WorldWideScience

Sample records for current knowledge base

  1. Current trends on knowledge-based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia-García, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book presents innovative and high-quality research on the implementation of conceptual frameworks, strategies, techniques, methodologies, informatics platforms and models for developing advanced knowledge-based systems and their application in different fields, including Agriculture, Education, Automotive, Electrical Industry, Business Services, Food Manufacturing, Energy Services, Medicine and others. Knowledge-based technologies employ artificial intelligence methods to heuristically address problems that cannot be solved by means of formal techniques. These technologies draw on standard and novel approaches from various disciplines within Computer Science, including Knowledge Engineering, Natural Language Processing, Decision Support Systems, Artificial Intelligence, Databases, Software Engineering, etc. As a combination of different fields of Artificial Intelligence, the area of Knowledge-Based Systems applies knowledge representation, case-based reasoning, neural networks, Semantic Web and TICs used...

  2. Associating current knowledge with that of past experience based on knowledge about automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, E C

    1982-01-01

    Important to the performance of interactive systems is the ability of its members to associate current knowledge with knowledge of past experience. Knowledge association results in greater detail of a current knowledge and is demonstrated through the use of examples. It is based on knowledge about automata and the knowledge structures are in the form of graphs. 11 references.

  3. Developing genomic knowledge bases and databases to support clinical management: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Vojtech; Sincan, Murat; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    Personalized medicine, the ability to tailor diagnostic and treatment decisions for individual patients, is seen as the evolution of modern medicine. We characterize here the informatics resources available today or envisioned in the near future that can support clinical interpretation of genomic test results. We assume a clinical sequencing scenario (germline whole-exome sequencing) in which a clinical specialist, such as an endocrinologist, needs to tailor patient management decisions within his or her specialty (targeted findings) but relies on a genetic counselor to interpret off-target incidental findings. We characterize the genomic input data and list various types of knowledge bases that provide genomic knowledge for generating clinical decision support. We highlight the need for patient-level databases with detailed lifelong phenotype content in addition to genotype data and provide a list of recommendations for personalized medicine knowledge bases and databases. We conclude that no single knowledge base can currently support all aspects of personalized recommendations and that consolidation of several current resources into larger, more dynamic and collaborative knowledge bases may offer a future path forward.

  4. Current Technologies Based on the Knowledge of the Stem Cells Microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawad, Damia; Figtree, Gemma; Gentile, Carmine

    2017-01-01

    The stem cell microenvironment or niche plays a critical role in the regulation of survival, differentiation and behavior of stem cells and their progenies. Recapitulating each aspect of the stem cell niche is therefore essential for their optimal use in in vitro studies and in vivo as future therapeutics in humans. Engineering of optimal conditions for three-dimensional stem cell culture includes multiple transient and dynamic physiological stimuli, such as blood flow and tissue stiffness. Bioprinting and microfluidics technologies, including organs-on-a-chip, are among the most recent approaches utilized to replicate the three-dimensional stem cell niche for human tissue fabrication that allow the integration of multiple levels of tissue complexity, including blood flow. This chapter focuses on the physico-chemical and genetic cues utilized to engineer the stem cell niche and provides an overview on how both bioprinting and microfluidics technologies are improving our knowledge in this field for both disease modeling and tissue regeneration, including drug discovery and toxicity high-throughput assays and stem cell-based therapies in humans.

  5. How Do Clinicians Learn About Knowledge Translation? An Investigation of Current Web-Based Learning Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarell, Raechel A; Tieman, Jennifer J

    2017-07-13

    Clinicians are important stakeholders in the translation of well-designed research evidence into clinical practice for optimal patient care. However, the application of knowledge translation (KT) theories and processes may present conceptual and practical challenges for clinicians. Online learning platforms are an effective means of delivering KT education, providing an interactive, time-efficient, and affordable alternative to face-to-face education programs. This study investigates the availability and accessibility of online KT learning opportunities for health professionals. It also provides an analysis of the types of resources and associated disciplines retrieved by a range of KT synonyms. We searched a range of bibliographic databases and the Internet (Google advanced option) using 9 KT terms to identify online KT learning resources. To be eligible, resources had to be free, aimed at clinicians, educational in intent, and interactive in design. Each term was searched using two different search engines. The details of the first 100 websites captured per browser (ie, n=200 results per term) were entered into EndNote. Each site was subsequently visited to determine its status as a learning resource. Eligible websites were appraised for quality using the AACODS (Authority, Accuracy, Coverage, Objectivity, Date, Significance) tool. We identified 971 unique websites via our multiple search strategies. Of these, 43 were health-related and educational in intent. Once these sites were evaluated for interactivity, a single website matched our inclusion criteria (Dementia Knowledge Translation Learning Centre). KT is an important but complex system of processes. These processes overlap with knowledge, practice, and improvement processes that go by a range of different names. For clinicians to be informed and competent in KT, they require better access to free learning opportunities. These resources should be designed from the viewpoint of the clinician, presenting KT

  6. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Ionel HRETCANU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss various aspects of the current economy known as the knowledge economy. Also we will review two indicators of this new economy, because these indicators presents a general plan on access, use and degree of diffusion of knowledge. Then, based on these indicators and taking into account other aspects, we outline the structure relations between "new economy" and "digital economy". Finally we present the main types of business existing in the digital economy.

  7. Current knowledge on pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan eIovanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death with a median survival of 6 months and a dismal 5-year survival rate of 3-5%. The development and progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and the deregulation of many signalling pathways. Therefore, the strategies targeting these molecules as well as their downstream signalling could be promising for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, although targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer have yielded encouraging results in vitro and in animal models, these findings have not been translated into improved outcomes in clinical trials. This failure is due to an incomplete understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer and to the selection of poorly efficient or imperfectly targeted agents. In this review, we will critically present the current knowledge regarding the molecular, biochemical, clinical and therapeutic aspects of pancreatic cancer.

  8. Current Knowledge on Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovanna, Juan; Mallmann, Maria Cecilia; Gonçalves, Anthony; Turrini, Olivier; Dagorn, Jean-Charles

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death with a median survival of 6 months and a dismal 5-year survival rate of 3–5%. The development and progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways. Therefore, the strategies targeting these molecules as well as their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, although targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer have yielded encouraging results in vitro and in animal models, these findings have not been translated into improved outcomes in clinical trials. This failure is due to an incomplete understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer and to the selection of poorly efficient or imperfectly targeted agents. In this review, we will critically present the current knowledge regarding the molecular, biochemical, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of pancreatic cancer.

  9. Current Knowledge on Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovanna, Juan [INSERM U624, Stress Cellulaire, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Marseille (France); Mallmann, Maria Cecilia [Centre d’Investigation Clinique de Marseille, Marseille (France); Gonçalves, Anthony [Département d’Oncologie Médicale, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille (France); Turrini, Olivier [Département de Chirurgie Oncologique, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille (France); Dagorn, Jean-Charles, E-mail: juan.iovanna@inserm.fr [INSERM U624, Stress Cellulaire, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Marseille (France)

    2012-01-31

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death with a median survival of 6 months and a dismal 5-year survival rate of 3–5%. The development and progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways. Therefore, the strategies targeting these molecules as well as their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, although targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer have yielded encouraging results in vitro and in animal models, these findings have not been translated into improved outcomes in clinical trials. This failure is due to an incomplete understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer and to the selection of poorly efficient or imperfectly targeted agents. In this review, we will critically present the current knowledge regarding the molecular, biochemical, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of pancreatic cancer.

  10. E-resource knowledge bases and link resolvers: an assessment of the current products and emerging trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Breeding

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the findings of a study on e-resource knowledge bases and OpenURL-based link resolvers sponsored by the National Library of Sweden. The project involved soliciting detailed information from each of the providers of the major products in this genre, reviewing product information available on the web and in published articles, and conducting a survey addressed to libraries using these products. The report identified and presented comparative information on a top tier of products that includes KnowledgeWorks and 360 Link from Serials Solutions; SFX Global KnowledgeBase and the SFX link resolver from Ex Libris; LinkSource and the EBSCO Integrated Knowledge Base from EBSCO and the WorldCat knowledge base from OCLC. A second tier included TOUResolver from TDNet, Gold Rush from the Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries and GODOT from Simon Fraser University. Innovative Interfaces, Inc offers the WebBridge link resolver but does not produce a knowledge base. The library survey revealed relatively narrow differences in the statistical results. Serial Solutions emerged as more favorable in most categories except for end-user functionality where Ex Libris received higher ratings. The Global Open Knowledgebase project (GOKb is noteworthy as a nascent community-based effort to produce a knowledge base. Key trends noted include less emphasis on knowledge bases and link resolvers as stand-alone products as they become integral components of comprehensive discovery and automation products.

  11. One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating...... that there is one common knowledge base on which economic activities can be built. In this paper we argue that it is more appropriate to see the economy as connecting to different ‘pools of knowledge'. The argument is built upon a conceptual framework where we make distinctions between private/public, local....../global, individual/collective and tacit/codified knowledge. The purpose is both ‘academic' and practical. Our analysis demonstrates the limits of a narrowly economic perspective on knowledge and we show that these distinctions have important implications both for innovation policy and for management of innovation....

  12. Considering Human Capital Theory in Assessment and Training: Mapping the Gap between Current Skills and the Needs of a Knowledge-Based Economy in Northeast Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm-Herold, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    In light of the current economic downturn, thousands of Iowans are unemployed and this is the ideal time to build the skills of the workforce to compete in the knowledge-based economy so businesses and entrepreneurs can compete in a global economy. A tool for assessing the skills and knowledge of dislocated workers and students as well as…

  13. Knowledge base mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwa, M; Furukawa, K; Makinouchi, A; Mizoguchi, T; Mizoguchi, F; Yamasaki, H

    1982-01-01

    One of the principal goals of the Fifth Generation Computer System Project for the coming decade is to develop a methodology for building knowledge information processing systems which will provide people with intelligent agents. The key notion of the fifth generation computer system is knowledge used for problem solving. In this paper the authors describe the plan of Randd on knowledge base mechanisms. A knowledge representation system is to be designed to support knowledge acquisition for the knowledge information processing systems. The system will include a knowledge representation language, a knowledge base editor and a debugger. It is also expected to perform as a kind of meta-inference system. In order to develop the large scale knowledge base systems, a knowledge base mechanism based on the relational model is to be studied in the earlier stage of the project. Distributed problem solving is also one of the main issues of the project. 19 references.

  14. A Review on Current Status of Stability and Knowledge on Liquid Electrolyte-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Sauvage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to gather the current background in materials development and provide the reader with an accurate image of today’s knowledge regarding the stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. This contribution highlights the literature from the 1970s to the present day on nanostructured TiO2, dye, Pt counter electrode, and liquid electrolyte for which this review is focused on.

  15. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-06-28

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits. Currently, there are approximately 11,000 human and animal sequences of HEV available at the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. HEV is the major cause of waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in areas of poor sanitation. Additionally, it is responsible for sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in not only endemic but industrialized countries as well. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral and perinatal routes have been reported. HEV infection develops in most individuals as a self-limiting, acute, icteric hepatitis; with mortality rates around 1%. However, some affected individuals will develop fulminant hepatic failure, a serious condition that is frequently fatal without a liver transplant. This complication is particularly common when the infection occurs in pregnant women, where mortality rates rise dramatically to up to 25%. Among the preventive measures available to avoid HEV infection, two separate subunit vaccines containing recombinant truncated capsid proteins of HEV have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of disease. One of them, HEV 239, was approved in China, and its commercialization by Innovax began in November 2012 under the name Hecolin(®).

  16. Interactions of metal-based engineered nanoparticles with aquatic higher plants: A review of the state of current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwala, Melusi; Klaine, Stephen J; Musee, Ndeke

    2016-07-01

    The rising potential for the release of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into aquatic environments requires evaluation of risks to protect ecological health. The present review examines knowledge pertaining to the interactions of metal-based ENPs with aquatic higher plants, identifies information gaps, and raises considerations for future research to advance knowledge on the subject. The discussion focuses on ENPs' bioaccessibility; uptake, adsorption, translocation, and bioaccumulation; and toxicity effects on aquatic higher plants. An information deficit surrounds the uptake of ENPs and associated dynamics, because the influence of ENP characteristics and water quality conditions has not been well documented. Dissolution appears to be a key mechanism driving bioaccumulation of ENPs, whereas nanoparticulates often adsorb to plant surfaces with minimal internalization. However, few reports document the internalization of ENPs by plants; thus, the role of nanoparticulates' internalization in bioaccumulation and toxicity remains unclear, requiring further investigation. The toxicities of metal-based ENPs mainly have been associated with dissolution as a predominant mechanism, although nano toxicity has also been reported. To advance knowledge in this domain, future investigations need to integrate the influence of ENP characteristics and water physicochemical parameters, as their interplay determines ENP bioaccessibility and influences their risk to health of aquatic higher plants. Furthermore, harmonization of test protocols is recommended for fast tracking the generation of comparable data. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1677-1694. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Monitoring Knowledge Base (MKB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Monitoring Knowledge Base (MKB) is a compilation of emissions measurement and monitoring techniques associated with air pollution control devices, industrial...

  18. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-01-01

    The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE) in the XXI century is evident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. The authors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the exist...

  19. Current Knowledge on Microarray Technology - An Overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Review Article. Current Knowledge ... containing libraries of oligonucleotides robotically ... measurements, and averages over each oligonucleotide. ... quality of chips produced depends critically ..... Bae EK, Lee H, Lee JS, Noh EW. Isolation ...

  20. [Male contraception - the current state of knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmynt; Kasperska, Karolina; Lewandowska, Marta

    2016-08-01

    Contraception is important from a health, psychological and socioeconomic point of view. Due to the fact that male-based contraceptive methods are mostly represented by condoms and vasectomy, researchers are working on the new solutions, which could let the men be more involved in a conscious family planning. In this review we will present the current state of knowledge on this subject. There is a lot going on in the field of hormonal contraception. Studies including testosterone, progestins, synthetic androgens and other derivatives are on a different stages of clinical trials and mostly demonstrate high efficacy rates. Recent discovers of Izumo and Juno proteins, essential for the fertilization process, give hope for an easily reversible, non-hormonal method. Researchers are also trying to interfere with the process of spermatogenesis using BRDT inhibitor - JQ1, or neutralize the sperm by injecting styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) into the lumen of the vas deferens. The other studies explore processes involved in proper sperm motility. A vaccine which induces an immune response to the reproductive system is also an interesting method. The latest research use ultrasound waves and mechanical device which blocks the patency of vas deferens. The aim of the study current state of knowledge male contraception. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  1. What is the Current Knowledge About the Cardiovascular Risk for Users of Cannabis-Based Products? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanjus, Emilie; Raymond, Valentin; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Wolff, Valérie

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the published evidence on the cardiovascular risk related to the use of cannabis-based products by performing a systematic review of recent literature. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that cannabis use represents a risky behavior as it may lead to many adverse effects, and in particular, cardiovascular effects. A systematic review of articles published between January 1, 2011 and May 31, 2016 was performed in agreement with the PRISMA statement. Articles presenting data on humans exposed to cannabis-based products and suffering from any cardiovascular condition were eligible for inclusion. The inclusion process was based on a search algorithm and performed in a blinded standardized manner. Overall, 826 articles were found in the literature search, 115 of which remained after performing the inclusion procedure. These were 81 case reports, 29 observational studies, 3 clinical trials, and 2 experimental studies. A total of 116 individuals was the subject of case reports. The mean age was 31 years (95%CI = 29-34), and patients were more frequently men (81.9%) than women (18.1%). They mainly suffered from ischemic strokes or myocardial infarctions. Data provided by the 29 included observational studies evidenced an association between exposure to cannabis-based products and cardiovascular disease. Currently, this evidence is stronger for ischemic strokes than for any other cardiovascular diseases. While the data are limited, there is some suggestion that cannabis use may have negative cardiovascular consequences, particularly at large doses.

  2. Current Hitachi knowledge engineering systems: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masui, S; Maeda, A; Masuishi, T [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-02-01

    In order to bring the knowledge engineering technology up to the practical phase, Hitachi has provided several knowledge engineering system products, including expert system building tools, knowledge acquisition tools, and many kinds of stand-alone and build-in expert systems in both the business and process control fields. In this review article, an overview of Hitachi{prime}s recent knowledge systems is described, which includes a trend analysis on recent market recognition. In addition, to introduce the Hitachi{prime}s current activities, a new product, a user interface building tool, and a new method of tuning fuzzy membership functions using a neuro-computing algorithm are also described. Furthermore, it is pointed out that not only practical tools and methodologies, but also a practical development team, including a planning section, a cooperating expert, a user section, and experienced knowledge engineers, is needed to achieve practical expert systems. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Loyalty Programmes : Current Knowledge and Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorotic, Matilda; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    Loyalty programmes (LPs) have increased in number and popularity, but their effects on customer behaviour remain equivocal, due to a lack of understanding of the drivers of LP effectiveness and insufficient generalizable conclusions across prior studies. This paper synthesizes current knowledge

  4. Knowledge-based utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwalowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation provides industry examples of successful marketing practices by companies facing deregulation and competition. The common thread through the examples is that long term survival of today's utility structure is dependent on the strategic role of knowledge. As opposed to regulated monopolies which usually own huge physical assets and have very little intelligence about their customers, unregulated enterprises tend to be knowledge-based, characterized by higher market value than book value. A knowledge-based enterprise gathers data, creates information and develops knowledge by leveraging it as a competitive weapon. It institutionalizes human knowledge as a corporate asset for use over and over again by the use of databases, computer networks, patents, billing, collection and customer services (BCCS), branded interfaces and management capabilities. Activities to become knowledge-based such as replacing inventory/fixed assets with information about material usage to reduce expenditure and achieve more efficient operations, and by focusing on integration and value-adding delivery capabilities, were reviewed

  5. Comparing Effectiveness of New Training Program of Local Trainers of Community-Based Rehabilitation Program with the Current Program: A Knowledge, Attitude and Skills Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Iravani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research aimed at comparison effects of a new and current "training program for community rehabilitation workers of Community Based Rehabilitation", in enhancing their knowledge, attitude and skills. Materials & Methods: In this experimental field trial, a total number of 34 newly engaged local trainers in Lorestan province were divided randomly in two (16 and 18 peoplesinterventional groups based on geographical location of their work places Teaching methods were roll playing, problem solving, and learning by doing in new program and the booklets were revised in terms of fluency and a guideline booklet for trainers were added in this program but the teaching method was reading booklets and demonstration of the skills in current program. Knowledge, Attitude and Skills of trainees assessed just before and after the training course based on the material which were used for the training course. K.A.P. changes of two groups were compared by independent t-test, Mann Whitney, Wilcoxon & Chi square. Results: Mean knowledge and skills scores increments were remarkably more significant after attending new course than after passing the current course (P<0.001 and more rehabilitation workers who attending new course use practical guides in addition to verbal instructions to train disabled people and their families (P=0.028. There were no significant differences in attitude changes among the two groups. Conclusion: As trainees learned more by means of the new training course and the two courses were not so different in the resource allocation, substituting the new method to the current one should get consideration.

  6. Knowledge based maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, A [Hamburgische Electacitaets-Werke AG Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The establishment of maintenance strategies is of crucial significance for the reliability of a plant and the economic efficiency of maintenance measures. Knowledge about the condition of components and plants from the technical and business management point of view therefore becomes one of the fundamental questions and the key to efficient management and maintenance. A new way to determine the maintenance strategy can be called: Knowledge Based Maintenance. A simple method for determining strategies while taking the technical condition of the components of the production process into account to the greatest possible degree which can be shown. A software with an algorithm for Knowledge Based Maintenance leads the user during complex work to the determination of maintenance strategies for this complex plant components. (orig.)

  7. Knowledge based maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, A. [Hamburgische Electacitaets-Werke AG Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The establishment of maintenance strategies is of crucial significance for the reliability of a plant and the economic efficiency of maintenance measures. Knowledge about the condition of components and plants from the technical and business management point of view therefore becomes one of the fundamental questions and the key to efficient management and maintenance. A new way to determine the maintenance strategy can be called: Knowledge Based Maintenance. A simple method for determining strategies while taking the technical condition of the components of the production process into account to the greatest possible degree which can be shown. A software with an algorithm for Knowledge Based Maintenance leads the user during complex work to the determination of maintenance strategies for this complex plant components. (orig.)

  8. Knowledge based Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll, John

    This book is dedicated enterprising people with a technical or a scientific background who consider commercializing ideas and inventions within their field of expertise via a new business activity or a new company. It aims at distilling experiences from many successful and not so successful start......-up ventures from the Technical University of Denmark, 1988 – 2008 into practical, portable knowledge that can be used by future knowledge-based entrepreneurs to set up new companies efficiently or to stay away from it; to do what’s needed and avoid the pitfalls....

  9. Bioherbicides: Current knowledge on weed control mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz A; Abd Allah, Elsayed Fathi

    2018-04-17

    Weed control is a challenging event during crop cultivation. Integrated management, including the application of bioherbicides, is an emerging method for weed control in sustainable agriculture. Plant extracts, allelochemicals and some microbes are utilized as bioherbicides to control weed populations. Bioherbicides based on plants and microbes inhibit the germination and growth of weeds; however,few studies conducted in weed physiology. This review ascribes the current knowledge of the physiological changes in weeds that occur during the exposure to bioherbicides. Plant extracts or metabolites are absorbed by weed seeds, which initiates damage to the cell membrane, DNA, mitosis, amylase activity and other biochemical processes and delays or inhibits seed germination. The growth of weeds is also retarded due to low rates of root-cell division, nutrient uptake, photosynthetic pigment synthesis, and plant growth hormone synthesis, while the productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and stress-mediated hormones increase, including irregular antioxidant activity. However, lytic enzymes and toxic substances secreted from microbes degrade the weed seed coat and utilize the endosperm for survival, which inhibits seed germination. The microbes grow through the intercellular spaces to reach the root core, and the deposition of toxins in the cells affects cell division and cellular functions. Some of the metabolites of deleterious microbes cause disease, necrosis and chlorosis,which inhibit the germination and growth of weed seeds by suppressing photosynthesis and gibberellin activities and enhancing ROS, abscisic acid and ethylene. This review explains the effects of bioherbicides (derived from plants and microbes) on weed-plant physiology to elucidate their modes of action. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mainstreaming: Our Current Knowledge Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Percy, Ed.

    The nine author contributed chapters are intended to provide a basic introduction to the rationale and processes of mainstreaming handicapped children. The first paper, "The Whys and Hows of Mainstreaming" by T. Tice, provides a philosophical examination of the basic principles of P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, and…

  11. The knowledge base of journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svith, Flemming

    In this paper I propose the knowledge base as a fruitful way to apprehend journalism. With the claim that the majority of practice is anchored in knowledge – understood as 9 categories of rationales, forms and levels – this knowledge base appears as a contextual look at journalists’ knowledge......, and place. As an analytical framework, the knowledge base is limited to understand the practice of newspaper journalists, but, conversely, the knowledge base encompasses more general beginnings through the inclusion of overall structural relationships in the media and journalism and general theories...... on practice and knowledge. As the result of an abductive reasoning is a theory proposal, there is a need for more deductive approaches to test the validity of this knowledge base claim. It is thus relevant to investigate which rationales are included in the knowledge base of journalism, as the dimension does...

  12. Logically automorphically equivalent knowledge bases

    OpenAIRE

    Aladova, Elena; Plotkin, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge bases theory provide an important example of the field where applications of universal algebra and algebraic logic look very natural, and their interaction with practical problems arising in computer science might be very productive. In this paper we study the equivalence problem for knowledge bases. Our interest is to find out how the informational equivalence is related to the logical description of knowledge. Studying various equivalences of knowledge bases allows us to compare d...

  13. Machine intelligence and knowledge bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, K

    1981-09-01

    The basic functions necessary in machine intelligence are a knowledge base and a logic programming language such as PROLOG using deductive reasoning. Recently inductive reasoning based on meta knowledge and default reasoning have been developed. The creative thought model of Lenit is reviewed and the concept of knowledge engineering is introduced. 17 references.

  14. Foundation: Transforming data bases into knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, R. B.; Carnes, James R.; Cutts, Dannie E.

    1987-01-01

    One approach to transforming information stored in relational data bases into knowledge based representations and back again is described. This system, called Foundation, allows knowledge bases to take advantage of vast amounts of pre-existing data. A benefit of this approach is inspection, and even population, of data bases through an intelligent knowledge-based front-end.

  15. Knowledge Based Health

    OpenAIRE

    Sasson, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we assess the underlying properties of a global knowledge hub to examine the extent to which the Norwegian health industry constitutes such a hub. We begin with a general discussion of the industry before we examine the underlying properties of global knowledge hubs: cluster attractiveness, educational attractiveness, talent attractiveness, R&D and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics. We conclude by providin...

  16. Knowledge-based Telecom Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vinje, Villeman; Nordkvelde, Marius

    2011-01-01

    BI Norwegian School of Management is conducting a national research project entitled “A knowledge-based Norway”. Thirteen major knowledge-based industries in Norway are being analyzed under the auspices of the project. This study assesses the underlying properties of a global knowledge hub to examine the extent to which the Norwegian telecom industry – which encompasses all telecom firms located in Norway regardless of ownership – constitutes a global knowledge hub. It commences with a ge...

  17. Parastomal hernia - current knowledge and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styliński, Roman; Alzubedi, Adam; Rudzki, Sławomir

    2018-03-01

    Intestinal stoma creation is one of the most common surgical procedures. The most common long-term complication following stoma creation is parastomal hernia, which according to some authors is practically unavoidable. Statistical differences of its occurrence are mainly due to patient observation time and evaluation criteria. Consequently, primary prevention methods such as placement of prosthetic mesh and newly developed minimally invasive methods of stoma creation are used. It seems that in the light of evidence-based medicine, the best way to treat parastomal hernia is the one that the surgeon undertaking therapy is the most experienced in and is suited to the individuality of each patient, his condition and comorbidities. As a general rule, reinforcing the abdominal wall with a prosthetic mesh is the treatment of choice, with a low rate of complications and relapses over a long period of time. The current trend is to use lightweight, large pore meshes.

  18. Exchanging Description Logic Knowledge Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As

  19. Knowledge management based organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manev Gjorgji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accomplishment of the goals set by a business organization implies implementation of knowledge management. It allows coordination of the working processes with the information technologies, with a view to adapting the organization's operations to the problems encountered. Overcoming these problems involves designing and implementation of complex business systems supported by information technology. This can be achieved by management that will monitor the business processes through clear indicators, with the purpose of accomplishing the preset strategic goals. This managerial staff must be fully devoted and committed to their work, to learning and creation of expertise that will help overcome the competition challenges.

  20. Fuzzy knowledge bases integration based on ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Ternovoy, Maksym; Shtogrina, Olena

    2012-01-01

    the paper describes the approach for fuzzy knowledge bases integration with the usage of ontology. This approach is based on metadata-base usage for integration of different knowledge bases with common ontology. The design process of metadata-base is described.

  1. [Hypnosis and pain: current and perspective knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioy, Antoine

    2012-06-27

    After further controversies, the definition of hypnosis is to be at the same time a modified state of consciousness and a particular intersubjective relation between a practitioner and his patient. In a synthetic way, we can say that mechanisms of hypnosis on acute pain are now well known, and its efficiency is particularly proved in the pain provoked by the care. On the other hand, the knowledge concerning the action of the hypnosis on chronic pain is much more complex to understand. If the hypnosis allows connoting differently pain and to decrease its implication in patient's life, otherWise the long-term reorganizations of hypnosis on chronic pain are still for the study. In practice, the field which his particularly in development is the analogical processes of the speech, because they are particularly present in pain medicine, and easy to use in hypnotic method.

