WorldWideScience

Sample records for current language impairment

  1. Speech and Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... impairment. Many children are identified as having a speech or language impairment after they enter the public school system. A teacher may notice difficulties in a child’s speech or communication skills and refer the child for ...

  2. Familial Aggregation in Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallal, Paula; Hirsch, Linda S.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Miller, Steve; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher; Flax, Judy F.

    2001-01-01

    A case-control family study design examined the current language-related abilities of all biological, primary relatives of probands (N=22) with specific language impairment (SLI) and of matched controls. Impairment rates for family members of SLI probands was significantly higher than for controls. Also, impairment rates estimated from a family…

  3. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  4. Language Impairment in Cerebellar Ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaalen, Judith; de Swart, Bert J. M.; Oostveen, Judith; Knuijt, Simone; van de Warrenburg, Bart P. C.; Kremer, Berry (H. ) P. H.

    Background: Several studies have suggested that language impairment can be observed in patients with cerebellar pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate language performance in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). Methods: We assessed speech and language in 29 SCA6 patients

  5. Specificity of specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GoorhuisBrouwer, SM; WijnbergWilliams, BJ

    1996-01-01

    In children with specific language impairment (SLI) their problems are supposed to be specifically restricted to language. However, both on a theoretical basis as well as on a practical basis it is often difficult to make a sharp distinction between specific and nonspecific language disorders. In a

  6. Language Impairment in Cerebellar Ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaalen, Judith; de Swart, Bert J. M.; Oostveen, Judith; Knuijt, Simone; van de Warrenburg, Bart P. C.; Kremer, Berry (H. ) P. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies have suggested that language impairment can be observed in patients with cerebellar pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate language performance in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). Methods: We assessed speech and language in 29 SCA6 patients

  7. EEG in Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The value of routine wake electroencephalography in children with specific language impairment was reviewed retrospectively in 111 children examined over a 10-year interval at Montreal Children’s Hospital, Quebec, Çanada.

  8. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  9. Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... As they grow older, children with SLI will struggle to learn new words and make conversation. Having ... studying a large group of Hispanic children who speak English as a second language, NIDCD-funded researchers ...

  10. Language Impairment and Generative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Stopar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with different types of language impairment from the perspective of generative grammar. The paper focuses on syntactic deficiencies observed in aphasic and SLI (specific language impairment patients. We show that the observed ungrammatical structures do not appear in a random fashion but can be predicted by that theory of universal sentence structure which posits a strict hierarchy of its constituent parts. The article shows that while the hierarchically lower elements remain unaffected, the higher positions in the hierarchy show various degrees of syntactic impairment. The paper supports the implementation of recent developments in the field of generative grammar with the intention of encouraging further theoretical, experimental and therapeutic research in the field.

  11. Language impairment in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azambuja, Mariana Jardim; Radanovic, Marcia; Haddad, Mônica Santoro; Adda, Carla Cristina; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Mansur, Letícia Lessa

    2012-06-01

    Language alterations in Huntington's disease (HD) are reported, but their nature and correlation with other cognitive impairments are still under investigation. This study aimed to characterize the language disturbances in HD and to correlate them to motor and cognitive aspects of the disease. We studied 23 HD patients and 23 controls, matched for age and schooling, using the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Boston Naming Test, the Token Test, Animal fluency, Action fluency, FAS-COWA, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Test and the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT). HD patients performed poorer in verbal fluency (poral comprehension (preading comprehension (p=0.034) and narrative writing (p<0.0001). There was a moderate correlation between the Expressive Component and Language Competency Indexes and the HVOT (r=0.519, p=0.011 and r=0.450, p=0.031, respectively). Language alterations in HD seem to reflect a derangement in both frontostriatal and frontotemporal regions.

  12. Pragmatic language impairment and associated behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Cuperus, J.; Jansonius, K.; Verhoeven, L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child shows isolated structural language problems. The diagnosis of pragmatic language impairment (PLI) is given to children who show difficulties with the use of language in context. Unlike children with SLI, these children tend to

  13. Identification of Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Lesley J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of a wide range of language measures (phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics) for the identification of adults with developmental language impairment. Method: Measures were administered to 3 groups of adults, each representing a population expected to demonstrate high levels of language impairment, and to…

  14. Language impairment in Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Jardim Azambuja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Language alterations in Huntington's disease (HD are reported, but their nature and correlation with other cognitive impairments are still under investigation. This study aimed to characterize the language disturbances in HD and to correlate them to motor and cognitive aspects of the disease. We studied 23 HD patients and 23 controls, matched for age and schooling, using the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Boston Naming Test, the Token Test, Animal fluency, Action fluency, FAS-COWA, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Test and the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT. HD patients performed poorer in verbal fluency (p<0.0001, oral comprehension (p<0.0001, repetition (p<0.0001, oral agility (p<0.0001, reading comprehension (p=0.034 and narrative writing (p<0.0001. There was a moderate correlation between the Expressive Component and Language Competency Indexes and the HVOT (r=0.519, p=0.011 and r=0.450, p=0.031, respectively. Language alterations in HD seem to reflect a derangement in both frontostriatal and frontotemporal regions.

  15. Dutch gender in specific language impairment and second language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orgassa, A.; Weerman, F.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we compare five groups of learners acquiring Dutch gender as marked on determiners and adjectival inflection. Groups of L1 (first language) children and L1-SLI (first-language specific-language-impairment) children are compared to three Turkish-Dutch L2 (second language) groups: adul

  16. Language Impairments in Sign Language: Breakthroughs and Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gary; Herman, Rosalind; Woll, Bencie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment has previously solely been documented for children acquiring spoken languages, despite informal reports of deaf children with possible sign language disorder. The paper reports the case of a deaf child exposed to British Sign Language (BSL) from birth, who has significant developmental deficits in the…

  17. Language proficiency and sustained attention in monolingual and bilingual children with and without language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, T.D.; Leseman, P.P.M.; Wijnen, F.N.K.; Blom, W.B.T.

    Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI) and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these

  18. Language Learning Impairment in Sequential Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    We review and synthesize empirical evidence at the intersection of two populations: children with language learning impairment (LLI) and children from immigrant families who learn a single language from birth and a second language beginning in early childhood. LLI is a high incidence disorder that, in recent years, has been referred to by…

  19. Language proficiency and sustained attention in monolingual and bilingual children with and without language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Tessel Boerma; Paul Leseman; Frank Wijnen; Elma Blom

    2017-01-01

    Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI) and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these two groups show resemblance, testing the hypothesis that the language difficulties of children with LI reflect a weakened ability to maintain attention to the stream of linguistic information. Conseq...

  20. Specific Language Impairment in Families: Evidence for Co-Occurrence with Reading Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Judy F.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Hirsch, Linda S.; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher W.; Tallal, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Two family aggregation studies involving 25 children (ages 5-10) with specific language impairment (SLI) report the occurrence and co-occurrence of oral language impairments and reading impairments. Results indicate that when language impairments occur within families of SLI probands, these impairments generally co-occur with reading impairments.…

  1. Written Language Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth J.; Larkin, Rebecca F.; Blaggan, Samarita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Young children are often required to carry out writing tasks in an educational context. However, little is known about the patterns of writing skills that children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) have relative to their typically developing peers. Aims: To assess the written language skills of CwSLI and compare these with…

  2. Written Language Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth J.; Larkin, Rebecca F.; Blaggan, Samarita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Young children are often required to carry out writing tasks in an educational context. However, little is known about the patterns of writing skills that children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) have relative to their typically developing peers. Aims: To assess the written language skills of CwSLI and compare these with…

  3. Memory in language-impaired children with and without autism

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Alison Presmanes; van Santen, Jan; Gorman, Kyle; Langhorst, Beth Hoover; Fombonne, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background A subgroup of young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have significant language impairments (phonology, grammar, vocabulary), although such impairments are not considered to be core symptoms of and are not unique to ASD. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) display similar impairments in language. Given evidence for phenotypic and possibly etiologic overlap between SLI and ASD, it has been suggested that language-impaired children with ASD (ASD + language im...

  4. Control of Auditory Attention in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorino, Kristen R.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) appear to demonstrate deficits in attention and its control. Selective attention involves the cognitive control of attention directed toward a relevant stimulus and simultaneous inhibition of attention toward irrelevant stimuli. The current study examined attention control during a…

  5. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  6. The nature of pragmatic language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    The present dissertation reports on research into the nature of Pragmatic Language Impairment (PLI) in children aged 4 to 7 in the Netherlands. First, the possibility of screening for PLI in the general population is examined. Results show that this is indeed possible as well as feasible. Second, an

  7. Working Memory and Developmental Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lucy A.; Botting, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Children with developmental language impairments (DLI) are often reported to show difficulties with working memory. This review describes the four components of the well-established working memory model, and considers whether there is convincing evidence for difficulties within each component in children with DLI. The emphasis is on the most…

  8. Working Memory and Developmental Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lucy A.; Botting, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Children with developmental language impairments (DLI) are often reported to show difficulties with working memory. This review describes the four components of the well-established working memory model, and considers whether there is convincing evidence for difficulties within each component in children with DLI. The emphasis is on the most…

  9. Intervention for mixed receptive-expressive language impairment: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyle, James; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Law, James

    2010-01-01

    ... difficulties as well as adverse outcomes for language development and academic progress. This paper considers underlying explanations that may account for receptive-expressive language impairment...

  10. Teenage outcomes after speech and language impairment at preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ek U

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ulla Ek1, Fritjof Norrelgen3,4, Joakim Westerlund2, Andrea Dahlman5, Elizabeth Hultby5, Elisabeth Fernell61Department of Special Education, 2Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Speech and Language Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, 5CLINTEC/Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 6The Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and the Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenAim: Ten years ago, we published developmental data on a representative group of children (n = 25 with moderate or severe speech and language impairment, who were attending special preschools for children. The aim of this study was to perform a follow-up of these children as teenagers.Methods: Parents of 23 teenagers participated in a clinical interview that requested information on the child's current academic achievement, type of school, previous clinical assessments, and developmental diagnoses. Fifteen children participated in a speech and language evaluation, and 13 participated in a psychological evaluation.Results: Seven of the 23 teenagers had a mild intellectual disability, and another three had borderline intellectual functioning. Nine had symptoms of disorders on the autism spectrum; five of these had an autism spectrum disorder, and four had clear autistic traits. Six met criteria for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/subthreshold ADHD. Thirteen of 15 teenagers had a moderate or severe language impairment, and 13 of 15 had a moderate or severe reading impairment. Overlapping disorders were frequent. None of the individuals who underwent the clinical evaluation were free from developmental problems.Conclusion: A large number of children with speech and language impairment at preschool age had persistent language problems and/or met the

  11. Specific Language Impairment as a Language Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Compared with autistic disorder and developmental dyslexia, specific language impairment (SLI) attracts considerably less media coverage and research funding. Whereas most members of the public have some idea of the characteristics of autistic disorder and developmental dyslexia, this is not so for SLI. It is intriguing to consider why this might…

  12. Impaired Reasoning and Problem-Solving in Individuals with Language Impairment due to Aphasia or Language Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana eBaldo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The precise nature of the relationship between language and thought is an intriguing and challenging area of inquiry for scientists across many disciplines. In the realm of neuropsychology, research has investigated the inter-dependence of language and thought by testing individuals with compromised language abilities and observing whether performance in other cognitive domains is diminished. One group of such individuals is patients with aphasia who have an impairment in speech and language arising from a brain injury, such as a stroke. Our previous research has shown that the degree of language impairment in these individuals is strongly associated with the degree of impairment on complex reasoning tasks, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST and Raven’s Matrices. In the current study, we present new data from a large group of individuals with aphasia that show a dissociation in performance between putatively non-verbal tasks on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS that require differing degrees of reasoning (Picture Completion vs. Picture Arrangement tasks. We also present an update and replication of our previous findings with the WCST showing that individuals with the most profound core language deficits (i.e., impaired comprehension and disordered language output are particularly impaired on problem-solving tasks. In the second part of the paper, we present findings from a neurologically-intact individual known as Chelsea who was not exposed to language due to an unaddressed hearing loss that was present since birth. At the age of 32, she was fitted with hearing aids and exposed to spoken and signed language for the first time, but she was only able to acquire a limited language capacity. Chelsea was tested on a series of standardized neuropsychological measures, including reasoning and problem-solving tasks. She was able to perform well on a number of visuospatial tasks but was disproportionately impaired on tasks that

  13. Impaired reasoning and problem-solving in individuals with language impairment due to aphasia or language delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Juliana V.; Paulraj, Selvi R.; Curran, Brian C.; Dronkers, Nina F.

    2015-01-01

    The precise nature of the relationship between language and thought is an intriguing and challenging area of inquiry for scientists across many disciplines. In the realm of neuropsychology, research has investigated the inter-dependence of language and thought by testing individuals with compromised language abilities and observing whether performance in other cognitive domains is diminished. One group of such individuals is patients with aphasia who have an impairment in speech and language arising from a brain injury, such as a stroke. Our previous research has shown that the degree of language impairment in these individuals is strongly associated with the degree of impairment on complex reasoning tasks, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) and Raven’s Matrices. In the current study, we present new data from a large group of individuals with aphasia that show a dissociation in performance between putatively non-verbal tasks on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) that require differing degrees of reasoning (Picture Completion vs. Picture Arrangement tasks). We also present an update and replication of our previous findings with the WCST showing that individuals with the most profound core language deficits (i.e., impaired comprehension and disordered language output) are particularly impaired on problem-solving tasks. In the second part of the paper, we present findings from a neurologically intact individual known as “Chelsea” who was not exposed to language due to an unaddressed hearing loss that was present since birth. At the age of 32, she was fitted with hearing aids and exposed to spoken and signed language for the first time, but she was only able to acquire a limited language capacity. Chelsea was tested on a series of standardized neuropsychological measures, including reasoning and problem-solving tasks. She was able to perform well on a number of visuospatial tasks but was disproportionately impaired on tasks that required

  14. Impaired reasoning and problem-solving in individuals with language impairment due to aphasia or language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Juliana V; Paulraj, Selvi R; Curran, Brian C; Dronkers, Nina F

    2015-01-01

    The precise nature of the relationship between language and thought is an intriguing and challenging area of inquiry for scientists across many disciplines. In the realm of neuropsychology, research has investigated the inter-dependence of language and thought by testing individuals with compromised language abilities and observing whether performance in other cognitive domains is diminished. One group of such individuals is patients with aphasia who have an impairment in speech and language arising from a brain injury, such as a stroke. Our previous research has shown that the degree of language impairment in these individuals is strongly associated with the degree of impairment on complex reasoning tasks, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) and Raven's Matrices. In the current study, we present new data from a large group of individuals with aphasia that show a dissociation in performance between putatively non-verbal tasks on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) that require differing degrees of reasoning (Picture Completion vs. Picture Arrangement tasks). We also present an update and replication of our previous findings with the WCST showing that individuals with the most profound core language deficits (i.e., impaired comprehension and disordered language output) are particularly impaired on problem-solving tasks. In the second part of the paper, we present findings from a neurologically intact individual known as "Chelsea" who was not exposed to language due to an unaddressed hearing loss that was present since birth. At the age of 32, she was fitted with hearing aids and exposed to spoken and signed language for the first time, but she was only able to acquire a limited language capacity. Chelsea was tested on a series of standardized neuropsychological measures, including reasoning and problem-solving tasks. She was able to perform well on a number of visuospatial tasks but was disproportionately impaired on tasks that required reasoning

  15. Current therapy for cognitive impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vasilyevna Vakhnina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairments (CIs are a highly common type of neurological disorders particularly in elderly patients. Choice of a therapeutic strategy for CI is determined by the etiology of abnormalities and their degree. Measures to prevent CI progression and dementia: adequate treatment of existing cardiovascular diseases, prevention of stroke, balanced nutrition, moderate physical and intellectual exercises, and combatting overweight and low activity are of basic value in treating mild and moderate CIs. According to the data of a number of investigations, the above measures reduce the risk of dementia, including in the genetically predisposed. Pharmacotherapy for mild and moderate CIs generally comprises vasoactive, neurometabolic, and noradrenergic agents. The indication for the use of memantine and/or acetylcholinergic agents, i.e. basic therapy for the most common forms of dementia (Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body dementia, vascular, and mixed dementia, hepatic colics is severe CIs. The long-term use of memantine and/or acetylcholinergic agents alleviates the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of dementia, enhances self-dependence in patients, and prolongs their active lifetime.

  16. Exploring writing in products in students with language impairments and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Dockrell, Julie E.; Ricketts, Jessie; Charman, Tony; Lindsay, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    Oral language skills scaffold written text production; students with oral language difficulties often experience writing problems. The current study examines the ways in which oral language problems experienced by students with language impairment (LI) and students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) impact on their production of written text. One hundred and fifty seven participants (Mage = 10;2) with LI or ASD completed standardized measures of oral language, transcription, working memory,...

  17. Theory of Mind Ability in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillott, A.; Furniss, F.; Walter, A.

    2004-01-01

    Whilst evidence of theory of mind impairments in children with autism is well established, possible impairments in children with language disorder have only recently been investigated. Children with specific language impairment aged between eight and 12 years were matched by age and gender to high functioning children with autism and normally…

  18. Cognitive impairment and preferences for current health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsevat Joel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed preferences for current health using the visual analogue scale (VAS, standard gamble (SG, time trade-off (TTO, and willingness to pay (WTP in patients with cerebral aneurysms, a population vulnerable to cognitive deficits related to aneurysm bleeding or treatment. Methods We measured VAS, SG, TTO, and WTP values for current health in 165 outpatients with cerebral aneurysms. We assessed cognitive impairment with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE; scores Results Eleven patients (7% had MMSE scores Conclusion Cognitive impairment is associated with lower preferences for current health in patients with cerebral aneurysms. Cognitively impaired patients have poor inter-preference test correlations and different response distributions compared to unimpaired patients.

  19. CONTEMPOPARY VIEWS TO SIGN LANGUAGE OF HEARING IMPAIRED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojka TATAREVA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The place of the sign language in education of hearing impaired children in Denmark, USA and Sweden.Hearing impaired people ought to have a possibility of access to vital information, so they can move step by step, to live as useful members of society.Sign language is nonverbal communication which appears as a kind of compensation of the language lack, a means of development of that activity an opinion of unlimited human communicative nature.Mimic sign language in the system of education of hearing impaired children in Denmark, USA and Sweden take a primary place. The school with Hearing impaired children are bilingual. In the schools sign language is taken as a training language and it is available to every child.Contemporary views and practice tell us that teaching of hearing impaired children with sign language is more effective and more available.

  20. Language impairment in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... Language impairment (Li) is a highly prevalent comorbidity in children with psychiatric disorders and ... were diagnosed as ADHD and then they were evaluated for their language development.

  1. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  2. Using principles of learning to inform language therapy design for children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Ancharski, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Language treatment for children with specific language impairment (SLI) often takes months to achieve moderate results. Interventions often do not incorporate the principles that are known to affect learning in unimpaired learners. To outline some key findings about learning in typical populations and to suggest a model of how they might be applied to language treatment design as a catalyst for further research and discussion. Three main principles of implicit learning are reviewed: variability, complexity and sleep-dependent consolidation. After explaining these principles, evidence is provided as to how they influence learning tasks in unimpaired learners. Information is reviewed on principles of learning as they apply to impaired populations, current treatment designs are also reviewed that conform to the principles, and ways in which principles of learning might be incorporated into language treatment design are demonstrated. This paper provides an outline for how theoretical knowledge might be applied to clinical practice in an effort to promote discussion. Although the authors look forward to more specific details on how the principles of learning relate to impaired populations, there is ample evidence to suggest that these principles should be considered during treatment design. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  3. Assessing multilingual children: disentangling bilingualism from language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armon-Lotem, S.; de Jong, J.; Meir, N.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive set of tools for assessing the linguistic abilities of bilingual children. It aims to disentangle effects of bilingualism from those of Specific Language Impairment (SLI), making use of both models of bilingualism and models of language impairment.

  4. Recognising Language Impairment in Secondary School Student Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Julia; Munro, Natalie; Togher, Leanne; Arciuli, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Up to 16% of students in mainstream secondary schools present with language impairment (LI). As with other learning difficulties, students with LI experience many academic, social, emotional and behavioral problems. Associated presenting behaviors may, however, be masking the primary language impairment. As a result, secondary school students with…

  5. Gestural Abilities of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Charlotte; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Alcock, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when language is significantly below chronological age expectations in the absence of other developmental disorders, sensory impairments or global developmental delays. It has been suggested that gesture may enhance communication in children with SLI by providing an alternative means to…

  6. Early Language Impairment and Young Adult Delinquent and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlie, E.B.; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Escobar, Michael; Young, Arlene; Atkinson, Leslie; Johnson, Carla; Wilson, Beth; Douglas, Lori

    2004-01-01

    Clinic and forensic studies have reported high rates of language impairments in conduct- disordered and incarcerated youth. In community samples followed to early adolescence, speech and language impairments have been linked to attention deficits and internalizing problems, rather than conduct problems, delinquency, or aggression. This study…

  7. Linguistic transfer in bilingual children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Steenge, J.; Balkom, L.J.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the literature so far the limited research on specific language impairment (SLI) in bilingual children has concentrated on linguistic skills in the first language (L1) and/or the second language (L2) without paying attention to the relations between the two types of skills and to the

  8. Bilingual children with specific language impairment : additionally disadvantaged?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, Judit

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports on research on language proficiency of bilingual children (aged 6 to 11 years) with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) in the Netherlands, speaking Dutch as a second language (L2). The L2 proficiency of bilingual children with SLI is compared to the proficiency in Dutch of monoli

  9. Cooperative Groups: Engaging Elementary Students with Pragmatic Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockall, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author suggests that children with language impairments have difficulty working in groups because of deficits in the area of pragmatic language. Pragmatic language skills are identified and suggestions for intervention in the general education classroom are discussed. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  10. Linguistic Transfer in Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Balkom, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the literature so far the limited research on specific language impairment (SLI) in bilingual children has concentrated on linguistic skills in the first language (L1) and/or the second language (L2) without paying attention to the relations between the two types of skills and to the issue of linguistic transfer. Aims: To examine…

  11. Nonlinguistic Cognitive Treatment for Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Rentmeester-Disher, Jill; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Substantial evidence points to the presence of subtle weaknesses in the nonlinguistic cognitive processing skills of children with primary (or specific) language impairment (PLI). It is possible that these weaknesses contribute to the language learning difficulties that characterize PLI, and that treating them can improve language skills. To test…

  12. The Dyslexia Spectrum: Continuities between Reading, Speech, and Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowling, Margaret J.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.

    2006-01-01

    D. V. M. Bishop and M. J. Snowling (2004) proposed that 2 dimensions of language are required to conceptualize the relationship between dyslexia and specific language impairment: phonological skills and wider language skills beyond phonology (grammatical, semantic, and pragmatic skills). In this article, we discuss the commonalities between…

  13. Linguistic transfer in bilingual children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Steenge, J.; Balkom, L.J.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the literature so far the limited research on specific language impairment (SLI) in bilingual children has concentrated on linguistic skills in the first language (L1) and/or the second language (L2) without paying attention to the relations between the two types of skills and to the

  14. Bilingual children with specific language impairment : additionally disadvantaged?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, Judit

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports on research on language proficiency of bilingual children (aged 6 to 11 years) with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) in the Netherlands, speaking Dutch as a second language (L2). The L2 proficiency of bilingual children with SLI is compared to the proficiency in Dutch of monoli

  15. An fMRI study of implicit language learning in developmental language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Plante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with developmental language impairment can show deficits into adulthood. This suggests that neural networks related to their language do not normalize with time. We examined the ability of 16 adults with and without impaired language to learn individual words in an unfamiliar language. Adults with impaired language were able to segment individual words from running speech, but needed more time to do so than their normal-language peers. ICA analysis of fMRI data indicated that adults with language impairment activate a neural network that is comparable to that of adults with normal language. However, a regional analysis indicated relative hyperactivation of a collection of regions associated with language processing. These results are discussed with reference to the Statistical Learning Framework and the sub-skills thought to relate to word segmentation.

  16. Establishing Language Benchmarks for Children with Typically Developing Language and Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Mary Beth; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Tambyraja, Sherine R.; Farquharson, Kelly; Justice, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Practitioners, researchers, and policymakers (i.e., stakeholders) have vested interests in children's language growth yet currently do not have empirically driven methods for measuring such outcomes. The present study established language benchmarks for children with typically developing language (TDL) and children with language…

  17. Autism and specific language impairment: categorical distinction or continuum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, autism and specific language impairment (SLI) are regarded as distinct disorders, with differential diagnosis hinging on two features. First, in SLI one sees isolated language impairments in the context of otherwise normal development, whereas in autism a triad of impairments is seen, affecting communication, social interaction and behavioural repertoire. Second, there are different communication problems in these two conditions. Children with SLI have particular difficulty with structural aspects of language (phonology and syntax). In contrast, abnormal use of language (pragmatics) is the most striking feature of autism. However, recently, this conventional view has been challenged on three counts. First, children with autism have structural language impairments similar to those in SLI. Second, some children have symptoms intermediate between autism and SLT. Third, there is a high rate of language impairments in relatives of people with autism, suggesting aetiological continuities between SLI and autism. One interpretation of these findings is to regard autism as 'SLI plus', i.e. to assume that the only factor differentiating the disorders is the presence of additional impairments in autism. It is suggested that a more plausible interpretation is to regard structural and pragmatic language impairments as correlated but separable consequences of common underlying risk factors.

  18. An emergent account of language impairments in children with SLI: implications for assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J L

    2001-01-01

    While current theoretical accounts of language impairments in children with specific language impairment (SLI) provide clear direction with regard to intervention goal setting, these same accounts say little with regard to the intervention process. Current developments in connectionist modeling and the extension of principles of dynamical systems theory to cognitive and language development have resulted in a new theory of language development known as emergentism. In contrast to traditional formal linguistic accounts, the emergentist view holds that language is a dynamic evolving system that can be represented as a distribution of probabilistic information. Language acquisition, from this perspective, emerges from the child's simultaneous integration of multiple acoustic, linguistic, social and communicative cues within the context of the communicative interaction. An alternative account of SLI grounded within this emergentist view is presented, and preliminary implications are explored with respect to assessment and intervention.

  19. Language Profiles of Monolingual and Bilingual Finnish Preschool Children at Risk for Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Martin; Korkman, Marit; Mickos, Annika; Byring, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Background: A large proportion of children are exposed to more than one language, yet research on simultaneous bilingualism has been relatively sparse. Traditionally, there has been concern that bilingualism may aggravate language difficulties of children with language impairment. However, recent studies have not found specific language impairment…

  20. Componential Skills in Second Language Development of Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Leeuwe, Jan; van Balkom, Hans

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated which componential skills can be distinguished in the second language (L2) development of 140 bilingual children with specific language impairment in the Netherlands, aged 6-11 years, divided into 3 age groups. L2 development was assessed by means of spoken language tasks representing different language skills…

  1. Sentence Repetition in Deaf Children with Specific Language Impairment in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë; Mason, Kathryn; Rowley, Katherine; Herman, Rosalind; Atkinson, Joanna; Woll, Bencie; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) perform poorly on sentence repetition tasks across different spoken languages, but until now, this methodology has not been investigated in children who have SLI in a signed language. Users of a natural sign language encode different sentence meanings through their choice of signs and by altering…

  2. Impaired reasoning and problem-solving in individuals with language impairment due to aphasia or language delay

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The precise nature of the relationship between language and thought is an intriguing and challenging area of inquiry for scientists across many disciplines. In the realm of neuropsychology, research has investigated the inter-dependence of language and thought by testing individuals with compromised language abilities and observing whether performance in other cognitive domains is diminished. One group of such individuals is patients with aphasia who have an impairment in speech and language ...

  3. Discriminating children with language impairment among English-language learners from diverse first-language backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Schneider, Phyllis; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the authors sought to determine whether a combination of English-language measures and a parent questionnaire on first-language development could adequately discriminate between English-language learners (ELLs) with and without language impairment (LI) when children had diverse first-language backgrounds. Participants were 152 typically developing (TD) children and 26 children with LI; groups were matched for age (M = 5;10 [years;months]) and exposure to English (M = 21 months). Children were given English standardized tests of nonword repetition, tense morphology, narrative story grammar, and receptive vocabulary. Parents were given a questionnaire on children's first-language development. ELLs with LI had significantly lower scores than the TD ELLs on the first-language questionnaire and all the English-language measures except for vocabulary. Linear discriminant function analyses showed that good discrimination between the TD and LI groups could be achieved with all measures, except vocabulary, combined. The strongest discriminator was the questionnaire, followed by nonword repetition and tense morphology. Discrimination of children with LI among a diverse group of ELLs might be possible when using a combination of measures. Children with LI exhibit deficits in similar linguistic/cognitive domains regardless of whether English is their first or second language.

  4. Characteristics of early spelling of children with Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordewener, K.A.H.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated active grapheme knowledge and early spelling of 59 first grade children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Speed, nature, and knowledge transfer of spelling acquisition were taken into account. Four orthographic characteristics that influence early spelling, name

  5. Procedural learning difficulties in children with Specific Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Desmottes, Lise; Meulemans, Thierry; Maillart, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Through a review of the literature, this paper shows that linguistic and non-linguistic disorders in children with specific language impairment might be linked to difficulties in procedural learning, especially regarding sequential abilities. Indeed, children with specific language impairment encounter difficulties to learn visuo-motor and linguistic sequences. These difficulties are not limited to initial learning but extend to the consolidation stage in long-term memory. Finally, recent ...

  6. Social Stress in Young People with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadman, Ruth; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Social interactions can be a source of social stress for adolescents. Little is known about how adolescents with developmental difficulties, such as specific language impairment (SLI), feel when interacting socially. Participants included 28 adolescents with SLI and 28 adolescents with typical language abilities (TL). Self-report measures of…

  7. Case Marking in Hungarian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Ágnes; Kas, Bence; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) acquiring a language with a rich case marking system (Hungarian) have difficulty with case, and, if so, whether the difficulty is comparable for spatial and nonspatial meanings. Data were drawn from narrative samples and from a sentence repetition task. Suffixes were…

  8. Conversational Responsiveness and Assertiveness in Language-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski-McClendon, Mary Kay; Newhoff, Marilyn

    1987-01-01

    The conversational responsiveness and assertiveness of 10 language-disordered children (4:1 to 5:9 years old) was compared to that of 10 non-impaired younger children matched for language ability. Results indicated that the handicapped children responded to questions less often but were as assertive in conversation as normal children. (DB)

  9. Language and Syntactic Impairment Following Stroke in Late Bilingual Aphasics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Muriel; Laganaro, Marina; Michel, Patrik; Martory, Marie-Dominique; Di Pietro, Marie; Abutalebi, Jubin; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Bilingual aphasia generally affects both languages. However, the age of acquisition of the second language (L2) seems to play a role in the anatomo-functional correlation of the syntactical/grammatical processes, thus potentially influencing the L2 syntactic impairment following a stroke. The present study aims to analyze the influence of…

  10. Notes on the Nature of Bilingual Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Johanne Paradis' Keynote Article can be read as a concise critical review of the research that focuses on the sometimes strained relationship between bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI). In my comments I will add some thoughts based on our own research on the learning of Dutch as a second language (L2) by children with SLI.

  11. Analogical Reasoning in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Sandrine; Parisse, Christophe; Maillart, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    Usage-based theory considers analogical reasoning as a cognitive process required in language development. We hypothesized that difficulties with analogical reasoning could hinder the abstraction of construction schemas, thus slowing down morphosyntactic development for children with specific language impairment (SLI). We also hypothesized, in…

  12. The Production of Complement Clauses in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Gillian; Rose, Miranda; Eadie, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to provide a comprehensive description of complement-clause production in children with language impairment. Complement clauses were examined with respect to types of complement structure produced, verb use, and both semantic and syntactic accuracy. Method: A group of 17 children with language impairment…

  13. Production of Infinitival Complements by Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Karen Barako; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the production of infinitival complements by children with specific language impairment (SLI) as compared with mean length of utterance (MLU)-matched children in an effort to clarify inconsistencies in the literature. Spontaneous language samples were analysed for infinitival complements (reduced…

  14. Sustained Attention in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, Denise A.; Francis, Alexander L.; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Information-processing limitations have been associated with language problems in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These processing limitations may be associated with limitations in attentional capacity, even in the absence of clinically significant attention deficits. In this study, the authors examined the performance…

  15. Precursors to numeracy in kindergartners with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, M.A.J.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent children with specific language impairment (SLI) differ in their early numeracy skills, when compared to normal language achieving (NLA) children. It was also explored which precursors were related to the early numeracy skills in both groups. Sixty-one

  16. The Field of Language Impairment Is Growing Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2009-01-01

    Academics from a variety of disciplines are busily studying conditions such as specific language impairment. Professionals are involved in evidence-based practice, tackling the realities of helping children with language difficulties and supporting their families. Parents often get together via support groups, get advice via the web, use helplines…

  17. The Word Length Effect in Children with Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Catherine H.

    2003-01-01

    Two types of serial word recall tasks (full verbal recall and probed recall) were administered to 11 children with language impairment and 22 controls matched for productive language or age. The only significant group differences were in the full list recall condition, in which subjects' performance was significantly worse than controls. (Contains…

  18. Understanding Risk for Reading Difficulties in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kimberly A.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the preschool language and early literacy skills of kindergarten good and poor readers, and to determine the extent to which these skills predict reading status. Method: Participants were 136 children with language impairment enrolled in early childhood special education classrooms.…

  19. The Production of Complement Clauses in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Gillian; Rose, Miranda; Eadie, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to provide a comprehensive description of complement-clause production in children with language impairment. Complement clauses were examined with respect to types of complement structure produced, verb use, and both semantic and syntactic accuracy. Method: A group of 17 children with language impairment…

  20. Music Identification Skills of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Giorgia; Scorpecci, Alessandro; Reali, Laura; D'Alatri, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background: To date very few studies have investigated the musical skills of children with specific language impairment (SLI). There is growing evidence that SLI affects areas other than language, and it is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that children with this disorder may have difficulties in perceiving musical stimuli appropriately. Aims:…

  1. Language Proficiency and Sustained Attention in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Tessel; Leseman, Paul; Wijnen, Frank; Blom, Elma

    2017-01-01

    Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI) and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these two groups show resemblance, testing the hypothesis that the language difficulties of children with LI reflect a weakened ability to maintain attention to the stream of linguistic information. Consequent incomplete processing of language input may lead to delays that are similar to those originating from reductions in input frequency. Methods: Monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI (N = 128), aged 5-8 years old, participated in this study. Dutch receptive vocabulary and grammatical morphology were assessed at three waves. In addition, auditory and visual sustained attention were tested at wave 1. Mediation analyses were performed to examine relationships between LI, sustained attention, and language skills. Results: Children with LI and bilingual children were outperformed by their typically developing (TD) and monolingual peers, respectively, on vocabulary and morphology at all three waves. The vocabulary difference between monolinguals and bilinguals decreased over time. In addition, children with LI had weaker auditory and visual sustained attention skills relative to TD children, while no differences between monolinguals and bilinguals emerged. Auditory sustained attention mediated the effect of LI on vocabulary and morphology in both the monolingual and bilingual groups of children. Visual sustained attention only acted as a mediator in the bilingual group. Conclusion: The findings from the present study indicate that the overlap between the language profiles of children with LI and bilingual children is particularly large for vocabulary in early (pre)school years and reduces over time. Results furthermore suggest that the overlap may be explained by

  2. Language Proficiency and Sustained Attention in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessel Boerma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these two groups show resemblance, testing the hypothesis that the language difficulties of children with LI reflect a weakened ability to maintain attention to the stream of linguistic information. Consequent incomplete processing of language input may lead to delays that are similar to those originating from reductions in input frequency.Methods: Monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI (N = 128, aged 5–8 years old, participated in this study. Dutch receptive vocabulary and grammatical morphology were assessed at three waves. In addition, auditory and visual sustained attention were tested at wave 1. Mediation analyses were performed to examine relationships between LI, sustained attention, and language skills.Results: Children with LI and bilingual children were outperformed by their typically developing (TD and monolingual peers, respectively, on vocabulary and morphology at all three waves. The vocabulary difference between monolinguals and bilinguals decreased over time. In addition, children with LI had weaker auditory and visual sustained attention skills relative to TD children, while no differences between monolinguals and bilinguals emerged. Auditory sustained attention mediated the effect of LI on vocabulary and morphology in both the monolingual and bilingual groups of children. Visual sustained attention only acted as a mediator in the bilingual group.Conclusion: The findings from the present study indicate that the overlap between the language profiles of children with LI and bilingual children is particularly large for vocabulary in early (preschool years and reduces over time. Results furthermore suggest that the overlap may be

  3. Word production errors in children with developmental language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë R

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the errors that children with developmental language impairments make on three types of word production tasks: lexical retrieval, the elicitation of derivationally complex forms and the repetition of non-sense forms. The studies discussed in this review come principally from children with specific language impairment, and from children who are English-speakers or deaf users of British sign language. It is argued that models of word production need to be able to account for the data presented here, and need to have explanatory power across both modalities (i.e. speech and sign).

  4. Strategies for improving productive thinking in the language impaired adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenning, E A; Lubinski, R B

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss a cognitive approach to therapy with a language impaired adult. Two types of productive thinking are explored in this research: concept awareness and problem solving. These are dynamic and creative processes underlying the development and use of cognition and language. This single subject study follows an ABAB design and describes techniques used in therapy and methods for measuring productive thinking in a 66-yr-old moderately language impaired adult. Results indicate a sharp increase in the subject's thought productivity in a variety of contexts. A critical appraisal of reasons for therapy effectiveness are given.

  5. 45 CFR 1308.9 - Eligibility criteria: Speech or language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, which adversely affects a child's learning. (b) A child is classified as having a speech or language impairment whose speech is... (fluency). (e) A child should not be classified as having a speech or language impairment whose speech or...

  6. Methodes for identification of specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toktam Maleki Shahmahmood

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Specific language impiarment (SLI is one of the most prevalent developmental language disorders its diagnosis is a problematic issue among researchers and clinicians because of the heterogeneity of language profiles in the affected population and overlapping with other developmental language disorders. The aim of this study was to review the suggested diagnostic criteria for this disorder, controversies about these criteria and identify the most accurate diagnostic methods.Methods: Published article from 1980 to 2012 in bibliographic and publisher databases including Pubmed, Google scholar, Cochran library, Web of Science, ProQuest, Springer, Oxford, Science direct, Ovid, Iran Medex and Magiran about the diagnostic methods for discriminating preschoool children with specific language impiarment from normal developing children were reviewd in this article. These keywords were used for research: “specific language impairment”, “SLI”, “diagnosis or identification”, “standardized tests”, and “tests for language development”.Conclusion: The results of this study show inspite of agreement of researchers and clinicians about exclusionary criteria as one basic part of the diagnosis of specific language impiarment , there is no consensus about the other part, inclusionary criteria. Different studies used different inclusionary criteria which can be divided to categories of clincal judgment, discrepancy-based criteria, standardized testing, clinical markers and markers from spontaneous speech samples. Advantages, disadvantages, and clinical applicability of each diagnostic method are discussed in this article.

