Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Årsand, Eirik; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    = 101) were (1) insulin and medication recording, 63 (62%), (2) data export and communication, 61 (60%), (3) diet recording, 47 (47%), and (4) weight management, 43 (43%). From the literature search (n = 26), the most prevalent features were (1) PHR or Web server synchronization, 18 (69%), (2) insulin and medication recording, 17 (65%), (3) diet recording, 17 (65%), and (4) data export and communication, 16 (62%). Interestingly, although clinical guidelines widely refer to the importance of education, this is missing from the top functionalities in both cases. Conclusions While a wide selection of mobile applications seems to be available for people with diabetes, this study shows there are obvious gaps between the evidence-based recommendations and the functionality used in study interventions or found in online markets. Current results confirm personalized education as an underrepresented feature in diabetes mobile applications. We found no studies evaluating social media concepts in diabetes self-management on mobile devices, and its potential remains largely unexplored. PMID:21979293

  5. Implant and root supported overdentures - a literature review and some data on bone loss in edentulous jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2014-08-01

    To present a literature review on implant overdentures after a brief survey of bone loss after extraction of all teeth. Papers on alveolar bone loss and implant overdentures have been studied for a narrative review. Bone loss of the alveolar process after tooth extraction occurs with great individual variation, impossible to predict at the time of extraction. The simplest way to prevent bone loss is to avoid extraction of all teeth. To keep a few teeth and use them or their roots for a tooth or root-supported overdenture substantially reduces bone loss. Jaws with implant-supported prostheses show less bone loss than jaws with conventional dentures. Mandibular 2-implant overdentures provide patients with better outcomes than do conventional dentures, regarding satisfaction, chewing ability and oral-health-related quality of life. There is no strong evidence for the superiority of one overdenture retention-system over the others regarding patient satisfaction, survival, peri-implant bone loss and relevant clinical factors. Mandibular single midline implant overdentures have shown promising results but long-term results are not yet available. For a maxillary overdenture 4 to 6 implants splinted with a bar provide high survival both for implants and overdenture. In edentulous mandibles, 2-implant overdentures provide excellent long-term success and survival, including patient satisfaction and improved oral functions. To further reduce the costs a single midline implant overdenture can be a promising option. In the maxilla, overdentures supported on 4 to 6 implants splinted with a bar have demonstrated good functional results.

  6. Understanding persuasion contexts in health gamification: A systematic analysis of gamified health behavior change support systems literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahäivälä, Tuomas; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2016-12-01

    Gamification is increasingly used as a design strategy when developing behavior change support systems in the healthcare domain. It is commonly agreed that understanding the contextual factors is critical for successful gamification, but systematic analyses of the persuasive contexts have been lacking so far within gamified health intervention studies. Through a persuasion context analysis of the gamified health behavior change support systems (hBCSSs) literature, we inspect how the contextual factors have been addressed in the prior gamified health BCSS studies. The implications of this study are to provide the practitioners and researchers examples of how to conduct a systematic analysis to help guide the design and research on gamified health BCSSs. The ideas derived from the analysis of the included studies will help identify potential pitfalls and shortcomings in both the research and implementations of gamified health behavior change support systems. We systematically analyzed the persuasion contexts of 15 gamified health intervention studies. According to our results, gamified hBCSSs are implemented under different facets of lifestyle change and treatments compliance, and use a multitude of technologies and methods. We present a set of ideas and concepts to help improve endeavors in studying gamified health intervention through comprehensive understanding of the persuasive contextual factors. Future research on gamified hBCSSs should systematically compare the different combinations of contextual factors, related theories, chosen gamification strategies, and the study of outcomes to help understand how to achieve the most efficient use of gamification on the different aspects of healthcare. Analyzing the persuasion context is essential to achieve this. With the attained knowledge, those planning health interventions can choose the 'tried-and-tested' approaches for each particular situation, rather than develop solutions in an ad-hoc manner. Copyright © 2016

  7. Implant and root supported overdentures - a literature review and some data on bone loss in edentulous jaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To present a literature review on implant overdentures after a brief survey of bone loss after extraction of all teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS Papers on alveolar bone loss and implant overdentures have been studied for a narrative review. RESULTS Bone loss of the alveolar process after tooth extraction occurs with great individual variation, impossible to predict at the time of extraction. The simplest way to prevent bone loss is to avoid extraction of all teeth. To keep a few teeth and use them or their roots for a tooth or root-supported overdenture substantially reduces bone loss. Jaws with implant-supported prostheses show less bone loss than jaws with conventional dentures. Mandibular 2-implant overdentures provide patients with better outcomes than do conventional dentures, regarding satisfaction, chewing ability and oral-health-related quality of life. There is no strong evidence for the superiority of one overdenture retention-system over the others regarding patient satisfaction, survival, peri-implant bone loss and relevant clinical factors. Mandibular single midline implant overdentures have shown promising results but long-term results are not yet available. For a maxillary overdenture 4 to 6 implants splinted with a bar provide high survival both for implants and overdenture. CONCLUSION In edentulous mandibles, 2-implant overdentures provide excellent long-term success and survival, including patient satisfaction and improved oral functions. To further reduce the costs a single midline implant overdenture can be a promising option. In the maxilla, overdentures supported on 4 to 6 implants splinted with a bar have demonstrated good functional results. PMID:25177466

  8. Determinants of a successful problem list to support the implementation of the problem-oriented medical record according to recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sereh M J; Cillessen, Felix H J M; Hazelzet, Jan A

    2016-08-02

    A problem-oriented approach is one of the possibilities to organize a medical record. The problem-oriented medical record (POMR) - a structured organization of patient information per presented medical problem- was introduced at the end of the sixties by Dr. Lawrence Weed to aid dealing with the multiplicity of patient problems. The problem list as a precondition is the centerpiece of the problem-oriented medical record (POMR) also called problem-oriented record (POR). Prior to the digital era, paper records presented a flat list of medical problems to the healthcare professional without the features that are possible with current technology. In modern EHRs a POMR based on a structured problem list can be used for clinical decision support, registries, order management, population health, and potentially other innovative functionality in the future, thereby providing a new incentive to the implementation and use of the POMR. On both 12 May 2014 and 1 June 2015 a systematic literature search was conducted. From the retrieved articles statements regarding the POMR and related to successful or non-successful implementation, were categorized. Generic determinants were extracted from these statements. In this research 38 articles were included. The literature analysis led to 12 generic determinants: clinical practice/reasoning, complete and accurate problem list, data structure/content, efficiency, functionality, interoperability, multi-disciplinary, overview of patient information, quality of care, system support, training of staff, and usability. Two main subjects can be distinguished in the determinants: the system that the problem list and POMR is integrated in and the organization using that system. The combination of the two requires a sociotechnical approach and both are equally important for successful implementation of a POMR. All the determinants have to be taken into account, but the weight given to each of the determinants depends on the organizationusing

  9. Current experience with support schemes for RES-E in Europe. A regulatory point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, Ursula

    2006-01-01

    The need to reduce the dependence of the European economy on imported primary energy and the impact of fossil fuels on the environment has encouraged countries to increase the share of renewable energy sources (RES) for electricity supply. EU Directive 2001/77/EC requires EU Member States to take appropriate steps to introduce new incentive mechanisms in order to reach the target of generating 21 % of the electricity in the EU from RES. At the same time EU Directive 2003/54/EC takes significant steps towards establishing a single market in electricity across the EU. Under this directive, European energy regulators have a number of responsibilities. These include the avoidance of discrimination and the promotion of effective competition along with an efficient functioning of the market. One of their main tasks is to ensure that European consumers pay a final electricity price that is as cost reflective as possible. The final price shall also reflect the social and the environmental costs. At the current stage it is not unlikely that the promotion of renewable energy sources will create significant barriers and distortions on the liberalized electricity market. Several issues arising from the implementation of renewable incentive schemes and policies can be identified and are analysed below; - Conflicting targets on EU-Level; - The variation in the level of incentives may be greater among Member States than is justified by the real level of technology costs, or other factors; - Unbalanced burden sharing for final consumers, due to different allocation mechanisms and designs of support schemes; -The regulation and charges for relevant items of the electricity chain, such as connection and balancing costs, vary significantly among Member States and may introduce competitive advantages. The contents of the paper is as follows: 1 Background; 2 Conflicting targets on EU-Level; 3 Different support levels; 4 Unbalanced burden sharing of final customers; 5 Allocation of

  10. Women’s experiences of personalised support for asthma care during pregnancy: A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham R. Williamson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and pregnancy are both sources of anxiety for women. Although there has been a focus on physiological management of asthma and pregnancy, there has been little research on the impact that personalised support can have on asthma care during pregnancy. This systematic review and narrative synthesis of the literature set out to answer the question ‘What are women’s experiences of asthma care, its management and education, during pregnancy?’ Methods This systematic review was carried out using accepted methodology from the York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Electronic database searches were conducted using PsycInfo, CINAHL, MedLine, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library, using the combination search terms: ‘Asthma’ AND ‘Pregnancy’ AND ‘Care’ AND (‘Education OR Information OR Experience’. Hand searching of journals and searches for grey literature were also undertaken. Independent quality appraisal by the three authors took place using the criteria detailed by Kmet et al. (Standard Quality Assessment Criteria for Evaluating Primary Research Papers from a Variety of Fields, 2004. Results All papers scoring in excess of 60% were deemed to be of adequate quality for inclusion, of which there were five: two qualitative designs and three quantitative designs. The designs were too methodologically heterogeneous to permit statistical meta-analysis so narrative review and synthesis was undertaken. Despite an embryonic evidence bases, it is reasonable to conclude that personalised care has beneficial outcomes for pregnant asthmatic women. Conclusions Larger randomised controlled trials investigating personalised care are required to build an evidence base which can establish the efficacy of such interventions.

  11. Eddy current characterization of small cracks using least square support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelabi, M.; Hacib, T.; Le Bihan, Y.; Ikhlef, N.; Boughedda, H.; Mekideche, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    Eddy current (EC) sensors are used for non-destructive testing since they are able to probe conductive materials. Despite being a conventional technique for defect detection and localization, the main weakness of this technique is that defect characterization, of the exact determination of the shape and dimension, is still a question to be answered. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of small crack sizing using signals acquired from an EC sensor. We report our effort to develop a systematic approach to estimate the size of rectangular and thin defects (length and depth) in a conductive plate. The achieved approach by the novel combination of a finite element method (FEM) with a statistical learning method is called least square support vector machines (LS-SVM). First, we use the FEM to design the forward problem. Next, an algorithm is used to find an adaptive database. Finally, the LS-SVM is used to solve the inverse problems, creating polynomial functions able to approximate the correlation between the crack dimension and the signal picked up from the EC sensor. Several methods are used to find the parameters of the LS-SVM. In this study, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) are proposed for tuning the LS-SVM. The results of the design and the inversions were compared to both simulated and experimental data, with accuracy experimentally verified. These suggested results prove the applicability of the presented approach.

  12. The supportive roles of religion and spirituality in end-of-life and palliative care of patients with cancer in a culturally diverse context: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sierra, Héctor E; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Jesús

    2015-03-01

    This is a literature review of the supportive roles of religion and spirituality (R/S) in end-of-life (EoL) and palliative care of patients with cancer in a culturally diverse context. This review examines 26 noteworthy articles published between August 2013 and August 2014 from five well supported databases. Current evidence shows that R/S evokes in patients the sources to find the necessary inner strengths, which includes perspective thinking, rituals for transcending immediate physical condition and modalities of coping with their oncological illnesses. R/S are not a monolithically experience for they always manifest themselves in diverse cultural settings. As such, R/S provide the individual and their families with a practical context and social memory, which includes traditions and social family practices for maintaining meaning and well-being. Nonetheless, although various dimensions of R/S show a link between cancer risk factors and well being in cancer patients, more specific dimensions of R/S need to be studied taking into account the individuals' particular religious and cultural contexts, so that R/S variables within that context can provide a greater integrative structure for understanding and to move the field forward. Behavioral, cognitive and psychosocial scientists have taken a more in-depth look at the claims made in the past, suggesting that a relationship between R/S, cultural diversity and health exists. Case in point are the studies on EoL care, which have progressively considered the role of cultural, religion and spiritual diversity in the care of patients with oncological terminal illnesses. Beyond these facts, this review also shows that EoL supportive and palliative care providers could further enhance their practical interventions by being sensitive and supportive of cultural diversity. http://links.lww.com/COSPC/A10

  13. A Futures Orientation in the Australian Curriculum: Current Levels of Teacher Interest, Activity and Support in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Mark; Bruce, Neville

    2014-01-01

    The soon to be implemented Australian Curriculum aims to integrate a futures orientation across subject areas. Guidelines and support for this specific initiative are being finalized. Only a little is known about the current teaching of a futures orientation or of secondary teacher interest, understanding and support for this important but…

  14. Development of alternating current circuit simulation as essential learning support for senior high school student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayang Dwinta Trisniarti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study an interactive simulation of Alternating Current circuit was developed by using Articulate Storyline 2 and Adobe Flash CS 6 programs. The aim of this study was providing a computer interactive simulation as essential learning support for Senior High School student. One of the most important features of AC circuit simulation is the easily and continuous material to attain learning objectivity and interest toward students. This AC circuit simulation is built to create real-time sine wave graphs so that student could compare the result if the variable were changed gradually. The validation is held through several experts and reviewers due to get obtained through questionnaires. The results of this research could be concluded that AC circuit simulation for Senior High School Physics have good criteria based on user interface, i.e. 50% of respondents rated enough, 16.67% of respondents rated good, and 33.33% of respondents rated very good. Based on maintenance, i.e. 50% of respondents rated enough, 20% of respondents rated good, and 30% of respondents rated very good. Then based on usability, i.e. 6.67% of respondents rated good and 93.33% rated very good. Furthermore, based on understanding, i.e. 6.67% of respondents rated enough, 30% of respondents rated good, and 73.33% of respondents rated very good. The use of AC circuit simulation could improve the senior high school students’ cognitive ability on the Physics’s course, i.e. with the average score increased from 68.67 to 80.5 based on 30 students.

  15. The impact of clinical trial monitoring approaches on data integrity and cost--a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Rasmus; Bihlet, Asger Reinstrup; Kalakou, Faidra; Andersen, Jeppe Ragnar

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring is a costly requirement when conducting clinical trials. New regulatory guidance encourages the industry to consider alternative monitoring methods to the traditional 100 % source data verification (SDV) approach. The purpose of this literature review is to provide an overview of publications on different monitoring methods and their impact on subject safety data, data integrity, and monitoring cost. The literature search was performed by keyword searches in MEDLINE and hand search of key journals. All publications were reviewed for details on how a monitoring approach impacted subject safety data, data integrity, or monitoring costs. Twenty-two publications were identified. Three publications showed that SDV has some value for detection of not initially reported adverse events and centralized statistical monitoring (CSM) captures atypical trends. Fourteen publications showed little objective evidence of improved data integrity with traditional monitoring such as 100 % SDV and sponsor queries as compared to reduced SDV, CSM, and remote monitoring. Eight publications proposed a potential for significant cost reductions of monitoring by reducing SDV without compromising the validity of the trial results. One hundred percent SDV is not a rational method of ensuring data integrity and subject safety based on the high cost, and this literature review indicates that reduced SDV is a viable monitoring method. Alternative methods of monitoring such as centralized monitoring utilizing statistical tests are promising alternatives but have limitations as stand-alone tools. Reduced SDV combined with a centralized, risk-based approach may be the ideal solution to reduce monitoring costs while improving essential data quality.

  16. Open Access Publishing in Canada: Current and Future Library and University Press Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Waller

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Canadian university libraries, Canadian university presses, and non-university scholarly presses at Canadian universities were surveyed in the first part of 2010 as to the level of their support of Open Access (OA journal publishing. Respondents were asked about journal hosting services in their organization as well as their thoughts on internal and external support for open access publishing. Results showed that most of the organizations are hosting OA journals, largely between one and five in number, and many supply journal hosting services, including some technical support. Personnel resources are a notable factor in the ability to host journals. Most respondents engage in some sort of internal support for open access publishing and are open to options that they are presently not utilizing. They are particularly amenable to OA publishing support from outside of their organizations, especially assistance at a consortial level.

  17. Porous metal cones: gold standard for massive bone loss in complex revision knee arthroplasty? A systematic review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divano, Stefano; Cavagnaro, Luca; Zanirato, Andrea; Basso, Marco; Felli, Lamberto; Formica, Matteo

    2018-04-18

    Revision knee arthroplasty is increasing, and in that case, bone loss management is still a challenging problem. In the last years, the body of literature and interest surrounding porous metal cones has grown, but few systematic evaluations of the existing evidence have been performed. The aim of our systematic review is to collect and critically analyze the available evidence about metal cones in revision knee arthroplasty especially focusing our attention on indications, results, complications, and infection rate of these promising orthopaedic devices. We performed a systematic review of the available English literature, considering the outcomes and the complications of tantalum cones. The combinations of keyword were "porous metal cones", "knee revision", "bone loss", "knee arthroplasty", "periprosthetic joint infection", and "outcome". From the starting 312 papers available, 20 manuscripts were finally included. Only one included study has a control group. The main indication for metal cones is type IIb and III defects according AORI classification. Most of the papers show good clinical and radiological outcomes with low rate of complications. The examined studies provide encouraging clinical and radiological short-to-mid-term outcomes. Clinical studies have shown a low rate of aseptic loosening, intraoperative fractures, infection rate and a lower failure rate than the previous treatment methods. Higher quality papers are needed to draw definitive conclusions about porous metal cones.

  18. Typhoid fever causing haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a non-endemic country - first case report and review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreno, Paula; Olbrich, Peter; Falcón-Neyra, Lola; Lucena, Jose Manuel; Aznar, Javier; Neth, Olaf

    2018-06-07

    Development of secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) in the context of typhoid fever (TF) is a very rare but serious complication. Description of the first pediatric case of typhoid fever acquired in a non-endemic area complicated by sHLH. A systematic literature review of sHLH in the context of TF was performed with extraction of epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data. The literature search revealed 17 articles (22 patients). Fifteen patients were eligible for data analysis (53.4% children). All patients had fever and pancytopenia. Transaminases and LDH were frequently elevated (46.6%). Salmonella typhi was detected mainly by blood culture (64.3%). All the patients received antibiotics whereas immunomodulation (dexamethasone) was used in two cases. A high suspicion index for this condition is needed even in non-endemic areas. The addition of immunmodulation to standard antimicrobial therapy should be considered in selected cases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Mitral valve prolapse: an underestimated cause of sudden cardiac death-a current review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spartalis, Michael; Tzatzaki, Eleni; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Athanasiou, Antonios; Moris, Demetrios; Damaskos, Christos; Garmpis, Nikolaos; Voudris, Vassilis

    2017-12-01

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common valve abnormality in general population. Despite the general belief of a benign disorder, several articles since the 1980s report sudden cardiac death (SCD) in MVP patients, with a substantial percentage of asymptomatic young individuals. The problem is to detect those patients at increased risk and implement methods that are suitable to prevent cardiac arrest. This review investigates the correlation between MVP and SCD, the understanding of the pathophysiology, the strategies for detecting those at risk and treatment options. A complete literature survey was performed using PubMed database search to gather available information regarding MVP and SCD. A total of 33 studies met selection criteria for inclusion in the review. MVP is an underrated cause of arrhythmic SCD. The subset of patients with malignant MVP who may be at greater risk for SCD is characterized by young women with bileaflet MVP, biphasic or inverted T waves in the inferior leads, and frequent complex ventricular ectopic activity with documented ventricular bigeminy or ventricular tachycardia (VT) and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) configurations of outflow tract alternating with fascicular origin or papillary muscle. MVP is a common condition in the general population and is often encountered in asymptomatic individuals. The existing literature continues to generate significant controversy regarding the association of MVP with ventricular arrhythmias and SCD. Early echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) are essential, as is a greater understanding of the potential electrophysiological processes of primary arrhythmogenesis and the evaluation of the genetic substrate.

  20. Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Personalized Genomic Medicine Research: Current Literature and Suggestions for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, Shawneequa L; Abudu, Rachel; Mehlman, Maxwell J; Singer, Mendel E; Neuhauser, Duncan; Caga-Anan, Charlisse; Wiesner, Georgia L

    2016-11-01

    This review identifies the prominent topics in the literature pertaining to the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) raised by research investigating personalized genomic medicine (PGM). The abstracts of 953 articles extracted from scholarly databases and published during a 5-year period (2008-2012) were reviewed. A total of 299 articles met our research criteria and were organized thematically to assess the representation of ELSI issues for stakeholders, health specialties, journals, and empirical studies. ELSI analyses were published in both scientific and ethics journals. Investigational research comprised 45% of the literature reviewed (135 articles) and the remaining 55% (164 articles) comprised normative analyses. Traditional ELSI concerns dominated the discourse including discussions about disclosure of research results. In fact, there was a dramatic increase in the number of articles focused on the disclosure of research results and incidental findings to research participants. Few papers focused on particular disorders, the use of racial categories in research, international communities, or special populations (e.g., adolescents, elderly patients, or ethnic groups). Considering that strategies in personalized medicine increasingly target individuals' unique health conditions, environments, and ancestries, further analysis is needed on how ELSI scholarship can better serve the increasingly global, interdisciplinary, and diverse PGM research community. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Research on road traffic noise and human health in India: Review of literature from 1991 to current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature on research conducted during the last two decades on traffic noise impacts in India. Road traffic noise studies in India are fewer and restricted only to the metropolitan areas. The studies over the years have also focused on the monitoring, recording, analysis, modeling, and to some extent mapping related themes. Negligible studies are observed in areas of physiological and sleep research exposure-effect context. Most impact studies have been associated with annoyance and attitudinal surveys only. Little scientific literature exists related to effects of traffic noise on human physiology in the Indian context. The findings of this review search and analysis observe that very little studies are available relating to traffic noise and health impacts. All of them are subjective response studies and only a small portion of them quantify the exposure-effect chain and model the noise index with annoyance. The review of papers showed that road traffic noise is a cause for annoyance to a variety of degree among the respondents. A generalization of impacts and meta-analysis was not possible due to variability of the study designs and outputs preferred.

  2. Does deforestation promote or inhibit malaria transmission in the Amazon? A systematic literature review and critical appraisal of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M; Vittor, Amy; Rifai, Sami; Valle, Denis

    2017-06-05

    Considerable interest in the relationship between biodiversity and disease has recently captured the attention of the research community, with important public policy implications. In particular, malaria in the Amazon region is often cited as an example of how forest conservation can improve public health outcomes. However, despite a growing body of literature and an increased understanding of the relationship between malaria and land use / land cover change (LULC) in Amazonia, contradictions have emerged. While some studies report that deforestation increases malaria risk, others claim the opposite. Assessing malaria risk requires examination of dynamic processes among three main components: (i) the environment (i.e. LULC and landscape transformations), (ii) vector biology (e.g. mosquito species distributions, vector activity and life cycle, plasmodium infection rates), and (iii) human populations (e.g. forest-related activity, host susceptibility, movement patterns). In this paper, we conduct a systematic literature review on malaria risk and deforestation in the Amazon focusing on these three components. We explore key features that are likely to generate these contrasting results using the reviewed articles and our own data from Brazil and Peru, and conclude with suggestions for productive avenues in future research.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Development of Family-Based Dietary Self-Management Support Program on Dietary Behaviors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Indonesia: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aklima Aklima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: WHO statistics show that Indonesia has the fourth highest number of diabetes sufferers. The International Diabetes Federation‟s 5th estimated that in 2011 there were 71.4 million people in South East Asia region were suffering with DM Purpose: To develop a family-based dietary self-management support program to improve dietary behaviors in patients with T2DM. Method: A literature review was conducted by reviewing articles related evidence-based practices. Only articles in the English and Indonesian languages were reviewed. The search found eleven published experimental studies related to the topic. Result: Even though dietary self-management has benefits for patients with diabetes, many studies have found that these patients often have difficulty in establishing or maintaining an effective program to self-manage their dietary behaviors. Lack of family support is one factor that often seems to be related to such failures. Family participation in a diabetes education program also had positive psychosocial impacts. Otherwise, another study found that family might not always have a positive impact on self-management. Therefore, this review recommends that development of a family-based support program could be a positive factor in helping to improve dietary self-management behaviors in patients with T2DM. Self-management theory by Funnell and Anderson‟s work (2004 can guide the development of a program with the goal of empowering individuals and families in improving the patient‟s dietary behaviors. The program consists of: (1 reflecting on current and/or past self-management experiences by listening to the patient about their dietary behaviors, (2 discussing the emotions and feelings of the patients, (3 engaging the patient in improving their situation by active listening and helping the patient reflect on their problems and identifying effective strategies, (4 providing information about dietary management and problem

  4. Supported employment for persons with serious mental illness: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueser, K T; McGurk, S R

    2014-06-01

    The individual placement and supported (IPS) model of supported employment is the most empirically validated model of vocational rehabilitation for persons with schizophrenia or another serious mental illness. Over 18 randomized controlled trials have been conducted throughout the world demonstrating the effectiveness of supported employment at improving competitive work compared to other vocational programs: IPS supported employment is defined by the following principles: 1) inclusion of all clients who want to work; 2) integration of vocational and clinical services; 3) focus on competitive employment; 4) rapid job search and no required prevocational skills training; 5) job development by the employment specialist; 6) attention to client preferences about desired work and disclosure of mental illness to prospective employers; 7) benefits counseling; and 8) follow-along supports after a job is obtained. Supported employment has been successfully implemented in a wide range of cultural and clinical populations, although challenges to implementation are also encountered. Common challenges are related to problems such as the failure to access technical assistance, system issues, negative beliefs and attitudes of providers, funding restrictions, and poor leadership. These challenges can be overcome by tapping expertise in IPS supported employment, including standardized and tested models of training and consultation. Efforts are underway to increase the efficiency of training methods for supported employment and the overall program, and to improve its effectiveness for those clients who do not benefit. Progress in IPS supported employment offers people with a serious mental illness realistic hope for achieving their work goals, and taking greater control over their lives. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging for assessing hamstring injuries: clinical benefits and pitfalls – a review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenky M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Max Greenky, Steven B Cohen Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rothman Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Hamstring injuries are common injuries in all levels of athletics. Hamstring injuries can cause prolonged absence from sports and have a notorious rate of reinjury. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is being increasingly utilized following a hamstring injury. Physicians are being increasingly asked to utilize MRI to predict clinical outcomes, including time frame for return to play and risk of reinjury. In spite of numerous studies in this area, no clear consensus exists. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the literature and evidence regarding the role of MRI in treating hamstring injuries. Keywords: hamstring injury, MRI, return to play

  6. The relationship of religious involvement indicators and social support to current and past suicidality among depressed older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Nicole C; Corsentino, Elizabeth; Hames, Jennifer L; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Steffens, David C

    2013-01-01

    Elderly people, particularly those with major depression, are at the highest risk for suicide than any other age group. Religious involvement is associated with a range of health outcomes including lower odds of death by suicide. However, not much is known about the effects of religious involvement on suicidal ideation in the elderly or which aspects of religiosity are beneficial. This study examined the relative influence of various conceptualizations of religious involvement, above and beyond the protective effects of social support, on current and past suicidality among depressed older adults. Participants were 248 depressed patients, 59 years and older, enrolled in the Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly study. A psychiatrist assessed current suicidal ideation using the suicidal thoughts item from the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Past history of suicide attempts, four religious involvement indicators, social support indicators, and control variables were assessed via self-report. Church attendance, above and beyond importance of religion, private religious practices, and social support, was associated with less suicidal ideation; perceived social support partially mediated this relationship. Current religious practices were not predictive of retrospective reports of past suicide attempts. Church attendance, rather than other religious involvement indicators, has the strongest relationship to current suicidal ideation. Clinicians should consider public religious activity patterns and perceived social support when assessing for other known risk and protective factors for suicide and in developing treatment plans.

  7. Current Obstacles to Fully Preparing Title 10 Forces for Homeland Defense and Civil Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, James S

    2008-01-01

    The National Strategy for Homeland Security, The National Military Strategic Plan for the War of Terrorism, the Strategy for Homeland Defense and Civil Support, numerous CONPLANS and DOD instructions...