  2. Current Knowledge on Microarray Technology - An Overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    This paper reviews basics and updates of each microarray technology and serves to .... through protein microarrays. Protein microarrays also known as protein chips are nothing but grids that ... conditioned media, patient sera, plasma and urine. Clontech ... based antibody arrays) is similar to membrane-based antibody ...

  3. Querying Natural Logic Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Jensen, Per Anker

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the principles of a system applying natural logic as a knowledge base language. Natural logics are regimented fragments of natural language employing high level inference rules. We advocate the use of natural logic for knowledge bases dealing with querying of classes...... in ontologies and class-relationships such as are common in life-science descriptions. The paper adopts a version of natural logic with recursive restrictive clauses such as relative clauses and adnominal prepositional phrases. It includes passive as well as active voice sentences. We outline a prototype...... for partial translation of natural language into natural logic, featuring further querying and conceptual path finding in natural logic knowledge bases....

  4. Distributed, cooperating knowledge-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walt

    1991-01-01

    Some current research in the development and application of distributed, cooperating knowledge-based systems technology is addressed. The focus of the current research is the spacecraft ground operations environment. The underlying hypothesis is that, because of the increasing size, complexity, and cost of planned systems, conventional procedural approaches to the architecture of automated systems will give way to a more comprehensive knowledge-based approach. A hallmark of these future systems will be the integration of multiple knowledge-based agents which understand the operational goals of the system and cooperate with each other and the humans in the loop to attain the goals. The current work includes the development of a reference model for knowledge-base management, the development of a formal model of cooperating knowledge-based agents, the use of testbed for prototyping and evaluating various knowledge-based concepts, and beginning work on the establishment of an object-oriented model of an intelligent end-to-end (spacecraft to user) system. An introductory discussion of these activities is presented, the major concepts and principles being investigated are highlighted, and their potential use in other application domains is indicated.

  5. Sleep bruxism: Current knowledge and contemporary management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Adrian U.; Chua, Ai Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular disorders, headaches, tooth wear/fracture, implant, and other restoration failure. Chairside recognition of SB involves the use of subjective reports, clinical examinations, and trial oral splints. Definitive diagnosis of SB can only be achieved using electrophysiological tools. Pharmacological, psychological, and dental strategies had been employed to manage SB. There is at present, no effective treatment that “cures” or “stops” SB permanently. Management is usually directed toward tooth/restoration protection, reduction of bruxism activity, and pain relief. PMID:27656052

  6. Sleep bruxism: Current knowledge and contemporary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Adrian U; Chua, Ai Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular disorders, headaches, tooth wear/fracture, implant, and other restoration failure. Chairside recognition of SB involves the use of subjective reports, clinical examinations, and trial oral splints. Definitive diagnosis of SB can only be achieved using electrophysiological tools. Pharmacological, psychological, and dental strategies had been employed to manage SB. There is at present, no effective treatment that "cures" or "stops" SB permanently. Management is usually directed toward tooth/restoration protection, reduction of bruxism activity, and pain relief.

  7. Ontologies, Knowledge Bases and Knowledge Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chalupsky, Hans

    2002-01-01

    ...) an application called Strategy Development Assistant (SDA) that uses that ontology. The JFACC ontology served as a basis for knowledge sharing among several applications in the domain of air campaign planning...

  8. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah

    2017-10-02

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.

  9. Azelaic acid in dermatological treatment – current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Reszke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Azelaic acid (AZA is a naturally occurring substance produced by Malassezia furfur which exerts various effects on the skin. Azelaic acid has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, keratolytic, comedolytic, sebostatic and tyrosinase-inhibiting properties. Topical application of AZA as 20% cream or 15% gel is a well-established therapeutic method in various common dermatoses, mainly acne vulgaris, rosacea and disorders associated with hyperpigmentation. Azelaic acid is used as a component of chemical peels as well. The paper summarizes the most relevant issues concerning AZA application in dermatological treatment based on current knowledge.

  10. KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY, GENERAL FRAMEWORK FOR KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos CRISTEA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to present the existent relation between knowledge society and knowledge based economy. We will identify the main pillars of knowledge society and present their importance for the development of knowledge societies. Further, we will present two perspectives over knowledge societies, respectively science and learning perspectives, that directly affects knowledge based economies. At the end, we will conclude by identifying some important questions that must be answered regarding this new social paradigm.

  11. Community-based knowledge translation: unexplored opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Rebecca

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge translation is an interactive process of knowledge exchange between health researchers and knowledge users. Given that the health system is broad in scope, it is important to reflect on how definitions and applications of knowledge translation might differ by setting and focus. Community-based organizations and their practitioners share common characteristics related to their setting, the evidence used in this setting, and anticipated outcomes that are not, in our experience, satisfactorily reflected in current knowledge translation approaches, frameworks, or tools. Discussion Community-based organizations face a distinctive set of challenges and concerns related to engaging in the knowledge translation process, suggesting a unique perspective on knowledge translation in these settings. Specifically, community-based organizations tend to value the process of working in collaboration with multi-sector stakeholders in order to achieve an outcome. A feature of such community-based collaborations is the way in which 'evidence' is conceptualized or defined by these partners, which may in turn influence the degree to which generalizable research evidence in particular is relevant and useful when balanced against more contextually-informed knowledge, such as tacit knowledge. Related to the issues of evidence and context is the desire for local information. For knowledge translation researchers, developing processes to assist community-based organizations to adapt research findings to local circumstances may be the most helpful way to advance decision making in this area. A final characteristic shared by community-based organizations is involvement in advocacy activities, a function that has been virtually ignored in traditional knowledge translation approaches. Summary This commentary is intended to stimulate further discussion in the area of community-based knowledge translation. Knowledge translation, and exchange

  12. Current state about the cuaternary knowledge of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, D; Goso, H.

    1974-01-01

    This work is about current state of cuaternary knowledge Uruguayan. It is considered that the cuaternary presented a change from the hot and dry weather of the Pliocene to more humid and colder weather in Uruguay.

  13. Diuretics in pediatrics: Current knowledge and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. van der Vorst (Maria); M. Kist (Manfred); A.J. van der Heijden (Bert); J. Burggraaf (Jacobus)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis review summarizes current knowledge on the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical application of the most commonly used diuretics in children. Diuretics are frequently prescribed drugs in children. Their main indication is to reduce fluid overload in acute

  14. Climate change impacts in Northern Canada: Assessing our current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, M.J.; Eamer, J. [Environment Canada, Environmental Conservation Branch, Whitehorse, YT (Canada); Munier, A.; Ogden, A. [Yukon College, Northern Climate ExChange, Whitehorse, YT (Canada); Duerden, F. [Ryerson University, School of Applied Geography, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hik, D. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fox, S.; Riedlinger, D.; Thorpe, N. [GeoNorth Limited, Whitehorse, YT (Canada); Johnson, I.; Jensen, M. [Legend Seekers Anthropological Research, Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A research project by the Northern Climate ExChange at Yukon College, undertaken to bring together into one document all relevant information that will help facilitate the identification of priorities for climate change research, monitoring, technological development and policy development in Canada's North, is described. In addition to the report, project deliverables also include a database of climate change information sources and a database of northern climate change contacts. The review includes scientific, local and Traditional Knowledge sources relating to climate change about each of seventeen natural and human systems (e.g. boreal forests, community health, mining, etc.), synthesized into a table for each system, with projected environmental changes crossed in matrix format with system components. Each cross-relationship was given a ranking; supporting information was included, based on the current state of knowledge of that relationship. In general, current information concerning northern systems, predicted climate changes and the impacts of those changes on northern systems is poor. However, much information does exist and the gap analysis revealed a number of general patterns relating to this information. Clearly, more research is required throughout northern Canada, but in particular, in the eastern Arctic, to provide a greater understanding of the implications of climate changes across the North, and to aid in the development of finer-scale, regional circulation models resulting in better predictive capacity of climate change and its impacts on northern areas.

  15. Reusing Design Knowledge Based on Design Cases and Knowledge Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Haobai; Shen, Jiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    Design knowledge was reused for innovative design work to support designers with product design knowledge and help designers who lack rich experiences to improve their design capacity and efficiency. First, based on the ontological model of product design knowledge constructed by taxonomy, implicit and explicit knowledge was extracted from some…

  16. Knowledge Acquisition Using Linguistic-Based Knowledge Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1998-01-01

    Most knowledge-based system developmentefforts include acquiring knowledge from one or more sources. difficulties associated with this knowledge acquisition task are readily acknowledged by most researchers. While a variety of knowledge acquisition methods have been reported, little has been done to organize those different methods and to suggest how to apply them...

  17. Knowledge bases for modelisation of industrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorre, J.P.; Evrard, J.M.; Dorlet, E.

    1992-01-01

    Our experience in the development of numerous knowledge based control systems for large industrial applications has led us to the expression of a generic problem and to the implementation of the tools to address it. This paper illustrates, with different practical examples that we have encountered, the principal concepts found in the modelling and management of large industrial knowledge bases. We thus arrive at the definition of the formalism to be used. The principles described are now integrated into the tool SPIRAL and are currently being employed in the development of several applications

  18. Automated knowledge-base refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Raymond J.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last several years, we have developed several systems for automatically refining incomplete and incorrect knowledge bases. These systems are given an imperfect rule base and a set of training examples and minimally modify the knowledge base to make it consistent with the examples. One of our most recent systems, FORTE, revises first-order Horn-clause knowledge bases. This system can be viewed as automatically debugging Prolog programs based on examples of correct and incorrect I/O pairs. In fact, we have already used the system to debug simple Prolog programs written by students in a programming language course. FORTE has also been used to automatically induce and revise qualitative models of several continuous dynamic devices from qualitative behavior traces. For example, it has been used to induce and revise a qualitative model of a portion of the Reaction Control System (RCS) of the NASA Space Shuttle. By fitting a correct model of this portion of the RCS to simulated qualitative data from a faulty system, FORTE was also able to correctly diagnose simple faults in this system.

  19. Role of Knowledge Based Communities in Knowledge Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ion CEPTUREANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new economy, knowledge is an essential component of economic and social systems. The organizational focus has to be on building knowledge-based management, development of human resource and building intellectual capital capabilities. Knowledge-based management is defined, at company level, by economic processes that emphasize creation, selling, buying, learning, storing, developing, sharing and protection of knowledge as a decisive condition for profit and long-term sustainability of the company. Hence, knowledge is, concurently, according to a majoritiy of specialists, raw material, capital, product and an essential input. Knowledge-based communities are one of the main constituent elements of a framework for knowledge based management. These are peer networks consisting of practitioners within an organization, supporting each other to perform better through the exchange and sharing of knowledge. Some large companies have contributed or supported the establishment of numerous communities of practice, some of which may have several thousand members. They operate in different ways, are of different sizes, have different areas of interest and addresses knowledge at different levels of its maturity. This article examines the role of knowledge-based communities from the perspective of knowledge based management, given that the arrangements for organizational learning, creating, sharing, use of knowledge within organizations become more heterogeneous and take forms more difficult to predict by managers and specialists.

  20. Knowledge representation and knowledge base design for operator advisor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hangos, K.M.; Sziano, T.; Tapolcai, L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of knowledge representation, knowledge base handling and design has been described for an Operator Advisor System in the Paks Nuclear Power Plant. The Operator Advisor System is to be implemented as a part of the 5th and 6th unit. The knowledge of the Operator Advisor system is described by a few elementary knowledge items (diagnostic event functions, fault graph, action trees), weighted directed graphs have been found as their common structure. List-type and relational representation of these graphs have been used for the on-line and off-line part of the knowledge base respectively. A uniform data base design and handling has been proposed which consists of a design system, a knowledge base editor and a knowledge base compiler

  1. Knowledge Management in healthcare libraries: the current picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Emily

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge management has seen something of a resurgence in attention amongst health librarians recently. Of course it has never ceased to exist, but now many library staff are becoming more involved in organisational knowledge management, and positioning themselves as key players in the sphere. No single model of knowledge management is proliferating, but approaches that best fit the organisation's size, structure and culture, and a blending of evidence based practice and knowledge sharing. Whatever it is called and whatever models are used, it's clear that for librarians and information professionals, the importance of putting knowledge and evidence into practice, sharing knowledge well and capturing it effectively, are still what we will continue to do. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  2. Nuclear power reactor core melt accidents. Current State of Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemain, Didier; Cenerino, Gerard; Corenwinder, Francois; Raimond, Emmanuel IRSN; Bentaib, Ahmed; Bonneville, Herve; Clement, Bernard; Cranga, Michel; Fichot, Florian; Koundy, Vincent; Meignen, Renaud; Corenwinder, Francois; Leteinturier, Denis; Monroig, Frederique; Nahas, Georges; Pichereau, Frederique; Van-Dorsselaere, Jean-Pierre; Couturier, Jean; Debaudringhien, Cecile; Duprat, Anna; Dupuy, Patricia; Evrard, Jean-Michel; Nicaise, Gregory; Berthoud, Georges; Studer, Etienne; Boulaud, Denis; Chaumont, Bernard; Clement, Bernard; Gonzalez, Richard; Queniart, Daniel; Peltier, Jean; Goue, Georges; Lefevre, Odile; Marano, Sandrine; Gobin, Jean-Dominique; Schwarz, Michel; Repussard, Jacques; Haste, Tim; Ducros, Gerard; Journeau, Christophe; Magallon, Daniel; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Tourniaire, Bruno; Durin, Michel; Andreo, Francois; Atkhen, Kresna; Daguse, Thierry; Dubreuil-Chambardel, Alain; Kappler, Francois; Labadie, Gerard; Schumm, Andreas; Gauntt, Randall O.; Birchley, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    accidents and, secondly, the physical phenomena, studies and analyses described in Chapters 5 to 8. Chapter 5 is devoted to describing the physical phenomena liable to occur during a core melt accident, in the reactor vessel and the reactor containment. It also presents the sequence of events and the methods for mitigating their impact. For each of the subjects covered, a summary of the physical phenomena involved is followed by a description of the past, present and planned experiments designed to study these phenomena, along with their modelling, the validation of which is based on the test results. The chapter then describes the computer codes that couple all of the models and provide the best current state of knowledge of the phenomena. Lastly, this knowledge is reviewed while taking into account the gaps and uncertainties, and the outlook for the future is presented, notably regarding experimental programmes and the development of modelling and numerical simulation tools. Chapter 6 focuses on the behaviour of the containment enclosures during a core melt accident. After summarising the potential leakage paths of radioactive substances through the different containments in the case of the accidents chosen in the design phase, it presents the studies of the mechanical behaviour of the different containments under the loadings that can result from the hazards linked with the phenomena described in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 also discusses the risks of containment building bypass in a core melt accident situation. Chapter 7 presents the lessons learned regarding the phenomenology of core melt accidents and the improvement of nuclear reactor safety. Lastly, Chapter 8 presents a review of development and validation efforts regarding the main computer codes dealing with 'severe accidents', which draw on and build upon the knowledge mainly acquired through the research programmes: ASTEC (IRSN and GRS), MAAP-4 (FAI (US)) and used by EDF and by utilities in many other

  3. Proposing a Knowledge Base for Teaching Academic Content to English Language Learners: Disciplinary Linguistic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkan, Sultan; De Oliveira, Luciana C.; Lee, Okhee; Phelps, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: The current research on teacher knowledge and teacher accountability falls short on information about what teacher knowledge base could guide preparation and accountability of the mainstream teachers for meeting the academic needs of ELLs. Most recently, research on specialized knowledge for teaching has offered ways to…

  4. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TOOLS FOR THE EUROPEAN KNOWLEDGE BASED SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona – Diana Leon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly more literature mention that in the current competitive environment, knowledge have become the main source of the competitive advantages, while recent researches regarding economic growth and development have defined knowledge as being the most critical resource of the emerging countries.Therefore, the organizations interest for knowledge has increased, the latter being defined as knowledge management process in order to meet existing needs, to identify and exploit existing and/or acquired knowledge and developing new opportunities.In other words, knowledge management facilitates productive information usage, intelligence growth, storing intellectual capital, strategic planning, flexible acquisition, collection of best practices, increasing the likelihood of being successful as well as a more productive collaboration within the company.In order to benefit from all these advantages, it is required the usage of specific tools including models and systems to stimulate the creation, dissemination and use of knowledge held by each employee and the organization as a whole.

  5. A STEPPING STONE TOWARDS KNOWLEDGE BASED MAINTENANCE

    OpenAIRE

    G. Waeyenbergh; L. Pintelon; L. Gelders

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance decision making becomes more and more a management concern. Some decades ago, maintenance was still often considered as an unavoidable side effect of production. The perception of maintenance has evolved considerably. One of the current issues is the maintenance concept, being the mix of maintenance interventions and the general framework for determining this mix. In this paper we describe a modular framework, called Knowledge Based Maintenance, for developing a customised mainten...

  6. Occupational Therapy in Preschools: A Synthesis of Current Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Emmanuelle; Gauthier, Anne; Julien, Marjorie; Hui, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of current knowledge about occupational therapy in preschools (for 3-6 year olds) in order to provide a better understanding of this field of practice and to guide the implementation or programming of this service. In the literature, occupational therapy in preschools has been documented mainly in the USA. Results…

  7. Current status of knowledge on public-speaking anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pull, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the current knowledge on public-speaking anxiety, that is, the fear of speaking in front of others. This article summarizes the findings from previous review articles and describes new research findings on basic science aspects, prevalence rates, classification, and treatment that have been published between August 2008 and August 2011. Recent findings highlight the major aspects of psychological and physiological reactivity to public speaking in individuals who are afraid to speak in front of others, confirm high prevalence rates of the disorder, contribute to identifying the disorder as a possibly distinct subtype of social anxiety disorder (SAD), and give support to the efficacy of treatment programs using virtual reality exposure and Internet-based self-help. Public-speaking anxiety is a highly prevalent disorder, leading to excessive psychological and physiological reactivity. It is present in a majority of individuals with SAD and there is substantial evidence that it may be a distinct subtype of SAD. It is amenable to treatment including, in particular, new technologies such as exposure to virtual environments and the use of cognitive-behavioral self-help programs delivered on the Internet.

  8. Engineered nanoparticles at the workplace: current knowledge about workers' risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietroiusti, A; Magrini, A

    2014-07-01

    The novel physicochemical properties of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) make them very attractive for industrial and biomedical purposes, but concerns have been raised regarding unpredictable adverse health effects in humans. Current evidence for the risk posed by ENPs to exposed workers is the subject of this review. To perform an in-depth review of the state of art of nanoparticle exposure at work. Original articles and reviews in Pubmed and in principal databases of medical literature up to 2013 were included in the analysis. In addition, grey literature released by qualified regulatory agencies and by governmental and non-governmental organizations was also taken into consideration. There are significant knowledge and technical gaps to be filled for a reliable evaluation of the risk posed for workers by ENPs. Evidence for potential workplace release of ENPs however seems substantial, and the amount of exposure may exceed the proposed occupational exposure limits (OELs). The rational use of conventional engineering measures and of protective personal equipment seems to mitigate the risk. A precautionary approach is recommended for workplace exposure to ENPs, until health-based OELs are developed and released by official regulatory agencies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. An Insulating Glass Knowledge Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Doll; Gerald Hendrickson; Gerard Lagos; Russell Pylkki; Chris Christensen; Charlie Cureija

    2005-08-01

    This report will discuss issues relevant to Insulating Glass (IG) durability performance by presenting the observations and developed conclusions in a logical sequential format. This concluding effort discusses Phase II activities and focuses on beginning to quantifying IG durability issues while continuing the approach presented in the Phase I activities (Appendix 1) which discuss a qualitative assessment of durability issues. Phase II developed a focus around two specific IG design classes previously presented in Phase I of this project. The typical box spacer and thermoplastic spacer design including their Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Fault Tree diagrams were chosen to address two currently used IG design options with varying components and failure modes. The system failures occur due to failures of components or their interfaces. Efforts to begin quantifying the durability issues focused on the development and delivery of an included computer based IG durability simulation program. The focus/effort to deliver the foundation for a comprehensive IG durability simulation tool is necessary to address advancements needed to meet current and future building envelope energy performance goals. This need is based upon the current lack of IG field failure data and the lengthy field observation time necessary for this data collection. Ultimately, the simulation program is intended to be used by designers throughout the current and future industry supply chain. Its use is intended to advance IG durability as expectations grow around energy conservation and with the growth of embedded technologies as required to meet energy needs. In addition the tool has the immediate benefit of providing insight for research and improvement prioritization. Included in the simulation model presentation are elements and/or methods to address IG materials, design, process, quality, induced stress (environmental and other factors), validation, etc. In addition, acquired data

  10. A knowledge base architecture for distributed knowledge agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedesel, Joel; Walls, Bryan

    1990-01-01

    A tuple space based object oriented model for knowledge base representation and interpretation is presented. An architecture for managing distributed knowledge agents is then implemented within the model. The general model is based upon a database implementation of a tuple space. Objects are then defined as an additional layer upon the database. The tuple space may or may not be distributed depending upon the database implementation. A language for representing knowledge and inference strategy is defined whose implementation takes advantage of the tuple space. The general model may then be instantiated in many different forms, each of which may be a distinct knowledge agent. Knowledge agents may communicate using tuple space mechanisms as in the LINDA model as well as using more well known message passing mechanisms. An implementation of the model is presented describing strategies used to keep inference tractable without giving up expressivity. An example applied to a power management and distribution network for Space Station Freedom is given.

  11. Baby walkers--health visitors' current practice, attitudes and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Denise; Illingworth, Rachel; Hapgood, Rhydian; Woods, Amanda J; Collier, Jacqueline

    2003-09-01

    Baby walkers are a commonly used item of nursery equipment. Between 12% and 50% of parents whose infant uses a walker report that their child has suffered a walker-related injury. Health visitors' knowledge, attitudes and practice with regard to walkers and related health education has not been explored so far. The aim of the study was to describe health visitors' knowledge of walkers and walker-related injuries, their attitudes towards walkers and current practice with regard to walker health education, and to examine the relationship between knowledge and attitudes and knowledge and practice. A survey was carried out with 64 health visitors prior to participation in a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of an educational package in reducing baby walker use. The response rate was 95%. Half of the health visitors always discussed walkers postnatally, most frequently at the 6-9 month check. Most did not usually discuss the frequency of walker-related injuries. Most had negative attitudes towards walkers, but believed that parents hold positive attitudes to them and that it is hard to persuade parents not to use them. Health visitors had a limited knowledge of walker use and walker-related injuries. Those giving advice on walkers most often had higher knowledge scores than those giving advice less often (P = 0.03). Those with higher knowledge scores held more negative attitudes towards walkers (rs = 0.29, P = 0.023) and believed parents to have more positive attitudes towards walkers (rs = -0.49, P negotiating alternatives to their use. The provision of audio-visual aids for discussing walkers might also be helpful.

  12. Knowledge Base Editor (SharpKBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikidjian, Raffi; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    The SharpKBE software provides a graphical user interface environment for domain experts to build and manage knowledge base systems. Knowledge bases can be exported/translated to various target languages automatically, including customizable target languages.

  13. Semantic computing and language knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Houfeng; Yu, Shiwen

    2017-09-01

    As the proposition of the next-generation Web - semantic Web, semantic computing has been drawing more and more attention within the circle and the industries. A lot of research has been conducted on the theory and methodology of the subject, and potential applications have also been investigated and proposed in many fields. The progress of semantic computing made so far cannot be detached from its supporting pivot - language resources, for instance, language knowledge bases. This paper proposes three perspectives of semantic computing from a macro view and describes the current status of affairs about the construction of language knowledge bases and the related research and applications that have been carried out on the basis of these resources via a case study in the Institute of Computational Linguistics at Peking University.

  14. The file of the national debate on energy transition. Knowledge base, Current status, Commitments, Stakes, The debate. Let us imagine together our tomorrow's energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batho, Delphine

    2013-02-01

    Within the perspective of the French national debate on energy transition, four main issues are to be addressed: how to move towards energy efficiency and sobriety, which trajectory to reach the defined energy mix in 2025 and which types of possible scenarios by 2030 and 2050 while complying with climate-related commitments of France, which choices in terms of renewable energies and new energy technologies with which strategy of industry and land development, which costs, benefits and financing for energy transition. Within this context, this publication aims at providing all those who want to be informed or participate with information on the current situation of energy in France, in Europe and in the World. It also aims at presenting the main social, economic and ecologic challenges of energy transition. It proposes contributions and opinions of organisations which belong to the Debate National Council. Thus, after a presentation of the energy situation, the report recalls and comments the various commitments: European and international commitments, French legal frameworks and existing laws, additional political commitments. The main challenges are then discussed as the main debate issues: energy consumption management, energy mix equilibrium, development of the renewable energy sector and of new energy technologies, costs, benefits and financing. Transverse challenges are discussed, such as: energy safety, economic, social, environmental, international, and governance stakes. Finally, debate objectives, its mains steps, its locations and bodies are presented

  15. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S.; Xian, Xuefeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality i...

  16. Colostomy irrigation: current knowledge and practice of WOC nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Martha D; Grant, Marcia; Tallman, Nancy J; Wendel, Christopher S; Colwell, Janice; McCorkle, Ruth; Krouse, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    This study builds on the authors' previous studies that demonstrate that persons living with a colostomy who practice colostomy irrigation (CI) experience quality-of-life benefits. Studies also reveal that patients may not be taught about CI. The purpose of this study was to determine current knowledge, attitudes, and practices of WOC nurses on CI. The target population was ostomy nurses who were members of the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurse's Society. Nine hundred eighty-five nurses out of a possible pool of 4191 members responded, providing a response rate of 24%. Their average age was 53 years (range, 25-79 years). Respondents averaged 12 years' experience as a WOC nurse (range, 1-40 years) and 90% (n = 875) were certified. Participants practiced in a variety of settings, including acute and long-term care facilities, home health, and ambulatory clinics. They saw an average of 37 ± 60.5 (mean ± SD) ostomy patients per year (range, 0-1100). A 1-time online survey (SurveyMonkey) of members of the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses (WOCN) Society was conducted. In addition to demographic and educational information, questions also included (1) CI advantages and disadvantages; (2) CI content routinely taught; (3) challenges in assisting patients to learn CI; and (4) where preparation was received for teaching this procedure. Nurses were asked whether they believe CI is evidence-based. More than half identified irrigation as an evidence-based practice (59%), but half indicated they do not routinely teach CI. Multiple factors correlated with nurses' decisions to teach CI, including years of experience (P = .03), specific CI education (P < .001), and considering the intervention evidence-based (P < .001). Factors influencing CI instruction are multifactorial; they include nurses' attitudes, experience base, education, medical indications, setting characteristics, and patient interest and physical abilities. Education on this procedure is urgently needed for

  17. Presentation planning using an integrated knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Yigal; Miller, Lawrence; Sondheimer, Norman

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of user interface research aimed at bringing together multiple input and output modes in a way that handles mixed mode input (commands, menus, forms, natural language), interacts with a diverse collection of underlying software utilities in a uniform way, and presents the results through a combination of output modes including natural language text, maps, charts and graphs. The system, Integrated Interfaces, derives much of its ability to interact uniformly with the user and the underlying services and to build its presentations, from the information present in a central knowledge base. This knowledge base integrates models of the application domain (Navy ships in the Pacific region, in the current demonstration version); the structure of visual displays and their graphical features; the underlying services (data bases and expert systems); and interface functions. The emphasis is on a presentation planner that uses the knowledge base to produce multi-modal output. There has been a flurry of recent work in user interface management systems. (Several recent examples are listed in the references). Existing work is characterized by an attempt to relieve the software designer of the burden of handcrafting an interface for each application. The work has generally focused on intelligently handling input. This paper deals with the other end of the pipeline - presentations.