  7. Componential skills in second language development of bilingual children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Steenge, J.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Balkom, L.J.M. van

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated which componential skills can be distinguished in the second language (L2) development of 140 bilingual children with specific language impairment in the Netherlands, aged 6-11 years, divided into 3 age groups. L2 development was assessed by means of spoken language

  8. Identifying Specific Language Impairment in Deaf Children Acquiring British Sign Language: Implications for Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kathryn; Rowley, Katherine; Marshall, Chloe R.; Atkinson, Joanna R.; Herman, Rosalind; Woll, Bencie; Morgan, Gary

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first ever group study of specific language impairment (SLI) in users of sign language. A group of 50 children were referred to the study by teachers and speech and language therapists. Individuals who fitted pre-determined criteria for SLI were then systematically assessed. Here, we describe in detail the performance of 13…

  9. Gesture and Motor Skill in Relation to Language in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Jana M.; Braddock, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine gesture and motor abilities in relation to language in children with language impairment (LI). Method: Eleven children with LI (aged 2;7 to 6;1 [years;months]) and 16 typically developing (TD) children of similar chronological ages completed 2 picture narration tasks, and their language (rate of verbal utterances, mean length…

  10. Comparing Language Profiles: Children with Specific Language Impairment and Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Alloway, Tracy Packiam

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although it is widely recognized that substantial heterogeneity exists in the cognitive profiles of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), very little is known about the language skills of this group. Aims: To compare the language abilities of children with DCD with a group whose language impairment has been well…

  11. Abnormal Functional Lateralization and Activity of Language Brain Areas in Typical Specific Language Impairment (Developmental Dysphasia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…

  12. Cognitive predictors of language development in children with specific language impairment (SLI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daal, J.G.H.L. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Balkom, L.J.M. van

    2009-01-01

    Background: Language development is generally viewed as a multifactorial process. There are increasing indications that this similarly holds for the problematic language development process. Aims: A population of 97 young Dutch children with specific language impair? ment (SLI) was followed over a 2

  13. Cognitive predictors of language development in children with specific language impairment (SLI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daal, J.G.H.L. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Balkom, L.J.M. van

    2009-01-01

    Background: Language development is generally viewed as a multifactorial process. There are increasing indications that this similarly holds for the problematic language development process. Aims: A population of 97 young Dutch children with specific language impair? ment (SLI) was followed over a

  14. Language and executive functioning in the context of specific language impairment and bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laloi, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis has investigated how French-speaking monolingual and bilingual children with SLI (specific language impairment) performed on various tasks examining language and executive functioning (EF) abilities, in comparison to monolingual and bilingual peers without SLI. Language was invest

  15. Predictors of Growth or Attrition of the First Language in Latino Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F.; Sweet, Monica

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the factors that may help understand the differential rates of language development in the home language (i.e., Spanish) of Latino preschoolers with specific language impairment. Children were randomly assigned to either bilingual or English-only small group interventions and followed from preschool to kindergarten. Predictors of…

  16. How Language is Embodied in Bilinguals and Children With Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Marie Adams

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript explores the role of embodied views of language comprehension and production in bilingualism and specific language impairment. Reconceptualizing popular models of bilingual language processing, the embodied theory is first extended to this area. Issues such as semantic grounding in a second language and potential differences between early and late acquisition of a second language are discussed. Predictions are made about how this theory informs novel ways of thinking about teaching a second language. Secondly, the comorbidity of speech, language and motor impairments and how embodiment theory informs the discussion of the etiology of these impairments is examined. A hypothesis is presented suggesting that what is often referred to as specific language impairment may not be so specific due to widespread subclinical motor deficits in this population. Predictions are made about how weaknesses and instabilities in speech motor control, even at a subclinical level, may disrupt the neural network that connects acoustic input, articulatory motor plans, and semantics. Finally, I make predictions about how this information informs clinical practice for professionals such as speech language pathologists and occupational and physical therapists. These new hypotheses are placed within the larger framework of the body of work pertaining to semantic grounding, action-based language acquisition, and action-perception links that underlie language learning and conceptual grounding.

  17. How Language Is Embodied in Bilinguals and Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ashley M

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript explores the role of embodied views of language comprehension and production in bilingualism and specific language impairment. Reconceptualizing popular models of bilingual language processing, the embodied theory is first extended to this area. Issues such as semantic grounding in a second language and potential differences between early and late acquisition of a second language are discussed. Predictions are made about how this theory informs novel ways of thinking about teaching a second language. Secondly, the comorbidity of speech, language, and motor impairments and how embodiment theory informs the discussion of the etiology of these impairments is examined. A hypothesis is presented suggesting that what is often referred to as specific language impairment may not be so specific due to widespread subclinical motor deficits in this population. Predictions are made about how weaknesses and instabilities in speech motor control, even at a subclinical level, may disrupt the neural network that connects acoustic input, articulatory motor plans, and semantics. Finally, I make predictions about how this information informs clinical practice for professionals such as speech language pathologists and occupational and physical therapists. These new hypotheses are placed within the larger framework of the body of work pertaining to semantic grounding, action-based language acquisition, and action-perception links that underlie language learning and conceptual grounding.

  18. How Language Is Embodied in Bilinguals and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ashley M.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript explores the role of embodied views of language comprehension and production in bilingualism and specific language impairment. Reconceptualizing popular models of bilingual language processing, the embodied theory is first extended to this area. Issues such as semantic grounding in a second language and potential differences between early and late acquisition of a second language are discussed. Predictions are made about how this theory informs novel ways of thinking about teaching a second language. Secondly, the comorbidity of speech, language, and motor impairments and how embodiment theory informs the discussion of the etiology of these impairments is examined. A hypothesis is presented suggesting that what is often referred to as specific language impairment may not be so specific due to widespread subclinical motor deficits in this population. Predictions are made about how weaknesses and instabilities in speech motor control, even at a subclinical level, may disrupt the neural network that connects acoustic input, articulatory motor plans, and semantics. Finally, I make predictions about how this information informs clinical practice for professionals such as speech language pathologists and occupational and physical therapists. These new hypotheses are placed within the larger framework of the body of work pertaining to semantic grounding, action-based language acquisition, and action-perception links that underlie language learning and conceptual grounding. PMID:27582716

  19. Striatal degeneration impairs language learning: evidence from Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Diego-Balaguer, R; Couette, M; Dolbeau, G; Dürr, A; Youssov, K; Bachoud-Lévi, A-C

    2008-11-01

    Although the role of the striatum in language processing is still largely unclear, a number of recent proposals have outlined its specific contribution. Different studies report evidence converging to a picture where the striatum may be involved in those aspects of rule-application requiring non-automatized behaviour. This is the main characteristic of the earliest phases of language acquisition that require the online detection of distant dependencies and the creation of syntactic categories by means of rule learning. Learning of sequences and categorization processes in non-language domains has been known to require striatal recruitment. Thus, we hypothesized that the striatum should play a prominent role in the extraction of rules in learning a language. We studied 13 pre-symptomatic gene-carriers and 22 early stage patients of Huntington's disease (pre-HD), both characterized by a progressive degeneration of the striatum and 21 late stage patients Huntington's disease (18 stage II, two stage III and one stage IV) where cortical degeneration accompanies striatal degeneration. When presented with a simplified artificial language where words and rules could be extracted, early stage Huntington's disease patients (stage I) were impaired in the learning test, demonstrating a greater impairment in rule than word learning compared to the 20 age- and education-matched controls. Huntington's disease patients at later stages were impaired both on word and rule learning. While spared in their overall performance, gene-carriers having learned a set of abstract artificial language rules were then impaired in the transfer of those rules to similar artificial language structures. The correlation analyses among several neuropsychological tests assessing executive function showed that rule learning correlated with tests requiring working memory and attentional control, while word learning correlated with a test involving episodic memory. These learning impairments significantly

  20. Deficits in narrative abilities in child British Sign Language users with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Ros; Rowley, Katherine; Mason, Kathryn; Morgan, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This study details the first ever investigation of narrative skills in a group of 17 deaf signing children who have been diagnosed with disorders in their British Sign Language development compared with a control group of 17 deaf child signers matched for age, gender, education, quantity, and quality of language exposure and non-verbal intelligence. Children were asked to generate a narrative based on events in a language free video. Narratives were analysed for global structure, information content and local level grammatical devices, especially verb morphology. The language-impaired group produced shorter, less structured and grammatically simpler narratives than controls, with verb morphology particularly impaired. Despite major differences in how sign and spoken languages are articulated, narrative is shown to be a reliable marker of language impairment across the modality boundaries.

  1. Assessing Children with Language Impairments: A Study on Kannada, a South Indian Language

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    Srimani Chakravarthi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This is one of the first comprehensive studies to assess receptive and expressive language skills in a South Indian language, Kannada. It demystifies language impairments and provides a model for future research to understand other languages in India and in countries around the world.Method: Language impairments were identified in 68 students of Grades 3 and 4, in elementary schools where Kannada was the medium of instruction. The children were assessed in different language components. The results were analysed in terms of their ages and their levels of functioning in each language component and sub-component.Results: As a group, the subjects showed no significant deficits in phonological and semantic skills; however, individual deficits and deficits within sub-component skills of semantics were noted. Mean and individual deficits in auditory reception, aural comprehension and receptive vocabulary were also noted. Deficits in syntax & verbal expression were notably significant. The extent of language delay increases with age, and plateaus at higher ages.Conclusion: Children with language impairments in Kannada, display many similar characteristics in terms of problems in different components of language. Early intervention is called for because the language delay increases as age advances. A thorough assessment reveals specific strengths and weaknesses in language components and skills. This can be used as a starting point to base remediation activities.doi: 10.5463/dcid.v23i3.134

  2. The Relationship between Mathematics and Language: Academic Implications for Children with Specific Language Impairment and English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Arizmendi, Genesis D.; Beal, Carole R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the relationship between mathematics and language to better understand the nature of the deficit and the academic implications associated with specific language impairment (SLI) and academic implications for English language learners (ELLs). Method: School-age children (N = 61; 20 SLI, 20 ELL, 21 native…

  3. Literacy skills in primary school-aged children with pragmatic language impairment: a comparison with children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Children with pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI) are characterized by difficulties with the interpersonal use of language in social contexts and they possess a range of language difficulties that affect their educational attainment. Since literacy skills are central to this attainment, one way of identifying appropriate support needs for CwPLI would be to profile their reading and writing skills as a group. To investigate the word reading, non-word reading, reading comprehension, and written expression skills of CwPLI and a comparison group of children with specific language impairment (CwSLI). CwSLI were recruited in order to examine any overlaps in literacy impairments for the two groups. Primary school-aged CwPLI (n= 59) and CwSLI (n= 12) were recruited from speech and language therapists. Children completed standardized assessments of literacy skills. The level of impairment for each component literacy skill was examined for CwPLI and CwSLI. For the CwPLI, group mean scores on each of the literacy skills were at the lower end of the normal range compared with population norms. The range of individual scores was large, with some children scoring near floor level and others scoring up to 2 SDs (standard deviations) above the mean, illustrating the heterogeneity of literacy skills within the group. For the CwSLI, group mean scores on each of the literacy skills were between 1 SD and 2 SDs below the population mean. CwSLI were significantly more impaired on all of the literacy measures compared with CwPLI. This difference remained even when receptive language ability and non-verbal intelligence were controlled for. The results demonstrate that there is a high level of literacy impairment within CwPLI and CwSLI, providing evidence that individualized literacy skill intervention is important for the long-term academic outcome of these children. © 2010 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  4. Extracommunicative functions of language: verbal interference causes selective categorization impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupyan, Gary

    2009-08-01

    In addition to its communicative functions, language has been argued to have a variety of extracommunicative functions, as assessed by its causal involvement in putatively nonlinguistic tasks. In the present work, I argue that language may be critically involved in the ability of human adults to categorize objects on a specific dimension (e.g., color) while abstracting over other dimensions (e.g., size). This ability is frequently impaired in aphasic patients. The present work demonstrates that normal participants placed under conditions of verbal interference show a pattern of deficits strikingly similar to that of aphasic patients: impaired taxonomic categorization along perceptual dimensions, and preserved thematic categorization. A control experiment using a visuospatial-interference task failed to find this selective pattern of deficits. The present work has implications for understanding the online role of language in normal cognition and supports the claim that language is causally involved in nonverbal cognition.

  5. Language therapy space teaching English as a foreign language to the visually impaired

    CERN Document Server

    Wyszynska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    The author describes the psycho-linguistic therapy «touching the World» for the visually impaired and explores language as a therapeutic tool with great possibilities for a teaching-learning process.

  6. Specific Language Impairment and Executive Functioning: Parent and Teacher Ratings of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittke, Kacie; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Schechtman, Calli J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The current study used the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function--Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; Gioia, Espy, & Isquith, 2003), a rating scale designed to investigate executive behaviors in everyday activities, to examine the executive functioning of preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) relative to their…

  7. Evidence for the multiple hits genetic theory for inherited language impairment: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy M Centanni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Communication disorders have complex genetic origins, with constellations of relevant gene markers that vary across individuals. Some genetic variants are present in healthy individuals as well as those affected by developmental disorders. Growing evidence suggests that some variants may increase susceptibility to these disorders in the presence of other pathogenic gene mutations. In the current study, we describe eight children with specific language impairment and four of these children had a copy number variant in one of these potential susceptibility regions on chromosome 15. Three of these four children also had variants in other genes previously associated with language impairment. Our data support the theory that 15q11.2 is a susceptibility region for developmental disorders, specifically language impairment.

  8. Computational cognitive modeling for the diagnosis of Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Jesus; Serrano, J Ignacio; del Castillo, M Dolores; Iglesias, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI), as many other cognitive deficits, is difficult to diagnose given its heterogeneous profile and its overlap with other impairments. Existing techniques are based on different criteria using behavioral variables on different tasks. In this paper we propose a methodology for the diagnosis of SLI that uses computational cognitive modeling in order to capture the internal mechanisms of the normal and impaired brain. We show that machine learning techniques that use the information of these models perform better than those that only use behavioral variables.

  9. Primary or "specific" language impairment and children learning a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnert, Kathryn; Windsor, Jennifer; Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2009-01-01

    We review empirical findings from children with primary or "specific" language impairment (PLI) and children who learn a single language from birth (L1) and a second language (L2) beginning in childhood. The PLI profile is presented in terms of both language and nonlinguistic features. The discussion of L2 learners emphasizes variable patterns of growth and skill distribution in L1 and L2 which complicate the identification of PLI in linguistically diverse learners. We then introduce our research program, designed to map out common ground and potential fault lines between typically developing children learning one or two languages, as compared to children with PLI.

  10. Executive Functioning in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lucy A.; Messer, David J.; Nash, Gilly

    2012-01-01

    Background: A limited range of evidence suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulties with higher order thinking and reasoning skills (executive functioning, EF). This study involved a comprehensive investigation of EF in this population taking into account the contributions of age, nonverbal IQ and verbal…

  11. Language Impairment, Family Interaction and the Design of a Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Guillermina

    2008-01-01

    This case study describes a user-centered design approach in the area of aphasia. Aphasia is a language impairment that can take many forms, so a particular case provides the foundation for this work. The particularities of the individual with this condition and his social context are key to developing and designing an intervention that supports…

  12. Another Look at Semantic Relational Categories and Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Ida J.

    1992-01-01

    Types of utterances (with locative action utterances specifically differentiated) were evaluated in a language-impaired child tracked between one year, six months and three years of age. Comparison with utterances in other children suggests the importance of such a fine-grained analysis in detecting semantic properties of child language…

  13. Characteristics of Early Spelling of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordewener, Kim A. H.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated active grapheme knowledge and early spelling of 59 first grade children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). "Speed", "nature", and "knowledge transfer" of spelling acquisition were taken into account. Four orthographic characteristics that influence early spelling, namely, "Type of Grapheme", "Grapheme…

  14. Executive function behaviours in children with specific language impairment (SLI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, J.M.; Vugs, B.A.M.; Scheper, A.R.; Hendriks, M.P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that linguistic and non-linguistic factors may contribute to the problems associated with specific language impairment (SLI). One factor that has been implicated is executive functioning (EF). Most studies investigating EF in children with SLI use performance ba

  15. Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

  16. Are Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia Distinct Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Adlof, Suzanne M.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are distinct developmental disorders. Method: Study 1 investigated the overlap between SLI identified in kindergarten and dyslexia identified in 2nd, 4th, or 8th grades in a representative sample of 527 children. Study 2 examined…

  17. Detecting Preschool Language Impairment and Risk of Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Turid; Jones, Lise Øen; Helland, Wenche

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed and compared results from evidence-based screening tools to be filled out by caregivers to identify preschool children at risk of language impairment (LI) and dyslexia. Three different tools were used: one assessing children's communicative abilities, one assessing risk of developmental dyslexia, and one assessing early…

  18. Visual Speech Perception in Children with Language Learning Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowland, Victoria C. P.; Evans, Sam; Snell, Caroline; Rosen, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the ability of children with developmental language learning impairments (LLIs) to use visual speech cues from the talking face. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 41 typically developing children (mean age: 8 years 0 months, range: 4 years 5 months to 11 years 10 months) and 27 children with…

  19. Negative Sentences in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Rosalind; Rombough, Kelly; Martin, Jasmine; Orton, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study used elicited production methodology to investigate the negative sentences that are produced by English-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI). Negative sentences were elicited in contexts in which adults use the negative auxiliary verb doesn't (e.g., "It doesn't fit"). This form was targeted to see how…

  20. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Chapman, Derek A.; Bainbridge, Nicolette L.; Scott, Keith G.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated birth risk factors for school-identified specific language impairment among 244,619 students. Very low birth weight, low 5-min Apgar scores, late or no prenatal care, high birth order and low maternal education were associated with high individual-level risk, and low maternal education and unmarried mothers were associated…

  1. Failure to meet language milestones at two years of age is predictive of specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, F.B.; Dusseldorp, E.; Bol, G.W.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Verkerk, P.H.

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study established predictive properties of single language milestones for specific language impairment (SLI) after the age of four, as these had not previously been reported in the literature. Methods In this nested case-control study, children attending special needs schools for severe spe

  2. Failure to meet language milestones at two years of age is predictive of specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, Babette; Dusseldorp, Elise; Bol, Gerard; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Verkerk, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study established predictive properties of single language milestones for specific language impairment (SLI) after the age of four, as these had not previously been reported in the literature. Methods In this nested case–control study, children attending special needs schools for severe spe

  3. Telling Stories in Two Languages: Narratives of Bilingual Preschool Children with Typical and Impaired Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iluz-Cohen, Peri; Walters, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Two studies investigated five- and six-year-old preschool children's narrative production in an attempt to show how LI may impinge on narrative production in measurable ways. Study 1 analyzed renderings of familiar stories for group (typical language development vs. language impairment), story content (Jungle Book/Goldilocks) and language…

  4. The Efficacy of a Vocabulary Intervention for Dual-Language Learners with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; Morgan, Gareth P.; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors evaluated the efficacy of a Spanish-English versus English-only vocabulary intervention for dual-language learners (DLLs) with language impairment compared to mathematics intervention groups and typically developing controls with no intervention. Further, in this study the authors also examined whether the…

  5. The Broader Language Phenotype of Autism: A Comparison with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Barry, Johanna G.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Some individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience linguistic difficulties similar to those found in individuals with specific language impairment (SLI). Whether these behaviours are indicative of a common underlying genetic cause or a superficial similarity is unclear. Methods: Standardised language assessments were…

  6. Textese and use of texting by children with typical language development and Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.; van Dijk, Chantal; Vasic, Nada; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Avrutin, S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate texting and textese, which is the special register used for sending brief text messages, across children with typical development (TD) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Using elicitation techniques, texting and spoken language messages

  7. Interactions between working memory and language in young children with specific language impairment (SLI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugs, B.A.M.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Cuperus, J.M.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    The underlying structure of working memory (WM) in young children with and without specific language impairment (SLI) was examined. The associations between the components of WM and the language abilities of young children with SLI were then analyzed. The Automated Working Memory Assessment and four

  8. Predictors of Second Language Acquisition in Latino Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Sweet, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the extent to which the language of intervention, the child's development in Spanish, and the effects of English vocabulary, use, proficiency, and exposure predict differences in the rates of acquisition of English in Latino children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: In this randomized controlled trial,…

  9. Textese and use of texting by children with typical language development and Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.; van Dijk, Chantal; Vasic, Nada; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Avrutin, S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate texting and textese, which is the special register used for sending brief text messages, across children with typical development (TD) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Using elicitation techniques, texting and spoken language messages

  10. Pragmatic Language Development in Language Impaired and Typically Developing Children: Incorrect Answers in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Nuala; Leinonen, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on young children's incorrect answers to pragmatically demanding questions. Children with specific language impairment (SLI), including a subgroup with pragmatic language difficulties (PLD) and typically developing children answered questions targeting implicatures, based on a storybook and short verbal scenarios.…

  11. Past Tense Production by English Second Language Learners with and without Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated whether past tense use could differentiate children with language impairment (LI) from their typically developing (TD) peers when English is children's second language (L2) and whether L2 children's past tense profiles followed the predictions of Bybee's (2007) usage-based network model. Method: A group of L2…

  12. Social Cognition and Language in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Klara; Abramoff, Brocha; Rosenzweig, Shari

    2005-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship between social pragmatics, social self-esteem, and language in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and in their age-matched peers (7-10 years). The children with SLI indicated significantly poorer social cognitive knowledge than their typically developing peers. They showed low social, but…

  13. Predictors of Second Language Acquisition in Latino Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Sweet, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the extent to which the language of intervention, the child's development in Spanish, and the effects of English vocabulary, use, proficiency, and exposure predict differences in the rates of acquisition of English in Latino children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: In this randomized controlled trial,…

  14. Language and executive functioning in the context of specific language impairment and bilingualism

    OpenAIRE

    Laloi, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis has investigated how French-speaking monolingual and bilingual children with SLI (specific language impairment) performed on various tasks examining language and executive functioning (EF) abilities, in comparison to monolingual and bilingual peers without SLI. Language was investigated in the domains of phonology (novel-word repetition task), vocabulary (picture-pointing and picture-naming tasks) and grammar (elicitation tasks of past tense and object clitics). EF was inve...

  15. Children with specific language impairment and their contribution to the study of language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Laurence B

    2014-07-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) are distinguishable from typically developing children primarily in the pace and course of their language development. For this reason, they are appropriate candidates for inclusion in any theory of language acquisition. In this paper, the areas of overlap between children with SLI and those developing in typical fashion are discussed, along with how the joint study of these two populations can enhance our understanding of the language development process. In particular, evidence from children with SLI can provide important information concerning the role of language typology in language development, the optimal ages for acquiring particular linguistic details, the robustness of the bilingual advantage for children, the role of input in children's acquisition of grammatical details, the unintended influence of processing demands during language assessment, the contributions of treatment designs to the study of typically developing children, and the study of individual differences in language development.

  16. Huntington's disease impairs recognition of angry and instrumental body language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, Beatrice; Van den Stock, Jan; Balaguer, Ruth de Diego; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2008-01-15

    Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) exhibit motor impairments as well as cognitive and emotional deficits. So far impairments in the ability to recognize emotional stimuli have mostly been investigated by using facial expressions and emotional voices. Other important emotional signals are provided by the whole body. To investigate the impact of motor deficits on body recognition and the relation between motor disorders and emotion perception deficits, we tested recognition of emotional body language (instrumental, angry, fearful and sad) in 19 HD patients and their matched controls with a nonverbal whole body expression matching task. Results indicate that HD patients are impaired in recognizing both instrumental and angry whole body postures. Furthermore, the body language perception deficits are correlated with measures of motor deficit. Taken together the results suggest a close relationship between emotion recognition (specifically anger) and motor abilities.

  17. Alliteration and rhyme skills in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedott, Paula Renata; Cáceres-Assenço, Ana Manhani; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria

    2017-03-30

    this study investigated and compared the performance of school-aged children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their peers typically developing language in alliteration and rhyme tests. The study also aimed to evaluate the influence of semantic and phonological distractors on both tests. twelve school-aged children with SLI (study group - SG) and 48 peers typically developing language (control group - CG) aged 7 to 9 years. All of them were on 2nd or 3rd grade and presented hearing thresholds within normal limits and appropriate nonverbal intellectual performance. The experimental assessment consisted in alliteration and rhyme tests with semantic and/or phonological distractors. intragroup analysis showed that both groups presented lower performance in rhyme than alliteration activities (CG planguage impairment. School-aged children with SLI attested that they analyze phonological awareness stimuli in a more general way, leading them to overlook relevant segmental aspects. These data reinforce the need for early intervention of these abilities in this population.

  18. Executive functioning in preschoolers with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance eVissers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of Specific Language Impairment (SLI is still largely beyond our understanding. In this review, a neuropsychological perspective on language impairments in SLI is taken, focusing specifically on executive functioning (EF in preschoolers (age range: 2.6-6.1 years with SLI. Based on the studies described in this review, it can be concluded that similar to school-aged children with SLI, preschoolers with SLI show difficulties in working memory, inhibition and shifting, as revealed by both performance based measures and behavioural ratings. It seems plausible that a complex, reciprocal relationship exists between language and EF throughout development. Future research is needed to examine if, and if yes how, language and EF interact in SLI. Broad neuropsychological assessment in which both language and EF are taken into account may contribute to early detection of SLI. This in turn can lead to early and tailored treatment of children with (suspected SLI aimed not only at stimulating language development but also at strengthening EF.

  19. Understanding Risk for Reading Difficulties in Children With Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kimberly A; Justice, Laura M; O'Connell, Ann A; Pentimonti, Jill M; Kaderavek, Joan N

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the preschool language and early literacy skills of kindergarten good and poor readers, and to determine the extent to which these skills predict reading status. Participants were 136 children with language impairment enrolled in early childhood special education classrooms. On the basis of performance on a word recognition task given in kindergarten, children were classified as either good or poor readers. Comparisons were made across these 2 groups on a number of language and early literacy measures administered in preschool, and logistic regression was used to determine the best predictors of kindergarten reading status. Twenty-seven percent of the sample met criterion for poor reading in kindergarten. These children differed from good readers on most of the skills measured in preschool. The best predictors of kindergarten reading status were oral language, alphabet knowledge, and print concept knowledge. Presence of comorbid disabilities was not a significant predictor. Classification accuracy was good overall. Results suggest that risk of reading difficulty for children with language impairment can be reliably estimated in preschool, prior to the onset of formal reading instruction. Measures of both language and early literacy skills are important for identifying which children are likely to develop later reading difficulties.

  20. No population bias to left-hemisphere language in 4-year-olds with language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy V.M. Bishop

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. An apparent paradox in the field of neuropsychology is that people with atypical cerebral lateralization do not appear to suffer any cognitive disadvantage, yet atypical cerebral lateralization is more common in children and adults with developmental language disorders. This study was designed to explore possible reasons for this puzzling pattern of results. Methods. We used functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD to assess cerebral blood flow during language production in 57 four-year-olds, including 15 children who had been late-talkers when first seen at 20 months of age. We categorized cerebral lateralization as left, right or bilateral, and compared proportions with each type of laterality with those seen in a previously tested sample of children aged 6–16 years. We also compared language scores at 4 years for those with typical and atypical lateralization, and then looked at the association the opposite way: comparing those with typical or impaired language in terms of their cerebral lateralization. Results. The distribution of types of cerebral lateralization was similar for 4-year-olds to that seen in older children. Overall, cerebral lateralization was not predictive of language level. However, for children who had language difficulties at 20 months and/or 4 years (N = 21, there was no population bias to left-hemisphere language activation, whereas children without language problems at either age showed a pronounced bias to left-sided language lateralization. Nevertheless, many children with right hemisphere language had no indications of language difficulties, confirming that atypical cerebral asymmetry is not a direct cause of problems. Conclusions. We suggest that atypical lateralization at the individual level is not associated with language impairment. However, lack of lateralization at the population level is a marker of risk for language impairment, which could be due to genetic or non-genetic causes.

  1. No population bias to left-hemisphere language in 4-year-olds with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dorothy V M; Holt, Georgina; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Groen, Margriet

    2014-01-01

    Background. An apparent paradox in the field of neuropsychology is that people with atypical cerebral lateralization do not appear to suffer any cognitive disadvantage, yet atypical cerebral lateralization is more common in children and adults with developmental language disorders. This study was designed to explore possible reasons for this puzzling pattern of results. Methods. We used functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD) to assess cerebral blood flow during language production in 57 four-year-olds, including 15 children who had been late-talkers when first seen at 20 months of age. We categorized cerebral lateralization as left, right or bilateral, and compared proportions with each type of laterality with those seen in a previously tested sample of children aged 6-16 years. We also compared language scores at 4 years for those with typical and atypical lateralization, and then looked at the association the opposite way: comparing those with typical or impaired language in terms of their cerebral lateralization. Results. The distribution of types of cerebral lateralization was similar for 4-year-olds to that seen in older children. Overall, cerebral lateralization was not predictive of language level. However, for children who had language difficulties at 20 months and/or 4 years (N = 21), there was no population bias to left-hemisphere language activation, whereas children without language problems at either age showed a pronounced bias to left-sided language lateralization. Nevertheless, many children with right hemisphere language had no indications of language difficulties, confirming that atypical cerebral asymmetry is not a direct cause of problems. Conclusions. We suggest that atypical lateralization at the individual level is not associated with language impairment. However, lack of lateralization at the population level is a marker of risk for language impairment, which could be due to genetic or non-genetic causes.

  2. Increasing Prevalence of Specific Language Impairment (SLI) in Primary Healthcare of a Finnish Town, 1989-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannus, Sinikka; Kauppila, Timo; Launonen, Kaisa

    2009-01-01

    Background: The increasing prevalence of specific language impairment (SLI) is a matter of current debate. Aims: Speech and language therapists and other authorities in Finland have discussed the prevalence of SLI since the 1990s. This discussion has been based on international studies because of the lack of national studies. This paper presents…

  3. Defining the genetic architecture of human developmental language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Bartlett, Christopher W

    2012-04-09

    Language is a uniquely human trait, which poses limitations on animal models for discovering biological substrates and pathways. Despite this challenge, rapidly developing biotechnology in the field of genomics has made human genetics studies a viable alternative route for defining the molecular neuroscience of human language. This is accomplished by studying families that transmit both normal and disordered language across generations. The language disorder reviewed here is specific language impairment (SLI), a developmental deficiency in language acquisition despite adequate opportunity, normal intelligence, and without any apparent neurological etiology. Here, we describe disease gene discovery paradigms as applied to SLI families and review the progress this field has made. After review the evidence that genetic factors influence SLI, we discuss methods and findings from scans of the human chromosomes, including the main replicated regions on chromosomes 13, 16 and 19 and two identified genes, ATP2C2 and CMIP that appear to account for the language variation on chromosome 16. Additional work has been done on candidate genes, i.e., genes chosen a priori and not through a genome scanning studies, including several studies of CNTNAP2 and some recent work implicating BDNF as a gene x gene interaction partner of genetic variation on chromosome 13 that influences language. These recent developments may allow for better use of post-mortem human brain samples functional studies and animal models for circumscribed language subcomponents. In the future, the identification of genetic variation associated with language phenotypes will provide the molecular pathways to understanding human language. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Language impairment from 4 to 12 years: prediction and etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2014-06-01

    The authors of this article examined the etiology of developmental language impairment (LI) at 4 and 12 years of age, as well as the relationship between the 2. Phenotypic and quantitative genetic analyses using longitudinal data from the Twins Early Development Study (Oliver & Plomin, 2007) were conducted. A total of 2,923 pairs of twins (1,075 monozygotic [MZ]; 975 dizygotic same sex [DZss]; and 873 dizygotic opposite sex [DZos]) provided data at 4 and 12 years. At 4 years, (a) psychometric LI was defined on the basis of a low parent-reported expressive vocabulary score (-1.25 SDs; 226 MZ and 115 DZss probands for genetic analysis); and (b) parent referral was defined as having seen a medical professional or speech-language pathologist following parental concern (112 MZ and 104 DZss probands). The 12-year language measure was a composite of 4 web-administered receptive language tests. (a) Psychometric LI at 4 years is more predictive than parent referral of poor language performance at age 12 years, and (b) parent referral is substantially and significantly more heritable than psychometric LI. Parents' concern about their child's language development seems to be the marker of a more heritable disorder than poor expressive language skills alone. However, the language difficulties that arouse parental concern in preschool children, although more heritable, are not predictive of language difficulties in early adolescence. Rather, poor expressive language skills at age 4 years, psychometrically defined, are a better predictor than parent referral of continuing language difficulties at age 12 years.

  5. Nonlinguistic cognitive treatment for bilingual children with primary language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Rentmeester-Disher, Jill; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2012-06-01

    Substantial evidence points to the presence of subtle weaknesses in the nonlinguistic cognitive processing skills of children with primary (or specific) language impairment (PLI). It is possible that these weaknesses contribute to the language learning difficulties that characterize PLI, and that treating them can improve language skills. To test this premise, we treated two nonlinguistic cognitive processing skills, processing speed and sustained selective attention, in two Spanish-English bilingual children with PLI. The study followed a single-subject multiple baseline design, with both repeated measures and standardized pre- and post-testing as outcome measures. Results from the repeated measures tasks showed that both participants made gains in nonlinguistic cognitive processing skills as well as in Spanish and English. These results both replicate and extend prior work showing that nonlinguistic cognitive processing treatment can positively affect language skills in children with PLI.

  6. Language, cognitive flexibility, and explicit false belief understanding: longitudinal analysis in typical development and specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, Brad M; Maybery, Murray T; Fletcher, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that language plays a role in theory-of-mind (ToM) development is supported by a number of lines of evidence (e.g., H. Lohmann & M. Tomasello, 2003). The current study sought to further investigate the relations between maternal language input, memory for false sentential complements, cognitive flexibility, and the development of explicit false belief understanding in 91 English-speaking typically developing children (M age = 61.3 months) and 30 children with specific language impairment (M age = 63.0 months). Concurrent and longitudinal findings converge in supporting a model in which maternal language input predicts the child's memory for false complements, which predicts cognitive flexibility, which in turn predicts explicit false belief understanding. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Alzheimer's disease and language impairments: social intervention and medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimova, Blanka; Maresova, Petra; Valis, Martin; Hort, Jakub; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Communication is very important for people to be successfully integrated into social environment and make and maintain relationship. Particularly, language difficulties lead to social exclusion of the people affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and contribute to a significant decrease in the quality of their life and also have a big impact on their family members who in most cases become their caregivers who need to communicate with their loved ones in order to meet their needs. Therefore, the goal of this study is to describe language impairments in the individual phases of AD and discuss their improvement with respect to AD on the basis of literature review. The authors of this article use traditional research methods in order to achieve the goal set mentioned earlier. First, a method of literature review of available sources describing language impairments in the individual phases of AD is exploited. Second, to show how informal caregivers and relevant drugs can successfully intervene in the improvement of these language impairments, a method of comparison of different research studies exploring such social intervention and medical treatment is used.

  8. Quantifying repetitive speech in autism spectrum disorders and language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Santen, Jan P H; Sproat, Richard W; Hill, Alison Presmanes

    2013-10-01

    We report on an automatic technique for quantifying two types of repetitive speech: repetitions of what the child says him/herself (self-repeats) and of what is uttered by an interlocutor (echolalia). We apply this technique to a sample of 111 children between the ages of four and eight: 42 typically developing children (TD), 19 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) plus language impairment (ALI), and 25 children with ASD with normal, non-impaired language (ALN). The results indicate robust differences in echolalia between the TD and ASD groups as a whole (ALN + ALI), and between TD and ALN children. There were no significant differences between ALI and SLI children for echolalia or self-repetitions. The results confirm previous findings that children with ASD repeat the language of others more than other populations of children. On the other hand, self-repetition does not appear to be significantly more frequent in ASD, nor does it matter whether the child's echolalia occurred within one (immediate) or two turns (near-immediate) of the adult's original utterance. Furthermore, non-significant differences between ALN and SLI, between TD and SLI, and between ALI and TD are suggestive that echolalia may not be specific to ALN or to ASD in general. One important innovation of this work is an objective fully automatic technique for assessing the amount of repetition in a transcript of a child's utterances.

  9. Predictors of growth or attrition of the first language in Latino children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera F; Sweet, Monica

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the factors that may help understand the differential rates of language development in the home language (i.e., Spanish) of Latino preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI). Children were randomly assigned to either bilingual or English-only small group interventions and followed from preschool to kindergarten. Predictors of Spanish growth included the language of intervention, the child's level of language development or severity, the child's socio-emotional skills, and the child's level of English use. Spanish performance outcomes were assessed over time using a series of longitudinal models with baseline and post-treatment measures nested within child. Children demonstrated growth on Spanish outcomes over time. The language of instruction and the child's level of vocabulary and socio-emotional development at baseline were significant predictors of differences in rates of growth in the home language. Clinicians may need to take into consideration these factors when making clinical recommendations.

  10. Current trends with natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassinoux, A M; Michel, P A; Wagner, J; Baud, R

    1995-01-01

    Natural Language Processing in the medical domain becomes more and more powerful, efficient, and ready to be used in daily practice. The needs for such tools are enormous in the medical field, due to the vast amount of written texts for medical records. In the authors' point of view, the Electronic Patient Record (EPR) is achieved neither with Information Systems of all kinds nor with commercially available word processing systems. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is one dimension of the EPR, as well as Image Processing and Decision Support Systems. Analysis of medical texts to facilitate indexing and retrieval is well known. The need for a generation tool is to produce progress notes from menu driven systems. The computer systems of tomorrow cannot miss any single dimension. Since 1988, we've been developing an NLP system; it is supported by the European program AIM (Advanced Informatics in Medicine) within the GALEN and HELIOS consortium and the CERS (Commission d'Encouragement á la Recherche Scientifique) in Switzerland. The main directions of development are: a medical language analyzer, a language generator, a query processor, and dictionary building tools to support the Medical Linguistic Knowledge Base (MLKB). The knowledge representation schema is essentially based on Sowa's conceptual graphs, and the MLKB is multilingual from its design phase; it currently incorporates the English and the French languages; it will also continue using German. The goal of this demonstration is to provide evidence of what exists today, what will be soon available, and what is planned for the long term. Complete sentences will be processed in real time, and the browsing capabilities of the MLKB will be exercised. In particular, the following features will be presented: Analysis of complete sentences with verbs and relatives, as extracted from clinical narratives, with special attention to the method of "proximity processing" as developed in our group and the rule based

  11. Grammatical sensitivity and working memory in children with language impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Farkas, Lajos

    2013-01-01

    Children with primary language impairment (LI) show a deficit in processing different grammatical structures, verb inflections, and syntactically complex sentences among other things (Clahsen–Hansen 1997; Leonard et al. 1997). Cross-linguistic research has shown that the pattern of performance is language-specific. We examined grammatical sensitivity to word order and agreement violations in 50 Hungarian-speaking children with and without LI. The findings suggest a strong association between sensitivity to grammatical violations and working memory capacity. Variations in working memory performance predicted grammatical sensitivity. Hungarian participants with LI exhibited a weakness in detecting both agreement and word order violations. PMID:23440891

  12. Differential Language Markers of Pathology in Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demouy, Julie; Plaza, Monique; Xavier, Jean; Ringeval, Fabien; Chetouani, Mohamed; Perisse, Didier; Chauvin, Dominique; Viaux, Sylvie; Golse, Bernard; Cohen, David; Robel, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Language impairment is a common core feature in Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) and Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Many studies have tried to define the specific language profiles of these disorders, some claiming the existence of overlaps, and others conceiving of them as separate categories. Fewer have sought to determine whether…

  13. The efficacy of a vocabulary intervention for dual-language learners with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; Morgan, Gareth P; Thompson, Marilyn S

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the efficacy of a Spanish-English versus English-only vocabulary intervention for dual-language learners (DLLs) with language impairment compared to mathematics intervention groups and typically developing controls with no intervention. Further, in this study the authors also examined whether the language of instruction affected English, Spanish, and conceptual vocabulary differentially. The authors randomly assigned 202 preschool DLLs with language impairment to 1 of 4 conditions: bilingual vocabulary, English-only vocabulary, bilingual mathematics, or English-only mathematics. Fifty-four DLLs with typical development received no intervention. The vocabulary intervention consisted of a 12-week small-group dialogic reading and hands-on vocabulary instruction of 45 words. Postintervention group differences and linear growth rates were examined in conceptual, English, and Spanish receptive and expressive vocabulary for the 45 treatment words. Results indicate that the bilingual vocabulary intervention facilitated receptive and expressive Spanish and conceptual vocabulary gains in DLLs with language impairment compared with the English vocabulary intervention, mathematics intervention, and no-intervention groups. The English-only vocabulary intervention differed significantly from the mathematics condition and no-intervention groups on all measures but did not differ from the bilingual vocabulary intervention. Vocabulary growth rates postintervention slowed considerably. Results support the idea that bilingual interventions support native- and second-language vocabulary development. English-only intervention supports only English. Use of repeated dialogic reading and hands-on activities facilitates vocabulary acquisition.