  8. Current-supported domain wall movement to the target spot with a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Chunghee; Jang, Y.M.; Lee, K.S.; Lee, S.K.; Kim, T.W.; Cho, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Current-driven domain wall (DW) motion in a submicron-size magnetic strip, which consists of Cu/IrMn/NiFe/Cu/NiFe/Cu pseudo-spin-valve with natural defects, was investigated by measuring the giant-magnetoresistance signal. The magnetic DW movement was induced by the injection of a high current density of 4x10 7 A/cm 2 . It was also found that a DW can be manipulated in more convenient way by the application of both current and magnetic field at the same time

  9. Cancer Supportive and Survivorship Care in Singapore: Current Challenges and Future Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiley Wei-Jen Loh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite being a relatively young nation, Singapore has established itself as a leading multifaceted medical hub, both regionally and globally. Although Singapore continues to pursue excellence in oncology care, cancer supportive care and survivorship care remain in the infancy stage. In an effort to advance this important aspect of oncology care in Singapore, the first cancer supportive and survivorship care forum was held in December 2016, involving 74 oncology practitioners. The primary goals of this forum were to raise awareness of the importance of cancer supportive and survivorship care and to provide a platform for oncology practitioners of diverse backgrounds to converge and address the challenges associated with the delivery of cancer supportive and survivorship care in Singapore. Key challenges identified during this forum included, but were not limited to, care fragmentation in an oncologist-centric model of care, poor integration of allied health and rehabilitation services, passive engagement of community partners, lack of specialized skill sets and knowledge in supportive and survivorship care, and patient-related barriers such as poor health literacy. The survivorship care model commonly used in Singapore places an imbalanced emphasis on surveillance for cancer recurrence and second primary cancers, with little attention given to the supportive and survivorship needs of the survivors. In summary, these challenges set the stage for the development and use of a more survivor-centric model, one that focuses not only on cancer surveillance, but also on the broad and unique physical and psychosocial needs of survivors of cancer in Singapore.

  10. Reproducibility of current classifications of endometrial endometrioid glandular proliferations : further evidence supporting a simplified classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordi, Jaume; Bergeron, Christine; Hardisson, David; McCluggage, W. Glenn; Hollema, Harry; Felix, Ana; Soslow, Robert A.; Oliva, Esther; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A.; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Wells, Michael; Nogales, Francisco F.

    AimsTo compare the reproducibility of the current (2003) World Health Organization (WHO), endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) and European Working Group (EWG) classifications of endometrial endometrioid proliferations. Methods and resultsNine expert gynaecological pathologists from Europe

  11. Inactivation of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Infectious Medical Waste. A Literature Review of Current On-Site Treatment Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    megaterium 2 Bacillus pumilus 2 Bacillus cereus 1 Bacillus coagulans 1 Staphylococcus epidermidis 5 Staphylococcus saprophyticus 3 Incinerator room...encouraged and supported me during the completion of my degree requirements. 0 ii LIST OF FIGURES Number Page 2-1. Thermal Death Time Curve for Bacillus ...in Bacteria ................................. 25 2-4. Electron Micrographs of Thin Sections of Bacillus subtilis ........ 25 2-5. Gravity Displacement

  12. The relationship between self-concept of children with and without learning problems, their perceived social support and literature achievement in Greek secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bampilis, Theodoros; Minnaert, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a comparison of students with and without learning problems in Greek secondary education. In general, self-concept of students and their perceived social support was found to be of importance for achievement in the first years of secondary education. In literature, less

  13. A review of the Irish road networks infrastructure barriers to older peoples mobility: current policy and literature

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, Valerie; Caufield, Brian; Ahern, Aoife

    2012-01-01

    Over the next thirty years in Ireland, the population aged over 65 is estimated to grow considerably. The maturation of the ‘baby boom’ generation will transform the demographics of the country. In our current and future aging society, transport and mobility are key factors in facilitating active aging. In general, older people now travel more than before, have higher levels of car ownership and are more likely to continue to drive for longer. Modal shift to more sustainable modes of transpor...

  14. Understanding management and support for domestic violence and abuse within emergency departments: A systematic literature review from 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsliff-Smith, Kathryn; McGarry, Julie

    2017-12-01

    To identify, review and critically evaluate published empirical studies concerned with the prevalence, management and support for survivors of domestic violence and abuse who present at emergency department. Domestic violence and abuse is a global phenomenon with a wealth of studies that explore the different aspects of the issue including the economic, social and health effects on survivors and on society as a whole. Emergency department is widely recognised as one healthcare facility where domestic violence and abuse survivors will often disclose domestic violence and abuse. In the UK, National Institute of Clinical Excellence produced guidelines in 2014 requiring all sectors of health care and those they work alongside to recognise support and manage survivors of domestic violence and abuse. Whilst there is an increasing body of research on domestic violence and abuse, limited synthesised work has been conducted in the context of domestic violence and abuse within emergency department. This review encompasses empirical studies conducted in emergency department for screening interventions, management and support for domestic violence and abuse patients including prevalence. This review included studies that included emergency department staff, emergency department service users and domestic violence and abuse survivors. A systematic approach across five electronic bibliographic databases found 35 studies meeting the inclusion criteria published between 2000-2015. From the 35 studies, four descriptive overarching themes were identified (i) prevalence of domestic violence and abuse in emergency department, (ii) use of domestic violence and abuse screening tools and emergency department interventions, (iii) current obstacles for staff working in emergency department and (iv) emergency department users and survivor perspectives. Having knowledgeable and supportive emergency department staff can have a positive benefit for the longer-term health of the domestic

  15. Report on Current Praxis of Policies and Activities Supporting Societal Engagement in Research and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, Rainer; Mbungu, Grace; Anderson, Edward; Chonkova, Blagovesta; Damianova, Zoya; Davis, Houda; Dencker, Siri; Jørgensen, Marie-Louise; Kozarev, Ventseslav; Larsen, Gy; Mulder, Henk; Pfersdorf, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the “Engage2020 Project” 1 is to promote the use of engagement methods and policies that support societal engagement in research and innovation by mapping what is practiced and spreading awareness of the opportunities amongst researchers, policy makers, and other interested parties. The

  16. Initial and Ongoing Teacher Preparation and Support: Current Problems and Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Harold A.

    2013-01-01

    The effective initial preparation and ongoing support of teachers of students who are deaf and hard of hearing has always been a difficult and controversial task. Changes in student demographic characteristics and educational settings, combined with the rapidly diminishing number and diversity of deaf education teacher preparation (DETP) programs,…

  17. On the current needs in European decision support tools for contaminated areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann

    2013-01-01

    As part of the ongoing European project NERIS-TP, a revision has been made of some parameters influencing dose estimates in the European emergency management decision support systems RODOS and ARGOS. On the basis of survey data, the estimates of the time fractions typically spent indoors and outd...

  18. Quantification of Global Left Ventricular Function: Comparison of Multidetector Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. A Meta-analysis and Review of the Current Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vleuten, P.A. van der; Willems, T.P.; Goette, M.J.; Tio, R.A.; Greuter, M.J.; Zijlstra, F.; Oudkerk, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac morbidity and mortality are closely related to cardiac volumes and global left ventricular (LV) function, expressed as left ventricular ejection fraction. Accurate assessment of these parameters is required for the prediction of prognosis in individual patients as well as in entire cohorts. The current standard of reference for left ventricular function is analysis by short-axis magnetic resonance imaging. In recent years, major extensive technological improvements have been achieved in computed tomography. The most marked development has been the introduction of the multidetector CT (MDCT), which has significantly improved temporal and spatial resolutions. In order to assess the current status of MDCT for analysis of LV function, the current available literature on this subject was reviewed. The data presented in this review indicate that the global left ventricular functional parameters measured by contemporary multi-detector row systems combined with adequate reconstruction algorithms and post-processing tools show a narrow diagnostic window and are interchangeable with those obtained by MRI

  19. Calculation of the force acting on a drop in a nonuniform flow of a current-supporting fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    In the context of wide use of intense electric currents in various technological process, it is of practical interest to investigate the characteristics of the force action of electromagnetic fields on a variety of inclusions - solid particles, drops, gas bubbles - suspended in current-supporting fluids. In the available studies one treats the simplest case, in which the vortical component of the electromagnetic forces, generated by the interaction of the current with the internal magnetic field, is nonvanishing only in small vicinities near these inclusions, and therefore these electromagnetic forces do not generate global motion of the homogeneous current-supporting fluid. In practice, in most cases the vortical component of electromagnetic forces plays a substantial role in the whole operating region of the technological device, and the motion of the current-supporting fluid is created specifically by electromagnetic forces. In the case of a varying electromagnetic field the forces acting on particles are located in the conducting fluid, moving under the field action, were calculated by Korovim (Korovim, V. M., open-quotes The calculation of forces acting on suspended particles during the flow of a conducting fluid in a varying electromagnetic field,close quotes Magn. Gidrodin, No. 1 95-102 (1991)). In the present study the authors generalize the method suggested by Korovin for calculating forces applied to both drops and particles and gas bubbles suspended in the gradient flow of a fluid moving under the action of a constant electromagnetic field. 6 refs

  20. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma: A review of current literature in respect to the time and type of previous gynecological surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaś, Edyta; Książek, Mariusz; Raś, Renata; Skręt, Andrzej; Skręt- Magierło, Joanna; Dmoch- Gajzlerska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disorder that affects women with a history of uterine leiomyoma, which is found to metastasise within extrauterine sites. The aetiology of BML remains unexplained. Because BML is rare, and most publications contain descriptions of single cases, no statistically determined time relations were found between the primary and secondary surgeries, which may have aetiological implications. Objectives To determine age before BML surgery, age during diagnosis of BML, type of prior surgery, and location of metastasis based on the literature. Methods A systematic review of four databases (Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane) covering articles published from 1 January 1965 to 10 April 2016. The inclusion criteria were full-text articles in English and articles containing case reports. Articles in languages other than English (39), articles containing incomplete data (14), i.e. no information regarding the time of surgery and/or the site of metastasis, articles bereft of case studies (25), and articles with access only to summaries, without access to the complete text (10) were excluded. Of 321 titles identified, only 126 articles met the aforementioned criteria. Results and conclusions The mean age during primary surgery and BML diagnosis was 38.5 years and 47.3 years, respectively. The most common surgery was total hysterectomy. The most frequent site of metastasis was the lungs; other organs were affected less frequently.The site of metastases and their number were not related to the longer time span between the patient’s initial surgery and occurrence of metastasis. The analysed data, such as the age during primary surgery, age during BML diagnosis, site and type of metastasis, do not provide us a clear answer. Thus, BML pathogenesis is most probably complex in nature and requires further multidirectional research. PMID:28426767

  1. Symptomatic lumbosacral transitional vertebra: a review of the current literature and clinical outcomes following steroid injection or surgical intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holm Emil Kongsted

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bertolotti’s syndrome (BS refers to the possible association between the congenital malformation lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV, and low back pain (LBP. Several treatments have been proposed including steroid injections, resections of the LSTV, laminectomy, and lumbar spinal fusion. The aim of this review was to compare the clinical outcomes in previous trials and case reports for these treatments in patients with LBP and LSTV. A PubMed search was conducted. We included English studies of patients diagnosed with LSTV treated with steroid injection, laminectomy, spinal fusion or resection of the transitional articulation. Of 272 articles reviewed 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Their level of evidence were graded I–V and the clinical outcomes were evaluated. Only 1 study had high evidence level (II. The remainders were case series (level IV. Only 5 studies used validated clinical outcome measures. A total of 79 patients were reported: 31 received treatment with steroid injections, 33 were treated with surgical resection of the LSTV, 8 received lumbar spinal fusion, and 7 cases were treated with laminectomy. Surgical management seems to improve the patient’s symptoms, especially patients diagnosed with “far out syndrome” treated with laminectomy. Clinical outcomes were more heterogenetic for patient’s treated with steroid injections. The literature regarding BS is sparse and generally with low evidence. Non-surgical management (e.g., steroid injections and surgical intervention could not directly be compared due to lack of standardization in clinical outcome. Generally, surgical management seems to improve patient’s clinical outcome over time, whereas steroid injection only improves the patient’s symptoms temporarily. Further studies with larger sample size and higher evidence are warranted for the clinical guidance in the treatment of BS.

  2. Symptomatic lumbosacral transitional vertebra: a review of the current literature and clinical outcomes following steroid injection or surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Emil Kongsted; Bünger, Cody; Foldager, Casper Bindzus

    2017-01-01

    Bertolotti's syndrome (BS) refers to the possible association between the congenital malformation lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV), and low back pain (LBP). Several treatments have been proposed including steroid injections, resections of the LSTV, laminectomy, and lumbar spinal fusion. The aim of this review was to compare the clinical outcomes in previous trials and case reports for these treatments in patients with LBP and LSTV. A PubMed search was conducted. We included English studies of patients diagnosed with LSTV treated with steroid injection, laminectomy, spinal fusion or resection of the transitional articulation. Of 272 articles reviewed 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Their level of evidence were graded I-V and the clinical outcomes were evaluated. Only 1 study had high evidence level (II). The remainders were case series (level IV). Only 5 studies used validated clinical outcome measures. A total of 79 patients were reported: 31 received treatment with steroid injections, 33 were treated with surgical resection of the LSTV, 8 received lumbar spinal fusion, and 7 cases were treated with laminectomy. Surgical management seems to improve the patient's symptoms, especially patients diagnosed with "far out syndrome" treated with laminectomy. Clinical outcomes were more heterogenetic for patient's treated with steroid injections. The literature regarding BS is sparse and generally with low evidence. Non-surgical management (e.g., steroid injections) and surgical intervention could not directly be compared due to lack of standardization in clinical outcome. Generally, surgical management seems to improve patient's clinical outcome over time, whereas steroid injection only improves the patient's symptoms temporarily. Further studies with larger sample size and higher evidence are warranted for the clinical guidance in the treatment of BS. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  3. The Current State of Empirical Support for the Pharmacological Treatment of Selective Mutism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, John S.; Mitchell, Angela D.; Segool, Natasha

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of evidence for the psychopharmacological treatment of children diagnosed with selective mutism within the context of its link to social anxiety disorder. An increased focus on potential medication treatment for this disorder has resulted from significant monetary and resource limitations in typical practice,…

  4. Supervision, support and mentoring interventions for health practitioners in rural and remote contexts: an integrative review and thematic synthesis of the literature to identify mechanisms for successful outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Anna M; Coyle, Julia; Pope, Rod; Boxall, Dianne; Nancarrow, Susan A; Young, Jennifer

    2014-02-13

    To identify mechanisms for the successful implementation of support strategies for health-care practitioners in rural and remote contexts. This is an integrative review and thematic synthesis of the empirical literature that examines support interventions for health-care practitioners in rural and remote contexts. This review includes 43 papers that evaluated support strategies for the rural and remote health workforce. Interventions were predominantly training and education programmes with limited evaluations of supervision and mentoring interventions. The mechanisms associated with successful outcomes included: access to appropriate and adequate training, skills and knowledge for the support intervention; accessible and adequate resources; active involvement of stakeholders in programme design, implementation and evaluation; a needs analysis prior to the intervention; external support, organisation, facilitation and/or coordination of the programme; marketing of the programme; organisational commitment; appropriate mode of delivery; leadership; and regular feedback and evaluation of the programme. Through a synthesis of the literature, this research has identified a number of mechanisms that are associated with successful support interventions for health-care practitioners in rural and remote contexts. This research utilised a methodology developed for studying complex interventions in response to the perceived limitations of traditional systematic reviews. This synthesis of the evidence will provide decision-makers at all levels with a collection of mechanisms that can assist the development and implementation of support strategies for staff in rural and remote contexts.

  5. Supervision, support and mentoring interventions for health practitioners in rural and remote contexts: an integrative review and thematic synthesis of the literature to identify mechanisms for successful outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify mechanisms for the successful implementation of support strategies for health-care practitioners in rural and remote contexts. Design This is an integrative review and thematic synthesis of the empirical literature that examines support interventions for health-care practitioners in rural and remote contexts. Results This review includes 43 papers that evaluated support strategies for the rural and remote health workforce. Interventions were predominantly training and education programmes with limited evaluations of supervision and mentoring interventions. The mechanisms associated with successful outcomes included: access to appropriate and adequate training, skills and knowledge for the support intervention; accessible and adequate resources; active involvement of stakeholders in programme design, implementation and evaluation; a needs analysis prior to the intervention; external support, organisation, facilitation and/or coordination of the programme; marketing of the programme; organisational commitment; appropriate mode of delivery; leadership; and regular feedback and evaluation of the programme. Conclusion Through a synthesis of the literature, this research has identified a number of mechanisms that are associated with successful support interventions for health-care practitioners in rural and remote contexts. This research utilised a methodology developed for studying complex interventions in response to the perceived limitations of traditional systematic reviews. This synthesis of the evidence will provide decision-makers at all levels with a collection of mechanisms that can assist the development and implementation of support strategies for staff in rural and remote contexts. PMID:24521004

  6. Empirically supported psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder: Current state of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Stephanie; Gold, Alexandra K; Sheikh, Sana; Marcus, Peter H; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Deckersbach, Thilo; Sylvia, Louisa G

    2016-09-01

    Bipolar disorder requires psychiatric medications, but even guideline-concordant treatment fails to bring many patients to remission or keep them euthymic. To address this gap, researchers have developed adjunctive psychotherapies. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the evidence for the efficacy of manualized psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder. We conducted a search of the literature to examine recent (2007-present), randomized controlled studies of the following psychotherapy interventions for bipolar disorder: psychoeducation (PE), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and family therapies such as family focused therapy (FFT). All of the psychotherapy interventions appear to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms. Psychoeducation and CBT are associated with increased time to mood episode relapse or recurrence. MBCT has demonstrated a particular effectiveness in improving depressive and anxiety symptoms. Online psychotherapy interventions, programs combining one or more psychotherapy interventions, and targeted interventions centering on particular symptoms have been the focus of recent, randomized controlled studies in bipolar disorder. Psychotherapy interventions for the treatment of bipolar disorder have substantial evidence for efficacy. The next challenge will to disseminate these psychotherapies into the community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Yttrium-90 Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Glass Microspheres for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current and Updated Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanis, Lourdes; Cho, Sung-Ki; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma

  8. Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy with glass microspheres for hepatocellular carcinoma: Current and updated literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanic, Lourdes [Div. of Interventional Radiology, Dept. of Radiology, UCLA Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles (United States); Cho, Sung Ki [Div. of Interventional Radiology, Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Saab, Sammy [Div. of Hepatology, Dept. of Medicine, Pfleger Liver Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

  9. Yttrium-90 Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Glass Microspheres for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current and Updated Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanis, Lourdes [Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, UCLA Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Cho, Sung-Ki [Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351 (Korea, Republic of); Saab, Sammy [Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Pfleger Liver Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy with glass microspheres for hepatocellular carcinoma: Current and updated literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanic, Lourdes; Cho, Sung Ki; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma

  11. An explanation of workplace-based assessments in postgraduate dental training and a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, H K; Kalsi, J S; Fisher, N L

    2013-11-01

    Workplace-based assessments (WBAs) are trainee-led formative assessments that measure the highest level of competence of the ability to do a task. So far WBAs are the only available assessment tools to measure performance integrated into practice. Over the years, WBAs have become an integral part of dental foundation and specialty training. The numerous WBAs available can be broadly categorised into three types. The first type involves observation of clinical encounters, for example mini-clinical evaluation exercises; direct observation of procedural skills; and dental evaluation of performance and procedure-based assessments. The second type involves discussion of clinical cases, such as case-based discussions. Finally, the third type includes the mini-peer assessment tool, team assessment of behaviour, 360° assessments and multi-source feedback, and all involve receiving feedback from a combination of colleagues, staff and patients. This article describes the WBAs currently used in postgraduate dental training and explores their strengths, weaknesses, perceived value by trainees and trainers and how these tools can be used in a reliable and valid way.

  12. Yttrium-90 Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Glass Microspheres for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current and Updated Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanis, Lourdes; Cho, Sung-Ki; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

  13. Classroom Management Strategies to Address the Needs of Sudanese Refugee Learners: Support Document--Methodology and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, Ursula; Hull, Oksana

    2007-01-01

    This document presents the methodology and literature review for the research report "Classroom Management Strategies to Address the Needs of Sudanese Refugee Learners" (ED499673), which examined the extent to which English language, literacy and numeracy teachers used classroom management strategies to meet the needs of adult Sudanese…

  14. Current role of the USNRC safety research program in support of the regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.

    1979-01-01

    The current role of the USNRC's safety research program is shown. Some aspects of this role in the wake of the TMI accident are discused as well as some historical perspective on the development of USNRC's program, its relationship with the NRC mission, an overview of the program activities and some recent research results, and finally the impact of the TMI accident in clarifiying needs for expedited and new research activities, including the need for a greatly enhanced use of probabilistic analysis techniques to improve the coherence of its regulatory process. (author)

  15. Multilateral Development Banks and Their Role in Supporting European SMEs during the Current Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Gabriel Anton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the ongoing financial crisis on the availability of finance to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs represents an important topic nowadays. The access to finance for SMEs is a major barrier for their growth, especially during severe conditions such as the global financial crisis. Financing the SMEs represents a priority for the most of the multilateral development banks. The aim of the paper is to analyze the activity of European multilateral development banks - European Investment Bank Group and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development - in the support of SMEs. We found that SMEs financing increased during the period 2008-2011 and the international financial institutions took several measures in order to improve the SMEs access to finance.

  16. Prostate-specific antigen: does the current evidence support its use in prostate cancer screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial. Reasons for the controversy relate to PSA being less than an ideal marker in detecting early prostate cancer, the possibility that screening for prostate cancer may result in the overdetection and thus overtreatment of indolent disease and the lack of clarity as to the definitive or best treatment for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Although the results from some randomized prospective trials suggest that screening with PSA reduces mortality from prostate cancer, the overall benefit was modest. It is thus currently unclear as to whether the modest benefit of reduced mortality outweighs the harms of overdetection and overtreatment. Thus, prior to undergoing screening for prostate cancer, men should be informed of the risks and benefits of early detection. Newly emerging markers that may complement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer include specific isoforms of PSA and PCA3.

  17. Would Current International Space Station (ISS) Recycling Life Support Systems Save Mass on a Mars Transit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    The oxygen and water are recycled on the International Space Station (ISS) to save the cost of launching their mass into orbit. Usually recycling systems are justified by showing that their launch mass would be much lower than the mass of the oxygen or water they produce. Short missions such as Apollo or space shuttle directly provide stored oxygen and water, since the needed total mass of oxygen and water is much less than that of there cycling equipment. Ten year or longer missions such as the ISS or a future moon base easily save mass by recycling while short missions of days or weeks do not. Mars transit and long Mars surface missions have an intermediate duration, typically one to one and a half years. Some of the current ISS recycling systems would save mass if used on a Mars transit but others would not.

  18. CO2 capture technologies: current status and new directions using supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolding, Helene; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art techniques for CO2 capture are presented and discussed. Post-combustion capture of CO2 by absorption is the technology most easily retrofitted to existing installations, but at present this is not economically viable to install and run. Using ionic liquids instead...... of aqueous amine solutions overcomes the major thermodynamic issues. By applying SILP technology further advances, in terms of ease of handling and sorption dynamics, are obtained. Initial experimental studies showed that ionic liquids such as tetrahexylammonium prolinate, [N6666][Pro], provide a good...... candidate for CO2 absorption using SILP technology. Thus a solid SILP absorber comprised of 40 wt% [N6666][Pro] loaded on precalcined silica quantitatively takes up about 1.2 mole CO2 per mole of ionic liquid in consecutive absorption-desorption cycles in a flow-experiment performed with 0.09 bar of CO2 (9...

  19. Beyond Mentoring: A Review of Literature Detailing the Need for Additional and Alternative Forms of Support for Novice Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Robertson, Catherine G.

    2015-01-01

    Support for music teachers new to the profession is important and necessary. Some school districts use traditional mentor-mentee pairings as their primary support for novice music teachers; however, many factors in the professional lives of music teachers, such as traveling among multiple schools or a lack of subject-specific colleagues often…

  20. Implant and root supported overdentures - a literature review and some data on bone loss in edentulous jaws

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To present a literature review on implant overdentures after a brief survey of bone loss after extraction of all teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS Papers on alveolar bone loss and implant overdentures have been studied for a narrative review. RESULTS Bone loss of the alveolar process after tooth extraction occurs with great individual variation, impossible to predict at the time of extraction. The simplest way to prevent bone loss is to avoid extraction of all teeth. To keep a few teeth an...

  1. FEDERAL SUPPORT OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY IN THE UNITED STATES: CURRENT EVOLUTION UNDER THE POLITICAL STRUGGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Istomin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 2000’s and 2010’s witnessed diminishing margin of the United States in science and technology. Meanwhile, the U.S. remains a clear leader in this fi eld. Major driving force of the country’s success in the second half of the ХХ century remained assertive federal science policy. The article seeks to identify major trends in evolution of the U.S. science policy and the reasons behind relative decline of the level of budget support of the scientifi c research. The author studies evolution of the policies of George Bush and Barack Obama, as well as the views of Democrats and Republicans in the House of Representatives and the Senate. The article also examines the input into the federal policy of the governmental bodies, which are directly responsible for its implementation, as well as non-governmental organizations, which seek to advocate interests of scientists; it studies rising competition between the executive authorities and legislators for the recognition as a major champion of the academic community as well as American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

  2. Current activities in support of CANDU plant life management: an industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, B.A.; Price, E.G.; Hopkins, J.; Charlebois, P.

    1998-01-01

    The current focus of the CANDU industry is to position the nuclear option as a cost competitive, safe and reliable means of electricity production. To achieve its goal the CANDU industry as a whole is undertaking steps to improve further its performance and safety of its nuclear power plants. A number of programs have been planned and implemented particularly for plants in the mid-life range. Some of these programs include life assessment studies of critical systems, Structures and Components (SSCS), refurbishment and upgrading programs and monitoring and periodic inspection programs. Some elements of the programs have been in place from station start up and some are being instituted as part of the aging management and performance improvement program. The industry recognizes that the key to sustaining high performance over the life of the plant is the implementation of an integrated aging management program that encompasses all elements of plant operation and maintenance. A systematically implemented program on optimized maintenance and inspection strategy, standardized work processes, component rehabilitation programs, and applying lessons learned are some of the elements of a sustainable high performance and an effective plant life assurance program. The paper will describe the elements of an integrated program, the multiphase approach defined for CANDU PLIM and some of the activities undertaken by the industry to further improve and sustain plant safety, reliability and performance. (author)

  3. Systematic literature review on effectiveness of self-management support interventions in patients with chronic conditions and low socio-economic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hecke, Ann; Heinen, Maud; Fernández-Ortega, Paz

    2017-01-01

    of patients with a low socio-economic status. No differences were found for interventions developed based on health behaviour theoretical models. CONCLUSION: Limited evidence was found for self-management support interventions in chronically ill patients with low socio-economic status. Essential......AIM: To assess the quality of evidence and determine the effect of patient-related and economic outcomes of self-management support interventions in chronically ill patients with a low socio-economic status. BACKGROUND: Integrated evidence on self-management support interventions in chronically ill...... people with low socio-economic status is lacking. DESIGN: Systematic literature review. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane database of trials, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Joanna Briggs Institute Library were searched (2000-2013). Randomized controlled trials addressing self-management support...

  4. Smartphone apps to support hospital prescribing and pharmacology education: a review of current provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffey, Faye; Brady, Richard R W; Maxwell, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Junior doctors write the majority of hospital prescriptions but many indicate they feel underprepared to assume this responsibility and around 10% of prescriptions contain errors. Medical smartphone apps are now widely used in clinical practice and present an opportunity to provide support to inexperienced prescribers. This study assesses the contemporary range of smartphone apps with prescribing or related content. Six smartphone app stores were searched for apps aimed at the healthcare professional with drug, pharmacology or prescribing content. Three hundred and six apps were identified. 34% appeared to be for use within the clinical environment in order to aid prescribing, 14% out with the clinical setting and 51% of apps were deemed appropriate for both clinical and non-clinical use. Apps with drug reference material, such as textbooks, manuals or medical apps with drug information were the commonest apps found (51%), followed by apps offering drug or infusion rate dose calculation (26%). 68% of apps charged for download, with a mean price of £14.25 per app and a range of £0.62-101.90. A diverse range of pharmacology-themed apps are available and there is further potential for the development of contemporary apps to improve prescribing performance. Personalized app stores may help universities/healthcare organizations offer high quality apps to students to aid in pharmacology education. Users of prescribing apps must be aware of the lack of information regarding the medical expertise of app developers. This will enable them to make informed choices about the use of such apps in their clinical practice. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Does Current Scientific Evidence Support a Link Between Light at Night and Breast Cancer Among Female Night-Shift Nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerman, Barbra; Liu, Jianghong

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is increasingly prevalent in industrialized regions of the world, and exposure to light at night (LAN) has been proposed as a potential risk factor. Epidemiological observations have documented an increased breast cancer risk among female night-shift workers, and strong experimental evidence for this relationship has also been found in rodent models. Indirect support for the LAN hypothesis comes from studies involving blind women, sleep duration, bedroom light levels, and community nighttime light levels. This article reviews the literature, discusses possible mechanisms of action, and provides recommendations for occupational health nursing research, practice, and education. Research is needed to further explore the relationship between exposure to LAN and breast cancer risk and elucidate the mechanisms underlying this relationship before interventions can be designed for prevention and mitigation of breast cancer. PMID:22658734

  6. Fluorine--a current literature review. An NRC and ATSDR based review of safety standards for exposure to fluorine and fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prystupa, Jeff

    2011-02-01

    examined in this review of the literature, and specifically the recent report by the National Research Council (NRC), offer strong support for an immediate reconsideration concerning risk vs benefit. Consensus recommendations from several sources are presented.