  18. Understanding images using knowledge based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tascini, G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to image understanding focusing on low level image processing and proposes a rule-based approach as part of larger knowledge-based system. The general system has a yerarchical structure that comprises several knowledge-based layers. The main idea is to confine at the lower level the domain independent knowledge and to reserve the higher levels for the domain dependent knowledge, that is for the interpretation

  19. A STEPPING STONE TOWARDS KNOWLEDGE BASED MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Waeyenbergh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance decision making becomes more and more a management concern. Some decades ago, maintenance was still often considered as an unavoidable side effect of production. The perception of maintenance has evolved considerably. One of the current issues is the maintenance concept, being the mix of maintenance interventions and the general framework for determining this mix. In this paper we describe a modular framework, called Knowledge Based Maintenance, for developing a customised maintenance concept. After describing the general framework and its decision support use, some case experiences are given. This experience covers some elements of the proposed framework.

  20. Modeling Guru: Knowledge Base for NASA Modelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seablom, M. S.; Wojcik, G. S.; van Aartsen, B. H.

    2009-05-01

    Modeling Guru is an on-line knowledge-sharing resource for anyone involved with or interested in NASA's scientific models or High End Computing (HEC) systems. Developed and maintained by the NASA's Software Integration and Visualization Office (SIVO) and the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS), Modeling Guru's combined forums and knowledge base for research and collaboration is becoming a repository for the accumulated expertise of NASA's scientific modeling and HEC communities. All NASA modelers and associates are encouraged to participate and provide knowledge about the models and systems so that other users may benefit from their experience. Modeling Guru is divided into a hierarchy of communities, each with its own set forums and knowledge base documents. Current modeling communities include those for space science, land and atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric chemistry, and oceanography. In addition, there are communities focused on NCCS systems, HEC tools and libraries, and programming and scripting languages. Anyone may view most of the content on Modeling Guru (available at http://modelingguru.nasa.gov/), but you must log in to post messages and subscribe to community postings. The site offers a full range of "Web 2.0" features, including discussion forums, "wiki" document generation, document uploading, RSS feeds, search tools, blogs, email notification, and "breadcrumb" links. A discussion (a.k.a. forum "thread") is used to post comments, solicit feedback, or ask questions. If marked as a question, SIVO will monitor the thread, and normally respond within a day. Discussions can include embedded images, tables, and formatting through the use of the Rich Text Editor. Also, the user can add "Tags" to their thread to facilitate later searches. The "knowledge base" is comprised of documents that are used to capture and share expertise with others. The default "wiki" document lets users edit within the browser so others can easily collaborate on the

  1. Squid based beam current meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1983-01-01

    A SQUID based beam current meter has the capability of measuring the current of a beam with as little as 30 x 155 antiprotons (with a signal to noise ratio of 2). If low noise dc current is used to cancel most of the beam or an up-down counter is used to count auto-resets this sensitivity will be available at any time in the acumulation process. This current meter will therefore be a unique diagnostic tool for optimizing the performance of several Tev I components. Besides requiring liquid helium it seems that its only drawback is not to follow with the above sensitivity a sudden beam change larger than 16 μA, something that could be done using a second one in a less sensitive configuration

  2. Climate change impacts in Iran: assessing our current knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Jaber; Malekian, Arash; Khalili, Ali

    2018-02-01

    During recent years, various studies have focused on investigating the direct and indirect impacts of climate changes in Iran while the noteworthy fact is the achievement gained by these researches. Furthermore, what should be taken into consideration is whether these studies have been able to provide appropriate opportunities for improving further studies in this particular field or not. To address these questions, this study systematically reviewed and summarized the current available literature (n = 150) regarding the impacts of climate change on temperature and precipitation in Iran to assess our current state of knowledge. The results revealed that while all studies discuss the probable changes in temperature and precipitation over the next decades, serious contradictions could be seen in their results; also, the general pattern of changes was different in most of the cases. This matter may have a significant effect on public beliefs in climate change, which can be a serious warning for the activists in this realm.

  3. Current Knowledge and Recent Advances in Marine Dinoflagellate Transcriptomic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Afiq Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are essential components in marine ecosystems, and they possess two dissimilar flagella to facilitate movement. Dinoflagellates are major components of marine food webs and of extreme importance in balancing the ecosystem energy flux in oceans. They have been reported to be the primary cause of harmful algae bloom (HABs events around the world, causing seafood poisoning and therefore having a direct impact on human health. Interestingly, dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are major components of coral reef foundations. Knowledge regarding their genes and genome organization is currently limited due to their large genome size and other genetic and cytological characteristics that hinder whole genome sequencing of dinoflagellates. Transcriptomic approaches and genetic analyses have been employed to unravel the physiological and metabolic characteristics of dinoflagellates and their complexity. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and findings from transcriptomic studies to understand the cell growth, effects on environmental stress, toxin biosynthesis, dynamic of HABs, phylogeny and endosymbiosis of dinoflagellates. With the advancement of high throughput sequencing technologies and lower cost of sequencing, transcriptomic approaches will likely deepen our understanding in other aspects of dinoflagellates’ molecular biology such as gene functional analysis, systems biology and development of model organisms.

  4. Knowledge-based metals & materials

    OpenAIRE

    Sasson, Amir

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the Norwegian metal and material industry (defined as all metal and material related firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, R&D and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.

  5. Tools for the Knowledge-Based Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2002-01-01

    exist. They include a Master’s degree in knowledge management, a web- or print-based intelligence hub for the knowledge society, collaboration with the Danish intellectual capital reporting project, ongoing research on expertise and ethics in knowledge workers, a comparative study of competence...

  6. Validation Of Critical Knowledge-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses approach to verification and validation of knowledge-based systems. Also known as "expert systems". Concerned mainly with development of methodologies for verification of knowledge-based systems critical to flight-research systems; e.g., fault-tolerant control systems for advanced aircraft. Subject matter also has relevance to knowledge-based systems controlling medical life-support equipment or commuter railroad systems.

  7. Endodontic Microbiology and Pathobiology: Current State of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Ashraf F

    2017-01-01

    Newer research tools and basic science knowledge base have allowed the exploration of endodontic diseases in the pulp and periapical tissues in novel ways. The use of next generation sequencing, bioinformatics analyses, genome-wide association studies, to name just a few of these innovations, has allowed the identification of hundreds of microorganisms and of host response factors. This review addresses recent advances in endodontic microbiology and the host response and discusses the potential for future innovations in this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Autophagy in Drosophila: From Historical Studies to Current Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulakkal, Nitha C.; Nagy, Peter; Takats, Szabolcs; Tusco, Radu; Juhász, Gábor; Nezis, Ioannis P.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of evolutionarily conserved Atg genes required for autophagy in yeast truly revolutionized this research field and made it possible to carry out functional studies on model organisms. Insects including Drosophila are classical and still popular models to study autophagy, starting from the 1960s. This review aims to summarize past achievements and our current knowledge about the role and regulation of autophagy in Drosophila, with an outlook to yeast and mammals. The basic mechanisms of autophagy in fruit fly cells appear to be quite similar to other eukaryotes, and the role that this lysosomal self-degradation process plays in Drosophila models of various diseases already made it possible to recognize certain aspects of human pathologies. Future studies in this complete animal hold great promise for the better understanding of such processes and may also help finding new research avenues for the treatment of disorders with misregulated autophagy. PMID:24949430

  9. Autophagy in Drosophila: From Historical Studies to Current Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitha C. Mulakkal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of evolutionarily conserved Atg genes required for autophagy in yeast truly revolutionized this research field and made it possible to carry out functional studies on model organisms. Insects including Drosophila are classical and still popular models to study autophagy, starting from the 1960s. This review aims to summarize past achievements and our current knowledge about the role and regulation of autophagy in Drosophila, with an outlook to yeast and mammals. The basic mechanisms of autophagy in fruit fly cells appear to be quite similar to other eukaryotes, and the role that this lysosomal self-degradation process plays in Drosophila models of various diseases already made it possible to recognize certain aspects of human pathologies. Future studies in this complete animal hold great promise for the better understanding of such processes and may also help finding new research avenues for the treatment of disorders with misregulated autophagy.

  10. Additive Manufacturing and Business Models: Current Knowledge and Missing Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Öberg

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing, that is 3D printing technology, may change the way companies operate their businesses. This article adopts a business model perspective to create an understanding of what we know about these changes. It summarizes current knowledge on additive manufacturing within management and business research, and it discusses future research directions in relation to business models for additive manufacturing. Using the scientific database Web of Science, 116 journal articles were identified. The literature review reveals that most research concerns manufacturing optimization. A more holistic view of the changes that additive manufacturing may bring about for firms is needed, as is more research on changed value propositions, and customer/sales-related issues. The article contributes to previous research by systematically summarizing additive manufacturing research in the business and management literature, and by highlighting areas for further investigation related to the business models of individual firms.

  11. Cyanobactins from Cyanobacteria: Current Genetic and Chemical State of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Joana; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-11-13

    Cyanobacteria are considered to be one of the most promising sources of new, natural products. Apart from non-ribosomal peptides and polyketides, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are one of the leading groups of bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. Among these, cyanobactins have sparked attention due to their interesting bioactivities and for their potential to be prospective candidates in the development of drugs. It is assumed that the primary source of cyanobactins is cyanobacteria, although these compounds have also been isolated from marine animals such as ascidians, sponges and mollusks. The aim of this review is to update the current knowledge of cyanobactins, recognized as being produced by cyanobacteria, and to emphasize their genetic clusters and chemical structures as well as their bioactivities, ecological roles and biotechnological potential.

  12. Microbiological risk factors in dentistry. Current status of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Jolanta

    2005-01-01

    Dentists belong to a professional group potentially exposed to harmful biological factors which most often are infectious microorganisms, less frequently - allergenic or toxic microorganisms. The fundamental routes of spreading harmful microorganisms in a dental surgery are: blood-borne, saliva-droplet, direct contact with a patient and with infected equipment, and water-droplet infections. In this paper, the current status of knowledge on microbiological hazards in a dentist's work is presented. Groups of microorganisms, such as prions, viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa, to which a dentist is, or may be exposed, are discussed. Epidemiological assessment of microbiological hazards in a dentist's work was performed and the basic principles of prevention formulated. Special attention was given to microflora in dental unit waterlines, and the biofilm persisting in them, as a source of occupational hazards specific for a dentist's workplace.

  13. Deposition and interception of radionuclides. Current knowledge and future requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Following an accidental or routine release of radionuclides into the environment, a good knowledge of deposition processes is necessary in order to accurately predict the radiation dose to members of the public. In order to understand the environmental impact of released radionuclides and their transfer through the environment, including the food chain to man, there have been numerous studies on deposition of radionuclides to a range of surfaces such as bare soil, crops, forests, water bodies and urban surfaces. The RADREM committee provides a forum for liaison on UK research and monitoring in the areas of radioactive substances and radioactive waste management. RADREM has set up four sub-committees to cover issues related to radioactivity in the atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as those related radioactive waste management. One of the sub-committee tasks is to organise seminars and workshops on specific topics of interest. The first of these was the workshop on 'Deposition and Interception of Radionuclides: Current knowledge and future requirements' organised last year by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), acting as secretariat for the Terrestrial Environment Sub-Committee (TESC) of RADREM. The intent of this workshop was to provide an opportunity to exchange information on deposition-related aspects between representatives from various interested parties including government, regulatory bodies, industry and research organisations. Through presentations and discussions, this workshop addressed current developments in the areas of deposition and interception of radionuclides by various surfaces and served to identify areas which need further research. Papers were presented on various aspects of deposition and interception of radionuclides including deposition into grass, fruits and other crops as well as deposition into urban areas and forests

  14. Automatic Knowledge Base Evolution by Learning Instances

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sundong

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge base is the way to store structured and unstructured data throughout the web. Since the size of the web is increasing rapidly, there are huge needs to structure the knowledge in a fully automated way. However fully-automated knowledge-base evolution on the Semantic Web is a major challenges, although there are many ontology evolution techniques available. Therefore learning ontology automatically can contribute to the semantic web society significantly. In this paper, we propose ful...

  15. Brown carbon in the cryosphere: Current knowledge and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Ming Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the light-absorbing organic carbon, i.e., brown carbon (BrC, has received an increasing attention, because they could significantly absorb the solar radiation in the range of short wavelengths rather than the purely scattering effect. BrC is ubiquitous in the troposphere. It could undergo long range transport within the atmospheric circulation. After the deposition on the surface of snow or ice in the cryospheric region, as the major light absorbing impurities with black carbon and dust, BrC could reduce the snow albedo and accelerate the glacier melting. In this context, this paper summarized the current knowledge of BrC (in aerosols and snow in the cryospheric regions including the Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpines. Although some works have been conducted in those region, the current dataset on the optical properties of BrC like Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE and Mass Absorption Efficiency (MAE is still limited, which hampers stimulating an accurate evaluation of its climate effects. Especially in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, where very limited information concerning BrC is available. Considering biomass burning as a dominant source of BrC, a large amount of emissions from biomass burning in South Asia could reach the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, where the climate effect of BrC merits more investigation in the future.

  16. A knowledge base browser using hypermedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocklington, Tony; Wang, Lui

    1990-01-01

    A hypermedia system is being developed to browse CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) knowledge bases. This system will be used to help train flight controllers for the Mission Control Center. Browsing this knowledge base will be accomplished either by having navigating through the various collection nodes that have already been defined, or through the query languages.

  17. A VIEWPOINT ON THE CURRENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA PAULA DUMITRU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is seeking solutions to harmonize the objectives of organizations of the human group, which need to rationalize, to provide policy makers and to implement. This article aims to provide readers with an introduction to knowledge management basic definitions, theories and concepts such as types of knowledge, the differences between data, information and knowledge, etc, are given. But, why we need a knowledge management ? This article justified the need for companies to focus management efforts on their intangible elements and provides the five enabling conditions for knowledge creation.

  18. The Development of the IMIA Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Wright

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The discipline of health or medical informatics is relatively new in that the literature has existed for only 40 years. The British Computer Society (BCS health group was of the opinion that work should be undertaken to explore the scope of medical or health informatics. Once the mapping work was completed the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA expressed the wish to develop it further to define the knowledge base of the discipline and produce a comprehensive internationally applicable framework. This article will also highlight the move from the expert opinion of a small group to the analysis of publications to generalise and refine the initial findings, and illustrate the importance of triangulation.Objectives: The aim of the project was to explore the theoretical constructs underpinning the discipline of health informatics and produce a cognitive map of the existing understanding of the discipline and develop the knowledge base of health informatics for the IMIA and the BCS.Method: The five-phase project, described in this article, undertaken to define the discipline of health informatics used four forms of triangulation.Results: The output from the project is a framework giving the 14 major headings (Subjects and 245 elements, which together describe the current perception of the discipline of health informatics.Conclusion: This article describes how each phase of the project was strengthened, through using triangulation within and between the different phases. This was done to ensure that the investigators could be confident in the confirmation and completeness of data, and assured of the validity and reliability of the final output of the ‘IMIA Knowledge Base’ that was endorsed by the IMIA Board in November 2009.

  19. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  20. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S; Xian, Xuefeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  1. Current expertise location by exploiting the dynamics of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Nozicka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Systems for expertise location are either very expensive in terms of the costs of maintenance or they tend to become obsolete or incomplete during the time. This article presents a new approach to knowledge mapping/expertise location allowing reducing the costs of knowledge mapping by maintaining the accuracy of the knowledge map. The efficiency of the knowledge map is achieved by introducing the knowledge estimation measures analysing the dynamics of knowledge of company employees and their textual results of work. Finding an expert with most up-to date knowledge is supported by focusing publishing history analysis. The efficiency of proposed measures within various timeframes of publishing history is evaluated by evaluation method introduced within the article. The evaluation took place in the environment of a middle-sized software company allowing seeing directly a practical usability of the expertise location technique. The results form various implications deployment of knowledge map within the company.

  2. Maximizing the knowledge base: Knowledge Base+ and the Global Open Knowledgebase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Earney

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for the two projects discussed in this article is the simple premise that the current inaccuracies of data in the library supply chain are detrimental to the user experience, limit the ability of institutions to effectively manage their collections and that resolving them is increasingly unsustainable at the institutional level. Two projects, Knowledge Base+ (KB+ in the UK and Global Open Knowledgebase (GOKb in the USA, are working in cooperation with a range of other partners, and adopting a communitycentric approach to address these issues and broaden the scope and utility of knowledge bases more generally. The belief is that only through collaboration at a wide range of levels and on a number of fronts can these challenges be overcome.

  3. Knowledge-Based Software Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sally Schaffner; Matthew Bickley; Brian Bevins; Leon Clancy; Karen White

    2003-01-01

    Management of software in a dynamic environment such as is found at Jefferson Lab can be a daunting task. Software development tasks are distributed over a wide range of people with varying skill levels. The machine configuration is constantly changing requiring upgrades to software at both the hardware control level and the operator control level. In order to obtain high quality support from vendor service agreements, which is vital to maintaining 24/7 operations, hardware and software must be kept at industry's current levels. This means that periodic upgrades independent of machine configuration changes must take place. It is often difficult to identify and organize the information needed to guide the process of development, upgrades and enhancements. Dependencies between support software and applications need to be consistently identified to prevent introducing errors during upgrades and to allow adequate testing to be planned and performed. Developers also need access to information regarding compilers, make files and organized distribution directories. This paper describes a system under development at Jefferson Lab which will provide software developers and managers this type of information in a timely user-friendly fashion. The current status and future plans for the system will be detailed

  4. Current knowledge and treatment strategies for grade II gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    World Health Organization grade II gliomas (GIIGs) include diffuse astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and oligoastrocytoma. GIIG is a malignant brain tumor for which the treatment outcome can still be improved. Review of previous clinical trials found the following: GIIG increased in size by 3-5 mm per year when observed or treated with surgery alone; after pathological diagnosis, the survival rate was increased by early aggressive tumor removal at an earlier stage compared to observation alone; although the prognosis after total tumor removal was significantly better than that after partial tumor removal, half of the patients relapsed within 5 years; comparing postoperative early radiotherapy (RT) and non-early RT after relapse, early RT prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) but did not affect overall survival (OS); local RT of 45 to 64.8 Gy did not impact PFS or OS; in patients with residual tumors, RT combined with chemotherapy (procarbazine plus lomustine plus vincristine) prolonged PFS compared with RT alone but did not affect OS; and poor prognostic factors included astrocytoma, non-total tumor removal, age ≥40 years, largest tumor diameter ≥4-6 cm, tumor crossing the midline, and neurological deficit. To improve treatment outcomes, surgery with functional brain mapping or intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging or chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide is important. In this review, current knowledge regarding GIIG is described and treatment strategies are explored. (author)

  5. Phocine distemper virus: current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duignan, Pádraig J; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Baker, Jason D; Barbieri, Michelle; Colegrove, Kathleen M; De Guise, Sylvain; de Swart, Rik L; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dobson, Andrew; Duprex, W Paul; Early, Greg; Fauquier, Deborah; Goldstein, Tracey; Goodman, Simon J; Grenfell, Bryan; Groch, Kátia R; Gulland, Frances; Hall, Ailsa; Jensen, Brenda A; Lamy, Karina; Matassa, Keith; Mazzariol, Sandro; Morris, Sinead E; Nielsen, Ole; Rotstein, David; Rowles, Teresa K; Saliki, Jeremy T; Siebert, Ursula; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-12-22

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years.

  6. Microorganisms in Fermented Apple Beverages: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Fabien J; Le Guellec, Rozenn; Schlusselhuber, Margot; Dalmasso, Marion; Laplace, Jean-Marie; Cretenet, Marina

    2017-07-25

    Production of fermented apple beverages is spread all around the world with specificities in each country. 'French ciders' refer to fermented apple juice mainly produced in the northwest of France and often associated with short periods of consumption. Research articles on this kind of product are scarce compared to wine, especially on phenomena associated with microbial activities. The wine fermentation microbiome and its dynamics, organoleptic improvement for healthy and pleasant products and development of starters are now widely studied. Even if both beverages seem close in terms of microbiome and process (with both alcoholic and malolactic fermentations), the inherent properties of the raw materials and different production and environmental parameters make research on the specificities of apple fermentation beverages worthwhile. This review summarizes current knowledge on the cider microbial ecosystem, associated activities and the influence of process parameters. In addition, available data on cider quality and safety is reviewed. Finally, we focus on the future role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the development of even better or new beverages made from apples.

  7. Phocine Distemper Virus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pádraig J. Duignan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phocine distemper virus (PDV was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years.

  8. The Development of the IMIA Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Wright

    2011-10-01

    Objectives: The aim of the project was to explore the theoretical constructs underpinning the discipline of health informatics and produce a cognitive map of the existing understanding of the discipline and develop the knowledge base of health informatics for the IMIA and the BCS. Method: The five-phase project, described in this article, undertaken to define the discipline of health informatics used four forms of triangulation. Results: The output from the project is a framework giving the 14 major headings (Subjects and 245 elements, which together describe the current perception of the discipline of health informatics. Conclusion: This article describes how each phase of the project was strengthened, through using triangulation within and between the different phases. This was done to ensure that the investigators could be confident in the confirmation and completeness of data, and assured of the validity and reliability of the final output of the ‘IMIA Knowledge Base’ that was endorsed by the IMIA Board in November 2009.

  9. Socially Relevant Knowledge Based Telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    in the field of education as well. Advantage (s) of training in virtual worlds The most important advantage of use of computer based...Shirmohammadi, S. (2007). Accessibility and scalability in collaborative eCommerce environments. Digital Information Management, 2007. ICDIM 󈧋. 2nd...methods on human effort has certain advantages and disadvantages. The main advantage is that human-intensive methods usually yield data that are of high

  10. Community-based health insurance knowledge, concern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-based health insurance knowledge, concern, preferences, and financial planning for health care among informal sector workers in a health district of Douala, Cameroon. ... This is mainly due to the lack of awareness and limited knowledge on the basic concepts of a CBHI by this target population. Solidarity ...

  11. Graph Learning in Knowledge Bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Sean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Daisy Zhe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The amount of text data has been growing exponentially in recent years, giving rise to automatic information extraction methods that store text annotations in a database. The current state-of-theart structured prediction methods, however, are likely to contain errors and it’s important to be able to manage the overall uncertainty of the database. On the other hand, the advent of crowdsourcing has enabled humans to aid machine algorithms at scale. As part of this project we introduced pi-CASTLE , a system that optimizes and integrates human and machine computing as applied to a complex structured prediction problem involving conditional random fields (CRFs). We proposed strategies grounded in information theory to select a token subset, formulate questions for the crowd to label, and integrate these labelings back into the database using a method of constrained inference. On both a text segmentation task over academic citations and a named entity recognition task over tweets we showed an order of magnitude improvement in accuracy gain over baseline methods.

  12. Current floristic and phytogeographic knowledge of Mexican Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Espejo Serna

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available A current floristic and phytogeographic knowledge of native Mexican Bromeliaceae is presented. There are 22 genera of Bromeliaceae recorded from the country that include 326 species. The genus Ursulaea with 2 species is endemic to Mexico, while Hechtia with 48 of its 50 species has its principal center of diversity in the country. Tillandsia (175 spp, Hechtia (48 spp and Pitcairnia (46 spp are the genera with the greatest number of species. We present a comparative analysis of Mexican Bromeliaceae with that of other American regions that have recently published accounts for the Family, particularly the Mesomerican area, Venezuela, Ecuador, and the Guianas. Our results led us to the conclusion that all these floras should be considered as distinct. We observe a progressive decrease of the Simpson index value related with the remoteness of the Mexican area. A general analysis of the species numbers of Mexican bromeliad genera shows a distinct preference of the species for coniferous and oak forests, followed by tropical caducifolious forests. There is also significant representation of the family in other vegetation types such as cloud forests and tropical perennifolious forests. Generally Mexican Bromeliaceae species have scarce and sparse populations and in many cases they inhabit cliffs, bluffs and scarps in restricted areas. Concerning the geographic distribution of Mexican genera, 77.27 % are neotropical, 4.54% are South American and the remainder are Mexican and Central American. The generic endemism is very low (4.54 %, even if we extend the country limits to Megamexico sensu Rzedowsi (1991 it reaches only 13.63 %. The family endemism at specific level reaches 63.07 %. There are not available data about a specific analysis of the conservation status of Mexican Bromeliaceae, but we can point out that a great number of taxa are only known from the type collection or at the most from the type locality. This can perhaps be attributed in part to

  13. The Coming of Knowledge-Based Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stan; Botkin, Jim

    1994-01-01

    Economic growth will come from knowledge-based businesses whose "smart" products filter and interpret information. Businesses will come to think of themselves as educators and their customers as learners. (SK)

  14. Current knowledge on diabetic retinopathy from humandonor tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jessica H Eisma; Jennifer E Dulle; Patrice E Fort

    2015-01-01

    According to the American Diabetes Association, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death, and diabetic retinopathy the leading cause of blindness in working age adults in the United States in 2010. Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia associated with either hypoinsulinemia or insulin resistance, and over time, this chronic metabolic condition may lead to various complications including kidney failure, heart attacks,and retinal degeneration. In order to better understandthe molecular basis of this disease and its complications,animal models have been the primary approach usedto investigate the effects of diabetes on various tissuesor cell types of the body, including the retina. However,inherent to these animal models are critical limitationsthat make the insight gained from these modelschallenging to apply to the human pathology. Thesedifficulties in translating the knowledge obtained fromanimal studies have led a growing number of researchgroups to explore the diabetes complications, especiallydiabetic retinopathy, on tissues from human donors.This review summarizes the data collected from diabeticpatients at various stages of diabetic retinopathy andclassifies the data based upon their relevance to themain aspects of diabetic retinopathy: retinal vasculaturedysfunction, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. Thisreview discusses the importance of those studies todiscriminate and establish the relevance of the findingsobtained from animal models but also the limitations ofsuch approaches.

  15. Methodology for testing and validating knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, C.; Padalkar, S.; Sztipanovits, J.; Purves, B. R.

    1987-01-01

    A test and validation toolset developed for artificial intelligence programs is described. The basic premises of this method are: (1) knowledge bases have a strongly declarative character and represent mostly structural information about different domains, (2) the conditions for integrity, consistency, and correctness can be transformed into structural properties of knowledge bases, and (3) structural information and structural properties can be uniformly represented by graphs and checked by graph algorithms. The interactive test and validation environment have been implemented on a SUN workstation.

  16. Air travel and radiation risks - review of current knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeeb, H.; Blettner, M.

    2004-01-01

    Aircrew and passengers are exposed to cosmic radiation, in particular when travelling routes close to the poles and in high altitudes. The paper reviews current radiation measurement and estimation approaches as well as the actual level of cosmic radiation that personnel and travellers receive and summarizes the available epidemiological evidence on health effects of cosmic radiation. On average, German aircrew is exposed to les than 5 mSv per annum, and even frequent travellers only rarely reach values above 1 mSv/year. Cohort studies among aircrew have found very little evidence for an increased incidence or mortality of radiation-associated cancers. Only malignant melanoma rates have consistently found to be increased among male aircrew. Socioeconomic and reproductive aspects are likely to contribute to the slightly elevated breast cancer risk of female aircrew. Cytogenetic studies have not yielded consistent results. Based on these data overall risk increases for cancer among occupationally exposed aircrew appear unlikely. This also applies to air travellers who are usually exposed to much lower radiation levels. Occasional air travel during pregnancy does not pose a significant radiation risk, but further considerations apply in this situation. The currently available studies are limited with regard to methodological issues and case numbers so that a continuation of cohort studies in several European countries is being planned. (orig.) [de

  17. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents’ use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying—cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:28562094

  18. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung

    2017-06-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  19. Project-based knowledge in organizing open innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Comacchio, Anna; Pizzi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Enriching understanding of the current theoretical debate on project-based open innovation, ‘Project-based Knowledge in Organizing Open Innovation’ draws on innovation management literature and knowledge-based perspectives to investigate the relationship between knowledge development at project level and the strategic organization of open innovation. Addressing the still open issue of how the firm level should be complemented by studies at the project level of analysis, this book provides theoretical and empirical arguments on the advantages of a more fine-grained level of analysis to understand how firms organize their innovation processes across boundaries. The book also addresses the emerging interest in the management literature on project-based organizations, and on the relevance of project forms of organizing in a knowledge-based economy. Through field research in different industrial settings , this book provides empirical evidence on how firms design open innovation project-by-project and it will ...