  14. Music identification skills of children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Giorgia; Scorpecci, Alessandro; Reali, Laura; D'Alatri, Lucia

    2016-03-01

    To date very few studies have investigated the musical skills of children with specific language impairment (SLI). There is growing evidence that SLI affects areas other than language, and it is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that children with this disorder may have difficulties in perceiving musical stimuli appropriately. To compare melody and song identification skills in a group of children with SLI and in a control group of children with typical language development (TD); and to study possible correlations between music identification skills and language abilities in the SLI group. This is a prospective case control study. Two groups of children were enrolled: one meeting DSM-IV-TR(®) diagnostic criteria for SLI and the other comprising an age-matched group of children with TD. All children received a melody and a song identification test, together with a test battery assessing receptive and productive language abilities. 30 children with SLI (mean age = 56 ± 9 months) and 23 with TD (mean age = 60 ± 10 months) were included. Melody and song identification scores among SLI children were significantly lower than those of TD children, and in both groups song identification scores were significantly higher than melody identification scores. Song identification skills bore a significant correlation to chronological age in both groups (TD: r = 0.529, p = 0.009; SLI: r = 0.506, p = 0.004). Whereas no other variables were found explaining the variability of melody or song identification scores in either group, the correlation between language comprehension and song identification in the SLI group approached significance (r = 0.166, p = 0.076). The poorer music perception skills of SLI children as compared with TD ones suggests that SLI may also affect music perception. Therefore, training programmes that simultaneously stimulate via language and music may prove useful in the rehabilitation of children affected by SLI. © 2015 Royal College of Speech and

  15. Manifestation of speech and language disorders in children with hearing impairment compared with children with specific language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilmann, Annerose; Kluesener, Patrick; Freude, Christina; Schramm, Bianka

    2011-04-01

    Children with hearing impairment (HI) often suffer from speech and language disorders. We wondered if the manifestation of these disorders resembled the ones in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Using matched pairs, we compared the manifestation of a speech and language disorder in 5- and 6-year-old children with HI and SLI. We looked at receptive language skills using the Reynell scales, the lexicon, syntax and morphology, output phonology, and phonological short-term memory. Receptive language skills were more impaired in HI children. No significant differences were recorded for all other domains. We conclude that language deficits that are at least partially caused by the hearing impairment affect receptive language skills to a greater extent than expressive language skills.

  16. A methodology for the characterization and diagnosis of cognitive impairments-Application to specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Jesús; Serrano, J Ignacio; del Castillo, M Dolores; Iglesias, Angel

    2014-06-01

    The diagnosis of mental disorders is in most cases very difficult because of the high heterogeneity and overlap between associated cognitive impairments. Furthermore, early and individualized diagnosis is crucial. In this paper, we propose a methodology to support the individualized characterization and diagnosis of cognitive impairments. The methodology can also be used as a test platform for existing theories on the causes of the impairments. We use computational cognitive modeling to gather information on the cognitive mechanisms underlying normal and impaired behavior. We then use this information to feed machine-learning algorithms to individually characterize the impairment and to differentiate between normal and impaired behavior. We apply the methodology to the particular case of specific language impairment (SLI) in Spanish-speaking children. The proposed methodology begins by defining a task in which normal and individuals with impairment present behavioral differences. Next we build a computational cognitive model of that task and individualize it: we build a cognitive model for each participant and optimize its parameter values to fit the behavior of each participant. Finally, we use the optimized parameter values to feed different machine learning algorithms. The methodology was applied to an existing database of 48 Spanish-speaking children (24 normal and 24 SLI children) using clustering techniques for the characterization, and different classifier techniques for the diagnosis. The characterization results show three well-differentiated groups that can be associated with the three main theories on SLI. Using a leave-one-subject-out testing methodology, all the classifiers except the DT produced sensitivity, specificity and area under curve values above 90%, reaching 100% in some cases. The results show that our methodology is able to find relevant information on the underlying cognitive mechanisms and to use it appropriately to provide better

  17. Singing abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain eCLEMENT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Specific Language impairment (SLI is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed when a child has difficulties learning to produce and/or understand speech for no apparent reason (Bishop et al., 2012. The verbal difficulties of children with SLI have been largely documented, and a growing number of studies suggest that these children may also have difficulties in processing non-verbal complex auditory stimuli (Brandt et al., 2012; Corriveau et al., 2007. In a recent study, we reported that a large proportion of children with SLI present deficits in music perception (Planchou et al, submitted. Little is known, however, about the singing abilities of children with SLI. In order to investigate whether or not the impairments in expressive language extend to the musical domain, we assessed singing abilities in 8 children with SLI and 15 children with Typical Language Development (TLD matched for age and non-verbal intelligence. To this aim, we designed a ludic activity consisting of two singing tasks: a pitch-matching and a melodic reproduction task. In the pitch-matching task, the children were requested to sing single notes. In the melodic reproduction task, children were asked to sing short melodies that were either familiar (FAM-SONG and FAM-TUNE conditions or unfamiliar (UNFAM-TUNE condition. The analysis showed that children with SLI were impaired in the pitch-matching task, with a mean pitch error of 250 cents (mean pitch error for children with TLD: 154 cents. In the melodic reproduction task, we asked 30 healthy adults to rate the quality of the sung productions of the children on a continuous rating scale. The results revealed that singing of children with SLI received lower mean ratings than the children with TLD. Our findings thus indicate that children with SLI showed impairments in musical production and are discussed in light of a general auditory-motor dysfunction in children with SLI.

  18. Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Page, Debra; Ullman, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarative memory is expected to remain largely intact, and should play an important compensatory role for grammar. These claims were tested by examining measures of working, declarative and procedural memory in 51 children with SLI and 51 matched typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10). Working memory was assessed with the Working Memory Test Battery for Children, declarative memory with the Children’s Memory Scale, and procedural memory with a visuo-spatial Serial Reaction Time task. As compared to the TD children, the children with SLI were impaired at procedural memory, even when holding working memory constant. In contrast, they were spared at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed neither visuo-spatial nor verbal working memory was associated with either lexical or grammatical abilities in either the SLI or TD children. Declarative memory correlated with lexical abilities in both groups of children. Finally, grammatical abilities were associated with procedural memory in the TD children, but with declarative memory in the children with SLI. These findings replicate and extend previous studies of working, declarative and procedural memory in SLI. Overall, we

  19. Language growth in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, the results of a longitudinal study of two age-groups of Dutch-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and an intervention study examining a metalinguistic approach for older school-age children with SLI are reported. Grammatical development of school-age chil

  20. Pragmatic difficulties in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Dalia Mostafa; Shohdi, Sahar; Aziz, Azza Adel

    2011-02-01

    Most of the children having Specific Language Impairment (SLI) exhibit pragmatic difficulties that are often overlooked while their communication skills are being evaluated. Identifying pragmatic needs in such children can be lengthy and indeterminate as many of such children don't quite "fit" into a definite diagnostic category. This study aimed at identifying and clarifying the nature of pragmatic difficulties in a group of children with Specific Language Impairment by comparing their pragmatic skills with those of a group of normally developing children using a simple Pragmatic Screening protocol hoping that this would aid in reaching a better understanding of the nature of pragmatic difficulties in such children. The present study examined the pragmatic profiles of 60 age and gender matched native Cairo-Egyptian Arabic speaking children (with age range 4-6 years old). The children were divided into two groups; Group A and Group B. Group A included 30 children with normal language development whereas Group B included 30 children who had been previously diagnosed as having Specific Language Impairment. For each subject, history taking followed by audiological and psychometric evaluation to rule out the existence of any hearing difficulties or mental deficiency was performed. Afterwards, each child under study was subjected to the Arabic Pragmatic Screening tool [1]. For each child, the screening was scored by three readers; average scores were obtained and statistically analyzed. All the values obtained by the control group were found to be significantly higher than those obtained by the SLI group except for some non-verbal paralinguistic skills where non-significant differences were found between the two groups. Through the ROC curve, cut off level for Total Pragmatic Score (TPS) was found to be less than or equal to 78.16, i.e. 4-6 year old children with a TPS equal to or less than 78.16 were considered to have pragmatic difficulties. Thorough screening of

  1. Does preterm birth increase a child's risk for language impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansavini, Alessandra; Guarini, Annalisa; Justice, Laura M; Savini, Silvia; Broccoli, Serena; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo

    2010-12-01

    Although premature birth is associated with lags in language acquisition, it is unclear whether preterms exhibit an elevated risk for language impairment (LI). This study determined whether preterms, without frank cerebral damage, at 2;6 and 3;6 exhibited a higher rate of risk for LI as compared to full-terms, and also sought to identify predictors of risk. Sixty-four Italian very immature preterms were assessed longitudinally at 2;6 and 3;6; age-matched full-terms served as controls at 2;6 (n=22) and 3;6 (n=40). Each completed individualized assessments of cognition and language ability. At each time point, using cut-offs specific to each of the language measures, children were differentiated into two groups (at risk for LI, not at risk). The percentage of full-terms at risk for LI at 2;6 (9.1% to 13.6%) and 3;6 (7.5%) was consistent with prior estimates of LI at these ages. The percentage of preterms at risk for LI at 2;6 (16.1% to 24.1%) and 3;6 (34.4%) was higher at both ages and statistically significant at 3;6 (difference=26.8%, 95% CI=12.3% to 41.4%). The best model predicting risk status at 3;6 was preterms' mean length of utterance (MLU) at 2;6, (sensitivity 72.73%, specificity 85%) when adjusting for maternal education. Preterms exhibit a heightened risk for LI in the preschool years, since about one in four preterms at 2;6 and one in three preterms at 3;6 experiences significant lags in language acquisition. Findings argue the importance of early identification of language difficulties among preterms coupled with implementation of systematic language-focused interventions for these youngsters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Linguistic transfer in bilingual children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Balkom, Hans

    2012-01-01

    In the literature so far the limited research on specific language impairment (SLI) in bilingual children has concentrated on linguistic skills in the first language (L1) and/or the second language (L2) without paying attention to the relations between the two types of skills and to the issue of linguistic transfer. To examine the first and second language proficiency of 75 Turkish-Dutch bilingual children with SLI in the age range between 7 and 11 years living in the Netherlands. A multidimensional perspective on language proficiency was taken in order to assess children's Turkish and Dutch proficiency levels, whereas equivalent tests were used in order to determine language dominance. A second aim was to find out to what extent the children's proficiency in L2 can be predicted from their L1 proficiency, while taking into account their general cognitive abilities. The children's performance on a battery of equivalent language ability tests in Turkish and Dutch was compared at three age levels. By means of analyses of variance, it was explored to what extent the factors of language and grade level as well as their interactions were significant. Bivariate correlations and partial correlations with age level partialled out were computed to examine the relationships between L1 and L2 proficiency levels. Moreover, regression analysis was conducted to find out to what extent the variance in general L2 proficiency levels could be explained by children's L1 proficiency, short-term memory and non-verbal intelligence. Repeated measures analyses showed that the children had generally higher scores on L1 as compared with L2 and that with progression of age the children's scores in L1 and L2 improved. Medium to high correlations were found between phonological memory, phonological awareness, grammatical skills and story comprehension in the two languages. Regression analysis revealed that children's L2 proficiency levels could be explained by their proficiency levels in L1

  3. A Diagnostic Challenge: Language Difficulties and Hearing Impairment in a Secondary-School Student from a Non-English-Speaking Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Judith; Dodd, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Children who have sensory, cognitive or oromotor deficits, or come from a bilingual-speaking background are currently excluded from the diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI). Emerging evidence, however, suggests that at least 7% of all children have language learning difficulties, irrespective of other diagnoses or language learning…

  4. A Diagnostic Challenge: Language Difficulties and Hearing Impairment in a Secondary-School Student from a Non-English-Speaking Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Judith; Dodd, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Children who have sensory, cognitive or oromotor deficits, or come from a bilingual-speaking background are currently excluded from the diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI). Emerging evidence, however, suggests that at least 7% of all children have language learning difficulties, irrespective of other diagnoses or language learning…

  5. Narrative competence in children with pragmatic language impairment: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Jansonius, K.; Cuperus, J.M.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) show impairments in the use of language in social contexts. Although the issue has been gaining attention in recent literature, not much is known about the developmental trajectories of children who experience pragmatic language problems.

  6. Narrative Competence in Children with Pragmatic Language Impairment: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaars, Mieke P.; Jansonius, Kino; Cuperus, Juliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) show impairments in the use of language in social contexts. Although the issue has been gaining attention in recent literature, not much is known about the developmental trajectories of children who experience pragmatic language problems. Since narrative competence is an important…

  7. Reinforcement learning in young adults with developmental language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joanna C; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank's model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI.

  8. Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lum, J. A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, G.; Page, D.

    2012-01-01

    in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarative memory is expected to remain largely intact...... at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed...... neither visuo-spatial nor verbal working memory was associated with either lexical or grammatical abilities in either the SLI or TD children. Declarative memory correlated with lexical abilities in both groups of children. Finally, grammatical abilities were associated with procedural memory in the TD...

  9. The role of candidate-gene CNTNAP2 in childhood apraxia of speech and specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanni, T M; Sanmann, J N; Green, J R; Iuzzini-Seigel, J; Bartlett, C; Sanger, W G; Hogan, T P

    2015-10-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a debilitating pediatric speech disorder characterized by varying symptom profiles, comorbid deficits, and limited response to intervention. Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is an inherited pediatric language disorder characterized by delayed and/or disordered oral language skills including impaired semantics, syntax, and discourse. To date, the genes associated with CAS and SLI are not fully characterized. In the current study, we evaluated behavioral and genetic profiles of seven children with CAS and eight children with SLI, while ensuring all children were free of comorbid impairments. Deletions within CNTNAP2 were found in two children with CAS but not in any of the children with SLI. These children exhibited average to high performance on language and word reading assessments in spite of poor articulation scores. These findings suggest that genetic variation within CNTNAP2 may be related to speech production deficits.

  10. Language impairment and dyslexia genes influence language skills in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, John D; Gruen, Jeffrey R

    2015-04-01

    Language and communication development is a complex process influenced by numerous environmental and genetic factors. Many neurodevelopment disorders include deficits in language and communication skills in their diagnostic criteria, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), language impairment (LI), and dyslexia. These disorders are polygenic and complex with a significant genetic component contributing to each. The similarity of language phenotypes and comorbidity of these disorders suggest that they may share genetic contributors. To test this, we examined the association of genes previously implicated in dyslexia, LI, and/or language-related traits with language skills in children with ASD. We used genetic and language data collected in the Autism Genome Research Exchange (AGRE) and Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) cohorts to perform a meta-analysis on performance on a receptive vocabulary task. There were associations with LI risk gene ATP2C2 and dyslexia risk gene MRPL19. Additionally, we found suggestive evidence of association with CMIP, GCFC2, KIAA0319L, the DYX2 locus (ACOT13, GPLD1, and FAM65B), and DRD2. Our results show that LI and dyslexia genes also contribute to language traits in children with ASD. These associations add to the growing literature of generalist genes that contribute to multiple related neurobehavioral traits. Future studies should examine whether other genetic contributors may be shared among these disorders and how risk variants interact with each other and the environment to modify clinical presentations. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Feeding-swallowing difficulties in children later diagnosed with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malas, Kathy; Trudeau, Natacha; Chagnon, Miguel; McFarland, David H

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the relationship between feeding-swallowing difficulties (FSDs) and later language impairments in children. Retrospective analyses were carried out using the clinical files of 82 children with language impairments from a large urban rehabilitation center. Two subgroups of these children were established: children with motor impairments, referred to as the language impairment with motor impairment ('LI+MI') subgroup (n=23, mean age 4y 6mo, SD 8.7mo), and children without motor impairments, referred to as the language impairment without motor impairment ('LI-MI') subgroup (n=59, mean age 5y, SD 8mo). The prevalence of food selectivity, difficulties in sucking, salivary control issues, and food transition difficulties was extracted. Data were compared with a general population estimate of FSDs. FSDs were documented in 62% of the clinical files; 87% of these files were from the LI+MI subgroup and 53% were from the LI-MI subgroup. Among each subgroup of children with language impairments, the prevalence of FSDs was significantly higher than the general population estimate of 20% (LI+MI:χ(2) =55.965, df=1, planguage impairments and motor impairments than in those with language impairments but without motor impairments (χ(2) =6.936, df=1, pdifficulties (χ(2) =14.99, df=1, planguage impairment. However, larger prospective studies are needed to confirm this. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  12. Phonological and lexical influences on phonological awareness in children with specific language impairment and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E; Hogan, Tiffany P

    2014-01-01

    Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia.

  13. Children with specific language impairment also show impairment of music-syntactic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentschke, Sebastian; Koelsch, Stefan; Sallat, Stephan; Friederici, Angela D

    2008-11-01

    Both language and music consist of sequences that are structured according to syntactic regularities. We used two specific event-related brain potential (ERP) components to investigate music-syntactic processing in children: the ERAN (early right anterior negativity) and the N5. The neural resources underlying these processes have been posited to overlap with those involved in the processing of linguistic syntax. Thus, we expected children with specific language impairment (SLI, which is characterized by deficient processing of linguistic syntax) to demonstrate difficulties with music-syntactic processing. Such difficulties were indeed observed in the neural correlates of music-syntactic processing: neither an ERAN nor an N5 was elicited in children with SLI, whereas both components were evoked in age-matched control children with typical language development. Moreover, the amplitudes of ERAN and N5 were correlated with subtests of a language development test. These data provide evidence for a strong interrelation between the language and the music processing system, thereby setting the ground for possible effects of musical training in SLI therapy.

  14. Teasing out specific language impairment from an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Cheryl D; Gupta, Vidya Bhushan; Angel, Alma Patricia Del; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2012-04-01

    Marcus is a handsome, sweet, 7½-year-old boy with a significant history of delayed development, specifically in speech and language skills, as well as difficulties with social interactions that have led other specialists to be concerned about a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder.He has been seen in our primary care practice since birth. He was born full-term after vaginal delivery weighing 6 pounds, 6 ounces. There were no pregnancy or delivery complications noted. Genetic testing revealed normal chromosomes, fragile X, and microarray testing. Marcus was a picky eater and good sleeper and had delays in toilet training.There is no family history of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, or substance abuse. Maternal grandmother and mother have a history of learning difficulties, and his father and a paternal uncle have a history of depression and anxiety. Marcus lives in a supportive environment with his mother, father, and sister.Marcus was noted to have significantly delayed language, stuttering, and immediate echolalia as a toddler. Gross and fine motor milestones were met on time, but he did not talk or follow directions until 4 to 5 years old. As a younger child, he would pretend to talk on the phone or mow the grass with a pretend lawn mower, but other household activities were not of interest to Marcus.Currently, he enjoys puzzles, reading, and board games. He likes to play with other children and can interact with familiar adults. Marcus is reported to initiate social interactions, although he has difficulty in understanding personal space. Imaginative play is preferred over other types. He seeks out adult attention and will bring objects over to an adult especially to share his perceived accomplishment. Marcus has difficulty in playing cooperatively with his sister.He is independent with activities of daily living. Marcus is noted to have auditory defensiveness including covering his ears to loud noises and becoming distressed

  15. Foreign Language Testing: A Current View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteson, Valerie L.

    1981-01-01

    Describes second language testing methods including discrete-point tests, integrative tests, criterion-referenced testing, FSI test of oral proficiency, tests of functional ability. No way has yet been found to reliably measure communicative competence in second languages. (BK)

  16. Current Research/Development in Language Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, John W., Jr.

    A discussion of language testing looks at the relationship between the processes of language learning and language testing, particularly from the point of view of pragmatics theory. It outlines some of the theory of Charles Sanders Pierce and its role in the evolution of linguistic theory, as well as the work of other theorists concerning the…

  17. The relationship between mathematics and language: academic implications for children with specific language impairment and English language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Arizmendi, Genesis D; Beal, Carole R

    2014-07-01

    The present study examined the relationship between mathematics and language to better understand the nature of the deficit and the academic implications associated with specific language impairment (SLI) and academic implications for English language learners (ELLs). School-age children (N = 61; 20 SLI, 20 ELL, 21 native monolingual English [NE]) were assessed using a norm-referenced mathematics instrument and 3 experimental computer-based mathematics games that varied in language demands. Group means were compared with analyses of variance. The ELL group was less accurate than the NE group only when tasks were language heavy. In contrast, the group with SLI was less accurate than the groups with NE and ELLs on language-heavy tasks and some language-light tasks. Specifically, the group with SLI was less accurate on tasks that involved comparing numerical symbols and using visual working memory for patterns. However, there were no group differences between children with SLI and peers without SLI on language-light mathematics tasks that involved visual working memory for numerical symbols. Mathematical difficulties of children who are ELLs appear to be related to the language demands of mathematics tasks. In contrast, children with SLI appear to have difficulty with mathematics tasks because of linguistic as well as nonlinguistic processing constraints.

  18. Teaching Languages to the Blind or Visually Impaired: Problems and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, Philip Redwine

    2002-01-01

    Provides a list of possible explanations for difficulties the visually impaired may face in second or foreign language classes and offers suggestions for making their language learning experience more pleasant and successful. (Author/VWL)

  19. Cognitive development in children with language impairment, and correlation between language and intelligence development in kindergarten children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Su-Fen; Liu, Jui-Ching; Hsu, Chun-Ling; Chang, Ming-Yuh; Chang, Tung-Ming; Cheng, Helen

    2015-01-01

    We performed a retrospective review of 65 children with developmental delay. The male-to-female ratio was 2.25 : 1, and the mean age was 5.8 years; performance IQ was 94.8, verbal IQ was 83, and full-scale IQ was 87.4. Twenty-three (35%) children had normal language development, 13 (20%) had below average language development, and 29 (45%) had developmental language disorder. Performance IQ was significantly better than verbal IQ in all children (P children with developmental language disorder and specific language impairment was significantly lower than that of children with normal language development. Performance IQ was found to be correlated with language score (r = .309, P = .012). The children with language impairment were associated with lower IQ scores. The discrepancy between performance IQ and verbal IQ persisted in children with developmental delay, not only in children with language disorder. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. The perception and expression of verb morphology in bilinguals with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hourieh Ahadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Most of the researches are about bilingual children with specific language impairment and importance of it in recognition and treatment. This study aimed to assess verb morphology in bilinguals with specific language impairment (SLI and compare them with normal bilinguals.Methods: Six bilingual (Azeri and Persian children with specific language impairment at the age of 7-8 years were collected from clinics of Tehran, Iran. They were evaluated about verb morphology using narrative speech and specific language impairment test and then, compared with six age-matched and six other language-matched children as control group. Children with specific language impairment were diagnosed by exhibiting a significant delay (more than one year in language that can not be explained by intelligence deficits, hearing loss or visual impairment. We used Man-Whitney test for comparing the groups.Results: Bilingual children with specific language impairment had delay in comparison with their age-matched group in subject-verb agreement (p=0.020 and articulating tense morphemes (p=0.019. They also had meaningful delay in using proper tense of verbs (past, present, and future in comparison with language-matched control group (p=0.029.Conclusion: Comparison of typical development of bilingual children and bilinguals with specific language impairment shows that verb morphology is a good clinical marker for diagnosing and treatment of these children.

  1. Process Approach to Developing Language with Hearing Impaired Children: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Richard D.

    1987-01-01

    Language Delivery Model includes eight steps for teaching language to hearing-impaired students: assessing student language needs and identifying Target Structure (TS) to be taught; analyzing TS grammar; analyzing TS for language sense; designing and implementing activities; reinforcing the TS; assessing student progress; generalizing TS other…

  2. Lipreading Ability and Its Cognitive Correlates in Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Lonka, Eila; Ahola, Sanna; Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Lipreading and its cognitive correlates were studied in school-age children with typical language development and delayed language development due to specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Forty-two children with typical language development and 20 children with SLI were tested by using a word-level lipreading test and an extensive…

  3. Are Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia Distinct Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Adlof, Suzanne M.; Hogan, Tiffany; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are distinct developmental disorders. Method Study 1 investigated the overlap between SLI identified in kindergarten and dyslexia identified in 2nd, 4th, or 8th grades in a representative sample of 527 children. Study 2 examined phonological processing in a subsample of participants, including 21 children with dyslexia only, 43 children with SLI only, 18 children with SLI and dyslexia, and 165 children with typical language/reading development. Measures of phonological awareness and nonword repetition were considered. Results Study 1 showed limited but statistically significant overlap between SLI and dyslexia. Study 2 found that children with dyslexia or a combination of dyslexia and SLI performed significantly less well on measures of phonological processing than did children with SLI only and those with typical development. Children with SLI only showed only mild deficits in phonological processing compared with typical children. Conclusions These results support the view that SLI and dyslexia are distinct but potentially comorbid developmental language disorders. A deficit in phonological processing is closely associated with dyslexia but not with SLI when it occurs in the absence of dyslexia. PMID:16478378

  4. Increased prevalence of sex chromosome aneuploidies in specific language impairment and dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, N.; Addis, L; Brandler, W.; Slonims, V.; Clark, A.; Watson, J.; Scerri, T.; Hennessy, E.; Stein, J.; Talcott, J.; Conti-Ramsden, G.; O'Hare, A.; Baird, G.; Fairfax, B.; Knight, J

    2014-01-01

    Aim Sex chromosome aneuploidies increase the risk of spoken or written language disorders but individuals with specific language impairment (SLI) or dyslexia do not routinely undergo cytogenetic analysis. We assess the frequency of sex chromosome aneuploidies in individuals with language impairment or dyslexia. Method Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping was performed in three sample sets: a clinical cohort of individuals with speech and language deficits (87 probands: 61 mal...

  5. Narrative in adolescent specific language impairment (SLI): a comparison with peers across two different narrative genres

    OpenAIRE

    Wetherell, D.; Botting, N.; Conti-Ramsden, G

    2007-01-01

    Background: Narrative may provide a useful way in which to assess the language ability of adolescents with specific language impairment and may be more ecologically valid than standardized tests. However, the language of this age group is seldom studied and, furthermore, the effect of narrative genre has not been explored in detail. Methods & Procedures: A total of 99 typically developing adolescents and 19 peers with specific language impairment were given two different types of narrativ...

  6. Executive functions in mono- and bilingual children with language impairment – issues for speech-language pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof eSandgren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical assessment of language impairment (LI in bilingual children imposes challenges for speech-language pathology services. Assessment tools standardized for monolingual populations increase the risk of misinterpreting bilingualism as language impairment. This Perspective article summarizes recent studies on the assessment of bilingual LI and presents new results on including nonlinguistic measures of executive functions in the diagnostic assessment. Executive functions shows clinical utility as less subjected to language use and exposure than linguistic measures. A possible bilingual advantage, and consequences for speech-language pathology practices and future research are discussed.

  7. Mapping practice onto theory: the speech and language practitioner's construction of receptive language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, J; Campbell, C; Roulstone, S; Adams, C; Boyle, J

    2008-01-01

    Receptive language impairment (RLI) is one of the most significant indicators of negative sequelae for children with speech and language disorders. Despite this, relatively little is known about the most effective treatments for these children in the primary school period. To explore the relationship between the reported practice of speech and language practitioners and the underlying rationales for the therapy that they provide. A phenomenological approach was adopted, drawing on the experiences of speech and language practitioners. Practitioners completed a questionnaire relating to their practice for a single child with receptive language impairment within the 5-11 age range, providing details and rationales for three recent therapy activities. The responses of 56 participants were coded. All the children described experienced marked receptive language impairments, in the main associated with expressive language difficulties and/or social communication problems. The relative homogeneity of the presenting symptoms in terms of test performance was not reflected in the highly differentiated descriptions of intervention. One of the key determinants of how therapists described their practice was the child's age. As the child develops the therapists appeared to shift from a 'skills acquisition' orientation to a 'meta-cognitive' orientation, that is they move away from teaching specific linguistic behaviours towards teaching children strategies for thinking and using their language. A third of rationales refer to explicit theories but only half of these refer to the work of specific authors. Many of these were theories of practice rather than theories of deficit, and of those that do cite specific theories, no less than 29 different authors were cited many of whom might best be described as translators of existing theories rather than generators of novel theories. While theories of the deficit dominate the literature they appear to play a relatively small part in the

  8. Listening comprehension and working memory are impaired in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder irrespective of language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Alison; Humphries, Tom; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Tannock, Rosemary

    2003-08-01

    This study investigated listening comprehension and working memory abilities in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), presenting with and without language impairments (LI). A 4-group design classified a community sample (n = 77) of boys aged 9-12 into ADHD, ADHD + LI, LI, and Normal groups. Children completed tests of basic language and cognitive skills, verbal and spatial working memory, and passage-level listening comprehension. Multivariate analyses and post hoc comparisons indicated that ADHD children who did not have co-occurring LI comprehended factual information from spoken passages as well as normal children, but were poorer at comprehending inferences and monitoring comprehension of instructions. ADHD children did not differ from normal children in verbal span, but showed significantly poorer verbal working memory, spatial span, and spatial working memory. The ADHD + LI and LI groups were most impaired in listening comprehension and working memory performance, but did not differ from each other. Listening comprehension skills were significantly correlated with both verbal and spatial working memory, and parent-teacher ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Findings that children with ADHD but no LI showed subtle higher-level listening comprehension deficits have implications for both current diagnostic practices and conceptualizations of ADHD.

  9. Pragmatics in Second Language Learning: Current Developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriele Kasper

    2007-01-01

    Pragmatics made its entrance to second language research thirty years ago, mainly under the influence of curricular interests in teaching and testing language for communication and sociolinguistic concerns with intercultural discourse. In contrast to theories that share the view of SLA as individual cognition, SCT, language socialization, and conversation analysis propose (or are compatible with) L2 learning as a socially constituted-not merely socially influenced-inter-individual process, situated in and intertwined with social activities. This Paper will discuss research on developmental interlanguage pragmatics conducted explicitly under one (or more) of the theoretical perspectives introduced earlier: theories of cognitive processing, sociocultural theory, language socialization, and conversation analysis.

  10. Pragmatics in Second Language Learning: Current Developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriele Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Pragmatics made its entrance to second language research thirty years ago, mainly under the influence of curricular interests in teaching and testing language for communication and sociolinguistic concerns with intercultural discourse. In contrast to theories that share the view of SLA as individual cognition, SCT, language socialization, and conversation analysis propose (or are compatible with) L2 learning as a socially constituted -- not merely socially influenced -- inter-individual process, situated in and intertwined with social activities. This paper will discuss research on developmental interlanguage pragmatics conducted explicitly under one (or more) of the theoretical perspectives introduced earlier: theories of cognitive processing, sociocultural theory, language socialization, and conversation analysis.

  11. Changing Currents in Second Language Writing Research: A Colloquium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Paul Kei; Canagarajah, A. Suresh; Harklau, Linda; Hyland, Ken; Warschauer, Mark

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on an invited colloqium on second language (L) writing presented at the 200 meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics. The colloquium featured five second language writing researchers two discussed some of the important currents that have shaped the field of second language writing. (Author/VWL)

  12. Structural alterations of the language connectome in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vydrova, Rosa; Komarek, Vladimir; Sanda, Jan; Sterbova, Katalin; Jahodova, Alena; Maulisova, Alice; Zackova, Jitka; Reissigova, Jindra; Krsek, Pavel; Kyncl, Martin

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated brain white matter pathways associated with language processing in 37 children with specific language impairment aged 6-12 years and 34 controls, matched for age, sex and handedness. Arcuate fascicle (AF), inferior fronto-occipital fascicle (IFOF), inferior longitudinal fascicle (ILF) and uncinate fascicle (UF) were identified using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Diffusivity parameters and volume of the tracts were compared between the SLI and control group. Children with SLI showed decreased fractional anisotropy in all investigated tracts, increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity component in arcuate fascicle bilaterally, left IFOF and left ILF. Further, bilaterally increased volume of the ILF in children with SLI was found. We confirmed previous findings indicating deficient connectivity of the arcuate fascicle and as a novel finding, demonstrate abnormal development of the ventral language stream in patients with SLI.

  13. Teacher identification of speech and language impairment in kindergarten students using the Kindergarten Development Check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Belinda; Ward, Elizabeth; Cahill, Louise; Keating, Diane

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to profile the extent and accuracy of teacher identification of speech and language impairment within a kindergarten student population in Tasmania, Australia, using the Kindergarten Development Check (KDC). A total of 286 kindergarten students (aged 4-5 years and in their first year of formal schooling) were screened by teachers with the KDC on two separate occasions over their kindergarten year. In the following academic year, each of the same 286 students were assessed by a speech-language pathologist, and diagnosed with either typically developing or impaired speech and/or language skills. Review of KDC data determined the number of students identified by teachers with speech and language impairment at each occasion during their kindergarten year. Comparison of data from the later KDC administration and speech-language pathology assessment then determined the correspondence between identification of speech and language impairment by teachers and speech-language pathologists. Upon initial administration of the KDC, 51 (17.8%) students were identified by teachers with language impairment and 47 (16.4%) students with speech impairment. Following the second administration of the KDC 3 months later, 20 (7.0%) students continued to be identified with language impairment, and 39 (13.6%) with speech impairment. Comparison of speech-language pathology testing results and KDC data from the second administration found the overall validity of teacher identification was 86.4% and 71% for speech and language impairment respectively. Specificity rates were high, with 93% and 97% of students with typically developing speech and language skills respectively, correctly classified on the KDC. However, the sensitivity was only 50% for speech impairment and 15% for language impairment, indicating that 50% of students presenting with speech impairment and 85% of students with language impairment in their subsequent academic year were not recorded by

  14. 'MetaTaal': Enhancing complex syntax in children with specific language impairment-a metalinguistic and multimodal approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, R.; Wijnen, F.N.K.; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundCurrently, most research on the effective treatment of morphosyntax in children with specific language impairment (SLI) pertains to younger children. In the last two decades, several studies have provided evidence that intervention for older school-age children with SLI can be effective. T

  15. Children with specific language impairment in Finnish: the use of tense and agreement inflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnari, Sari; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Leonard, Laurence B; Mäkinen, Leena; Tolonen, Anna-Kaisa; Luotonen, Mirja; Leinonen, Eeva

    2011-11-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) vary widely in their ability to use tense/agreement inflections depending on the type of language being acquired, a fact that current accounts of SLI have tried to explain. Finnish provides an important test case for these accounts because: (1) verbs in the first and second person permit null subjects whereas verbs in the third person do not; and (2) tense and agreement inflections are agglutinating and thus one type of inflection can appear without the other. Probes were used to compare the verb inflection use of Finnish-speaking children with SLI, and both age-matched and younger typically developing children. The children with SLI were less accurate, and the pattern of their errors did not match predictions based on current accounts of SLI. It appears that children with SLI have difficulty learning complex verb inflection paradigms apart from any problem specific to tense and agreement.

  16. Children with Specific Language Impairment in Finnish: The Use of Tense and Agreement Inflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnari, Sari; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Leonard, Laurence B.; Mäkinen, Leena; Tolonen, Anna-Kaisa; Luotonen, Mirja; Leinonen, Eeva

    2013-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) vary widely in their ability to use tense/agreement inflections depending on the type of language being acquired, a fact that current accounts of SLI have tried to explain. Finnish provides an important test case for these accounts because: (1) verbs in first and second person permit null subjects whereas verbs in third person do not; and (2) tense and agreement inflections are agglutinating and thus one type of inflection can appear without the other. Probes were used to compare the verb inflection use of Finnish-speaking children with SLI, and both age-matched and younger typically developing children. The children with SLI were less accurate, and the pattern of their errors did not match predictions based on current accounts of SLI. It appears that children with SLI have difficulty learning complex verb inflection paradigms apart from any problem specific to tense and agreement. PMID:21281548

  17. Children with specific language impairment show difficulties in sensory modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Marion N; Rietman, André B; Meulen, Sjoeke V D; Schipper, Maria; Dejonckere, Philippe H

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a group of 116 Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) shows differences in sensory processing when compared to a control group of age-matched 4-7-year-old typical peers. The Sensory Profile-NL-a standardized questionnaire of 125 items-was completed by caregivers of children in both groups. Children with SLI differed significantly from the control group on all 14 section scores and 4 quadrant scores of the Sensory Profile-NL. The effect size of the difference in sensory modulation patterns of children with and without SLI on this measure was large (Cohen's d ≥ 0.80). Difficulties in sensory modulation can be characterized as frequent co-morbid problems in children with SLI.

  18. Narrative production by children with and without specific language impairment: oral narratives and emergent readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderavek, J N; Sulzby, E

    2000-02-01

    The research reported in this paper was based on the premise that oral and written language development are intertwined. Further, the research was motivated by research demonstrating that narrative ability is an important predictor of school success for older children with language impairment. The authors extended the inquiry to preschool children by analyzing oral narratives and "emergent storybook reading" (retelling of a familiar storybook) by two groups of 20 children (half with, half without language impairment) age 2;4 (years;months) to 4;2. Comparative analyses of the two narrative genres using a variety of language and storybook structure parameters revealed that both groups of children used more characteristics of written language in the emergent storybook readings than in the oral narratives, demonstrating that they were sensitive to genre difference. The children with language impairment were less able than children developing typically to produce language features associated with written language. For both groups, middles and ends of stories were marked significantly more often within the oral narratives than the emergent readings. The children with language impairment also had difficulty with other linguistic features: less frequent use of past-tense verbs in both contexts and the use of personal pronouns in the oral narratives. Emergent storybook reading may be a useful addition to language sampling protocols because it can reveal higher order language skills and contribute to understanding the relationship between language impairment and later reading disability.