  7. Interpreters’ Experiences of Transferential Dynamics, Vicarious Traumatisation, and Their Need for Support and Supervision: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Darroch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Using thematic analysis, this systematic review aimed to explore sign language interpreters’ experiences of transferential dynamics and vicarious trauma. The notion of transferential dynamics, such as transference and countertransference, originate from psychodynamic therapy and refer to the mutual impact that client and therapist have on one another (Chessick, 1986. Psychodynamic models of therapy are predominantly concerned with unconscious processes and theorise that such processes have a powerful influence over an individuals’ thoughts, feelings and behaviours (Howard, 2011. In contrast to countertransference, which is a immediate response to a particular client, vicarious trauma is thought to develop as a result of continuous exposure to, and engagement across, many therapeutic interactions (Pearlman & Saakvitne, 1995a. A search of the available literature uncovered a striking lack of literature into the experiences of sign language interpreters, and in all, only two of the 11 identified empirical studies addressed sign language interpreters. The vast majority of the literature analysed reflected the experiences of spoken language interpreters. The results indicate that interpreters experience transferential dynamics as part of their work as well as suggesting the presence of vicarious trauma among interpreters. Additionally, a unique contribution to the fields of interpreting and psychology is offered, as it is consistently demonstrated that ‘service providers’ and ‘mental health workers’, which are umbrella terms for psychologists, immensely under-estimate the role of interpreters, as they fail to consider the emotional impact of their work and ignore the linguistic complexities of translation by failing to appreciate their need for information in order to ensure an effective translation.

  8. A pulsed eddy current probe for inspection of support plates from within Alloy-800 steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T. W.; Babbar, V. K.; Underhill, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Support plate degradation and fouling in nuclear steam generators (SGs) can lead to SG tube corrosion and loss of efficiency. Inspection and monitoring of these conditions can be integrated with preventive maintenance programs, thereby advancing station-life management processes. A prototype pulsed eddy current (PEC) probe, targeting inspection issues associated with SG tubes in SS410 tube support plate structures, has been developed using commercial finite element (FE) software. FE modeling was used to identify appropriate driver and pickup coil configurations for optimum sensitivity to changes in gap and offset for Alloy-800 SG tubes passing through 25 mm thick SS410 support plates. Experimental measurements using a probe that was manufactured based on the modeled configuration, were used to confirm the sensitivity of differential PEC signals to changes in relative position of the tube within the tube support plate holes. Models investigated the effect of shift and tilt of tube with respect to hole centers. Near hole centers and for small shifts, modeled signal amplitudes from the differentially connected coil pairs were observed to change linearly with tube shift. This was in agreement with experimentally measured TEC coil response. The work paves the way for development of a system targeting the inspection and evaluation of support plate structures in steam generators

  9. A pulsed eddy current probe for inspection of support plates from within Alloy-800 steam generator tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, T. W.; Babbar, V. K.; Underhill, P. R.

    2014-02-01

    Support plate degradation and fouling in nuclear steam generators (SGs) can lead to SG tube corrosion and loss of efficiency. Inspection and monitoring of these conditions can be integrated with preventive maintenance programs, thereby advancing station-life management processes. A prototype pulsed eddy current (PEC) probe, targeting inspection issues associated with SG tubes in SS410 tube support plate structures, has been developed using commercial finite element (FE) software. FE modeling was used to identify appropriate driver and pickup coil configurations for optimum sensitivity to changes in gap and offset for Alloy-800 SG tubes passing through 25 mm thick SS410 support plates. Experimental measurements using a probe that was manufactured based on the modeled configuration, were used to confirm the sensitivity of differential PEC signals to changes in relative position of the tube within the tube support plate holes. Models investigated the effect of shift and tilt of tube with respect to hole centers. Near hole centers and for small shifts, modeled signal amplitudes from the differentially connected coil pairs were observed to change linearly with tube shift. This was in agreement with experimentally measured TEC coil response. The work paves the way for development of a system targeting the inspection and evaluation of support plate structures in steam generators.

  10. The all-ceramic, inlay supported fixed partial denture. Part 1. Ceramic inlay preparation design: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M C; Thompson, K M; Swain, M

    2010-06-01

    The effect of cavity design is a controversial and underrated factor in the clinical success of ceramic inlays and inlay supported prosthesis. Many articles and studies have been conducted into the advantages and disadvantages of isolated aspects of preparation design, but lacking is a review of the most relevant papers which bring together a consensus on all the critical features. Hence, a review and analysis of cavity depth, width, preparation taper and internal line angles is warranted in our attempts to formulate preparation guidelines that will lead to clinically successful, all-ceramic inlay restorations and ceramic inlay supported prosthesis.

  11. Use of {sup 99m}Tc 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile in minimally invasive radioguided surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: A narrative review of the current literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denmeade, Kristie A [Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound Department, Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital, Bankstown, New South Wales (Australia); Constable, Chris [Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Reed, Warren M [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound Department, Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital, Bankstown, New South Wales (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    The use of technetium-99m 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile ({sup 99m}Tc MIBI) for assistance in minimally invasive radioguided surgery (MIRS) is growing in popularity as a safe, effective, and proficient technique used for parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) treatment. Previously, the preferred treatment for PHPT was bilateral neck exploration (BNE), a very invasive, costly, and lengthy procedure. However, as a large majority (80–85% of cases of PHPT) are attributed to a single parathyroid adenoma (PA), a simpler more direct technique such as MIRS is a far better option. The following article is an exploration of the current literature concerning varied protocols utilizing {sup 99m}Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS for patients undergoing treatment of PHPT. This technique boasts many advantageous outcomes for patients suffering from PHPT. These include a reduction in cost, operating time, and patient recovery; less evidence of post-surgical hypocalcaemia, less pain, and complications; superior cosmetic results; same-day discharge; and the possibility of local anaesthesia which is particularly beneficial in elderly patients. Better outcomes for patients with deep or ectopic PAs, reduced intra-operative complications, and improved cosmetic outcomes for patients who have previously undergone thyroid and/or parathyroid surgery are also advantageous. Of the literature reviewed it was also found that no patients suffered any major surgical complications such as laryngeal nerve palsy or permanent hypoparathyroidism using {sup 99m}Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS.

  12. Three-dimensional esthetic analysis in treatment planning for implant-supported fixed prosthesis in the edentulous maxilla: review of the esthetics literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidra, Avinash S

    2011-08-01

    Fixed implant-supported prosthesis for the edentulous maxilla has gained tremendous popularity over the years. Multiple prosthetic designs have been introduced in order to accommodate a gamut of clinical situations. Irrespective of the design, it is paramount that the esthetics imparted by the prosthesis be uncompromised. Though esthetics is subjective, a common ground exists where all its fundamental principles converge. This article reviews pertinent dental and facial esthetics literature for application of various esthetic concepts involved in diagnosis and treatment planning for an implant-supported fixed prosthesis in the edentulous maxilla. Three-dimensional esthetic analysis involves assessment of various esthetic parameters in superior-inferior, medial-lateral, and anterior-posterior dimensions. The impact of various esthetic parameters such as facial forms, facial profiles, maxillary teeth positions, maxillary teeth proportions, smile lines, lip support, gingival display, facial midline, dental midline, horizontal cant, and smile width are discussed in detail. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cogan's syndrome is a new nosological entity in the current classification of systemic vasculitides: A clinical case and a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Beketova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case of the typical variant of Cogan's syndrome (CS, a new nosological entity in the current classification of systemic vasculitides (SV, which belongs to a group of variable vasculitides. The literature review highlights in detail the problems of the diagnosis and treatment of this rare disease.CS is characterized by inflammatory eye involvement (interstitial keratitis, uveitis, and episcleritis and hearing problems (sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular disorders with the possible development of vasculitis at other sites, aortitis, and aortic or mitral lesions. A systemic lesion involving the ears and eyes necessitates to rule out granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's and to make a differential diagnosis with a wide range of diseases. The given data underline the need for the interdisciplinary collaboration of rheumatologists, otorhinolaryngologists, audiologists, oculists, and cardiologists in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this form of SV. 

  14. The role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of thoracolumbar burst fractures: current concepts and a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Noordeen, H.; Taylor, B.A.; Bayley, I.

    1996-01-01

    The burst fracture of the spine was first described by Holdsworth in 1963 and redefined by Denis in 1983 as being a fracture of the anterior and middle columns of the spine with or without an associated posterior column fracture. This injury has received much attention in the literature as regards its radiological diagnosis and also its clinical managment. The purpose of this article is to review the way that imaging has been used both to diagnose the injury and to guide management. Current concepts of the stability of this fracture are presented and our experience in the use of magnetic resonance imaging in deciding treatment options is discussed. (orig.). With 18 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Early administration of venovenous extracorporeal life support for status asthmaticus during anaesthetic induction: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Won Ho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we report a case of a 40-year-old man who visited the emergency room with severe chest pain. He showed a Stanford type B aortic dissection on chest-computed tomography. Despite medical treatment and malperfusion of lower extremities, acute renal failure developed; hence thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR was considered under general anaesthesia. After endotracheal intubation, ventilation with low tidal volume required high inspiratory airway pressure. An arterial blood gas analysis showed PaCO2 of 61.8mmHg and PaO2 of 26.4mmHg, indicating a status asthmaticus of hypoxaemia and hypercarbia, which did not respond to bronchodilator or mechanical ventilation. Impending cardiac arrest was treated using venovenous extracorporeal life support, which was administered by percutaneous femoral cannulation. Surgical procedure was completed without any complications. Extracorporeal life support was weaned at one day after the operation. The patient was discharged without any complications.

  16. How can multi criteria decision analysis support value assessment of pharmaceuticals? - Findings from a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Katarzyna; Zah, Vladimir; Kowalczyk, Marta

    2018-04-29

    As budget constraints become more and more visible, there is growing recognition for greater transparency and greater stakeholders' engagement in the pharmaceuticals' pric-ing&reimbursement (P&R) decision making. New frameworks of drugs' value assessments are searched for. Among them, the multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) receives more and more attention. In 2014, ISPOR established Task Force to provide methodological recommendations for MCDA utilization in the health care decision making. Still, there is not so much knowledge about the real life experience with MCDA's adaptation to the P&R processes. Areas covered: A systematic literature review was performed to understand the rationale for MCDA adaptation, methodology used as well as its impact on P&R outcomes. Expert commentary: In total 102 hits were found through the search of databases, out of which 18 publications were selected. Although limited in scope, the review highlighted how MCDA can im-prove the decision making processes not only regarding pricing & reimbursement but also contribute to the the risk benefit assessment as well as optimization of treatment outcomes. Still none of re-viewed studies did report how MCDA results actually impacted the real life settings.

  17. Non-surgical spinal decompression therapy: does the scientific literature support efficacy claims made in the advertising media?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dwain M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traction therapy has been utilized in the treatment of low back pain for decades. The most recent incarnation of traction therapy is non-surgical spinal decompression therapy which can cost over $100,000. This form of therapy has been heavily marketed to manual therapy professions and subsequently to the consumer. The purpose of this paper is to initiate a debate pertaining to the relationship between marketing claims and the scientific literature on non-surgical spinal decompression. Discussion Only one small randomized controlled trial and several lower level efficacy studies have been performed on spinal decompression therapy. In general the quality of these studies is questionable. Many of the studies were performed using the VAX-D® unit which places the patient in a prone position. Often companies utilize this research for their marketing although their units place the patient in the supine position. Summary Only limited evidence is available to warrant the routine use of non-surgical spinal decompression, particularly when many other well investigated, less expensive alternatives are available.

  18. Stress relaxation and creep of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core support ceramic materials: a literature search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, J.E.; Tennery, V.J.

    1980-05-01

    Creep and stress relaxation in structural ceramics are important properties to the high-temperature design and safety analysis of the core support structure of the HTGR. The ability of the support structure to function for the lifetime of the reactor is directly related to the allowable creep strain and the ability of the structure to withstand thermal transients. The thermal-mechanical response of the core support pads to steady-state stresses and potential thermal transients depends on variables, including the ability of the ceramics to undergo some stress relaxation in relatively short times. Creep and stress relaxation phenomena in structural ceramics of interest were examined. Of the materials considered (fused silica, alumina, silicon nitride, and silicon carbide), alumina has been more extensively investigated in creep. Activation energies reported varied between 482 and 837 kJ/mole, and consequently, variations in the assigned mechanisms were noted. Nabarro-Herring creep is considered as the primary creep mechanism and no definite grain size dependence has been identified. Results for silicon nitride are in better agreement with reported activation energies. No creep data were found for fused silica or silicon carbide and no stress relaxation data were found for any of the candidate materials. While creep and stress relaxation are similar and it is theoretically possible to derive the value of one property when the other is known, no explicit demonstrated relationship exists between the two. For a given structural ceramic material, both properties must be experimentally determined to obtain the information necessary for use in high-temperature design and safety analyses

  19. The experiences and support needs of people with intellectual disabilities who identify as LGBT: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Edward; Lee, Regina; Brown, Michael

    2016-10-01

    People who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) can face many challenges in society including accessing education, care and support appropriate to individual needs. However, there is a growing and evolving evidence base about the specific needs of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in this regard. The aim of this review was to explore the experiences of people with ID who identified as LGBT through an examination of studies that addressed their views and highlighted specific issues, concerns and service responses. A comprehensive search of relevant databases from February 1995 to February 2015 was conducted. Studies were identified that met specific criteria that included: empirical peer reviewed studies, the use of recognised research methods and focused on people with ID whom identified as LGBT. The search yielded 161 papers in total. The search was narrowed and 37 papers were screened using rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria. Finally, 14 papers were considered suitable for the review. The data were analysed and key themes identified that included accessing health services, gender and sexual identity, attitudes of people with ID regarding their LGBT status, and education, supports and therapeutic interventions. There is a need for service providers and carers to be more responsive to the concerns of people with ID who identify as LGBT to improve their health and well-being by reducing stigma and discrimination and by increasing awareness of their care and support needs. The implications are discussed in terms of policy, education, research and practice developments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of a new generation of operations support systems on current spacecraft operations philosophy: The users feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroy, Jean Michel

    1993-01-01

    Current trends in the spacecraft mission operations area (spacecraft & mission complexity, project duration, required flexibility are requiring a breakthrough for what concerns philosophy, organization, and support tools. A major evolution is related to space operations 'informationalization', i.e adding to existing operations support & data processing systems a new generation of tools based on advanced information technologies (object-oriented programming, artificial intelligence, data bases, hypertext) that automate, at least partially, operations tasks that used be performed manually (mission & project planning/scheduling, operations procedures elaboration & execution, data analysis & failure diagnosis). All the major facets of this 'informationalization' are addressed at MATRA MARCONI SPACE, operational applications were fielded and generic products are becoming available. These various applications have generated a significant feedback from the users (at ESA, CNES, ARIANESPACE, MATRA MARCONI SPACE), which is now allowing us to precisely measure how the deployment of this new generation of tools, that we called OPSWARE, can 'reengineer' current spacecraft mission operations philosophy, how it can make space operations faster, better, and cheaper. This paper can be considered as an update of the keynote address 'Knowledge-Based Systems for Spacecraft Control' presented during the first 'Ground Data Systems for Spacecraft Control' conference in Darmstadt, June 1990, with a special emphasis on these last two years users feedback.

  1. Multidimensional ultrasound and computed tomography imaging support in bleeding plexiform neurofibromatosis of the scalp: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Wortsman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Active bleeding in plexiform neurofibromatosis can be a life-threatening complication in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. The prompt imaging support of 2D-3D ultrasound (US and computed tomography (CT during the active hemorrhage phase of cutaneous neurofibromas has not been previously reported. We report a case with NF1 who experienced a sudden swelling in the parieto-temporal region that corresponded to a massive and active hemorrhage within a plexiform neurofibroma. The US and CT imaging characteristics of this bleeding tumor are shown. Active hemorrhage in a plexiform neurofibroma of the scalp appeared in US as a heterogeneous hypodermal mass. CT demonstrated a fully hyperdense soft tissue mass. These characteristics differ from the non-complicated or old hemorrhagic imaging appearances of scalp plexiform neurofibromas and encourage prompt surgical treatment. This case report demonstrates the usefulness of imaging support in the early diagnosis of this hemorrhagic complication of NF1 in the scalp and also stimulates multispecialty management.

  2. Propylthiouracil-induced liver failure and artificial liver support systems: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu DB

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dong-Bo Wu,1,2 En-Qiang Chen,1,2 Lang Bai,1,2 Hong Tang1,2 1Center of Infectious Diseases, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 2Division of Molecular Biology of Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Background: Antithyroid drugs carry a potential risk of hepatotoxicity. Propylthiouracil (PTU is commonly prescribed for patients with hyperthyroidism. PTU, however, can induce liver injury, ranging from mild asymptomatic elevation of aminotransferases to acute liver failure (ALF.Case presentation: This case reports on a 16-year-old Chinese girl with hyperthyroidism, who was admitted to our hospital for jaundice, nausea, and fatigue associated with severe hyperbilirubinemia and coagulopathy. She had been prescribed PTU 5 months earlier. There was no history of hypersensitivity to drugs, viral liver diseases, blood transfusion, or surgery. On the basis of her symptoms and the clinical data, she was diagnosed with PTU-induced ALF. Due to the limited number of available donor organs for liver transplantation, she was started on treatment with artificial liver support system (ALSS. After four sessions of ALSS, her clinical signs and symptoms were found to be markedly improved, and she was discharged 25 days after admission. Four months later, her liver function normalized.Conclusion: Although PTU-induced liver failure is rare in clinical practice, liver function should be appropriately monitored during treatment with PTU. PTU-induced ALF in this patient was successfully managed with an ALSS, suggesting that the latter may be an alternative to liver transplantation. Keywords: propylthiouracil, liver injury, acute liver failure, artificial liver support systems 

  3. Among Patients Undergoing Ablative Treatment for Oral Cancer, Does the Provision of Oral Rehabilitation Improve the Quality of Life? A Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, Vahe; Ball, Dimity; Harrison, Rebecca; Ameerally, Phillip

    2016-05-01

    The impact of oral cancer and its treatment is well documented; therefore, oral rehabilitation (OH; eg, with prosthetics, osseointegrated implants, etc) can be indicated to restore some level of form, function, and well-being. The purpose of this study was to review the current literature and evaluate the impact of OH on quality of life (QoL) after ablative surgery. A systematic literature search was conducted using EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO. The study population was composed of all articles published from 2000 to 2015. To be included, studies had to use validated, specific head and neck QoL measurements (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL Head and Neck Module or University of Washington QoL Questionnaire). Only 8 articles met these inclusion criteria. In this review, OH was the primary predictor variable and QoL was the primary outcome variable. The 8 articles reviewed used a range of designs, including 1 randomized controlled trial, 3 prospective cohort studies, 3 case series, and 1 single-measurement cross-sectional descriptive study. Sample sizes were small (n = 26 to 102), and there was limited randomization and control of intervention and comparator groups. The overall level of evidence was weak. All studies showed a link between OH and QoL, but the results varied in significance (P < .01 to P = .95). Overall, there appears to be improvement in QoL to varying degrees after OH. However, a more systematic use of QoL measurements is needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Social networking site (SNS) use by adolescent mothers: Can social support and social capital be enhanced by online social networks? - A structured review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Samantha; Hendricks, Joyce; Ferguson, Sally; Towell, Amanda

    2017-05-01

    to critically appraise the available literature and summarise the evidence relating to adolescent mothers' use of social networking sites in terms of any social support and social capital they may provide and to identify areas for future exploration. social networking sites have been demonstrated to provide social support to marginalised individuals and provide psycho-social benefits to members of such groups. Adolescent mothers are at risk of; social marginalisation; anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms; and poorer health and educational outcomes for their children. Social support has been shown to benefit adolescent mothers thus online mechanisms require consideration. a review of original research articles METHOD: key terms and Boolean operators identified research reports across a 20-year timeframe pertaining to the area of enquiry in: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, Scopus, ERIC, ProQuest, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Health Collection (Informit) and Google Scholar databases. Eight original research articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. studies demonstrate that adolescent mothers actively search for health information using the Internet and social networking sites, and that social support and social capital can be attributed to their use of specifically created online groups from within targeted health interventions. Use of a message board forum for pregnant and parenting adolescents also demonstrates elements of social support. There are no studies to date pertaining to adolescent mothers' use of globally accessible social networking sites in terms of social support provision and related outcomes. further investigation is warranted to explore the potential benefits of adolescent mothers' use of globally accessible social networking sites in terms of any social support provision and social capital they may provide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mindfulness Meditation Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adulthood: Current Empirical Support, Treatment Overview, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John T.; Zylowska, Lidia; Kollins, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining nonpharmacological interventions for adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has expanded in recent years and provides patients with more treatment options. Mindfulness-based training is an example of an intervention that is gaining promising preliminary empirical support and is increasingly administered in clinical settings. The aim of this review is to provide a rationale for the application of mindfulness to individuals diagnosed with ADHD, describe the current state of the empirical basis for mindfulness training in ADHD, and summarize a treatment approach specific to adults diagnosed with ADHD: the Mindful Awareness Practices (MAPs) for ADHD Program. Two case study examples are provided to demonstrate relevant clinical issues for practitioners interested in this approach. Directions for future research, including mindfulness meditation as a standalone treatment and as a complementary approach to cognitive-behavioral therapy, are provided. PMID:25908900

  6. Supporting same-sex mothers in the Nordic child health field: a systematic literature review and meta-synthesis of the most gender equal countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Michael B; Lang, Sarah N

    2016-12-01

    To explore the needs of and support given to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents within the Nordic child health field. The number of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents is growing around the world. However, they face fear, discrimination and heteronormativity within the child health field. The Nordic countries (Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland) rank as the most gender equal countries in the world; therefore, they may support lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents to a greater extent. Systematic literature review and meta-synthesis. A systematic search was conducted for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents' experiences in the child health field, which consists of prenatal, labour and birth, postnatal and child health clinics, using PubMed, PsychInfo, Sociological Abstracts and CINAHL, as well as searching the grey literature, from 2000-2015. Ten articles were included. A quality assessment and a meta-synthesis of the articles were performed. Nearly all studies were qualitative, and most articles had at least one area of insufficient reporting. Only two countries, Sweden and Norway, had lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents reporting on the child health field. However, gay, bisexual, transgender and inter-sex parents' perspectives were nonexistent in the literature; therefore, the results all relate to same-sex mothers. Five themes were found: Acceptance of Same-sex Mothers, Disclosing Sexual Orientation, Heteronormative Obstacles, Co-mothers are Not Fathers, and Being the Other Parent. Same-sex mothers are generally accepted within the Nordic child health field, but they still face overt and covert heteronormative obstacles, resulting in forms of discrimination and fear. Co-mothers feel invisible and secondary if they are not treated like an equal parent, but feel noticed and important when they are given equal support. Changes at the

  7. Smoke inhalation injury in a pregnant patient: a literature review of the evidence and current best practices in the setting of a classic case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderique, Ensign Joseph D; Gebre-Giorgis, Abel A; Stewart, Dane H; Feldman, Michael J; Pozez, Andrea L

    2012-01-01

    For smoke inhalation injury of a pregnant woman, one must treat two patients and be aware of the potential effects of carbon monoxide (CO) and cyanide (CN) poisoning on both the mother and the fetus. In a pregnant woman, the size and age of the fetus and the degree of poisoning allow for tremendous variability in the toxicity of CO and CN and their respective treatment options. The authors will review a case of a 32-year-old woman who was at 37 weeks of gestation and admitted to the Evans-Haynes Burn Center after a house fire and received hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit) for suspected CN poisoning. In addition, a review of the literature, current guidelines, and treatment options of inhalation injury during pregnancy will be discussed. The authors will focus only on the toxic components of smoke inhalation injury rather than the mechanical components from heat and particulate damage. Literature review clearly identifies that the treatment of pregnant women with inhalation injury remains a controversial subject. The use of hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit) as a treatment modality for potential CN poisoning in a pregnant patient has not been reported in the literature. Animal studies have shown that combined CO and CN poisoning are more lethal than either one alone and at lower concentrations. Due to the synergistic effects of CO and CN, and because these two toxins concentrate at even higher levels in the fetus than the mother, the authors will clarify the urgent seriousness of prompt administration of hydroxocobalamin in a pregnant patient with suspected smoke inhalation injury. This case review details the treatment of a 32-year-old woman who was at 36 weeks of gestation on admission to the Evans-Haynes Burn Center. The authors will report her injuries and the course of treatment. Although burned and presenting with concomitant smoke inhalation injury, both the woman and her child fared well with no significant complications due to the smoke inhalation at 6 months of follow

  8. Optimizing fitness for duty and post-combat clinical services for military personnel and combat veterans with ADHD-a systematic review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Iliyan; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyper activity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder, most often diagnosed in childhood, and characterized by hyperactivity and inattention that negatively impacts one's ability to function and fulfill social and personal obligations. Individuals with past history of ADHD may enlist in the military under certain conditions, however the full impact of military training and deployment of later in life ADHD symptoms is unclear. It is of particular interest how military experience may affect ADHD in remission and if such individuals might be at elevated risk for relapse of ADHD symptoms. We performed a systematic review f the available literature including the Department of Defense (DOD) guidelines for both eligibility to enlist and fitness for deployment based on reported history and current symptomatology of ADHD. The after care for veterans with ADHD relapse is inconsistent and presents with number of challenges. We evaluate the DOD policies regarding the implications of ADHD for fitness for military service and post-combat mental health. The full extend of the interaction between pre-existing ADHD and post-combat PTSD are not fully understood. The development of comprehensive and clear algorithms for diagnosing and treating ADHD in the military before and after deployment will have a strong positive impact on the quality of care delivered to soldiers and veterans.

  9. Optimizing fitness for duty and post-combat clinical services for military personnel and combat veterans with ADHD—a systematic review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyan Ivanov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit hyper activity disorder (ADHD is a developmental disorder, most often diagnosed in childhood, and characterized by hyperactivity and inattention that negatively impacts one's ability to function and fulfill social and personal obligations. Individuals with past history of ADHD may enlist in the military under certain conditions, however the full impact of military training and deployment of later in life ADHD symptoms is unclear. It is of particular interest how military experience may affect ADHD in remission and if such individuals might be at elevated risk for relapse of ADHD symptoms. Method: We performed a systematic review f the available literature including the Department of Defense (DOD guidelines for both eligibility to enlist and fitness for deployment based on reported history and current symptomatology of ADHD. Results: The after care for veterans with ADHD relapse is inconsistent and presents with number of challenges. We evaluate the DOD policies regarding the implications of ADHD for fitness for military service and post-combat mental health. Conclusion: The full extend of the interaction between pre-existing ADHD and post-combat PTSD are not fully understood. The development of comprehensive and clear algorithms for diagnosing and treating ADHD in the military before and after deployment will have a strong positive impact on the quality of care delivered to soldiers and veterans.

  10. Understanding Cultural Influences on Dietary Habits in Asian, Middle Eastern, and Latino Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Review of Current Literature and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Natalie; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2017-10-23

    This review focuses on evaluating and identifying gaps in the current literature regarding culturally specific dietary influences for patients with type 2 diabetes. As this topic has previously been examined in African American populations, we chose to focus on four other distinct populations (Hispanic, Middle Eastern, Western Pacific, South Asian). Given the rapid increase in global rates of type 2 diabetes and high rates of diabetes among certain ethnic groups, it is important to understand how culturally adapted strategies in diabetes management have been described in different regions and populations. The specific role of nutrition in controlling diabetes is tied to cultural habits and customs. Variation in cultural practices, including diet, create unique environments in which patients with diabetes must navigate. The role of family, particularly among Hispanics, is crucial to cultural adaptations of diabetes management. Incorporating alternative medicine, namely observed in Chinese and Indian populations, also guided diabetes care strategies. Language barriers, health literacy, and acculturation were all unique factors affecting cultural approaches to diabetes management in these four populations. Understanding such cultural determinants is crucial to addressing diabetes disparities and improving outcomes.