  20. KNOWLEDGE AND XML BASED CAPP SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shijie; SONG Laigang

    2006-01-01

    In order to enhance the intelligent level of system and improve the interactivity with other systems, a knowledge and XML based computer aided process planning (CAPP) system is implemented. It includes user management, bill of materials(BOM) management, knowledge based process planning, knowledge management and database maintaining sub-systems. This kind of nesting knowledge representation method the system provided can represent complicated arithmetic and logical relationship to deal with process planning tasks. With the representation and manipulation of XML based technological file, the system solves some important problems in web environment such as information interactive efficiency and refreshing of web page. The CAPP system is written in ASP VBScript, JavaScript, Visual C++ languages and Oracle database. At present, the CAPP system is running in Shenyang Machine Tools. The functions of it meet the requirements of enterprise production.

  1. "THE KNOWLEDGE TRIANGLE" IN A KNOWLEDGE-BASED SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rus Mircea-Iosif

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge-based society is the stage where mankind is found and aims to raise the living standards of population but also to increase the level of knowledge. To achieve this latter goal, the states of the world, and especially those in the European Union, must ensure an adequate funding for its realization, and therefore in 2011 it was decided at EU level the achievement of an Innovation Union, in which are to be involved all the European countries, while to stimulate and finance research and innovation the Horizon 2020 program was proposed. The results of the Program, an ”Innovation Union” have begun to be felt, so in 2011, the major companies headquartered in the European Union increased their investments in R&D by 8.9% compared to 6.1% in 2010. This increase was almost equal to that of the U.S.A. companies (9%, higher than the world average (7.6% and superior to Japanese companies (1.5%. The sectors that used the research-development activity have tended to have increases in employment above average. I believe this information highlights the fact that the European Union may become attractive for research-development and innovation investments even for businesses outside the UE, and this can result in jobs creation and increasing competitivenees of this field of the states of the European Union. In the introductory part of the article, I have briefly presented general notions of the three component activities of the ”knowledge triangle”, in the second part I presented the knowledge society with several features, in the third part, I showed some provisions of the program to stimulate research and innovation Horizon 2020, in the fourth part, I presented an innovation activity connection to private enterprise and entrepreneurial initiative stimulation in the field innovation, and the conclusions shows that research does not stop with achieving the objectives and finding the outcomes research, but is it the background for further

  2. Towards Knowledge-Based Digital Libraries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, L.; Jeusfeld, M.A.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.

    From the standpoint of satisfying human's information needs, the current digital library (DL) systems suffer from the following two shortcomings: (i) inadequate high-level cognition support; (ii) inadequate knowledge sharing facilities. In this article, we introduce a two-layered digital library

  3. A knowledge based system for plant diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoda, H.; Yamada, N.; Yoshida, K.

    1984-01-01

    A knowledge based system for plant diagnosis is proposed in which both event-oriented and function-oriented knowledge are used. For the proposed system to be of practical use, these two types of knowledge are represented by mutually nested four frames, i.e. the component, causality, criteriality, and simulator frames, and production rules. The system provides fast inference capability for use as both a production system and a formal reasoning system, with uncertainty of knowledge taken into account in the former. Event-oriented knowledge is used in both diagnosis and guidance and function-oriented knowledge, in diagnosis only. The inference capability required is forward chaining in the former and resolution in the latter. The causality frame guides in the use of event-oriented knowledge, whereas the criteriality frame does so for function-oriented knowledge. Feedback nature of the plant requires the best first search algorithm that uses histories in the resolution process. The inference program is written in Lisp and the plant simulator and the process I/O control programs in Fortran. Fast data transfer between these two languages is realized by enhancing the memory management capability of Lisp to control the numerical data in the global memory. Simulation applications to a BWR plant demonstrated its diagnostic capability

  4. Bridging the gap: simulations meet knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary W.; Morrison, Clayton T.; Westbrook, David L.; Cohen, Paul R.

    2003-09-01

    Tapir and Krill are declarative languages for specifying actions and agents, respectively, that can be executed in simulation. As such, they bridge the gap between strictly declarative knowledge bases and strictly executable code. Tapir and Krill components can be combined to produce models of activity which can answer questions about mechanisms and processes using conventional inference methods and simulation. Tapir was used in DARPA's Rapid Knowledge Formation (RKF) project to construct models of military tactics from the Army Field Manual FM3-90. These were then used to build Courses of Actions (COAs) which could be critiqued by declarative reasoning or via Monte Carlo simulation. Tapir and Krill can be read and written by non-knowledge engineers making it an excellent vehicle for Subject Matter Experts to build and critique knowledge bases.

  5. The Ontology of Knowledge Based Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Mahyuddin K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization has been becoming a central of studies in mathematic and has many areas with different applications. However, many themes of optimization came from different area have not ties closing to origin concepts. This paper is to address some variants of optimization problems using ontology in order to building basic of knowledge about optimization, and then using it to enhance strategy to achieve knowledge based optimization.

  6. Knowledge base verification based on enhanced colored petri net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Verification is a process aimed at demonstrating whether a system meets it`s specified requirements. As expert systems are used in various applications, the knowledge base verification of systems takes an important position. The conventional Petri net approach that has been studied recently in order to verify the knowledge base is found that it is inadequate to verify the knowledge base of large and complex system, such as alarm processing system of nuclear power plant. Thus, we propose an improved method that models the knowledge base as enhanced colored Petri net. In this study, we analyze the reachability and the error characteristics of the knowledge base and apply the method to verification of simple knowledge base. 8 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  7. Knowledge base verification based on enhanced colored petri net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Verification is a process aimed at demonstrating whether a system meets it`s specified requirements. As expert systems are used in various applications, the knowledge base verification of systems takes an important position. The conventional Petri net approach that has been studied recently in order to verify the knowledge base is found that it is inadequate to verify the knowledge base of large and complex system, such as alarm processing system of nuclear power plant. Thus, we propose an improved method that models the knowledge base as enhanced colored Petri net. In this study, we analyze the reachability and the error characteristics of the knowledge base and apply the method to verification of simple knowledge base. 8 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  8. SPRINT RA 230: Methodology for knowledge based developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallsgrove, R.; Munro, F.

    1991-01-01

    SPRINT RA 230: A Methodology for Knowledge Based Developments, funded by the European Commission, was set up to investigate the use of KBS in the engineering industry. Its aim was to find out low KBS were currently used and what people's conceptions of them was, to disseminate current knowledge and to recommend further research into this area. A survey (by post and face to face interviews) was carried out under SPRINT RA 230 to investigate requirements for more intelligent software. In the survey we looked both at how people think about Knowledge Based Systems (KBS), what they find useful and what is not useful, and what current expertise problems or limitations of conventional software might suggest KBS solutions. (orig./DG)

  9. A Knowledge Based Approach to VLSI CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Avail-and/or Dist ISpecial L| OI. SEICURITY CLASIIrCATION OP THIS IPA.lErllm S Daene." A KNOwLEDE BASED APPROACH TO VLSI CAD’ Louis L Steinberg and...major issues lies in building up and managing the knowledge base of oesign expertise. We expect that, as with many recent expert systems, in order to

  10. [Current status of the knowledge on Moroccan anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae): systematic, geographical distribution and vectorial competence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, C; Ouahabi, S; Adlaoui, E; Elaouad, R

    2010-10-01

    This bibliographical study, based on published works, ministry of Health Reports, exploitation of the database relative to the entomological surveillance conducted in the framework of the National Malaria Control Program, as well as unpublished results obtained within the framework of the European project "Emerging disease in a changing European environment", summarizes and completes with new data current knowledge on the systematics, the distribution and the vectorial competence of moroccan anophelines. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Model-based explanation of plant knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuskonen, P.J. [VTT Electronics, Oulu (Finland). Embedded Software

    1997-12-31

    This thesis deals with computer explanation of knowledge related to design and operation of industrial plants. The needs for explanation are motivated through case studies and literature reviews. A general framework for analysing plant explanations is presented. Prototypes demonstrate key mechanisms for implementing parts of the framework. Power plants, steel mills, paper factories, and high energy physics control systems are studied to set requirements for explanation. The main problems are seen to be either lack or abundance of information. Design knowledge in particular is found missing at plants. Support systems and automation should be enhanced with ways to explain plant knowledge to the plant staff. A framework is formulated for analysing explanations of plant knowledge. It consists of three parts: 1. a typology of explanation, organised by the class of knowledge (factual, functional, or strategic) and by the target of explanation (processes, automation, or support systems), 2. an identification of explanation tasks generic for the plant domain, and 3. an identification of essential model types for explanation (structural, behavioural, functional, and teleological). The tasks use the models to create the explanations of the given classes. Key mechanisms are discussed to implement the generic explanation tasks. Knowledge representations based on objects and their relations form a vocabulary to model and present plant knowledge. A particular class of models, means-end models, are used to explain plant knowledge. Explanations are generated through searches in the models. Hypertext is adopted to communicate explanations over dialogue based on context. The results are demonstrated in prototypes. The VICE prototype explains the reasoning of an expert system for diagnosis of rotating machines at power plants. The Justifier prototype explains design knowledge obtained from an object-oriented plant design tool. Enhanced access mechanisms into on-line documentation are

  12. Model-based explanation of plant knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuskonen, P J [VTT Electronics, Oulu (Finland). Embedded Software

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with computer explanation of knowledge related to design and operation of industrial plants. The needs for explanation are motivated through case studies and literature reviews. A general framework for analysing plant explanations is presented. Prototypes demonstrate key mechanisms for implementing parts of the framework. Power plants, steel mills, paper factories, and high energy physics control systems are studied to set requirements for explanation. The main problems are seen to be either lack or abundance of information. Design knowledge in particular is found missing at plants. Support systems and automation should be enhanced with ways to explain plant knowledge to the plant staff. A framework is formulated for analysing explanations of plant knowledge. It consists of three parts: 1. a typology of explanation, organised by the class of knowledge (factual, functional, or strategic) and by the target of explanation (processes, automation, or support systems), 2. an identification of explanation tasks generic for the plant domain, and 3. an identification of essential model types for explanation (structural, behavioural, functional, and teleological). The tasks use the models to create the explanations of the given classes. Key mechanisms are discussed to implement the generic explanation tasks. Knowledge representations based on objects and their relations form a vocabulary to model and present plant knowledge. A particular class of models, means-end models, are used to explain plant knowledge. Explanations are generated through searches in the models. Hypertext is adopted to communicate explanations over dialogue based on context. The results are demonstrated in prototypes. The VICE prototype explains the reasoning of an expert system for diagnosis of rotating machines at power plants. The Justifier prototype explains design knowledge obtained from an object-oriented plant design tool. Enhanced access mechanisms into on-line documentation are

  13. Clinical knowledge management: an overview of current understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Rajeev K; Dwivedi, Ashish

    2005-01-01

    This chapter outlines contributions to a workshop for ICMCC 2005. We details some of the central issues surrounding the incorporation of the Knowledge Management (KM) paradigm for the healthcare and clinical sectors. The complex nature of KM is discussed, together with some essential theories and some contemporary applications of the tools and techniques are presented.

  14. Knowledge-based scheduling of arrival aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeczowski, K.; Davis, T.; Erzberger, H.; Lev-Ram, I.; Bergh, C.

    1995-01-01

    A knowledge-based method for scheduling arrival aircraft in the terminal area has been implemented and tested in real-time simulation. The scheduling system automatically sequences, assigns landing times, and assigns runways to arrival aircraft by utilizing continuous updates of aircraft radar data and controller inputs. The scheduling algorithms is driven by a knowledge base which was obtained in over two thousand hours of controller-in-the-loop real-time simulation. The knowledge base contains a series of hierarchical 'rules' and decision logic that examines both performance criteria, such as delay reduction, as well as workload reduction criteria, such as conflict avoidance. The objective of the algorithms is to devise an efficient plan to land the aircraft in a manner acceptable to the air traffic controllers. This paper will describe the scheduling algorithms, give examples of their use, and present data regarding their potential benefits to the air traffic system.

  15. Knowledge-based diagnosis for aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The need for automated diagnosis in aerospace systems and the approach of using knowledge-based systems are examined. Research issues in knowledge-based diagnosis which are important for aerospace applications are treated along with a review of recent relevant research developments in Artificial Intelligence. The design and operation of some existing knowledge-based diagnosis systems are described. The systems described and compared include the LES expert system for liquid oxygen loading at NASA Kennedy Space Center, the FAITH diagnosis system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the PES procedural expert system developed at SRI International, the CSRL approach developed at Ohio State University, the StarPlan system developed by Ford Aerospace, the IDM integrated diagnostic model, and the DRAPhys diagnostic system developed at NASA Langley Research Center.

  16. Knowledge based economy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Stănculescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we assist at a fundamental change from the economy based mainly on resources to the one based mostly on knowledge. The concept has been launched in the last decade of the past century. The knowledge became a production agent and a value creation instrument for whatever country and of course for an entire community like European Union which is constantly concerned by its development and competitiveness. This paper presents the principal characteristics of the present EU preoccupations with the expansion of a knowledge based economy through the 2020 European Development Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive economy, and especially for the Framework Programs (Framework Programme 7 and Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme.

  17. Vitamin D in the light of current knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D, i.e. 1,25(OH 2D, is an essential factor, not only of homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus, but also of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, immune and hormonal regulation, as well as other body processes. Thus, its optimal presence in the body is of exceptional significance for health, both of children, as well as adults and elderly persons. Today, it is known that the lack of vitamin D, besides having negative effects on the skeleton and teeth, also contributes to the development of various malignancies, primarily of the large bowel, prostate and breasts, as well as of autoimmune and allergic diseases, diabetes mellitus type II, arterial hypertension and others. Considered from the biological aspect, physiological requirements in vitamin D are achieved by cutaneous synthesis from 7-dehydrocholesterol during sun exposure, while, except rarely, it is very scarce in food. Having in mind extensive evidence that sun exposure presents a high risk for the development of skin malignancies, primarily melanoma, it is clear that humans are deprived of the natural and basic source of vitamin D. In accordance, as well as based on numerous epidemiological studies showing the increase of diseases, in the basis of which vitamin D deficiency plays the important role, next led to the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin D, regardless of age. According to current attitudes, it is recommended that the daily dietary allowances of vitamin D. i.e. the quantity of oral intake that would safely cover the optimal body requirements should be 400 IU for ages 0-18 years, 600 IU for ages 19-70 years and 800 IU for persons aged over 70 years.

  18. Knowledge based systems advanced concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The field of knowledge-based systems (KBS) has expanded enormously during the last years, and many important techniques and tools are currently available. Applications of KBS range from medicine to engineering and aerospace.This book provides a selected set of state-of-the-art contributions that present advanced techniques, tools and applications. These contributions have been prepared by a group of eminent researchers and professionals in the field.The theoretical topics covered include: knowledge acquisition, machine learning, genetic algorithms, knowledge management and processing under unc

  19. Development of knowledge base system linked to material database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Shinichi; Miyakawa, Shunichi; Fujita, Mitsutane; Kinugawa, Junichi; Iwata, Shuichi

    2002-01-01

    The distributed material database system named 'Data-Free-Way' has been developed by four organizations (the National Institute for Materials Science, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, and the Japan Science and Technology Corporation) under a cooperative agreement in order to share fresh and stimulating information as well as accumulated information for the development of advanced nuclear materials, for the design of structural components, etc. In order to create additional values of the system, knowledge base system, in which knowledge extracted from the material database is expressed, is planned to be developed for more effective utilization of Data-Free-Way. XML (eXtensible Markup Language) has been adopted as the description method of the retrieved results and the meaning of them. One knowledge note described with XML is stored as one knowledge which composes the knowledge base. Since this knowledge note is described with XML, the user can easily convert the display form of the table and the graph into the data format which the user usually uses. This paper describes the current status of Data-Free-Way, the description method of knowledge extracted from the material database with XML and the distributed material knowledge base system. (author)

  20. Knowledge based management of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, U.; Schalm, S.; Pranckeviciute, K.

    1992-01-01

    TechSPEX is a knowledge based advisory system for checking the status of a nuclear plant on compliance with the safety limits and the limiting conditions of operation. These prescripts for safe reactor operation exist as textual information. For the purpose of its operational use an explicit representation formalism is introduced. On this basis, various approaches of text retrieval are realized, condition based surveillance and control is supported too. Knowledge editing and verification modules ease the adaption to changing requirements. TechSPEX has been implemented in PROLOG. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  1. Information modelling and knowledge bases XXV

    CERN Document Server

    Tokuda, T; Jaakkola, H; Yoshida, N

    2014-01-01

    Because of our ever increasing use of and reliance on technology and information systems, information modelling and knowledge bases continue to be important topics in those academic communities concerned with data handling and computer science. As the information itself becomes more complex, so do the levels of abstraction and the databases themselves. This book is part of the series Information Modelling and Knowledge Bases, which concentrates on a variety of themes in the important domains of conceptual modeling, design and specification of information systems, multimedia information modelin

  2. Nuclear Power Reactor Core Melt Accidents. Current State of Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentaib, Ahmed; Bonneville, Herve; Clement, Bernard; Cranga, Michel; Fichot, Florian; Koundy, Vincent; Meignen, Renaud; Corenwinder, Francois; Leteinturier, Denis; Monroig, Frederique; Nahas, Georges; Pichereau, Frederique; Van-Dorsselaere, Jean-Pierre; Cenerino, Gerard; Jacquemain, Didier; Raimond, Emmanuel; Ducros, Gerard; Journeau, Christophe; Magallon, Daniel; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Tourniaire, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    For over thirty years, IPSN and subsequently IRSN has played a major international role in the field of nuclear power reactor core melt accidents through the undertaking of important experimental programmes (the most significant being the Phebus- FP programme), the development of validated simulation tools (the ASTEC code that is today the leading European tool for modelling severe accidents), and the coordination of the SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network) international network of excellence. These accidents are described as 'severe accidents' because they can lead to radioactive releases outside the plant concerned, with serious consequences for the general public and for the environment. This book compiles the sum of the knowledge acquired on this subject and summarises the lessons that have been learnt from severe accidents around the world for the prevention and reduction of the consequences of such accidents, without addressing those from the Fukushima accident, where knowledge of events is still evolving. The knowledge accumulated by the Institute on these subjects enabled it to play an active role in informing public authorities, the media and the public when this accident occurred, and continues to do so to this day

  3. A Knowledge-based Recommendation Framework using SVN Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roddy Cabezas Padilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge based recommender systems, despite proven useful and having a high impact, persist with some shortcomings. Among its limitations are the lack of more flexible models and the inclusion of indeterminacy of the factors involved for computing a global similarity.

  4. Knowledge-based machine indexing from natural language text: Knowledge base design, development, and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuardi, Michael T.

    1993-01-01

    One strategy for machine-aided indexing (MAI) is to provide a concept-level analysis of the textual elements of documents or document abstracts. In such systems, natural-language phrases are analyzed in order to identify and classify concepts related to a particular subject domain. The overall performance of these MAI systems is largely dependent on the quality and comprehensiveness of their knowledge bases. These knowledge bases function to (1) define the relations between a controlled indexing vocabulary and natural language expressions; (2) provide a simple mechanism for disambiguation and the determination of relevancy; and (3) allow the extension of concept-hierarchical structure to all elements of the knowledge file. After a brief description of the NASA Machine-Aided Indexing system, concerns related to the development and maintenance of MAI knowledge bases are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to statistically-based text analysis tools designed to aid the knowledge base developer. One such tool, the Knowledge Base Building (KBB) program, presents the domain expert with a well-filtered list of synonyms and conceptually-related phrases for each thesaurus concept. Another tool, the Knowledge Base Maintenance (KBM) program, functions to identify areas of the knowledge base affected by changes in the conceptual domain (for example, the addition of a new thesaurus term). An alternate use of the KBM as an aid in thesaurus construction is also discussed.

  5. Agora: A proposal to overcome the limitations of the current knowledge creation process

    OpenAIRE

    ScientistFive

    2015-01-01

    Agora: A proposal to overcome the limitations of the current knowledge creation process ======================================================================================= By Scientistsfive () Abstract: The knowledge creation process is broken and can be improved by a combination of currently emerging tools. The rationale for this proposal is the notion that the current scientific process is not optimal: * Artificially staged competitions (g...

  6. Knowledge formations in Problem Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Verner

    organization are no longer based on relationships between strong independent disciplines, but rather on a number of ‘themes’ or ‘subject areas’ that should be combined and tied together during the students PBL-studies. As such, the curriculum organized knowledge, as well as student’s reflections of various...

  7. VICKEY: Mining Conditional Keys on Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symeonidou, Danai; Prado, Luis Antonio Galarraga Del; Pernelle, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    A conditional key is a key constraint that is valid in only a part of the data. In this paper, we show how such keys can be mined automatically on large knowledge bases (KBs). For this, we combine techniques from key mining with techniques from rule mining. We show that our method can scale to KBs...

  8. Improving the Knowledge Base in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockler, Michael J.

    Education in the United States for most of the last 50 years has built its knowledge base on a single dominating foundation--behavioral psychology. This paper analyzes the history of behaviorism. Syntheses are presented of the theories of Ivan P. Pavlov, J. B. Watson, and B. F. Skinner, all of whom contributed to the body of works on behaviorism.…

  9. Tiger: knowledge based gas turbine condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trave-Massuyes, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Quevedo, J. [University of Catalonia, (Spain); Milne, R.; Nicol, Ch.

    1995-12-31

    Exxon petrochemical plant in Scotland requires continuous ethylene supply from offshore site in North Sea. The supply is achieved thanks to compressors driven by a 28 MW gas turbine, whose monitoring is of major importance. The TIGER fault diagnostic system is a knowledge base system containing a prediction model. (D.L.) 11 refs.

  10. Tiger: knowledge based gas turbine condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trave-Massuyes, L [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Quevedo, J [University of Catalonia, (Spain); Milne, R; Nicol, Ch

    1996-12-31

    Exxon petrochemical plant in Scotland requires continuous ethylene supply from offshore site in North Sea. The supply is achieved thanks to compressors driven by a 28 MW gas turbine, whose monitoring is of major importance. The TIGER fault diagnostic system is a knowledge base system containing a prediction model. (D.L.) 11 refs.

  11. Knowledge-based systems programming for knowledge intensive teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, H.H.; Dijkstra, J.; Oxman, R.M.; Colajanni, B.; Pellitteri, G.

    1995-01-01

    Typological design implies extensive knowledge of building types in order to design a building belonging to a building type. It facilitates the design process, which can be considered as a sequence of decisions. The paper gives an outline of a new approach in a course teaching typological knowledge

  12. Knowledge-based systems programming for knowledge intensive teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, H.H.; Dijkstra, J.; Oxman, R.M.; Bax, M.F.T.

    1994-01-01

    Typological design implies extensive knowledge of building types in order to design a building belonging to a building type. It facilitates the design process, which can be considered as a sequence of decisions. The paper gives an outline of a new approach in a course teaching typological knowledge

  13. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle

  14. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y. [Centre of Advanced Research on Energy, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  15. Knowledge based diagnostics in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldeweg, F.; Fiedler, U.; Weiss, F.P.; Werner, M.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper a special process diagnostic system (PDS) is presented. It must be seen as the result of a long term work on computerized process surveillance and control; it includes a model based system for noise analysis of mechanical vibrations, which has recently been enhanced by using of knowledge based technique (expert systems). The paper discusses the process diagnostic frame concept and emphasize the vibration analysis expert system

  16. Knowledge Based Understanding of Radiology Text

    OpenAIRE

    Ranum, David L.

    1988-01-01

    A data acquisition tool which will extract pertinent diagnostic information from radiology reports has been designed and implemented. Pertinent diagnostic information is defined as that clinical data which is used by the HELP medical expert system. The program uses a memory based semantic parsing technique to “understand” the text. Moreover, the memory structures and lexicon necessary to perform this action are automatically generated from the diagnostic knowledge base by using a special purp...

  17. A collaborative filtering-based approach to biomedical knowledge discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, Jake; Gakkhar, Sitanshu; Gottlieb, Michael; Rashnavadi, Tahereh; Lin, Santina; Siu, Celia; Smith, Maia; Jones, Martin R; Krzywinski, Martin; Jones, Steven J M; Wren, Jonathan

    2018-02-15

    The increase in publication rates makes it challenging for an individual researcher to stay abreast of all relevant research in order to find novel research hypotheses. Literature-based discovery methods make use of knowledge graphs built using text mining and can infer future associations between biomedical concepts that will likely occur in new publications. These predictions are a valuable resource for researchers to explore a research topic. Current methods for prediction are based on the local structure of the knowledge graph. A method that uses global knowledge from across the knowledge graph needs to be developed in order to make knowledge discovery a frequently used tool by researchers. We propose an approach based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) that is able to combine data from across the knowledge graph through a reduced representation. Using cooccurrence data extracted from published literature, we show that SVD performs better than the leading methods for scoring discoveries. We also show the diminishing predictive power of knowledge discovery as we compare our predictions with real associations that appear further into the future. Finally, we examine the strengths and weaknesses of the SVD approach against another well-performing system using several predicted associations. All code and results files for this analysis can be accessed at https://github.com/jakelever/knowledgediscovery. sjones@bcgsc.ca. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. KBGIS-2: A knowledge-based geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T.; Peuquet, D.; Menon, S.; Agarwal, P.

    1986-01-01

    The architecture and working of a recently implemented knowledge-based geographic information system (KBGIS-2) that was designed to satisfy several general criteria for the geographic information system are described. The system has four major functions that include query-answering, learning, and editing. The main query finds constrained locations for spatial objects that are describable in a predicate-calculus based spatial objects language. The main search procedures include a family of constraint-satisfaction procedures that use a spatial object knowledge base to search efficiently for complex spatial objects in large, multilayered spatial data bases. These data bases are represented in quadtree form. The search strategy is designed to reduce the computational cost of search in the average case. The learning capabilities of the system include the addition of new locations of complex spatial objects to the knowledge base as queries are answered, and the ability to learn inductively definitions of new spatial objects from examples. The new definitions are added to the knowledge base by the system. The system is currently performing all its designated tasks successfully, although currently implemented on inadequate hardware. Future reports will detail the performance characteristics of the system, and various new extensions are planned in order to enhance the power of KBGIS-2.