  19. Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment: Issues, Evidence and Implications for Clinical Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnert, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    A clear understanding of how to best provide clinical serves to bilingual children with suspected or confirmed primary language impairment (PLI) is predicated on understanding typical development in dual-language learners as well as the PLI profile. This article reviews general characteristics of children learning two languages, including three that challenge the diagnosis and treatment of PLI; uneven distribution of abilities in the child's two languages, cross-linguistic associations within bilingual learners, and individual variation in response to similar social circumstances. The diagnostic category of PLI (also referred to in the literature as specific language impairment or SLI) is described with attention to how language impairment, in the face of otherwise typical development, manifests in children learning two languages. Empirical evidence related to differential diagnosis of PLI in bilingual children is then reviewed and issues related to the generalization of treatment gains in dual-language learners with PLI are introduced. PMID:20371080

  20. Characterising Developmental Language Impairment in Serbian-Speaking Children: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mile; Stojanovik, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to provide preliminary data on the use of auxiliaries and clitics in Serbian-speaking children with developmental language impairment. Two groups of children (a group of 30 children with developmental language impairment and a group of 30 typically developing children) aged between 48 and 83 months and matched on IQ took…

  1. Working Memory and Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Archibald, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The authors compared 6- to 11-year-olds with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those with specific language impairment (SLI) on measures of memory (verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory) and learning (reading and mathematics). Children with DCD with typical language skills were impaired in all four areas of memory…

  2. Phonological Deficits in Specific Language Impairment and Developmental Dyslexia: Towards a Multidimensional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramus, Franck; Marshall, Chloe R.; Rosen, Stuart; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

    2013-01-01

    An on-going debate surrounds the relationship between specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia, in particular with respect to their phonological abilities. Are these distinct disorders? To what extent do they overlap? Which cognitive and linguistic profiles correspond to specific language impairment, dyslexia and comorbid cases? At…

  3. Picture Naming in Typically Developing and Language-Impaired Children: The Role of Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Suzanne R.; Roelofs, Ardi; Scheper, Annette R.; Meyer, Antje S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems not only with language performance but also with sustained attention, which is the ability to maintain alertness over an extended period of time. Although there is consensus that this ability is impaired with respect to processing stimuli in the auditory perceptual…

  4. Phonological Deficits in Specific Language Impairment and Developmental Dyslexia: Towards a Multidimensional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramus, Franck; Marshall, Chloe R.; Rosen, Stuart; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

    2013-01-01

    An on-going debate surrounds the relationship between specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia, in particular with respect to their phonological abilities. Are these distinct disorders? To what extent do they overlap? Which cognitive and linguistic profiles correspond to specific language impairment, dyslexia and comorbid cases? At…

  5. Conceptual Scoring of Lexical Organization in Bilingual Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Ketty; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Nettelbladt, Ulrika; Dahlgren-Sandberg, Annika

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate conceptual scoring of lexical organization in bilingual children with language impairment (BLI) and to compare BLI performance with monolingual children with language impairment (MLI). Word associations were assessed in 15 BLI and 9 MLI children. BLI were assessed in Arabic and Swedish, MLI in Swedish only. A number of…

  6. Story Writing Skills of Adults with a History Language-Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Lock, Karen M.; Nickels, Lyndsey; Mortensen, Lynne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the story writing skills of adults with a history of oral language impairment. It was hypothesized that writing text would pose difficulty for adults with a history of language impairment (LI), and that this difficulty would manifest itself as reduced grammatical complexity and increased errors in…

  7. Referring expressions and structural language abilities in children with specific language impairment: A pragmatic tolerance account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Catherine; Andrés-Roqueta, Clara; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2016-04-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) has traditionally been characterized as a deficit of structural language (specifically grammar), with relative strengths in pragmatics. In this study, comprehensive assessment of production, comprehension, and metalinguistic judgment of referring expressions revealed that children with SLI have weaknesses in both structural and pragmatic language skills relative to age-matched peers. Correlational analyses highlight a relationship between their performance on the experimental tasks and their structural language ability. Despite their poor performance on the production and comprehension tasks, children with SLI were able to recognize pragmatically under-informative reference relative to other types of utterance, although they imposed a less severe penalty on such expressions than typically developing peers, a pattern that supports the pragmatic tolerance account. Our novel methodology (which probed structural abilities from both the speaker's and hearer's perspectives as well as metalinguistic and pragmatic skills in the same sample) challenges the assumption that pragmatic errors stem from deficits in social cognition and instead supports recent findings suggesting that when the impact of structural language is isolated, pragmatic deficits may be resolved.

  8. Dynamic assessment of narrative ability in English accurately identifies language impairment in English language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Elizabeth D; Gillam, Ronald B; Bedore, Lisa M

    2014-12-01

    To assess the identification accuracy of dynamic assessment (DA) of narrative ability in English for children learning English as a 2nd language. A DA task was administered to 54 children: 18 Spanish-English-speaking children with language impairment (LI); 18 age-, sex-, IQ- and language experience-matched typical control children; and an additional 18 age- and language experience-matched comparison children. A variety of quantitative and qualitative measures were collected in the pretest phase, the mediation phase, and the posttest phase of the study. Exploratory discriminant analysis was used to determine the set of measures that best differentiated among this group of children with and without LI. A combination of examiner ratings of modifiability (compliance, metacognition, and task orientation), DA story scores (setting, dialogue, and complexity of vocabulary), and ungrammaticality (derived from the posttest narrative sample) classified children with 80.6% to 97.2% accuracy. DA conducted in English provides a systematic means for measuring learning processes and learning outcomes, resulting in a clinically useful procedure for identifying LIs in bilingual children who are in the process of learning English as a second language.

  9. Predictors of second language acquisition in Latino children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Sweet, Monica

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which the language of intervention, the child's development in Spanish, and the effects of English vocabulary, use, proficiency, and exposure predict differences in the rates of acquisition of English in Latino children with specific language impairment (SLI). In this randomized controlled trial, 188 Latino preschoolers with SLI participated in a small-group academic enrichment program for 12 weeks and were followed up 3 and 5 months later. Children were randomly assigned to either a bilingual or an English-only program. Predictors of English growth included measures of Spanish language skills and English vocabulary, use, proficiency, and exposure. Performance on English outcomes (i.e., picture description and narrative sample) was assessed over time. A series of longitudinal models were tested via multilevel modeling with baseline and posttreatment measures nested within child. Children demonstrated growth on the English outcomes over time. The language of intervention, Spanish skills, English vocabulary, and English use significantly predicted differences in rates of growth across children for specific measures of English development. This study underscores the role of the child's first language skills, the child's level of English vocabulary development, and level of English use for predicting differences in English acquisition in Latino preschoolers with SLI. These factors should be carefully considered in making clinical decisions.

  10. Phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in children with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Haresabadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Specific language impairment (SLI, one variety of developmental language disorder, has attracted much interest in recent decades. Much research has been conducted to discover why some children have a specific language impairment. So far, research has failed to identify a reason for this linguistic deficiency. Some researchers believe language disorder causes defects in phonological working memory and affects auditory processing speed. Therefore, this study reviews the results of research investigating these two factors in children with specific language impairment.Recent Findings: Studies have shown that children with specific language impairment face constraints in phonological working memory capacity. Memory deficit is one possible cause of linguistic disorder in children with specific language impairment. However, in these children, disorder in information processing speed is observed, especially regarding the auditory aspect.Conclusion: Much more research is required to adequately explain the relationship between phonological working memory and auditory processing speed with language. However, given the role of phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in language acquisition, a focus should be placed on phonological working memory capacity and auditory processing speed in the assessment and treatment of children with a specific language impairment.

  11. Executive functions and language in children with different subtypes of specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Rodríguez, V; Ramírez Santana, G M; Hernández Expósito, S

    The marked heterogeneity among children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI) highlights the importance of studying and describing cases based on the distinction between the expressive and receptive-expressive SLI subtypes. The main objective of this study was to examine neuropsychological, linguistic, and narrative behaviours in children with different SLI subtypes. A comprehensive battery of language and neuropsychological tests was administered to a total of 58 children (29 with SLI and 29 normal controls) between 5.60 and 11.20 years old. Both SLI subtypes performed more poorly than the control group in language skills, narrative, and executive function. Furthermore, the expressive SLI group demonstrated substantial ungrammaticality, as well as problems with verbal fluency and both verbal and spatial working memory, while the receptive-expressive SLI subtype displayed poorer neuropsychological performance in general. Our findings showed that children with either SLI subtype displayed executive dysfunctions that were not limited to verbal tasks but rather extended to nonverbal measures. This could reflect a global cognitive difficulty which, along with declining linguistic and narrative skills, illustrates the complex profile of this impairment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Past tense production by English second language learners with and without language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated whether past tense use could differentiate children with language impairment (LI) from their typically developing (TD) peers when English is children's second language (L2) and whether L2 children's past tense profiles followed the predictions of Bybee's (2007) usage-based network model. A group of L2 children with LI (L2-LI) and a matched group of L2-TD peers were administered the past tense probe from the Test of Early Grammatical Impairment (Rice & Wexler, 2001) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (Dunn & Dunn, 1997). A representative input corpus provided distributional information for each verb used. Background information was obtained via parent questionnaire. The L2-LI group used fewer tense-marked verbs than did the L2-TD group. In both groups, vocabulary size and word frequency predicted accuracy with regular and irregular verbs. Children omitted regular past tense marking most often after alveolar stops, dropping the allomorph /Id/; L2-TD children omitted /t/ more often than /d/. Finally, first language typology predicted past tense accuracy. Past tense use could potentially differentiate between English L2 children with and without LI. The impact of vocabulary, frequency, and phonological factors supported the network model and indicated profile differences between L2-LI and L2-TD children.

  13. Psychomotor profile of a child with specific language impairment and Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Tânia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Projecting beyond the ideia of the organic and expressive body and cementing a close relationship between motor skills, cognition and language, the current practices Psychomotricity reach a new conceptual field. In this paper of qualitative nature, it was intended to draw the psychomotor profile of a 8 years old child with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and Dyslexia, by using the Vitor da Fonseca ‘s Observation Psychomotor Battery (OPB and correlate it with the linguistic and cognitive profiles. Through the triangulation of the results obtained in psychomotor, cognitive and language tests, the data in literature was corroborated, which clearly point to the existence of co-morbidity between PEL, Dyslexia and disturbances in the psychomotor’s profile, thereby demonstrating a strong correlation between psychomotricity, cognition and language. Therefore, it’s urgent, and possible, to sensitize the family, the health and education professionals for the need to a multidisciplinary approach in the areas of psychomotricity and language, both at a prophylactic or rehabilitative level.

  14. The Acquisition of Tense in English: Distinguishing child second language from first language and specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Rice, Mabel L; Crago, Martha; Marquis, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on a comparison of the use and knowledge of tense-marking morphemes in English by first language (L1), second language (L2) and specifically language-impaired (SLI) children. The objective of our research was to ascertain whether the L2 children's tense acquisition patterns were similar or dissimilar to those of the L1 and SLI groups, and whether they would fit an (Extended) Optional Infinitive profile, or an L2-based profile, e.g., the Missing Surface Inflection Hypothesis. Results showed that the L2 children had a unique profile compared with their monolingual peers, which was better characterized by the Missing Surface Inflection Hypothesis. At the same time, results reinforce the assumption underlying the (Extended) Optional Infinitive profile that internal constraints on the acquisition of tense could be a component of L1 development, with and without SLI.

  15. The roles of cognitive and language abilities in predicting decoding and reading comprehension: comparisons of dyslexia and specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Alexandra A; Park, Yujeong; Lombardino, Linda J

    2016-11-15

    This study aimed to (a) explore the roles of cognitive and language variables in predicting reading abilities of two groups of individuals with reading disabilities (i.e., dyslexia and specific language impairment) and (b) examine which variable(s) is the most predictive in differentiating two groups. Inclusion/exclusion criteria applied to categorize the two groups yielded a total of 63 participants (n = 44 for the dyslexia; n = 19 for the specific language impairment). A stepwise multiple regression approach was conducted to examine which cognitive and/or language variables made the largest contribution to reading abilities (i.e., Phonetic Decoding Efficiency, Word Attack, Sight Word Efficiency, and Passage Comprehension). Results revealed that there were significant differences in which measures of cognitive and language ability predicted individuals with dyslexia and speech and language impairments reading ability, showing that the cognitive and language variables underlying their difficulty with reading abilities were not the same across the two groups. A discriminant function analysis showed that a measure of Verbal Comprehension, Phonological Awareness, and Phonetic Decoding Efficiency can be used to differentiate the two groups. These findings support the tenet that dyslexia and specific language impairment are two subgroups of reading disabilities and that thorough diagnostic evaluations are needed to differentiate between these two subgroups. Distinctions of this nature are central to determining the type and intensity of language-based interventions.

  16. The Morphosyntax of Specific Language Impairment in French: An Extended Optional Default Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Crago, Martha

    2001-01-01

    Examines the use of tense, agreement, and non-tense morphemes and associated distributional contingencies in the language production of Quebec French-Speaking children with specific language impairment and normally developing language and age-matched controls. Sought to determine whether the optimal infinitive/extended optional infinitive pattern…

  17. Txt Lang: Texting, Textism Use and Literacy Abilities in Adolescents with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, K.; Conti-Ramsden, G.; Walker, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined text messaging in adolescence, in particular relationships among textism use, language and literacy skills. Forty-seven typically developing (TD) 17-year-olds and 47 adolescents of the same age with specific language impairment (SLI) participated. Participants completed standardised assessments of cognitive, language and…

  18. Predicting word decoding and word spelling development in children with Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Balkom, L.J.M. van

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation on Dutch children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) aimed at determining the predictive value of statistically uncorrelated language proficiencies on later reading and spelling skills in Dutch. Language abilities, tested with an extensive test battery at the ons

  19. Language-learning impairments: a 30-year follow-up of language-impaired children with and without psychiatric, neurological and cognitive difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbro, Carsten; Dalby, Mogens; Maarbjerg, Stine

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term consequences of language impairments for academic, educational and socio-economic outcomes. It also assessed the unique contributions of childhood measures of speech and language, non-verbal IQ, and of psychiatric and neurological problems. The study was a 30-year follow-up of 198 participants originally diagnosed with language impairments at 3-9 years. Childhood diagnoses were based on language and cognitive abilities, social maturity, motor development, and psychiatric and neurological signs. At follow-up the participants responded to a questionnaire about literacy, education, employment, economic independence and family status. The response rate was 42% (198/470). At follow-up a majority of the participants reported literacy difficulties, unemployment and low socio-economic status-at rates significantly higher than in the general population. Participants diagnosed as children with specific language impairments had significantly better outcomes than those with additional diagnoses, even when non-verbal IQ was normal or statistically controlled. Childhood measures accounted for up to 52% of the variance in adult outcomes. Psychiatric and neurological comorbidity is relevant for adult outcomes of language impairments even when non-verbal IQ is normal. © 2011 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  20. Language profiles in children with Down syndrome and children with language impairment: implications for early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polišenská, Kamila; Kapalková, Svetlana

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated early language profiles in two groups of children with developmental disability: children with Down Syndrome (DS, n=13) and children with Language Impairment (LI, n=16). Vocabulary and grammatical skills in the two groups were assessed and compared to language skills of typically developing (TD) children matched on size of either their receptive or expressive vocabulary (n=58). The study aimed to establish if language development in these groups is delayed or fundamentally different than the TD groups, and if the group with DS showed a similar language profile to the group with LI. There is a clinical motivation to identify possible key risk characteristics that may distinguish children who are likely to have LI from the variation observed in TD children. Three clear findings emerged from the data. Firstly, both receptive and expressive vocabulary compositions did not significantly differ in the clinical groups (DS and LI) after being matched to the vocabulary size of TD children. This provides further support for the idea that word learning for the children in the clinical groups is delayed rather than deviant. Secondly, children with LI showed a significantly larger gap between expressive and receptive word knowledge, but children with DS showed a pattern comparable to TD children. Thirdly, children with LI who understood a similar number of words as the TD children still had significantly poorer grammatical skills, further underlining the dissociation between lexical and grammatical skills in children with LI. Grammatical skills of children with DS were commensurate with their lexical skills. The findings suggest that language intervention should be specifically tailored to etiology rather than focused on general communication strategies, particularly in children with LI.

  1. First Language Transfer in Second Language Writing: An Examination of Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Khaled; Nassaji, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    First language (L1) transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA), and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1…

  2. Characteristics of early spelling of children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordewener, Kim A H; Bosman, Anna M T; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated active grapheme knowledge and early spelling of 59 first grade children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Speed, nature, and knowledge transfer of spelling acquisition were taken into account. Four orthographic characteristics that influence early spelling, namely, 'Type of Grapheme', 'Grapheme Position', 'Number of Graphemes', and 'Word Structure' were examined at the middle and at the end of first grade. At the beginning of first grade when children were between 71 and 97 months, they performed well below national norms on assessment of active grapheme knowledge. The delay in word spelling persisted, but decreased between the middle and the end of first grade. Despite this delay, the findings suggest that characteristics of early spelling for children with SLI are rather similar to those of children with typical language development. For example, children with SLI represented more graphemes at the end of first grade than at the middle of first grade, found it easier to represent the initial grapheme in words than the final or medial grapheme (Grapheme Position), were more successful spelling shorter than longer words (Number of Graphemes), and spelled words with simple structures (CVC) more accurately than those with complex structures (CVCC and CCVC; Word Structure). Finally, participants demonstrated that they can use known graphemes to spell words, but the transfer between active grapheme knowledge and word spelling was not always stable. As a result of this activity, readers will be able to explain the speed and the nature of spelling acquisition of children with SLI. As a result of this activity, readers will be able to explain what skills are most important for teachers to practice with children with SLI to improve the spelling skills of these children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers.…

  4. Instructive Bilingualism: Can Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment Rely on One Language in Learning a Second One?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon-Lotem, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Only a decade ago, a very few researchers considered the study of language disorders in bilingual population worth pursuing. It was mostly argued that there were enough challenges in studying bilingualism, and even more challenges in the study of specific language impairment (SLI). So why complicate things and combine the two domains?

  5. Fostering Literal and Inferential Language Skills in Head Start Preschoolers with Language Impairment Using Scripted Book-Sharing Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleeck, Anne; Vander Woude, Judith; Hammett, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Preschoolers with language impairment have difficulties with both literal and inferential language, both of which are critical to later reading comprehension. Because these children are known to be at risk for later reading comprehension difficulties, it is important to design and test interventions that foster both literal and…

  6. Language and Social Factors in the Use of Cell Phone Technology by Adolescents with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Simkin, Zoe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare cell phone use (both oral and text-based) by adolescents with and without specific language impairment (SLI) and examine the extent to which language and social factors affect frequency of use. Method: Both interview and diary methods were used to compare oral and text-based communication using cell phones by…

  7. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers.…

  8. National Strategic Research Plan, 1994-1995: Language and Language Impairments, Balance and Balance Disorders, Voice and Voice Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Deafness and Other Communications Disorders, Bethesda, MD.

    This report is the result of three expert panels (on language and language impairments, balance and balance disorders, and voice and voice disorders) which met in 1994 and 1995 and reported research accomplishments, federal program goals, and research opportunities to the National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Board. For…

  9. Assessing and treating cognitive impairment in schizophrenia: current and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yuan; Tsai, Guochuan E; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious neuropsychiatric disease characterized by positive symptoms, negative symptoms and cognitive impairment. Evidence have shown that cognitive impairment sustains in every clinical stage, may relate with the liability, may predict functional outcome in schizophrenia and could be the core symptom of schizophrenia. The treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia could alleviate the burden of the illness and has become the subject of intensive research. In this review, we synthesize current advances of assessing strategies, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. According to the registered records of ClinicalTrials.gov, the most widely studied strategies have aimed at modifying neurochemical mechanisms of dopamine metabolism, glutamate metabolism, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism, serotonin metabolism, acetylcholine metabolism, and oxytocin. Despite preclinical data for putative pro-cognitive drugs, their clinical benefits for schizophrenia patients have been limited. The small sample sizes and the short treatment duration could be related with the suboptimal results. Evidence supported the short-term benefits of cognitive remediation therapy on cognitive domains with small to moderate effects; however, the small sample sizes and the characteristics of subjects limited the generalization of the positive results and the long-term functional outcome is not clear. Combination therapy is promising, by integrating pro-cognitive agents and cognitive rehabilitation programs or combining two kinds of pro-cognitive agents via different mechanisms. Future studies should investigate the pro-cognitive drugs' long-term efficacy, rebound deterioration in psychosis/cognition following discontinuation, and related biomarkers of functional outcome.

  10. Communicative Language Testing: Current Issues and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a range of current issues and future research possibilities in Communicative Language Testing (CLT) using, as its departure point, the key questions which emerged during the CLT symposium at the 2010 Language Testing Forum. The article begins with a summary of the 2010 symposium discussion in which three main issues related…

  11. Narrative spoken language skills in severely hearing impaired school-aged children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boons, Tinne; De Raeve, Leo; Langereis, Margreet; Peeraer, Louis; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2013-11-01

    Cochlear implants have a significant positive effect on spoken language development in severely hearing impaired children. Previous work in this population has focused mostly on the emergence of early-developing language skills, such as vocabulary. The current study aims at comparing narratives, which are more complex and later-developing spoken language skills, of a contemporary group of profoundly deaf school-aged children using cochlear implants (n=66, median age=8 years 3 months) with matched normal hearing peers. Results show that children with cochlear implants demonstrate good results on quantity and coherence of the utterances, but problematic outcomes on quality, content and efficiency of retold stories. However, for a subgroup (n=20, median age=8 years 1 month) of deaf children without additional disabilities who receive cochlear implantation before the age of 2 years, use two implants, and are raised with one spoken language, age-adequate spoken narrative skills at school-age are feasible. This is the first study to set the goals regarding spoken narrative skills for deaf children using cochlear implants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Third person pronoun errors by children with and without language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M E

    2001-01-01

    Research findings have been mixed about pronoun case problems in the language-learning profile of children with specific language impairment (SLI). This study (N= 36) extended previous findings and located a number of error patterns using detailed error analyses. Results indicated that the children with expressive SLI produced more errors with third person singular (3Psg) pronouns than did their age-level peers, but they did not make more errors than their MLU-matched peers. Error patterns were similar in the children with SLI and their language-level peers. The most frequent type of error was the substitution of the objective case for the nominative case. More errors were made on the feminine pronoun, she, than on the masculine pronoun, he. Implications for theories and clinical practice were explored. As a result of this activity, the reader will (1) learn how children with SLI compare to their peers in producing third person pronouns, (2) learn the most common types of pronoun errors made by the children matched for mean length of utterance (MLU), and (3) evaluate how the findings relate to two current theories: one from typical language development and one from the area of SLI.

  13. Bilingual children with primary language impairment: issues, evidence and implications for clinical actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnert, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    A clear understanding of how to best provide clinical serves to bilingual children with suspected or confirmed primary language impairment (PLI) is predicated on understanding typical development in dual-language learners as well as the PLI profile. This article reviews general characteristics of children learning two languages, including three that challenge the diagnosis and treatment of PLI; uneven distribution of abilities in the child's two languages, cross-linguistic associations within bilingual learners, and individual variation in response to similar social circumstances. The diagnostic category of PLI (also referred to in the literature as specific language impairment or SLI) is described with attention to how language impairment, in the face of otherwise typical development, manifests in children learning two languages. Empirical evidence related to differential diagnosis of PLI in bilingual children is then reviewed and issues related to the generalization of treatment gains in dual-language learners with PLI are introduced. As a result of this activity, the careful reader will be able to (1) describe general characteristics of typically developing dual-language learners, (2) explain how primary language impairment (PLI) manifests in bilingual children, and (3) identify key clinical issues and approaches to assessment and treatment on bilingual PLI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Examination of Potential Overlap in Autism and Language Loci on Chromosomes 2, 7, and 13 in Two Independent Samples Ascertained for Specific Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Christopher W.; Flax, Judy F.; Logue, Mark W.; Smith, Brett J.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Tallal, Paula; Brzustowicz, Linda M.

    2004-01-01

    Specific language impairment is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments essentially restricted to the domain of language and language learning skills. This contrasts with autism, which is a pervasive developmental disorder defined by multiple impairments in language, social reciprocity, narrow interests and/or repetitive behaviors. Genetic linkage studies and family data suggest that the two disorders may have genetic components in common. Two samples, from Canada and the U...

  15. Why do children with language impairment have difficulties with narrative macrostructure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Elma; Boerma, Tessel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research has produced conflicting findings about the effects of language impairment (LI) on narrative macrostructure outcomes. AIMS: The present study investigated if children with LI perform weaker than typically developing (TD) controls on narrative macrostructure in different tasks, w

  16. Specific language impairment in children with velocardiofacial syndrome : Four case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorhuis-Brouwer, SM; Dikkers, FG; Robinson, PH; Kerstjens-Frederikse, WS

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe specific language impairment in four children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). Design: A descriptive, retrospective study of four cases. Setting: University Hospital Groningen, tertiary clinical care. Patients: Of 350 patients with cleft plate, 18 children were diagnosed

  17. The link between prosody and language skills in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, C R; Harcourt-Brown, S; Ramus, F; van der Lely, H K J

    2009-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are known to have impairments in various aspects of phonology, which have been claimed to cause their language and literacy impairments. However, 'phonology' encompasses a wide range of skills, and little is known about whether these phonological impairments extend to prosody. To investigate certain prosodic abilities of children with SLI and/or dyslexia, to determine whether such children have prosodic impairments, whether they have the same pattern of impairments, and whether prosodic impairments are related to language and literacy deficits. Six subtests of the Profiling Elements of Prosodic Systems - Child version (PEPS-C) were used to investigate discrimination/comprehension and imitation/production of prosodic forms that were either independent of language or that had one of two linguistic functions: chunking (prosodic boundaries) and focus (contrastive stress). The performance of three groups of 10-14-year-old children with SLI plus dyslexia, SLI, and dyslexia were compared with an age-matched control group and two younger control groups matched for various aspects of language and reading. The majority of children with SLI and/or dyslexia performed well on the tasks that tested auditory discrimination and imitation of prosodic forms. However, their ability to use prosody to disambiguate certain linguistic structures was impaired relative to age-matched controls, although these differences disappeared in comparison with language-matched controls. No, or only very weak, links were found between prosody and language and literacy skills in children with SLI and/or dyslexia. Children with SLI and/or dyslexia aged 10-14 years show an impaired ability to disambiguate linguistic structures for which prosody is required. However, they are able on the whole to discriminate and imitate the actual prosodic structures themselves, without reference to linguistic meaning. While the interaction between prosody

  18. Working memory limitations in children with severe language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daal, J.G.H.L. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Balkom, L.J.M. van

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the relations of various aspects of working memory to various aspects of language problems in a clinical sample of 97 Dutch speaking 5-year-old children with severe language problems were studied. The working memory and language abilities of the children were examined using an

  19. Aspects of grammar sensitive to procedural memory deficits in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengottuvel, Kuppuraj; Rao, Prema K S

    2013-10-01

    Procedural deficit hypothesis claims that language deficit in children with specific language impairment is affiliated to sequence learning problems. However, studies did not explore on aspects of grammar vulnerable to sequence learning deficits. The present study makes predictions for aspects of grammar that could be sensitive to procedural deficits based on core ideas of procedural deficit hypothesis. The hypothesis for the present study was that the grammatical operations that require greater sequencing abilities (such as inflectional operations) would be more affected in children with language impairment. Further, the influence of sequencing difficulties would be even greater in agglutinating inflectional languages. An adapted serial reaction time task for sequence learning measurements along with grammatical tasks on derivation, inflection, and sentence complexity were examined on typically developing and language impaired children. Results were in favor of procedural deficit hypothesis and its close relation to non-adjacent grammatical operations. The findings were discussed using procedural deficits, declarative compensatory mechanism, and statistical learning deficits.

  20. Specific language impairment in childhood is associated with impaired mental and social well-being in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Rasanen, P; Roine, R P; Vilkman, E

    2008-01-01

    To study the possible influence of childhood language impairment on adult life and well-being, 35 persons with a mean age of 34 years filled out two questionnaires. Compared with the general population, subjects more often lived with parents, and were pensioned. Only a few reported having literacy problems, but over 40% had difficulty in finding words and remembering instructions. Childhood performance IQ was associated with education and word-finding difficulties, and verbal IQ with difficulties in remembering instructions. Health-related quality of life was related to literacy skills, finding words, and remembering instructions. In conclusion, adults with childhood language impairment differ markedly from the general population. Problems in expressing themselves and receiving information affect their well-being the most. Childhood performance seems to have some prognostic value for language-based problems in adulthood.

  1. Russian language as a state language: current status and measures for its strengthening and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbitskaya L. A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the article is the role of the Russian language in the world system of languages, the current status of the Russian language and the language policy measures that should be taken to preserve the Russian language and for the strengthening of its positions. The law “On the state language of the Russian Federation” adopted in 2005 should be supplemented by the list of grammar books and dictionaries of various types as listed in the appendixes to the article. The main actions aimed at ensuring the effective functioning of the law “On the state language of the Russian Federation” are also enlisted in the article.

  2. Form and Meaning in the Written Language of Hearing-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Snyder, Lynn

    1985-01-01

    Semantic discourse features of written narratives of 49 hearing impaired children (10-15 years old) were examined in an analysis of the relationship between form and meaning in the writing of both hearing and hearing impaired Ss. Syntactic and semantic written language growth appear to be qualitatively and quantitatively different in the groups.…

  3. Narrative competence and underlying mechanisms in children with pragmatic language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Jansonius, K.; Cuperus, J.; Verhoeven, L.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated narrative competence in children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) and the extent to which it is related to impairments in theory of mind and executive functioning (EF). Narrative competence was assessed using a retelling design in a group of 77 children with PLI and a

  4. The Nature of Auditory Discrimination Problems in Children with Specific Language Impairment: An MMN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Nina; Segers, Eliane; van den Brink, Danielle; Mitterer, Holger; van Balkom, Hans; Hagoort, Peter; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) show impairments in discriminating auditorily presented stimuli. The present study investigates whether these discrimination problems are speech specific or of a general auditory nature. This was studied using a linguistic and nonlinguistic contrast that were matched for acoustic complexity in…

  5. Neural Processing of Spoken Words in Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helenius, Paivi; Parviainen, Tiina; Paetau, Ritva; Salmelin, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Young adults with a history of specific language impairment (SLI) differ from reading-impaired (dyslexic) individuals in terms of limited vocabulary and poor verbal short-term memory. Phonological short-term memory has been shown to play a significant role in learning new words. We investigated the neural signatures of auditory word recognition…

  6. Toward an Understanding of Language Symptomatology of Visually-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prizant, Barry M.

    The paper examines theoretical issues regarding the symptomatology of echolalia in the language of visually impaired children. Literature on echolalia is reviewed from a variety of perspectives and clinical work and research with visual impairment and with autism is discussed. Problems of definition are cited, and explanations for occurrence of…

  7. Oral Morphosyntactic Competence as a Predictor of Reading Comprehension in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buil-Legaz, Lucía; Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with a diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) present impaired oral comprehension. According to the simple view of reading, general amodal linguistic capacity accounts for both oral and reading comprehension. Considering this, we should expect SLI children to display a reading comprehension deficit. However, previous…

  8. Language Assessment of Hearing-Impaired Children and Youth: Patterns of Test Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Suzanne; Stoker, Richard

    1988-01-01

    A survey of 182 educational programs for hearing-impaired children and youth identified those test instruments most widely used to assess language at infant, preschool, primary, and secondary levels. Also analyzed were communication modes and manual systems used in testing, difficulties encountered in assessing hearing-impaired children, and…

  9. Phonology and children with specific language impairment: status of structural constraints in two languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, U; Leonard, L B

    2000-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which the phonological characteristics of preschool-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) are compared with those seen in younger normally developing children matched for mean length of utterance and consonant inventory size. The productions of both English-speaking and Italian-speaking children with SLI were more likely to deviate from the adult standard than the productions of the younger control children. In Italian, the children with SLI had more difficulty than the younger controls in the use of non-final weak syllables; in English, the children with SLI were poorer than the younger controls in the use of non-final weak syllables, word-final consonants, and word-final consonant clusters. These are the same phonological details that are required for several grammatical inflections and many function words in the two languages. However, the children with SLI were also less consistent than their younger compatriots in using consonants in structurally simple words. These findings provide evidence for the view that for many preschool-age children with SLI, phonological problems go beyond those that might be predicted on the basis of the children's short utterances and limited consonant inventories.

  10. Which Are the Best Predictors of Theory of Mind Delay in Children with Specific Language Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Roqueta, Clara; Adrian, Juan E.; Clemente, Rosa A.; Katsos, Napoleon

    2013-01-01

    Background: The relationship between language and theory of mind (ToM) development in participants with specific language impairment (SLI) it is far from clear due to there were differences in study design and methodologies of previous studies. Aims: This research consisted of an in-depth investigation of ToM delay in children with SLI during the…

  11. Tense Marking and Spontaneous Speech Measures in Spanish Specific Language Impairment: A Discriminant Function Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, John; Baron, Alisa; Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; De la Mora, Juliana; Cantu-Sanchez, Myriam; Flores, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To test the proposal that the tense deficit that has been demonstrated for children with specific language impairment (SLI) in other languages is also found in child Spanish and that low performance on tense-related measures can distinguish Spanish-speaking children with SLI from those without. Method: The authors evaluated evidence from…

  12. Using the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) to Increase Vocalizations of Older Adults with Cognitive Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Linda A.; Geiger, Kaneen B.; Sautter, Rachael A.; Sidener, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    The Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) has proven effective in increasing spontaneous verbalizations for children with autism. This study investigated the use of NLP with older adults with cognitive impairments served at a leisure-based adult day program for seniors. Three individuals with limited spontaneous use of functional language participated…

  13. Auditory Word Recognition of Nouns and Verbs in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Guardia-Olmos, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Nouns are fundamentally different from verbs semantically and syntactically, since verbs can specify one, two, or three nominal arguments. In this study, 25 children with Specific Language Impairment (age 5;3-8;2 years) and 50 typically developing children (3;3-8;2 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment of spoken language comprehension…

  14. Definitional Skill in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Johnson, Cynthia J.

    2002-01-01

    Fifteen children (grades 3-5) with specific language impairment (SLI) were asked to define 10 common nouns. Children with SLI scored significantly lower than children with typically developing language for both content and form. Results suggest that lexical access and/or lack of metalinguistic knowledge were potential causes for the lower scores…

  15. Aberrant Topologies and Reconfiguration Pattern of Functional Brain Network in Children with Second Language Reading Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanfang; Li, Hehui; Zhang, Manli; Wang, Zhengke; Wei, Na; Liu, Li; Meng, Xiangzhi; Ding, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    Prior work has extensively studied neural deficits in children with reading impairment (RI) in their native language but has rarely examined those of RI children in their second language (L2). A recent study revealed that the function of the local brain regions was disrupted in children with RI in L2, but it is not clear whether the disruption…

  16. The Ability of Children with Language Impairment to Recognize Emotion Conveyed by Facial Expression and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Matthew P.; Fujiki, Martin; Brinton, Bonnie; Nelson, Donna; Allen, Jillean

    2005-01-01

    The emotion understanding of children with language impairment (LI) was examined in two studies employing emotion-recognition tasks selected to minimize reliance on language skills. Participants consisted of 43 children with LI and 43 typically developing, age-matched peers, sampled from the age ranges of 5 to 8 and 9 to 12 years. In the first…

  17. (Dis)connections between Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; Kidd, Joanna C.; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are found to co-occur in school-aged children learning Chinese, a non-alphabetic language (Wong, Kidd, Ho, & Au in "Sci Stud Read" 14:30--57, 2010). This paper examined the "Distinct" hypothesis--that SLI and dyslexia have different cognitive deficits and behavioural…

  18. Utility of the Spelling Sensitivity Score to Analyze Spellings of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Krimm, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the Spelling Sensitivity Score (SSS) beyond percentage correct scoring in analyzing the spellings of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Participants were 31 children with SLI and 28 children with typical language in grades 2-4. Spellings of individual words were scored using…

  19. Interhemispheric Temporal Lobe Connectivity Predicts Language Impairment in Adolescents Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, Gemma B.; Liegeois, Frederique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.; Baldeweg, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways…

  20. The Concept of Inclusive Education: Teacher Training and Acquisition of English Language in the Hearing Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamae, Gertrude M.I.; Kang'ethe-Kamau, Rachael W.

    2004-01-01

    Three languages are widely used in schools in Kenya English, Kiswahili and Kenya Sign Language. Many pupils with hearing impairments are taught separately from the mainstream, in specialist settings. The fact that most of the formal teaching, assessment and examination processes in Kenyan schools rely upon spoken and written English compounds the…

  1. Total Physical Response: An Instructional Strategy for Second-Language Learners Who Are Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Paula

    1999-01-01

    Describes Total Physical Response, a teaching technique that teachers of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) use to instruct students who are in the process of learning a second language and modifications that can be made to the program to teach students with visual impairments. (CR)

  2. The Ability of Children with Language Impairment to Recognize Emotion Conveyed by Facial Expression and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Matthew P.; Fujiki, Martin; Brinton, Bonnie; Nelson, Donna; Allen, Jillean

    2005-01-01

    The emotion understanding of children with language impairment (LI) was examined in two studies employing emotion-recognition tasks selected to minimize reliance on language skills. Participants consisted of 43 children with LI and 43 typically developing, age-matched peers, sampled from the age ranges of 5 to 8 and 9 to 12 years. In the first…

  3. Children with Specific Language Impairment Show Rapid, Implicit Learning of Stress Assignment Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Bahl, Megha; Vance, Rebecca; Gerken, LouAnn

    2010-01-01

    An implicit learning paradigm was used to assess children's sensitivity to syllable stress information in an artificial language. Study 1 demonstrated that preschool children, with and without specific language impairment (SLI), can generalize patterns of stress heard during a brief period of familiarization, and can also abstract underlying…

  4. Interplay between Phonology and Syntax in French-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisse, Christophe; Maillart, Christelle

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relationship between phonological and syntactic disorders of French-speaking children with specific language impairment in production. Aims: To compare three theories (pure phonological theory, surface theory, and mapping theory) of language developmental disorders, all of which view phonological…

  5. (Dis)connections between Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; Kidd, Joanna C.; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are found to co-occur in school-aged children learning Chinese, a non-alphabetic language (Wong, Kidd, Ho, & Au in "Sci Stud Read" 14:30--57, 2010). This paper examined the "Distinct" hypothesis--that SLI and dyslexia have different cognitive deficits and behavioural…

  6. Complex Sentence Profiles in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Are They Really Atypical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, Nick G.