  11. Quality tools and resources to support organisational improvement integral to high-quality primary care: a systematic review of published and grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janamian, Tina; Upham, Susan J; Crossland, Lisa; Jackson, Claire L

    2016-04-18

    To conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify existing online primary care quality improvement tools and resources to support organisational improvement related to the seven elements in the Primary Care Practice Improvement Tool (PC-PIT), with the identified tools and resources to progress to a Delphi study for further assessment of relevance and utility. Systematic review of the international published and grey literature. CINAHL, Embase and PubMed databases were searched in March 2014 for articles published between January 2004 and December 2013. GreyNet International and other relevant websites and repositories were also searched in March-April 2014 for documents dated between 1992 and 2012. All citations were imported into a bibliographic database. Published and unpublished tools and resources were included in the review if they were in English, related to primary care quality improvement and addressed any of the seven PC-PIT elements of a high-performing practice. Tools and resources that met the eligibility criteria were then evaluated for their accessibility, relevance, utility and comprehensiveness using a four-criteria appraisal framework. We used a data extraction template to systematically extract information from eligible tools and resources. A content analysis approach was used to explore the tools and resources and collate relevant information: name of the tool or resource, year and country of development, author, name of the organisation that provided access and its URL, accessibility information or problems, overview of each tool or resource and the quality improvement element(s) it addresses. If available, a copy of the tool or resource was downloaded into the bibliographic database, along with supporting evidence (published or unpublished) on its use in primary care. This systematic review identified 53 tools and resources that can potentially be provided as part of a suite of tools and resources to support primary care practices in

  12. Strata control in tunnels and an evaluation of support units and systems currently used with a view to improving the effectiveness of support, stability and safety of tunnels.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Haile, AT

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This report details a methodology for rational design of tunnel support systems based on a mechanistic evaluation of the interaction between the components of a tunnel support system and a highly discontinuous rock mass structure. This analysis...

  13. Reengineering of MeSH thesauri for term selection to optimize literature retrieval and knowledge reconstruction in support of stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Andrews, James; Huang, Hong; Wang, Yue; Kong, Liangliang; Cannon, Peter; Xu, Ping

    2016-05-23

    PubMed is a widely used database for scientists to find biomedical-related literature. Due to the complexity of the selected research subject and its interdisciplinary nature, as well as the exponential growth in the number of disparate pieces of biomedical literature, it is an overwhelming challenge for scientists to define the right search strategies and quickly locate all related information. Specialized subsets and groupings of controlled vocabularies, such as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), can enhance information retrieval in specialized domains, such as stem cell research. There is a need to develop effective search strategies and convenient solutions for knowledge organization in stem cell research. The understanding of the interrelationships between these MeSH terms also facilitates the building of knowledge organization systems in related subject fields. This study collected empirical data for MeSH-related terms from stem cell literature and developed a novel approach that uses both automation and expert-selection to create a set of terms that supports enhanced retrieval. The selected MeSH terms were reconstructed into a classified thesaurus that can guide researchers towards a successful search and knowledge organization of stem cell literature. First, 4253 MeSH terms were harvested from a sample of 5527 stem cell related research papers from the PubMed database. Next, unrelated terms were filtered out based on term frequency and specificity. Precision and recall measures were used to help identify additional valuable terms, which were mostly non-MeSH terms. The study identified 15 terms that specifically referred to stem cell research for information retrieval, which would yield a higher precision (97.7 %) and recall (94.4 %) rates in comparison to other approaches. In addition, 128 root MeSH terms were selected to conduct knowledge organization of stem cell research in categories of anatomy, disease, and others. This study presented a novel strategy

  14. Generating demand and community support for sexual and reproductive health services for young people: A review of the Literature and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterton, Amy J; Cabral de Mello, Meena

    2010-09-24

    This review investigates the effectiveness of interventions aimed at generating demand for and use of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services by young people; and interventions aimed at generating wider community support for their use. Reports and publications were found in the peer-reviewed and grey literature through academic search engines; web searches; the bibliographies of known conference proceedings and papers; and consultation with experts. The studies were reviewed against a set of inclusion criteria and those that met these were explored in more depth. The evidence-base for interventions aimed at both generating demand and community support for SRH services for young people was found under-developed and many available studies do not provide strong evidence. However, the potential of several methods to increase youth uptake has been demonstrated, this includes the linking of school education programs with youth friendly services, life skills approaches and social marketing and franchising. There is also evidence that the involvement of key community gatekeepers such as parents and religious leaders is vital to generating wider community support. In general a combined multi-component approach seems most promising with several success stories to build on. Many areas for further research have been highlighted and there is a great need for more rigorous evaluation of programmes in this area. In particular, further evaluation of individual components within a multi-component approach is needed to elucidate the most effective interventions.

  15. Generating demand and community support for sexual and reproductive health services for young people: A review of the Literature and Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral de Mello Meena

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This review investigates the effectiveness of interventions aimed at generating demand for and use of sexual and reproductive health (SRH services by young people; and interventions aimed at generating wider community support for their use. Methods Reports and publications were found in the peer-reviewed and grey literature through academic search engines; web searches; the bibliographies of known conference proceedings and papers; and consultation with experts. The studies were reviewed against a set of inclusion criteria and those that met these were explored in more depth. Results The evidence-base for interventions aimed at both generating demand and community support for SRH services for young people was found under-developed and many available studies do not provide strong evidence. However, the potential of several methods to increase youth uptake has been demonstrated, this includes the linking of school education programs with youth friendly services, life skills approaches and social marketing and franchising. There is also evidence that the involvement of key community gatekeepers such as parents and religious leaders is vital to generating wider community support. In general a combined multi-component approach seems most promising with several success stories to build on. Conclusions Many areas for further research have been highlighted and there is a great need for more rigorous evaluation of programmes in this area. In particular, further evaluation of individual components within a multi-component approach is needed to elucidate the most effective interventions.

  16. Generating demand and community support for sexual and reproductive health services for young people: A review of the Literature and Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background This review investigates the effectiveness of interventions aimed at generating demand for and use of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services by young people; and interventions aimed at generating wider community support for their use. Methods Reports and publications were found in the peer-reviewed and grey literature through academic search engines; web searches; the bibliographies of known conference proceedings and papers; and consultation with experts. The studies were reviewed against a set of inclusion criteria and those that met these were explored in more depth. Results The evidence-base for interventions aimed at both generating demand and community support for SRH services for young people was found under-developed and many available studies do not provide strong evidence. However, the potential of several methods to increase youth uptake has been demonstrated, this includes the linking of school education programs with youth friendly services, life skills approaches and social marketing and franchising. There is also evidence that the involvement of key community gatekeepers such as parents and religious leaders is vital to generating wider community support. In general a combined multi-component approach seems most promising with several success stories to build on. Conclusions Many areas for further research have been highlighted and there is a great need for more rigorous evaluation of programmes in this area. In particular, further evaluation of individual components within a multi-component approach is needed to elucidate the most effective interventions. PMID:20863411

  17. The Current Situation of ICT Development in the Middle East and ICT Support Policies. The Case of Syrian Arab Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Yamamoto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how ICT development is progressing and what kind of political and social effects have been occurring (or could occur in the near future in Middle Eastern Arabic countries. To examine this theme, this paper will adopt the Syrian Arab Republic as a case. To understand the Syrian government's policy toward the ICT development, it is necessary to examine the domestic political situation, since they are closely related. Under the Bashar Al- Asad's regime, we can confirm several reasons why they have to move forward on their ICT development policy and why it has become a crucial issue, which they cannot evade, as they had done under the previous regime, Hafez Al- Asad's regime. The situation that the Syrian government is facing right now is known by the term, "Dictator's Dilemma". This paper tries to provide bases in order to examine and explore this dilemma in Syria. Also, when we examine ICT development in Syria, it is important to consider the ICT support policies, which are mainly conducted by OECD countries and international organizations and stem from the issue of "Digital Divide". This is why international assistances could have great effect on ICT development in Syria. As a provisional conclusion of this paper, I will summarize how we can understand the current situation of ICT development in Syria, and I will also comment on the future prospect of the dilemma that the Syrian government is facing at the present time.

  18. Fiscal Equalization in the System of Financial Support of Ukraine’s Regions: the Current State and Vector of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voznyak Halyna V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities in the functioning of the current system of inter-budget relations in Ukraine from the perspective of its impact on the regional development have been disclosed. The instruments of implementing fiscal equalization are analyzed, the functioning structure of inter-budget transfers in Ukraine is presented, its characteristics are given. The study demonstrates that the domestic financial equalization system is unable to perform its functions. The conducted analysis of the dynamics and structure of inter-budget transfers made it possible to identify a number of shortcomings in the sphere of inter-budget relations: the excessive centralization of financial resources of regions and their transfer dependence; the imbalances and low revenue capacity of local budgets; the imperfect mechanisms for calculating transfers and terms of transferring, etc. It is noted that in the process of implementing the budgetary policy of the regions, it is advisable to pay more attention to forms of budget support and methods of budgetary regulation.

  19. Overview and analysis of current BIPV products: new criteria for supporting the technological transfer in the building sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Bonomo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for nearly-Zero Energy Buildings is rapidly contributing to change the building skin from being a passive barrier towards a sensitive and active interface. Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV is a unique solution for delivering clean, safe, affordable and decentralized electricity to people transforming the building surfaces in active solar collectors. Despite photovoltaic (PV technology and their basic usage are today known to everybody, the particular requirements for building integration have brought to the surface some issues over the years so that BIPV is still a niche market. Starting from this observation, the paper presents the results of an investigation on the current market of BIPV products for roofs and façade. The analysis aimed to identify the relevant possibilities the products today offer and the level of information that the producers make available within the technical description of BIPV systems. After disclosing the actual lack of information in comparison to conventional building products, the authors propose to implement a new “building-based” approach that could support the BIPV market by including a more comprehensive description of the product’s quality (today mainly comprising electrical and basic physical features. Such a “building-technology” perspective, also considering the recent normative framework in BIPV field, is expected to encourage the technological transfer of PV in the building sector by facilitating the daily work of architects, installers and the whole value chain.

  20. Systematic review of the literature on postpartum care: effectiveness of postpartum support to improve maternal parenting, mental health, quality of life, and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Elizabeth; Levitt, Cheryl; Wong, Sharon; Kaczorowski, Janusz

    2006-09-01

    Postpartum support is recommended to prevent infant and maternal morbidity. This review examined the published evidence of the effectiveness of postpartum support programs to improve maternal knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to parenting, maternal mental health, maternal quality of life, and maternal physical health. MEDLINE, Cinahl, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials of interventions initiated from immediately after birth to 1 year in postnatal women. The initial literature search was done in 1999 and was enhanced in 2003 and 2005. Studies were categorized based on the the above outcomes. Data were extracted in a systematic manner, and the quality of each study was reviewed. In the 1999 search, 9 studies met the inclusion criteria. The 2003 and 2005 searches identified 13 additional trials for a total of 22 trials. Universal postpartum support to unselected women at low risk did not result in statistically significant improvements for any outcomes examined. Educational visits to a pediatrician showed statistically significant improvements in maternal-infant parenting skills in low-income primiparous women. In women at high risk for family dysfunction and child abuse, nurse home visits combined with case conferencing produced a statistically significant improvement in home environment quality using the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) program. Similarly, in women at high risk for either family dysfunction or postpartum depression, home visitation or peer support, respectively, produced a statistically significant reduction in Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores (difference - 2.23, 95% CI -3.72 to -0.74, p= 0.004; and 15.0% vs 52.4%, OR 6.23, 95% CI 1.40 to 27.84, p= 0.01, respectively). Educational programs reduced repeat unplanned pregnancies (12.0% vs 28.3%, p= 0.003) and increased effective contraceptive use (RR 1.35, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.68, p= 0.007). Maternal satisfaction was

  1. Photographic Tourism Research: Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Virdee, Inderpal

    2017-01-01

    This study reviews the current photographic tourism literature to identify what fields within tourism have been studied by researchers, the contexts, the samples used, the sampling methods employed, the photographic methods and supporting methods used, the data analysis techniques applied and the countries studied. A set of 115 relevant academic articles were selected and assessed using content analysis. The findings showed that overall publications in the field of photographic tourism increa...

  2. Strata control in tunnels and an evaluation of support units and systems currently used with a view to improving the effectiveness of support stability and safety of tunnels.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Haile, AT

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This project report addresses the issue of strata control in tunnel excavations with the aim of improving the stability of the excavation through improved design methodologies and support systems....

  3. Low-Li2O Frits: Selecting Glasses that Support the Melt Rate Studies and Challenge the Current Durability Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.

    2005-01-01

    During the progressive development of the cold cap model (as it applies to a potential melt rate predictive tool), the formation of an Al-Li-silicate phase was identified as an intermediate reaction phase that could possibly hinder melt rate for SB4. To test this theory, six glasses were designed (using Frit 320's composition as the baseline) to maintain a constant 20 wt% sum of alkali content (in frit) by varying Na 2 O to Li 2 O ratios. The Li 2 O concentration ranged from 8 wt% down to 0% in either 2% or 1% increments with the differences being accounted for by an increase in Na 2 O concentration. Although the primary objective of the ''lower Li 2 O'' frits was to evaluate the potential for melt rate improvements, assessments of durability (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) were also performed. The results suggest that durable glasses can be produced with these ''lower Li 2 O'' frits should it be necessary to pursue this option for improving melt rate. In addition to the series of glasses to support melt rate assessments, a series of frits were also developed to challenge the current durability model based on the limits proposed by Edwards et al. (2004). Although the ''new'' limits allow access into compositional regions of interest (i.e., higher alkali systems) which can improve melt rate and/or waste loading, there may still be ''additional'' conservatism. In this report, two series of glasses were developed to challenge the ''new'' durability limits for the SB4 system. In the first series, the total alkali of the Frit 320-based glasses (designed to support the melt rate program) was increased from 20 wt% to 21 wt% (in the frit), but the series also evaluated the possible impact of various Na 2 O and Li 2 O mass ratio differences. The second series pushed the alkali limit in the frit even further with frits containing either 22 or 24 wt% total alkali as well as various Na 2 O and Li 2 O mass ratios. The results of the PCT evaluation indicated

  4. Does knowledge of teen driving risks and awareness of current law translate into support for stronger GDL provisions? Lessons learned from one state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brendan T; Chaudhary, Neil K; Saleheen, Hassan; Borrup, Kevin; Lapidus, Garry

    2009-08-01

    Many states are considering strengthening their graduated driving licensing (GDL) systems for teenage drivers but most do not know the level of public support for proposed upgrades. This study provides a method for states to identify specific demographic groups that may differ with regard to their awareness of teen driving risks, knowledge of current GDL law, and support for GDL upgrades. A 28-item questionnaire was administered to Connecticut adults by phone survey during January 2008. We collected demographic information and whether respondents understood driving risks, were aware of the current GDL system, and whether they would support GDL upgrades. The state's motor vehicle crash file (1999-2006) was used to calculate motor vehicle crash rate among 16- and 17-year-old drivers by town and correlate that with support for GDL upgrades. Eight hundred seven people were interviewed. More women than men (92% vs. 86%, p towns (38%). Two thirds supported a passenger restriction upgrade with no differences based upon sex or geographic location. There was less support for an increased penalties in Fairfield County when compared to all other counties (55% vs. 63%, p County versus all other counties (70% vs. 58%, p < .05). Parents of Connecticut teens were more knowledgeable of current law but less supportive of GDL upgrades compared to other adults. Women were more apt to favor GDL upgrades than men. This study identifies subgroups that can be targeted for prevention activities and illustrates a useful method to assess public support for GDL upgrades.

  5. Food traceability systems in China: The current status of and future perspectives on food supply chain databases, legal support, and technological research and support for food safety regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Li, Jiajia; Sun, Mei; Lv, Jun; Gai, Ruoyan; Mei, Lin; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-02-01

    Over the past few decades, the field of food security has witnessed numerous problems and incidents that have garnered public attention. Given this serious situation, the food traceability system (FTS) has become part of the expanding food safety continuum to reduce the risk of food safety problems. This article reviews a great deal of the related literature and results from previous studies of FTS to corroborate this contention. This article describes the development and benefits of FTS in developed countries like the United States of America (USA), Japan, and some European countries. Problems with existing FTS in China are noted, including a lack of a complete database, inadequate laws and regulations, and lagging technological research into FTS. This article puts forward several suggestions for the future, including improvement of information websites, clarification of regulatory responsibilities, and promotion of technological research.

  6. Current Practice in Meeting Child Health Needs in Family Support Services: Variation by Service Type and Perspectives on Future Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Dolan, Pat; Canavan, John; O'Higgins, Siobhan

    2009-01-01

    The needs of all service users include those related to physical, emotional, sexual and mental health. This article documents where child health needs are recognised and being met within family support services in the west of Ireland, investigates whether there is variation across different types of family support services and presents the views…

  7. Automated Medical Literature Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hawking

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The constantly growing publication rate of medical research articles puts increasing pressure on medical specialists who need to be aware of the recent developments in their field. The currently used literature retrieval systems allow researchers to find specific papers; however the search task is still repetitive and time-consuming. Aims In this paper we describe a system that retrieves medical publications by automatically generating queries based on data from an electronic patient record. This allows the doctor to focus on medical issues and provide an improved service to the patient, with higher confidence that it is underpinned by current research. Method Our research prototype automatically generates query terms based on the patient record and adds weight factors for each term. Currently the patient’s age is taken into account with a fuzzy logic derived weight, and terms describing blood-related anomalies are derived from recent blood test results. Conditionally selected homonyms are used for query expansion. The query retrieves matching records from a local index of PubMed publications and displays results in descending relevance for the given patient. Recent publications are clearly highlighted for instant recognition by the researcher. Results Nine medical specialists from the Royal Adelaide Hospital evaluated the system and submitted pre-trial and post-trial questionnaires. Throughout the study we received positive feedback as doctors felt the support provided by the prototype was useful, and which they would like to use in their daily routine. Conclusion By supporting the time-consuming task of query formulation and iterative modification as well as by presenting the search results in order of relevance for the specific patient, literature retrieval becomes part of the daily workflow of busy professionals.

  8. Current state of knowledge of hepatic encephalopathy (part IV): Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy by liver support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Tarek

    2017-04-01

    Hepatic Encephalopathy is a devastating complication of End-Stage Liver Disease. In its severe grades it requires extra intervention beyond the standard medical approaches. In this article were view the role of liver support systems in managing hepatic encephalopthy.

  9. In support of a distinction between voluntary and stimulus-driven control: A review of the literature on proportion congruent effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M. Bugg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive control is by now a large umbrella term referring collectively to multiple processes that plan and coordinate actions to meet task goals. A common feature of paradigms that engage cognitive control is the task requirement to select relevant information despite a habitual tendency (or bias to select goal-irrelevant information. At least since the 70s, researchers have employed proportion congruent manipulations to experimentally establish selection biases and evaluate the mechanisms used to control attention. Proportion congruent manipulations vary the frequency with which irrelevant information conflicts (i.e., is incongruent with relevant information. The purpose of this review is to summarize the growing body of literature on proportion congruent effects across selective attention paradigms, beginning first with Stroop, and then describing parallel effects in flanker and task-switching paradigms. The review chronologically tracks the expansion of the proportion congruent manipulation from its initial implementation at the list-wide level, to more recent implementations at the item-specific and context-specific levels. An important theoretical aim is demonstrating that proportion congruent effects at different levels (e.g., list-wide vs. item or context-specific support a distinction between voluntary forms of cognitive control, which operate based on anticipatory information, and relatively automatic or reflexive forms of cognitive control, which are rapidly triggered by the processing of particular stimuli or stimulus features. A further aim is to highlight those proportion congruent manipulations that allow researchers to dissociate stimulus-driven control from other stimulus-driven processes (e.g., S-R responding; episodic retrieval. We conclude by discussing the utility of proportion congruent manipulations for exploring the distinction between voluntary control and stimulus-driven control in other relevant paradigms.

  10. The role of chronic pain and current substance use in predicting negative social support among disadvantaged persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mary M; Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Nguyen, Trang Q; Isenberg, Sarina; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-10-01

    Chronic pain and substance use can strain the supportive relationships of persons with serious chronic illness, which may increase the likelihood of receiving negative, rather than positive, social support from informal caregivers and social network members. To our knowledge, this is the first study to longitudinally examine the effects of chronic pain and substance use on negative social support. The sample (N = 383) comprised disadvantaged, primarily African-American, persons living with HIV/AIDS with a history of injection drug use, 32.4% of whom reported frequent or constant pain in the prior 6 months. Using factor analysis and structural equation modeling, current substance use and greater levels of chronic pain positively predicted negative social support 12 months later, after controlling for baseline negative support, viral load, age and sex. We also found a significant interaction effect such that among those not using substances, there was a significant positive association between pain and negative support, but no such association among those currently using substances. The findings emphasize the importance of treatment of chronic pain and substance use in the supportive functioning of social networks of a disadvantaged population with serious chronic conditions and persistent health disparities.

  11. High frequencies of elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and rickets exist in extremely low birth weight infants despite current nutritional support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteopenia and rickets are common among extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, <1000 g birth weight) despite current practices of vitamin and mineral supplementation. Few data are available evaluating the usual course of markers of mineral status in this population. Our objectives in this study w...

  12. The Use of Dexamethasone in Support of High-Altitude Ground Operations: Review of the Literature & Current Training of U.S. Special Operations Medical Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    capacity even in normoxic conditions. For example, high dosages of dexamethasone are used in aerobic endurance sports to enhance physical performance. This...is why the World Anti- Doping Agency prohibits the administration of any glucosteroids during competitions [25]. Fischler and colleagues [24...Medicine; 2004. Technical Note TN04-05. 4. Bärtsch P, Saltin B. General introduction to altitude adaptation and mountain sickness. Scand J Med Sci Sports

  13. Relationship between anode material, supporting electrolyte and current density during electrochemical degradation of organic compounds in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán-Duque, Fernando L. [Grupo de diagnóstico y control de la contaminación, Facultad de ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Palma-Goyes, Ricardo E. [Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis, Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquía Udea, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); González, Ignacio [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No 186, C.P 09340, México D.F (Mexico); Peñuela, Gustavo [Grupo de diagnóstico y control de la contaminación, Facultad de ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Torres-Palma, Ricardo A., E-mail: rtorres@matematicas.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis, Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquía Udea, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Pathway and efficiency are linked to the current-electrode–electrolyte interaction. • Unlike BDD, IrO{sub 2} route was independent of current but dependent on the electrolyte. • IrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} routes were via IrO{sub 3} and chlorine species, respectively. • BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} systems were favored at low and high currents, respectively. - Abstract: Taking crystal violet (CV) dye as pollutant model, the electrode, electrolyte and current density (i) relationship for electro-degrading organic molecules is discussed. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Iridium dioxide (IrO{sub 2}) used as anode materials were tested with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or NaCl as electrolytes. CV degradation and generated oxidants showed that degradation pathways and efficiency are strongly linked to the current density-electrode–electrolyte interaction. With BDD, the degradation pathway depends on i: If i < the limiting current density (i{sub lim}), CV is mainly degraded by ·OH radicals, whereas if i > i{sub lim}, generated oxidants play a major role in the CV elimination. When IrO{sub 2} was used, CV removal was not dependent on i, but on the electrolyte. Pollutant degradation in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on IrO{sub 2} seems to occur via IrO{sub 3}; however, in the presence of NaCl, degradation was dependent on the chlorinated oxidative species generated. In terms of efficiency, the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte showed better results than NaCl when BDD anodes were employed. On the contrary, NaCl was superior when combined with IrO{sub 2}. Thus, the IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} and BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} systems were better at removing the pollutant, being the former the most effective. On the other hand, pollutant degradation with the BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} systems is favored at low and high current densities, respectively.

  14. A novel transient rotor current control scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator equipped with superconducting magnetic energy storage for voltage and frequency support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang-Wu; Ke, De-Ping; Sun, Yuan-Zhang; Daniel, Kirschen; Wang, Yi-Shen; Hu, Yuan-Chao

    2015-07-01

    A novel transient rotor current control scheme is proposed in this paper for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) equipped with a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device to enhance its transient voltage and frequency support capacity during grid faults. The SMES connected to the DC-link capacitor of the DFIG is controlled to regulate the transient dc-link voltage so that the whole capacity of the grid side converter (GSC) is dedicated to injecting reactive power to the grid for the transient voltage support. However, the rotor-side converter (RSC) has different control tasks for different periods of the grid fault. Firstly, for Period I, the RSC injects the demagnetizing current to ensure the controllability of the rotor voltage. Then, since the dc stator flux degenerates rapidly in Period II, the required demagnetizing current is low in Period II and the RSC uses the spare capacity to additionally generate the reactive (priority) and active current so that the transient voltage capability is corroborated and the DFIG also positively responds to the system frequency dynamic at the earliest time. Finally, a small amount of demagnetizing current is provided after the fault clearance. Most of the RSC capacity is used to inject the active current to further support the frequency recovery of the system. Simulations are carried out on a simple power system with a wind farm. Comparisons with other commonly used control methods are performed to validate the proposed control method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51307124) and the Major Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51190105).

  15. (Un)supported Current Tourism Development in UNESCO Protected Site: The Case of Old City of Dubrovnik

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Pavlić; Ana Portolan; Barbara Puh

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to explore and determine perceptions of residents living in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) protected site Old City of Dubrovnik (OCD) towards tourism development. Uncontrolled tourism expansion has impact on local residents’ life and on their (un)support for specific form of tourism development. Comprehension of residents’ perceptions is crucial for realization of adequate tourism development and for mutual satis...

  16. SPIRAL COUNTER-CURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY OF SMALL MOLECULES, PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS USING THE SPIRAL TUBING SUPPORT ROTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Martha; Finn, Thomas M.; Zehmer, John; Clayton, Adam; Pilon, Aprile

    2011-01-01

    An important advance in countercurrent chromatography (CCC) carried out in open flow-tubing coils, rotated in planetary centrifuges, is the new design to spread out the tubing in spirals. More spacing between the tubing was found to significantly increase the stationary phase retention, such that now all types of two-phase solvent systems can be used for liquid-liquid partition chromatography in the J-type planetary centrifuges. A spiral tubing support (STS) frame with circular channels was c...

  17. [Factors Associated with Suicide in Adolescents and Young People Self-Identified as Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual: Current State of the Literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda Roa, Carlos Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    A framework within sexual and reproductive health is presented to understand the mental health issues of the population of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adolescents and young people. Different ways of understanding the nature of internalized homophobia were developed. On the other hand, in suicidology studies it is understood that the risk of suicide consists of the steps of ideation, planning and attempted suicide, and that there is an increased risk of suicide in the LGB population. Numerous factors have been associated with suicide risk in this population, one of the main internalized homophobia and other mental health problems. By means of a literature review, to establish the possible relationship between internalized homophobia and ideation and attempted suicide in the LGB population, as well as to identify the mental health problems associated to suicide risk in sexually diverse communities. Articles in English and Spanish, mainly within the last five years, were reviewed. They included articles in peer reviewed journals, and databases, such as Google Scholar, Redalyc, Byreme, Ovid, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis, MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Ebsco. It was found in the available literature that internalized homophobia is associated with suicide ideation and attempts in adults. A state of science of the major mental health problems associated with suicide risk in young LGB people reported contradictory findings. While some studies showed an association between depression, anxiety and distress and suicidal ideation and attempts, in others, the data do not allow such a conclusion. The theoretical framework presents the most important conceptualizations of suicide risk and emphasizes the social type. It identifies issues of suicide prevention, protective factors that contribute towards this, as well as elements of psychotherapy for LGB consultants. It concludes and discusses the importance of studying the sexually diverse as regards determining factors

  18. A method of multi-crack shape identification from eddy current testing signals of steam generator tubes including support plates as noise sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Endo, Hisashi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Uchimoto, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with identifying multiple cracks from eddy current testing (ECT) signals obtained in a steam generator tube with a support plate and deposits. Assume two-dimensionally scanned ECT signals to be a picture image, then the signal processing by a multi-frequency technique eliminates noise caused by the support plate and deposits. A template matching with help of genetic algorithms detects number and positions of cracks from the image after the signal processing. Inverse analysis estimates the crack profile based on the predicted position of cracks. The number and positions of the cracks are sufficiently well predicted. Crack shape reconstructions are achieved with a satisfactory degree of accuracy. (author)

  19. Secondhand Smoke Is an Important Modifiable Risk Factor in Sickle Cell Disease: A Review of the Current Literature and Areas for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christy Sadreameli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy that causes significant morbidity and mortality related to chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusion, and resultant end-organ damage. Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE through secondhand smoke exposure in people with SCD of all ages and through primary smoking in adolescents and adults is associated with significantly increased morbidity, with increased rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for painful vaso-occlusive crises and acute chest syndrome (ACS. Secondhand smoke is also associated with pulmonary function abnormalities in children with SCD who are already at risk for pulmonary function abnormalities on the basis of SCD. TSE is emerging as one of the few modifiable risk factors of SCD. This review discusses the current state of the evidence with respect to TSE and SCD morbidity, discusses potential mechanisms, and highlights current gaps in the evidence and future research directions.