  19. Piping and erosion in buffer and backfill materials. Current knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Sanden, Torbjoern

    2006-09-01

    The water inflow into the deposition holes and tunnels in a repository will mainly take place through fractures in the rock and will lead to that the buffer and backfill will be wetted and homogenised. But in general the buffer and backfill cannot absorb all water that runs through a fracture, which leads to that a water pressure will be generated in the fracture when the inflow is hindered. If the counter pressure and strength of the buffer or backfill is insufficiently high, piping and subsequent erosion may take place. The processes and consequences of piping and erosion have been studied in some projects and several laboratory test series in different scales have been carried through. This brief report describes these tests and the results and conclusions that have emerged. The knowledge of piping and erosion is insufficient today and additional studies are needed and running

  20. Knowledge-based information systems in practice

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Watada, Junzo; Howlett, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This book contains innovative research from leading researchers who presented their work at the 17th International Conference on Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, KES 2013, held in Kitakyusha, Japan, in September 2013. The conference provided a competitive field of 236 contributors, from which 38 authors expanded their contributions and only 21 published. A plethora of techniques and innovative applications are represented within this volume. The chapters are organized using four themes. These topics include: data mining, knowledge management, advanced information processes and system modelling applications. Each topic contains multiple contributions and many offer case studies or innovative examples. Anyone that wants to work with information repositories or process knowledge should consider reading one or more chapters focused on their technique of choice. They may also benefit from reading other chapters to assess if an alternative technique represents a more suitable app...

  1. Arrhythmogenic KCNE gene variants: current knowledge and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn M Crump

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are twenty-five known inherited cardiac arrhythmia susceptibility genes, all of which encode either ion channel pore-forming subunits or proteins that regulate aspects of ion channel biology such as function, trafficking and localization. The human KCNE gene family comprises five potassium channel regulatory subunits, sequence variants in each of which are associated with cardiac arrhythmias. KCNE gene products exhibit promiscuous partnering and in some cases ubiquitous expression, hampering efforts to unequivocally correlate each gene to specific native potassium currents. Likewise, deducing the molecular etiology of cardiac arrhythmias in individuals harboring rare KCNE gene variants, or more common KCNE polymorphisms, can be challenging. In this review we provide an update on putative arrhythmia-causing KCNE gene variants, and discuss current thinking and future challenges in the study of molecular mechanisms of KCNE-associated cardiac rhythm disturbances.

  2. An Ebola virus-centered knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Maulik R.; Dumontier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV), of the family Filoviridae viruses, is a NIAID category A, lethal human pathogen. It is responsible for causing Ebola virus disease (EVD) that is a severe hemorrhagic fever and has a cumulative death rate of 41% in the ongoing epidemic in West Africa. There is an ever-increasing need to consolidate and make available all the knowledge that we possess on EBOV, even if it is conflicting or incomplete. This would enable biomedical researchers to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease and help develop tools for efficient diagnosis and effective treatment. In this article, we present our approach for the development of an Ebola virus-centered Knowledge Base (Ebola-KB) using Linked Data and Semantic Web Technologies. We retrieve and aggregate knowledge from several open data sources, web services and biomedical ontologies. This knowledge is transformed to RDF, linked to the Bio2RDF datasets and made available through a SPARQL 1.1 Endpoint. Ebola-KB can also be explored using an interactive Dashboard visualizing the different perspectives of this integrated knowledge. We showcase how different competency questions, asked by domain users researching the druggability of EBOV, can be formulated as SPARQL Queries or answered using the Ebola-KB Dashboard. Database URL: http://ebola.semanticscience.org. PMID:26055098

  3. An Ebola virus-centered knowledge base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Maulik R; Dumontier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV), of the family Filoviridae viruses, is a NIAID category A, lethal human pathogen. It is responsible for causing Ebola virus disease (EVD) that is a severe hemorrhagic fever and has a cumulative death rate of 41% in the ongoing epidemic in West Africa. There is an ever-increasing need to consolidate and make available all the knowledge that we possess on EBOV, even if it is conflicting or incomplete. This would enable biomedical researchers to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease and help develop tools for efficient diagnosis and effective treatment. In this article, we present our approach for the development of an Ebola virus-centered Knowledge Base (Ebola-KB) using Linked Data and Semantic Web Technologies. We retrieve and aggregate knowledge from several open data sources, web services and biomedical ontologies. This knowledge is transformed to RDF, linked to the Bio2RDF datasets and made available through a SPARQL 1.1 Endpoint. Ebola-KB can also be explored using an interactive Dashboard visualizing the different perspectives of this integrated knowledge. We showcase how different competency questions, asked by domain users researching the druggability of EBOV, can be formulated as SPARQL Queries or answered using the Ebola-KB Dashboard. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. XML-Based SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Tikidjian, Raffi

    2008-01-01

    The SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language software has been designed to more efficiently send new knowledge bases to spacecraft that have been embedded with the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) tool. The intention of the behavioral model is to capture most of the information generally associated with a spacecraft functional model, while specifically addressing the needs of execution within SHINE and Livingstone. As such, it has some constructs that are based on one or the other.

  5. Current knowledge on biodegradable microspheres in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Kapadia, Jinita R

    2015-08-01

    Biodegradable microspheres have gained popularity for delivering a wide variety of molecules via various routes. These types of products have been prepared using various natural and synthetic biodegradable polymers through suitable techniques for desired delivery of various challenging molecules. Selection of biodegradable polymers and technique play a key role in desired drug delivery. This review describes an overview of the fundamental knowledge and status of biodegradable microspheres in effective delivery of various molecules via desired routes with consideration of outlines of various compendial and non-compendial biodegradable polymers, formulation techniques and release mechanism of microspheres, patents and commercial biodegradable microspheres. There are various advantages of using biodegradable polymers including promise of development with different types of molecules. Biocompatibility, low dosage and reduced side effects are some reasons why usage biodegradable microspheres have gained in popularity. Selection of biodegradable polymers and formulation techniques to create microspheres is the biggest challenge in research. In the near future, biodegradable microspheres will become the eco-friendly product for drug delivery of various genes, hormones, proteins and peptides at specific site of body for desired periods of time.

  6. Current state of knowledge about nutritional care of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barretto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy involves a significant anabolic activity that leads to increased nutritional needs relative to the preconception period. This paper aims to review the current understanding of the energy needs of macro and micronutrients during pregnancy as well as guidelines to address common gastrointestinal disorders during pregnancy, the issue of pica and anthropometric assessment to ensure an optimum weight gain. With the exception of iron, most of the nutrients needed by the pregnancy can be provided by a complete and balanced diet. Currently the scientific evidence shows that routine supplementation with iron and folic acid during pregnancy is a practice that prevents iron deficiency anemia, neural tube disorders and preterm births. Intermittent iron supplementation can also be an appropriated intervention. If the diet does not guarantee and adequate support, iodine, vitamin B12 and vitamin D supplements should also be necessaries. The anthropometric assessment by the pattern of weight gain should be present at each prenatal care visit to prevent maternal and fetal complications. In situations where the mother’s weight cannot be assessed, arm muscle circumference is possible to make an overall assessment as it correlates with maternal weight gain alternative. Measurements of biceps, triceps and subscapular skinfolds are another alternative that is useful to evaluate the fatty deposits and their location, in a complementary way to gain weight.

  7. Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Jody L.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite contamination continues to be a design problem that engineers must take into account when developing new satellites. To help with this issue, NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program funded the development of the Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base. This engineering tool brings together in one location information about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based upon ground-testing data, the effects of outgassing that has been observed during flight and measurements of the contamination environment by on-orbit instruments. The knowledge base contains information using the ASTM Standard E- 1559 and also consolidates data from missions using quartz-crystal microbalances (QCM's). The data contained in the knowledge base was shared with NASA by government agencies and industry in the US and international space agencies as well. The term 'knowledgebase' was used because so much information and capability was brought together in one comprehensive engineering design tool. It is the SEE Program's intent to continually add additional material contamination data as it becomes available - creating a dynamic tool whose value to the user is ever increasing. The SEE Program firmly believes that NASA, and ultimately the entire contamination user community, will greatly benefit from this new engineering tool and highly encourages the community to not only use the tool but add data to it as well.

  8. Anterior point of reference: Current knowledge and perspectives in prosthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The opening and closing mandibular axis is not a purely theoretical postulation, but an absolutely demonstrable biomechanical entity. It is very crucial to accurately record and transfer to articulators for the purpose of maxillofacial rehabilitation. Following the Face bow record and transfer of the mandibular axis to an anatomic articulator, we can then mount the casts so that they open and close on the articulator in the same fashion as the patient′s jaws. For this reason one of the fixed factors presented by the patient is taken into the consideration, which if properly considered, can be of inestimable value in all phases of dental treatment. This paper has sought to review the current concepts and practical implications regarding anterior point of reference in prosthodontics.

  9. Knowledge based systems for intelligent robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, N. S.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the construction of large space platforms, such as space stations, has to be carried out in the outer space environment. As it is extremely expensive to support human workers in space for large periods, the only feasible solution appears to be related to the development and deployment of highly capable robots for most of the tasks. Robots for space applications will have to possess characteristics which are very different from those needed by robots in industry. The present investigation is concerned with the needs of space robotics and the technologies which can be of assistance to meet these needs, giving particular attention to knowledge bases. 'Intelligent' robots are required for the solution of arising problems. The collection of facts and rules needed for accomplishing such solutions form the 'knowledge base' of the system.

  10. Knowledge-based computer security advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunteman, W.J.; Squire, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    The rapid expansion of computer security information and technology has included little support to help the security officer identify the safeguards needed to comply with a policy and to secure a computing system. This paper reports that Los Alamos is developing a knowledge-based computer security system to provide expert knowledge to the security officer. This system includes a model for expressing the complex requirements in computer security policy statements. The model is part of an expert system that allows a security officer to describe a computer system and then determine compliance with the policy. The model contains a generic representation that contains network relationships among the policy concepts to support inferencing based on information represented in the generic policy description

  11. Knowledge Governance in Project-Based Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Wiewiora, Anna; Müller, Ralf

    This paper conceptualizes knowledge governance (KG) in project-based organizations (PBOs) and its methodological approaches for empirical investigation. Three key contributions towards a multi-faceted view of KG and an understanding of KG in PBOs are advanced. These contributions include a defini......This paper conceptualizes knowledge governance (KG) in project-based organizations (PBOs) and its methodological approaches for empirical investigation. Three key contributions towards a multi-faceted view of KG and an understanding of KG in PBOs are advanced. These contributions include...... a definition of KG in PBOs, a conceptual framework to investigate KG and a methodological framework for empirical inquiry into KG in PBO settings. Our definition highlights the contingent nature of KG processes in relation to their organizational context. The conceptual framework addresses macro- and micro...

  12. From Data to Knowledge: GEOSS experience and the GEOSS Knowledge Base contribution to the GCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M.; Nativi, S.; Mazzetti, P., Sr.; Plag, H. P.

    2016-12-01

    According to systems theory, data is raw, it simply exists and has no significance beyond its existence; while, information is data that has been given meaning by way of relational connection. The appropriate collection of information, such that it contributes to understanding, is a process of knowledge creation.The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) developed by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is a set of coordinated, independent Earth observation, information and processing systems that interact and provide access to diverse information for a broad range of users in both public and private sectors. GEOSS links these systems to strengthen the monitoring of the state of the Earth. In the past ten years, the development of GEOSS has taught several lessons dealing with the need to move from (open) data to information and knowledge sharing. Advanced user-focused services require to move from a data-driven framework to a knowledge sharing platform. Such a platform needs to manage information and knowledge, in addition to datasets linked to them. For this scope, GEO has launched a specific task called "GEOSS Knowledge Base", which deals with resources, like user requirements, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), observation and processing ontologies, publications, guidelines, best practices, business processes/algorithms, definition of advanced concepts like Essential Variables (EVs), indicators, strategic goals, etc. In turn, information and knowledge (e.g. guidelines, best practices, user requirements, business processes, algorithms, etc.) can be used to generate additional information and knowledge from shared datasets. To fully utilize and leverage the GEOSS Knowledge Base, the current GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) model will be extended and advanced to consider important concepts and implementation artifacts, such as data processing services and environmental/economic models as well as EVs, Primary Indicators, and SDGs. The new GCI model

  13. The HEP Software and Computing Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenaus, T.

    2017-10-01

    HEP software today is a rich and diverse domain in itself and exists within the mushrooming world of open source software. As HEP software developers and users we can be more productive and effective if our work and our choices are informed by a good knowledge of what others in our community have created or found useful. The HEP Software and Computing Knowledge Base, hepsoftware.org, was created to facilitate this by serving as a collection point and information exchange on software projects and products, services, training, computing facilities, and relating them to the projects, experiments, organizations and science domains that offer them or use them. It was created as a contribution to the HEP Software Foundation, for which a HEP S&C knowledge base was a much requested early deliverable. This contribution will motivate and describe the system, what it offers, its content and contributions both existing and needed, and its implementation (node.js based web service and javascript client app) which has emphasized ease of use for both users and contributors.

  14. Knowledge base technology: a developer view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ginkul

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available In present paper we have endeavoured to tell about some reasonings, conclusions and pricticals results, to which we have come being busy with one of most interesting problems of modern science. This paper is a brief report of the group of scientists from the Laboratory of Artificial Intelligence Systems about their experience of work in the field of knowledge engineering. The researches in this area was started in our Laboratory more than 10 years ago, i.e. about in the moment, when there was just another rise in Artificial Intelligence, caused by mass emerging of expert systems. The tasks of knowledge engineering were being varied, and focal point of our researches was being varied too. Certainly, we have not solved all the problems, originating in this area. Our knowledge still has an approximate nature, but nevertheless, the outcomes obtained by us seem rather important and interesting. So, we want to tell about our experience in building of knowledge-based systems, and expert systems, in particular.

  15. Gulf War Syndrome: a review of current knowledge and understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, D

    2014-01-01

    The 1991 Persian Gulf War was a resounding military success for coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait following the Iraqi invasion. The medical legacy we have from the conflict is the poorly understood, yet remarkable, phenomenon of Gulf War Syndrome, which surfaced soon after. Epidemiological research has proven beyond doubt that Gulf War veterans report a wide variety of symptoms, in excess of appropriately matched control subjects, and experience worse general health. Numerous toxic environmental hazards have been suggested as causes of Gulf War Syndrome, yet exhaustive scientific study has failed to provide conclusive proof of any link. No novel or recognised disease has been found to account for the symptomatic burden of veterans, and the optimal treatment remains uncertain. This understanding can be added to from an anthropological perspective, where the narratives of those afflicted provide further insight. The nature of military life was changing at the time of the Gulf War, challenging the identity and beliefs of some veterans and causing socio-cultural distress. The symptomatic presentation of Gulf War Syndrome can be considered an articulation of this disharmony. Gulf War Syndrome can also be considered within the group of post-combat disorders such as shellshock, the like of which have occurred after major wars in the last century. With the current withdrawal from Afghanistan, the Defence Medical Services (DMS) should heed the lessons of history.

  16. Are iron oxide nanoparticles safe? Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Fernández-Bertólez, Natalia; Kiliç, Gözde; Costa, Carla; Costa, Solange; Fraga, Sonia; Bessa, Maria Joao; Pásaro, Eduardo; Teixeira, João Paulo; Laffon, Blanca

    2016-12-01

    Due to their unique physicochemical properties, including superparamagnetism, iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) have a number of interesting applications, especially in the biomedical field, that make them one of the most fascinating nanomaterials. They are used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, in targeted drug delivery, and for induced hyperthermia cancer treatments. Together with these valuable uses, concerns regarding the onset of unexpected adverse health effects following exposure have been also raised. Nevertheless, despite the numerous ION purposes being explored, currently available information on their potential toxicity is still scarce and controversial data have been reported. Although ION have traditionally been considered as biocompatible - mainly on the basis of viability tests results - influence of nanoparticle surface coating, size, or dose, and of other experimental factors such as treatment time or cell type, has been demonstrated to be important for ION in vitro toxicity manifestation. In vivo studies have shown distribution of ION to different tissues and organs, including brain after passing the blood-brain barrier; nevertheless results from acute toxicity, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity investigations in different animal models do not provide a clear overview on ION safety yet, and epidemiological studies are almost inexistent. Much work has still to be done to fully understand how these nanomaterials interact with cellular systems and what, if any, potential adverse health consequences can derive from ION exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Aetiology of childhood acute leukaemias: Current status of knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossig, C.; Juergens, H.

    2008-01-01

    Acute leukaemia is a consequence of malignant transformation of a haematopoietic progenitor cell. Molecular studies have revealed a prenatal origin of many childhood leukaemias. According to current models, a pre-leukaemic stem cell clone is generated by a first mutation in utero which, in a minority of children, progresses to leukaemia after receiving further postnatal genetic hits. The nature of pre- and postnatal events involved in leukemogenesis in children is not well understood. Although genetic predisposition and specific environmental exposures may account for individual cases, the bulk of childhood leukaemia cannot be explained by any of these factors. The higher incidence of the most common leukaemia subtype in affluent societies, as well as the age peak between 2-5 y, suggest a contributory role of socioeconomic factors. An abnormal immune response during delayed exposure to common infections provides a plausible mechanism for malignant progression of pre-leukaemic clones in a subgroup of children. As highlighted in this review, a common cause for all types and subtypes of childhood leukaemia is highly unlikely. Deeper insights into the pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia will rely on large-scale and combined epidemiological and bio-molecular studies. (authors)

  18. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I: current knowledge on its pathophysiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Derbis; Monaga, Madelyn

    2012-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I is one of the most frequent lysosomal storage diseases. It has a high morbidity and mortality, causing in many cases severe neurological and somatic damage in the first years of life. Although the clinical phenotypes have been described for decades, and the enzymatic deficiency and many of the mutations that cause this disease are well known, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to its development are not completely understood. In this review we describe and discuss the different pathogenic mechanisms currently proposed for this disease regarding its neurological damage. Deficiency in the lysosomal degradation of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate, as well as its primary accumulation, may disrupt a variety of physiological and biochemical processes: the intracellular and extracellular homeostasis of these macromolecules, the pathways related to gangliosides metabolism, mechanisms related to the activation of inflammation, receptor-mediated signaling, oxidative stress and permeability of the lysosomal membrane, as well as alterations in intracellular ionic homeostasis and the endosomal pathway. Many of the pathogenic mechanisms proposed for mucopolysaccharidosis type I are also present in other lysosomal storage diseases with neurological implications. Results from the use of methods that allow the analysis of multiple genes and proteins, in both patients and animal models, will shed light on the role of each of these mechanisms and their combination in the development of different phenotypes due to the same deficiency.

  19. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood - current knowledge and open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Mariacarolina; Capalbo, Donatella; Cerbone, Manuela; De Luca, Filippo

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as serum levels of TSH above the upper limit of the reference range, in the presence of normal concentrations of total T 4 or free T 4 . This biochemical profile might be an indication of mild hypothyroidism, with a potential increased risk of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease recorded among adults. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism results in adverse health outcomes among children is a matter of debate and so management of this condition remains challenging. Mild forms of untreated subclinical hypothyroidism do not seem to be associated with impairments in growth, bone health or neurocognitive outcome. However, ongoing scientific investigations have highlighted the presence of subtle proatherogenic abnormalities among children with modest elevations in their TSH levels. Although current findings are insufficient to recommend levothyroxine treatment for all children with mild asymptomatic forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, they highlight the potential need for assessment of cardiovascular risk among children with this condition. Increased understanding of the early metabolic risk factors associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood will help to improve the management of affected individuals.

  20. Current state of knowledge: the canine gastrointestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooda, Seema; Minamoto, Yasushi; Suchodolski, Jan S; Swanson, Kelly S

    2012-06-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) microbes have important roles in the nutritional, immunological, and physiologic processes of the host. Traditional cultivation techniques have revealed bacterial density ranges from 10(4) to 10(5) colony forming units (CFU)/g in the stomach, from 10(5) to 10(7) CFU/g in the small intestine, and from 10(9) to 10(11) CFU/g in the colon of healthy dogs. As a small number of bacterial species can be grown and studied in culture, however, progress was limited until the recent emergence of DNA-based techniques. In recent years, DNA sequencing technology and bioinformatics have allowed for better phylogenetic and functional/metabolic characterization of the canine gut microbiome. Predominant phyla include Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Studies using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene pyrosequencing have demonstrated spatial differences along the GI tract and among microbes adhered to the GI mucosa compared to those in intestinal contents or feces. Similar to humans, GI microbiome dysbiosis is common in canine GI diseases such as chronic diarrhea and inflammatory bowel diseases. DNA-based assays have also identified key pathogens contributing to such conditions, including various Clostridium, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia spp. Moreover, nutritionists have applied DNA-based techniques to study the effects of dietary interventions such as dietary fiber, prebiotics, and probiotics on the canine GI microbiome and associated health indices. Despite recent advances in the field, the canine GI microbiome is far from being fully characterized and a deeper characterization of the phylogenetic and functional/metabolic capacity of the GI microbiome in health and disease is needed. This paper provides an overview of recent studies performed to characterize the canine GI microbiome.

  1. Oxytocin and Socioemotional Aging─Current Knowledge and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ebner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The oxytocin (OT system is involved in various aspects of social cognition and prosocial behavior. Specifically, OT has been examined in the context of social memory, emotion recognition, cooperation, trust, empathy, and bonding, and─though evidence is somewhat mixed─intranasal OT appears to benefit aspects of socioemotional functioning. However, most of the extant data on aging and OT is from animal research and human OT research has focused largely on young adults. As such, though we know that various socioemotional capacities change with age, we know little about whether age-related changes in the OT system may underlie age-related differences in socioemotional functioning. In this review, we take a genetic-neuro-behavioral approach and evaluate current evidence on age-related changes in the OT system as well as the putative effects of these alterations on age-related socioemotional functioning. Looking forward, we identify informational gaps and propose an Age-Related Genetic, Neurobiological, Sociobehavioral Model of Oxytocin (AGeNeS-OT model which may structure and inform investigations into aging-related genetic, neural, and sociocognitive processes related to OT. As an exemplar of the use of the model, we report exploratory data suggesting differences in socioemotional processing associated with genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR in samples of young and older adults. Information gained from this arena has translational potential in depression, social stress, and anxiety─all of which have high relevance in aging─and may contribute to reducing social isolation and improving well-being of individuals across the lifespan.

  2. Current knowledge on radon risk. Implications for practical radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Wolfgang-Ulrich; Giussani, Augusto; Kreuzer, Michaela; Sobotzki, Christina; Ruehm, Werner; Lecomte, Jean-Francois; Harrison, John; Breckow, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    ICRP suggested a strategy based on the distinction between a protection approach for dwellings and one for workplaces in the previous recommendations on radon. Now, the Commission recommends an integrated approach for the protection against radon exposure in all buildings irrespective of their purpose and the status of their occupants. The strategy of protection in buildings, implemented through a national action plan, is based on the application of the optimisation principle below a derived reference level in concentration (maximum 300 Bq m -3 ). A problem, however, arises that due to new epidemiological findings and application of dosimetric models, ICRP 115 (Ann ICRP 40, 2010) presents nominal probability coefficients for radon exposure that are approximately by a factor of 2 larger than in the former recommendations of ICRP 65 (Ann ICRP 23, 1993). On the basis of the so-called epidemiological approach and the dosimetric approach, the doubling of risk per unit exposure is represented by a doubling of the dose coefficients, while the risk coefficient of ICRP 103 (2007) remains unchanged. Thus, an identical given radon exposure situation with the new dose coefficients would result in a doubling of dose compared with the former values. This is of serious conceptual implications. A possible solution of this problem was presented during the workshop. (orig.)

  3. Current knowledge on radon risk. Implications for practical radiation protection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Wolfgang-Ulrich [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiologie, Essen (Germany); Giussani, Augusto; Kreuzer, Michaela; Sobotzki, Christina [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Ruehm, Werner [German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Lecomte, Jean-Francois [International Affaires Directorate, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, P.O. Box 17, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Harrison, John [Oxford Brookes University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Breckow, Joachim [THM University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    ICRP suggested a strategy based on the distinction between a protection approach for dwellings and one for workplaces in the previous recommendations on radon. Now, the Commission recommends an integrated approach for the protection against radon exposure in all buildings irrespective of their purpose and the status of their occupants. The strategy of protection in buildings, implemented through a national action plan, is based on the application of the optimisation principle below a derived reference level in concentration (maximum 300 Bq m{sup -3}). A problem, however, arises that due to new epidemiological findings and application of dosimetric models, ICRP 115 (Ann ICRP 40, 2010) presents nominal probability coefficients for radon exposure that are approximately by a factor of 2 larger than in the former recommendations of ICRP 65 (Ann ICRP 23, 1993). On the basis of the so-called epidemiological approach and the dosimetric approach, the doubling of risk per unit exposure is represented by a doubling of the dose coefficients, while the risk coefficient of ICRP 103 (2007) remains unchanged. Thus, an identical given radon exposure situation with the new dose coefficients would result in a doubling of dose compared with the former values. This is of serious conceptual implications. A possible solution of this problem was presented during the workshop. (orig.)

  4. Knowledge-based geometric modeling in construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    a considerably high amount of their recourses is required for designing and specifying the majority of their product assortment. As design decisions are hereby based on knowledge and experience about behaviour and applicability of construction techniques and materials for a predefined design situation, smart......A wider application of IT-based solutions, such as configuration systems and the implementation of modeling standards, has facilitated the trend to produce mass customized products to support inter alia the specification process of the increasing product variety. However, not all industries have...

  5. Global forces and local currents in Argentina's science policy crossroads: restricted access or open knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Javier Etchichury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the tensions between two competing approaches to scientific policy in Argentina. The traditional vision favors autonomous research. The neoliberal conception fosters the link between science and markets. In the past few years, a neodevelopmentalist current also tries to stress relevance of scientific research. Finally, the article describes how the Open Access movement has entered the debate. The World Bank intervention and the human rights dimension of the question are discussed in depth. The article introduces the notion of open knowledge as a guiding criterion to design a human-rights based scientific policy.

  6. Knowledge-based Fragment Binding Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Grace W.; Altman, Russ B.

    2014-01-01

    Target-based drug discovery must assess many drug-like compounds for potential activity. Focusing on low-molecular-weight compounds (fragments) can dramatically reduce the chemical search space. However, approaches for determining protein-fragment interactions have limitations. Experimental assays are time-consuming, expensive, and not always applicable. At the same time, computational approaches using physics-based methods have limited accuracy. With increasing high-resolution structural data for protein-ligand complexes, there is now an opportunity for data-driven approaches to fragment binding prediction. We present FragFEATURE, a machine learning approach to predict small molecule fragments preferred by a target protein structure. We first create a knowledge base of protein structural environments annotated with the small molecule substructures they bind. These substructures have low-molecular weight and serve as a proxy for fragments. FragFEATURE then compares the structural environments within a target protein to those in the knowledge base to retrieve statistically preferred fragments. It merges information across diverse ligands with shared substructures to generate predictions. Our results demonstrate FragFEATURE's ability to rediscover fragments corresponding to the ligand bound with 74% precision and 82% recall on average. For many protein targets, it identifies high scoring fragments that are substructures of known inhibitors. FragFEATURE thus predicts fragments that can serve as inputs to fragment-based drug design or serve as refinement criteria for creating target-specific compound libraries for experimental or computational screening. PMID:24762971

  7. Assessment of knowledge and awareness among radiology personnel regarding current computed tomography technology and radiation dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bradley, D. A.; Bahruddin, N. A.; Ang, W. C.; Salehhon, N.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness among 120 radiology personnel working in 7 public hospitals in Johor, Malaysia, concerning Computed Tomography (CT) technology and radiation doses based on a set of questionnaires. Subjects were divided into two groups (Medical profession (Med, n=32) and Allied health profession (AH, n=88). The questionnaires are addressed: (1) demographic data (2) relative radiation dose and (3) knowledge of current CT technology. One-third of respondents from both groups were able to estimate relative radiation dose for routine CT examinations. 68% of the allied health profession personnel knew of the Malaysia regulations entitled ‘Basic Safety Standard (BSS) 2010’, although notably 80% of them had previously attended a radiation protection course. No significant difference (p < 0.05) in mean scores of CT technology knowledge detected between the two groups, with the medical professions producing a mean score of (26.7 ± 2.7) and the allied health professions a mean score of (25.2 ± 4.3). This study points to considerable variation among the respondents concerning their understanding of knowledge and awareness of risks of radiation and CT optimization techniques.