    2017-01-01

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) have language difficulties of unknown origin. Syntactic profiles are atypical, with poor performance on non-canonical structures, e.g. object relatives, suggesting a localized deficit. However, existing analyses using ANOVAs are problematic because they do not systematically address unequal…

  7. Gesture Production in Language Impairment: It's Quality, Not Quantity, That Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Charlotte; Saunders, Natalie; McGuire, Rosie; Cousins, Georgia; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether children with language impairment (LI) use gesture to compensate for their language difficulties. Method: The present study investigated gesture accuracy and frequency in children with LI (n = 21) across gesture imitation, gesture elicitation, spontaneous narrative, and interactive…

  8. Non-Word Repetition in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbels, Susan H.; Dockrell, Julie E.; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Non-word repetition (NWR) difficulties are common, but not universal, among children with specific language impairment (SLI). However, older children and adolescents with SLI have rarely been studied. Studies disagree on the relationship between NWR difficulties and difficulties with other areas of language and literacy. There is also…

  9. Aberrant Topologies and Reconfiguration Pattern of Functional Brain Network in Children with Second Language Reading Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanfang; Li, Hehui; Zhang, Manli; Wang, Zhengke; Wei, Na; Liu, Li; Meng, Xiangzhi; Ding, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    Prior work has extensively studied neural deficits in children with reading impairment (RI) in their native language but has rarely examined those of RI children in their second language (L2). A recent study revealed that the function of the local brain regions was disrupted in children with RI in L2, but it is not clear whether the disruption…

  10. Co-Localisation of Abnormal Brain Structure and Function in Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior…

  11. Development of a Language Impairment Screener for Spanish Speaking Children--SSLIC: Phase 1--Task Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gorin, Joanna S.; Gray, Shelley; Morgan, Gareth P.; Barona, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a Spanish language screening measure that (a) is valid and reliable for the purpose of identifying Spanish-speaking (SS) children at risk for Language Impairment (LI), (b) is valid and reliable across different Spanish dialects, different socioeconomic groups, and different ethnicities, (c) uses a…

  12. Utility of the Spelling Sensitivity Score to Analyze Spellings of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Krimm, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the Spelling Sensitivity Score (SSS) beyond percentage correct scoring in analyzing the spellings of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Participants were 31 children with SLI and 28 children with typical language in grades 2-4. Spellings of individual words were scored using…

  13. Social Communication Disorder outside Autism? A Diagnostic Classification Approach to Delineating Pragmatic Language Impairment, High Functioning Autism and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Green, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Developmental disorders of language and communication present considerable diagnostic challenges due to overlapping of symptomatology and uncertain aetiology. We aimed to further elucidate the behavioural and linguistic profile associated with impairments of social communication occurring outside of an autism diagnosis. Methods: Six to…

  14. Using Early Standardized Language Measures to Predict Later Language and Early Reading Outcomes in Children at High Risk for Language-Learning Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Judy F.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Roesler, Cynthia; Choudhury, Naseem; Benasich, April

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the profiles of children with a family history (FH+) of language-learning impairments (LLI) and a control group of children with no reported family history of LLI (FH-) and identify which language constructs (receptive or expressive) and which ages (2 or 3 years) are related to expressive and receptive language…

  15. An Investigation of Language Impairment in Autism: Implications for Genetic Subgroups

    OpenAIRE

    Kjelgaard, Margaret M.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2001-01-01

    Autism involves primary impairments in both language and communication, yet in recent years the main focus of research has been on the communicative deficits that define the population. The study reported in this paper investigated language functioning in a group of 89 children diagnosed with autism using the ADI-R, and meeting DSM-IV criteria. The children, who were between 4- and 14- years-old were administered a battery of standardized language tests tapping phonological, lexical, and high...

  16. Assessing the current implementation of communicative language for English language teachers in Ethiopian Universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anto, A.G.; Coenders, Ferdinand G.M.; Voogt, Joke

    2012-01-01

    This study has attempted to assess the current implementation of communicative language teaching (CLT) approach in two Ethiopian universities to identify professional development (PD) needs of English language teachers. A cross-sectional study using teachers, students and management as sources of in

  17. Language Impairments in the Development of Sign: Do They Reside in a Specific Modality or Are They Modality-Independent Deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woll, Bencie; Morgan, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Various theories of developmental language impairments have sought to explain these impairments in modality-specific ways--for example, that the language deficits in SLI or Down syndrome arise from impairments in auditory processing. Studies of signers with language impairments, especially those who are bilingual in a spoken language as well as a…

  18. Abnormal functioning of the left temporal lobe in language-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helenius, Päivi; Sivonen, Päivi; Parviainen, Tiina; Isoaho, Pia; Hannus, Sinikka; Kauppila, Timo; Salmelin, Riitta; Isotalo, Leena

    2014-03-01

    Specific language impairment is associated with enduring problems in language-related functions. We followed the spatiotemporal course of cortical activation in SLI using magnetoencephalography. In the experiment, children with normal and impaired language development heard spoken real words and pseudowords presented only once or two times in a row. In typically developing children, the activation in the bilateral superior temporal cortices was attenuated to the second presentation of the same word. In SLI children, this repetition effect was nearly nonexistent in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, the activation was equally strong to words and pseudowords in SLI children whereas in the typically developing children the left hemisphere activation persisted longer for pseudowords than words. Our results indicate that the short-term maintenance of linguistic activation that underlies spoken word recognition is defective in SLI particularly in the left language-dominant hemisphere. The unusually rapid decay of speech-evoked activation can contribute to impaired vocabulary growth.

  19. Theory of mind and specific language impairment in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudis, George

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationship between aspects of language development and Theory of Mind (ToM) in children with language impairments suggests that children with language impairment show a delay in ToM development. This study aimed to examine the relationships of the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills with ToM in school-age children. Twenty children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) aged 9-12 years and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and one for language ability (LA) (aged 8-10 years) were compared on a set of language tasks tapping syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills and on an advanced test of ToM. Results showed that children with SLI performed poorly on the ToM task compared to the CA matches. Also, analysis showed that language skills and ToM are related and that syntactic and pragmatic abilities contributed significantly to the prediction of ToM performance in the SLI group. It is concluded that the syntax/pragmatic aspects of the language impact on ToM understanding in children with SLI.

  20. Profiles of dysfluency and errors in classroom discourse among children with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peets, Kathleen F

    2009-01-01

    The current study is part of a larger study that focused on within-group classroom discourse patterns of children in special education classes for language impairment (LI). Eleven children with LI aged 7-9 were examined across 4 classroom contexts: dialogic journal-writing, group lesson, peer play and sharing time. Amount and complexity of language produced (mean length of turn, type token ratio), dysfluency (self-correction, self-repetition and speaker overlap) and communicative errors were plotted for visual analysis of profiles of performance. Results showed group differences in amount and complexity of language produced, dysfluency and errors. Profiles revealed individual variation in patterns of performance that tended to cluster into sub-group similarities in amount and complexity of talk, dysfluency and errors. Implications relate to the sub-classification of LI, as well as to assessment of and therapy for such subgroups. The reader will be able to consider why within-group patterns offer different and more qualitative information than cross-group comparisons, and understand the need for both approaches to the study of language in atypically developing children. The reader will be able to differentiate between group patterns and individual differences in dimensions of classroom discourse. The reader will be able to appreciate the impact of social context on different dimensions of communication among children with LI in the classroom. The reader will be able to discuss the role that individual differences and group patterns bear on issues of assessment and treatment of LI in the school system.

  1. Specific Language Impairment, Theory of Mind, and Visual Perspective Taking: Evidence for Simulation Theory and the Developmental Role of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, Brad M.; Fletcher, Janet; Maybery, Murray T.

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has found that the acquisition of theory of mind (ToM) is delayed in children with specific language impairment (SLI). The present study used a battery of ToM and visual perspective taking (VPT) tasks to investigate whether the delayed acquisition of ToM in children with SLI is associated with delayed VPT development. Harris'…

  2. Auditory Processing and Speech Perception in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Relations with Oral Language and Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated temporal auditory processing (frequency modulation and between-channel gap detection) and speech perception (speech-in-noise and categorical perception) in three groups of 6 years 3 months to 6 years 8 months-old children attending grade 1: (1) children with specific language impairment (SLI) and literacy delay…

  3. Is speech and language therapy meeting the needs of language minorities? The case of deaf people with neurological impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jane; Atkinson, Jo; Thacker, Alice; Woll, Bencie

    2003-01-01

    The cultural diversity of the UK poses a challenge for speech and language therapists. Work with children from language minorities has been documented, but less so with adults. This raises the question of whether adults from minority communities are gaining access to services. Deaf people who use British Sign Language (BSL) are one language minority. It is known that sign language is vulnerable to neurological damage. Of interest is whether Deaf people with such damage are referred to speech and language therapy (SLT). The aim was to find out how many deaf people were referred to SLT services in the UK over the last 5 years, and reasons for the referrals. We also explored the service offered to Deaf referrals, and whether SLT teams had access to BSL skills, either internally or via interpreters. A brief questionnaire was sent to the managers of all SLT services in the UK (n=264). There was as 60% response rate. Only 34 services received referrals of Deaf patients, with a total of 39 Deaf people seen. This is substantially below the predicted rates. Most referrals were for dysphagia, or dysphagia with communication impairments. In line with this, dysphagia management was the dominant service, although most referrals also received language assessment. Most teams did not have signing staff members and access to interpreters was variable. The results suggest that many Deaf people are not gaining access to SLT after neurological impairment. Those who are referred are unlikely to receive language therapy. The instigation of a national team specializing in BSL impairments is recommended.

  4. Building vocabulary knowledge and phonological awareness skills in children with specific language impairment through hybrid language intervention: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Natalie; Lee, Kerrie; Baker, Elise

    2008-01-01

    Preschool and early school-aged children with specific language impairment not only have spoken language difficulties, but also are at risk of future literacy problems. Effective interventions targeting both spoken language and emergent literacy skills for this population are limited. This paper reports a feasibility study of a hybrid language intervention approach that targets vocabulary knowledge and phonological awareness skills within the context of oral narrative, storybook reading, and drill-based games. This study also reports on two novel, experimental assessments that were developed to expand options for measuring changes in lexical skills in children. Seventeen children with specific language impairment participated in a pilot within-group evaluation of a hybrid intervention programme. The children's performance at pre- and post-intervention was compared on a range of clinical and experimental assessment measures targeting both spoken language and phonological awareness skills. Each child received intervention for six one-hour sessions scheduled on a weekly basis. Intervention sessions focused on training phonological awareness skills as well as lexical-semantic features of words within the context of oral and storybook narrative and drill-based games. The children significantly improved on clinical measures of phonological awareness, spoken vocabulary and oral narrative. Lexical-semantic and sublexical vocabulary knowledge also significantly improved on the experimental measures used in the study. The results of this feasibility study suggest that a larger scale experimental trial of an integrated spoken language and emergent literacy intervention approach for preschool and early school-aged children with specific language impairment is warranted.

  5. Motor function at school age in children with a preschool diagnosis of developmental language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Richard I; Majnemer, Annette; Platt, Robert W; Shevell, Michael I

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate fine motor (FM) and gross motor (GM) function shortly after school entry in children with a preschool diagnosis of developmental language impairment (DLI). A cohort of children (n = 70) diagnosed at pre-school age with DLI was reevaluated in elementary school. Language, cognitive, and motor outcomes were assessed through the use of the Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI). Language was further assessed through the use of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary, and Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Tests. Performance below -1.5 SD of the normative mean on any test was considered to represent impairment. Forty-three children (mean age, 7.4 +/- 0.7 years) underwent reassessment at a mean of 3.8 +/- 0.7 years after initial preschool assessment. Mean scores for BDI motor domains (FM, 78.3 +/- 11.4; GM, 84.9 +/- 13.3) fell below normative values. Twenty-two children (52%) had motor impairment (FM, 17 of 42; GM, 15 of 42); 35 of 43 (81%) continued to have language impairment. BDI communication raw scores correlated most strongly with FM (rho = 0.73, P < .001) and GM (rho = 0.58, P = .003) raw scores but showed only moderate correlations with cognitive raw scores (rho = 0.41, P = .05). Impaired motor function is an important comorbidity in DLI. Factors critical to motor performance may also contribute to language deficits in DLI.

  6. Teenage outcomes after speech and language impairment at preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Ulla Ek1, Fritjof Norrelgen3,4, Joakim Westerlund2, Andrea Dahlman5, Elizabeth Hultby5, Elisabeth Fernell61Department of Special Education, 2Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Speech and Language Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, 5CLINTEC/Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 6The Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, U...

  7. Hearing impairment and language delay in infants: Diagnostics and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang-Roth, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    This overview study provides information on important phoniatric and audiological aspects of early childhood hearing and language development with the aim of presenting diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The article first addresses the universal newborn hearing screening that has been implemented in Germany for all infants since January 2009. The process of newborn hearing screening from the maternity ward to confirmation diagnostics is presented in accordance with a decision by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA). The second topic is pediatric audiology diagnostics. Following confirmation of a permanent early childhood hearing disorder, the search for the cause plays an important role. Hereditary hearing disorders and intrauterine cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, probably the most common cause of an acquired hearing disorder, are discussed and compared with the most common temporary hearing disorder, otitis media with effusion, which in some cases is severe enough to be relevant for hearing and language development and therefore requires treatment. The third topic covered in this article is speech and language development in the first 3 years of life, which is known today to be crucial for later language development and learning to read and write. There is a short overview and introduction to modern terminology, followed by the abnormalities and diagnostics of early speech and language development. Only some aspects of early hearing and language development are addressed here. Important areas such as the indication for a cochlear implant in the first year of life or because of unilateral deafness are not included due to their complexity. PMID:25587365

  8. Statistical word learning in children with autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2017-05-02

    Word learning is an important component of language development that influences child outcomes across multiple domains. Despite the importance of word knowledge, word-learning mechanisms are poorly understood in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined underlying mechanisms of word learning, specifically, statistical learning and fast-mapping, in school-aged children with typical and atypical development. Statistical learning was assessed through a word segmentation task and fast-mapping was examined in an object-label association task. We also examined children's ability to map meaning onto newly segmented words in a third task that combined exposure to an artificial language and a fast-mapping task. Children with SLI had poorer performance on the word segmentation and fast-mapping tasks relative to the typically developing and ASD groups, who did not differ from one another. However, when children with SLI were exposed to an artificial language with phonemes used in the subsequent fast-mapping task, they successfully learned more words than in the isolated fast-mapping task. There was some evidence that word segmentation abilities are associated with word learning in school-aged children with typical development and ASD, but not SLI. Follow-up analyses also examined performance in children with ASD who did and did not have a language impairment. Children with ASD with language impairment evidenced intact statistical learning abilities, but subtle weaknesses in fast-mapping abilities. As the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) predicts, children with SLI have impairments in statistical learning. However, children with SLI also have impairments in fast-mapping. Nonetheless, they are able to take advantage of additional phonological exposure to boost subsequent word-learning performance. In contrast to the PDH, children with ASD appear to have intact statistical learning, regardless of

  9. Current Challenges in English Language Learning in Turkish EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem; Bayar, Adem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the current challenges in English language learning and teaching in Turkey from high and low achievers' perspective. The study was qualitative in nature and the participants of the study were twenty-two students attending at various departments of a state university in Turkey. In this study, the…

  10. Cultural Cross-Currents in Second Language Literacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of "cultural cross-currents," their implicit nature and the potential they have to effect second language literacy learning, teaching and curriculum reform in Hong Kong primary classrooms. Despite the substantive implications for learning, the exploration of cultural influences upon teacher and student thinking and…

  11. Exome Sequencing in an Admixed Isolated Population Indicates NFXL1 Variants Confer a Risk for Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villanueva, P.; Nudel, R.; Hoischen, A.; Fernandez, M.A.; Simpson, N.H.; Gilissen, C.; Reader, R.H.; Jara, L.; Echeverry, M.M.; Francks, C.; Baird, G.; Conti-Ramsden, G.; O'Hare, A.; Bolton, P.F.; Hennessy, E.R.; Palomino, H.; Carvajal-Carmona, L.; Veltman, J.A.; Cazier, J.B.; Barbieri, Z. De; Fisher, S.E.; Newbury, D.F.

    2015-01-01

    Children affected by Specific Language Impairment (SLI) fail to acquire age appropriate language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. SLI is highly heritable, but the understanding of underlying genetic mechanisms has proved challenging. In this study, we use molecular genetic

  12. Mental health problems in pre-school children with specific language impairment: Use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, B.C.; Bos, A.C.; Jansen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems (MHP) in children with language disorders ranges from 11 to 55%, due to additional disabilities that have a significant relationship to psychosocial difficulties. Specialists assume that children with a selective disorder [selective language impairment

  13. Assessment and Intervention for English Language Learners with Primary Language Impairment: Research-Based Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieretti, Robert A.; Roseberry-McKibbin, Celeste

    2016-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are experiencing the exciting challenge of serving increasing numbers of English Language Learners (ELLs) in U.S. schools. When ELLs struggle in school, they may be overreferred for speech-language services. SLPs are routinely expected to differentiate a language difference based on cultural, linguistic, and…

  14. Assessment and Intervention for English Language Learners with Primary Language Impairment: Research-Based Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieretti, Robert A.; Roseberry-McKibbin, Celeste

    2016-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are experiencing the exciting challenge of serving increasing numbers of English Language Learners (ELLs) in U.S. schools. When ELLs struggle in school, they may be overreferred for speech-language services. SLPs are routinely expected to differentiate a language difference based on cultural, linguistic, and…

  15. Bulgarian-Polish Language Resources (Current State and Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulgarian-Polish Language Resources (Current State and Future Development The paper briefly reviews the first Bulgarian-Polish digital bilingual resources: corpora and dictionaries, which are currently developed under bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS: joint research project “Semantics and contrastive linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary”, coordinated by L. Dimitrova (IMI-BAS and V. Koseska (ISS-PAS.

  16. Electrical brain responses in language-impaired children reveal grammar-specific deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Fonteneau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scientific and public fascination with human language have included intensive scrutiny of language disorders as a new window onto the biological foundations of language and its evolutionary origins. Specific language impairment (SLI, which affects over 7% of children, is one such disorder. SLI has received robust scientific attention, in part because of its recent linkage to a specific gene and loci on chromosomes and in part because of the prevailing question regarding the scope of its language impairment: Does the disorder impact the general ability to segment and process language or a specific ability to compute grammar? Here we provide novel electrophysiological data showing a domain-specific deficit within the grammar of language that has been hitherto undetectable through behavioural data alone. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We presented participants with Grammatical(G-SLI, age-matched controls, and younger child and adult controls, with questions containing syntactic violations and sentences containing semantic violations. Electrophysiological brain responses revealed a selective impairment to only neural circuitry that is specific to grammatical processing in G-SLI. Furthermore, the participants with G-SLI appeared to be partially compensating for their syntactic deficit by using neural circuitry associated with semantic processing and all non-grammar-specific and low-level auditory neural responses were normal. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that grammatical neural circuitry underlying language is a developmentally unique system in the functional architecture of the brain, and this complex higher cognitive system can be selectively impaired. The findings advance fundamental understanding about how cognitive systems develop and all human language is represented and processed in the brain.

  17. Caregivers' suffix frequencies and suffix acquisition by language impaired, late talking, and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlaumont, Anne S; Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2012-11-01

    Acquisition of regular inflectional suffixes is an integral part of grammatical development in English and delayed acquisition of certain inflectional suffixes is a hallmark of language impairment. We investigate the relationship between input frequency and grammatical suffix acquisition, analyzing 217 transcripts of mother-child (ages 1 ; 11-6 ; 9) conversations from the CHILDES database. Maternal suffix frequency correlates with previously reported rank orders of acquisition and with child suffix frequency. Percentages of children using a suffix are consistent with frequencies in caregiver speech. Although late talkers acquire suffixes later than typically developing children, order of acquisition is similar across populations. Furthermore, the third person singular and past tense verb suffixes, weaknesses for children with language impairment, are less frequent in caregiver speech than the plural noun suffix, a relative strength in language impairment. Similar findings hold across typical, SLI and late talker populations, suggesting that frequency plays a role in suffix acquisition.

  18. Early verb-related vulnerability among children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, P A

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature of early grammatical development among very young children with specific language impairment (SLI). Grammatical development was examined for two subtypes: (a) children with expressive language impairments only (SLI-E) and (b) children with both receptive and expressive language impairments (SLI-RE). In particular, characteristics of noun-phrase (NP) and verb-phrase (VP) elaboration were examined longitudinally to determine whether structures associated with NP and VP emerged together following a typical developmental progression. Group analyses did not reveal any differences between the subtypes on the Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn; Scarborough, 1990). However, specific weakness in VP elaboration was revealed on the IPSyn as well as in more extensive productivity analyses. The contribution of these findings to a developmentally sensitive grammatical description of SLI for very young children is discussed.

  19. Monolingual and bilingual children with and without primary language impairment: core vocabulary comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Manon; Mayer-Crittenden, Chantal; Minor-Corriveau, Michèle; Bélanger, Roxanne

    2014-09-01

    Core vocabulary is an important component of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems for school-aged children who have complex communication needs. One method of identifying core vocabulary for these individuals is to study the vocabulary of speaking children. To date, the use of core vocabulary by speaking bilingual children has not been well documented. The present study compared the core vocabulary used by children who are monolingual (French), and bilingual (French-English; English-French). We also gathered and compared language samples from French-speaking children identified as having primary language impairment (PLI), with the goal of better understanding the language differences demonstrated by children with this disability. Language samples were collected from a total of 57 children within a school setting, in a region where French is a minority language. Contrary to the hypothesis, the analysis of language transcripts revealed that there were no important differences between the core words from the groups studied.

  20. Theory of Mind in Children With Specific Language Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kristine Kahr; de López, Kristine Jensen

    2016-01-01

    The relation between language and theory of mind (ToM) has been debated for more than two decades. In a similar vein, ToM has been examined in children with specific language impairment (SLI), albeit with inconsistent results. This meta-analysis of 17 studies with 745 children between the ages of 4 and 12 found that children with SLI had substantially lower ToM performance compared to age-matched typically developing children (d = .98). This effect size was not moderated by age and gender. By revealing that children with SLI have ToM impairments, this finding emphasizes the need for further investigation into the developmental interface between language and ToM as well as the extended consequences of atypical language development.

  1. Vascular cognitive impairment: Current concepts and Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alladi Suvarna

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment due to cerebrovascular disease is termed "Vascular Cognitive Impairment" (VCI and forms a spectrum that includes Vascular Dementia (VaD and milder forms of cognitive impairment referred to as Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment (VaMCI. VCI represents a complex neurological disorder that occurs as a result of interaction between vascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and brain parenchymal changes such as macro and micro infarcts, haemorrhages, white matter changes, and brain atrophy occurring in an ageing brain. Mixed degenerative and vascular pathologies are increasingly being recognised and an interaction between the AD pathology, vascular risk factors, and strokes is now proposed. The high cardiovascular disease burden in India, increasing stroke incidence, and ageing population have contributed to large numbers of patients with VCI in India. Inadequate resources coupled with low awareness make it a problem that needs urgent attention, it is important identify patients at early stages of cognitive impairment, to treat appropriately and prevent progression to frank dementia.

  2. Visuospatial working memory in specific language impairment: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugs, Brigitte; Cuperus, Juliane; Hendriks, Marc; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-09-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of the data from studies comparing visuospatial working memory (WM) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children. The effect sizes of 21 studies (including 32 visuospatial storage tasks and 9 visuospatial central executive (CE) tasks) were identified via computerized database searches and the reference sections of the identified studies. Meta-analyses and moderator analyses were conducted to examine the magnitude of the differences in visuospatial storage and CE, and their relation to the inclusion criteria used for SLI and the age of the children. The results showed significant effect sizes for visuospatial storage (d=0.49) and visuospatial CE (d=0.63), indicating deficits in both components of visuospatial WM in children with SLI. The moderator analyses showed that greater impairment in visuospatial storage was associated with more pervasive language impairment, whereas age was not significant associated with visuospatial WM. The finding of deficits in visuospatial WM suggests domain-general impairments in children with SLI. It raises questions about the language-specificity of a diagnosis of SLI. Careful attention should thus be paid to both verbal and visuospatial WM in clinical practice, and especially in those children with pervasive language impairments.

  3. Language impairment in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safaa Refaat El Sady

    2013-06-06

    Jun 6, 2013 ... filling our inclusion criteria and had delayed language development then we compared this case group to a sex and ... but may exert continuous and residual effects in adults [1]. ... Children aged 3–6 years old who were diagnosed as attention .... group II in average and above cognitive ability subgroup.

  4. Monogenic and chromosomal causes of isolated speech and language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnett, C.P.; Bon, B.W.M. van

    2015-01-01

    The importance of a precise molecular diagnosis for children with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy has become widely accepted and genetic testing is an integral part of the diagnostic evaluation of these children. In contrast, children with an isolated speech or languag

  5. Language impairment in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safaa Refaat El Sady

    2013-06-06

    Jun 6, 2013 ... Therefore the main objective of this work was to evaluate language profile in ADHD children ..... group II in average and above cognitive ability subgroup. There was no significant .... [15] who found that boys are 2–3 times.

  6. Comprehension Monitoring in Normal and Language-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollaghan, Christine A.

    1987-01-01

    The article reviews the literature on metacomprehension, offers a model of the process of comprehension monitoring, and suggests guidelines for assessment and intervention with language-disordered children such as controlling the complexity of monitoring tasks by manipulating message and listener variables. (DB)

  7. Striatal Degeneration Impairs Language Learning: Evidence from Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Diego-Balaguer, R.; Couette, M.; Dolbeau, G.; Durr, A.; Youssov, K.; Bachoud-Levi, A.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Although the role of the striatum in language processing is still largely unclear, a number of recent proposals have outlined its specific contribution. Different studies report evidence converging to a picture where the striatum may be involved in those aspects of rule-application requiring non-automatized behaviour. This is the main…

  8. Language and communication development in preschool children with visual impairment: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Renata; Kritzinger, Alta; van der Linde, Jeannie

    2015-01-01

    Language and communication difficulties of young children with visual impairment (VI) are ascribed to intellectual disability, multiple disabilities and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rather than their sensory impairment. Consequently, the communication difficulties of children with VI may have been underestimated and undertreated. This report aims to critically appraise recent peer reviewed literature relating to communication and language development in children with VI. A systematic search of the literature (2003–2013) was completed using the PRISMA guidelines, and primary and secondary search phrases. Nine publications were reviewed in terms of the strength of recent evidence. Thematic analysis was used to describe the early language and communication characteristics of children with VI. All the selected articles (n = 9) were from developed countries and participants from seven of the studies had congenital VI. Five of the studies received an evidence level rating of III while four articles were rated as IIb. Two main themes emerged from the studies: early intervention, and multiple disabilities and ASD. Language and communication development is affected by VI, especially in the early stages of development. Speech-language therapists should therefore be included in early intervention for children with VI. Recent evidence on the early language and communication difficulties of children with VI exists, but children in developing countries with acquired VI appear to not be investigated. The identified language and communication developmental characteristics may assist speech-language therapists to build a knowledge base for participation in early intervention for young children with VI and their families.

  9. Language, Cognitive Flexibility, and Explicit False Belief Understanding: Longitudinal Analysis in Typical Development and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, Brad M.; Maybery, Murray T.; Fletcher, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that language plays a role in theory-of-mind (ToM) development is supported by a number of lines of evidence (e.g., H. Lohmann & M. Tomasello, 2003). The current study sought to further investigate the relations between maternal language input, memory for false sentential complements, cognitive flexibility, and the development of…

  10. Visual Attentional Engagement Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment and Their Role in Real-Time Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispaldro, Marco; Leonard, Laurence B.; Corradi, Nicola; Ruffino, Milena; Bronte, Tiziana; Facoetti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In order to become a proficient user of language, infants must detect temporal cues embedded within the noisy acoustic spectra of ongoing speech by efficient attentional engagement. According to the neuro-constructivist approach, a multi-sensory dysfunction of attentional engagement – hampering the temporal sampling of stimuli – might be responsible for language deficits typically shown in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). In the present study, the efficiency of visual attentional engagement was investigated in 22 children with SLI and 22 typically developing (TD) children by measuring attentional masking (AM). AM refers to impaired identification of the first of two sequentially presented masked objects (O1 and O2) in which the O1-O2 interval was manipulated. Lexical and grammatical comprehension abilities were also tested in both groups. Children with SLI showed a sluggish engagement of temporal attention, and individual differences in AM accounted for a significant percentage of unique variance in grammatical performance. Our results suggest that an attentional engagement deficit – probably linked to a dysfunction of the right fronto-parietal attentional network – might be a contributing factor in these children’s language impairments. PMID:23154040

  11. The Influence of Speech-Language-Hearing Therapy Duration on the Degree of Improvement in Poststroke Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Eisaku; Shibata, Yosuke; Nakamura, Mieko; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Background. The relevance of speech-language-hearing therapy (ST) duration to language impairment remains unclear. Objective. To determine the effect of ST duration on improvement in language impairment as a stroke sequela and to compare the findings with those for occupational therapy (OT) and physical therapy (PT). Methods. Data regarding patients with stroke sequelae who were registered in the Japanese Association of Rehabilitation Medicine database were analyzed. Propensity scores for ST, OT, and PT duration were calculated using logistic regression, followed by inverse probability weighting in generalized estimating equations to examine the odds ratio for improvement in the Functional Independence Measures scores for comprehension, expression, and memory. Analyses stratified by age and dementia severity were also conducted. Results. Compared with short-duration ST, long-duration ST was significantly associated with improved scores for comprehension and expression in the overall study population and in some groups, with higher benefit especially for younger participants (<64 years) and those with more severe dementia. A significant but less pronounced effect was also observed for OT and PT. Conclusion. Long-duration ST is more effective than long-duration OT or PT for improving language impairment occurring as stroke sequela. However, these effects are limited by age and severity of dementia. PMID:28168056

  12. The Influence of Speech-Language-Hearing Therapy Duration on the Degree of Improvement in Poststroke Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Hayashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The relevance of speech-language-hearing therapy (ST duration to language impairment remains unclear. Objective. To determine the effect of ST duration on improvement in language impairment as a stroke sequela and to compare the findings with those for occupational therapy (OT and physical therapy (PT. Methods. Data regarding patients with stroke sequelae who were registered in the Japanese Association of Rehabilitation Medicine database were analyzed. Propensity scores for ST, OT, and PT duration were calculated using logistic regression, followed by inverse probability weighting in generalized estimating equations to examine the odds ratio for improvement in the Functional Independence Measures scores for comprehension, expression, and memory. Analyses stratified by age and dementia severity were also conducted. Results. Compared with short-duration ST, long-duration ST was significantly associated with improved scores for comprehension and expression in the overall study population and in some groups, with higher benefit especially for younger participants (<64 years and those with more severe dementia. A significant but less pronounced effect was also observed for OT and PT. Conclusion. Long-duration ST is more effective than long-duration OT or PT for improving language impairment occurring as stroke sequela. However, these effects are limited by age and severity of dementia.

  13. Cognitive abilities in children with specific language impairment: consideration of visuo-spatial skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hick, R. F.; Botting, N.; Conti-Ramsden, G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The study is concerned with the cognitive abilities of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Previous research has indicated that children with SLI demonstrate difficulties with certain cognitive tasks despite normal non‐verbal IQ scores. It has been suggested that a general processing limitation might account for the pattern of language and cognitive difficulties seen in children with SLI. The performances on a visuo‐spatial short‐term memory task and a visuo‐spatial ...

  14. Are language and social communication intact in children with congenital visual impairment at school age?

    OpenAIRE

    Tadić, Valerie; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Background:  Development of children with congenital visual impairment (VI) has been associated with vulnerable socio-communicative outcomes often bearing striking similarities to those of sighted children with autism.1 To date, very little is known about language and social communication in children with VI of normal intelligence.\\ud \\ud Methods:  We examined the presentation of language and social communication of 15 children with VI and normal-range verbal intelligence, age 6–12 years, usi...

  15. Grammatical tense deficits in children with SLI and nonspecific language impairment: relationships with nonverbal IQ over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mabel L; Tomblin, J Bruce; Hoffman, Lesa; Richman, W Allen; Marquis, Janet

    2004-08-01

    The relationship between children's language acquisition and their nonverbal intelligence has a long tradition of scientific inquiry. Current attention focuses on the use of nonverbal IQ level as an exclusionary criterion in the definition of specific language impairment (SLI). Grammatical tense deficits are known as a clinical marker of SLI, but the relationship with nonverbal intelligence below the normal range has not previously been systematically studied. This study documents the levels of grammatical tense acquisition (for third-person singular -s, regular and irregular past tense morphology) in a large, epidemiologically ascertained sample of kindergarten children that comprises 4 groups: 130 children with SLI, 100 children with nonspecific language impairments (NLI), 73 children with low cognitive levels but language within normal limits (LC), and 117 unaffected control children. The study also documents the longitudinal course of acquisition for the SLI and NLI children between the ages of 6 and 10 years. The LC group did not differ from the unaffected controls at kindergarten, showing a dissociation of nonverbal intelligence and grammatical tense marking, so that low levels of nonverbal intelligence did not necessarily yield low levels of grammatical tense. The NLI group's level of performance was lower than that of the SLI group and showed a greater delay in resolution of the overgeneralization phase of irregular past tense mastery, indicating qualitative differences in growth. Implications for clinical groupings for research and clinical purposes are discussed.

  16. Short-Term and Working Memory Skills in Primary School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment and Children with Pragmatic Language Impairment: Phonological, Linguistic and Visuo-Spatial Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jenny; Lockton, Elaine; Adams, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) are consistently reported to have short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) difficulties. Aim: To compare STM and WM abilities in CwSLI with children with pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI). Methods & Procedures: Primary school-aged CwSLI (n = 12) and CwPLI (n = 23) were…

  17. An investigation to validate the grammar and phonology screening (GAPS test to identify children with specific language impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather K J van der Lely

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extraordinarily high incidence of grammatical language impairments in developmental disorders suggests that this uniquely human cognitive function is "fragile". Yet our understanding of the neurobiology of grammatical impairments is limited. Furthermore, there is no "gold-standard" to identify grammatical impairments and routine screening is not undertaken. An accurate screening test to identify grammatical abilities would serve the research, health and education communities, further our understanding of developmental disorders, and identify children who need remediation, many of whom are currently un-diagnosed. A potential realistic screening tool that could be widely administered is the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS test--a 10 minute test that can be administered by professionals and non-professionals alike. Here we provide a further step in evaluating the validity and accuracy (sensitivity and specificity of the GAPS test in identifying children who have Specific Language Impairment (SLI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We tested three groups of children; two groups aged 3;6-6:6, a typically developing (n = 30 group, and a group diagnosed with SLI: (n = 11 (Young (Y-SLI, and a further group aged 6;9-8;11 with SLI (Older (O-SLI (n = 10 who were above the test age norms. We employed a battery of language assessments including the GAPS test to assess the children's language abilities. For Y-SLI children, analyses revealed a sensitivity and specificity at the 5(th and 10(th percentile of 1.00 and 0.98, respectively, and for O-SLI children at the 10(th and 15(th percentile .83 and .90, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings reveal that the GAPS is highly accurate in identifying impaired vs. non-impaired children up to 6;8 years, and has moderate-to-high accuracy up to 9 years. The results indicate that GAPS is a realistic tool for the early identification of grammatical abilities and impairment in young children. A

  18. An investigation to validate the grammar and phonology screening (GAPS) test to identify children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lely, Heather K J; Payne, Elisabeth; McClelland, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    The extraordinarily high incidence of grammatical language impairments in developmental disorders suggests that this uniquely human cognitive function is "fragile". Yet our understanding of the neurobiology of grammatical impairments is limited. Furthermore, there is no "gold-standard" to identify grammatical impairments and routine screening is not undertaken. An accurate screening test to identify grammatical abilities would serve the research, health and education communities, further our understanding of developmental disorders, and identify children who need remediation, many of whom are currently un-diagnosed. A potential realistic screening tool that could be widely administered is the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) test--a 10 minute test that can be administered by professionals and non-professionals alike. Here we provide a further step in evaluating the validity and accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the GAPS test in identifying children who have Specific Language Impairment (SLI). We tested three groups of children; two groups aged 3;6-6:6, a typically developing (n = 30) group, and a group diagnosed with SLI: (n = 11) (Young (Y)-SLI), and a further group aged 6;9-8;11 with SLI (Older (O)-SLI) (n = 10) who were above the test age norms. We employed a battery of language assessments including the GAPS test to assess the children's language abilities. For Y-SLI children, analyses revealed a sensitivity and specificity at the 5(th) and 10(th) percentile of 1.00 and 0.98, respectively, and for O-SLI children at the 10(th) and 15(th) percentile .83 and .90, respectively. The findings reveal that the GAPS is highly accurate in identifying impaired vs. non-impaired children up to 6;8 years, and has moderate-to-high accuracy up to 9 years. The results indicate that GAPS is a realistic tool for the early identification of grammatical abilities and impairment in young children. A larger investigation is warranted in children with SLI and

  19. [Cancer-related Cognitive Impairment: Current Knowledge and Future Challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimukai, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients often suffer from various distresses, including cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment during and after cancer diagnosis and treatment are collectively called "Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI)". The number of publications about cognitive impairment due to cancer therapy, especially chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy, has been growing. Patients often worry not only about their disease condition and therapies, but also experience concerns regarding their memory, attention, and ability to concentrate. Even subtle CRCI can have a significant impact on social relationships, the ability to work, undergo treatment, accomplish meaningful goals, and the quality of life. Longitudinal studies of cancer patients indicated that up to 75% experience CRCI during treatment. Furthermore, CRCI may persist for many years following treatment. However, it is not well understood by most physicians and medical staff. CRCI can be mediated through increased inflammatory cytokines and hormonal changes. In addition, the biology of the cancer, stress, and attentional fatigue can also contribute to CRCI. Genetic factors and co-occurring symptoms may explain some of the inter-individual variability in CRCI. Researchers and patients are actively trying to identify effective interventional methods and useful coping strategies. Many patients are willing to discuss their disease condition and future treatment with medical staff and/or their families. Some patients also hope to discuss their end-of-life care. However, it is difficult to express their will after developing cognitive impairment. Advance care planning (ACP) can help in such situations. This process involves discussion between a patient, their family, and clinicians to clarify and reflect on values, treatment preferences, and goals to develop a shared understanding of how end-of-life care should proceed. The number of cancer patients with cognitive impairment has been increasing owing to the

  20. First language transfer in second language writing: An examination of current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Karim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available First language (L1 transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA, and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1 transfer in second language (L2 writing. The paper begins by discussing the different views of L1 transfer and how they have changed over time and then reviews some of the major studies that have examined the role of L1 transfer both as a learning tool and as a communicative strategy in L2 writing. The paper concludes with a number of suggestions for L2 writing instruction and future research.

  1. Lexical learning and lexical processing in children with developmental language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Lexical skills are a crucial component of language comprehension and production. This paper reviews evidence for lexical-level deficits in children and young people with developmental language impairment (LI). Across a range of tasks, LI is associated with reduced vocabulary knowledge in terms of both breadth and depth and difficulty with learning and retaining new words; evidence is emerging from on-line tasks to suggest that low levels of language skill are associated with differences in lexical competition in spoken word recognition. The role of lexical deficits in understanding the nature of LI is also discussed.

  2. American-sign-language statements and delay of gratification in hearing-impaired and nonhandicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, I J; Ritchie, F K

    1984-04-01

    Hearing-impaired children were individually administered a task in which possession of accumulating candy rewards was made contingent upon the child's decision to stop any further accumulation of the candy. Hearing-impaired children, who under instruction periodically made American Sign Language (ASL) statements about the goodness of the reward, waited significantly longer before terminating the waiting period than did hearing-impaired children instructed to sign statements about the act of waiting and somewhat longer than did hearing-impaired children instructed to sign a neutral statement. Since the pattern of delay was unlike that reported in earlier investigations when nonhandicapped children verbalized similar statements and since variation in mode of communication did not influence delay in nonhandicapped children in the present investigation, the results were interpreted in terms of differences in cognitive controlling mechanisms between nonhandicapped and hearing-impaired children.