  20. Level conceptual change pre-service elementary teachers on electric current conceptions through visual multimedia supported conceptual change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermita, N.; Suhandi, A.; Syaodih, E.; Samsudin, A.; Marhadi, H.; Sapriadil, S.; Zaenudin, Z.; Rochman, C.; Mansur, M.; Wibowo, F. C.

    2018-05-01

    Now a day, conceptual change is the most valuable issues in the science education perspective, especially in the elementary education. Researchers have already dialed with the aim of the research to increase level conceptual change process on the electric conceptions through Visual Multimedia Supported Conceptual Change Text (VMMSCCText). We have ever utilized research and development method namely 3D-1I stands for Define, Design, Development, and Implementation. The 27 pre-service elementary teachers were involved in the research. The battery function in circuit electric conception is the futuristic concept which should have been learned by the students. Moreover, the data which was collected reports that static about 0%, disorientation about 0%, reconstruction about 55.6%, and construction about 25.9%. It can be concluded that the implementation of VMMSCCText to pre-service elementary teachers are increased to level conceptual change categories.

  1. Compassionate care in radiography recruitment, education and training: A post-Francis Report review of the current literature and patient perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleiker, J.; Knapp, K.M.; Hopkins, S.; Johnston, G.

    2016-01-01

    Compassion is elemental in the care of a patient during their medical imaging (MI) procedure and is highly topical in the light of the Francis Report. The patient–practitioner interaction is an amalgam of context, communication and individual differences, and whilst compassion is a term in common parlance in the media, policy and radiographers' professional documents, its meaning and manifestation in radiography recruitment, education and practice are less clearly articulated. A review of the existing literature was undertaken, including a small scale study exploring patients' experiences in diagnostic medical imaging. Themes from the study included communication; competence; emotions; attitudes and relationships, but notably absent was any mention of compassion per se. Radiography research would benefit from further exploratory work into the nature of compassionate patient care in the unique context of the medical imaging encounter; offering an evidence-based contribution to radiography in the light of the Francis Report. - Highlights: • An increased focus on compassion was recommended in the Francis Report. • Best compassionate care is a requirement in radiographers' Code of Professional Conduct. • The meaning of compassionate patient care in radiography is not well understood. • Equally neither is the expression of compassion in radiography. • Research into compassion will contribute to evidence-based practice in radiography.

  2. [CPM--Continuous Passive Motion: treatment of injured or operated knee-joints using passive movement. A meta-analysis of current literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, P

    2004-04-01

    There is still a controversial discussion in literature about the use of motor driven splints in knee surgery--as the principle of continuous passive motion, CPM. For this reason it seemed useful for an evaluation to look through the papers which were published since 1990. It was obvious, that negative results were published often before this year, but this papers are still quoted standard works. In medical data bases subito-doc.de, medscape.com, medica.de and zbmed.de 230 papers were found by search CPM, continuous passive motion and arthromot. Coincidentally there was a search for authors who were already quoted in other papers. 36 papers concerning CPM after knee surgery were utilized. The role of CPM regarding the range of motion, swelling, duration of hospital stay, use of analgesics, costs, postoperative manipulations, wound healing and thrombo embolic complications was evaluated. Although the results of this partial retrospective, partial prospective, sometimes randomized or double blinded studies are in contradiction, there can only be found a trend to better results. New clinical studies for evidence based guidelines in the handling of continuous passive motion after knee surgery are necessary.

  3. A Comment on “Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two general approaches for reducing the negative impacts of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, on forests. Direct control involves short-term tactics designed to address current infestations by manipulating mountain pine beetle populations, and includes the use of fire, insecticides, semiochemicals, sanitation harvests, or a combination of these treatments. Indirect control is preventive, and designed to reduce the probability and severity of future infestations within treated areas by manipulating stand, forest and/or landscape conditions by reducing the number of susceptible host trees through thinning, prescribed burning, and/or alterations of age classes and species composition. We emphasize that “outbreak suppression” is not the intent or objective of management strategies implemented for mountain pine beetle in the western United States, and that the use of clear, descriptive language is important when assessing the merits of various treatment strategies.

  4. Retiform Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor in a 38-Year-Old Woman: A Case Report, Retrospective Review, and Review of Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Nwogu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors arise from the stromal cells that surround and support the oocytes. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors belong to this category of ovarian neoplasms. We present the case of a 38-year-old woman who was found to have a right ovarian mass. The mass was resected and diagnosed as Stage I Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, retiform variant, following histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination. This case is unusual given the rarity of the retiform variant of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and the atypically older age of 38 years at presentation.

  5. Integration of public health and primary care: A systematic review of the current literature in primary care physician mediated childhood obesity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Chandak, Aastha; Smith, Patti; Carlton, Erik L; Duncan, Kenric; Gentry, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity, with its growing prevalence, detrimental effects on population health and economic burden, is an important public health issue in the United States and worldwide. There is need for expansion of the role of primary care physicians in obesity interventions. The primary aim of this review is to explore primary care physician (PCP) mediated interventions targeting childhood obesity and assess the roles played by physicians in the interventions. A systematic review of the literature published between January 2007 and October 2014 was conducted using a combination of keywords like "childhood obesity", "paediatric obesity", "childhood overweight", "paediatric overweight", "primary care physician", "primary care settings", "healthcare teams", and "community resources" from MEDLINE and CINAHL during November 2014. Author name(s), publication year, sample size, patient's age, study and follow-up duration, intervention components, role of PCP, members of the healthcare team, and outcomes were extracted for this review. Nine studies were included in the review. PCP-mediated interventions were composed of behavioural, education and technological interventions or a combination of these. Most interventions led to positive changes in Body Mass Index (BMI), healthier lifestyles and increased satisfaction among parents. PCPs participated in screening and diagnosing, making referrals for intervention, providing nutrition counselling, and promoting physical activity. PCPs, Dietitians and nurses were often part of the healthcare team. PCP-mediated interventions have the potential to effectively curb childhood obesity. However, there is a further need for training of PCPs, and explain new types of interventions such as the use of technology. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography: Characterization of Cardiac Anatomy and Function-Current Clinical Applications and Literature Review Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Omar; Beckett, Morgan Q; James, Aaron W; Loehr, Megan N; Lewis, Taylor G; Hassan, Tahmin; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Our review of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) discusses the diagnostic utility of RT3DE and provides a comparison with two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) in clinical cardiology. A Pubmed literature search on RT3DE was performed using the following key words: transthoracic, two-dimensional, three-dimensional, real-time, and left ventricular (LV) function. Articles included perspective clinical studies and meta-analyses in the English language, and focused on the role of RT3DE in human subjects. Application of RT3DE includes analysis of the pericardium, right ventricular (RV) and LV cavities, wall motion, valvular disease, great vessels, congenital anomalies, and traumatic injury, such as myocardial contusion. RT3DE, through a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), allows for increasingly accurate volume and valve motion assessment, estimated LV ejection fraction, and volume measurements. Chamber motion and LV mass approximation have been more accurately evaluated by RT3DE by improved inclusion of the third dimension and quantification of volumetric movement. Moreover, RT3DE was shown to have no statistical significance when comparing the ejection fractions of RT3DE to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Analysis of RT3DE data sets of the LV endocardial exterior allows for the volume to be directly quantified for specific phases of the cardiac cycle, ranging from end systole to end diastole, eliminating error from wall motion abnormalities and asymmetrical left ventricles. RT3DE through TTE measures cardiac function with superior diagnostic accuracy in predicting LV mass, systolic function, along with LV and RV volume when compared with 2DE with comparable results to CMR.

  7. Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography: Characterization of Cardiac Anatomy and Function—Current Clinical Applications and Literature Review Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Q. Beckett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our review of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE discusses the diagnostic utility of RT3DE and provides a comparison with two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE in clinical cardiology. A Pubmed literature search on RT3DE was performed using the following key words: transthoracic, two-dimensional, three-dimensional, real-time, and left ventricular (LV function. Articles included perspective clinical studies and meta-analyses in the English language, and focused on the role of RT3DE in human subjects. Application of RT3DE includes analysis of the pericardium, right ventricular (RV and LV cavities, wall motion, valvular disease, great vessels, congenital anomalies, and traumatic injury, such as myocardial contusion. RT3DE, through a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE, allows for increasingly accurate volume and valve motion assessment, estimated LV ejection fraction, and volume measurements. Chamber motion and LV mass approximation have been more accurately evaluated by RT3DE by improved inclusion of the third dimension and quantification of volumetric movement. Moreover, RT3DE was shown to have no statistical significance when comparing the ejection fractions of RT3DE to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR. Analysis of RT3DE data sets of the LV endocardial exterior allows for the volume to be directly quantified for specific phases of the cardiac cycle, ranging from end systole to end diastole, eliminating error from wall motion abnormalities and asymmetrical left ventricles. RT3DE through TTE measures cardiac function with superior diagnostic accuracy in predicting LV mass, systolic function, along with LV and RV volume when compared with 2DE with comparable results to CMR.

  8. What's happening? The expanding role of apheresis platelet support in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: current status and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessos, Hagop; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2005-10-01

    Despite some unresolved problems that may be associated with platelet transfusion, such as alloimmunisation, refractoriness, bacterial contamination, and the potential side effects related to the development of some biological response modifiers during storage, platelet therapy remains the most effective treatment for the management and prevention of severe thrombocytopenia and hemorrhage [Seghatchian J, Snyder EL, Krailadsiri P, editors. Platelet therapy: current status and future trends. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier; 2000]. This appears to be particularly the case in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), which arises due to an incompatibility of the platelet specific antigens between the pregnant mother and her baby. Over 80% of severe NAIT cases in the Caucasian population occur when the mother and baby differ in their HPA-1 epitope (HPA-1a negative and positive respectively) leading, in 10% of cases, to the production of anti-HPA-1a which can cross the placenta and cause NAIT in utero or post-partum. Anti-HPA-5b is the second most cause of NAIT, although severe cases occur only after the first pregnancy. Clinical manifestations of NAIT vary from mild (petechia and bruises) to severe (intracranial haemorrhage with possible death or life long morbidity). A recent study in Scotland indicated that the cost per case of severe NAIT detected during screening of pregnant women, where anti-HPA-1a is detected for the first time, would amount to $98,771 [Turner M, Bessos H, et al. Prospective epidemiological study of the outcome and cost effectiveness of antenatal screening to detect neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) due to anti-HPA-1a. Transfusion, in press. Yet, unlike the case with Rhesus hemolytic disease of the new born, the cost-effectiveness of HPA-1 screening in NAIT remains unresolved, as does the most optimal mode of treatment. Therefore, in the absence of a consensus on the screening and optimal management of NAIT, the availability and

  9. An analysis of pharmaceutical experience with decades of rat carcinogenicity testing: support for a proposal to modify current regulatory guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistare, Frank D; Morton, Daniel; Alden, Carl; Christensen, Joel; Keller, Douglas; Jonghe, Sandra De; Storer, Richard D; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Kraynak, Andrew; Trela, Bruce; Bienvenu, Jean-Guy; Bjurström, Sivert; Bosmans, Vanessa; Brewster, David; Colman, Karyn; Dominick, Mark; Evans, John; Hailey, James R; Kinter, Lewis; Liu, Matt; Mahrt, Charles; Marien, Dirk; Myer, James; Perry, Richard; Potenta, Daniel; Roth, Arthur; Sherratt, Philip; Singer, Thomas; Slim, Rabih; Soper, Keith; Fransson-Steen, Ronny; Stoltz, James; Turner, Oliver; Turnquist, Susan; van Heerden, Marjolein; Woicke, Jochen; DeGeorge, Joseph J

    2011-06-01

    Data collected from 182 marketed and nonmarketed pharmaceuticals demonstrate that there is little value gained in conducting a rat two-year carcinogenicity study for compounds that lack: (1) histopathologic risk factors for rat neoplasia in chronic toxicology studies, (2) evidence of hormonal perturbation, and (3) positive genetic toxicology results. Using a single positive result among these three criteria as a test for outcome in the two-year study, fifty-two of sixty-six rat tumorigens were correctly identified, yielding 79% test sensitivity. When all three criteria were negative, sixty-two of seventy-six pharmaceuticals (82%) were correctly predicted to be rat noncarcinogens. The fourteen rat false negatives had two-year study findings of questionable human relevance. Applying these criteria to eighty-six additional chemicals identified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as likely human carcinogens and to drugs withdrawn from the market for carcinogenicity concerns confirmed their sensitivity for predicting rat carcinogenicity outcome. These analyses support a proposal to refine regulatory criteria for conducting a two-year rat study to be based on assessment of histopathologic findings from a rat six-month study, evidence of hormonal perturbation, genetic toxicology results, and the findings of a six-month transgenic mouse carcinogenicity study. This proposed decision paradigm has the potential to eliminate over 40% of rat two-year testing on new pharmaceuticals without compromise to patient safety.

  10. The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association protocol, auricular acupuncture to support patients with substance abuse and behavioral health disorders: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuyt EB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth B Stuyt,1 Claudia A Voyles2 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Pueblo, CO, 2Department of Clinical Studies, AOMA Graduate School of Integrative Medicine, Austin, TX, USA Abstract: The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA-standardized 3- to 5-point ear acupuncture protocol, born of a community-minded response to turbulent times not unlike today, has evolved into the most widely implemented acupuncture-assisted protocol, not only for substance abuse, but also for broad behavioral health applications. This evolution happened despite inconsistent research support. This review highlights the history of the protocol and the research that followed its development. Promising, early randomized-controlled trials were followed by a mixed field of positive and negative studies that may serve as a whole to prove that NADA, despite its apparent simplicity, is neither a reductive nor an independent treatment, and the need to refine the research approaches. Particularly focusing on the last decade and its array of trials that elucidate aspects of NADA application and effects, the authors recommend that, going forward, research continues to explore the comparison of the NADA protocol added to accepted treatments to those treatments alone, recognizing that it is not a stand-alone procedure but a psychosocial intervention that affects the whole person and can augment outcomes from other treatment modalities. Keywords: National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA, ear acupuncture, acudetox, addiction, mental health, trauma

  11. Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) in platinum-based treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with special emphasis on carboplatin: a review of current literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.; Sorensen, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    on carboplatin based on the current literature. Research on the development of a reliable methodology is warranted followed by validation in large, prospective, randomized trials as ERCC1 may possibly play an important role as tumour marker in tailored chemotherapy for NSCLC Udgivelsesdato: 2009/5......-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has shown potential as a predictive marker in patients with NSCLC treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Carboplatin has gained widespread use in the treatment of advanced NSCLC and its mechanisms of action are likely similar to that of cisplatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature...... review on ERCC1 was conducted as predictor in NSCLC patients receiving platinum-based treatment with emphasis on carboplatin. English language publications from January 1996 to February 2008 were eligible and data on methodology and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Eight preclinical articles, 25 clinical...

  12. [Less ethnic knowledge in the Dutch College of General Practitioner's practice guidelines on type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and asthma in adults than in the supporting literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manna, D.R.; Bruijnzeels, M.A.; Mokkink, H.G.A.; Berg, M. van den

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether ethnic differences present in the scientific literature used as the basis for the Dutch College of General Practitioner's (NHG) practice guidelines were reflected in the ethnic-specific information the guidelines contained. DESIGN: Analysis of published information.

  13. Identifying and Supporting English Learner Students with Learning Disabilities: Key Issues in the Literature and State Practice. REL 2015-086

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Elizabeth; Haas, Eric; Ferriere, Karen

    2015-01-01

    While the literature on learning disabilities and on second-language acquisition is relatively extensive within the field of education, less is known about the specific characteristics and representation of English learner students with learning disabilities. Because there are no definitive resources and processes for identifying and determining…

  14. Integrative Literature Review: Concept Mapping--A Strategy to Support the Development of Practice, Research, and Theory within Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Barbara J.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Mina, Liliana; Altman, Brian A.; Baldor, Maria; Brown, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize research on concept mapping and to offer ideas on how concept mapping can facilitate practice, research, and theory development within human resource development. In this review, more than 300 articles, written in both English and Spanish, presented at two different concept mapping…

  15. Spiral counter-current chromatography of small molecules, peptides and proteins using the spiral tubing support rotor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Martha; Finn, Thomas M; Zehmer, John; Clayton, Adam; Pilon, Aprile

    2011-09-09

    An important advance in countercurrent chromatography (CCC) carried out in open flow-tubing coils, rotated in planetary centrifuges, is the new design to spread out the tubing in spirals. More spacing between the tubing was found to significantly increase the stationary phase retention, such that now all types of two-phase solvent systems can be used for liquid-liquid partition chromatography in the J-type planetary centrifuges. A spiral tubing support (STS) frame with circular channels was constructed by laser sintering technology into which FEP tubing was placed in 4 spiral loops per layer from the bottom to the top and a cover affixed allowing the tubing to connect to flow-tubing of the planetary centrifuge. The rotor was mounted and run in a P.C. Inc. type instrument. Examples of compounds of molecular weights ranging from <300 to approximately 15,000 were chromatographed in appropriate two-phase solvent systems to assess the capability for separation and purification. A mixture of small molecules including aspirin was completely separated in hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water. Synthetic peptides including a very hydrophobic peptide were each purified to a very high purity level in a sec-butanol solvent system. In the STS rotor high stationary phase retention was possible with the aqueous sec-butanol solvent system at a normal flow rate. Finally, the two-phase aqueous polyethylene glycol-potassium phosphate solvent system was applied to separate a protein from a lysate of an Escherichia coli expression system. These experiments demonstrate the versatility of spiral CCC using the STS rotor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Restrictions on the use of e-cigarettes in public and private places-current practice and support among adults in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S; McNeill, Ann; Arnott, Deborah; Cheeseman, Hazel

    2017-08-01

    Debates around policies regulating e-cigarette use make it important to obtain an overview of current practice, people's attitudes and correlates of policy support. Aims were to assess (i) current practices for e-cigarette use in homes and workplaces; (ii) characteristics associated with allowing e-cigarette use in the home; and (iii) level of, and characteristics associated with, support for extending smoke-free legislation to include e-cigarettes. Online survey in 2016, n = 11 389 adults in Great Britain. Descriptives for all measures; multivariable logistic regressions assessed correlates of allowing e-cigarette use and support for extension of legislation. Most (79%) reporting on workplace policies reported some level of restrictions on e-cigarette use. Small majorities would not allow e-cigarette use in their home (58%) and supported an extension of smoke-free legislation (52%; 21% opposed). Allowing use was less likely and supporting an extension more likely among men, respondents from a higher socio-economic status, ex-smokers, never-smokers, non-users of e-cigarettes and respondents with increased perceived harm of e-cigarettes or nicotine (all P e-cigarette use. Over half of adults would not allow use of e-cigarettes in their home and support prohibiting the use of e-cigarettes in smoke-free places. Adjusting for socio-demographics, more restrictive attitudes are more common among never-smokers, never-users and those with increased perception of relative harms of e-cigarettes or nicotine as cause of smoking-related illness. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Current recommendations on the estimation of transition probabilities in Markov cohort models for use in health care decision-making: a targeted literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olariu E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Elena Olariu,1 Kevin K Cadwell,1 Elizabeth Hancock,1 David Trueman,1 Helene Chevrou-Severac2 1PHMR Ltd, London, UK; 2Takeda Pharmaceuticals International AG, Zurich, Switzerland Objective: Although Markov cohort models represent one of the most common forms of decision-analytic models used in health care decision-making, correct implementation of such models requires reliable estimation of transition probabilities. This study sought to identify consensus statements or guidelines that detail how such transition probability matrices should be estimated. Methods: A literature review was performed to identify relevant publications in the following databases: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and PubMed. Electronic searches were supplemented by manual-searches of health technology assessment (HTA websites in Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and the UK. One reviewer assessed studies for eligibility. Results: Of the 1,931 citations identified in the electronic searches, no studies met the inclusion criteria for full-text review, and no guidelines on transition probabilities in Markov models were identified. Manual-searching of the websites of HTA agencies identified ten guidelines on economic evaluations (Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and UK. All identified guidelines provided general guidance on how to develop economic models, but none provided guidance on the calculation of transition probabilities. One relevant publication was identified following review of the reference lists of HTA agency guidelines: the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research taskforce guidance. This provided limited guidance on the use of rates and probabilities. Conclusions: There is limited formal guidance available on the estimation of transition probabilities for use in decision-analytic models. Given the increasing importance of cost

  18. Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Reconsidered: Current Research Supports the Theory in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel, and Other Treatment-Resistant Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B

    2016-01-01

    Medicine continues to struggle in its approaches to numerous common subjective pain syndromes that lack objective signs and remain treatment resistant. Foremost among these are migraine, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome, disorders that may overlap in their affected populations and whose sufferers have all endured the stigma of a psychosomatic label, as well as the failure of endless pharmacotherapeutic interventions with substandard benefit. The commonality in symptomatology in these conditions displaying hyperalgesia and central sensitization with possible common underlying pathophysiology suggests that a clinical endocannabinoid deficiency might characterize their origin. Its base hypothesis is that all humans have an underlying endocannabinoid tone that is a reflection of levels of the endocannabinoids, anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide), and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, their production, metabolism, and the relative abundance and state of cannabinoid receptors. Its theory is that in certain conditions, whether congenital or acquired, endocannabinoid tone becomes deficient and productive of pathophysiological syndromes. When first proposed in 2001 and subsequently, this theory was based on genetic overlap and comorbidity, patterns of symptomatology that could be mediated by the endocannabinoid system (ECS), and the fact that exogenous cannabinoid treatment frequently provided symptomatic benefit. However, objective proof and formal clinical trial data were lacking. Currently, however, statistically significant differences in cerebrospinal fluid anandamide levels have been documented in migraineurs, and advanced imaging studies have demonstrated ECS hypofunction in post-traumatic stress disorder. Additional studies have provided a firmer foundation for the theory, while clinical data have also produced evidence for decreased pain, improved sleep, and other benefits to cannabinoid treatment and adjunctive lifestyle approaches affecting the ECS.

  19. NiO nanoparticles supported on graphene 3D network current collector for high-performance electrochemical energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mingjun; Song, Xuefen; Dai, Shuge; Xu, Weina; Yang, Qi; Liu, Jianlin; Hu, Chenguo; Wei, Dapeng

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the faradaic oxidation and reduction reactions mainly taking place on surface, enlarging the specific surface of redox materials is one of the most effective ways to achieve excellent electrochemical performance. Here we report a binder-free three dimensional (3D) architecture electrode consisting of a graphene 3D network (G3DN) structure growing on flexible carbon paper (CP) by chemical vapor deposition and NiO nanoparticles growing on the G3DN by in-situ thermal decomposition for high rate battery and high-performance electrochemical capacitors. Such a nanostructure provides a large specific surface and fast electronic transmission channels. The unique structure design for this electrode enables outstanding performance, showing high specific capacity of 89.1 mAh cm −2 (119.2 mAh/g) at current density of 0.5 mA cm −2 (0.67 A/g) with the NiO loading of 0.7471 mg cm −2 . Meanwhile the electrode displays excellent rate capability and cycling stability, which keeps 85.48% of initial capacity after 3000 deep-discharge cycles. Furthermore, a solid-state symmetric electrochemical capacitor based on two NiO/G3DN/CP electrodes with an area of 4 cm 2 each is fabricated, and two pieces of them in series can light up 100 green LEDs for 2 min. The architecture of G3DN loaded with NiO might be generally applied to different kinds of nanomaterials for high-rate energy storage to improve their overall electrochemical performance.

  20. Neonicotinoids in the Canadian aquatic environment: a literature review on current use products with a focus on fate, exposure, and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J C; Dubetz, C; Palace, V P

    2015-02-01

    Developed to replace organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, neonicotinoids are structurally similar to nicotine. The three main neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam, are being re-evaluated by Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA). An important aspect of the re-evaluation is the potential for effects in non-target organisms, including aquatic organisms. Leaching into surface waters is one of the major concerns surrounding extensive use of neonicotinoids, especially in close proximity to water bodies. The PMRA has classified IMI as 'persistent' with a 'high' leaching potential. Globally, neonicotinoids have been detected in a variety of water bodies, typically at concentrations in the low μg/L range. While IMI has been included in some monitoring exercises, there are currently very few published data for the presence of CLO and THM in Canadian water bodies. The majority of neonicotinoid toxicity studies have been conducted with IMI due to its longer presence on the market and high prevalence of use. Aquatic insects are particularly vulnerable to neonicotinoids and chronic toxicity has been observed at concentrations of IMI below 1 μg/L. Acute toxicity has been reported at concentrations below 20 μg/L for the most sensitive species, including Hyalella azteca, ostracods, and Chironomus riparius. Fish, algae, amphibians, and molluscs are relatively insensitive to IMI. However, the biological effects of THM and CLO have not been as well explored. The Canadian interim water quality guideline for IMI is 0.23 μg/L, but there is currently insufficient use, fate, and toxicological information available to establish guidelines for CLO and THM. Based on concentrations of neonicotinoids reported in surface waters in Canada and globally, there is potential for aquatic invertebrates to be negatively impacted by neonicotinoids. Therefore, it is necessary to address knowledge gaps to inform decisions around guidelines

  1. Would glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have efficacy in binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa? A review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Mori, Nicole; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Keck, Paul E

    2018-02-01

    Binge eating, eating an abnormally large amount of food in a discrete period of time with a sense of loss of control over eating, is a defining feature of the eating disorders binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Both BED and BN are important public health problems for which there are few medical treatments. However, almost all drugs with central nervous system-mediated weight loss properties studied thus far in randomized, placebo-controlled trials in persons with BED or BN have been efficacious for reducing binge eating behavior. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, marketed for type 2 diabetes and chronic weight management, produce weight loss in a dose dependent manner and have favorable psychiatric adverse event profiles. We hypothesize that GLP-1 receptor agonists will safely reduce binge eating behavior in individuals with BED or BN, including those with co-occurring psychiatric disorders, and propose that randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of GLP-1 receptor agonists be conducted in persons with BED and those with BN. To support this hypothesis, we review studies of GLP-1 and GLP-1 receptor agonists in preclinical models of binge eating, studies of GLP-1 levels in individuals with BED or BN, and preliminary data of GLP-1 receptor agonists in humans with abnormal eating behavior. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Uncovering the real outcomes of active renal stone treatment by utilizing non-contrast computer tomography: a systematic review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokas, Theodoros; Habicher, Martin; Junker, Daniel; Herrmann, Thomas; Jessen, Jan Peter; Knoll, Thomas; Nagele, Udo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the stone-free rates (SFRs) and stone clearance rates (SCRs) of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL), retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), and percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy (PCNL) according to non-contrast computer tomography (NCCT) findings. Original articles were identified from PubMed. After exclusion of ineligible papers, twenty-three studies with 2494 cases were included in the review. Six SWL, five RIRS and eight PCNL studies were selected. Additionally, four comparative articles were identified. SWL presents SFRs ranging 35-61.3 % and SCRs for residuals <4 mm being 43.2-92.9 %. RIRS studies report SFRs of 34.8-59.7 % and SCRs for residuals <4 mm ranging 48-96.7 %. Finally, PCNL presents SFRs of 20.8-100 % and SCRs for residuals <4 mm being 41.5-91.4 %. According to the comparative studies, SFRs are 17-61.3 % for SWL, 50 % for RIRS, and 95-100 % for PCNL. According to NCCT findings, it seems that PCNL provides better SFRs than ESWL and RIRS. However, further research with comparable and complete preoperative parameters and outcomes could reduce the heterogeneity of current data.