  8. Assessment of knowledge and awareness among radiology personnel regarding current computed tomography technology and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, M K A; Hashim, S; Bahruddin, N A; Ang, W C; Salehhon, N; Bradley, D A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness among 120 radiology personnel working in 7 public hospitals in Johor, Malaysia, concerning Computed Tomography (CT) technology and radiation doses based on a set of questionnaires. Subjects were divided into two groups (Medical profession (Med, n=32) and Allied health profession (AH, n=88). The questionnaires are addressed: (1) demographic data (2) relative radiation dose and (3) knowledge of current CT technology. One-third of respondents from both groups were able to estimate relative radiation dose for routine CT examinations. 68% of the allied health profession personnel knew of the Malaysia regulations entitled ‘Basic Safety Standard (BSS) 2010’, although notably 80% of them had previously attended a radiation protection course. No significant difference (p < 0.05) in mean scores of CT technology knowledge detected between the two groups, with the medical professions producing a mean score of (26.7 ± 2.7) and the allied health professions a mean score of (25.2 ± 4.3). This study points to considerable variation among the respondents concerning their understanding of knowledge and awareness of risks of radiation and CT optimization techniques. (paper)

  9. Dietary Neurotransmitters: A Narrative Review on Current Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Briguglio

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Foods are natural sources of substances that may exert crucial effects on the nervous system in humans. Some of these substances are the neurotransmitters (NTs acetylcholine (ACh, the modified amino acids glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, and the biogenic amines dopamine, serotonin (5-HT, and histamine. In neuropsychiatry, progressive integration of dietary approaches in clinical routine made it necessary to discern the more about some of these dietary NTs. Relevant books and literature from PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for data on food sources of Ach, glutamate, GABA, dopamine, 5-HT, and histamine. Different animal foods, fruits, edible plants, roots, and botanicals were reported to contain NTs. These substances can either be naturally present, as part of essential metabolic processes and ecological interactions, or derive from controlled/uncontrolled food technology processes. Ripening time, methods of preservation and cooking, and microbial activity further contributes to NTs. Moreover, gut microbiota are considerable sources of NTs. However, the significance of dietary NTs intake needs to be further investigated as there are no significant data on their bioavailability, neuronal/non neuronal effects, or clinical implications. Evidence-based interventions studies should be encouraged.

  10. Hundred years of atrial fibrillation: Current knowledge and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potpara Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia in general population. AF in humans was first described in 1903. Gradually, it has been well appreciated that AF is not just an acceptable alternative for normal rhythm but rather a serious threat, related to increased mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. AF can precipitate or worsen pre-existing heart failure, may cause the development of tachycardiomyopathy and is an independent risk factor for thromboembolic events, most frequently stroke. It has long been believed that rhythm control is the best therapy for AF. Nowadays there is a clear scientific proof that rhythm control offers no benefit over frequency control, at least for older patients, even with advanced left ventricular dysfunction. However, optimal treatment for younger, highly symptomatic, otherwise healthy AF patients has not been designed. Available antiarrhythmics have considerable proarrhythmic potential or organ toxicity, and new safer drugs are under investigation. Nonpharmacological approaches, namely RF-catheter ablation, are rapidly developing. Prevention of thromboembolism is imperative, and new safer oral anticoagulants have been intensively investigated. Recent randomized studies (PIAF, RACE, STAF, AFFIRM, HOT-CAFE did not solve the issue of optimal arrhythmia treatment, but they emphasized the prevention of thromboembolism based on risk factors, and not on AF type, mainly because asymptomatic episodes of AF may not be clinically recognized.

  11. Current knowledge on the laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Meléndez, Adrián; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor Jesús; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Garza-González, Elvira

    2017-03-07

    Clostridium difficile ( C. difficile ) is a spore-forming, toxin-producing, gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that is the principal etiologic agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Infection with C. difficile (CDI) is characterized by diarrhea in clinical syndromes that vary from self-limited to mild or severe. Since its initial recognition as the causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis, C. difficile has spread around the world. CDI is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among older adult hospitalized patients. Due to extensive antibiotic usage, the number of CDIs has increased. Diagnosis of CDI is often difficult and has a substantial impact on the management of patients with the disease, mainly with regards to antibiotic management. The diagnosis of CDI is primarily based on the clinical signs and symptoms and is only confirmed by laboratory testing. Despite the high burden of CDI and the increasing interest in the disease, episodes of CDI are often misdiagnosed. The reasons for misdiagnosis are the lack of clinical suspicion or the use of inappropriate tests. The proper diagnosis of CDI reduces transmission, prevents inadequate or unnecessary treatments, and assures best antibiotic treatment. We review the options for the laboratory diagnosis of CDI within the settings of the most accepted guidelines for CDI diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of CDI.

  12. Current practice patterns and knowledge among gynecologic surgeons of InterStim® programming after implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Deslyn T G; Gaskins, Jeremy T; Frazier, LaTisha; Francis, Sean L; Kinman, Casey L; Meriwether, Kate V

    2017-10-03

    The objective of this study was to describe surgeons' current practices in InterStim® programming after initial implantation and their knowledge of programming parameters. We hypothesized that surgeons performing their own reprogramming would have increased knowledge. We administered a written survey to attendees at the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons Scientific Meeting and analyzed those on which surgeons indicated they offer InterStim® care. The survey queried surgeon characteristics, experience with InterStim® implantation and programming, and clinical opinions regarding reprogramming and tested six knowledge-based questions about programming parameters. Correct response to all six questions was the primary outcome. One hundred and thirty-five of 407 (33%) attendees returned the survey, of which 99 met inclusion criteria. Most respondents (88 of 99; 89%) were between 36 and 60 years, 27 (73%) were women, 76 (77%) practiced in a university setting, and 76 (77%) were trained in Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery (FPMRS). Surgeons who had InterStim® programming training were more likely to perform their own programming [15/46 (32%) vs 6/47 (13%), p = 0.03]. Most answered all knowledge-based questions correctly (62/90, 69%); no surgeon characteristics were significantly associated with this outcome. Most surgeons cited patient comfort (71/80, 89%) and symptom relief (64/80, 80%) as important factors when reprogramming, but no prevalent themes emerged on how and why surgeons change certain programming parameters. Surgeons who had formal InterStim® programming training are more likely to perform programming themselves. No surgeon characteristic was associated with improved programming knowledge. We found that surgeons prioritize patient comfort and symptoms when deciding to reprogram.

  13. An Algebraic Approach to Knowledge Bases Informational Equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Plotkin, B.; Plotkin, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study the notion of knowledge from the positions of universal algebra and algebraic logic. We consider first order knowledge which is based on first order logic. We define categories of knowledge and knowledge bases. These notions are defined for the fixed subject of knowledge. The key notion of informational equivalence of two knowledge bases is introduced. We use the idea of equivalence of categories in this definition. We prove that for finite models there is a clear way t...

  14. Knowledge-based View in the Franchising Research Literature

    OpenAIRE

    TSAI, Fu-Sheng; KUO, Chin-Chiung; LIU, Chi-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. This study was conducted to understand the state of research on applications of Knowledge-based View in franchise systems. First, we used SALSA (Search, Appraisal, Synthesis, and Analysis), a simple systematic data search method, to obtain 61 sample papers. Second, the citations of authors and publications were analyzed using the bibliometric method to understand the authors and the publications that had the most impact as well as the trend of current studies in the field of knowled...

  15. Irrelevance Reasoning in Knowledge Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, A. Y.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation considers the problem of reasoning about irrelevance of knowledge in a principled and efficient manner. Specifically, it is concerned with two key problems: (1) developing algorithms for automatically deciding what parts of a knowledge base are irrelevant to a query and (2) the utility of relevance reasoning. The dissertation describes a novel tool, the query-tree, for reasoning about irrelevance. Based on the query-tree, we develop several algorithms for deciding what formulas are irrelevant to a query. Our general framework sheds new light on the problem of detecting independence of queries from updates. We present new results that significantly extend previous work in this area. The framework also provides a setting in which to investigate the connection between the notion of irrelevance and the creation of abstractions. We propose a new approach to research on reasoning with abstractions, in which we investigate the properties of an abstraction by considering the irrelevance claims on which it is based. We demonstrate the potential of the approach for the cases of abstraction of predicates and projection of predicate arguments. Finally, we describe an application of relevance reasoning to the domain of modeling physical devices.

  16. Gestalteconomy: The economic bases of knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisseu, A.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional economic analyses are based on dogmas that are frequently out of phase with reality. It is thus very difficult to introduce technology, technological innovation and technical progress correctly into all the theoretical constructions derived from the application of these principles. The same applies to the consideration of pollution and the depletion of natural resources. These difficult problems, which bedevil the definition of a sustainable development, find no satisfactory answer in these theoretical considerations. The consideration of Gestalteconomy helps to resolve these difficulties, in opening the door to the entrepreneurial practical management of knowledge. (author)

  17. VICKEY: Mining Conditional Keys on Knowledge Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Symeonidou , Danai; Galárraga , Luis; Pernelle , Nathalie; Saïs , Fatiha; Suchanek , Fabian

    2017-01-01

    International audience; A conditional key is a key constraint that is valid in only a part of the data. In this paper, we show how such keys can be mined automatically on large knowledge bases (KBs). For this, we combine techniques from key mining with techniques from rule mining. We show that our method can scale to KBs of millions of facts. We also show that the conditional keys we mine can improve the quality of entity linking by up to 47 percentage points.

  18. Knowledge-based public health situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Richesson, Rachel L.; Smith, Jack W.

    2004-09-01

    There have been numerous efforts to create comprehensive databases from multiple sources to monitor the dynamics of public health and most specifically to detect the potential threats of bioterrorism before widespread dissemination. But there are not many evidences for the assertion that these systems are timely and dependable, or can reliably identify man made from natural incident. One must evaluate the value of so called 'syndromic surveillance systems' along with the costs involved in design, development, implementation and maintenance of such systems and the costs involved in investigation of the inevitable false alarms1. In this article we will introduce a new perspective to the problem domain with a shift in paradigm from 'surveillance' toward 'awareness'. As we conceptualize a rather different approach to tackle the problem, we will introduce a different methodology in application of information science, computer science, cognitive science and human-computer interaction concepts in design and development of so called 'public health situation awareness systems'. We will share some of our design and implementation concepts for the prototype system that is under development in the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research, in the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The system is based on a knowledgebase containing ontologies with different layers of abstraction, from multiple domains, that provide the context for information integration, knowledge discovery, interactive data mining, information visualization, information sharing and communications. The modular design of the knowledgebase and its knowledge representation formalism enables incremental evolution of the system from a partial system to a comprehensive knowledgebase of 'public health situation awareness' as it acquires new knowledge through interactions with domain experts or automatic discovery of new knowledge.

  19. Identification of Managerial Competencies in Knowledge-based Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Königová Martina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Managerial competencies identification and development are important tools of human resources management that is aimed at achieving strategic organizational goals. Due to current dynamic development and changes, more and more attention is being paid to the personality of managers and their competencies, since they are viewed as important sources of achieving a competitive advantage. The objective of this article is to identify managerial competencies in the process of filling vacant working positions in knowledge-based organizations in the Czech Republic. The objective was determined with reference to the Czech Science Foundation GACR research project which focuses on the identification of managerial competencies in knowledge-based organizations in the Czech Republic. This identification within the frame of the research project is primarily designed and subsequently realised on the basis of content analysis of media communications such as advertisements - a means through which knowledge- based organizations search for suitable candidates for vacant managerial positions. The first part of the article deals with theoretical approaches to knowledge-based organizations and issues on competencies. The second part evaluates the outcomes of the survey carried out, and also summarizes the basic steps of the application of competencies. The final part summarizes the benefits and difficulties of applying the competency-based approach as a tool of efficient management of organizations for the purpose of achieving a competitive advantage.

  20. The relationship between chiropractor required and current level of business knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolfi, Michael Anthony; Kasen, Patsy Anne

    2017-01-01

    Chiropractors frequently practice within health care systems requiring the business acumen of an entrepreneur. However, some chiropractors do not know the relationship between the level of business knowledge required for practice success and their current level of business knowledge. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between chiropractors' perceived level of business knowledge required and their perceived level of current business knowledge. Two hundred and seventy-four participants completed an online survey (Health Care Training and Education Needs Survey) which included eight key business items. Participants rated the level of perceived business knowledge required (Part I) and their current perceived level of knowledge (Part II) for the same eight items. Data was collected from November 27, 2013 to December 18, 2013. Data were analyzed using Spearman's ranked correlation to determine the statistically significant relationships for the perceived level of knowledge required and the perceived current level of knowledge for each of the paired eight items from Parts I and II of the survey. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Tests were performed to determine the statistical difference between the paired items. The results of Spearman's correlation testing indicated a statistically significant ( p business items (6 of 8) however a statistically difference was demonstrated in only three of the paired business items. The implications of this study for social change include the potential to improve chiropractors' business knowledge and skills, enable practice success, enhance health services delivery and positively influence the profession as a viable career.

  1. Adaptive Knowledge Management of Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilchin, Oleg; Kittany, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The goal of an approach to Adaptive Knowledge Management (AKM) of project-based learning (PBL) is to intensify subject study through guiding, inducing, and facilitating development knowledge, accountability skills, and collaborative skills of students. Knowledge development is attained by knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, and knowledge…

  2. A display to support knowledge based behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    A computerized display has been created for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) that incorporates information from plant sensors in a thermodynamic model display. The display is designed to provide an operator with an overall view of the plant process as a heat engine. The thermodynamics of the plant are depicted through the use of ionic figures, animated by plant signals, that are related to the major plant components and systems such as the reactor, intermediate heat exchanger, secondary system, evaporators, superheaters, steam system, steam drum, and turbine-generator. This display supports knowledge based reasoning for the operator as well as providing the traditional rule and skill based behavior, and includes side benefits such a inherent signal validation

  3. A display to support knowledge based behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a computerized display that has been created for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II that incorporates information from plant sensors in a thermodynamic model display. The display is designed to provide an operator with an overall view of the plant process as a heat engine. The thermodynamics of the plant are depicted through the use of iconic figures, animated by plant signals, that are related to the major plant components and systems such as the reactor, intermediate heat exchanger, secondary system, evaporators, superheaters, steam system, steam drum, and turbine-generator. This display supports knowledge based reasoning for the operator as well as providing data for the traditional rule and skill based behavior, and includes side benefits such as inherent signal validation

  4. Nuclear Knowledge Innovations Assimilation: The Impact of Organizational Knowledge Frames and Triple Helix Dynamics of Knowledge Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M. D.; Sultana, T.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Previous research did not investigate the impact of the TH dynamics of knowledge innovations on the nuclear knowledge innovations adoption/assimilation in the organizational context. Hence, the recommendation of R&D policy reformulation seems too broad. These gaps are the prime motivators for the research. In the organizational context, we posit that TH dynamics of knowledge base innovation serves as complements to managers’ knowledge frames related to a technology innovation. We examine interactions between three knowledge frames—integration frame, opportunism frame, and policy knowledge frame, and two TH dynamics of knowledge innovations—bilateral TH dynamics of knowledge innovations and trilateral TH dynamics of knowledge innovations, and their relationship with the assimilation of nuclear knowledge innovations. We aim to research on the issues of the dynamics of knowledge base of innovations involving TH collaborations (university, industry and government) in Bangladesh as a new build nuclear project. As a result, we can find out the impact of TH collaborations on organizational nuclear knowledge innovations management as well as core institutional problems of the knowledge base of innovation systems in terms of R&D policy. Finally, findings identify lack in production of nuclear knowledge innovations and concrete recommendation of R&D policy reformulation. (author

  5. Critical gaps in the medical knowledge base of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Dennis; Drabkin, Anne; Krantz, Mori J; Mascolo, Margherita; Rosen, Elissa; Sachs, Katherine; Welles, Christine; Mehler, Philip S

    2018-04-21

    Eating disorders are unique in that they inherently have much medical comorbidity both as a part of restricting-type eating disorders and those characterized by purging behaviors. Over the last three decades, remarkable progress has been made in the understanding and treatment of the medical complications of eating disorders. Yet, unfortunately, there is much research that is sorely needed to bridge the gap between current medical knowledge and more effective and evidence-based medical treatment knowledge. These gaps exist in many different clinical areas including cardiology, electrolytes, gastrointestinal and bone disease. In this paper, we discuss some of the knowledge gap areas, which if bridged would help develop more effective medical intervention for this population of patients.

  6. THE NECESSITY TO PROMOVION THE MANAGEMENT BASED ON KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirbu Mirela

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the current conditions, in which “information is often assimilated with power” the major interest for most organizations stands in collecting the necessary knowledge at a high qualitative level and using it with maximum efficiency, through its materialization into adequate managerial conducts, actions and decisions. Together with the assurance of the material, human resources, both international and financial, the performing organizations are more and more preoccupied by the production, transmitting, usage, depositing and protection of knowledge, especially of the strategic ones, essential for the companies’ development. The information became more and more a resource, a major asset, a main product and at the same time a strategic advantage for organizations, fact that has a significant influence over the content and the way of manifestation of the management, imposing with acuteness the promotion of the management based on knowledge.

  7. Knowledge-based simulation using object-oriented programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoran, Karen M.

    1993-01-01

    Simulations have become a powerful mechanism for understanding and modeling complex phenomena. Their results have had substantial impact on a broad range of decisions in the military, government, and industry. Because of this, new techniques are continually being explored and developed to make them even more useful, understandable, extendable, and efficient. One such area of research is the application of the knowledge-based methods of artificial intelligence (AI) to the computer simulation field. The goal of knowledge-based simulation is to facilitate building simulations of greatly increased power and comprehensibility by making use of deeper knowledge about the behavior of the simulated world. One technique for representing and manipulating knowledge that has been enhanced by the AI community is object-oriented programming. Using this technique, the entities of a discrete-event simulation can be viewed as objects in an object-oriented formulation. Knowledge can be factual (i.e., attributes of an entity) or behavioral (i.e., how the entity is to behave in certain circumstances). Rome Laboratory's Advanced Simulation Environment (RASE) was developed as a research vehicle to provide an enhanced simulation development environment for building more intelligent, interactive, flexible, and realistic simulations. This capability will support current and future battle management research and provide a test of the object-oriented paradigm for use in large scale military applications.

  8. Development of a knowledge-based system for loop diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, L.Y.; Tang, H.C.; Chen, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    An accident diagnostic system is developed as an attempt to provide a useful aid for the operators of an experimental loop or a nuclear power plant in the case of emergency condition. Because the current practices in the system diagnosis are not satisfactory, there is an increasing demand on the establishment of various operator decision support systems. The knowledge based system is a new and promising technique which can be used to fulfill this demand. With the capability of automatic reasoning and by incorporating the information about system status, the knowledge based system can simulate the process of human thinking and serve as a good decision support system. This knowledge based decision support system can be helpful for both a fast, violent accident and a slowly developed accident. Specifically, a fast diagnostic report can be provided for a fast and violent accident of which time is the main concern and a complete diagnostic report can be provided for a slowly developed accident of which complexity is the main concern. Such a knowledge based decision support system also provides many other equally important advantages, such as the elimination of human error, the automatic validation of signal readings, the establishment of human error, the automatic validation of signal readings, and the establishment of a simulation environment

  9. [Artificial intelligence--the knowledge base applied to nephrology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancipriano, G P

    2005-01-01

    The idea that efficacy efficiency, and quality in medicine could not be reached without sorting the huge knowledge of medical and nursing science is very common. Engineers and computer scientists have developed medical software with great prospects for success, but currently these software applications are not so useful in clinical practice. The medical doctor and the trained nurse live the 'information age' in many daily activities, but the main benefits are not so widespread in working activities. Artificial intelligence and, particularly, export systems charm health staff because of their potential. The first part of this paper summarizes the characteristics of 'weak artificial intelligence' and of expert systems important in clinical practice. The second part discusses medical doctors' requirements and the current nephrologic knowledge bases available for artificial intelligence development.

  10. Health Care Leadership: Managing Knowledge Bases as Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, Timothy

    Communities are composed of many organizations. These organizations naturally form clusters based on common patterns of knowledge, skills, and abilities of the individual organizations. Each of these spontaneous clusters represents a distinct knowledge base. The health care knowledge base is shown to be the natural leader of any community. Using the Central Florida region's 5 knowledge bases as an example, each knowledge base is categorized as a distinct type of stakeholder, and then a specific stakeholder management strategy is discussed to facilitate managing both the cooperative potential and the threatening potential of each "knowledge base" stakeholder.

  11. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, S. K.; Adjeroud, M.; Bellwood, D. R.; Berumen, Michael L.; Booth, D.; Bozec, Y.-M.; Chabanet, P.; Cheal, A.; Cinner, J.; Depczynski, M.; Feary, D. A.; Gagliano, M.; Graham, N. A. J.; Halford, A. R.; Halpern, B. S.; Harborne, A. R.; Hoey, A. S.; Holbrook, S. J.; Jones, G. P.; Kulbiki, M.; Letourneur, Y.; De Loma, T. L.; McClanahan, T.; McCormick, M. I.; Meekan, M. G.; Mumby, P. J.; Munday, P. L.; Ohman, M. C.; Pratchett, M. S.; Riegl, B.; Sano, M.; Schmitt, R. J.; Syms, C.

    2010-01-01

    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef

  12. DeepDive: Declarative Knowledge Base Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sa, Christopher; Ratner, Alex; Ré, Christopher; Shin, Jaeho; Wang, Feiran; Wu, Sen; Zhang, Ce

    2016-03-01

    The dark data extraction or knowledge base construction (KBC) problem is to populate a SQL database with information from unstructured data sources including emails, webpages, and pdf reports. KBC is a long-standing problem in industry and research that encompasses problems of data extraction, cleaning, and integration. We describe DeepDive, a system that combines database and machine learning ideas to help develop KBC systems. The key idea in DeepDive is that statistical inference and machine learning are key tools to attack classical data problems in extraction, cleaning, and integration in a unified and more effective manner. DeepDive programs are declarative in that one cannot write probabilistic inference algorithms; instead, one interacts by defining features or rules about the domain. A key reason for this design choice is to enable domain experts to build their own KBC systems. We present the applications, abstractions, and techniques of DeepDive employed to accelerate construction of KBC systems.

  13. NASDA knowledge-based network planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaya, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Kosugi, S.; Yambe, M.; Ohmori, M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the SODS (space operation and data system) sub-systems, NP (network planning) was the first expert system used by NASDA (national space development agency of Japan) for tracking and control of satellite. The major responsibilities of the NP system are: first, the allocation of network and satellite control resources and, second, the generation of the network operation plan data (NOP) used in automated control of the stations and control center facilities. Up to now, the first task of network resource scheduling was done by network operators. NP system automatically generates schedules using its knowledge base, which contains information on satellite orbits, station availability, which computer is dedicated to which satellite, and how many stations must be available for a particular satellite pass or a certain time period. The NP system is introduced.

  14. Knowledge-Based Environmental Context Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukite, P. R.; Challou, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    As we move from the oil-age to an energy infrastructure based on renewables, the need arises for new educational tools to support the analysis of geophysical phenomena and their behavior and properties. Our objective is to present models of these phenomena to make them amenable for incorporation into more comprehensive analysis contexts. Starting at the level of a college-level computer science course, the intent is to keep the models tractable and therefore practical for student use. Based on research performed via an open-source investigation managed by DARPA and funded by the Department of Interior [1], we have adapted a variety of physics-based environmental models for a computer-science curriculum. The original research described a semantic web architecture based on patterns and logical archetypal building-blocks (see figure) well suited for a comprehensive environmental modeling framework. The patterns span a range of features that cover specific land, atmospheric and aquatic domains intended for engineering modeling within a virtual environment. The modeling engine contained within the server relied on knowledge-based inferencing capable of supporting formal terminology (through NASA JPL's Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Technology (SWEET) ontology and a domain-specific language) and levels of abstraction via integrated reasoning modules. One of the key goals of the research was to simplify models that were ordinarily computationally intensive to keep them lightweight enough for interactive or virtual environment contexts. The breadth of the elements incorporated is well-suited for learning as the trend toward ontologies and applying semantic information is vital for advancing an open knowledge infrastructure. As examples of modeling, we have covered such geophysics topics as fossil-fuel depletion, wind statistics, tidal analysis, and terrain modeling, among others. Techniques from the world of computer science will be necessary to promote efficient

  15. Knowledge base rule partitioning design for CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Joseph D.; Szatkowski, G. P.

    1990-01-01

    This describes a knowledge base (KB) partitioning approach to solve the problem of real-time performance using the CLIPS AI shell when containing large numbers of rules and facts. This work is funded under the joint USAF/NASA Advanced Launch System (ALS) Program as applied research in expert systems to perform vehicle checkout for real-time controller and diagnostic monitoring tasks. The Expert System advanced development project (ADP-2302) main objective is to provide robust systems responding to new data frames of 0.1 to 1.0 second intervals. The intelligent system control must be performed within the specified real-time window, in order to meet the demands of the given application. Partitioning the KB reduces the complexity of the inferencing Rete net at any given time. This reduced complexity improves performance but without undo impacts during load and unload cycles. The second objective is to produce highly reliable intelligent systems. This requires simple and automated approaches to the KB verification & validation task. Partitioning the KB reduces rule interaction complexity overall. Reduced interaction simplifies the V&V testing necessary by focusing attention only on individual areas of interest. Many systems require a robustness that involves a large number of rules, most of which are mutually exclusive under different phases or conditions. The ideal solution is to control the knowledge base by loading rules that directly apply for that condition, while stripping out all rules and facts that are not used during that cycle. The practical approach is to cluster rules and facts into associated 'blocks'. A simple approach has been designed to control the addition and deletion of 'blocks' of rules and facts, while allowing real-time operations to run freely. Timing tests for real-time performance for specific machines under R/T operating systems have not been completed but are planned as part of the analysis process to validate the design.

  16. Building a knowledge based economy in Russia using guided entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, Boris N.; Daniels, Marc; Ichim, Thomas E.; Reznik, David L.

    2005-06-01

    Despite advanced scientific and technological (S&T) expertise, the Russian economy is presently based upon manufacturing and raw material exports. Currently, governmental incentives are attempting to leverage the existing scientific infrastructure through the concept of building a Knowledge Based Economy. However, socio-economic changes do not occur solely by decree, but by alteration of approach to the market. Here we describe the "Guided Entrepreneurship" plan, a series of steps needed for generation of an army of entrepreneurs, which initiate a chain reaction of S&T-driven growth. The situation in Russia is placed in the framework of other areas where Guided Entrepreneurship has been successful.

  17. Authoritative knowledge, evidence-based medicine, and behavioral pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennell, J H

    1999-12-01

    Evidence-based medicine is the conscientious and judicious use of current best knowledge in making decisions about the care of individual patients, often from well-designed, randomized, controlled trials. Authoritative medicine is the traditional approach to learning and practicing medicine, but no one authority has comprehensive scientific knowledge. Archie Cochrane proposed that every medical specialty should compile a list of all of the randomized, controlled trials within its field to be available for those who wish to know what treatments are effective. This was done first for obstetrics by a group collecting and critically analyzing all of the randomized trials and then indicating procedures every mother should have and those that no mother should have. Support during labor was used as an example. Similar groups are now active in almost all specialties, with information available on the Internet in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Developmental-behavioral pediatrics should be part of this movement to evidence-based medicine.