  3. Effect of Verb Argument Structure on Picture Naming in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Legaz, Lucia Buil; MacWhinney, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated verb argument structure effects in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Aims: A picture-naming paradigm was used to compare the response times and naming accuracy for nouns and verbs with differing argument structure between Spanish-speaking children with and without language impairment. Methods &…

  4. Syntactic and Semantic Characteristics in the Written Language of Hearing Impaired and Normally Hearing School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Christine

    To investigate semantic and syntactic variables in the written language of normally hearing and hearing impaired children, 49 hearing impaired and 49 normally hearing children (10-14 years old) were asked to write compositions based on the Accident/Emergency Picture in the Peabody Language Development Kit. In addition, syntactic characteristics…

  5. Effects of Word Position and Stress on Onset Cluster Production: Evidence from Typical Development, Specific Language Impairment, and Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloe R.; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

    2009-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia have phonological deficits that are claimed to cause their language and literacy impairments and to be responsible for the overlap between the two disorders. Little is known, however, about the phonological grammar of children with SLI and dyslexia, and indeed whether they show…

  6. Cross-Linguistic Transfer Effects after Phonologically Based Cognate Therapy in a Case of Multilingual Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambanaros, Maria; Michaelides, Michalis; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Clinicians globally recognize as exceptionally challenging the development of effective intervention practices for bi- or multilingual children with specific language impairment (SLI). Therapy in both or all of an impaired child's languages is rarely possible. An alternative is to develop treatment protocols that facilitate the…

  7. Effect of Verb Argument Structure on Picture Naming in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Legaz, Lucia Buil; MacWhinney, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated verb argument structure effects in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Aims: A picture-naming paradigm was used to compare the response times and naming accuracy for nouns and verbs with differing argument structure between Spanish-speaking children with and without language impairment. Methods…

  8. Auditory implicit semantic priming in Spanish-speaking children with and without specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girbau, Dolors

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed whether Spanish-speaking children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) showed deficits in lexical-semantic processing/organization, and whether these lexical measures correlated with standardized measures of language abilities. Fourteen children with Typical Language Development (TLD) and 16 age-matched children with SLI (8;0-9;11 years) participated. In a Lexical Decision (LD) task with implicit semantic priming, children judged whether a given speech pair contained two words (semantically related/unrelated) or a word-pseudoword. Children received a comprehensive language and reading test battery. Children with TLD exhibited significant semantic priming; they were faster for semantically related word pairs than for unrelated (p language scores, showed a semantic-lexical deficit and a weakness in lexical-semantic association networks. Their performance on the LD task was significantly slower and poorer than for children with TLD. Increasing a child's vocabulary may benefit lexical access.

  9. Predicting Early Spelling Difficulties in Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Clinical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordewener, Kim A. H.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the precursors of spelling difficulties in first grade for children with specific language impairment (SLI). A sample of 58 second-year kindergartners in the Netherlands was followed until the end of first grade. Linguistic, phonological, orthographic, letter knowledge, memory, and nonverbal-reasoning skills were considered…

  10. Among perinatal factors, only the Apgar score is associated with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, F.B.; Kroon, M.L. De; Dusseldorp, E.; Snik, A.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of perinatal risk factors with later development of specific language impairment (SLI). METHOD: In a case-control study, 179 children attending special needs schools for SLI were matched with non-affected children attending mainstream schools

  11. Among perinatal factors, only the Apgar score is associated with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, F.B.; Kroon, M.L. de; Dusseldorp, E.; Snik, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of perinatal risk factors with later development of specific language impairment (SLI). METHOD: In a case-control study, 179 children attending special needs schools for SLI were matched with non-affected children attending mainstream schools. Bot

  12. Auditory Processing and Language Impairment in Children: Stimulus Considerations for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thal, Donna J.; Barone, Patricia

    1983-01-01

    The performance of language impaired children (four to eight years old) on auditory identification and sequencing tasks which employed different stimuli was studied in two experiments. Results indicated that some children performed significantly better when words rather than tones were used as stimuli.(Author/SEW)

  13. The Detection and Monitoring of Comprehension Errors by Preschool Children with and without Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth; Dempsey, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined emerging comprehension monitoring, including error detection, evaluation, and correction within the context of story understanding in preschool children with and without language impairment. Method: Thirty-seven children between the ages of 30 and 61 months completed an online comprehension monitoring…

  14. Semantic Deficits in Spanish-English Bilingual Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Li; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Fiestas, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the nature and extent of semantic deficits in bilingual children with language impairment (LI). Method: Thirty-seven Spanish-English bilingual children with LI (ranging from age 7;0 [years;months] to 9;10) and 37 typically developing (TD) age-matched peers generated 3 associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents in…

  15. Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Risk Factors for Specific Language Impairment: A Prospective Pregnancy Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Shelton, W. M. R.; Ing, Caleb; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although genetic factors are known to play a causal role in specific language impairment (SLI), environmental factors may also be important. This study examined whether there are prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors that are associated with childhood SLI. Method: Participants were members of the Raine Study, a prospective cohort…

  16. Story Retelling and Language Ability in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy and Speech Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, Ann; Dahlgren Sandberg, Annika; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research on retelling ability and cognition is limited in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and speech impairment. Aims: To explore the impact of expressive and receptive language, narrative discourse dimensions (Narrative Assessment Profile measures), auditory and visual memory, theory of mind (ToM) and non-verbal cognition on the…

  17. Inferential Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Pernille; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the ability to make inferences in three groups of children ranging from 5;2 to 10;9 years: 10 children with cerebral palsy (CP), 10 children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH) and 10 children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI). The relationship between inferential and literal…

  18. Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment: Differences and Similarities in Pragmatic Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Pernille; Nettelbladt, Ulrika; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2009-01-01

    Pragmatically related abilities were studied in three clinical groups of children from 5 to 11 years of age; children with cerebral palsy (CP; n = 10), children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH; n = 10) and children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI; n = 10), in order to explore pragmatic abilities within each group. A range of…

  19. Verb Morphology Deficits in Arabic-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fauzia; Crago, Martha

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores tense and agreement marking in the spontaneous production of verbs in Arabic-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and two groups of typically developing children: one group matched for mean length of utterance, and the other group matched for age. The special characteristics of Arabic such as its rich bound…

  20. Sustained Selective Attention Skills of Preschool Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence for Separate Attentional Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Tammie J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the performance of preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers on sustained selective attention tasks. Method: This study included 23 children diagnosed with SLI and 23 TD children matched for age, gender, and maternal education level.…

  1. Inferential Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Pernille; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the ability to make inferences in three groups of children ranging from 5;2 to 10;9 years: 10 children with cerebral palsy (CP), 10 children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH) and 10 children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI). The relationship between inferential and literal…

  2. Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment: Differences and Similarities in Pragmatic Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Pernille; Nettelbladt, Ulrika; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2009-01-01

    Pragmatically related abilities were studied in three clinical groups of children from 5 to 11 years of age; children with cerebral palsy (CP; n = 10), children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH; n = 10) and children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI; n = 10), in order to explore pragmatic abilities within each group. A range of…

  3. Sign-supported Dutch in children with severe speech and language impairments : A multiple case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkamp, I.; Gerritsen, B.; Bonder, F.; Haisma, H.H.; van der Schans, C.P

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands, many educators and care providers working at special schools for children with severe speech and language impairments (SSLI) use sign-supported Dutch (SSD) to facilitate communication. Anecdotal experiences suggest positive results, but empirical evidence is lacking. In this mult

  4. Atypical Brain Responses to Sounds in Children with Specific Language and Reading Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Genevieve; Atkinson, Carmen; Ellis, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    This study tested if children with specific language impairment (SLI) or children with specific reading disability (SRD) have abnormal brain responses to sounds. We tested 6- to 12-year-old children with SLI (N = 19), children with SRD (N = 55), and age-matched controls (N = 36) for their passive auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) to tones,…

  5. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children with Language Impairments and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Tony; Ricketts, Jessie; Dockrell, Julie E.; Lindsay, Geoff; Palikara, Olympia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although it is well-established that children with language impairment (LI) and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both show elevated levels of emotional and behavioural problems, the level and types of difficulties across the two groups have not previously been directly compared. Aims: To compare levels of emotional and…

  6. The Representation of Roots in the Spelling of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S. Hélène; Cleave, Patricia L.; Baylis, Julia; Fraser, Jillian; Ingram, Elizabeth; Perlmutter, Signy

    2014-01-01

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) have demonstrated general spelling and writing difficulties. We investigated the sensitivity of children with SLI to the consistent spelling of root morphemes, a feature to which young typically developing children demonstrate sensitivity. We asked children with SLI and two groups of typically…

  7. Auditory-Visual Integration for Speech by Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrix, Linda W.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca; Boliek, Carol A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: It has long been known that children with specific language impairment (SLI) can demonstrate difficulty with auditory speech perception. However, speech perception can also involve the integration of both auditory and visual articulatory information. Method: Fifty-six preschool children, half with and half without SLI, were studied in…

  8. Developmental Language Impairment through the Lens of the ICF: An Integrated Account of Children's Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Lynn; Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The conceptual framework of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has the potential to advance understanding of developmental language impairment (LI) and enhance clinical practice. The framework provides a systematic way of unifying numerous lines of research, which have linked a…

  9. The impact of specific language impairment on working memory in children with ADHD combined subtype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, S; Bouma, A; Sergeant, JA; Scherder, EJA

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of comorbid specific language impairment (SLI) on verbal and spatial working memory in children with DSM-IV combined subtype Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-C). Participants were a clinical sample of 8 1/2- to 12 1/2-year-old child

  10. Markers, Models, and Measurement Error: Exploring the Links between Attention Deficits and Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The empirical record regarding the expected co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific language impairment is confusing and contradictory. A research plan is presented that has the potential to untangle links between these 2 common neurodevelopmental disorders. Method: Data from completed and ongoing…

  11. A Drawing Task to Assess Emotion Inference in Language-Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendeville, Nathalie; Blanc, Nathalie; Brechet, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Studies investigating the ability of children with language impairment (LI) to infer emotions rely on verbal responses (which can be challenging for these children) and/or the selection of a card representing an emotion (which limits the response range). In contrast, a drawing task might allow a broad spectrum of responses without…

  12. A Model for Teaching Written Language to Hearing-Impaired Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Stephen L.; Luckner, John L.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a model of written language that can guide the instruction of hearing-impaired students, and strategies and techniques for improving writing skills, using research and theory from such areas as fluency, syntax, vocabulary, content, conventions, student motivation, guided practice, student interaction, and selective feedback. (CB) (Adjunct…

  13. Dynamic Assessment of Narratives: Efficient, Accurate Identification of Language Impairment in Bilingual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Douglas B.; Chanthongthip, Helen; Ukrainetz, Teresa A.; Spencer, Trina D.; Steeve, Roger W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the classification accuracy of a concentrated English narrative dynamic assessment (DA) for identifying language impairment (LI). Method: Forty-two Spanish-English bilingual kindergarten to third-grade children (10 LI and 32 with no LI) were administered two 25-min DA test-teach-test sessions. Pre- and posttest…

  14. Theory of Mind deficits and social emotional functioning in preschoolers with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, C.T.W.M.; Koolen, S.

    2016-01-01

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) often experience emotional and social difficulties. In general, problems in social emotional functioning can be cognitively explained in terms of Theory of Mind (ToM). In this mini-review, an overview is provided of studies on social-emotional functio

  15. Vulnerability in Acquisition, Language Impairments in Dutch: Creating a VALID Data Archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Klatter; R. van Hout; H. van den Heuvel; P. Fikkert; A. Baker; J. de Jong; F. Wijnen; E. Sanders; P. Trilsbeek

    2014-01-01

    The VALID Data Archive is an open multimedia data archive (under construction) with data from speakers suffering from language impairments. We report on a pilot project in the CLARIN-NL framework in which five data resources were curated. For all data sets concerned, written informed consent from th

  16. Postschool Educational and Employment Experiences of Young People with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the postschool educational and employment experiences of young people with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Nineteen-year-olds with (n = 50) and without (n = 50) SLI were interviewed on their education and employment experiences since finishing compulsory secondary education. Results: On average,…

  17. Are Children with Specific Language Impairment Competent with the Pragmatics and Logic of Quantification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsos, Napoleon; Roqueta, Clara Andres; Estevan, Rosa Ana Clemente; Cummins, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is understood to be a disorder that predominantly affects phonology, morphosyntax and/or lexical semantics. There is little conclusive evidence on whether children with SLI are challenged with regard to Gricean pragmatic maxims and on whether children with SLI are competent with the logical meaning of quantifying…

  18. Past-Tense Morphology and Phonological Deficits in Children with Dyslexia and Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Desroches, Amy S.; Terry, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated past-tense morphology problems in children with dyslexia compared to those classically observed in children with oral language impairment (LI). Children were tested on a past-tense elicitation task involving regulars ("look-looked"), irregulars ("take-took"), and nonwords ("murn-murned"). Phonological skills were also…

  19. Comprehension and Production of Noun Compounds by Estonian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrik, Marika; Tamtik, Merli

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how 12 Estonian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 60 children with normal speech development (ND) comprehended compound nouns with differing sequence of the components (first task) and how they produced compound nouns to label genuine and accidental categories by using analogy (second task) and…

  20. Working Memory Functioning in Children with Learning Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Bockmann, Ann-Katrin; Bornemann, Galina; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: On the basis of Baddeley's working memory model (1986), we examined working memory functioning in children with learning disorders with and without specific language impairment (SLI). We pursued the question whether children with learning disorders exhibit similar working memory deficits as children with additional SLI. Method: In…

  1. Consequences of Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Children's Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.; Ash, Andrea C.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and communication disorders represent a frequently encountered challenge for school-based practitioners. The purpose of the present study was to examine in more detail the clinical phenomenology of co-occurring ADHD and language impairments (LIs). Method: Measures of nonword…

  2. Examining the Comorbidity of Language Impairment and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Language impairment (LI) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are 2 relatively common developmental disorders that have been shown to have high rates of co-occurrence in a number of studies, and this phenomenon is also commonplace in the experience of many clinicians. Understanding this comorbidity, therefore, is central to building…

  3. Syntactic Structural Assignment in Brazilian Portuguese-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato-Tavares, Talita; de Andrade, Claudia R. F.; Befi-Lopes, Debora M.; Hestvik, Arild; Epstein, Baila; Tornyova, Lidiya; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the comprehension of sentences with predicates and reflexives that are linked to a nonadjacent noun as a test of the hierarchical ordering deficit (HOD) hypothesis. That hypothesis and more modern versions posit that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty in establishing…

  4. Visuospatial working memory in specific language impairment: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugs, B.A.M.; Cuperus, J.M.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of the data from studies comparing visuospatial working memory (WM) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children. The effect sizes of 21 studies (including 32 visuospatial storage tasks and 9 visuospatial central executive (C

  5. Sustained Attention in Children with Primary Language Impairment: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides a meta-analysis of the difference between children with primary or specific language impairment (LI) and their typically developing peers on tasks of sustained attention. The meta-analysis seeks to determine whether children with LI demonstrate subclinical deficits in sustained attention and, if so, under what…

  6. Semantic abilities in children with pragmatic language impairment: The case of picture naming skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Hermans, S.I.A.; Cuperus, J.M.; Jansonius-Schultheiss, K.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The semantic abilities of children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) are subject to debate. The authors investigated picture naming and definition skills in 5-year-olds with PLI in comparison to typically developing children. Method: 84 children with PLI and 80 age-matched typically

  7. Semantic abilities in children with pragmatic language impairment: the case of picture naming skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Hermans, S.I.A.; Cuperus, J.; Jansonius, K.; Verhoeven, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The semantic abilities of children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) are subject to debate. The authors investigated picture naming and definition skills in 5-year-olds with PLI in comparison to typically developing children. Method: 84 children with PLI and 80 age-matched typically

  8. Past-Tense Morphology and Phonological Deficits in Children with Dyslexia and Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Desroches, Amy S.; Terry, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated past-tense morphology problems in children with dyslexia compared to those classically observed in children with oral language impairment (LI). Children were tested on a past-tense elicitation task involving regulars ("look-looked"), irregulars ("take-took"), and nonwords ("murn-murned").…

  9. Past-Tense Morphology and Phonological Deficits in Children with Dyslexia and Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Desroches, Amy S.; Terry, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated past-tense morphology problems in children with dyslexia compared to those classically observed in children with oral language impairment (LI). Children were tested on a past-tense elicitation task involving regulars ("look-looked"), irregulars ("take-took"), and nonwords ("murn-murned").…

  10. Complex Syntax Acquisition: A Longitudinal Case Study of a Child with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuele, Melanie C.; Dykes, Julianna C.

    2005-01-01

    Although there is extensive documentation of the morphological limitations of children with specific language impairment (SLI), few studies have reported on complex syntax acquisition in children with SLI. This case study examined the development of complex syntax in a child with SLI between 3 and 7 years. Twelve conversational samples were…

  11. Predicting early spelling difficulties in children with specific language impairment: A clinical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordewener, K.A.H.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the precursors of spelling difficulties in first grade for children with specific language impairment (SLI). A sample of 58 second-year kindergartners in the Netherlands was followed until the end of first grade. Linguistic, phonological, orthographic, letter knowledge, memory,

  12. Noise on, Voicing off: Speech Perception Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; George, Florence; Lorenzi, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Speech perception of four phonetic categories (voicing, place, manner, and nasality) was investigated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) (n=20) and age-matched controls (n=19) in quiet and various noise conditions using an AXB two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Children with SLI exhibited robust speech perception deficits in…

  13. Are Children with Specific Language Impairment Competent with the Pragmatics and Logic of Quantification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsos, Napoleon; Roqueta, Clara Andres; Estevan, Rosa Ana Clemente; Cummins, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is understood to be a disorder that predominantly affects phonology, morphosyntax and/or lexical semantics. There is little conclusive evidence on whether children with SLI are challenged with regard to Gricean pragmatic maxims and on whether children with SLI are competent with the logical meaning of quantifying…

  14. Language and Play in Students with Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairments or Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Lianna; Bruce, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the relationships between play and language development in students with multiple disabilities and visual impairments or deaf-blindness. The findings indicate that students with higher levels of communication demonstrate more advanced play skills and that the use of play-based assessment and exposure to symbolic play are…

  15. Vulnerability in Acquisition, Language Impairments in Dutch: Creating a VALID Data Archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klatter, J.; van Hout, R.; van den Heuvel, H.; Fikkert, P.; Baker, A.; de Jong, J.; Wijnen, F.; Sanders, E.; Trilsbeek, P.; Calzolari, N.; Choukri, K.; Declerck, T.; Maegaard, H.B.; Mariani, J.; Moreno, A.; Odijk, J.; Piperidis, S.

    2014-01-01

    The VALID Data Archive is an open multimedia data archive (under construction) with data from speakers suffering from language impairments. We report on a pilot project in the CLARIN-NL framework in which five data resources were curated. For all data sets concerned, written informed consent from th

  16. Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Risk Factors for Specific Language Impairment: A Prospective Pregnancy Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Shelton, W. M. R.; Ing, Caleb; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although genetic factors are known to play a causal role in specific language impairment (SLI), environmental factors may also be important. This study examined whether there are prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors that are associated with childhood SLI. Method: Participants were members of the Raine Study, a prospective cohort…

  17. Relations among Home Literacy Environment, Child Characteristics and Print Knowledge for Preschool Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Guo, Ying; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Pentimonti, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    To contribute to the modest body of work examining the home literacy environment (HLE) and emergent literacy outcomes for children with disabilities, this study addressed two aims: (a) to determine the unique contributions of the HLE on print knowledge of preschool children with language impairment and (b) to identify whether specific child…

  18. Dynamic Assessment of Word Learning Skills: Identifying Language Impairment in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Bilingual children are often diagnosed with language impairment, although they may simply have fewer opportunities to learn English than English-speaking monolingual children. This study examined whether dynamic assessment (DA) of word learning skills is an effective method for identifying bilingual children with primary language…

  19. Phonological and Morphophonological Effects on Grammatical Development in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Ekaterina; Demuth, Katherine; Smith-Lock, Karen M.; Petocz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Five-year-olds with specific language impairment (SLI) often struggle with mastering grammatical morphemes. It has been proposed that verbal morphology is particularly problematic in this respect. Previous research has also shown that in young typically developing children grammatical markers appear later in more phonologically…

  20. The impact of specific language impairment on working memory in children with ADHD combined subtype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, S; Bouma, A; Sergeant, JA; Scherder, EJA

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of comorbid specific language impairment (SLI) on verbal and spatial working memory in children with DSM-IV combined subtype Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-C). Participants were a clinical sample of 8 1/2- to 12 1/2-year-old

  1. Information Processing and Proactive Interference in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Eichorn, Naomi; Scheuer, Jessica; Yoon, Jungmee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing evidence suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a deficit in inhibition control, but research isolating specific abilities is scarce. The goal of this study was to examine whether children with SLI differ from their peers in resistance to proactive interference under different conditions. Method: An…

  2. A Phonologically Based Intervention for School-Age Children with Language Impairment: Implications for Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Michaela J.; Park, Jungjun; Saxon, Terrill F.; Colson, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted utilizing a quasi-experimental pre- and postgroup design to examine the effects of a phonologically based intervention aimed to improve phonological awareness (PA) and reading abilities in school-age children with language impairment (LI) in Grades 1 through 3. The intervention included instruction in PA and sound-symbol…

  3. Perception of Filtered Speech by Children with Developmental Dyslexia and Children with Specific Language Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Usha; Cumming, Ruth; Chait, Maria; Huss, Martina; Mead, Natasha; Wilson, Angela M; Barnes, Lisa; Fosker, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Here we use two filtered speech tasks to investigate children's processing of slow (children with either developmental dyslexia (Experiment 1) or speech and language impairments (SLIs, Experiment 2) to groups of typically-developing (TD) children age-matched to each disorder group. Ten nursery rhymes were filtered so that their modulation frequencies were either low-pass filtered (multiple choice paradigm. Children with dyslexia aged 10 years showed equivalent recognition overall to TD controls for both the low-pass and band-pass filtered stimuli, but showed significantly impaired acoustic learning during the experiment from low-pass filtered targets. Children with oral SLIs aged 9 years showed significantly poorer recognition of band pass filtered targets compared to their TD controls, and showed comparable acoustic learning effects to TD children during the experiment. The SLI samples were also divided into children with and without phonological difficulties. The children with both SLI and phonological difficulties were impaired in recognizing both kinds of filtered speech. These data are suggestive of impaired temporal sampling of the speech signal at different modulation rates by children with different kinds of developmental language disorder. Both SLI and dyslexic samples showed impaired discrimination of amplitude rise times. Implications of these findings for a temporal sampling framework for understanding developmental language disorders are discussed.

  4. Perception of Filtered Speech by Children with Developmental Dyslexia and Children with Specific Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Usha; Cumming, Ruth; Chait, Maria; Huss, Martina; Mead, Natasha; Wilson, Angela M.; Barnes, Lisa; Fosker, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Here we use two filtered speech tasks to investigate children’s processing of slow (dyslexia (Experiment 1) or speech and language impairments (SLIs, Experiment 2) to groups of typically-developing (TD) children age-matched to each disorder group. Ten nursery rhymes were filtered so that their modulation frequencies were either low-pass filtered (dyslexia aged 10 years showed equivalent recognition overall to TD controls for both the low-pass and band-pass filtered stimuli, but showed significantly impaired acoustic learning during the experiment from low-pass filtered targets. Children with oral SLIs aged 9 years showed significantly poorer recognition of band pass filtered targets compared to their TD controls, and showed comparable acoustic learning effects to TD children during the experiment. The SLI samples were also divided into children with and without phonological difficulties. The children with both SLI and phonological difficulties were impaired in recognizing both kinds of filtered speech. These data are suggestive of impaired temporal sampling of the speech signal at different modulation rates by children with different kinds of developmental language disorder. Both SLI and dyslexic samples showed impaired discrimination of amplitude rise times. Implications of these findings for a temporal sampling framework for understanding developmental language disorders are discussed. PMID:27303348

  5. Linguistic markers of specific language impairment in bilingual children: the case of verb morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clahsen, Harald; Rothweiler, Monika; Sterner, Franziska; Chilla, Solveig

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates verbal morphology in Specific Language Impairment (SLI) in German, focusing on past participle inflection. Longitudinal data from 12 German-speaking children with SLI, six monolingual and six Turkish-German sequential bilingual children, were examined, plus an additional group of six typically developing Turkish-German sequential bilingual children. In a recent study (Rothweiler, M., Chilla, S., & H. Clahsen. (2012). Subject verb agreement in Specific Language Impairment: A study of monolingual and bilingual German-speaking children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 39-57), the same children with SLI were found to be severely impaired in reliably producing correct agreement-marked verb forms. By contrast, the new results reported in this study show that both the monolingual and the bilingual children with SLI produce participle inflection according to their language age. Our results strengthen the case of difficulties with agreement as a linguistic marker of SLI in German and show that it is possible to identify SLI from an early sequential bilingual child's performance in one of her two languages.

  6. Proportional and functional analogical reasoning in normal and language-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, M A; Erskine, B J; Freed, D B

    1988-11-01

    Teachers often use analogies in classroom settings to clarify new concepts for their students. However, analogies may inadvertently confuse the youngster who has difficulty identifying the one-to-one comparisons underlying them. Although analogical reasoning has been studied extensively in normal children, no information was available concerning this construct in children having a specific language impairment. Thus, it was unknown to what extent they might be deficient in analogical reasoning. Therefore, in the present study, 20 children ages 6-8 years (mean age = 7:6) having normal nonverbal intelligence but deficits in language comprehension were administered tasks of verbal and perceptual proportional analogical reasoning and a problem-solving task of functional analogical reasoning. Compared to a normal-language control group matched on the basis of chronological age and sex, the language-impaired group was deficient in all three tasks of analogical reasoning. However, when the factor of nonverbal intelligence was controlled statistically, the differences between the groups on each of the tasks were removed. Additional findings were that verbal proportional analogical reasoning was significantly correlated to perceptual proportional analogical reasoning and to functional analogical reasoning. Implications for assessment and intervention with young school-age language-impaired children are discussed.

  7. Word and pseudoword reading in children with specific speech and language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Lucie; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne; Casalis, Séverine

    2014-12-01

    Children with specific language impairment frequently encounter difficulties in learning to read and in particular, in word recognition. The present study set out to determine the precise impact of language impairment on word reading skills. We investigated single-word reading in 27 French children with specific speech and language impairment (2 SLI). Precise quantification of reading levels in the 2 SLI group showed an average delay of 3.5 years. Approximately 90% of these children were affected by a reading disorder, whereas for the remaining 10%, reading performance was within normal limits. Word reading procedures are analyzed using the so-called 'dual route model', which proposes that reading is achieved through two processes, the phonological and the orthographic procedures. Group comparison analyses of 27 reading level-matched control children, revealed an increased lexicality effect in the 2 SLI group, indicating a specific deficit in the phonological procedure. Moreover, multiple case analyses revealed interindividual differences among the children with 2 SLI, with four reading subtypes. Approximately 60% of these children reached the standard levels expected of younger children with identical reading levels (delayed reading profile) in both procedures. Twenty percent displayed qualitatively different reading mechanisms, with a greater deficit in the phonological procedure (phonological profile). These children showed a severe impairment in language production at the phonological level. Ten percent exhibited a greater orthographic deficit (surface profile) and 10% had normal reading skills (normal profile). Further research is required to improve our understanding of the relationships between 2 SLI or specific language impairment and reading acquisition. The present results suggest that in clinical practice, both reading procedures should be exercised, with emphasis on the phonological procedure for children with more severe deficits in phonological

  8. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia, or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers. Results of the study revealed that children with SLI performed similarly to their typically developing peers on a single word spelling task. Alternatively, those with dyslexia and SLI/dyslexia evidenced poor spelling accuracy. Errors made by both those with dyslexia and SLI/dyslexia were characterized by numerous phonologic, orthographic, and semantic errors. Cumulative results support the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in typically developing school-age children and their peers with SLI and dyslexia. Findings are provided as further support for the notion that SLI and dyslexia are distinct, yet co-morbid, developmental disorders. PMID:22876769

  9. Perception of Filtered Speech by Children with Developmental Dyslexia and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha eGoswami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we use two filtered speech tasks to investigate children’s processing of slow (<4 Hz versus faster (~33 Hz temporal modulations in speech. We compare groups of children with either developmental dyslexia (Experiment 1 or speech and language impairments (SLIs, Experiment 2 to groups of typically-developing (TD children age-matched to each disorder group. Ten nursery rhymes were filtered so that their modulation frequencies were either low-pass filtered (< 4 Hz or band-pass filtered (22 – 40 Hz. Recognition of the filtered nursery rhymes was tested in a picture recognition multiple choice paradigm. Children with dyslexia aged 10 years showed equivalent recognition overall to TD controls for both the low-pass and band-pass filtered stimuli, but showed significantly impaired acoustic learning during the experiment from low-pass filtered targets. Children with oral speech and language impairments (SLIs aged 9 years showed significantly poorer recognition of band pass filtered targets compared to their TD controls, and showed comparable acoustic learning effects to TD children during the experiment. The SLI sample were also divided into children with and without phonological difficulties. The children with both SLI and phonological difficulties were impaired in recognising both kinds of filtered speech. These data are suggestive of impaired temporal sampling of the speech signal at different modulation rates by children with different kinds of developmental language disorder. Both SLI and dyslexic samples showed impaired discrimination of amplitude rise times. Implications of these findings for a temporal sampling framework for understanding developmental language disorders are discussed.

  10. Efficacy of speech therapy in children with language disorders : specific language impairment compared with language impairment in comorbidity with cognitive delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorhuis-Brouwer, SM; Knijff, WA

    2002-01-01

    Objective: this article discusses the effect of speech therapy on language comprehension, language production and non-verbal functioning in two groups of children with developmental language disorders. Design: retrospective study-a follow-up after a mean of 2 years, Materials and methods: verbal and

  11. Efficacy of speech therapy in children with language disorders : specific language impairment compared with language impairment in comorbidity with cognitive delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorhuis-Brouwer, SM; Knijff, WA

    2002-01-01

    Objective: this article discusses the effect of speech therapy on language comprehension, language production and non-verbal functioning in two groups of children with developmental language disorders. Design: retrospective study-a follow-up after a mean of 2 years, Materials and methods: verbal and

  12. Exploring the effects of communication intervention for developmental pragmatic language impairments: a signal-generation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Lloyd, Julian; Aldred, Catherine; Baxendale, Janet

    2006-01-01

    The remediation of pragmatic problems forms a significant part of the caseload for professionals working with children with communication problems. There is little systematic evidence that demonstrates the benefits of speech and language therapy for children whose difficulties lie primarily within the pragmatic domain or which indicates whether changes in pragmatic behaviours, which are a result of a specific intervention, can be measured over time. To generate a signal of change in pragmatic and other language behaviours for children with pragmatic language impairments; to gauge the magnitude and nature of the signal and to make recommendations for future studies. A case series of six children with pragmatic language impairments without diagnosis of autism received 8 weeks of individual intensive speech and language therapy supported in a mainstream educational setting in the UK. Measures of pragmatic behaviours in conversation were made at seven data points before and after therapy using Bishop's ALICC procedure. Conversation coders were blind to the point of assessment. Inferential comprehension, narrative, sentence formulation and sentence recall skills were also tested before and after therapy. The opinions of teachers and parents were sought regarding any change in communication and social abilities of the children over time. All children showed change in communication behaviour on some conversational measures, even if the child functioned at the ceiling on standardized language testing. Some conversation measures had more utility as outcome measures than others. Most children showed substantial change on standardized language measures, but there are limitations on the use of these due to heterogeneity within the group. Overall, the intervention produced a signal for change in pragmatics and/or language behaviour in all children. Parent/teacher opinion reported demonstrable change in communication behaviour and engagement in the curriculum. There is a strong

  13. Severity of specific language impairment predicts delayed development in number skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L H; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which mathematical development is dependent upon language is controversial. This longitudinal study investigates the role of language ability in children's development of number skills. Participants were 229 children with specific language impairment (SLI) who were assessed initially at age 7 and again 1 year later. All participants completed measures of psycholinguistic development (expressive and receptive), performance IQ, and the Basic Number Skills subtest of the British Ability Scales. Number skills data for this sample were compared with normative population data. Consistent with predictions that language impairment would impact on numerical development, average standard scores were more than 1 SD below the population mean at both ages. Although the children showed improvements in raw scores at the second wave of the study, the discrepancy between their scores and the population data nonetheless increased over time. Regression analyses showed that, after controlling for the effect of PIQ, language skills explained an additional 19 and 17% of the variance in number skills for ages 7 and 8, respectively. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses revealed that less improvement in the child's language ability over the course of the year was associated with a greater odds of a drop in performance in basic number skills from 7 to 8 years. The results are discussed in relation to the interaction of linguistic and cognitive factors in numerical development and the implications for mathematical education.

  14. Could language deficits really differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from mild Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsantali, E; Economidis, D; Tsolaki, M

    2013-01-01

    Naming abilities seem to be affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, though MCI individuals tend to exhibit greater impairments in category fluency. In this study we: (1) detect language deficits of amnestic MCIs (aMCIs) and mild AD (mAD) participants and present their language performance (the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination - BDAE scores) according to educational level, (2) study the diagnostic value of language deficits according to the cognitive state of the participants. One hundred nineteen participants, 38 normal controls (NC), 28 aMCIs and 53 mADs, were recruited randomly as outpatients of 2 clinical departments and administered clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging assessment. Language abilities were assessed by the adapted Greek edition of the BDAE (2nd edition). Our results indicate that verbal fluency, auditory, reading comprehension and narrative ability are the main language abilities to be affected in mADs, although they are almost intact in NCs and less vulnerable in aMCIs. Narrative ability seems to be significantly impaired in mADs but not so in aMCIs. Six language subtests of the BDAE assess safely the above deficits. This brief version of the BDAE discriminated mADs from the other 2 groups 92.5% of the time, NCs 86.8% and aMCI 67.9% of the time in order to save time and to be accurate in clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interactions between Bilingual Effects and Language Impairment: Exploring Grammatical Markers in Spanish-Speaking Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Earls, Anny P; Restrepo, María Adelaida; Perez-Leroux, Ana Teresa; Gray, Shelley; Holmes, Paul; Gail, Daniel; Chen, Ziqiang

    2016-09-01

    This study examines the interaction between language impairment and different levels of bilingual proficiency. Specifically, we explore the potential of articles and direct object pronouns as clinical markers of primary language impairment (PLI) in bilingual Spanish-speaking children. The study compared children with PLI and typically developing children (TD) matched on age, English language proficiency, and mother's education level. Two types of bilinguals were targeted: Spanish-dominant children with intermediate English proficiency (asymmetrical bilinguals, AsyB), and near-balanced bilinguals (BIL). We measured children's accuracy in the use of direct object pronouns and articles with an elicited language task. Results from this preliminary study suggest language proficiency affects the patterns of use of direct object pronouns and articles. Across language proficiency groups, we find marked differences between TD and PLI, in the use of both direct object pronouns and articles. However, the magnitude of the difference diminishes in balanced bilinguals. Articles appear more stable in these bilinguals and therefore, seem to have a greater potential to discriminate between TD bilinguals from those with PLI. Future studies using discriminant analyses are needed to assess the clinical impact of these findings.

  16. The gradience of multilingualism in typical and impaired language development: Positioning bilectalism within comparative bilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleanthes K. Grohmann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of factors characterizes bi- and multilingual compared to monolingual language acquisition. Two of the most prominent viewpoints have recently been put in perspective and enriched by a third (Tsimpli 2014: age of onset of children’s exposure to their native languages, the role of the input they receive, and the timing in monolingual first language development of the phenomena examined in bi- and multilingual children’s performance. This article picks up a fourth potential factor (Grohmann 2014b: language proximity, that is, the closeness between the two or more grammars a multilingual child acquires. It is a first attempt to flesh out the proposed gradient scale of multilingualism within the approach dubbed ‘comparative bilingualism’. The empirical part of this project comes from three types of research: (i the acquisition and subsequent development of pronominal object clitic placement in two closely related varieties of Greek by bilectal, binational, bilingual, and multilingual children; (ii the performance on executive control tasks by monolingual, bilectal, and bi- or multilingual children; and (iii the role of comparative bilingualism in children with a developmental language impairment for both the diagnosis and subsequent treatment as well as the possible avoidance or weakening of how language impairment presents.

  17. The Gradience of Multilingualism in Typical and Impaired Language Development: Positioning Bilectalism within Comparative Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Kleanthes K; Kambanaros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of factors characterizes bi- and multilingual compared to monolingual language acquisition. Two of the most prominent viewpoints have recently been put in perspective and enriched by a third (Tsimpli, 2014): age of onset of children's exposure to their native languages, the role of the input they receive, and the timing in monolingual first language development of the phenomena examined in bi- and multilingual children's performance. This article picks up a fourth potential factor (Grohmann, 2014b): language proximity, that is, the closeness between the two or more grammars a multilingual child acquires. It is a first attempt to flesh out the proposed gradient scale of multilingualism within the approach dubbed "comparative bilingualism." The empirical part of this project comes from three types of research: (i) the acquisition and subsequent development of pronominal object clitic placement in two closely related varieties of Greek by bilectal, binational, bilingual, and multilingual children; (ii) the performance on executive control tasks by monolingual, bilectal, and bi- or multilingual children; and (iii) the role of comparative bilingualism in children with a developmental language impairment for both the diagnosis and subsequent treatment as well as the possible avoidance or weakening of how language impairment presents.