  3. The effect of aggression management training programmes for nursing staff and students working in an acute hospital setting. A narrative review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckemann, B; Zeller, A; Hahn, S; Dassen, T; Schols, J M G A; Halfens, R J G

    2015-01-01

    Patient aggression is a longstanding problem in general hospital nursing. Staff training is recommended to tackle workplace aggression originating from patients or visitors, yet evidence on training effects is scarce. To review and collate current research evidence on the effect of aggression management training for nurses and nursing students working in general hospitals, and to derive recommendations for further research. Systematic, narrative review. Embase, MEDLINE, the Cochrane library, CINAHL, PsycINFO, pubmed, psycArticles, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection were searched for articles evaluating training programs for staff and students in acute hospital adult nursing in a 'before/after' design. Studies published between January 2000 and September 2011 in English, French or German were eligible of inclusion. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed with the 'Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies'. Main outcomes i.e. attitudes, confidence, skills and knowledge were collated. Nine studies were included. Two had a weak, six a moderate, and one a strong study design. All studies reported increased confidence, improved attitude, skills, and knowledge about risk factors post training. There was no significant change in incidence of patient aggression. Our findings corroborate findings of reviews on training in mental health care, which point to a lack of high quality research. Training does not reduce the incidence of aggressive acts. Aggression needs to be tackled at an organizational level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contrast induced-acute kidney injury following peripheral angiography with carbon dioxide versus iodinated contrast media: A meta-analysis and systematic review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghumman, Saad S; Weinerman, Jonathan; Khan, Aazib; Cheema, Mubeen S; Garcia, Marlene; Levin, Daniel; Suri, Rajeev; Prasad, Anand

    2017-09-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) versus iodinated contrast media (ICM). Contrast induced-acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a known complication following endovascular procedures with ICM. CO 2 has been employed as an alternative imaging medium as it is nontoxic to the kidneys. Search of indexed databases was performed and 1,732 references were retrieved. Eight studies (7 observational, 1 Randomized Controlled Trial) formed the meta-analysis. Primary outcome was AKI. Fixed effect model was used when possible in addition to analysis of publication bias. In this meta-analysis, 677 patients underwent 754 peripheral angiographic procedures. Compared with ICM, CO 2 was associated with a decreased incidence of AKI (4.3% vs. 11.1%; OR 0.465, 95% CI: 0.218-0.992; P = 0.048). Subgroup analysis of four studies that included granular data for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) did not demonstrate a decreased incidence of AKI with CO 2 (4.1% vs. 10.0%; OR 0.449, 95% CI: 0.165-1.221, P = 0.117). Patients undergoing CO 2 angiography experienced a higher number of nonrenal events including limb/abdominal pain (11 vs. 0; P = 0.001) and nausea/vomiting (9 vs. 1; P = 0.006). In comparison to ICM, CO 2 use is associated with a modestly reduced rate of AKI with more frequent adverse nonrenal events. In studies that use CO 2 as the primary imaging agent, the average incidence of AKI remained high at 6.2%-supporting the concept that factors other than renal toxicity from ICM may contribute to renal impairment following peripheral angiography. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Is there an empirical link between impulsivity and suicidality in bipolar disorders? A review of the current literature and the potential psychological implications of the relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Hannah B; Meyer, Thomas D

    2013-08-01

    Suicide is highly prevalent among individuals with bipolar disorder and understanding the factors that increase risk for suicide may help to develop targeted interventions to prevent attempts. Impulsivity is thought to be an influential factor associated with suicidality and is also discussed as a key construct of bipolar disorder. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the current evidence to examine the association between impulsivity and suicidality in bipolar disorder. PsycInfo, Medline, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched for articles published up until March 2012. Papers were included if they assessed an adult sample of individuals with bipolar disorders, focused on suicidality (ideation with intent to die, suicide attempts, or completion), and used a validated measure to determine impulsivity. Sixteen papers were identified. Contrary to widespread belief, we found (i) a very inconsistent picture of results including positive, negative, and insignificant associations between impulsivity and suicidality; and (ii) some studies do not take into account important aspects such as state-trait or measurement issues. The link between suicidality and impulsivity is less straightforward than often assumed. Drawing clear conclusions about the association is hampered by factors such as inconsistencies in defining suicidality, measuring impulsivity, and differentiating between impulsivity as a personality trait and impulsivity as a state (e.g., a consequence of substance use or premeditation of the attempt). We suggest that the association is less direct and that psychological models (e.g., Joiner's theory of suicidality) can help foster a more in-depth understanding regarding the relationship. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. On the Use of Coupled Wind, Wave, and Current Fields in the Simulation of Loads on Bottom-Supported Offshore Wind Turbines during Hurricanes: March 2012 - September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eungsoo [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Manuel, Lance [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Curcic, Milan [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Chen, Shuyi S. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Phillips, Caleb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Veers, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, potential offshore wind plant sites have been identified along the Atlantic seaboard and in the Gulf of Mexico. It is imperative that we define external conditions associated with hurricanes and severe winter storms and consider load cases for which wind turbines may need to be designed. We selected two hurricanes, Ike (2008) and Sandy (2012), and investigated the effect these tropical storms would have on bottom-supported offshore wind turbines that were hypothetically in or close to their path as they made landfall. For realistic turbine loads assessment, it is important that the coupled influences of the changing wind, wave, and current fields are simulated throughout the evolution of the hurricanes. We employed a coupled model--specifically, the University of Miami Coupled Model (UMCM)--that integrates atmospheric, wave, and ocean components to produce needed wind, wave, and current data. The wind data are used to generate appropriate vertical wind profiles and full wind velocity fields including turbulence; the current field over the water column is obtained by interpolated discrete output current data; and short-crested irregular second-order waves are simulated using output directional wave spectra from the coupled model. We studied two monopile-supported offshore wind turbines sited in 20 meters of water in the Gulf of Mexico to estimate loads during Hurricane Ike, and a jacket space-frame platform-supported offshore wind turbine sited in 50 meters of water in the mid-Atlantic region to estimate loads during Hurricane Sandy. In this report we discuss in detail how the simulated hurricane wind, wave, and current output data are used in turbine loads studies. In addition, important characteristics of the external conditions are studied, including the relative importance of swell versus wind seas, aerodynamic versus hydrodynamic forces, current velocity effects, yaw control options for the turbine, hydrodynamic drag versus inertia forces

  7. Medizinhistorische Literatur [Medical history literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] The focus of the current issue 1-2/2012 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information is on medical history literature. In six articles special collections and recent projects of medical history libraries in Berlin, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Vienna and Zurich are presented. The authors in this issue are Melanie Scholz & Vera Seehausen (From Augusta to Klingsor, from Luise to Benjamin – past, present and future of the library of the Institute of the History of Medicine in Berlin, Alexandra Veith (Library of the Institute for History of Medicine and Ethics of Medicine, Heidelberg, Melanie Kintzel, Meike Knittel & Tanja Krutky (Historic collections of the Medical Library of the University of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf and their deacidification, Dagmar Geithner (Library of the Karl Sudhoff Institute for the History of Medicine and Science, Leipzig – a Historical Review, Harald Albrecht, Bruno Bauer & Walter Mentzel (The Josephinian Library and the medical-historic stock of the University Library of the Medical University of Vienna and Monika Huber & Ursula Reis (Library of the Institute and Museum of the History of Medicine Zurich.[german] Schwerpunktthema der aktuellen Ausgabe 1-2/2012von GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information ist medizinhistorische Literatur. In sechs Beiträgen werden Bestände und aktuelle Projekte medizinhistorischer Bibliotheken in Berlin, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Wien und Zürich vorgestellt. Verfasst wurden die Beiträge der Schwerpunktausgabe von Melanie Scholz & Vera Seehausen (Von August zu Klingsor, von Luise zu Benjamin – Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft der Bibliothek des Instituts für Geschichte der Medizin in Berlin, Melanie Kintzel, Meike Knittel & Tanja Krutky (Medizinhistorische Buchbestände am Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf und ihre Entsäuerung, Ara Veith (Bibliothek des Instituts für Geschichte und Ethik der Medizin in Heidelberg, Dagmar Geithner

  8. The Utilisation of Pisang Island as a Platform to Support the Current Safety and Security Needs of Marine Navigation in the Straits of Malacca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Faizal Ahmad Fuad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Current marine navigational practice relies less on long-range visual marine signals such as lighthouses for reference purposes. This is due to the availability of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS, which are integrated with other navigational aids on ships. Therefore, the objective of this study is to review the function of Pisang Island lighthouse and to propose the most relevant use of Pisang Island for current navigational needs. The function of the lighthouse was reviewed according to the IALA Navigational Guide and the AIS data image. The result showed that the most suitable navigational use of the lighthouse is to act as a reference for Line of Position (LOP. The AIS data image indicated that mariners are not using Pisang Island lighthouse for LOP. The trend in the Straits of Malacca (SoM was compared with the trend in the Straits of Dover, UK. The selected experts verified that LOP was not practised there. As a specific example, a tanker ship route in the South China Sea was used to further support that LOP was not practised. This evidence supported the view that Pisang Island lighthouse is less relevant for current navigational practice and does not directly support the coastal state VTS operation and the establishment of the marine electronic highway. Furthermore, the existing shore-based VTS radar has limitations on range and the detection of targets near Pisang Island. Therefore, this study proposes the establishment of a new radar station on Pisang Island at the existing site of the lighthouse. The proposed new radar station on Pisang Island will add to the existing coverage of the VTS radar, bridging the coverage gaps to overcome the weakness of the existing shore-based radar and improve the safety and security of marine navigation in the SoM.

  9. Current and Potential Support for Chronic Disease Management in the United States: The Perspective of Family and Friends of Chronically Ill Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosland, Ann-Marie; Heisler, Michele; Janevic, Mary; Connell, Cathleen; Langa, Kenneth M.; Kerr, Eve A.; Piette, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Family members and friends can be an important source of self-management support for older adults with chronic diseases. We characterized the U.S. population of potential and current “disease management supporters” for people with chronic illness who are ADL-independent, the help that supporters could provide, and barriers to increasing support. Methods Nationally-representative survey of U.S. adults (N=1,722). Results 44% of respondents (representing 100 million US adults) help a family member or friend with chronic disease management; another 9% (representing 21 million US adults) are willing to start. Most are willing to assist with key tasks such as medication use and communicating with providers, although they feel constrained by privacy concerns and a lack of patient health information. Discussion The majority of U.S. adults already help or would be willing to help one of their family members or friends with chronic illness care. Supporters' specific concerns could be addressed through innovative programs. PMID:23795624

  10. Mini Literature Review of Self-Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrad, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current literature review is to focus on individuals´ self-concept. The results of the present study reveal that self-concept assumed as an important factor for each and can change his or her belief, attitude, and reaction toward personal and social life. This study likewise explained the beginning of self-concept, different views toward this vital factor, the role of introspection, and multicultural. Furthermore, this paper supported the imperative of self-concept; additiona...

  11. Developing the Librarians' Role in Supporting Grant Applications and Reducing Waste in Research: Outcomes from a Literature Review and Survey in the NIHR Research Design Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds Otter, Mary L.; Wright, Judy M.; King, Natalie V.

    2017-01-01

    Librarians and information specialists' involvement during the development of grant applications for external funding can save researchers' time, provide specialist support, and contribute to reducing avoidable waste in research. This article presents a survey of information specialists working for the National Institute for Health Research's…

  12. Self-controlled technologies to support skill attainment in persons with an autism spectrum disorder and/or an intellectual disability: a systematic literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, W.L.J.E.; Sterkenburg, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Persons with an autism spectrum disorder and/or intellectual disability have difficulties in processing information, which impedes the learning of daily living skills and cognitive concepts. Technological aids support learning, and if used temporarily and in a self-controlled manner, they may

  13. Psychosocial Determinants of Parental Support Behaviours Enabling Sport Participation among Children with a Physical Impairment: A Literature Review and Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazipour, Celina H.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

    2017-01-01

    Children with physical impairments have low rates of physical activity when compared to children without impairments. Given the benefits that result from sport, improving participation rates among children with physical impairments is essential. Parents have a critical role in supporting their child's involvement in sport. The purpose of this…

  14. Supporting Wellness in Adult Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jacklyn J.; Porto, Stella C. S.

    2014-01-01

    Online education cannot continue to grow at the current pace while ignoring a crucial component of campus support, wellness for adult online learners. This paper brings awareness to the concept of wellness as an important student support service in adult online education. It includes a summarized review of relevant literature and identifies…

  15. Current Trends in Danish Children's Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyggebjerg, Anna Karlskov

    2008-01-01

    En beskrivelse af tendenser i aktuel dansk børnelitteratur med fokus på tekstbøger for større børn inden for fantasy, hverdagsrealisme og kriminallitteratur Udgivelsesdato: Autume......En beskrivelse af tendenser i aktuel dansk børnelitteratur med fokus på tekstbøger for større børn inden for fantasy, hverdagsrealisme og kriminallitteratur Udgivelsesdato: Autume...

  16. Extensive literature search for preparatory work to support pan European pest risk assessment: Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae RC/EFS/ALPHA/2014/07

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkx, M.P.M.; Brouwer, J.H.D.; Breda, van P.J.M.; Helsen, H.H.M.; Hoffman, M.H.A.; Hop, M.E.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission is currently seeking advice from EFSA (Mandate M-2012-0272) to assess for Arabis mosaic virus, Raspberry ringspot virus, Strawberry latent ringspot virus, Tomato black ring virus, Strawberry mild yellow edge virus, Strawberry crinkle virus, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae,

  17. The Role That Web 2.0 Currently Has and Could Have in the Future in Supporting the Teaching of ICT Design for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrea, Paulina; Mitrea, Delia

    The main objective of the article is to highlight the role that Web2.0 currently has and could have in the future in supporting the teaching of ICT Design for All. According to this, first the concepts of Web2.0 and eLearning2.0 are clarified and connected. The new way of thinking about eLearning being inspired by the emergence of Web2.0, the term eLearning2.0 was introduced to identify a new paradigm. So, eLearning 2.0, by contrast to eLearning1.0 is built around collaboration, also eLearning2.0 assumes that knowledge is socially constructed. Related to the role of Web2.0 in supporting the teaching of ICT Design for All, the 4 steps involved by the ICT Design For All Teaching Principles are presented and detailed. Finally, some real world examples are shown, as evidence of how the new methods of communication offered by Web2.0 can be used to support students as they learn about Design for All.

  18. Twenty-five-year-old Woman with Bilateral Borderline Ovarian Tumour Desiring to Preserve Fertility - Case Report and Literature Review on the Current State of Fertility Preservation in Women with Borderline Ovarian Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeklee, S; Lotz, L; Heusinger, K; Hoffmann, I; Dittrich, R; Beckmann, M W

    2016-11-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours are semimalignant tumours occurring unilaterally or bilaterally with a peak incidence among women of reproductive age. Since the affected women often wish to preserve fertility, particular precautions must be taken when counselling the patient and obtaining consent prior to planning an individual treatment. Options for preserving fertility include an organ-sparing surgical procedure and cryopreservation of oocytes and/or ovarian tissue. In this article, we report on a 25-year-old patient with a bilateral seromucinous borderline tumour who desired all fertility-preserving options. In order to perform the procedure without delay, we opted to perform luteal phase stimulation prior to oocyte retrieval. We conclude by discussing the current literature on the state of fertility preservation in the treatment of borderline ovarian tumours.

  19. Multishelled Si@Cu Microparticles Supported on 3D Cu Current Collectors for Stable and Binder-free Anodes of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zailei; Wang, Zhong Lin; Lu, Xianmao

    2018-04-24

    Silicon has proved to be a promising anode material of high-specific capacity for the next-generation lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, during repeated discharge/charge cycles, Si-based electrodes, especially those in microscale size, pulverize and lose electrical contact with the current collectors due to large volume expansion. Here, we introduce a general method to synthesize Cu@M (M = Si, Al, C, SiO 2 , Si 3 N 4 , Ag, Ti, Ta, SnIn 2 O 5 , Au, V, Nb, W, Mg, Fe, Ni, Sn, ZnO, TiN, Al 2 O 3 , HfO 2 , and TiO 2 ) core-shell nanowire arrays on Cu substrates. The resulting Cu@Si nanowire arrays were employed as LIB anodes that can be reused via HCl etching and H 2 -reduction. Multishelled Cu@Si@Cu microparticles supported on 3D Cu current collectors were further prepared as stable and binder-free LIB anodes. This 3D Cu@Si@Cu structure allows the interior conductive Cu network to effectively accommodate the volume expansion of the electrode and facilitates the contact between the Cu@Si@Cu particles and the current collectors during the repeated insertion/extraction of lithium ions. As a result, the 3D Cu@Si@Cu microparticles at a high Si-loading of 1.08 mg/cm 2 showed a capacity retention of 81% after 200 cycles. In addition, charging tests of 3D Cu@Si@Cu-LiFePO 4 full cells by a triboelectric nanogenerator with a pulsed current demonstrated that LIBs with silicon anodes can effectively store energy delivered by mechanical energy harvesters.

  20. The Current State and Future Directions of Organic No-Till Farming with Cover Crops in Canada, with Case Study Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Beach

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Eliminating regular tillage practices in agriculture has numerous ecological benefits that correspond to the intentions of organic agriculture; yet, more tillage is conducted in organic agriculture than in conventional agriculture. Organic systems face more management challenges to avoid tillage. This paper identifies factors to consider when implementing no-till practices particularly in organic agronomic and vegetable crop agriculture and describes techniques to address these factors. In some cases, future research is recommended to effectively address the current limitations. The format includes a literature review of organic no-till (OrgNT research and two case studies of Ontario organic farmers that highlight no-till challenges and practices to overcome these challenges. Cover crops require significant consideration because they are the alternative to herbicides and fertilizers to manage weeds and provide nutrients in the OrgNT system. Equipment requirements have also proven to be unique in OrgNT systems. In the future, it is recommended that researchers involve organic farmers closely in studies on no-till implementation, so that the farmers’ concerns are effectively addressed, and research is guided by possibilities recognized by the practitioners.

  1. The Efficacy of Supportive Peri-Implant Therapies in Preventing Peri-Implantitis and Implant Loss: a Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Ramanauskaite

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the efficacy of supportive peri-implant therapies in preventing clinical and radiological signs of peri-implantitis and implant loss. Material and Methods: Longitudinal human studies, published between January 1, 2006, and February 1, 2016, were included based on an electronic search using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and complemented by a manual search. Articles were included only if 1 they comprised a group of patients involved in/adhering to regular supportive peri-implant therapies (SPTs and a control group without such therapies or with poor adherence to them, 2 the protocol of the SPTs was clearly described and 3 the outcome was indicated by means of clinical/radiological changes or implant loss. Results: After initially identifying a total of 710 titles and abstracts, 12 full text articles were selected for eligibility assessment. Seven studies, three prospective and four retrospective, fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review. The frequency of recall visits varied between the studies from a minimum of one visit every three months to an individually tailored regimen. In all the studies a lack of SPTs or poor adherence to them resulted in significantly higher frequencies of sites with mucosal bleeding, deepened peri-implant pockets or alveolar bone loss. In line with the above, a lack of/poor adherence to SPTs was associated with higher implant loss. Conclusions: To prevent peri-implantitis, an individually tailored supportive programme based on patient motivation and re-instruction in oral hygiene measures combined with professional implant cleaning seem to be crucial.

  2. Current Energy Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Current Energy Patents (CEP) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of the international patent literature, including patent applications, that concerns any aspect of energy production, conservation, and utilization

  3. The use of assistive technology for cognition to support the performance of daily activities for individuals with cognitive disabilities due to traumatic brain injury: The current state of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Anne; Lourie, Anna; Petras, Hanno; Elias, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Many individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are young and could have many years of productivity ahead of them. However, cognitive impairments may hinder individuals' ability to perform daily tasks. Assistive technology for cognition (ATC) can be effective in helping compensate for cognitive impairments. This study examined the current state of the research on using ATCs to support daily activities for individuals with cognitive disabilities that are due to TBI. A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed to identify peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2015. To evaluate the nature of the research, qualitative data were extracted pertaining to recruitment, participant characteristics, intervention design, type of ATCs and their functions, matching individuals with ATCs, training for using the ATC, and outcomes. Research examining the effectiveness of ATCs as everyday compensatory tools for cognitive impairments that are due to TBI is limited. The majority of studies were case studies or quasi-experimental studies with small sample sizes. Studies showed positive associations between use of ATCs and individuals' abilities to perform tasks regardless of age, TBI severity, and time since injury. Future research should assess the match between the individual and the technology, study the impact of training on using ATCs, and analyze the usability of ATCs.

  4. Literature Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of a literature review is to assist readers in understanding the whole body of available research on a topic, informing readers on the strengths and weaknesses of studies within that body. It is defined by its guiding concept or topical focus: an account of what was previously published on a specific topic. This prevents…

  5. Is current training in basic and advanced cardiac life support (BLS & ACLS) effective? A study of BLS & ACLS knowledge amongst healthcare professionals of North-Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Madavan; Nedungalaparambil, Nisanth Menon; Aslesh, Ottapura Prabhakaran

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare professionals are expected to have knowledge of current basic and advanced cardiac life support (BLS/ACLS) guidelines to revive unresponsive patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the current practices and knowledge of BLS/ACLS principles among healthcare professionals of North-Kerala using pretested self-administered structured questionnaire. Answers were validated in accordance with American Heart Association's BLS/ACLS teaching manual and the results were analysed. Among 461 healthcare professionals, 141 (30.6%) were practicing physicians, 268 (58.1%) were nurses and 52 (11.3%) supporting staff. The maximum achievable score was 20 (BLS 15/ACLS 5). The mean score amongst all healthcare professionals was 8.9±4.7. The mean score among physicians, nurses and support staff were 8.6±3.4, 9±3.6 and 9±3.3 respectively. The majority of healthcare professionals scored ≤50% (237, 51.4%); 204 (44.3%) scored 51%-80% and 20 (4.34%) scored >80%. Mean scores decreased with age, male sex and across occupation. Nurses who underwent BLS/ACLS training previously had significantly higher mean scores (10.2±3.4) than untrained (8.2±3.6, P =0.001). Physicians with <5 years experience ( P =0.002) and nurses in the private sector ( P =0.003) had significantly higher scores. One hundred and sixty three (35.3%) healthcare professionals knew the correct airway opening manoeuvres like head tilt, chin lift and jaw thrust. Only 54 (11.7%) respondents were aware that atropine is not used in ACLS for cardiac arrest resuscitation and 79 (17.1%) correctly opted ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia as shockable rhythms. The majority of healthcare professionals (356, 77.2%) suggested that BLS/ACLS be included in academic curriculum. Inadequate knowledge of BLS/ACLS principles amongst healthcare professionals, especially physicians, illuminate lacunae in existing training systems and merit urgent redressal.

  6. ¿Debe el Estado financiar las artes y la cultura? Revisión de literatura Should the government support arts and culture? A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Palma Martos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se revisa una amplia bibliografía acerca del conjunto de argumentos para justificar el apoyo con fondos públicos a las artes y la cultura. Desde la presencia de condiciones particulares en la oferta ("enfermedad de los costes", o en la demanda (bienes públicos, la existencia de preferencias comunitarias (bien de mérito, hasta la aportación a la actividad económica y al empleo (Estudios de Impacto Económico de la Cultura. Se señalan las limitaciones que presenta cada argumento y aquellos que pueden resultar convincentes desde la teoría económica.This article will review an extensive bibliography concerning the complete set of arguments justifying the use of public funds to support Arts and Culture. Particular conditions regarding the supply ("the cost disease" and the demand (public goods, the existence of community preferences (merit good, and the contribution to economic activity and employment (Studies of the Economic Impact of Culture are all taken into consideration. The limitations of each argument are pointed out, as well as those that gain strength based on economic theory.

  7. Updating of ASME Nuclear Code Case N-201 to Accommodate the Needs of Metallic Core Support Structures for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Currently in Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basol, Mit; Kielb, John F.; MuHooly, John F.; Smit, Kobus

    2007-01-01

    On September 29, 2005, ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) executed a multi-year, cooperative agreement with the United States DOE for the Generation IV Reactor Materials project. The project's objective is to update and expand appropriate materials, construction, and design codes for application in future Generation IV nuclear reactor systems that operate at elevated temperatures. Task 4 was embarked upon in recognition of the large quantity of ongoing reactor designs utilizing high temperature technology. Since Code Case N-201 had not seen a significant revision (except for a minor revision in September, 2006 to change the SA-336 forging reference for 304SS and 316SS to SA-965 in Tables 1.2(a) and 1.2(b), and some minor editorial changes) since December 1994, identifying recommended updates to support the current high temperature Core Support Structure (CSS) designs and potential new designs was important. As anticipated, the Task 4 effort identified a number of Code Case N-201 issues. Items requiring further consideration range from addressing apparent inconsistencies in definitions and certain material properties between CC-N-201 and Subsection NH, to inclusion of additional materials to provide the designer more flexibility of design. Task 4 developed a design parameter survey that requested input from the CSS designers of ongoing high temperature gas cooled reactor metallic core support designs. The responses to the survey provided Task 4 valuable input to identify the design operating parameters and future needs of the CSS designers. Types of materials, metal temperature, time of exposure, design pressure, design life, and fluence levels were included in the Task 4 survey responses. The results of the survey are included in this report. This research proves that additional work must be done to update Code Case N-201. Task 4 activities provide the framework for the Code Case N-201 update and future work to provide input on materials. Candidate

  8. Assessing the quality, efficacy, and effectiveness of the current evidence base of active self-care complementary and integrative medicine therapies for the management of chronic pain: a rapid evidence assessment of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Roxana; York, Alexandra; Lee, Courtney; Crawford, Cindy; Buckenmaier, Chester; Schoomaker, Eric; Crawford, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Chronic pain management typically consists of prescription medications or provider-based, behavioral, or interventional procedures that are often ineffective, may be costly, and can be associated with undesirable side effects. Because chronic pain affects the whole person (body, mind, and spirit), patient-centered complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) therapies that acknowledge the patients' roles in their own healing processes have the potential to provide more efficient and comprehensive chronic pain management. Active self-care CIM (ACT-CIM) therapies allow for a more diverse, patient-centered treatment of complex symptoms, promote self-management, and are relatively safe and cost-effective. To date, there are no systematic reviews examining the full range of ACT-CIM used for chronic pain symptom management. A systematic review was conducted, using Samueli Institute's Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature methodology, to rigorously assess both the quality of the research on ACT-CIM modalities and the evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness in treating chronic pain symptoms. A working group of subject matter experts was also convened to evaluate the overall literature pool and develop recommendations for the use and implementation of these modalities. Following key database searches, 146 randomized controlled trials were included in the review. This article provides an introduction and background to the review, summarizes the methodological processes involved, details the initial results, and identifies strengths and weakness of the review. Specific results of the review as well as overall recommendations for moving this field of research forward are detailed throughout the current Pain Medicine supplement. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size...... among normal weight and moderately overweight people. The studies reported in the 47 publications reviewed here address various themes based on different conceptualizations. The studies point out that normal weight and moderately overweight people are much concerned about their body size, but huge...

  10. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI: Utilization of Oral Medicine-specific software for support of clinical care, research, and education: current status and strategy for broader implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailo, Vlaho; Firriolo, Francis John; Tanaka, Takako Imai; Varoni, Elena; Sykes, Rosemary; McCullough, Michael; Hua, Hong; Sklavounou, Alexandra; Jensen, Siri Beier; Lockhart, Peter B; Mattsson, Ulf; Jontell, Mats

    2015-08-01

    To assess the current scope and status of Oral Medicine-specific software (OMSS) utilized to support clinical care, research, and education in Oral Medicine and to propose a strategy for broader implementation of OMSS within the global Oral Medicine community. An invitation letter explaining the objectives was sent to the global Oral Medicine community. Respondents were interviewed to obtain information about different aspects of OMSS functionality. Ten OMSS tools were identified. Four were being used for clinical care, one was being used for research, two were being used for education, and three were multipurpose. Clinical software was being utilized as databases developed to integrate of different type of clinical information. Research software was designed to facilitate multicenter research. Educational software represented interactive, case-orientated technology designed for clinical training in Oral Medicine. Easy access to patient data was the most commonly reported advantage. Difficulty of use and poor integration with other software was the most commonly reported disadvantage. The OMSS presented in this paper demonstrate how information technology (IT) can have an impact on the quality of patient care, research, and education in the field of Oral Medicine. A strategy for broader implementation of OMSS is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation of sutherlandins A, B, C and D from Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br. by counter-current chromatography using spiral tubing support rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cuiping; Folk, William R; Lazo-Portugal, Rodrigo; Finn, Thomas M; Knight, Martha

    2017-07-28

    Spiral countercurrent-chromatography has great potential for improving the capacity and efficiency of purification of secondary metabolites, and here we describe applications useful for the isolation of flavonoids from the widely used South African medicinal plant, Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br. In the spiral tubing support rotor, STS-4 for high-speed counter-current chromatography, several polar butanol aqueous solvent systems were selected using a logK plot, and the novel flavonol glycosides (sutherlandins A-D) were well separated by the optimized solvent system (ethyl acetate:n-butanol:acetic acid:water; 5:1:0.3:6 by vol.). The yield of purified flavonoids from 0.9g extract varied from 8.6mg to 54mg of the sutherlandins for a total of 85.3mg. The same extract was fractionated in the new STS-12 rotor of the same outside dimensions but with more radial channels forming 12 loops of the tubing instead of 4. The rotor holds more layers and increased length of tubing. From 0.9g extract the STS-12 rotor yielded more recovery of 110.4mg total with amounts varying from 11.2mg to 64mg of the sutherlandins and apparent increased separation efficiency as noted by less volume of each fraction peak. Thus from 1-g amounts of extract, good recovery of the flavonoids was achieved in the butanol aqueous solvent system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation over the supplementary motor area body weight-supported treadmill gait training in hemiparetic patients after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manji, Atsushi; Amimoto, Kazu; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Wada, Yoshiaki; Inaba, Akira; Ko, Sangkyun

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is used in a variety of disorders after stroke including upper limb motor dysfunctions, hemispatial neglect, aphasia, and apraxia, and its effectiveness has been demonstrated. Although gait ability is important for daily living, there were few reports of the use of tDCS to improve balance and gait ability. The supplementary motor area (SMA) was reported to play a potentially important role in balance recovery after stroke. We aimed to investigate the effect of combined therapy body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and tDCS on gait function recovery of stroke patients. Thirty stroke inpatients participated in this study. The two BWSTT periods of 1weeks each, with real tDCS (anode: front of Cz, cathode: inion, 1mA, 20min) on SMA and sham stimulation, were randomized in a double-blind crossover design. We measured the time required for the 10m Walk Test (10MWT) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test before and after each period. We found that the real tDCS with BWSTT significantly improved gait speed (10MWT) and applicative walking ability (TUG), compared with BWSTT+sham stimulation periods (ptraining after stroke. The facilitative effects of tDCS on SMA possibly improved postural control during BWSTT. The results indicated the implications for the use of tDCS in balance and gait training rehabilitation after stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Teaching Literature and Reading Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Gitte Holten

    2011-01-01

    the reading of literature is respectively supported and hindered in literature lessons in upper secondary school. The aim is to investigate the relation between the teacher's conception of learning and knowledge within the subject combined with the student's conception of learning and of reading...