  18. Sociopathic Knowledge Bases: Correct Knowledge Can Be Harmful Even Given Unlimited Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    1757 I Sociopathic Knowledge Bases: Correct Knowledge Can Be Harmful Even Given Unlimited Computation DTIC5 by flELECTE 5David C. Wilkins and Yong...NUMBERSWOKNI PROGRAM RAT TSWOKUI 61153N RR04206 OC 443g-008 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) Sociopathic Knowledge Bases: Correct Knowledge Can be...probabilistic rules are shown to be sociopathic and so this problem is very widespread. Sociopathicity has important consequences for rule induction

  19. Knowledge-based development in Singapore and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Menkhoff, Thomas; Gerke, Solvay; Evers, Hans-Dieter; Chay, Yue Wah

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the question how knowledge is used to benefit the economic development of Singapore and Malaysia. Both countries have followed strict science policies to establish knowledge governance regimes for a knowledge-based economy. On the basis of empirical studies in both countries we show, how ethnic and religious diversity impact on the ability to develop an epistemic culture of knowledge sharing and ultimately an innovative knowledge-based economy.

  20. Advanced software development workstation. Knowledge base design: Design of knowledge base for flight planning application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izygon, Michel E.

    1992-01-01

    The development process of the knowledge base for the generation of Test Libraries for Mission Operations Computer (MOC) Command Support focused on a series of information gathering interviews. These knowledge capture sessions are supporting the development of a prototype for evaluating the capabilities of INTUIT on such an application. the prototype includes functions related to POCC (Payload Operation Control Center) processing. It prompts the end-users for input through a series of panels and then generates the Meds associated with the initialization and the update of hazardous command tables for a POCC Processing TLIB.

  1. Automated knowledge base development from CAD/CAE databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R. Glenn; Blanchard, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge base development requires a substantial investment in time, money, and resources in order to capture the knowledge and information necessary for anything other than trivial applications. This paper addresses a means to integrate the design and knowledge base development process through automated knowledge base development from CAD/CAE databases and files. Benefits of this approach include the development of a more efficient means of knowledge engineering, resulting in the timely creation of large knowledge based systems that are inherently free of error.

  2. The priming of storage glucan synthesis from bacteria to plants: current knowledge and new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hulst, Christophe; Mérida, Angel

    2010-10-01

    Starch is the main polymer in which carbon and energy are stored in land plants, algae and some cyanobacteria. It plays a crucial role in the physiology of these organisms and also represents an important polymer for humans, in terms of both diet and nonfood industry uses. Recent efforts have elucidated most of the steps involved in the synthesis of starch. However, the process that initiates the synthesis of the starch granule remains unclear. Here, we outline the similarities between the synthesis of starch and the synthesis of glycogen, the other widespread and abundant glucose-based polymer in living cells. We place special emphasis on the mechanisms of initiation of the glycogen granule and current knowledge concerning the initiation of the starch granule. We also discuss recent discoveries regarding the function of starch synthases in the priming of the starch granule and possible interactions with other elements of the starch synthesis machinery.

  3. Research on knowledge support technology for product innovation design based on quality function knowledge deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the relationship between the process of product innovation design and knowledge, this article proposes a theoretical model of quality function knowledge deployment. In order to link up the product innovation design and the knowledge required by the designer, the iterative method of quality function knowledge deployment is refined, as well as the knowledge retrieval model and knowledge support model based on quality function knowledge deployment are established. In the whole life cycle of product design, in view of the different requirements for knowledge in conceptual design stage, components’ configuration stage, process planning stage, and production planning stage, the quality function knowledge deployment model could link up the required knowledge with the engineering characteristics, component characteristics, process characteristics, and production characteristics in the four stages using the mapping relationship between the function characteristics and the knowledge and help the designer to track the required knowledge for realizing product innovation design. In this article, an instance about rewinding machine is given to demonstrate the practicability and validity of product innovation design knowledge support technology based on quality function knowledge deployment.

  4. From conventional software based systems to knowledge based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologna, S.

    1995-01-01

    Even if todays nuclear power plants have a very good safety record, there is a continuous search for still improving safety. One direction of this effort address operational safety, trying to improve the handling of disturbances and accidents partly by further automation, partly by creating a better control room environment, providing the operator with intelligent support systems to help in the decision making process. Introduction of intelligent computerised operator support systems has proved to be an efficient way of improving the operators performance. A number of systems have been developed worldwide, assisting in tasks like process fault detection and diagnosis, selection and implementation of proper remedial actions. Unfortunately, the use of Knowledge Based Systems (KBSs), introduces a new dimension to the problem of the licensing process. KBSs, despite the different technology employed, are still nothing more than a computer program. Unfortunately, quite a few people building knowledge based systems seem to ignore the many good programming practices that have evolved over the years for producing traditional computer programs. In this paper the author will try to point out similarities and differences between conventional software based systems, and knowledge based systems, introducing also the concept of model based reasoning. (orig.) (25 refs., 2 figs.)

  5. Strategic Positioning of HRM in Knowledge-Based Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thite, Mohan

    2004-01-01

    With knowledge management as the strategic intent and learning to learn as the strategic weapon, the current management focus is on how to leverage knowledge faster and better than competitors. Research demonstrates that it is the cultural mindset of the people in the organisation that primarily defines success in knowledge intensive…

  6. Enhancing SAT Based Planning with Landmark Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elffers, J.; Konijnenberg, D.; Walraven, E.M.P.; Spaan, M.T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Several approaches exist to solve Artificial Intelligence planning problems, but little attention has been given to the combination of using landmark knowledge and satisfiability (SAT). Landmark knowledge has been exploited successfully in the heuristics of classical planning. Recently it was also

  7. The Relationship between Agriculture Knowledge Bases for Teaching and Sources of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amber H.; Kitchel, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the agriculture knowledge bases for teaching of agriculture teachers and to see if a relationship existed between years of teaching experience, sources of knowledge, and development of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), using quantitative methods. A model of PCK from mathematics was utilized as a…

  8. Cognitive diagnostic assessment based on knowledge structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Sue-Fen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an integrated method of fuzzy theory basis for individualized concept structure analysis. In order to insight the misconception of learning basic mathematics and progress teaching. This method integrates Fuzzy Logic Model of Perception (FLMP and Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM. The combined algorithm could analyze individualized concepts structure based on the comparisons with concept structure of expert. In this paper, some well-known knowledge structure assessment methods will be discussed. For item connection, Bart et al ordering theory and Takeya’s item relational structure provided ordering coefficient to construct item relationships and hierarchies. For concepts or skills connection, Warfield’s ISM and Lin et al Concept Advanced Interpretive Structural Modelling (CAISM provided to construct graphic relationship among elements and display the individualized concept hierarchy structure by numeric and picture. Samples contain 427 which come from Min-Hwei Junior College. Subjects were analyzed by CAISM. It shows the traditional assessment is not the only criteria; it must be combined with other assessment tools. The result shows that CAISM gives meaningful learning and lacks of learners.

  9. [Precision Nursing: Individual-Based Knowledge Translation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Su, Sui-Lung

    2016-12-01

    U.S. President Obama announced a new era of precision medicine in the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI). This initiative aims to accelerate the progress of personalized medicine in light of individual requirements for prevention and treatment in order to improve the state of individual and public health. The recent and dramatic development of large-scale biologic databases (such as the human genome sequence), powerful methods for characterizing patients (such as genomics, microbiome, diverse biomarkers, and even pharmacogenomics), and computational tools for analyzing big data are maximizing the potential benefits of precision medicine. Nursing science should follow and keep pace with this trend in order to develop empirical knowledge and expertise in the area of personalized nursing care. Nursing scientists must encourage, examine, and put into practice innovative research on precision nursing in order to provide evidence-based guidance to clinical practice. The applications in personalized precision nursing care include: explanations of personalized information such as the results of genetic testing; patient advocacy and support; anticipation of results and treatment; ongoing chronic monitoring; and support for shared decision-making throughout the disease trajectory. Further, attention must focus on the family and the ethical implications of taking a personalized approach to care. Nurses will need to embrace the paradigm shift to precision nursing and work collaboratively across disciplines to provide the optimal personalized care to patients. If realized, the full potential of precision nursing will provide the best chance for good health for all.

  10. IGENPRO knowledge-based operator support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morman, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Research and development is being performed on the knowledge-based IGENPRO operator support package for plant transient diagnostics and management to provide operator assistance during off-normal plant transient conditions. A generic thermal-hydraulic (T-H) first-principles approach is being implemented using automated reasoning, artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic to produce a generic T-H system-independent/plant-independent package. The IGENPRO package has a modular structure composed of three modules: the transient trend analysis module PROTREN, the process diagnostics module PRODIAG and the process management module PROMANA. Cooperative research and development work has focused on the PRODIAG diagnostic module of the IGENPRO package and the operator training matrix of transients used at the Braidwood Pressurized Water Reactor station. Promising simulator testing results with PRODIAG have been obtained for the Braidwood Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS), and the Component Cooling Water System. Initial CVCS test results have also been obtained for the PROTREN module. The PROMANA effort also involves the CVCS. Future work will be focused on the long-term, slow and mild degradation transients where diagnoses of incipient T-H component failure prior to forced outage events is required. This will enhance the capability of the IGENPRO system as a predictive maintenance tool for plant staff and operator support

  11. Circulation-based Modeling of Gravity Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiburg, E. H.; Borden, Z.

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric and oceanic flows driven by predominantly horizontal density differences, such as sea breezes, thunderstorm outflows, powder snow avalanches, and turbidity currents, are frequently modeled as gravity currents. Efforts to develop simplified models of such currents date back to von Karman (1940), who considered a two-dimensional gravity current in an inviscid, irrotational and infinitely deep ambient. Benjamin (1968) presented an alternative model, focusing on the inviscid, irrotational flow past a gravity current in a finite-depth channel. More recently, Shin et al. (2004) proposed a model for gravity currents generated by partial-depth lock releases, considering a control volume that encompasses both fronts. All of the above models, in addition to the conservation of mass and horizontal momentum, invoke Bernoulli's law along some specific streamline in the flow field, in order to obtain a closed system of equations that can be solved for the front velocity as function of the current height. More recent computational investigations based on the Navier-Stokes equations, on the other hand, reproduce the dynamics of gravity currents based on the conservation of mass and momentum alone. We propose that it should therefore be possible to formulate a fundamental gravity current model without invoking Bernoulli's law. The talk will show that the front velocity of gravity currents can indeed be predicted as a function of their height from mass and momentum considerations alone, by considering the evolution of interfacial vorticity. This approach does not require information on the pressure field and therefore avoids the need for an energy closure argument such as those invoked by the earlier models. Predictions by the new theory are shown to be in close agreement with direct numerical simulation results. References Von Karman, T. 1940 The engineer grapples with nonlinear problems, Bull. Am. Math Soc. 46, 615-683. Benjamin, T.B. 1968 Gravity currents and related

  12. Knowledge-based system for automatic MBR control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, J; Meabe, E; Sancho, L; Ferrero, G; Sipma, J; Monclús, H; Rodriguez-Roda, I

    2010-01-01

    MBR technology is currently challenging traditional wastewater treatment systems and is increasingly selected for WWTP upgrading. MBR systems typically are constructed on a smaller footprint, and provide superior treated water quality. However, the main drawback of MBR technology is that the permeability of membranes declines during filtration due to membrane fouling, which for a large part causes the high aeration requirements of an MBR to counteract this fouling phenomenon. Due to the complex and still unknown mechanisms of membrane fouling it is neither possible to describe clearly its development by means of a deterministic model, nor to control it with a purely mathematical law. Consequently the majority of MBR applications are controlled in an "open-loop" way i.e. with predefined and fixed air scour and filtration/relaxation or backwashing cycles, and scheduled inline or offline chemical cleaning as a preventive measure, without taking into account the real needs of membrane cleaning based on its filtration performance. However, existing theoretical and empirical knowledge about potential cause-effect relations between a number of factors (influent characteristics, biomass characteristics and operational conditions) and MBR operation can be used to build a knowledge-based decision support system (KB-DSS) for the automatic control of MBRs. This KB-DSS contains a knowledge-based control module, which, based on real time comparison of the current permeability trend with "reference trends", aims at optimizing the operation and energy costs and decreasing fouling rates. In practice the automatic control system proposed regulates the set points of the key operational variables controlled in MBR systems (permeate flux, relaxation and backwash times, backwash flows and times, aeration flow rates, chemical cleaning frequency, waste sludge flow rate and recycle flow rates) and identifies its optimal value. This paper describes the concepts and the 3-level architecture

  13. Formalizing Knowledge in Multi-Scale Agent-Based Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Endre; Sluka, James P; Glazier, James A

    2016-10-01

    Multi-scale, agent-based simulations of cellular and tissue biology are increasingly common. These simulations combine and integrate a range of components from different domains. Simulations continuously create, destroy and reorganize constituent elements causing their interactions to dynamically change. For example, the multi-cellular tissue development process coordinates molecular, cellular and tissue scale objects with biochemical, biomechanical, spatial and behavioral processes to form a dynamic network. Different domain specific languages can describe these components in isolation, but cannot describe their interactions. No current programming language is designed to represent in human readable and reusable form the domain specific knowledge contained in these components and interactions. We present a new hybrid programming language paradigm that naturally expresses the complex multi-scale objects and dynamic interactions in a unified way and allows domain knowledge to be captured, searched, formalized, extracted and reused.

  14. Knowledge-based dialogue in Intelligent Decision Support Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, E.

    1987-01-01

    The overall goal for the design of Intelligent Decision Support Systems (IDSS) is to enhance understanding of the process under all operating conditions. For an IDSS to be effective, it must: select or generate the right information; produce reliable and consistent information; allow flexible and effective operator interaction; relate information presentation to current plant status and problems; and make the presentation at the right time. Several ongoing R and D programs try to design and build IDSSs. A particular example is the ESPRIT project Graphics and Knowledge Based Diaglogue for Dynamic Systems (GRADIENT). This project, the problems it addresses, and its uses, are discussed here

  15. A knowledge-based diagnosis system for welding machine problem solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnieres, P. de; Boutes, J.L.; Calas, M.A.; Para, S.

    1986-06-01

    This paper presents a knowledge-based diagnosis system which can be a valuable aid in resolving malfunctions and failures encountered using the automatic hot-wire TIG weld cladding process. This knowledge-based system is currently under evaluation by welding operators at the Framatome heavy fabricating facility. Extension to other welding processes is being considered

  16. Case-based reasoning: The marriage of knowledge base and data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulaski, Kirt; Casadaban, Cyprian

    1988-01-01

    The coupling of data and knowledge has a synergistic effect when building an intelligent data base. The goal is to integrate the data and knowledge almost to the point of indistinguishability, permitting them to be used interchangeably. Examples given in this paper suggest that Case-Based Reasoning is a more integrated way to link data and knowledge than pure rule-based reasoning.

  17. A Model of an Expanded-Frame Hypermedia Knowledge-Base for Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Mark J.; Wood, R. Kent

    1993-01-01

    Argues that current computer-based instruction does not exploit the instructional possibilities of computers. Critiques current models of computer-based instruction: behaviorist as too linear and constructivist as too unstructured. Offers a design model of Expanded-frame Hypermedia Knowledge-bases as an instructional approach allowing hypermedia…

  18. Current knowledge of US metal and nonmetal miner health: Current and potential data sources for analysis of miner health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoman, K. M.; Halldin, C. N.; Wood, J.; Storey, E.; Johns, D.; Laney, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Little is known about the current health status of US metal and nonmetal (MNM) miners, in part because no health surveillance systems exist for this population. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is developing a program to characterize burden of disease among MNM miners. This report discusses current knowledge and potential data sources of MNM miner health. Recent national surveys were analyzed, and literature specific to MNM miner health status was reviewed. No robust estimates of disease prevalence were identified, and national surveys did not provide information specific to MNM miners. Because substantial gaps exist in the understanding of MNM miners' current health status, NIOSH plans to develop a health surveillance program for this population to guide intervention efforts to reduce occupational and personal risks for chronic illness. PMID:25658684

  19. Knowledge-based approach to video content classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wong, Edward K.

    2001-01-01

    A framework for video content classification using a knowledge-based approach is herein proposed. This approach is motivated by the fact that videos are rich in semantic contents, which can best be interpreted and analyzed by human experts. We demonstrate the concept by implementing a prototype video classification system using the rule-based programming language CLIPS 6.05. Knowledge for video classification is encoded as a set of rules in the rule base. The left-hand-sides of rules contain high level and low level features, while the right-hand-sides of rules contain intermediate results or conclusions. Our current implementation includes features computed from motion, color, and text extracted from video frames. Our current rule set allows us to classify input video into one of five classes: news, weather, reporting, commercial, basketball and football. We use MYCIN's inexact reasoning method for combining evidences, and to handle the uncertainties in the features and in the classification results. We obtained good results in a preliminary experiment, and it demonstrated the validity of the proposed approach.

  20. Competencies for Central American SMEs in the Knowledge-Based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Knowledge-based economy not only affects well developed countries but ... to the information and communication technologies (ICT) related competencies, as technologies plays a key and growing role in managing knowledge and exchange.

  1. The representation of knowledge within model-based control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygand, D.P.; Koul, R.

    1987-01-01

    Representation of knowledge in artificially intelligent systems is discussed. Types of knowledge that might need to be represented in AI systems are listed, and include knowledge about objects, events, knowledge about how to do things, and knowledge about what human beings know (meta-knowledge). The use of knowledge in AI systems is discussed in terms of acquiring and retrieving knowledge and reasoning about known facts. Different kinds of reasonings or representations are ghen described with some examples given. These include formal reasoning or logical representation, which is related to mathematical logic, production systems, which are based on the idea of condition-action pairs (production), procedural reasoning, which uses pre-formed plans to solve problems, frames, which provide a structure for representing knowledge in an organized manner, direct analogical representations, which represent knowledge in such a manner that permits some observation without deduction

  2. APPROACH ON INTELLIGENT OPTIMIZATION DESIGN BASED ON COMPOUND KNOWLEDGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Jianchu; Zhou Ji; Yu Jun

    2003-01-01

    A concept of an intelligent optimal design approach is proposed, which is organized by a kind of compound knowledge model. The compound knowledge consists of modularized quantitative knowledge, inclusive experience knowledge and case-based sample knowledge. By using this compound knowledge model, the abundant quantity information of mathematical programming and the symbolic knowledge of artificial intelligence can be united together in this model. The intelligent optimal design model based on such a compound knowledge and the automatically generated decomposition principles based on it are also presented. Practically, it is applied to the production planning, process schedule and optimization of production process of a refining & chemical work and a great profit is achieved. Specially, the methods and principles are adaptable not only to continuous process industry, but also to discrete manufacturing one.

  3. Knowledge based expert system approach to instrumentation selection (INSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barai

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate instrumentation for any structural measurement of civil engineering structure is a complex task. Recent developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI can help in an organized use of experiential knowledge available on instrumentation for laboratory and in-situ measurement. Usually, the instrumentation decision is based on the experience and judgment of experimentalists. The heuristic knowledge available for different types of measurement is domain dependent and the information is scattered in varied knowledge sources. The knowledge engineering techniques can help in capturing the experiential knowledge. This paper demonstrates a prototype knowledge based system for INstrument SELection (INSEL assistant where the experiential knowledge for various structural domains can be captured and utilized for making instrumentation decision. In particular, this Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES encodes the heuristics on measurement and demonstrates the instrument selection process with reference to steel bridges. INSEL runs on a microcomputer and uses an INSIGHT 2+ environment.

  4. Current Knowledge on the Use of Computational Toxicology in Hazard Assessment of Metallic Engineered Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangchao Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As listed by the European Chemicals Agency, the three elements in evaluating the hazards of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs include the integration and evaluation of toxicity data, categorization and labeling of ENMs, and derivation of hazard threshold levels for human health and the environment. Assessing the hazards of ENMs solely based on laboratory tests is time-consuming, resource intensive, and constrained by ethical considerations. The adoption of computational toxicology into this task has recently become a priority. Alternative approaches such as (quantitative structure–activity relationships ((QSAR and read-across are of significant help in predicting nanotoxicity and filling data gaps, and in classifying the hazards of ENMs to individual species. Thereupon, the species sensitivity distribution (SSD approach is able to serve the establishment of ENM hazard thresholds sufficiently protecting the ecosystem. This article critically reviews the current knowledge on the development of in silico models in predicting and classifying the hazard of metallic ENMs, and the development of SSDs for metallic ENMs. Further discussion includes the significance of well-curated experimental datasets and the interpretation of toxicity mechanisms of metallic ENMs based on reported models. An outlook is also given on future directions of research in this frontier.

  5. Current Knowledge on the Use of Computational Toxicology in Hazard Assessment of Metallic Engineered Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangchao; Peijnenburg, Willie; Xiao, Yinlong; Vijver, Martina G

    2017-07-12

    As listed by the European Chemicals Agency, the three elements in evaluating the hazards of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) include the integration and evaluation of toxicity data, categorization and labeling of ENMs, and derivation of hazard threshold levels for human health and the environment. Assessing the hazards of ENMs solely based on laboratory tests is time-consuming, resource intensive, and constrained by ethical considerations. The adoption of computational toxicology into this task has recently become a priority. Alternative approaches such as (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ((Q)SAR) and read-across are of significant help in predicting nanotoxicity and filling data gaps, and in classifying the hazards of ENMs to individual species. Thereupon, the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach is able to serve the establishment of ENM hazard thresholds sufficiently protecting the ecosystem. This article critically reviews the current knowledge on the development of in silico models in predicting and classifying the hazard of metallic ENMs, and the development of SSDs for metallic ENMs. Further discussion includes the significance of well-curated experimental datasets and the interpretation of toxicity mechanisms of metallic ENMs based on reported models. An outlook is also given on future directions of research in this frontier.

  6. Weather, knowledge base and life-style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Why to main-stream curiosity for earth-science topics, thus to appraise these topics as of public interest? Namely, to influence practices how humankind's activities intersect the geosphere. How to main-stream that curiosity for earth-science topics? Namely, by weaving diverse concerns into common threads drawing on a wide range of perspectives: be it beauty or particularity of ordinary or special phenomena, evaluating hazards for or from mundane environments, or connecting the scholarly investigation with concerns of citizens at large; applying for threading traditional or modern media, arts or story-telling. Three examples: First "weather"; weather is a topic of primordial interest for most people: weather impacts on humans lives, be it for settlement, for food, for mobility, for hunting, for fishing, or for battle. It is the single earth-science topic that went "prime-time" since in the early 1950-ties the broadcasting of weather forecasts started and meteorologists present their work to the public, daily. Second "knowledge base"; earth-sciences are a relevant for modern societies' economy and value setting: earth-sciences provide insights into the evolution of live-bearing planets, the functioning of Earth's systems and the impact of humankind's activities on biogeochemical systems on Earth. These insights bear on production of goods, living conditions and individual well-being. Third "life-style"; citizen's urban culture prejudice their experiential connections: earth-sciences related phenomena are witnessed rarely, even most weather phenomena. In the past, traditional rural communities mediated their rich experiences through earth-centric story-telling. In course of the global urbanisation process this culture has given place to society-centric story-telling. Only recently anthropogenic global change triggered discussions on geoengineering, hazard mitigation, demographics, which interwoven with arts, linguistics and cultural histories offer a rich narrative

  7. Individual differences in current events knowledge: contributions of ability, personality, and interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, David Z; Meinz, Elizabeth J; Oswald, Frederick L

    2007-03-01

    What accounts for individual differences in the sort of knowledge that people may draw on in everyday cognitive tasks, such as deciding whom to vote for in a presidential election, how to invest money in the stock market, or what team to bet on in a friendly wager? In a large sample of undergraduate students, we investigated correlates of individual differences in recently acquired knowledge of current events in domains such as politics, business, and sports. Structural equation modeling revealed two predictive pathways: one involving cognitive ability factors and the other involving two major nonability factors (personality and interests). The results of this study add to what is known about the sources of individual differences in knowledge and are interpreted in the context of theoretical conceptions of adult intelligence that emphasize the centrality and importance of knowledge (e.g., Ackerman, 1996; Cattell, 1971).

  8. 46 CFR 11.713 - Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated. 11.713 Section 11.713 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Pilots § 11.713 Requirements for maintaining curren...

  9. Encouraging Civic Knowledge and Engagement: Exploring Current Events through a Psychological Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Debbie; Baugh, Stacey-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Engagement with political, social, and civil issues is a fundamental component of an educated population, but civic knowledge and engagement are decreasing among adolescents and young adults. A Psychology in Current Events class sought to increase this engagement and key skills such as critical thinking. A one-group pretest-posttest…

  10. Dynamic reasoning in a knowledge-based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anand S.; Foo, Norman Y.

    1988-01-01

    Any space based system, whether it is a robot arm assembling parts in space or an onboard system monitoring the space station, has to react to changes which cannot be foreseen. As a result, apart from having domain-specific knowledge as in current expert systems, a space based AI system should also have general principles of change. This paper presents a modal logic which can not only represent change but also reason with it. Three primitive operations, expansion, contraction and revision are introduced and axioms which specify how the knowledge base should change when the external world changes are also specified. Accordingly the notion of dynamic reasoning is introduced, which unlike the existing forms of reasoning, provide general principles of change. Dynamic reasoning is based on two main principles, namely minimize change and maximize coherence. A possible-world semantics which incorporates the above two principles is also discussed. The paper concludes by discussing how the dynamic reasoning system can be used to specify actions and hence form an integral part of an autonomous reasoning and planning system.

  11. Local Ecological Knowledge and Community- based Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knowledge has been used in the management of wildlife resources in the two areas. ... Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the United Nations Environment ..... In general, it is believed that cutting down trees will disturb the pattern of rainfall. ... determine and monitor animal distribution in the Luangwa GMA and the ...

  12. Knowledge Based Oil and Gas Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, Amir; Blomgren, Atle

    2011-07-01

    This study presents the Norwegian upstream oil and gas industry (defined as all oil and gas related firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, RandD and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.(au)

  13. Knowledge Based Oil and Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sasson, Amir; Blomgren, Atle

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the Norwegian upstream oil and gas industry (defined as all oil and gasrelated firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, R&D and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.

  14. Knowledge Governance Strategies in Project-based Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Müller, Ralf; Söderlund, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge governance (KG) aims at strategically influencing knowledge processes by implementing governance mechanisms. Little is known about whether, how, or why such strategies differ among firms. We utilize a large-scale empirical study of 20 organizations to develop a typology of KG strategies...... in project-based organizations; we then explore how these strategies emerge and affect organizational knowledge processes. Six strategies are identified: Protector, Deliverer, Polisher, Explorer, Supporter, and Analyzer. This paper posits a multi-level categorization model to facilitate comparisons among KG...... strategies. We uncover three main drivers of organizations' chosen knowledge governance strategies-namely, attitudes about humans, knowledge, and knowledge control....

  15. Representability in DL-Lite_R knowledge base exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge base exchange can be considered as a generalization of data exchange in which the aim is to exchange between a source and a target connected through mappings, not only explicit knowledge, i.e., data, but also implicit knowledge in the form of axioms. Such problem has been investigated

  16. In defense of types in knowledge-based CAAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1997-01-01

    There are two basic approaches to representation of design knowledge in knowledge-based CAAD systems, the type-based approach which has a long tradition, and the more recent typeless approach. Proponents of the latter have offered a number of arguments against the type-based approach which...

  17. Building and Using Large Common Sense Knowledge Bases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forbus, Kenneth D

    2001-01-01

    .... We developed techniques that enabled realistic-sized situations to be compared, for automatically extracting and extending cases dynamically based on task constraints from a general purpose knowledge...