  18. Interactions between Bilingual Effects and Language Impairment: Exploring Grammatical Markers in Spanish-Speaking Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Earls, Anny P.; Restrepo, María Adelaida; Perez-Leroux, Ana Teresa; Gray, Shelley; Holmes, Paul; Gail, Daniel; Chen, Ziqiang

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the interaction between language impairment and different levels of bilingual proficiency. Specifically, we explore the potential of articles and direct object pronouns as clinical markers of primary language impairment (PLI) in bilingual Spanish-speaking children. The study compared children with PLI and typically developing children (TD) matched on age, English language proficiency, and mother’s education level. Two types of bilinguals were targeted: Spanish-dominant children with intermediate English proficiency (asymmetrical bilinguals, AsyB), and near-balanced bilinguals (BIL). We measured children’s accuracy in the use of direct object pronouns and articles with an elicited language task. Results from this preliminary study suggest language proficiency affects the patterns of use of direct object pronouns and articles. Across language proficiency groups, we find marked differences between TD and PLI, in the use of both direct object pronouns and articles. However, the magnitude of the difference diminishes in balanced bilinguals. Articles appear more stable in these bilinguals and therefore, seem to have a greater potential to discriminate between TD bilinguals from those with PLI. Future studies using discriminant analyses are needed to assess the clinical impact of these findings. PMID:27570320

  19. Selective imitation impairments differentially interact with language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengotti, Paola; Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Negri, Gioia A L; Ukmar, Maja; Pesavento, Valentina; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2013-08-01

    Whether motor and linguistic representations of actions share common neural structures has recently been the focus of an animated debate in cognitive neuroscience. Group studies with brain-damaged patients reported association patterns of praxic and linguistic deficits whereas single case studies documented double dissociations between the correct execution of gestures and their comprehension in verbal contexts. When the relationship between language and imitation was investigated, each ability was analysed as a unique process without distinguishing between possible subprocesses. However, recent cognitive models can be successfully used to account for these inconsistencies in the extant literature. In the present study, in 57 patients with left brain damage, we tested whether a deficit at imitating either meaningful or meaningless gestures differentially impinges on three distinct linguistic abilities (comprehension, naming and repetition). Based on the dual-pathway models, we predicted that praxic and linguistic performance would be associated when meaningful gestures are processed, and would dissociate for meaningless gestures. We used partial correlations to assess the association between patients' scores while accounting for potential confounding effects of aspecific factors such age, education and lesion size. We found that imitation of meaningful gestures significantly correlated with patients' performance on naming and repetition (but not on comprehension). This was not the case for the imitation of meaningless gestures. Moreover, voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis revealed that damage to the angular gyrus specifically affected imitation of meaningless gestures, independent of patients' performance on linguistic tests. Instead, damage to the supramarginal gyrus affected not only imitation of meaningful gestures, but also patients' performance on naming and repetition. Our findings clarify the apparent conflict between associations and dissociations

  20. Nonadjacent Dependency Learning in Cantonese-Speaking Children With and Without a History of Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iao, Lai-Sang; Ng, Lai Yan; Wong, Anita Mei Yin; Lee, Oi Ting

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated nonadjacent dependency learning in Cantonese-speaking children with and without a history of specific language impairment (SLI) in an artificial linguistic context. Sixteen Cantonese-speaking children with a history of SLI and 16 Cantonese-speaking children with typical language development (TLD) were tested with a nonadjacent dependency learning task using artificial languages that mimic Cantonese. Children with TLD performed above chance and were able to discriminate between trained and untrained nonadjacent dependencies. However, children with a history of SLI performed at chance and were not able to differentiate trained versus untrained nonadjacent dependencies. These findings, together with previous findings from English-speaking adults and adolescents with language impairments, suggest that individuals with atypical language development, regardless of age, diagnostic status, language, and culture, show difficulties in learning nonadjacent dependencies. This study provides evidence for early impairments to statistical learning in individuals with atypical language development.

  1. Story Discourse and Use of Mental State Language between Mothers and School-Aged Children with and without Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lack of sight compromises insight into other people's mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). Aims: To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare…

  2. Deficits in Narrative Abilities in Child British Sign Language Users with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Ros; Rowley, Katherine; Mason, Kathryn; Morgan, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This study details the first ever investigation of narrative skills in a group of 17 deaf signing children who have been diagnosed with disorders in their British Sign Language development compared with a control group of 17 deaf child signers matched for age, gender, education, quantity, and quality of language exposure and non-verbal…

  3. The Development of English as a Second Language with and without Specific Language Impairment: Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of typical and atypical development of English as a second language (L2) and to present strategies for clinical assessment with English language learners (ELLs). Method: A review of studies examining the lexical, morphological, narrative, and verbal memory abilities of…

  4. Deficits in Narrative Abilities in Child British Sign Language Users with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Ros; Rowley, Katherine; Mason, Kathryn; Morgan, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This study details the first ever investigation of narrative skills in a group of 17 deaf signing children who have been diagnosed with disorders in their British Sign Language development compared with a control group of 17 deaf child signers matched for age, gender, education, quantity, and quality of language exposure and non-verbal…

  5. Preschool Language Profiles of Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia: Continuities with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Hannah M.; Hulme, Charles; Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children at family risk of dyslexia have been reported to show phonological deficits as well as broader language delays in the preschool years. Method: The preschool language skills of 112 children at family risk of dyslexia (FR) at ages 3½ and 4½ were compared with those of children with SLI and typically developing (TD) controls.…

  6. The Development of English as a Second Language with and without Specific Language Impairment: Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of typical and atypical development of English as a second language (L2) and to present strategies for clinical assessment with English language learners (ELLs). Method: A review of studies examining the lexical, morphological, narrative, and verbal memory abilities of…

  7. Auditory processing in children : a study of the effects of age, hearing impairment and language impairment on auditory abilities in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stollman, Martin Hubertus Petrus

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis we tested the hypotheses that the auditory system of children continues to mature until at least the age of 12 years and that the development of auditory processing in hearing-impaired and language-impaired children is often delayed or even genuinely disturbed. Data from a longitudin

  8. Mental states and activities in Danish narratives: children with autism and children with language impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Christensen, Rikke Vang

    2016-01-01

    ;6–14;0) and non-verbal cognitive skills, and the groups with ASD and TD did not differ on language measures. The children with ASD and LI had fewer content elements of the storyline than the TD children. Compared with the TD children, the children with ASD used fewer subordinate clauses about the characters......This study focuses on the relationship between content elements and mental-state language in narratives from twenty-seven children with autism (ASD), twelve children with language impairment (LI), and thirty typically developing children (TD). The groups did not differ on chronological age (10......’ thoughts, and preferred talking about mental states as reported speech, especially in the form of direct speech. The children with LI did not differ from the TD children on these measures. The results are discussed in the context of difficulties with socio-cognition in children with ASD and of language...

  9. Mental states and activities in Danish narratives: children with autism and children with language impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Christensen, Rikke Vang

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between content elements and mental-state language in narratives from twenty-seven children with autism (ASD), twelve children with language impairment (LI), and thirty typically developing children (TD). The groups did not differ on chronological age (10......;6–14;0) and non-verbal cognitive skills, and the groups with ASD and TD did not differ on language measures. The children with ASD and LI had fewer content elements of the storyline than the TD children. Compared with the TD children, the children with ASD used fewer subordinate clauses about the characters......’ thoughts, and preferred talking about mental states as reported speech, especially in the form of direct speech. The children with LI did not differ from the TD children on these measures. The results are discussed in the context of difficulties with socio-cognition in children with ASD and of language...

  10. Mental states and activities in Danish narratives: children with autism and children with language impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Christensen, Rikke Vang

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between content elements and mental-state language in narratives from twenty-seven children with autism (ASD), twelve children with language impairment (LI), and thirty typically developing children (TD). The groups did not differ on chronological age...... (;–;) and non-verbal cognitive skills, and the groups with ASD and TD did not differ on language measures. The children with ASD and LI had fewer content elements of the storyline than the TD children. Compared with the TD children, the children with ASD used fewer subordinate clauses about the characters......’ thoughts, and preferred talking about mental states as reported speech, especially in the form of direct speech. The children with LI did not differ from the TD children on these measures. The results are discussed in the context of difficulties with socio-cognition in children with ASD and of language...

  11. Auditory Processing in Specific Language Impairment (SLI): Relations With the Perception of Lexical and Phrasal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Susan; Goswami, Usha

    2015-08-01

    We investigated whether impaired acoustic processing is a factor in developmental language disorders. The amplitude envelope of the speech signal is known to be important in language processing. We examined whether impaired perception of amplitude envelope rise time is related to impaired perception of lexical and phrasal stress in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twenty-two children aged between 8 and 12 years participated in this study. Twelve had SLI; 10 were typically developing controls. All children completed psychoacoustic tasks measuring rise time, intensity, frequency, and duration discrimination. They also completed 2 linguistic stress tasks measuring lexical and phrasal stress perception. The SLI group scored significantly below the typically developing controls on both stress perception tasks. Performance on stress tasks correlated with individual differences in auditory sensitivity. Rise time and frequency thresholds accounted for the most unique variance. Digit Span also contributed to task success for the SLI group. The SLI group had difficulties with both acoustic and stress perception tasks. Our data suggest that poor sensitivity to amplitude rise time and sound frequency significantly contributes to the stress perception skills of children with SLI. Other cognitive factors such as phonological memory are also implicated.

  12. FOXP2 Is Not a Major Susceptibility Gene for Autism or Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, D. F.; Bonora, E.; Lamb, J. A.; Fisher, S. E.; Lai, C. S. L.; Baird, G.; Jannoun, L.; Slonims, V.; Stott, C. M.; Merricks, M. J.; Bolton, P. F.; Bailey, A. J.; Monaco, A. P.

    2002-01-01

    The FOXP2 gene, located on human 7q31 (at the SPCH1 locus), encodes a transcription factor containing a polyglutamine tract and a forkhead domain. FOXP2 is mutated in a severe monogenic form of speech and language impairment, segregating within a single large pedigree, and is also disrupted by a translocation in an isolated case. Several studies of autistic disorder have demonstrated linkage to a similar region of 7q (the AUTS1 locus), leading to the proposal that a single genetic factor on 7q31 contributes to both autism and language disorders. In the present study, we directly evaluate the impact of the FOXP2 gene with regard to both complex language impairments and autism, through use of association and mutation screening analyses. We conclude that coding-region variants in FOXP2 do not underlie the AUTS1 linkage and that the gene is unlikely to play a role in autism or more common forms of language impairment. PMID:11894222

  13. Atypical right hemisphere specialization for object representations in an adolescent with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy T. Brown

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with a diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI show abnormal spoken language occurring alongside normal nonverbal abilities. Behaviorally, people with SLI exhibit diverse profiles of impairment involving phonological, grammatical, syntactic, and semantic aspects of language. In this study, we used a multimodal neuroimaging technique called anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG to measure the dynamic functional brain organization of an adolescent with SLI. Using single-subject statistical maps of cortical activity, we compared this patient to a sibling and to a cohort of typically developing subjects during the performance of tasks designed to evoke semantic representations of concrete objects. Localized, real-time patterns of brain activity within the language impaired patient showed marked differences from the typical functional organization, with significant engagement of right hemisphere heteromodal cortical regions generally homotopic to the left hemisphere areas that usually show the greatest activity for such tasks. Functional neuroanatomical differences were evident at early sensoriperceptual processing stages and continued through later cognitive stages, observed specifically at latencies typically associated with semantic encoding operations. Our findings show with real-time temporal specificity evidence for an atypical right hemisphere specialization for the representation of concrete entities, independent of verbal motor demands. More broadly, our results demonstrate the feasibility and potential utility of using aMEG to characterize individual patient differences in the dynamic functional organization of the brain.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of genetic susceptibility to language impairment in an isolated Chilean population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Pia; Newbury, Dianne F; Jara, Lilian; De Barbieri, Zulema; Mirza, Ghazala; Palomino, Hernán M; Fernández, María Angélica; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Monaco, Anthony P; Palomino, Hernán

    2011-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is an unexpected deficit in the acquisition of language skills and affects between 5 and 8% of pre-school children. Despite its prevalence and high heritability, our understanding of the aetiology of this disorder is only emerging. In this paper, we apply genome-wide techniques to investigate an isolated Chilean population who exhibit an increased frequency of SLI. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) mapping and parametric and non-parametric linkage analyses indicate that complex genetic factors are likely to underlie susceptibility to SLI in this population. Across all analyses performed, the most consistently implicated locus was on chromosome 7q. This locus achieved highly significant linkage under all three non-parametric models (max NPL=6.73, P=4.0 × 10−11). In addition, it yielded a HLOD of 1.24 in the recessive parametric linkage analyses and contained a segment that was homozygous in two affected individuals. Further, investigation of this region identified a two-SNP haplotype that occurs at an increased frequency in language-impaired individuals (P=0.008). We hypothesise that the linkage regions identified here, in particular that on chromosome 7, may contain variants that underlie the high prevalence of SLI observed in this isolated population and may be of relevance to other populations affected by language impairments. PMID:21248734

  15. Awareness of rhythm patterns in speech and music in children with specific language impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth eCumming

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Children with specific language impairments (SLIs show impaired perception and production of language, and also show impairments in perceiving auditory cues to rhythm (amplitude rise time [ART] and sound duration and in tapping to a rhythmic beat. Here we explore potential links between language development and rhythm perception in 45 children with SLI and 50 age-matched controls. We administered three rhythmic tasks, a musical beat detection task, a tapping-to-music task, and a novel music/speech task, which varied rhythm and pitch cues independently or together in both speech and music. Via low-pass filtering, the music sounded as though it was played from a low-quality radio and the speech sounded as though it was muffled (heard behind the door. We report data for all of the SLI children (N = 45, IQ varying, as well as for two independent subgroupings with intact IQ. One subgroup, Pure SLI, had intact phonology and reading (N=16, the other, SLI PPR (N=15, had impaired phonology and reading. When IQ varied (all SLI children, we found significant group differences in all the rhythmic tasks. For the Pure SLI group, there were rhythmic impairments in the tapping task only. For children with SLI and poor phonology (SLI PPR, group differences were found in all of the filtered speech/music AXB tasks. We conclude that difficulties with rhythmic cues in both speech and music are present in children with SLIs, but that some rhythmic measures are more sensitive than others. The data are interpreted within a ‘prosodic phrasing’ hypothesis, and we discuss the potential utility of rhythmic and musical interventions in remediating speech and language difficulties in children.

  16. Effective intervention for expressive grammar in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Lock, Karen M; Leitao, Suze; Lambert, Lara; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2013-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment are known to struggle with expressive grammar. While some studies have shown successful intervention under laboratory conditions, there is a paucity of evidence for the effectiveness of grammar treatment in young children in community settings. To evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention programme for expressive grammar in 5-year-olds with specific language impairment. Thirty-four 5-year-old children attending a specialized school for children with language impairment participated in the study. Nineteen children received treatment for expressive grammar (experimental group) and 15 children received a control treatment. Treatment consisted of weekly 1-h sessions of small group activities in a classroom setting for 8 weeks. Techniques included direct instruction, focused stimulation, recasting and imitation. Results were analysed at the group level and as a case series with each child as their own control in a single-subject design. There was a significant difference in grammatical performance pre- and post-treatment for children who received grammar treatment (Cohen's d = 1.24), but not for a group of children who received a control treatment. Further, no difference in performance was found in the equivalent time period prior to treatment, nor for an untreated target. Treatment success was more pronounced in children without articulation difficulties which interfered with their ability to produce the grammatical targets (Cohen's d = 1.66). Individual analyses indicated the treatment effect was significant for the majority of children. Individually targeted intervention delivered in small groups in a classroom setting was effective in improving production of expressive grammatical targets in 5-year-old children with specific language impairment. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  17. Language and communication development in preschool children with visual impairment: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mosca

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Language and communication difficulties of young children with visual impairment (VI are ascribed to intellectual disability, multiple disabilities and autism spectrum disorder (ASD rather than their sensory impairment. Consequently, the communication difficulties of children with VI may have been underestimated and undertreated. Objectives: This report aims to critically appraise recent peer reviewed literature relating to communication and language development in children with VI. Method: A systematic search of the literature (2003–2013 was completed using the PRISMA guidelines, and primary and secondary search phrases. Nine publications were reviewed in terms of the strength of recent evidence. Thematic analysis was used to describe the early language and communication characteristics of children with VI. Results: All the selected articles (n = 9 were from developed countries and participants from seven of the studies had congenital VI. Five of the studies received an evidence level rating of III while four articles were rated as IIb. Two main themes emerged from the studies: early intervention, and multiple disabilities and ASD. Language and communication development is affected by VI, especially in the early stages of development. Speech-language therapists should therefore be included in early intervention for children with VI. Conclusion: Recent evidence on the early language and communication difficulties of children with VI exists, but children in developing countries with acquired VI appear to not be investigated. The identified language and communication developmental characteristics may assist speech-language therapists to build a knowledge base for participation in early intervention for young children with VI and their families.

  18. Increased prevalence of sex chromosome aneuploidies in specific language impairment and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Nuala H; Addis, Laura; Brandler, William M; Slonims, Vicky; Clark, Ann; Watson, Jocelynne; Scerri, Thomas S; Hennessy, Elizabeth R; Bolton, Patrick F; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Fairfax, Benjamin P; Knight, Julian C; Stein, John; Talcott, Joel B; O'Hare, Anne; Baird, Gillian; Paracchini, Silvia; Fisher, Simon E; Newbury, Dianne F

    2014-04-01

    Sex chromosome aneuploidies increase the risk of spoken or written language disorders but individuals with specific language impairment (SLI) or dyslexia do not routinely undergo cytogenetic analysis. We assess the frequency of sex chromosome aneuploidies in individuals with language impairment or dyslexia. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping was performed in three sample sets: a clinical cohort of individuals with speech and language deficits (87 probands: 61 males, 26 females; age range 4 to 23 years), a replication cohort of individuals with SLI, from both clinical and epidemiological samples (209 probands: 139 males, 70 females; age range 4 to 17 years), and a set of individuals with dyslexia (314 probands: 224 males, 90 females; age range 7 to 18 years). In the clinical language-impaired cohort, three abnormal karyotypic results were identified in probands (proband yield 3.4%). In the SLI replication cohort, six abnormalities were identified providing a consistent proband yield (2.9%). In the sample of individuals with dyslexia, two sex chromosome aneuploidies were found giving a lower proband yield of 0.6%. In total, two XYY, four XXY (Klinefelter syndrome), three XXX, one XO (Turner syndrome), and one unresolved karyotype were identified. The frequency of sex chromosome aneuploidies within each of the three cohorts was increased over the expected population frequency (approximately 0.25%) suggesting that genetic testing may prove worthwhile for individuals with language and literacy problems and normal non-verbal IQ. Early detection of these aneuploidies can provide information and direct the appropriate management for individuals. © 2013 The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Mac Keith Press.

  19. Ideas on Learning a New Language Intertwined with the Current State of Natural Language Processing and Computational Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, in conjunction with doing research in natural language processing and attending a global conference on computational linguistics, the author decided to learn a new foreign language, Greek, that uses a non-English character set. This paper/session will present/discuss an overview of the current state of natural language processing and…

  20. Memory functioning and mental verbs acquisition in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudis, George C; Natsopoulos, Demetrios

    2011-01-01

    Memory and language operate in synergy. Recent literature stresses the importance of memory functioning in interpreting language deficits. Two groups of 50 children each, ages 8-12 were studied. The first group included children with specific language impairment, while the participants in the second group were typically developing children. The two groups, which were matched on age, nonverbal intelligence and varied significantly in verbal ability were examined, using a test battery of four memory functioning (phonological, working and long-term memory) and five mental verb measures. The statistical analyses indicated that the two groups differed significantly in all language and memory measures; a logistic regression analysis revealed that within each main group existed nested subgroups of different developmental patterns with working and long-term memory measures as the most robust discriminate markers of classification. Language impaired children had more difficulties in the acquisition of mental verbs because they are less able to process and store phonological information in working memory and long-term lexicon.

  1. Children with specific language impairment are not impaired in the acquisition and retention of Pavlovian delay and trace conditioning of the eyeblink response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Mervyn J; Hsu, Hsin-jen; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2013-12-01

    Three converging lines of evidence have suggested that cerebellar abnormality is implicated in developmental language and literacy problems. First, some brain imaging studies have linked abnormalities in cerebellar grey matter to dyslexia and specific language impairment (SLI). Second, theoretical accounts of both dyslexia and SLI have postulated impairments of procedural learning and automatisation of skills, functions that are known to be mediated by the cerebellum. Third, motor learning has been shown to be abnormal in some studies of both disorders. We assessed the integrity of face related regions of the cerebellum using Pavlovian eyeblink conditioning in 7-11year-old children with SLI. We found no relationship between oral language skills or literacy skills with either delay or trace conditioning in the children. We conclude that this elementary form of associative learning is intact in children with impaired language or literacy development. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Grammar Predicts Procedural Learning and Consolidation Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenius, Martina; Persson, Jonas; Tremblay, Antoine; Adi-Japha, Esther; Veríssimo, João; Dye, Cristina D.; Alm, Per; Jennische, Margareta; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Ullman, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) posits that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) can be largely explained by abnormalities of brain structures that subserve procedural memory. The PDH predicts impairments of procedural memory itself, and that such impairments underlie the grammatical deficits observed in the disorder. Previous studies have indeed reported procedural learning impairments in SLI, and have found that these are associated with grammatical difficulties. The present study extends this research by examining the consolidation and longer-term procedural sequence learning in children with SLI. The Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task was given to children with SLI and typically-developing (TD) children in an initial learning session and an average of three days later to test for consolidation and longer-term learning. Although both groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only the TD children showed clear signs of consolidation, even though the two groups did not differ in longer-term learning. When the children were re-categorized on the basis of grammar deficits rather than broader language deficits, a clearer pattern emerged. Whereas both the grammar impaired and normal grammar groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only those with normal grammar showed consolidation and longer-term learning. Indeed, the grammar-impaired group appeared to lose any sequence knowledge gained during the initial testing session. These findings held even when controlling for vocabulary or a broad non-grammatical language measure, neither of which were associated with procedural memory. When grammar was examined as a continuous variable over all children, the same relationships between procedural memory and grammar, but not vocabulary or the broader language measure, were observed. Overall, the findings support and further specify the PDH. They suggest that consolidation and longer-term procedural learning are impaired in SLI, but that

  3. Grammar predicts procedural learning and consolidation deficits in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenius, Martina; Persson, Jonas; Tremblay, Antoine; Adi-Japha, Esther; Veríssimo, João; Dye, Cristina D; Alm, Per; Jennische, Margareta; Bruce Tomblin, J; Ullman, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) posits that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) can be largely explained by abnormalities of brain structures that subserve procedural memory. The PDH predicts impairments of procedural memory itself, and that such impairments underlie the grammatical deficits observed in the disorder. Previous studies have indeed reported procedural learning impairments in SLI, and have found that these are associated with grammatical difficulties. The present study extends this research by examining consolidation and longer-term procedural sequence learning in children with SLI. The Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task was given to children with SLI and typically developing (TD) children in an initial learning session and an average of three days later to test for consolidation and longer-term learning. Although both groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only the TD children showed clear signs of consolidation, even though the two groups did not differ in longer-term learning. When the children were re-categorized on the basis of grammar deficits rather than broader language deficits, a clearer pattern emerged. Whereas both the grammar impaired and normal grammar groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only those with normal grammar showed consolidation and longer-term learning. Indeed, the grammar-impaired group appeared to lose any sequence knowledge gained during the initial testing session. These findings held even when controlling for vocabulary or a broad non-grammatical language measure, neither of which were associated with procedural memory. When grammar was examined as a continuous variable over all children, the same relationships between procedural memory and grammar, but not vocabulary or the broader language measure, were observed. Overall, the findings support and further specify the PDH. They suggest that consolidation and longer-term procedural learning are impaired in SLI, but that these

  4. Family history interview of a broad phenotype in specific language impairment and matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnak, N; Peyrard-Janvid, M; Sahlén, B; Forssberg, H

    2012-11-01

    The aim was to study a broader phenotype of language-related diagnoses and problems in three generations of relatives of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Our study is based on a family history interview of the parents of 59 children with SLI and of 100 matched control children, exploring the prevalence of problems related to language, reading, attention, school achievement and social communication as well as diagnoses such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, Asperger syndrome, dyslexia, mental retardation, cleft palate and stuttering. The results show a spectrum of language-related problems in families of SLI children. In all three generations of SLI relatives, we found significantly higher prevalence rates of language, literacy and social communication problems. The risk of one or both parents having language-related diagnoses or problems was approximately six times higher for the children with SLI (85%) than for the control children (13%) (odds ratio = 37.2). We did not find a significantly higher prevalence of the diagnoses ADHD, autism or Asperger syndrome in the relatives of the children with SLI. However, significantly more parents of the children with SLI had problems with attention/hyperactivity when compared with the parents of controls. Our findings suggest common underlying mechanisms for problems with language, literacy and social communication, and possibly also for attention/hyperactivity symptoms. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  5. Communicative competence in parents of children with autism and parents of children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruser, Tilla F; Arin, Deborah; Dowd, Michael; Putnam, Sara; Winklosky, Brian; Rosen-Sheidley, Beth; Piven, Joseph; Tomblin, Bruce; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Folstein, Susan

    2007-08-01

    While the primary language deficit in autism has been thought to be pragmatic, and in specific language impairment (SLI) structural, recent research suggests phenomenological and possibly genetic overlap between the two syndromes. To compare communicative competence in parents of children with autism, SLI, and down syndrome (DS), we used a modified pragmatic rating scale (PRS-M). Videotapes of conversational interviews with 47 autism, 47 SLI, and 21 DS parents were scored blind to group membership. Autism and SLI parents had significantly lower communication abilities than DS parents. Fifteen percent of the autism and SLI parents showed severe deficits. Our results suggest that impaired communication is part of the broader autism phenotype and a broader SLI phenotype, especially among male family members.

  6. Specific language impairment, theory of mind, and visual perspective taking: evidence for simulation theory and the developmental role of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, Brad M; Fletcher, Janet; Maybery, Murray T

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has found that the acquisition of theory of mind (ToM) is delayed in children with specific language impairment (SLI). The present study used a battery of ToM and visual perspective taking (VPT) tasks to investigate whether the delayed acquisition of ToM in children with SLI is associated with delayed VPT development. Harris' (1992, 1996) simulation theory predicts that the development of VPT will be delayed. Participants were 20 children with SLI (M=62.9 months) and 20 typically developing children (M=61.2 months) who were matched for nonverbal ability, gender, and age. The results supported Harris' theory and a role for language in ToM and VPT development.

  7. Emotional health, support, and self‐efficacy in young adults with a history of language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, N.; Durkin, K.; Toseeb, U.; A R Pickles; Conti-Ramsden, G

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents with language impairment (LI) are at risk of emotional health difficulties. However, less is known about whether these difficulties continue into adulthood for this group, or about the potential role of environmental resources (e.g., social support) or internal resources (e.g., self‐efficacy). This study investigates emotional health in 81 adults with a history of developmental LI (aged 24) compared with 87 age‐matched peers (AMPs) using Beck Inventories. Social suppo...

  8. Specific Language Impairment (SLI: The Internet Ralli Campaign to Raise Awareness of SLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti-Ramsden Gina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this short article, we discuss what is specific language impairment (SLI and why it is a hidden disability that few people have heard about. We describe the impact on research, policy and practice of SLI being a neglected condition. We end by providing the background and rationale of a new internet campaign, RALLI (www.youtube.com/rallicampaign, aimed at changing this state of affairs and raising awareness of SLI.

  9. Story Retelling by Bilingual Children with Language Impairments and Typically-Developing Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Katie E.; Lugo-Neris, Mirza J.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Bohman, Thomas M.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, there is limited information documenting growth patterns in the narratives of bilingual children with and without primary language impairment (PLI). Aims This study was designed to determine whether bilingual children with and without PLI present similar gains from kindergarten to first grade in the macro- and microstructure of stories told in Spanish and English. Methods and Procedures In this longitudinal study, 21 bilingual children identified with PLI were each matched to a bilingual typically-developing (TD) peer on age, sex, nonverbal IQ and language exposure. During their kindergarten and first grade years, children retold stories from wordless picture books in Spanish (L1) and English (L2). Outcomes and Results Overall, TD children outperformed those with PLI on measures of macrostructure and microstructure at both time points. For the macrostructure measure, the TD group made significantly larger improvements in both languages from kindergarten to first grade than the PLI group. For microstructure, the TD children made more gains on their Spanish retells than their English retells. However, the PLI children’s microstructure scores did not differ from kindergarten to first grade in either language. We found that macrostructure scores in Spanish at kindergarten predicted macrostructure scores in English at first grade when English experience was held constant. However, this same relationship across languages was not evident in microstructure. Conclusions and Implications TD and PLI children differed in the development of narrative macrostructure and microstructure between kindergarten and first grade. The TD bilinguals transferred conceptually-dependent narrative skills easily, but then had to independently learn the nuances of each language to be successful using literate language. Because most children with PLI need more exposure to establish strong connections between their L1 and L2, they had more difficulty transferring their

  10. Influence of phonology on morpho-syntax in Romance languages in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Sanz-Torrent, Mònica; Serra-Raventós, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    The profiles of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) differ greatly according to the language they speak. The Surface Hypothesis attempts to explain these differences through the theory that children with SLI will incorrectly produce elements in their language with low phonological weights or that are produced in a non-canonical prosodic structure. Previous studies have shown that the most characteristics errors produced by Catalan and Spanish-speaking children with SLI include function word omission (morpho-syntax) and weak syllable omission (phonology). The omission of function words points to a morpho-syntactic explanation of SLI, while weak syllable omission supports a phonological explanation of SLI. Yet, function words are weak syllables; thus, it is possible that the same mechanism underlies both problems. Data were extracted from spontaneous language produced by five children with SLI and five comparison children matched for age and MLU-w. They were assessed on two occasions: at 3;10 and 4;9 years of age. These interviews were then transcribed and the morphological and phonological errors coded. A non-parametric mean analysis and various regression analyses were conducted. The results show that function word omission and weak syllable omission were the most characteristic errors made by Spanish and Catalan-speaking children with SLI and established that omissions increase as prosodic weight decreases. They also indicated that weak syllabic omission may explain most function word omissions. The data support the Surface Hypothesis and suggest that the same impaired mechanism may underlie the morphological and phonological problems SLI children display.

  11. Isolated language impairment as the primary presentation of sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tawil, S; Chohan, G; Mackenzie, J; Rowe, A; Weller, B; Will, R G; Knight, R

    2017-03-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (sCJD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that typically presents as a rapidly progressive encephalopathy associated with various neurological features, culminating in akinetic mutism and death. Atypical cases, presenting with an isolated focal may cause diagnostic confusion. We described a series of patients with sCJD presenting with isolated language impairment. We report a patient with sCJD referred to the NCJDRSU, who presented with isolated language impairment and subsequently identified all cases of sporadic CJD on the NCJDRSU database (covering the years 1990-2012) with an isolated language impairment presentation. Nineteen patients (11 females) with sCJD (1.19% of all patients) had an isolated language disorder of at least 2 weeks duration as the first neurological symptom pattern. Mean age at onset was 68.28 years. No specific pattern of language affection was seen in these patients. Further progression usually affected more than one neurological domain, with all patients eventually developing cognitive decline and myoclonic jerks. The median duration of illness was 4 months. CSF 14.3.3 was positive and S100b level was elevated in all patients in whom it was performed. EEG and MRI showed typical features of sCJD in six patients each. Most patients showed MM genotype of PRNP codon 129. This study highlights the fact that isolated aphasia can be the first neurological symptom approximately in 1% of patients with sCJD. The diagnosis is usually made with appearance of other clinical features and investigation results, but in a small minority, these may not be apparent for relatively long periods. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Temporally Regular Musical Primes Facilitate Subsequent Syntax Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as “baseline condition”) followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation. PMID:27378833

  13. Teacher identification of children at risk for language impairment in the first year of school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniazzi, Diana; Snow, Pamela; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2010-06-01

    While the first 3 years of formal schooling have obvious importance for the transition to literacy, it must be remembered that learning to read is a linguistically-based task that draws heavily on mastery of key oral-language skills such as phonemic and morphological awareness, vocabulary development, and early syntax. In order to support the transition to literacy, and because oral language competence is important in its own right, it is vital that early-years teachers are skilled at identifying children who may be at risk of oral language impairment. In this study, 15 teachers completed the Children's Communication Checklist (second edition) on children in their first year of school (n = 149), and ratings were compared with results of screening using the Clinical Examination of Language Fundamentals Screening Test (fourth edition). Teacher ratings showed poor sensitivity and specificity in identifying children whose oral language skills require further investigation. Results are discussed in the light of recommendations for teacher pre-service education, SLP advocacy for oral language competence as a life-long determinant of health, issues in screening during the early years of school, and implications for further research.

  14. Predictors of reading comprehension ability in primary school-aged children who have pragmatic language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Children who have pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI) have difficulties with the use of language in social contexts and show impairments in above-sentence level language tasks. Previous studies have found that typically developing children's reading comprehension (RC) is predicted by reading accuracy and spoken sentence level comprehension (SLC). This study explores the predictive ability of these factors and above-sentence level comprehension (ASLC) on RC skills in a group of CwPLI. Sixty nine primary school-aged CwPLI completed a measure of RC along with measures of reading accuracy, spoken SLC and both visual (pictorially presented) and spoken ASLC tasks. Regression analyses showed that reading accuracy was the strongest predictor of RC. Visual ASLC did not explain unique variance in RC on top of spoken SLC. In contrast, a measure of spoken ASLC explained unique variance in RC, independent from that explained by spoken SLC. A regression model with nonverbal intelligence, reading accuracy, spoken SLC and spoken ASLC as predictors explained 74.2% of the variance in RC. Findings suggest that spoken ASLC may measure additional factors that are important for RC success in CwPLI and should be included in routine assessments for language and literacy learning in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Delay or deficit? Spelling processes in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Rebecca F; Williams, Gareth J; Blaggan, Samarita

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have explored the phonological, morphological and orthographic spellings skills of children with specific language impairment (SLI) simultaneously. Fifteen children with SLI (mean age=113.07 months, SD=8.61) completed language and spelling tasks alongside chronological-age controls and spelling-age controls. While the children with SLI showed a deficit in phonological spelling, they performed comparably to spelling-age controls on morphological spelling skills, and there were no differences between the three groups in producing orthographically legal spellings. The results also highlighted the potential importance of adequate non-word repetition skills in relation to effective spelling skills, and demonstrated that not all children with spoken language impairments show marked spelling difficulties. Findings are discussed in relation to theory, educational assessment and practice. As a result of this activity, readers will describe components of spoken language that predict children's morphological and phonological spelling performance. As a result of this activity, readers will describe how the spelling skills of children with SLI compare to age-matched and spelling age-matched control children. Readers will be able to interpret the variability in spelling performance seen in children with SLI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Verb Morphology as Clinical Marker of Specific Language Impairment: Evidence from First and Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Balkom, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to search for verb morphology characteristics as possible clinical markers of SLI in Dutch as a first and second language. We also wanted to find out to what extent bilingual children with SLI are additionally disadvantaged in comparison to monolingual children with SLI, on the one hand, and to typically developing…

  17. No population bias to left-hemisphere language in 4-year-olds with language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishop, D.V.M.; Holt, G.; Whitehouse, A.J.O.; Groen, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. An apparent paradox in the field of neuropsychology is that people with atypical cerebral lateralization do not appear to suffer any cognitive disadvantage, yet atypical cerebral lateralization is more common in children and adults with developmental language disorders. This study was de

  18. Talk it out: a conflict resolution program for preschool children with speech and language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Barbara; Gray, Shelley

    2013-05-01

    Talk It Out was developed by speech-language pathologists to teach young children, especially those with speech and language impairments, to recognize problems, use words to solve them, and verbally negotiate solutions. One of the very successful by-products is that these same strategies help children avoid harming their voice. Across a school year, Talk It Out provides teaching and practice in predictable contexts so that children become competent problem solvers. It is especially powerful when implemented as part of the tier 1 preschool curriculum. The purpose of this article is to help school-based speech-language pathologists (1) articulate the need and rationale for early implementation of conflict resolution programs, (2) develop practical skills to implement Talk It Out strategies in their programs, and (3) transfer this knowledge to classroom teachers who can use and reinforce these strategies on a daily basis with the children they serve.

  19. Detecting Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Deaf People: The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Joanna; Denmark, Tanya; Marshall, Jane; Mummery, Cath; Woll, Bencie

    2015-11-01

    To provide accurate diagnostic screening of deaf people who use signed communication, cognitive tests must be devised in signed languages with normative deaf samples. This article describes the development of the first screening test for the detection of cognitive impairment and dementia in deaf signers. The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test uses standardized video administration to screen cognition using signed, rather than spoken or written, instructions and a large norm-referenced sample of 226 deaf older people. Percentiles are provided for clinical comparison. The tests showed good reliability, content validity, and correlation with age, intellectual ability, and education. Clinical discrimination was shown between the normative sample and 14 deaf patients with dementia. This innovative testing approach transforms the ability to detect dementia in deaf people, avoids the difficulties of using an interpreter, and enables culturally and linguistically sensitive assessment of deaf signers, with international potential for adaptation into other signed languages.

  20. Phonetic categorisation and cue weighting in adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomainen, Outi; Stuart, Nichola J; van der Lely, Heather K J

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates phonetic categorisation and cue weighting in adolescents and young adults with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). We manipulated two acoustic cues, vowel duration and F1 offset frequency, that signal word-final stop consonant voicing ([t] and [d]) in English. Ten individuals with SLI (14.0-21.4 years), 10 age-matched controls (CA; 14.6-21.9 years) and 10 non-matched adult controls (23.3-36.0 years) labelled synthetic CVC non-words in an identification task. The results showed that the adolescents and young adults with SLI were less consistent than controls in the identification of the good category representatives. The group with SLI also assigned less weight to vowel duration than the adult controls. However, no direct relationship between phonetic categorisation, cue weighting and language skills was found. These findings indicate that some individuals with SLI have speech perception deficits but they are not necessarily associated with oral language skills.

  1. Relationship between cognitive functioning impairment and nutrition in obesity: Current Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Macit, Sedanur; Gezmen Karadağ, Makbule

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is one of the serious public health problems and its prevalence has been increasing in recent years. As well as causing health problems, obesity is associated with cognitive function impairment, especially with reduced language, motor capacity skills, and attention named as executive functions. Obesity is also related to decrease in brain volume, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, sociopathic, aggressive personality traits, anxiety, and major depressive disorder. There are several mechani...

  2. The Influence of the Frequency of Functional Markers on Repetitive Imitation of Syntactic Constructions in Children with Specific Language Impairment, from Their Own Language Productions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Sandrine; Parisse, Christophe; Maillart, Christelle

    2013-01-01

    Several studies provide considerable insight into the role that frequency plays in language development. However, no study has investigated the direct relationship between frequency and grammatical acquisition in children with specific language impairment (SLI). In this study, we focus specifically on the influence of the frequency of functional…

  3. Dosage Effects of X and Y Chromosomes on Language and Social Functioning in Children with Supernumerary Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies: Implications for Idiopathic Language Impairment and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wallace, Gregory L.; Adeyemi, Elizabeth I.; Lopez, Katherine C.; Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Clasen, Liv S.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Supernumerary sex chromosome aneuploidies (X/Y-aneuploidies), the presence of extra X and/or Y chromosomes, are associated with heightened rates of language impairments and social difficulties. However, no single study has examined different language domains and social functioning in the same sample of children with tri-, tetra-, and…

  4. A Comparison of the Age-MLU Relation in Normal and Specifically Language-Impaired Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Thomas; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study found that mean length of utterance (MLU) and age were significantly correlated in both language impaired (N=24) and normal preschool children with rates of MLU change also similar for both groups of children. (DB)

  5. Developmental trajectories of writing skills in first grade: Examining the effects of SES and language and/or speech impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Puranik, Cynthia; Otaiba, Stephanie Al

    2015-06-01

    We examined growth trajectories of writing and the relation of children's socio-economic status, and language and/or speech impairment to the growth trajectories. First grade children (N = 304) were assessed on their written composition in the fall, winter, and spring, and their vocabulary and literacy skills in the fall. Children's SES had a negative effect on writing quality and productivity. Children with language and/or speech impairment had lower scores than typically developing children in the quality and productivity of writing. Even after accounting for their vocabulary and literacy skills, students with language and/or speech impairment had lower scores in the quality and organization of writing. Growth rates in writing were not different as a function of children's SES and language/speech impairment status. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  6. Early life instruction in foreign language and music and incidence of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert S; Boyle, Patricia A; Yang, Jingyun; James, Bryan D; Bennett, David A

    2015-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that foreign language and music instruction in early life are associated with lower incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and slower rate of cognitive decline in old age. At enrollment in a longitudinal cohort study, 964 older persons without cognitive impairment estimated years of foreign language and music instruction by age 18. Annually thereafter they completed clinical evaluations that included cognitive testing and clinical classification of MCI. There were 264 persons with no foreign language instruction, 576 with 1-4 years, and 124 with > 4 years; 346 persons with no music instruction, 360 with 1-4 years, and 258 with > 4 years. During a mean of 5.8 years of observation, 396 participants (41.1%) developed MCI. In a proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, and education, higher levels (> 4 years) of foreign language (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.687, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.482, 0.961]) and music (HR = 0.708, 95% CI [0.539, 0.930]) instruction by the age of 18 were each associated with reduced risk of MCI. The association persisted after adjustment for other early life indicators of an enriched cognitive environment, and it was stronger for nonamnestic than amnestic MCI. Both foreign language and music instruction were associated with higher initial level of cognitive function, but neither instruction measure was associated with cognitive decline. Higher levels of foreign language and music instruction during childhood and adolescence are associated in old age with lower risk of developing MCI but not with rate of cognitive decline. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Music Training Program: A Method Based on Language Development and Principles of Neuroscience to Optimize Speech and Language Skills in Hearing-Impaired Children

    OpenAIRE

    Samaneh Sadat Dastgheib; Mina Riyassi; Maryam Anvari; Hamid Tayarani Niknezhad; Masumeh Hoseini; Mohsen Rajati; Mohammad Mahdi Ghasemi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, music has been employed in many intervention and rehabilitation program to enhance cognitive abilities in patients. Numerous researches show that music therapy can help improving language skills in patients including hearing impaired. In this study, a new method of music training is introduced based on principles of neuroscience and capabilities of Persian language to optimize language development in deaf children after implantation.    Materials and Methods: T...