  14. At-Home Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS With Telehealth Support for Symptom Control in Chronically-Ill Patients With Multiple Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Riggs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS delivered in multiple sessions can reduce symptom burden, but access of chronically ill patients to tDCS studies is constrained by the burden of office-based tDCS administration. Expanded access to this therapy can be accomplished through the development of interventions that allow at-home tDCS applications.Objective: We describe the development and initial feasibility assessment of a novel intervention for the chronically ill that combines at-home tDCS with telehealth support.Methods: In the developmental phase, the tDCS procedure was adjusted for easy application by patients or their informal caregivers at home, and a tDCS protocol with specific elements for enhanced safety and remote adherence monitoring was created. Lay language instructional materials were written and revised based on expert feedback. The materials were loaded onto a tablet allowing for secure video-conferencing. The telehealth tablet was paired with an at-home tDCS device that allowed for remote dose control via electronic codes dispensed to patients prior to each session. tDCS was delivered in two phases: once daily on 10 consecutive days, followed by an as needed regimen for 20 days. Initial feasibility of this tDCS-telehealth system was evaluated in four patients with advanced chronic illness and multiple symptoms. Change in symptom burden and patient satisfaction were assessed with the Condensed Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (CMSAS and a tDCS user survey.Results: The telehealth-tDCS protocol includes one home visit and has seven patient-tailored elements and six elements enhancing safety monitoring. Replicable electrode placement at home without 10–20 EEG measurement is achieved via a headband that holds electrodes in a pre-determined position. There were no difficulties with patients’ training, protocol adherence, or tolerability. A total of 60 tDCS sessions were applied. No session required discontinuation, and

  15. At-Home Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) With Telehealth Support for Symptom Control in Chronically-Ill Patients With Multiple Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Alexa; Patel, Vaishali; Paneri, Bhaskar; Portenoy, Russell K; Bikson, Marom; Knotkova, Helena

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) delivered in multiple sessions can reduce symptom burden, but access of chronically ill patients to tDCS studies is constrained by the burden of office-based tDCS administration. Expanded access to this therapy can be accomplished through the development of interventions that allow at-home tDCS applications. Objective: We describe the development and initial feasibility assessment of a novel intervention for the chronically ill that combines at-home tDCS with telehealth support. Methods: In the developmental phase, the tDCS procedure was adjusted for easy application by patients or their informal caregivers at home, and a tDCS protocol with specific elements for enhanced safety and remote adherence monitoring was created. Lay language instructional materials were written and revised based on expert feedback. The materials were loaded onto a tablet allowing for secure video-conferencing. The telehealth tablet was paired with an at-home tDCS device that allowed for remote dose control via electronic codes dispensed to patients prior to each session. tDCS was delivered in two phases: once daily on 10 consecutive days, followed by an as needed regimen for 20 days. Initial feasibility of this tDCS-telehealth system was evaluated in four patients with advanced chronic illness and multiple symptoms. Change in symptom burden and patient satisfaction were assessed with the Condensed Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (CMSAS) and a tDCS user survey. Results: The telehealth-tDCS protocol includes one home visit and has seven patient-tailored elements and six elements enhancing safety monitoring. Replicable electrode placement at home without 10-20 EEG measurement is achieved via a headband that holds electrodes in a pre-determined position. There were no difficulties with patients' training, protocol adherence, or tolerability. A total of 60 tDCS sessions were applied. No session required discontinuation, and there were no adverse

  16. Community Support Programs: Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Wampler, 1985). The unit of treatment is the marital dyad, with family developmental theory , systems theory , and modern ccmmunication theory contributing...affect the child’s cognitive, socioemotional and physical development (Caldwell, 1986; McCartney, Scarr, Phillips, Gratjek, & Schwarz, 1982). Even...adequate theory in the family therapy field; and historically, psychotherapy researchers have been individually-oriented, and research generally

  17. Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Michelson, D.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Literature was searched for methods of removing uranium from drinking water. No relevant papers were found, but approximately 1000 publications were identified in a less specific search for methods of removing uranium from water. Most of the latter publications dealt with the recovery of uranium from ores, industrial and analytical chemistry solutions, or seawater. The conditions under which these studies were performed were usually quite different from those normally occurring in municipal water treatment practice, but some potentially interesting systems of recovery were identified. A few papers addressed the problem of removing uranium from natural fresh waters and established the effectiveness of using adsorbents or coprecipitants, such as aluminum hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, activated carbon, and ion exchangers, under certain conditions. Also, many US manufacturers and users of water treatment equipment and products were contacted regarding recommended methods of removing uranium from potable water. Based on the results of these surveys, it is recommended that untreated, partially treated, and finished water samples from municipal water treatment facilities be analyzed to determine their extent of removal of uranium by presently used procedures. In addition, laboratory studies are suggested to determine what changes, if any, are needed to maximize the effectiveness of treatments that are already in use in existing water treatment plants

  18. Mini Literature Review of Self-Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Mehrad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current literature review is to focus on individuals´ self-concept. The results of the present study reveal that self-concept assumed as an important factor for each and can change his or her belief, attitude, and reaction toward personal and social life. This study likewise explained the beginning of self-concept, different views toward this vital factor, the role of introspection, and multicultural. Furthermore, this paper supported the imperative of self-concept; additionally, it has an essential role in individual advance.

  19. Modeling of Cosmic-Ray Propagation and Galactic Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission in Support of Current and Future NASA Missions, Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Igor

    This is a "Phase 3" successor proposal that is a continuation of work funded by the Astrophysics Research and Analysis (APRA) Program through the sub-topic "Particle Astrophysics": Considerable advances in astrophysics of cosmic rays in recent years have become possible due to superior instrumentation launched into space and to the top of the atmosphere. The ACE-CRIS, AMS-02, Fermi-LAT, HAWC, PAMELA, SuperTIGER, Voyager 1,2, WMAP, and many other missions made a lot of breakthroughs and more is expected in the following years. Other high-expectations missions are recently launched (CALET) or are awaiting for launch (ISS-CREAM). The claimed precision of the AMS- 02 data reaches 1-3%. Taking full advantage of the high quality data requires numerical models of comparable accuracy. The current state-of-the-art cosmic ray propagation model is GALPROP, which has become a standard analysis tool in astrophysics of cosmic rays, studies of the diffuse emissions, and related fields. It provides a unified framework for the interpretation of data collected by many different kinds of experiments and emphasizes the inter-relationship between different types of data. We are proposing considerable improvements of the GALPROP model and tool that include generalization of the description of the components of the Galactic interstellar medium to the full 3D and extensive application of the Bayesian tools in building such data-sets, development of a heliospheric propagation tool fully compatible with GALPROP, development of a reliable diffuse emission model in the keV-TeV energy range, generalization of the nuclear reaction network and cross section routines to include trans-iron nuclides, improvements in the description of the production of secondary particles in cosmic ray interactions, various speed and memory optimizations. We will continue to support a dedicated website which hosts GALPROP WebRun, a user-friendly interface for running the GALPROP code on a dedicated cluster

  20. Estonian literature / Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Estonian literature - born on the margins of Europe ; Baltic German literature and its impact ; Seeking the contours of a 'truly' Estonian literature ; Literature and an independent Estonia ; Estonian literature in two cultural spheres ; The fifties and sixties ; Literature and congealed time ; A bold new Estonian literature

  1. The Homecoming: A Review of Support Practices for Repatriates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattie, Marshall; White, Marion M.; Tansky, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence of repatriate support practices in organizations within the context of the current literature in this field of study. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 42 firms employing 3,234 expatriates were surveyed regarding human resource practices that support repatriation. Analysis…

  2. Supporting Academic Persistence in Low-Skilled Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Susan; Thomson, Margareta Maria

    2013-01-01

    The current literature review explores the factors that contribute to academic persistence for adult learners. The aim of the study is to identify current research-based strategies aimed at supporting learner persistence, particularly for low-skilled adults. Elements of three theoretical frameworks, namely, expectancy-value theory (EVT), goal…

  3. Effect of Lanthanum-Strontium Cathode Current-Collecting Layer on the Performance of Anode Supported Type Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Ji, Ho-Il; Kim, Hae-Ryoung; Yoon, Kyung Joong; Son, Ji-Won; Lee, Hae-Weon; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2013-07-01

    We applied screen-printed (La,Sr)CoO3 as a current-collecting layer of planar type unit-cell for lower temperature operation of SOFCs. In this study the effects of the cathode current-collecting layer on the performance of unit cell and symmetric half cell were investigated via AC and DC polarization experiments. According to our investigation, appropriately controlled current collecting layer was very effective to enhance the unit cell performance by reducing not only the ohmic resistance but also the polarization losses of SOFC cathode.

  4. Who cares for the carers at hospital discharge at the end of life? A qualitative study of current practice in discharge planning and the potential value of using The Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Gail; Austin, Lynn; Jones, Debra; Grande, Gunn

    2018-05-01

    Carer factors prevent patients achieving timely and appropriate hospital discharge. There is a lack of research into interventions to support carers at hospital discharge. To explore whether and how family carers are currently supported during patient discharge at end of life; to assess perceived benefits, acceptability and feasibility of using The Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) Approach in the hospital setting to support carers. Qualitative. Three National Health Service Trusts in England: focus groups with 40 hospital and community-based practitioners and 22 carer interviews about experiences of carer support during hospital discharge and views of The CSNAT Approach. Two workshops brought together 14 practitioners and five carers to discuss implementation issues. Framework analysis was conducted. Current barriers to supporting carers at hospital discharge were an organisational focus on patients' needs, what practitioners perceived as carers' often 'unrealistic expectations' of end-of-life caregiving at home and lack of awareness of patients' end-of-life situation. The CSNAT Approach was viewed as enabling carer support and addressing difficulties of discussing the realities of supporting someone at home towards end of life. Implementation in hospital required organisational considerations of practitioner workload and training. To enhance carer support, a two-stage process of assessment and support (hospital with community follow-up) was suggested using the CSNAT as a carer-held record to manage the transition. This study identifies a novel intervention, which expands the focus of discharge planning to include assessment of carers' support needs at transition, potentially preventing breakdown of care at home and patient readmissions to hospital.

  5. Friendship and literacy through literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palincsar, A S; Parecki, A D; McPhail, J C

    1995-10-01

    The exploratory research reported in this article was designed to determine the processes and outcomes of planning thematic literacy instruction in a holistic and contextualized manner. The work was conducted in an upper-elementary, self-contained setting for students identified as learning disabled. Specifically, the instructional activities included (a) interactive readings from literature on friendship, (b) personal written responses to the literature, (c) supported retellings of the literature, (d) performance related to the literature, and (e) journal writing on the topic of friendship. The outcomes are reported in terms of the use of intertextuality over the course of the 6-week unit, the emergence of theme as a salient feature in literature, and a change in the children's conceptions of friendship. More specific literacy outcomes are captured in case studies of 3 children.

  6. Literature Reviews and the Hermeneutic Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boell, Sebastian K.; Cecez-Kecmanovic, Dubravka

    2010-01-01

    Conducting a literature review is a vital part of any research. Library and information science (LIS) professionals often play a central role in supporting academics in their efforts to locate relevant publications and in teaching novice researchers skills associated with literature reviews. This paper examines literature review processes with the…

  7. English Education and the Teaching of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses ways literature is taught at the university. It describes a gap in the way English is often taught in literature programs and the way future teachers are taught to teach English to secondary students. It argues for teaching literature in ways that might be good for majors in both fields, ways that support the work valued by…

  8. Computational thermodynamics in electric current metallurgy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmik, Arghya; Qin, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    . The method has been validated against the analytical solution of current distribution and experimental observation of microstructure evolution. It provides a basis for the design, prediction and implementation of the electric current metallurgy. The applicability of the theory is discussed in the derivations.......A priori derivation for the extra free energy caused by the passing electric current in metal is presented. The analytical expression and its discrete format in support of the numerical calculation of thermodynamics in electric current metallurgy have been developed. This enables the calculation...... of electric current distribution, current induced temperature distribution and free energy sequence of various phase transitions in multiphase materials. The work is particularly suitable for the study of magnetic materials that contain various magnetic phases. The latter has not been considered in literature...

  9. Critical appraisal of published literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Karippacheril, John George; Magazine, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    With a large output of medical literature coming out every year, it is impossible for readers to read every article. Critical appraisal of scientific literature is an important skill to be mastered not only by academic medical professionals but also by those involved in clinical practice. Before incorporating changes into the management of their patients, a thorough evaluation of the current or published literature is an important step in clinical practice. It is necessary for assessing the published literature for its scientific validity and generalizability to the specific patient community and reader's work environment. Simple steps have been provided by Consolidated Standard for Reporting Trial statements, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and several other resources which if implemented may help the reader to avoid reading flawed literature and prevent the incorporation of biased or untrustworthy information into our practice. PMID:27729695

  10. Critical appraisal of published literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goneppanavar Umesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With a large output of medical literature coming out every year, it is impossible for readers to read every article. Critical appraisal of scientific literature is an important skill to be mastered not only by academic medical professionals but also by those involved in clinical practice. Before incorporating changes into the management of their patients, a thorough evaluation of the current or published literature is an important step in clinical practice. It is necessary for assessing the published literature for its scientific validity and generalizability to the specific patient community and reader′s work environment. Simple steps have been provided by Consolidated Standard for Reporting Trial statements, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and several other resources which if implemented may help the reader to avoid reading flawed literature and prevent the incorporation of biased or untrustworthy information into our practice.

  11. Gaming in Nursing Education: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pront, Leeanne; Müller, Amanda; Koschade, Adam; Hutton, Alison

    The aim of this research was to investigate videogame-based learning in nursing education and establish how videogames are currently employed and how they link to the development of decision-making, motivation, and other benefits. Although digital game-based learning potentially offers a safe and convenient environment that can support nursing students developing essential skills, nurse educators are typically slow to adopt such resources. A comprehensive search of electronic databases was conducted, followed by a thematic analysis of the literature. Evaluations of identified games found generally positive results regarding usability and effectiveness of videogames in nursing education. Analysis of advantages of videogames in nursing education identified potential benefits for decision-making, motivation, repeated exposure, logistical, and financial value. Despite the paucity of games available and the methodological limitations identified, findings provide evidence to support the potential effectiveness of videogames as a learning resource in nursing education.

  12. Experimental observations of the coupling between induced currents and mechanical motion in torsionally supported square loops and plates. Part 2. Data inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenburger, D.W.; Bialek, J.M.; Cargulia, G.J.; Ulrickson, M.; Knott, M.J.; Turner, L.R.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1984-12-01

    A series of experiments was successfully conducted to investigate the coupling between induced currents and rigid body rotation in square loops and plates. The experiments were performed with the Fusion Electromagnetic Induction Experiment (FELIX) facility at the Argonne National Laboratory. The observed data exhibited the magnetic damping and magnetic stiffness effects ehich arise in coupled systems and agreed very well with previous analytic calculations

  13. Structured Literature Review of digital disruption literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesti, Helle; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss; Gertsen, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Digital disruption is a term/phenomenon frequently appearing in innovation management literature. However, no academic consensus exists as to what it entails; conceptual nor theoretical. We use the SLR-method (Structured Literature Review) to investigate digital disruption literature. A SLR......-study conducted in 2017 revealed some useful information on how disruption and digital disruption literature has developed over a specific period. However, this study was less representative of papers addressing digital disruption; which is the in-depth subject of this paper. To accommodate this, we intend...... to conduct a similar SLR-study assembling a body literature having digital disruption as the only common denominator...

  14. Literature Teaching in ELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To show the importance of literature teaching in English language teaching (ELT),this paper explores the relations between language, culture and literature,examines the present problems in literature teaching and possible solutions are suggested as well.

  15. Exploiting HRM in support of lean manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in HRM practices are-and could potentially be-exploited to support lean manufacturing in practice. First, a review of the pertinent literature regarding HRM, SHRM, and lean manufacturing is presented to provide an understanding of the mechanisms...... by which HRM practices could, theoretically, be used to support a lean implementation. Data presented in the paper are derived from 1) a longitudinal case study on lean implementation and 2) from managers currently involved with lean manufacturing in a second company. The relevant literature and the data...... depicting the potential role in supporting HRM/lean integrated practices. The analysis of the model with respect to the theoretical background emphasizes a number of areas in which HRM could be more fully exploited in order to more successfully support lean implementation, for example, by stressing HRM...

  16. On European Religious Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟

    2016-01-01

    Since ancient time,literature has being a hot topic that scholars concern.Latin religious literature is the mainstream of medieval literature.This paper analyzes medieval literature from three aspects which are the religious cultural background,main characteristics and achievements.What’s more,the thesis summarizes its influence to literature afterwards,and provides suggestion to the contemporary literature in China.

  17. Public dialogues on flood risk communication: Literature review : Literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orr, Paula; Forrest, Steven; Brooks, Katya; Twigger-Ross, Clare

    2015-01-01

    This literature review summarises the state of knowledge on communicating the risk of flooding to the public as of January 2014. The review considers how different audiences respond to risk communication and the factors which influence that response. The current systems and techniques for flood risk

  18. Educational Online Technologies in Blended Tertiary Environments: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuapawa, Kimberley N.

    2013-01-01

    This is a review of the literature surrounding five popular media-rich educational online technologies (EOTs) currently being used by educationalists to support blended learning within tertiary environments. This review considers the following EOTs: 1) connective media, 2) interactive gaming, 3) virtual worlds, 4) web conferencing and 5) learning…

  19. The Literature on Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Gary D.; Brooks, Bonnie S.

    This is a bibliographical compilation of much of the literature pertinent to the current drug emphasis which has appeared since c. 1960. It is divided into two general sections: (1) books and pamphlets; and (2) articles. In all, there are 13 books and pamphlets on LSD, three on marihuana, and 52 of a more general nature. Articles are more…

  20. Can current analytical quality performance of UK clinical laboratories support evidence-based guidelines for diabetes and ischaemic heart disease?--A pilot study and a proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassam, Nuthar; Yundt-Pacheco, John; Jansen, Rob; Thomas, Annette; Barth, Julian H

    2013-08-01

    The implementation of national and international guidelines is beginning to standardise clinical practice. However, since many guidelines have decision limits based on laboratory tests, there is an urgent need to ensure that different laboratories obtain the same analytical result on any sample. A scientifically-based quality control process will be a pre-requisite to provide this level of analytical performance which will support evidence-based guidelines and movement of patients across boundaries while maintaining standardised outcomes. We discuss the finding of a pilot study performed to assess UK clinical laboratories readiness to work to a higher grade quality specifications such as biological variation-based quality specifications. Internal quality control (IQC) data for HbA1c, glucose, creatinine, cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol were collected from UK laboratories participating in the Bio-Rad Unity QC programme. The median of the coefficient of variation (CV%) of the participating laboratories was evaluated against the CV% based on biological variation. Except creatinine, the other four analytes had a variable degree of compliance with the biological variation-based quality specifications. More than 75% of the laboratories met the biological variation-based quality specifications for glucose, cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. Slightly over 50% of the laboratories met the analytical goal for HBA1c. Only one analyte (cholesterol) had a performance achieving the higher quality specifications consistent with 5σ. Our data from IQC do not consistently demonstrate that the results from clinical laboratories meet evidence-based quality specifications. Therefore, we propose that a graded scale of quality specifications may be needed at this stage.

  1. Bengal Literature and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimock, Edward C., Jr., Ed.

    The unifying theme of the papers in this book is the use of creative literature as source material for the study of cultural history. Titles and authors of the papers are: "Encounter and Growth in Bengali Literature, A Survey of Medieval Bengali Literature" by T.W. Clark; "The Hindu Chiefdom in Middle Bengali Literature" by…

  2. Mathematics and Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琳

    2016-01-01

    In both China and the West, mathematics is closely connected with literature. The maths thought implied in Chinese and western literature is worth our study, and the maths thought in the field of literature is also appear in aesthetics and philoso-phy, so literature, mathematics, aesthetics and philosophy become a network of interconnected.

  3. Physics in Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Physics offers a cross-discipline perspective to understanding other subjects. The purpose of this paper is to provide examples of physics in literature that physics and astronomy teachers can use to give students an indication of the relevance of science as depicted in the humanities. It is not possible to cite the thousands of examples available. I have tried to select authors whom students would be reading in high school and in college undergraduate English classes: in particular Joseph Conrad, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Shakespeare, H. G. Wells, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Norman Mailer, and an author currently in vogue, Dan Brown. I am sure many reading this article will come up with their own examples.

  4. Global Cropland Area Database (GCAD) derived from Remote Sensing in Support of Food Security in the Twenty-first Century: Current Achievements and Future Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Xiong, Jun N.; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Giri, Chandra; Milesi, Cristina; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Congalton, Russ; Tilton, James; Sankey, Temuulen Tsagaan; Massey, Richard; Phalke, Aparna; Yadav, Kamini

    2015-01-01

    The precise estimation of the global agricultural cropland- extents, areas, geographic locations, crop types, cropping intensities, and their watering methods (irrigated or rainfed; type of irrigation) provides a critical scientific basis for the development of water and food security policies (Thenkabail et al., 2012, 2011, 2010). By year 2100, the global human population is expected to grow to 10.4 billion under median fertility variants or higher under constant or higher fertility variants (Table 1) with over three quarters living in developing countries, in regions that already lack the capacity to produce enough food. With current agricultural practices, the increased demand for food and nutrition would require in about 2 billion hectares of additional cropland, about twice the equivalent to the land area of the United States, and lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas productions (Tillman et al., 2011). For example, during 1960-2010 world population more than doubled from 3 billion to 7 billion. The nutritional demand of the population also grew swiftly during this period from an average of about 2000 calories per day per person in 1960 to nearly 3000 calories per day per person in 2010. The food demand of increased population along with increased nutritional demand during this period (1960-2010) was met by the “green revolution” which more than tripled the food production; even though croplands decreased from about 0.43 ha/capita to 0.26 ha/capita (FAO, 2009). The increase in food production during the green revolution was the result of factors such as: (a) expansion in irrigated areas which increased from 130 Mha in 1960s to 278.4 Mha in year 2000 (Siebert et al., 2006) or 399 Mha when you do not consider cropping intensity (Thenkabail et al., 2009a, 2009b, 2009c) or 467 Mha when you consider cropping intensity (Thenkabail et al., 2009a; Thenkabail et al., 2009c); (b) increase in yield and per capita food production (e.g., cereal production

  5. Current treatment of low grade astrocytoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Louise; Romner, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    Through a comprehensive review of the current literature, the present article investigates several aspects of low grade astrocytomas (LGA), including prognostic factors, treatment strategies and follow-up regimes. LGA are in general relatively slow-growing primary brain tumours, but they have a v...... effective in discriminating between tumour progression and radiation necrosis. The research into biomarkers is currently limited with regards to their applications in LGA diagnostics, and therefore further studies including larger patient populations are needed.......Through a comprehensive review of the current literature, the present article investigates several aspects of low grade astrocytomas (LGA), including prognostic factors, treatment strategies and follow-up regimes. LGA are in general relatively slow-growing primary brain tumours, but they have...... as the course of disease. The current literature seems to support the idea that treatment with radical tumour resection, where possible, yields better long term outcome for patients with LGA. However, adjuvant therapy is often necessary. Administering early postoperative radiotherapy to patients with partially...

  6. Sustainable winegrowing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Angela Mariani,1 Antonella Vastola2 1Department of Economic and Legal Studies, University Parthenope, Naples, 2School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy Abstract: The winegrowing sector worldwide is strongly committed to improving environmental and social sustainability. The aim of this work, based on a literature review, is to highlight current sustainability perspectives and the related main issues. There is a broad consensus that the challenge to achieve a greater spread of sustainable practices is to enhance environmental and social sustainability while maintaining economic viability. From the producers' point of view, the priority is to bridge the still substantial knowledge gaps in terms of perceived environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs. Thus, an increased research effort focusing on the costs and benefits of different winegrowing practices and technical assistance with implementation might support their diffusion. Moreover, targeted marketing strategies are needed to: enhance consumers' involvement and their attitude toward sustainable wine; improve understanding and use of sustainable labels and claims; and raise awareness of some environmental credentials of wine packaging, mainly with reference to lightweight glass bottles. Keywords: winegrower, sustainability, wine, consumer, marketing strategies

  7. Review article – The effects of clinical support surfaces on pressure as a risk factor in the development of pressure ulcers, from a radiographical perspective: a narrative literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collé, Patricia; Lutjeboer, Sjors; Everton, C.; Bird, S.; Brito, W.; Franco, A.P.; Nodeland, K.; Rième, S.; Siddika, M.; Webb, J.; Angmorterh, S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Pressure ulcers are a high cost, high volume issue for health and medical care providers, having a detrimental effect on patients and relatives. Pressure ulcer prevention is widely covered in the literature, but little has been published regarding the risk to patients in the radiographical

  8. Teaching strategies to support isiXhosa learners who receive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are a number of challenges related to teaching in a multi-linguistic classroom. Despite the literature clearly indicating how learners acquire learning, there is still a dearth of material on descriptions of current support provided to learners within the theoretical framework of Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory.

  9. Supplemental Reading for Ninth Graders: Classic or Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Katherine Jane Roney

    2012-01-01

    The project addressed the debate over supplemental literature: young adult or classic selections to better support teaching ninth graders Tennessee's English I curriculum standards. Research supported both classical and contemporary literature for teaching ninth graders, making it difficult to determine which type of literature might produce the…

  10. Literature and Science Create an Engaging Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabham, Edna Greene

    1997-01-01

    Discusses programs and research that support the integration of literature and science. Reviews literature selections across a range of genres that complement topics included in middle school science, including science fiction and poetry. Considers resources educators can use to find additional science-related material. (JPB)

  11. First Case of Trichoderma longibrachiatum CIED (Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device)-Associated Endocarditis in a Non-immunocompromised Host: Biofilm Removal and Diagnostic Problems in the Light of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascini, Carlo; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Barletta, Valentina; Di Paolo, Antonello; Leonildi, Alessandro; Zucchelli, Giulio; Corte, Laura; Colabella, Claudia; Roscini, Luca; Consorte, Augusta; Pasticci, Maria Bruna; Menichetti, Francesco; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia

    2016-04-01

    Trichoderma species are saprophytic filamentous fungi producing localized and invasive infections that are cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients, causing up to 53% mortality. Non-immunocompromised patients, undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, are other targets of this fungus. Current molecular diagnostic tools, based on the barcode marker ITS, fail to discriminate these fungi at the species level, further increasing the difficulty associated with these infections and their generally poor prognosis. We report on the first case of endocarditis infection caused by Trichoderma longibrachiatum in a 30-year-old man. This patient underwent the implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator in 2006, replaced in 2012. Two years later, the patient developed fever, treated successfully with amoxicillin followed by ciprofloxacin, but an echocardiogram showed large vegetation onto the ventricular lead. After CIED extraction, the patient had high-grade fever. The culturing of the catheter tip was positive only in samples deriving from sonication according to the 2014 ESCMID guidelines, whereas the simple washing failed to remove the biofilm cells from the plastic surface. Subsequent molecular (ITS sequencing) and microbiological (macromorphology) analyses showed that the vegetation was due to T. longibrachiatum. This report showed that T. longibrachiatum is an effective threat and that sonication is necessary for the culturing of vegetations from plastic surfaces. Limitations of the current barcode marker ITS, and the long procedures required by a multistep approach, call for the development of rapid monophasic tests.