  8. Multilingual home environment and specific language impairment: a case-control study in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, Daniel Ka Leung; Wong, Virginia; Leung, Gabriel Matthew

    2005-07-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder in young children. To investigate the association between multilingual home environment and SLI, we conducted a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese children over a 4-year period in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital. Consecutive medical records of all new referrals below 5 years of age were reviewed and children diagnosed with SLI (case) were compared with those referred with other developmental and behavioural problems who had been assessed as having normal language and overall development (control) using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale. SLI was defined as those with a language quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean and below the general developmental quotient in children with normal general developmental quotient, but without neurological or other organic diseases. We used binary and ordinal logistic regression to assess any association between SLI and multilingual exposure at home, adjusting for age and gender of subjects, parental age, education level and occupational status, number of siblings, family history of language delay and main caregiver at home. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the effect of covariates on the language comprehension and expression standard scores assessed by the Reynell Developmental Language Scale. A total of 326 cases and 304 controls were included. The mean ages of cases and controls were 2.56 and 2.89 years respectively. Boys predominated in both groups (cases, 75.2%; controls, 60.2%). The children were exposed to between one and four languages at home, the major ones being Cantonese Chinese followed by English. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of SLI was 2.94; [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82, 4.74] for multilingual compared with monolingual exposure. A significant linear dose-response relationship was found (OR of SLI = 2.58 [1.72, 3.88] for each additional language to which the child was exposed). Male

  9. A Psychological Approach to Understanding the Social and Language Impairments in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    1999-01-01

    This paper surveys current research on the social and communicative impairments in autism. In diagnostic schemes, the criteria for identifying autism in these domains include overlapping features. One approach to interpreting this overlap is to consider that social and communicative impairments reflect the same underlying cognitive deficit, referred to as the ‘theory of mind’ hypothesis of autism. On this view autism involves primary difficulties in identifying mental states in other people, ...

  10. Increasing genotype-phenotype model determinism: application to bivariate reading/language traits and epistatic interactions in language-impaired families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Tabatha R; Flax, Judy F; Azaro, Marco A; Hayter, Jared E; Justice, Laura M; Petrill, Stephen A; Bassett, Anne S; Tallal, Paula; Brzustowicz, Linda M; Bartlett, Christopher W

    2010-01-01

    While advances in network and pathway analysis have flourished in the era of genome-wide association analysis, understanding the genetic mechanism of individual loci on phenotypes is still readily accomplished using genetic modeling approaches. Here, we demonstrate two novel genotype-phenotype models implemented in a flexible genetic modeling platform. The examples come from analysis of families with specific language impairment (SLI), a failure to develop normal language without explanatory factors such as low IQ or inadequate environment. In previous genome-wide studies, we observed strong evidence for linkage to 13q21 with a reading phenotype in language-impaired families. First, we elucidate the genetic architecture of reading impairment and quantitative language variation in our samples using a bivariate analysis of reading impairment in affected individuals jointly with language quantitative phenotypes in unaffected individuals. This analysis largely recapitulates the baseline analysis using the categorical trait data (posterior probability of linkage (PPL) = 80%), indicating that our reading impairment phenotype captured poor readers who also have low language ability. Second, we performed epistasis analysis using a functional coding variant in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene previously associated with reduced performance on working memory tasks. Modeling epistasis doubled the evidence on 13q21 and raised the PPL to 99.9%, indicating that BDNF and 13q21 susceptibility alleles are jointly part of the genetic architecture of SLI. These analyses provide possible mechanistic insights for further cognitive neuroscience studies based on the models developed herein.

  11. Electrocortical Dynamics in Children with a Language-Learning Impairment Before and After Audiovisual Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Sabine; Choudhury, Naseem; Benasich, April A

    2016-05-01

    Detecting and discriminating subtle and rapid sound changes in the speech environment is a fundamental prerequisite of language processing, and deficits in this ability have frequently been observed in individuals with language-learning impairments (LLI). One approach to studying associations between dysfunctional auditory dynamics and LLI, is to implement a training protocol tapping into this potential while quantifying pre- and post-intervention status. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are highly sensitive to the brain correlates of these dynamic changes and are therefore ideally suited for examining hypotheses regarding dysfunctional auditory processes. In this study, ERP measurements to rapid tone sequences (standard and deviant tone pairs) along with behavioral language testing were performed in 6- to 9-year-old LLI children (n = 21) before and after audiovisual training. A non-treatment group of children with typical language development (n = 12) was also assessed twice at a comparable time interval. The results indicated that the LLI group exhibited considerable gains on standardized measures of language. In terms of ERPs, we found evidence of changes in the LLI group specifically at the level of the P2 component, later than 250 ms after the onset of the second stimulus in the deviant tone pair. These changes suggested enhanced discrimination of deviant from standard tone sequences in widespread cortices, in LLI children after training.

  12. Current Developments in Language Curriculum Design: An Australian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Jill

    1998-01-01

    A review of literature on second-language curriculum design in Australia outlines some general trends in communicative language teaching theory and needs-based language curriculum planning, task-based learning, and recent cultural, social, and literacy perspectives on curriculum, and then examines specific initiatives to reform curricula, to…

  13. Foundations of Refugee Rights: How Legal Language Reflects Current Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the recent anti-immigrant sentiment in the United States and examines the forces causing it. The article examines legal language and opinion in court cases showing shifting anti-immigrant sentiment, including the language used in California's Proposition 187, and argues that this legal language in which court decisions and legislation…

  14. Mental health problems in pre-school children with specific language impairment: Use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, B.C.; Bos, A.C.; Jansen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems (MHP) in children with language disorders ranges from 11 to 55%, due to additional disabilities that have a significant relationship to psychosocial difficulties. Specialists assume that children with a selective disorder [selective language impairment withou

  15. The Importance of Natural Change in Planning School-Based Intervention for Children with Developmental Language Impairment (DLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, Nicola; Gaynor, Marguerite; Tucker, Katie; Orchard-Lisle, Ginnie

    2016-01-01

    Some reports suggest that there is an increase in the number of children identified as having developmental language impairment (Bercow, 2008). yet resource issues have meant that many speech and language therapy services have compromised provision in some way. Thus, efficient ways of identifying need and prioritizing intervention are required.…

  16. Differences in Theory of Mind and Pretend Play Associations in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Melanie; Johnson, Carla J.

    2016-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty engaging in social pretend play, which cannot be explained exclusively by their deficient language skills. Alternatively, the ability to represent mental states (Theory of Mind [ToM]) might be important in appreciating peers' perspectives during pretend play. This study investigated…

  17. When a Story Is Not a Story: A Process Analysis of the Written Language of Hearing-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Downey, Doris M.

    1992-01-01

    The Colorado Process Analysis of the Written Language of Hearing-Impaired Children assesses the semantic characteristics of expressive written language narratives prepared by beginning writers. The validity of the instrument was examined with 284 children (ages 7-21), indicating that the model does identify characteristics that are critical to the…

  18. Initial Mental Graphemic Representation Acquisition and Later Literacy Achievement in Children with Language Impairment: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Julie A.; Self, Trisha; Apel, Kenn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between the ability to quickly acquire initial mental graphemic representations (MGRs) in kindergarten and fourth grade literacy skills in children with typical language (TL) and children with language impairment (LI). The study is a longitudinal extension of a study conducted by Wolter and…

  19. Three Treatments for Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment: Examining Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Domain Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn; Pham, Giang; Disher, Jill Rentmeester; Payesteh, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the absolute and relative effects of 3 different treatment programs for school-age bilingual children with primary or specific language impairment (PLI). It serves to expand the evidence base on which service providers can base treatment decisions. It also explores hypothesized relations between languages and cognition…

  20. Mental health problems in pre-school children with specific language impairment: Use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, B.C.; Bos, A.C.; Jansen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems (MHP) in children with language disorders ranges from 11 to 55%, due to additional disabilities that have a significant relationship to psychosocial difficulties. Specialists assume that children with a selective disorder [selective language impairment withou

  1. Specific Language Impairment as the Prominent Feature in a Patient with a Low-Level Trisomy 21 Mosaicism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoloni-Giacobino, A.; Lemieux, N.; Lemyre, E.; Lespinasse, James

    2007-01-01

    Background: The extent and severity of the disabilities is variable among individuals with Down syndrome, although generally characterized by a range of physical and intellectual conditions, including language impairment. Whether the language deficit is due to the intellectual disability (ID) or associated to the supernumerary or portion of…

  2. Communication, Listening, Cognitive and Speech Perception Skills in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Melanie A.; Hall, Rebecca L.; Riley, Alison; Moore, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Parental reports of communication, listening, and behavior in children receiving a clinical diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) or auditory processing disorder (APD) were compared with direct tests of intelligence, memory, language, phonology, literacy, and speech intelligibility. The primary aim was to identify whether there…

  3. Relations between home numeracy experiences and basic calculation skills of children with and without specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, M.A.J.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relations between home numeracy experiences (i.e., parent-child numeracy activities and parents' numeracy expectations) and basic calculation skills (i.e., addition and subtraction) of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their peers with Normal Languag

  4. Relations between Home Numeracy Experiences and Basic Calculation Skills of Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemans, Tijs; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relations between home numeracy experiences (i.e., parent-child numeracy activities and parents' numeracy expectations) and basic calculation skills (i.e., addition and subtraction) of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their peers with Normal Language Achievement (NLA), while taking into account…

  5. Comparison of Spanish Morphology in Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth P.; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Auza, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    This study compares Spanish morphosyntax error types and magnitude in monolingual Spanish and Spanish-English bilingual children with typical language development (TD) and language impairment (LI). Performance across groups was compared using cloze tasks that targeted articles, clitics, subjunctives, and derivational morphemes in 57 children.…

  6. Narrative Organization Skills in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Language Impairment: Application of the Causal Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fei; Timler, Geralyn R.

    2008-01-01

    Studies suggest that the oral narratives of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are less organized than those of typically developing peers. Many studies, however, do not account for children's language abilities. Because language impairment (LI) is a frequent comorbid condition in children with ADHD, this exploratory…

  7. Specific Language Impairment as the Prominent Feature in a Patient with a Low-Level Trisomy 21 Mosaicism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoloni-Giacobino, A.; Lemieux, N.; Lemyre, E.; Lespinasse, James

    2007-01-01

    Background: The extent and severity of the disabilities is variable among individuals with Down syndrome, although generally characterized by a range of physical and intellectual conditions, including language impairment. Whether the language deficit is due to the intellectual disability (ID) or associated to the supernumerary or portion of…

  8. The Importance of Natural Change in Planning School-Based Intervention for Children with Developmental Language Impairment (DLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, Nicola; Gaynor, Marguerite; Tucker, Katie; Orchard-Lisle, Ginnie

    2016-01-01

    Some reports suggest that there is an increase in the number of children identified as having developmental language impairment (Bercow, 2008). yet resource issues have meant that many speech and language therapy services have compromised provision in some way. Thus, efficient ways of identifying need and prioritizing intervention are required.…

  9. Risk of Reading Difficulty among Students with a History of Speech or Language Impairment: Implications for Student Support Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipoli, Richard P., Jr.; Merritt, Donna D.

    2017-01-01

    Many students with a history of speech or language impairment have an elevated risk of reading difficulty. Specific subgroups of these students remain at risk of reading problems even after clinical manifestations of a speech or language disorder have diminished. These students may require reading intervention within a general education system of…

  10. Exome Sequencing in an Admixed Isolated Population Indicates NFXL1 Variants Confer a Risk for Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villanueva, P.; Nudel, R.; Hoischen, A.; Fernandez, M.A.; Simpson, N.H.; Gilissen, C.; Reader, R.H.; Jara, L.; Echeverry, M.M.; Francks, C.; Baird, G.; Conti-Ramsden, G.; O'Hare, A.; Bolton, P.F.; Hennessy, E.R.; Palomino, H.; Carvajal-Carmona, L.; Veltman, J.A.; Cazier, J.B.; Barbieri, Z. De; Fisher, S.E.; Newbury, D.F.

    2015-01-01

    Children affected by Specific Language Impairment (SLI) fail to acquire age appropriate language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. SLI is highly heritable, but the understanding of underlying genetic mechanisms has proved challenging. In this study, we use molecular genetic techn

  11. Home Literacy Environment Profiles of Children with Language Impairment: Associations with Caregiver- and Child-Specific Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambyraja, Sherine R.; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Farquharson, Kelly; Justice, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies suggest a positive relationship between the home literacy environment (HLE) and children's language and literacy skills, yet very little research has focused on the HLE of children with language impairment (LI). Children with LI are at risk for reading difficulties; thus, understanding the nature and frequency of their…

  12. Nonadjacent Dependency Learning in Cantonese-Speaking Children with and without a History of Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iao, Lai-Sang; Ng, Lai Yan; Wong, Anita Mei Yin; Lee, Oi Ting

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated nonadjacent dependency learning in Cantonese-speaking children with and without a history of specific language impairment (SLI) in an artificial linguistic context. Method: Sixteen Cantonese-speaking children with a history of SLI and 16 Cantonese-speaking children with typical language development (TLD) were…

  13. An Investigation to Validate the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) Test to Identify Children with Specific Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    van der Lely, Heather K. J.; Elisabeth Payne; Alastair McClelland

    2011-01-01

    Background: The extraordinarily high incidence of grammatical language impairments in developmental disorders suggests that this uniquely human cognitive function is "fragile". Yet our understanding of the neurobiology of grammatical impairments is limited. Furthermore, there is no "gold-standard" to identify grammatical impairments and routine screening is not undertaken. An accurate screening test to identify grammatical abilities would serve the research, health and education communities, ...

  14. Teaching Lithuanian as a second/foreign language: Current practicies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiluté Ramoniené

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the restitution of the independence of Lithuania in 1990, one of the key questions of the national language policy in Lithuania was the development and enforcement of a successful language education model. Newly emerging needs have encouraged re- form in learning Lithuanian as a second language at all levels. This paper provides a broad overview of teaching, learning and assessment of Lithuanian as a second/foreign language – an important educational element of the language policy in Lithuania. It focuses on general principles and main problems as well as real practices and changes in 1990–2005.

  15. SECOND LANGUAGE VOCABULARY ASSESSMENT: CURRENT PRACTICES AND NEW DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Read

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys some current developments in second language vocabulary assessment, with particular attention to the ways in which computer corpora can provide better quality information about the frequency of words and how they are used in specific contexts. The relative merits of different word lists are discussed, including the Academic Word List and frequency lists derived from the British National Corpus. Word frequency data is needed for measures of vocabulary size, such as the Yes/No format, which is being developed and used for a variety of purposes. The paper also reviews work on testing depth of knowledge of vocabulary, where rather less progress has been made, both in defining depth as a construct and in developing tests for practical use. Another important perspective is the use of vocabulary within particular contexts of use or registers, and recent corpus research is extending our understanding of the lexical features of academic registers. This provides a basis for assessing learners’ ability to deploy their vocabulary knowledge effectively for functional communication in specific academic contexts. It is concluded that, while current tests of vocabulary knowledge are valuable for certain purposes, they need to be complemented by more contextualised measures of vocabulary use.

  16. Theory of Mind deficits and social emotional functioning in preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Vissers

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI often experience emotional and social difficulties. In general, problems in social emotional functioning can be cognitively explained in terms of Theory of Mind (ToM. In this mini-review, an overview is provided of studies on social-emotional functioning and ToM in preschoolers (average age from 2.3 to 6.2 years with SLI. It is concluded that, similar to school-aged children with SLI, preschoolers with SLI have several social-emotional problems and that both cognitive and affective aspects of ToM are impaired in those children. Based hereon, three possible causal models for the interrelation between language, ToM and social emotional functioning are put forward. It is proposed that future research on the construct and measurement of early ToM, social emotional functioning and language development in preschoolers with SLI is needed to achieve early detection, tailored treatment, and ultimately insight into the pathogenesis of SLI.

  17. Screening for pragmatic language impairment: the potential of the children's communication checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaars, Mieke P; Cuperus, Juliane M; van Daal, John; Jansonius, Kino; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the validity of the Dutch Children's Communication Checklist (CCC) for children in kindergarten in a community sample, in order to assess the feasibility of using it as a screening instrument in the general population. Teachers completed the CCC for a representative sample of 1396 children at kindergarten level, taken from 53 primary schools in The Netherlands. The CCC was also completed for a clinical group consisting of children with SLI in special education. Reliability as measured with internal consistency scores was found to be good for the community sample. With regard to the construct validity, a five-factor second-order factor model was found when the pragmatic subscales were analysed, which provided a reasonable fit. Criterion validity as measured using the concordance between the CCC and teacher opinions was moderate. The children identified by the CCC as having Pragmatic Language Impairment (defined as scoring below the cut off of 132) were often characterized by the teachers as having social-emotional problems, language problems or combined problems. Comparison with a clinical SLI sample showed the pragmatically impaired children in the community sample to have a profile similar to that of the clinical group of children with PLI in special education. The main difference was visible in structural language problems, which were less severe for the PLI group in mainstream education. The results of this study suggest that screening for PLI is indeed possible using the CCC.

  18. [High prevalence of specific language impairment in Robinson Crusoe Island. A possible founder effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Pía; de Barbieri, Zulema; Palomino, Hernán M; Palomino, Hernán

    2008-02-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) occurs in 2% to 8% of preschool children. Major and candidate genes are probably involved. Genetic drift is a cause for the presence of high frequencies of deleterious alíeles of a specific disease and the founder effect is one of its forms. Robinson Crusoe Island has 633 inhabitants and its actual population began with 8 families that repopulated the island at the end of XIXth century. To assess the frequency of specific language impairment among children living in Robinson Crusoe Island. All 66 children aged between 3 and 9 years living in the island, were studied. Parents were interviewed and in children, non verbal intelligence, audiometric parameters, comprehension and expression of oral language were assessed. Extended genealogies were also performed. Forty children had at least one parent that was descending of founder families. Among these, 35% had SLI. Eighth five percent of SLI affected children came from the same colonizer family. The prevalence of SLI in Robinson Crusoe Island is higher than that reported in mainland Chile and abroad. This high prevalence, associated to a high frequency of consanguinity, supports the influence of genetic mechanisms in SLI transmission, based on a founder effect.

  19. Effects of imitative and conversational recasting treatment on the acquisition of grammar in children with specific language impairment and younger language-normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K E; Camarata, S M; Welsh, J; Butkovsky, L; Camarata, M

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the relative effectiveness of imitative treatment and conversational recast treatment in children with language impairment and in a group of children with normal language skills. Language treatment outcomes were compared between a group of older (4.7 to 6.7) specifically-language-impaired (SLI) children and a group of younger (2.2 to 4.2) language-normal (LN) children matched on language levels and on intervention targets. The results indicated: (a) Target acquisition was more rapid under conversational recast treatment for both groups: (b) This outcome held for targets absent initially (in pretreatment sampling and probing) as well as for initially partially mastered targets. (c) SLI children sometimes can learn grammatical structures as efficiently as language-normal children if similar language input is tailored to their specific developmental language levels. Implications of these findings for language treatment strategies with SLI children are discussed. Theoretical models compatible with the data also are considered.

  20. High Current Anxiety Symptoms, But Not a Past Anxiety Disorder Diagnosis, are Associated with Impaired Fear Extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duits, P.; Cath, D.C.; Heitland, I.; Baas, J.M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Although impaired fear extinction has repeatedly been demonstrated in patients with anxiety disorders, little is known about whether these impairments persist after treatment. The current comparative exploratory study investigated fear extinction in 26 patients treated for their anxiety disorder in

  1. Phonological processing in children with specific language impairment with and without reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucas, Tom; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Slonims, Vicky

    2016-09-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is heterogeneous and identifying subgroups within it may help explain the aetiology of the condition. Phonological processing abilities distinguish between children with SLI who do and do not have reading decoding impairments (RDIs). To probe different levels of phonological processing in children with SLI with and without RDI to investigate the cognitive basis of these differences. A total of 64 children aged 5-17 years were classified using the results of standardized language and single-word reading tests into those with no SLI and no RDI (No SLI/No RDI) (N = 18), no SLI but with RDI (No SLI/RDI) (N = 4, not included in analyses because of the small number), SLI/No RDI (N = 20), and SLI/RDI (N = 22). The groups were compared on a range of tasks engaging different levels of phonological processing (input and output processing and phonological awareness). The SLI/RDI group was distinguished from the SLI/No RDI and No SLI/No RDI groups by more errors in the longer items in non-word repetition and by poorer phonological awareness. Non-word discrimination scores indicated a gradient of performance across groups that was not associated with a qualitatively different pattern of performance. This is the first study contrasting input and output processes associated with phonological processing. The results suggest that deficits in SLI plus RDI may be associated with impairment in actively maintaining phonological representations for phonological processing, which is not present in those without RDI and which leads to reading decoding difficulties. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  2. Oral dyspraxia in inherited speech and language impairment and acquired dysphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, K J; Passingham, R E; Watkins, K E; Vargha-Khadem, F

    2000-10-15

    Half of the members of the KE family suffer from an inherited verbal dyspraxia. The affected members of the family have a lasting impairment in phonology and syntax. They were given various tests of oral praxis to investigate whether their deficit extends to nonverbal movements. Performance was compared to adult patients with acquired nonfluent dysphasia, those with comparable right-hemisphere lesions, and age-matched controls. Affected family members and patients with nonfluent dysphasia were impaired overall at performing oral movements, particularly combinations of movements. It is concluded that affected members of the KE family resemble patients with acquired dysphasia in having difficulties with oral praxis and that speech and language problems of affected family members arise from a lower level disorder.

  3. The use of negative inflections by Finnish-speaking children with and without specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnari, Sari; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Leonard, Laurence B; Mäkinen, Leena; Tolonen, Anna-Kaisa

    2014-09-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty expressing subject-verb agreement. However, in many languages, tense is fused with agreement, making it difficult to attribute the problem to agreement in particular. In Finnish, negative markers are function words that agree with the subject in person and number but do not express tense, providing an opportunity to assess the status of agreement in a more straightforward way. Fifteen Finnish-speaking preschoolers with SLI, 15 age controls and 15 younger controls responded to items requiring negative markers in first person singular and plural, and third person singular and plural. The children with SLI were less accurate than both typically developing groups. However, their problems were limited to particular person-number combinations. Furthermore, the children with SLI appeared to have difficulty selecting the form of the lexical verb that should accompany the negative marker, suggesting that agreement was not the sole difficulty.

  4. Context effects on verb production in specific language impairment (SLI): confrontation naming versus connected speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2014-11-01

    A handful of studies have shown that verbs are more vulnerable than nouns to retrieval deficits on picture-based naming tasks for children with specific language impairment (SLI). The aim of this study was to examine if the disproportionate verb as opposed to noun production deficit reported for naming is also found in connected speech. Sixteen children participated in the study: eight children diagnosed with SLI (mean age: 6:3 years) and eight typically language developing (TLD, mean age: 5:9 years) controls. Verb and noun production was measured in connected speech and compared to picture confrontation naming. Both groups of children showed a significant difficulty naming verbs compared to nouns. In contrast, they did not differ on the total number of both verb tokens and verb types produced in connected speech. The findings indicate that the previously reported verb retrieval difficulties in SLI are a product of the confrontation naming task demands rather than a true verb deficit.

  5. Statistical Learning in Specific Language Impairment and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rita; Brooks, Patricia J; Powers, Kasey L; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in statistical learning might be a common deficit among individuals with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Using meta-analysis, we examined statistical learning in SLI (14 studies, 15 comparisons) and ASD (13 studies, 20 comparisons) to evaluate this hypothesis. Effect sizes were examined as a function of diagnosis across multiple statistical learning tasks (Serial Reaction Time, Contextual Cueing, Artificial Grammar Learning, Speech Stream, Observational Learning, and Probabilistic Classification). Individuals with SLI showed deficits in statistical learning relative to age-matched controls. In contrast, statistical learning was intact in individuals with ASD relative to controls. Effect sizes did not vary as a function of task modality or participant age. Our findings inform debates about overlapping social-communicative difficulties in children with SLI and ASD by suggesting distinct underlying mechanisms. In line with the procedural deficit hypothesis (Ullman and Pierpont, 2005), impaired statistical learning may account for phonological and syntactic difficulties associated with SLI. In contrast, impaired statistical learning fails to account for the social-pragmatic difficulties associated with ASD.

  6. Statistical Learning in Specific Language Impairment and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rita; Brooks, Patricia J.; Powers, Kasey L.; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Lum, Jarrad A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in statistical learning might be a common deficit among individuals with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Using meta-analysis, we examined statistical learning in SLI (14 studies, 15 comparisons) and ASD (13 studies, 20 comparisons) to evaluate this hypothesis. Effect sizes were examined as a function of diagnosis across multiple statistical learning tasks (Serial Reaction Time, Contextual Cueing, Artificial Grammar Learning, Speech Stream, Observational Learning, and Probabilistic Classification). Individuals with SLI showed deficits in statistical learning relative to age-matched controls. In contrast, statistical learning was intact in individuals with ASD relative to controls. Effect sizes did not vary as a function of task modality or participant age. Our findings inform debates about overlapping social-communicative difficulties in children with SLI and ASD by suggesting distinct underlying mechanisms. In line with the procedural deficit hypothesis (Ullman and Pierpont, 2005), impaired statistical learning may account for phonological and syntactic difficulties associated with SLI. In contrast, impaired statistical learning fails to account for the social-pragmatic difficulties associated with ASD. PMID:27602006

  7. Statistical Learning in Specific Language Impairment and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Obeid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in statistical learning might be a common deficit among individuals with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Using meta-analysis, we examined statistical learning in SLI (14 studies, 15 comparisons and ASD (13 studies, 20 comparisons to evaluate this hypothesis. Effect sizes were examined as a function of diagnosis across multiple statistical learning tasks (Serial Reaction Time, Contextual Cueing, Artificial Grammar Learning, Speech Stream, Observational Learning, Probabilistic Classification. Individuals with SLI showed deficits in statistical learning relative to age-matched controls g = .47, 95% CI [.28, .66], p < .001. In contrast, statistical learning was intact in individuals with ASD relative to controls, g = –.13, 95% CI [–.34, .08], p = .22. Effect sizes did not vary as a function of task modality or participant age. Our findings inform debates about overlapping social-communicative difficulties in children with SLI and ASD by suggesting distinct underlying mechanisms. In line with the procedural deficit hypothesis (Ullman & Pierpont, 2005, impaired statistical learning may account for phonological and syntactic difficulties associated with SLI. In contrast, impaired statistical learning fails to account for the social-pragmatic difficulties associated with ASD.

  8. The impact of impaired vocal quality on children's ability to process spoken language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, V; Watson, D R

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigated the effect of voice quality on children's ability to process spoken language. A group of 24 children, mean age 11 years 5 months, listened to a series of recorded short passages, half spoken by a female with normal voice and half spoken by a female with a classic vocal impairment (dysphonic voice). The children were tested for their ability to recall words and to draw a final target inference. Children performed better on both preceding indices when listening to the normal voice. The implications of the findings are discussed, with particular reference to the classroom situation.

  9. Grammatical Difficulties in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Is Learning Deficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical accounts of grammatical limitations in specific language impairment (SLI) have been polarized between those that postulate problems with domain-specific grammatical knowledge, and those that regard grammatical deficits as downstream consequences of perceptual or memory limitations. Here we consider an alternative view that grammatical deficits arise when the learning system is biased towards memorization of exemplars, and is poor at extracting statistical dependencies from the input. We examine evidence that SLI involves deficits in extracting nonadjacent dependencies from input, leading to reliance on rote learning, and consider how far this may be part of a limitation of procedural learning, or a secondary consequence of memory limitations.

  10. Developmental Dyslexia With and Without Language Impairment: ERPs Reveal Qualitative Differences in Morphosyntactic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiani, Chiara; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Perego, Paolo; Molteni, Massimo; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize neuropsychological and linguistic skills in children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD) with and without Language Impairment (LI). Behavioral tests of short-term memory, phonemic awareness, and morphosyntactic processing and electrophysiological responses to agreement violations were administered to 32 DD children (16 with additional LI) and 16 controls. Behavioral data revealed quantitative differences among groups: DD+LI children showed the worst performance, followed by DD-only children and controls. Event-related potential results confirmed atypical morphosyntactic processing in the DD-only group, highlighting qualitative differences between groups. These results support multifactor models of learning disabilities, where different patterns of deficits characterize different subgroups.

  11. Language Impairment Resulting from a de novo Deletion of 7q32.1q33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Romero, María S; Barcos-Martínez, Montserrat; Espejo-Portero, Isabel; Benítez-Burraco, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    We report on a girl who presents with hearing loss, behavioral disturbances (according to the Inventory for Client and Agency Planning) as well as motor and cognitive delay (according to Battelle Developmental Inventories) which have a significant impact on her speech and language abilities [according to the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (ed 3), and the Prueba de Lenguaje Oral de Navarra-Revisada (Navarra Oral Language Test, Revised)]. Five copy number variations (CNVs) were identified in the child: arr[hg18] 7q32.1q33(127109685-132492196)×1, 8p23.1(7156900-7359099) ×1, 15q13.1(26215673-26884937)×1, Xp22.33(17245- 102434)×3, and Xp22.33(964441-965024)×3. The pathogenicity of similar CNVs is mostly reported as unknown. The largest deletion is found in a hot spot for cognitive disease and language impairment and contains several genes involved in brain development and function, many of which have been related to developmental disorders encompassing language deficits (dyslexia, speech-sound disorder, and autism). Some of these genes interact with FOXP2. The proband's phenotype may result from a reduced expression of some of these genes.

  12. EXECUTIVE FUNCTION PROFILES IN CHILDREN WITH AND WITHOUT SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Scheuer, Jessica; Yoon, Jungmee; Eichorn, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    We present findings from a study that focused on specific executive functions (EF) in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). We analyzed performance patterns and EF profiles (spatial working memory, inhibition control, and sustained attention) in school-age SLI children and two control groups: age-matched and language matched. Our main research goal was to identify those EFs that show a weakness in children with SLI. Our specific aims were to: (1) examine whether the EF problems in children with SLI are domain-general; (2) examine whether deficits in EF in children with SLI can be explained by the general slowness hypothesis or by an overall delay in development; (3) compare EF profiles to examine whether children with SLI show a distinct pattern of performance from their peers. Our findings showed different EF profiles for the groups. We observed differences in performance patterns related to age (e.g., reaction time in response inhibition) and differences related to language status (e.g., sensitivity to interference). The findings show interesting associations in EFs that play a crucial role in language processing. PMID:25302062

  13. Effect of Early Intervention on Language Development in Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Shojaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing loss from birth up to the age of 3 years has a negative effect on speech/language development and results in sensory, cognitive, emotional, and academic defects in adulthood by causing delayed development of communicative-linguistic abilities. The present study was performed in order to assess the effect of early intervention on language development in Persian children aged 6-7 years with severe sensorineural hearing loss.   Materials and Methods: Thirty boys and girls aged 6-7 years participated in this study, all of them had severe congenital sensorineural hearing loss in both ears. All children were using bilateral behind-the-ear hearing aid, and had similar economic/socio-cultural backgrounds. Subjects were categorized into two groups based on the age of identification/intervention of hearing loss (3-6 and 12-15 months of age. The Persian TOLD-P3 test was used to evaluate language development in all subjects. Data collection was accomplished by observation, completion of questionnaires, and speech recording.   Results: There was a significant difference in language development in 11 sub-tests and five lingual gains on the Persian TOLD-P3 test between early (3-6 months of age and late identified/intervened (12-15 months of age hearing-impaired children (P

  14. Prosodic problems in Swedish children with language impairment: towards a classification of subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Christina; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    2004-01-01

    Symptoms of prosodic problems have been found in Swedish children with language impairment at word and phrase level and possibly also at discourse level. The aim was twofold. First, to characterize a group of children with prosodic problems compared with children with normal language development. Second, to investigate the possibilities to classify subgroups of prosodic problems. A new Swedish assessment procedure for prosody that captures prosodic features at word, phrase and discourse level was used. Twenty-five children with prosodic problems and 25 children with typically developing language matched by age, gender and regional dialect participated in the study. Pretesting included tests of language comprehension, grammatical skills and oral motor skills. The difference between the experimental and control groups was highly significant in all parts of the procedure. The total score of the procedure significantly correlated with grammatical abilities measured in the pretesting procedure, but there was no correlation with the other linguistic abilities measured in the pretesting procedure. The results indicate a possible differentiation into two different subgroups, one with primarily phonetic and/or linguistic problems, the other with prosodic problems at discourse level possibly related to pragmatic problems.

  15. Emergent literacy profiles of preschool-age children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Lomax, Richard G; Justice, Laura M; Breit-Smith, Allison; Skibbe, Lori E; McGinty, Anita S

    2010-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to explore the heterogeneity of emergent literacy skills among preschool-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) through examination of profiles of performance. Fifty-nine children with SLI were assessed on a battery of emergent literacy skills (i.e., alphabet knowledge, print concepts, emergent writing, rhyme awareness) and oral language skills (i.e., receptive/expressive vocabulary and grammar). Cluster analysis techniques identified three emergent literacy profiles: (1) Highest Emergent Literacy, Strength in Alphabet Knowledge; (2) Average Emergent Literacy, Strength in Print Concepts; and (3) Lowest Emergent Literacy across Skills. After taking into account the contribution of child age, receptive and expressive language skills made a small contribution to the prediction of profile membership. The present findings, which may be characterized as exploratory given the relatively modest sample size, suggest that preschool-age children with SLI display substantial individual differences with regard to their emergent literacy skills and that these differences cannot be fully determined by children's age or oral language performance. Replication of the present findings with a larger sample of children is needed.

  16. Putative miRNAs for the diagnosis of dyslexia, dyspraxia, and specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudov, Alexander; Rocchi, Marco Bruno Luigi; Accorsi, Augusto; Spada, Giorgio; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Olivieri, Fabiola; Rippo, Maria Rita; Albertini, Maria Cristina

    2013-10-01

    Disorders of human communication abilities can be classified into speech and language disorders. Speech disorders (e.g., dyspraxia) affect the sound generation and sequencing, while language disorders (e.g., dyslexia and specific language impairment, or SLI) are deficits in the encoding and decoding of language according to its rules (reading, spelling, grammar). The diagnosis of such disorders is often complicated, especially when a patient presents more than one disorder at the same time. The present review focuses on these challenges. We have combined data available from the literature with an in silico approach in an attempt to identify putative miRNAs that may have a key role in dyspraxia, dyslexia and SLI. We suggest the use of new miRNAs, which could have an important impact on the three diseases. Further, we relate those miRNAs to the axon guidance pathway and discuss possible interactions and the role of likely deregulated proteins. In addition, we describe potential differences in expressional deregulation and its role in the improvement of diagnosis. We encourage experimental investigations to test the data obtained in silico.

  17. Inflectional and derivational morphological spelling abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critten, Sarah; Connelly, Vincent; Dockrell, Julie E; Walter, Kirsty

    2014-01-01

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) are known to have difficulties with spelling but the factors that underpin these difficulties, are a matter of debate. The present study investigated the impact of oral language and literacy on the bound morpheme spelling abilities of children with SLI. Thirty-three children with SLI (9-10 years) and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and one for language and spelling age (LA) (aged 6-8 years) were given dictated spelling tasks of 24 words containing inflectional morphemes and 18 words containing derivational morphemes. There were no significant differences between the SLI group and their LA matches in accuracy or error patterns for inflectional morphemes. By contrast when spelling derivational morphemes the SLI group was less accurate and made proportionately more omissions and phonologically implausible errors than both control groups. Spelling accuracy was associated with phonological awareness and reading; reading performance significantly predicted the ability to spell both inflectional and derivational morphemes. The particular difficulties experienced by the children with SLI for derivational morphemes are considered in relation to reading and oral language.

  18. Inflectional and derivational morphological spelling abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eCritten

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI are known to have difficulties with spelling but the factors which underpin these difficulties, are a matter of debate. The present study investigated the impact of oral language and literacy on the bound morpheme spelling abilities of children with SLI. Thirty-three children with SLI (9-10 years and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA and one for language and spelling age (LA (aged 6-8 years were given dictated spelling tasks of 24 words containing inflectional morphemes and 18 words containing derivational morphemes. There were no significant differences between the SLI group and their LA matches in accuracy or error patterns for inflectional morphemes. By contrast when spelling derivational morphemes the SLI group was less accurate and made proportionately more omissions and phonologically implausible errors than both control groups. Spelling accuracy was associated with phonological awareness and reading; reading performance significantly predicted the ability to spell both inflectional and derivational morphemes. The particular difficulties experienced by the children with SLI for derivational morphemes are considered in relation to reading and oral language.

  19. A study on current situations of college students' foreign language anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Ran

    2015-01-01

    An empirical study on current situations of college students' foreign language anxiety is concerned with in this paper. The author adopted Horwitz's Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) to measure the level of foreign language anxiety of 325 participants and then the conclusions are drawn.

  20. Current Trends in English Language Testing. Conference Proceedings for CTELT 1997 and 1998, Vol. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Christine A., Ed.

    Papers from the 1997 and 1998 Current Trends in English Language Testing (CTELT) conferences include: "Computer-Based Language Testing: The Call of the Internet" (G. Fulcher); "Uses of the PET (Preliminary English Test) at Sultan Qaboos University" (R. Taylor); "Issues in Foreign and Second Language Academic Listening…