  12. Impact of childhood chronic illnesses on siblings: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Brien, Irene; Duffy, Anita; Nicholl, Honor

    Childhood illness can have a significant impact on families, particularly on the ill child's siblings. There is a dearth of published literature focusing on the needs of siblings of ill children. This literature review aims to provide an overview of the current healthcare literature in relation to the impact of childhood chronic illness or disability on siblings. A literature review was undertaken by searching the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest and Cochrane Library for relevant articles in English using the search terms: 'siblings', 'chronic illness', 'disability', 'cancer', 'sibling relations', 'sibling adjustment', 'coping', 'family-centred care', 'sibling interventions', 'camps', 'autism', 'Down's syndrome'. Seventeen research studies in total were reviewed. This review focuses on three sibling groups related to children suffering from autism, cancer and Down's syndrome, and are discussed under the following headings: sibling adjustment; family functioning and sibling's coping resources; and intervention programmes. The literature revealed that siblings of children with Down's syndrome were well adjusted to living with their brother or sister. However, there was conflicting information on the adjustment of siblings of children with cancer and autism. An awareness of the harmful effect that living with childhood illness and disability can have on some siblings is essential to enable healthcare professionals to provide supportive interventions to protect siblings' physical and emotional wellbeing.

  13. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  14. Southern Gothic Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2017-01-01

    Provides an outline of Southern Gothic Literature, offers an argument about its history and shape, and discusses the scholarly literature surrounding Southern Gothic. Oxford Research Encyclopedia is an online peer-reviewed encyclopedia for researchers, teachers, and students interested in all...... facets of the study of literature...

  15. Employee Engagement: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmendra MEHTA; Naveen K. MEHTA

    2013-01-01

    Motivated and engaged employees tend to contribute more in terms of organizational productivity and support in maintaining a higher commitment level leading to the higher customer satisfaction. Employees Engagement permeates across the employee-customer boundary, where revenue, corporate goodwill, brand image are also at stake. This paper makes an attempt to study the different dimensions of employee engagement with the help of review of literature. This can be used to provide an overview and...

  16. The written word: literature and leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibort, Phillip M

    2004-01-01

    Explore what the current literature is saying about great leaders and leadership. Among the learnings: silence can hurt your organization, story telling is critical for inspiring employees and great leaders must be fearless.

  17. What effect does participating in an assistance dog program have on the quality of life of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and their caregivers? A systematic review of current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Sprod

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of assistance dogs for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder is an emerging field, with interventions varying from formal assistance dog programs aimed at increasing child safety in public, to incorporating assistance dogs into therapy sessions. Previous reviews have suggested mostly positive outcomes from participating in such programs, however cited a lack of high quality studies available. This systematic review aims to answer the question: what effect does participating in an assistance dog program have on the quality of life of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and their caregivers? After analysis, ten studies were deemed to meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and were included in the review. Findings suggest that participating in various Autism assistance dog programs can: 1 increase child safety in public, which in turn decreases self-reported parental stress and increases self-reported parental confidence in managing their child; 2 increase positive behaviours and decrease negative behaviours; and 3 facilitate motor, communication and social development. However, disparities were found between studies, particularly between quantitative and qualitative results, and between the quality of the projects’ design. These factors indicate that further, high quality research is still needed to support emerging evidence.

  18. Obstetric fistula: a narrative review of the literature on preventive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstetric fistula: a narrative review of the literature on preventive ... Eniya K. Lufumpa, Sarah Steele ... The literature also highlights the need for increased governmental support, as a means of preventing the development of fistulas.

  19. Einleitung. Zur Theatralität in Literatur und Kultur

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulbrecht, Siegfried; Küpper, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2014), s. 3-11 ISSN 1210-9029 Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : Theatricality * Literature * Culture Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision OBOR OECD: Specific literatures

  20. Measurement and evaluation of EDM bearing currents by the normalized Joule integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidmar, Gregor; Miljavec, Damijan; Agrež, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Apparent current density is the most common criterion used in literature to estimate bearing endangerment due to bearing currents. In the paper, a new criterion called the normalized Joule integral is proposed as a more reliable and accurate one. This approach is more general and gives good correlation between current in the bypass bridge and bearing current. Furthermore, it considers the whole current that causes bearing damage, not just its peak value. The choice of the normalized Joule integral is theoretically explained and supported by measurements and simulations. The levels of bearing endangerment related to the normalized Joule integral of bearing currents are estimated. (paper)

  1. Seven Pitfalls in Organisation Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Aarum Andersen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Current organisation literature is rife with several incorrect and confusing assertions which continually create problems for students and researchers alike. Seven of these unfortunate beliefs are presented here and provocatively called ‘pitfalls’. The aim of this article is to draw attention to some of these theoretically incorrect assertions and how they can be avoided in scholarly work. The implications for managers are also presented.

  2. Geant4 in Scientific Literature

    CERN Document Server

    Pia, M G; Bell, Z W; Dressendorfer, P V

    2009-01-01

    The Geant4 reference paper published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods A in 2003 has become the most cited publication in the whole Nuclear Science and Technology category of Thomson-Reuter's Journal Citation Reports. It is currently the second most cited article among the publications authored by two major research institutes, CERN and INFN. An overview of Geant4 presence (and absence) in scholarly literature is presented; the patterns of Geant4 citations are quantitatively examined and discussed.

  3. Predicting the importance of current papers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klavans, Richard (SciTech Strategies, Inc., Berwyn, PA); Boyack, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines how well one can predict the importance of a current paper (a paper that is recently published in the literature). We look at three factors--journal importance, reference importance and author reputation. Citation-based measures of importance are used for all variables. We find that journal importance is the best predictor (explaining 22.3% out of a potential 29.1% of the variance in the data), and that this correlation value varies significantly by discipline. Journal importance is a better predictor of citation in Computer Science than in any other discipline. While the finding supports the present policy of using journal impact statistics as a surrogate for the importance of current papers, it calls into question the present policy of equally weighting current documents in text-based analyses. We suggest that future researchers take into account the expected importance of a document when attempting to describe the cognitive structure of a field.

  4. Supporting wellness in adult online education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacklyn J. Thompson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Online education cannot continue to grow at the current pace while ignoring a crucial component of campus support, wellness for adult online learners. This paper brings awareness to the concept of wellness as an important student support service in adult online education. It includes a summarized review of relevant literature and identifies specific wellness concerns of adult online learners. The paper also provides examples of how three American higher education institutions are addressing the issue of wellness promotion in online learning. It identifies areas for improvement in current wellness initiatives and offers recommended strategies for supporting adult online learner wellness to professional organizations, institutions, instructors, and distance learners.http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.6.1.100

  5. Analysis of Current Supplier Relationship Management Practices: A Solution Proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes Campelo Filho, Eulalio

    2009-01-01

    The work contributes with the existing literature by investigating current SRM practices. Based on the research, the author has designed an information system framework, which provides companies with an innovative SRM solution to manage their indirect material purchasing process through an environment that supports companies entire plan-to-order activities, including functionalities such as central data management, spend data management, e-sourcing and the usual e-procurement features.

  6. Corporate social responsibility: the role of public policy: a systematic literature review of the effects of government supported interventions on the corporate social responsibility (CSR) behaviour of enterprises in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.; de Grip, K.; de Ruyter de Wildt, M.; Ton, G.; Douma, M.; Boone, K.; van Hoeven, H.

    2013-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) focuses on creating social and environmental value in addition to economic performance: people, planet and profit (or Triple P). Public authorities are increasingly supporting companies that choose to do so. What has become of the Dutch government’s efforts to

  7. Weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr

  8. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  9. Some fibrocystic breast change may be caused by sexually transmitted H. pylori during oral nipple contact: supporting literature and case report of resolution after gut H. pylori eradication treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, R E

    2007-01-01

    To briefly review previously published evidence for Helicobacter pylori (Hp), colonization of extra-intestinal sites and suggest an hypothesis that breast acini and ducts be added to this list, concluding such breast colonization is not rare and is a sexually transmitted infection. PubMed literature search and review with a case report. (1) Evidence indicates oral Hp is common and can remain in the mouth after successful eradication in stomach and duodenum. (2) Evidence indicates that the breast is also occasionally colonized by Hp. (3) Hp may be injected retrograde up into ducts of the breast during oral nipple stimulation during sexual activity and this Hp may give rise to some cases of fibrocystic breast change. (4) A case of painful fibrocystic change that had been present for two years in a 27 year old female, resolved after gastrointestinal Hp treatment.

  10. Attracting and maintaining the Y Generation in nursing: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Dianne; Brown, Janie; Longworth, Karen

    2012-05-01

    This paper explores the literature related to attracting the Y Generation (Y Gen: people born between 1980 and 2000) to the nursing profession and retaining them in our current workforce. A comprehensive review of the literature supported the need for further research. Three searches were conducted and all relevant literature was reviewed by each researcher. Literature included in the review was chosen based on specific search-term inclusion. Structured searches were conducted with no limitations on publication type, date or language. Search engines used included: Australian Family and Society, CINAHL, Expanded Academic, Google Scholar, Medline, ProQuest and PubMed. A critical review of the literature, particularly empirical work on the subject has informed decision making regarding the research questions that remain to be explored. The literature revealed that the Y Gen is currently contributing to the nursing workforce demographics. Much discussion exists surrounding the integration of the Y Gen into the workplace along with the other three generations of nurses. There is also an abundance of descriptions of the Y Gen characteristics and values. There is, however, limited reference relating to what attracted this generation to nursing or what might retain them in the nursing workforce. The Y Gen is the largest generation to enter our workforce since the Baby Boomers. Health services need to recognize the needs of the Y Gen nurses and develop strategies to move the profession forward by preparing the current workforce and environment for a generation that is already here. The focus should be on their strengths with development made to structure a workforce that will support the Y Gen in their professional nursing role. Understanding what attracts the Y Gen to nursing, what managers can do to retain the Y Gen in nursing and how the nursing profession can support the Y Gen to assume a role in nursing and nursing governance will ensure that the retiring generation

  11. The Application of Auto-Disturbance Rejection Control Optimized by Least Squares Support Vector Machines Method and Time-Frequency Representation in Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Pei; Liang, Hai-Ping; Gao, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) system, we propose an improved auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method based on least squares support vector machines (LSSVM) in the rectifier side. Firstly, we deduce the high frequency transient mathematical model of VSC-HVDC system. Then we investigate the ADRC and LSSVM principles. We ignore the tracking differentiator in the ADRC controller aiming to improve the system dynamic response speed. On this basis, we derive the mathematical model of ADRC controller optimized by LSSVM for direct current voltage loop. Finally we carry out simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed control method. In addition, we employ the time-frequency representation methods, i.e., Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) and adaptive optimal kernel (AOK) time-frequency representation, to demonstrate our proposed method performs better than the traditional method from the perspective of energy distribution in time and frequency plane.

  12. The Application of Auto-Disturbance Rejection Control Optimized by Least Squares Support Vector Machines Method and Time-Frequency Representation in Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Pei Liu

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC system, we propose an improved auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC method based on least squares support vector machines (LSSVM in the rectifier side. Firstly, we deduce the high frequency transient mathematical model of VSC-HVDC system. Then we investigate the ADRC and LSSVM principles. We ignore the tracking differentiator in the ADRC controller aiming to improve the system dynamic response speed. On this basis, we derive the mathematical model of ADRC controller optimized by LSSVM for direct current voltage loop. Finally we carry out simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed control method. In addition, we employ the time-frequency representation methods, i.e., Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD and adaptive optimal kernel (AOK time-frequency representation, to demonstrate our proposed method performs better than the traditional method from the perspective of energy distribution in time and frequency plane.

  13. Urananite leaching: literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisham, G.F.; Bryant, E.A.; Williams, K.E.

    1979-04-01

    A literature survey was undertaken to provide background materials for a series of experiments involving the interaction of spent uranium dioxide fuel with various environments. Notes and references pertaining to the basic properties of UO/sub 2/ as produced and after reactor exposure are presented. The use of computerized literature searches is illustrated with specific topics related to leaching experiments. 57 references.

  14. Literature database aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The booklet is to help with the acquisition of original literature either after a conventional literature search or in particular after a database search. It bridges the gap between abbreviated (short) and original (long) titel. This, together with information on the holdings of technical/scientific libraries, facilitates document delivery. 1500 short titles are listed alphabetically. (orig.) [de

  15. Affective World Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilslev, Annette Thorsen

    The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly, the disserta......The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly......, the dissertation investigates the critical negotiation of the novel as a travelling genre in Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, and, more specifically, Sōseki’s work in relation to world literature and affect theory. Sōseki’s work is highly influential in Japan and East Asia, and his novels widely...... circulated beyond Japan. Using Sōseki’s theory as an example, and by comparing it to other theories, the dissertation argues that comparative literature needs to include not only more non-Western literature but also more non-Western literary theories in the ongoing debate of world literature. Close...

  16. Cinema and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsvik, Charles Vernon

    The cinema stemmed from aesthetic and formal quests within printed literature, and restored to literature the traditions of performance which had been submerged by traditions of print. The literary identity of the cinema has been obscured by a lack of visible similarities between the cinema and modern writing. Differences between modern writing…

  17. The Gift of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Hristov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traumatic question “what has Bulgarian literature given to the world” acquired particular intensity in periods of crisis such as the Balkan Wars, and after 1989 and the subsequent Bulgarian EU accession. It is generally accepted that the value that Bulgarian literature transmits to the world lies in the identity it represented. The goal of the paper is to show that Bulgarian literature was constituted as a gift responding to the gift of world literature, yet ever unable to repay the debt incurred by its initial gift, and trying to alleviate its indebtedness by means of a specific language of exchange. Hristov believes that studying the literature on the value of Bulgarian literature will demonstrate that the notions of identity, recognition, value, translation, national and world literature have been inscribed in a scriptural economy blending gift and exchange in a peculiar way. He hopes that this economy emerged as a modification of the scriptural economy in which the notion of world literature had been embedded, and that it has been globalised into a universal literary economy.

  18. Literature review, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jens; Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Nielsen, Robert Green

    2001-01-01

    Gives an overvie of the situation with respect to organic and conversion markets in Denmark based on exsisting literature. The following subjects are covered. National Policies. Agricultural Production. Conversion. Agricultural Marketing......Gives an overvie of the situation with respect to organic and conversion markets in Denmark based on exsisting literature. The following subjects are covered. National Policies. Agricultural Production. Conversion. Agricultural Marketing...

  19. Urananite leaching: literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, G.F.; Bryant, E.A.; Williams, K.E.

    1979-04-01

    A literature survey was undertaken to provide background materials for a series of experiments involving the interaction of spent uranium dioxide fuel with various environments. Notes and references pertaining to the basic properties of UO 2 as produced and after reactor exposure are presented. The use of computerized literature searches is illustrated with specific topics related to leaching experiments. 57 references

  20. Empowering Students through Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Grace-Ann Gorga

    2000-01-01

    A literary club formed a community of readers among underserved and nontraditional community college students. Members meet to discuss literature and host authors' visits. The environment enables students to share their perspectives and develop deeper understanding of literature and of themselves. (SK)

  1. Theology and Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A collection of essays published in the journal Literature and Theology based on selected papers from the 2012 international conference of the International Society of Religion, Literature and Culture: Cultures of Transition: Presence, Absence, Memory, held at the Faculty of Theology in Copenhagen...

  2. Cooperative rhetoric question in contemporary Persian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Dashti ahangar

    2016-09-01

    Finally some samples of cooperative rhetoric question in current literature will be presented. It should be noted that the goal of these samples is to be more familiar with the subject matter and not the analysis of current literal texts; because it needs more time and study.

  3. Neurology and literature 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, I

    2014-05-01

    Good literary fiction has the potential to move us, extend our sense of life, transform our prospective views and help us in the face of adversity. A neurological disorder is likely to be the most challenging experience a human being may have to confront in a lifetime. As such, literary recreations of illnesses have a doubly powerful effect. Study the synergies between neurology and fictional literature with particular reference to narrative based medicine (NBM). Doctors establish boundaries between the normal and the abnormal. Taking a clinical history is an act of interpretation in which the doctor integrates the science of objective signs and measurable quantities with the art of subjective clinical judgment. The more discrepancy there is between the patient's experience with the illness and the doctor's interpretation of that disease, the less likely the doctor-patient interaction is to succeed. NBM contributes to a better discernment of the meanings, thus considering disease as a biographical event rather than just a natural fact. Drawing from their own experience with disease, writers of fiction provide universal insights through their narratives, whilst neuroscientists, like Cajal, have occasionally devoted their scientific knowledge to literary narratives. Furthermore, neurologists from Alzheimer to Oliver Sacks remind us of the essential value of NBM in the clinic. Integrating NBM (the narrative of patients) and the classic holistic approach to patients with our current paradigm of evidence based medicine represents a challenge as relevant to neurologists as keeping up with technological and scientific advances. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolution of Modularity Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze the modularity literature to identify the established and emerging perspectives. Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature search and review was conducted through the use of bibliometrics and network analysis. The analysis...... identified structure within the literature, which revealed how the research area evolved between 1990 and 2015. Based on this search, the paper establishes the basis for analyzing the structure of modularity literature. Findings Factors were identified within the literature, demonstrating how it has evolved...... from a primary focus on the modularity of products to a broader view of the applicability of modularity. Within the last decade, numerous research areas have emerged within the broader area of modularity. Through core-periphery analysis, eight emerging sub-research areas are identified, of which one...

  5. Primary Identity in Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Brian Russell

    In our times, literary criticism, as well as larger political and cultural developments, is characterized by identity politics, meaning that our discourses are structured around the notion of different socially identifiable populations in society. In relation to literature, this results in our...... viewing the characters in literature in terms of these political identities. Literature is consequently discussed in relation to political causes. Literary criticism is animated by the same causes, and is viewed as having a direct intervention in society in relation to them. In this paper, I will discuss......, in relation to Frye’s works, the idea that the primary identities of characters in literature were and, to a considerable extent, continue to be those of family-member identities. As such, literature should not be appropriated to a political context too readily. Whereas viewing characters in terms of...

  6. Evidências sobre o suporte durante o trabalho de parto/parto: uma revisão da literatura Evidence on support during labor and delivery: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odaléa Maria Brüggemann

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do suporte à mulher durante o trabalho de parto/parto por profissionais de saúde, mulheres leigas e doulas, sobre os resultados maternos e neonatais têm sido avaliados em vários ensaios clínicos randomizados, metanálises e revisões sistemáticas. Este artigo apresenta a revisão desses estudos, enfocando as principais características, o provedor de suporte, a simultaneidade na presença ou não do companheiro/familiares da parturiente durante o trabalho de parto e parto, e os resultados obtidos. Foram incluídos os estudos publicados entre os anos de 1980 e 2004, que contemplam explicitamente os aspectos avaliados. De maneira geral, os resultados do suporte são favoráveis, destacando-se redução da taxa de cesarianas, da analgesia/medicamentos para alívio da dor, da duração do trabalho de parto, da utilização de ocitocina e produzindo aumento na satisfação materna com a experiência vivida. Quando o provedor de suporte não é um profissional de saúde, os benefícios têm sido mais acentuados. Os estudos disponíveis não avaliam o acompanhante escolhido pela parturiente como um provedor de suporte, o que constitui lacuna de conhecimento a ser preenchida.The effects of support for women during labor and delivery provided by health professionals, lay women, and doulas on the maternal and neonatal outcomes have been evaluated through randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews. This article presents a review of these studies, focusing on the principal characteristics, support provider, simultaneous presence of the woman's spouse and/or family members during labor and delivery and the outcomes. The analysis included studies published from 1980 to 2004 which explicitly approached these aspects. In general, the results of such support were favorable, highlighting a reduction in the cesarean rate, analgesia/ medication for pain relief, duration of labor, and utilization of oxytocin and an increase in

  7. Recurrent meningitis--a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janocha-Litwin, Justyna; Simon, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses epidemiology, aetiology and the most important predisposing factors associated with recurrent meningitis, as well as the possibilities to prevent this particularly challenging clinical problem. The frequency of recurrent meningitis is estimated to be 2-9%. However, the case fatality is lower compared to a single episode of meningitis. The main causes of recurrent meningitis are considered to be: head injury, congenital or acquired (post-traumatic or post-surgical) cranial or spinal defects, chronic intracranial inflammation, complement system dysfunction, as well as congenital and acquired humoral or cellular immunodeficiency.

  8. Stroke in SSA: Review of current literature concerning the incidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-04

    Nov 4, 2013 ... C, Pancioli A, Jauch E, Shukla R, Broderick J. Stroke in a Biracial ... and Obstetrics. 1998. 61(1). 1-8. SASPI. Secondary prevention of stroke- results from. 20. ... Durand M, Sheehy O, Jean-Guy B, LeLorier J, Tremblay. 29.

  9. Female Genital Mutilation: A Literature Review of the Current Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Keywords: FGM/C, legislation, national plans of action, health policies and Africa. Résumé. Cet article .... from about US $40 to $400 in Niger, $47 in. Ethiopia, and $140 ... instance, health care professionals are trained to identify and treat ...

  10. Vitamin D and alcohol: A review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardelli, Vitor Soares; Lago, Mariana Pimentel Pádua do; Silveira, Dartiu Xavier da; Fidalgo, Thiago Marques

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin D is associated with bone mineral density, and its deficiency is a global health problem. In psychiatry, low vitamin D levels have been associated with schizophrenia, depression, psychotic symptoms, and, more recently, alcohol use disorders. Alcohol use disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders worldwide. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the association between alcohol use and vitamin D serum levels. The PubMed, SCIELO, and Lilacs databases were searched for this systematic review. We assessed all articles published from 1976 to December 2015, and we examined the associated reference lists to retrieve articles that appeared to fulfill our criteria. Of 932 articles, 49 met our inclusion criteria. The majority of the papers (71.4%) were cross-sectional studies. Alcohol intake was found to be positively associated with vitamin D status in 15 articles and negatively associated with vitamin D in 18 articles; no association was found in 16 articles. Heterogeneous results were found in our review, with a similar number of papers indicating a positive association, a negative association or the absence of any association between alcohol use and vitamin D levels. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the studies in which a positive association was found were more recent papers that involved considerably larger sample sizes than those in other studies. The older studies compared vitamin D levels in alcoholic and non-alcoholic patients, in contrast to more recent studies, which focused on more specific populations. In addition, most of the selected papers were from high latitude countries, where exposure to sunlight tends to be lower than in tropical countries. The data concerning vitamin D levels in patients with alcohol use disorders remain controversial. Additional research using a standardized methodology is necessary to demonstrate the real impact of alcohol consumption on vitamin D serum levels as well as on the health status of alcohol users. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Equestrian sport-related injuries: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlik, Heather S

    2010-01-01

    Equestrian sports continue to grow in popularity in the Unites States and abroad, with an estimated 30 million people riding horses annually in the United States alone. Approximately one in five of these riders will suffer a serious injury during their riding career, requiring medical care and potentially hospitalization. Riding carries with it an implicit risk of injury associated with the unpredictability of the animals, the rider's head being positioned approximately 9 feet off the ground, and traveling unrestrained at speeds up to 40 mph. This article reviews common equestrian injuries, epidemiology, mechanism of injury, risk factors, and prevention strategies, with an emphasis on the more dangerous aspects of the sport.

  12. A review of the current literature on management of halitosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.M. van den; Feenstra, L.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    Halitosis is an unpleasant or offensive odour, emanating from the oral cavity. In approximately 80% of all cases, halitosis is caused by microbial degradation of oral organic substrates. Major degradation products are volatile sulphur-containing compounds. In this review, the available management

  13. Teaching English Through Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Hişmanoğlu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at emphasizing the use of literature as a popular technique for teaching both basiclanguage skills (i.e. reading, writing, listening and speaking and language areas (i.e. vocabulary,grammar and pronunciation in our times. Reasons for using literary texts in foreign language classroomand main criteria for selecting suitable literary texts in foreign language classes are stressed so as tomake the reader familiar with the underlying reasons and criteria for language teachers’ using andselecting literary texts. Moreover, literature and the teaching of language skills, benefits of differentgenres of literature (i.e. poetry, short fiction, drama and novel to language teaching and some problemsencountered by language teachers within the area of teaching English through literature (i.e. lack ofpreparation in the area of literature teaching in TESL / TEFL programs, absence of clear-cut objectivesdefining the role of literature in ESL / EFL, language teachers’ not having the background and trainingin literature, lack of pedagogically-designed appropriate materials that can be used by language teachersin a classroom context are taken into account.

  14. Moral education through literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantić Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a variety of perspectives on the role of literature in moral education. These proceed from general considerations to more specific issues that remain contested to the present day, such as distinction between individual and social morality. Others bring any literature under suspicion in the post-structuralist era, such as the cultural relativity of morality, distinctions between aesthetic and moral dimensions of literary works, and between moral awareness and behavior. The discussion is illustrated through considerations of the place of literature in English moral education from the Victorians to the present day. The discussion of dilemmas that policy makers and educators face today focuses on three dilemmas that often serve to question a possibility of justifying the morally educative power of literature: cultural relativism in literature and ideology (and its implications for the canon, the distinction between an aesthetic and moral power of literature, and finally, the doubts about the transferability of moral awareness acquired through literature to actual moral conduct. .

  15. Employee Engagement: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra MEHTA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivated and engaged employees tend to contribute more in terms of organizational productivity and support in maintaining a higher commitment level leading to the higher customer satisfaction. Employees Engagement permeates across the employee-customer boundary, where revenue, corporate goodwill, brand image are also at stake. This paper makes an attempt to study the different dimensions of employee engagement with the help of review of literature. This can be used to provide an overview and references on some of the conceptual and practical work undertaken in the area of the employee engagement practices.

  16. Literature and Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Literary authors have frequently called on elements of cartography to ground fictional space, to visualize sites, and to help readers get their bearings in the imaginative world of the text. Today, the convergence of digital mapping and globalization has spurred a cartographic turn in literature...... but represents a set of relations and tensions that raise questions about representation, fiction, and space. Is literature even mappable? In exploring the cartographic components of literature, the contributors have not only brought literary theory to bear on the map but have also enriched the vocabulary...... fictions....

  17. Literature and series

    OpenAIRE

    Wells-Lassagne, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    The study of “literature on screen” is not new: indeed, this terminology has long been used for the study of adaptation, perhaps most notably in Deborah Cartmell and Imelda Whelehan’s Cambridge Companion to Literature on Screen. What is less widespread, however, is the association of literature with television’s “small screen” – because of its serial storytelling, television adaptation has long been relegated to limited-run miniseries (what I’ve called short-form adaptations), and the study o...

  18. The "Us" in Discuss: Grouping in Literature Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes one middle school teacher's use of literature circles using heterogeneous grouping. It begins with a brief rationale for using literature circles in the language arts classroom. Next, it describes techniques to form literature circles. Then, it shares how to build and establish a supportive environment within each group. It…

  19. Information Discovery from Complementary Literatures: Categorizing Viruses as Potential Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Don R.; Smalheiser, Neil R.; Bookstein, A.

    2001-01-01

    This project demonstrates how techniques of analyzing complementary literatures might be applied to problems of defense against biological weapons. The article is based solely on the open-source scientific literature, and is oriented on informatics techniques. Findings are intended as a guide to the virus literature to support further studies that…

  20. Current management of severe dengue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tau Hong; Lee, Linda Kay; Lye, David Chien; Leo, Yee Sin

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally a disease mainly affecting the pediatric population, dengue burden has increased significantly in recent decades and adults with severe disease may become more common. There is currently no effective anti-viral agent available for the treatment of dengue and supportive care is the mainstay of management. Areas covered: We present a review of current literature on dengue severity classification systems and the management of severe dengue in adults. In particular, emphasis was placed on organ impairment in dengue and management of elderly individuals with multiple medical problems. Expert commentary: There is an urgent need to search for an effective anti-viral agent to treat infected individuals. The commercial availability of a dengue vaccine in older children has provided optimism in reducing the disease burden but long term efficacy and safety are unknown. The results from phase III trials of two new candidate vaccines are eagerly awaited.