  18. An Evaluation of Applying Knowledge Base to Academic Information Service

    OpenAIRE

    Seok-Hyoung Lee; Hwan-Min Kim; Ho-Seop Choe

    2013-01-01

    Through a series of precise text handling processes, including automatic extraction of information from documents with knowledge from various fields, recognition of entity names, detection of core topics, analysis of the relations between the extracted information and topics, and automatic inference of new knowledge, the most efficient knowledge base of the relevant field is created, and plans to apply these to the information knowledge management and service are the core requirements necessa...

  19. Managing Knowledge-Based Resource Capabilities Under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Janice E. Carrillo; Cheryl Gaimon

    2004-01-01

    A firm's ability to manage its knowledge-based resource capabilities has become increasingly important as a result of performance threats triggered by technology change and intense competition. At the manufacturing plant level, we focus on three repositories of knowledge that drive performance. First, the physical production or information systems represent knowledge embedded in the plant's technical systems. Second, the plant's workforce has knowledge, including diverse scientific informatio...

  20. Modeling and knowledge acquisition processes using case-based inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khadivar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The method of acquisition and presentation of the organizational Process Knowledge has considered by many KM researches. In this research a model for process knowledge acquisition and presentation has been presented by using the approach of Case Base Reasoning. The validation of the presented model was evaluated by conducting an expert panel. Then a software has been developed based on the presented model and implemented in Eghtesad Novin Bank of Iran. In this company, based on the stages of the presented model, first the knowledge intensive processes has been identified, then the Process Knowledge was stored in a knowledge base in the format of problem/solution/consequent .The retrieval of the knowledge was done based on the similarity of the nearest neighbor algorithm. For validating of the implemented system, results of the system has compared by the results of the decision making of the expert of the process.

  1. A knowledge-based assistant for valve maintenance planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, M.J.; Danofsky, R.A.; Spinrad, B.I.; Howard, K.

    1987-01-01

    A knowledge-based program is being developed to assist engineers in maintenance planning for safety related, motor-operated valves at a boiling water reactor. The purpose of this project is to develop the general framework for a prototype system that demonstrates the capabilities for diagnosing valve symptoms and prescribing corrective maintenance, completing a portion of the Corrective Maintenance Action Request (CMAR) form which must be prepared for each job, and managing an interactive valve data base. Minimizing user input and providing output in a form that is familiar to the maintenance planning engineer are important goals for the program. This paper describes the present features of the valve maintenance advisory system which is currently being tested

  2. The many secure knowledge bases of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Raymond M

    2006-01-01

    Psychotherapeutic practice, while it has benefited greatly from scientific research, rests on many further secure epistemic foundations. In the present article, this thesis is argued in two stages. First, a brief review of some elementary epistemological findings is presented. In this review, the generally acknowledged degree of certainty attributed to different knowledge sources, and thus the confidence with which we may believe and act upon them, are recounted. Second, an extended analysis of the ways in which each of these knowledge sources enter into the practice of psychotherapy is developed. In the end, what is proffered here is a demonstration that well conducted psychotherapy is an activity whose judgments and decisions rest on many secure foundations.

  3. Knowledge-based methods for control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis consists of three projects which combine artificial intelligence and control. The first part describes an expert system interface for system identification, using the interactive identification program Idpac. The interface works as an intelligent help system, using the command spy strategy. It contains a multitude of help system ideas. The concept of scripts is introduced as a data structure used to describe the procedural part of the knowledge in the interface. Production rules are used to represent diagnostic knowledge. A small knowledge database of scripts and rules has been developed and an example run is shown. The second part describes an expert system for frequency response analysis. This is one of the oldest and most widely used methods to determine the dynamics of a stable linear system. Though quite simple, it requires knowledge and experience of the user, in order to produce reliable results. The expert system is designed to help the user in performing the analysis. It checks whether the system is linear, finds the frequency and amplitude ranges, verifies the results, and, if errors should occur, tries to give explanation and remedies for them. The third part describes three diagnostic methods for use with industrial processes. They are measurement validation, i.e., consistency checking of sensor and measurement values using any redundancy of instrumentation; alarm analysis, i.e. analysis of multiple alarm situations to find which alarms are directly connected to primary faults and which alarms are consequential effects of the primary ones; and fault diagnosis, i.e., a search for the causes of and remedies for faults. The three methods use multilevel flow models, (MFM), to describe the target process. They have been implemented in the programming tool G2, and successfully tested on two small processes. (164 refs.) (au)

  4. Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Ecuador: current status of knowledge - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Calvopina

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Although leishmaniasis is regarded as a significant health problem in Ecuador by the Ministry of Health, and the incidence has increased over the last years, an official map on the geographic distribution of disease and sand fly vectors or a control strategy do not exist yet. This article reviews the current situation based on published information to improve our knowledge and understand the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in Ecuador in order to help future research and to develop a national control strategy. The disease is endemic in most provinces throughout Pacific coastal region, Amazonian lowlands, and some inter-Andean valleys with a total 21,805 cases reported during 1990-2003. Whereas cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is found throughout Ecuador, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL appears to be restricted to the Amazon region; one, parasitologically unconfirmed case of visceral form was reported in 1949. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania (Viannia spp., which is distributed in the subtropical and tropical lowlands; infections due to L. (Leishmania spp. are found in the Andean highlands and in the Pacific lowlands as well. The proven vectors are Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. ayacuchensis. Canis familiaris, Sciurus vulgaris, Potos flavus, and Tamandua tetradactyla have been found infected with Leishmania spp. It is estimated that around 3000-4500 people may be infected every year, and that 3.1 to 4.5 millions people are estimated to be at risk of contracting leishmaniasis.

  5. Automated knowledge acquisition for second generation knowledge base systems: A conceptual analysis and taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K.E.; Kotnour, T.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we present a conceptual analysis of knowledge-base development methodologies. The purpose of this research is to help overcome the high cost and lack of efficiency in developing knowledge base representations for artificial intelligence applications. To accomplish this purpose, we analyzed the available methodologies and developed a knowledge-base development methodology taxonomy. We review manual, machine-aided, and machine-learning methodologies. A set of developed characteristics allows description and comparison among the methodologies. We present the results of this conceptual analysis of methodologies and recommendations for development of more efficient and effective tools.

  6. Automated knowledge acquisition for second generation knowledge base systems: A conceptual analysis and taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K.E.; Kotnour, T.

    1991-12-31

    In this paper, we present a conceptual analysis of knowledge-base development methodologies. The purpose of this research is to help overcome the high cost and lack of efficiency in developing knowledge base representations for artificial intelligence applications. To accomplish this purpose, we analyzed the available methodologies and developed a knowledge-base development methodology taxonomy. We review manual, machine-aided, and machine-learning methodologies. A set of developed characteristics allows description and comparison among the methodologies. We present the results of this conceptual analysis of methodologies and recommendations for development of more efficient and effective tools.

  7. A review on current knowledge and future prospects of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in Asian birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Frantz, Adrien; Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard

    2016-01-15

    The release of harmful chemicals in the Asian environment has recently increased dramatically due to rising industrial and agricultural activities. About 60% of the global human population is currently living on the Asian continent and may thus be exposed to a large range of different chemicals. Different classes of organohalogen chemicals have indeed been reported in various environmental compartments from Asia including humans and wildlife, but this issue has received less attention in birds. In this article, we reviewed the available literature on levels of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and various flame retardants (FRs) in Asian avifauna to analyze the existing pool of knowledge as well as to identify the gaps that should be addressed in future research. Furthermore, we discussed the variation in levels of organohalogens based on differences in regions, trophic level, dietary sources and migratory behaviors of species including distribution patterns in different tissues of birds. Although the mass of published literature is very low and even absent in many important regions of Asia, we deduced from the reported studies that levels of almost all classes of organohalogens (OHCs) including FRs were highest in East Asian countries such as Japan, China and South Korea, except for HCHs that were found at maximum levels in birds of South India. Concentrations (ng/g LW) of different OHCs in Asian birds ranged between birds, vicinity to sources and trans-boundary movement of pollutants were identified as key exposure routes and subsequent OHCs contamination in Asian birds. There is extreme scarcity of literature on organohalogen contamination in birds from Northern, South-eastern and west Asian countries where an industrial boom has been witnessed in the past few decades. Current scenarios suggest that levels of OHCs, particularly the FRs, are rising in birds of Asia and it would be wise to develop baseline information and to regulate the OHCs emission

  8. Key tasks in healthcare marketing: assessing importance and current level of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Pamela A; Henson, Steve W; Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J

    2005-01-01

    When examining the healthcare industry, the need for continuing education in internal functions (i.e., HR management) has been documented. However, equally important to success in the healthcare industry are external functions such as marketing. In an expansion of research on internally focused functions, we report findings from an exploratory study designed to examine the perceptions of executives about managerial skill needs in the externally focused area of marketing. Specifically, we examine eight key tasks in marketing and ask executives to rate the level of knowledge required for each and then to assess current, or actual, levels of knowledge in the field. Findings suggest that pricing strategy, product strategy, and segmentation and targeting were the tasks that require the most knowledge for healthcare marketers, and that they do, in fact, perceive various gaps in all of the areas examined. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  9. How is the Current Nano/Microscopic Knowledge Implemented in Model Approaches?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The recent developments of experimental techniques have opened new opportunities and challenges for the modelling and simulation of clay materials, on various scales. In this communication, several aspects of the interaction between experimental and modelling approaches will be presented and dis-cussed. What levels of modelling are available depending on the target property and what experimental input is required? How can experimental information be used to validate models? What knowledge can modelling on different scale bring to the knowledge on the physical properties of clays? Finally, what can we do when experimental information is not available? Models implement the current nano/microscopic knowledge using experimental input, taking advantage of multi-scale approaches, and providing data or insights complementary to experiments. Future work will greatly benefit from the recent experimental developments, in particular for 3D-imaging on intermediate scales, and should also address other properties, e.g. mechanical or thermal properties. (authors)

  10. Knowledge-Basing Teaching Professions and Professional Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingstrup, Signe Hvid

    This paper discusses the demand for knowledge-based practice and two different answers to this demand, namely evidence-based thinking and critical-political thinking. The paper discusses the implications these have for views on knowledge and professional development. The paper presents and discus...

  11. Knowledge-Based Approaches: Two cases of applicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Basic issues of the term: A knowledge-based approach (KBA) are discussed. Two cases of applicable to KBA are presented, and its concluded that KBA is more than just IT.......Basic issues of the term: A knowledge-based approach (KBA) are discussed. Two cases of applicable to KBA are presented, and its concluded that KBA is more than just IT....

  12. Drug knowledge bases and their applications in biomedical informatics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjun; Elemento, Olivier; Pathak, Jyotishman; Wang, Fei

    2018-01-03

    Recent advances in biomedical research have generated a large volume of drug-related data. To effectively handle this flood of data, many initiatives have been taken to help researchers make good use of them. As the results of these initiatives, many drug knowledge bases have been constructed. They range from simple ones with specific focuses to comprehensive ones that contain information on almost every aspect of a drug. These curated drug knowledge bases have made significant contributions to the development of efficient and effective health information technologies for better health-care service delivery. Understanding and comparing existing drug knowledge bases and how they are applied in various biomedical studies will help us recognize the state of the art and design better knowledge bases in the future. In addition, researchers can get insights on novel applications of the drug knowledge bases through a review of successful use cases. In this study, we provide a review of existing popular drug knowledge bases and their applications in drug-related studies. We discuss challenges in constructing and using drug knowledge bases as well as future research directions toward a better ecosystem of drug knowledge bases. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and

  14. A knowledge-based approach for recognition of handwritten Pitman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper describes a knowledge-based approach for the recognition of PSL strokes. Information about location and the direction of the starting point and final point of strokes are considered the knowledge base for recognition of strokes. The work comprises preprocessing, determination of starting and final points, ...

  15. Identifying the professional knowledge base for multi-grade teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports a small-scale qualitative study of teachers and teaching principals in multi-grade rural schools in Australia, focusing on identifying the professional knowledge base required for teachers in such contexts. Such a knowledge base is essential for improving the quality of multi-grade teaching. Interviews and ...

  16. Knowledge Management in Role Based Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kır, Hüseyin; Ekinci, Erdem Eser; Dikenelli, Oguz

    In multi-agent system literature, the role concept is getting increasingly researched to provide an abstraction to scope beliefs, norms, goals of agents and to shape relationships of the agents in the organization. In this research, we propose a knowledgebase architecture to increase applicability of roles in MAS domain by drawing inspiration from the self concept in the role theory of sociology. The proposed knowledgebase architecture has granulated structure that is dynamically organized according to the agent's identification in a social environment. Thanks to this dynamic structure, agents are enabled to work on consistent knowledge in spite of inevitable conflicts between roles and the agent. The knowledgebase architecture is also implemented and incorporated into the SEAGENT multi-agent system development framework.

  17. Racial disparities in smoking knowledge among current smokers: data from the health information national trends surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Rachel Ann; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-10-01

    Although African-Americans (Blacks) smoke fewer cigarettes per day than European-Americans (Whites), there is ample evidence that Blacks are more susceptible to smoking-related health consequences. A variety of behavioural, social and biological factors have been linked to this increased risk. There has been little research, however, on racial differences in smoking-related knowledge and perceived risk of lung cancer. The primary goal of the current study was to evaluate beliefs and knowledge that contribute to race disparities in lung cancer risk among current smokers. Data from two separate nationally representative surveys (the Health Information National Trends surveys 2003 and 2005) were analysed. Logistic and hierarchical regressions were conducted; gender, age, education level, annual household income and amount of smoking were included as covariates. In both studies, Black smokers were significantly more likely to endorse inaccurate statements than were White smokers, and did not estimate their lung cancer risk to be significantly higher than Whites. Results highlight an important racial disparity in public health knowledge among current smokers.

  18. Knowledge-based control of an adaptive interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Roy

    1989-01-01

    The analysis, development strategy, and preliminary design for an intelligent, adaptive interface is reported. The design philosophy couples knowledge-based system technology with standard human factors approaches to interface development for computer workstations. An expert system has been designed to drive the interface for application software. The intelligent interface will be linked to application packages, one at a time, that are planned for multiple-application workstations aboard Space Station Freedom. Current requirements call for most Space Station activities to be conducted at the workstation consoles. One set of activities will consist of standard data management services (DMS). DMS software includes text processing, spreadsheets, data base management, etc. Text processing was selected for the first intelligent interface prototype because text-processing software can be developed initially as fully functional but limited with a small set of commands. The program's complexity then can be increased incrementally. The intelligent interface includes the operator's behavior and three types of instructions to the underlying application software are included in the rule base. A conventional expert-system inference engine searches the data base for antecedents to rules and sends the consequents of fired rules as commands to the underlying software. Plans for putting the expert system on top of a second application, a database management system, will be carried out following behavioral research on the first application. The intelligent interface design is suitable for use with ground-based workstations now common in government, industrial, and educational organizations.

  19. KBTAC: EPRI's center to assist the nuclear industry to apply the knowledge-based technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chinglu; Naser, J.A.; Sun, B.K.H.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear utility industry's complex engineering and procedure systems offer many opportunities for use of the knowledge-based technology such as expert systems and neural networks. The ability of expert systems to enhance human experts makes them an important tool in the areas of engineering, operations and maintenance. However, many current industry applications are research projects or turnkey systems supplied by vendors. These often do not impart to utility technical staff a clear understanding of the capabilities of knowledge-based systems (KBS). More importantly, simply using completed applications does not meet utilities' need to acquire the capabilities to build their own knowledge-based systems. Thus, EPRI is supporting its member utilities utilization of knowledge-based technology for power plant engineering, operations, and maintenance applications through the establishment of the Knowledge-Based Technology Application Center (KBTAC)

  20. Knowledge management method for knowledge based BWR Core Operation Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Yutaka; Fukuzaki, Takaharu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro

    1989-03-01

    A knowledge management method is proposed to support an except whose knowledge is stored in a knowledge base in the BWR Core Operation Management System. When the alterations in the operation plans are motivated by the expert after evaluating them, the method attempts to find the knowledge which must be modified and to give the expert guidances. In this way the resultant operation plans are improved by modifying values of referenced data. Using data dependency among data, which are defined and referred during inference, data to be modified are retrieved. In generating modification guidances, data reference and definition procedures are classified by syntactic analysis of knowledge. The modified data values are calculated with a sensitivity between the increment in the data to be modified and the resultant one in the performance of operation plans. The efficiency of the knowledge management by the proposed method, when applied to the knowledge based system including 500 pieces of knowledge for BWR control rod programming, is higher than that for interactive use of existing general purpose editors. (author).

  1. Knowledge management method for knowledge based BWR Core Operation Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yutaka; Fukuzaki, Takaharu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro

    1989-01-01

    A knowledge management method is proposed to support an except whose knowledge is stored in a knowledge base in the BWR Core Operation Management System. When the alterations in the operation plans are motivated by the expert after evaluating them, the method attempts to find the knowledge which must be modified and to give the expert guidances. In this way the resultant operation plans are improved by modifying values of referenced data. Using data dependency among data, which are defined and referred during inference, data to be modified are retrieved. In generating modification guidances, data reference and definition procedures are classified by syntactic analysis of knowledge. The modified data values are calculated with a sensitivity between the increment in the data to be modified and the resultant one in the performance of operation plans. The efficiency of the knowledge management by the proposed method, when applied to the knowledge based system including 500 pieces of knowledge for BWR control rod programming, is higher than that for interactive use of existing general purpose editors. (author)

  2. Towards Modeling False Memory With Computational Knowledge Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Justin; Kohanyi, Emma

    2017-01-01

    One challenge to creating realistic cognitive models of memory is the inability to account for the vast common-sense knowledge of human participants. Large computational knowledge bases such as WordNet and DBpedia may offer a solution to this problem but may pose other challenges. This paper explores some of these difficulties through a semantic network spreading activation model of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory task. In three experiments, we show that these knowledge bases only capture a subset of human associations, while irrelevant information introduces noise and makes efficient modeling difficult. We conclude that the contents of these knowledge bases must be augmented and, more important, that the algorithms must be refined and optimized, before large knowledge bases can be widely used for cognitive modeling. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. A PROCESS-BASED APPROACH TO KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačić, Andrej; Bosilj Vukšić, Vesna; Lončar, Anita

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between business process modelling, knowledge management and information systems development projects. The paper’s main objective is to present business rules as the encoded knowledge of corporate business practices. Further, it introduces a rule-based business activity meta-model as a repository in which business knowledge can be captured and traced from their origin in the business environment through to their implementation in information systems. The c...

  4. Black guillemot ecology in relation to tidal stream energy generation: An evaluation of current knowledge and information gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Daniel T; Furness, Robert W; Robbins, Alexandra M C; Tyler, Glen; Taggart, Mark A; Masden, Elizabeth A

    2018-03-01

    The black guillemot Cepphus grylle has been identified as a species likely to interact with marine renewable energy devices, specifically tidal turbines, with the potential to experience negative impacts. This likelihood is primarily based on the species being a diving seabird, and an inshore, benthic forager often associating with tidal streams. These behavioural properties may bring them into contact with turbine blades, or make them susceptible to alterations to tidal current speed, and/or changes in benthic habitat structure. We examine the knowledge currently available to assess the potential impacts of tidal stream turbines on black guillemot ecology, highlight knowledge gaps and make recommendations for future research. The key ecological aspects investigated include: foraging movements, diving behaviour, seasonal distribution, other sources of disturbance and colony recovery. Relating to foraging behaviour, between studies there is heterogeneity in black guillemot habitat use in relation to season, tide, diurnal cycles, and bathymetry. Currently, there is also little knowledge regarding the benthic habitats associated with foraging. With respect to diving behaviour, there is currently no available research regarding how black guillemots orientate and manoeuvre within the water column. Black guillemots are considered to be a non-migratory species, however little is known about their winter foraging range and habitat. The effect of human disturbance on breeding habitat and the metapopulation responses to potential mortalities are unknown. It is clear further understanding of black guillemot foraging habitat and behaviour is needed to provide renewable energy developers with the knowledge to sustainably locate tidal turbines and mitigate their impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Representation System User Interface for Knowledge Base Designers

    OpenAIRE

    Fikes, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    A major strength of frame-based knowledge representation languages is their ability to provide the knowledge base designer with a concise and intuitively appealing means expression. The claim of intuitive appeal is based on the observation that the object -centered style of description provided by these languages often closely matches a designer's understanding of the domain being modeled and therefore lessens the burden of reformulation involved in developing a formal description. To be effe...

  6. Knowledge based assessment of intestinal parasitic Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an apparent lack of information on the risk and clinical symptoms of Intestinal Parasitic Infections (IPIs) among students attending boarding secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This questionnaire-based survey attempts to assess some behavioural habits, possible risk factor(s) as well as clinical symptoms ...

  7. Experiences in Preserving Design Bases & Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshy, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: • To build repository of information on design and development in a retrievable manner to: • Establish licensing/design bases of the plant; • Identify the known vulnerabilities and how they are to be addressed; • Prevent undoing the lessons learned; • Facilitate advancement without repeating the undesirable incidents of the past

  8. Risk based knowledge assessments: towards a toolbox for managing key knowledge assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, Clive

    2008-01-01

    Full text: It is now well acknowledged that considerable Knowledge Management (KM) issues are faced by national and international nuclear communities. Much of these problems relate to issues of an ageing workforce and the significantly reduced influx of new generation of nuclear engineers and scientists. The management discipline of KM contains a broad spectrum of methods and techniques. However, the effective implementation of a KM strategy requires the selection and deployment of appropriate and targeted approaches that are pertinent to the particular issues of the technical or business area within an organisation. A clear strategy is contingent upon an assessment of what are the knowledge areas and what are the key (knowledge) risk areas. In particular the following issues have to be addressed: 'what knowledge exists?', 'what is the nature and format of that knowledge?' and 'what knowledge is key to our continued, safe, and effective operation?'. Answers to such questions will enable an organisation to prioritise KM effort and employ subsequent KM approaches that are appropriate. Subsequent approaches ranging from the utilisation of information technologies, such as databases; knowledge retention methods; and the setting up of Community of Practices to share knowledge and experience. This paper considers a risk assessment based approach to KM. In so doing the paper extends work previously reported on an approach to conducting knowledge audits by considering the integration of that approach with approaches to (knowledge) risk assessment. The paper also provides a brief review of the various KM approaches that can act to reduce the level of risk faced by an organisation. The paper concludes by reflecting upon the role, value of deploying such a risk based approach. (author)

  9. The Underdetermined Knowledge-Based Theory of the MNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Anders; Håkanson, Lars; W. Liesch, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this note we revisit two core propositions of the knowledge-based view of the firm found in the seminal work of Kogut and Zander: (1) that multinational corporations (MNCs) exist because transfers and re-combinations of knowledge occur more efficiently inside MNCs than between MNCs and third...... parties; and (2) that the threat of opportunism is not necessary, although it may be sufficient, to explain the existence of the MNC. Their knowledge-based view shifted the conceptualization of the firm from an institution arising from market failure and transaction costs economizing to a progeny......-combination of knowledge among their members. Important insights may be gained by applying the concept of epistemic communities implicit in the knowledge-based perspective beyond firm-level hierarchies....

  10. Knowledge-based automated radiopharmaceutical manufacturing for Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexoff, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the application of basic knowledge engineering principles to the design of automated synthesis equipment for radiopharmaceuticals used in Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Before discussing knowledge programming, an overview of the development of automated radiopharmaceutical synthesis systems for PET will be presented. Since knowledge systems will rely on information obtained from machine transducers, a discussion of the uses of sensory feedback in today's automated systems follows. Next, the operation of these automated systems is contrasted to radiotracer production carried out by chemists, and the rationale for and basic concepts of knowledge-based programming are explained. Finally, a prototype knowledge-based system supporting automated radiopharmaceutical manufacturing of 18FDG at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is described using 1stClass, a commercially available PC-based expert system shell

  11. KNOWLEDGE BASE AND EFL TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS: A COLOMBIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamith Fandiño

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, Colombian pre-service EFL Teacher Education Programs (TEPs should study what constitutes the core knowledge base for language teachers to be effective in their profession. These programs must refrain from simply conceptualizing knowledge base as the acquisition of the basic skills required for teaching, the competency of educators in their subject matter area, and the use of pedagogical skills. Instead, they should strive to reflect on what Colombian language teachers need to know about teaching and learning, and study how their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes inform their practices. A starting point to do so is to interpret the variety of proposals that have been generated through the years in the field. This paperoffers a review of what teacher knowledge base is, presents an overview of how Colombian EFL TEPs are working on teacher knowledge,and suggests some strategies to envision a more complete framework of reference for teacher formation in Colombia.

  12. How Case-Based Reasoning on e-Community Knowledge Can Be Improved Thanks to Knowledge Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Gaillard , Emmanuelle; Lieber , Jean; Nauer , Emmanuel; Cordier , Amélie

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper shows that performing case-based reasoning (CBR) on knowledge coming from an e-community is improved by taking into account knowledge reliability. MKM (meta-knowledge model) is a model for managing reliability of the knowledge units that are used in the reasoning process. For this, MKM uses meta-knowledge such as belief, trust and reputation, about knowledge units and users. MKM is used both to select relevant knowledge to conduct the reasoning process, and ...

  13. Knowledge-based operator guidance system for Japanese PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Ito, K.; Kawanago, S.; Tani, M.; Murata, R.

    1986-01-01

    A knowledge-based operator support system for nuclear power plant operation is under development. The main theme of the study is the incorporation of operator's cognitive structure as the framework of the knowledge representation and inference control mechanisms. Based upon information collected from interviews, and experiments using a real-time simulator, an operator's model related to diagnostic tasks was developed. A knowledge-based system incorporating the proposed model demonstrated highly efficient problem solving capabilities and the dynamic fitness to operator's perceptual feeling, thereby suggesting the potential importance and practical benefit of such a study

  14. FROM TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTING TO KNOWLEDGE BASED ACCOUNTING ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA RADNEANTU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, we may observe that the rules of traditional economy have changed. The new economy – the knowledge based economy determine also major change in organizations resources, structure, strategic objectives, departments, accounting, goods. In our research we want to underline how the accounting rules, regulations and paradigms have changed to cope with political, economic and social challenges, as well as to the emergence of knowledge based organization. We also try to find out where Romanian accounting is on the hard road of evolution from traditional to knowledge based.

  15. RESEARCH ON KNOWLEDGE-BASED OPTIMIZATION METHOD OF INDOOR LOCATION BASED ON LOW ENERGY BLUETOOTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of LBS (Location-based Service, the demand for commercialization of indoor location has been increasing, but its technology is not perfect. Currently, the accuracy of indoor location, the complexity of the algorithm, and the cost of positioning are hard to be simultaneously considered and it is still restricting the determination and application of mainstream positioning technology. Therefore, this paper proposes a method of knowledge-based optimization of indoor location based on low energy Bluetooth. The main steps include: 1 The establishment and application of a priori and posterior knowledge base. 2 Primary selection of signal source. 3 Elimination of positioning gross error. 4 Accumulation of positioning knowledge. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can eliminate the signal source of outliers and improve the accuracy of single point positioning in the simulation data. The proposed scheme is a dynamic knowledge accumulation rather than a single positioning process. The scheme adopts cheap equipment and provides a new idea for the theory and method of indoor positioning. Moreover, the performance of the high accuracy positioning results in the simulation data shows that the scheme has a certain application value in the commercial promotion.

  16. Research on Knowledge-Based Optimization Method of Indoor Location Based on Low Energy Bluetooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Li, G.; Deng, Y.; Wang, T.; Kang, Z.

    2017-09-01

    With the rapid development of LBS (Location-based Service), the demand for commercialization of indoor location has been increasing, but its technology is not perfect. Currently, the accuracy of indoor location, the complexity of the algorithm, and the cost of positioning are hard to be simultaneously considered and it is still restricting the determination and application of mainstream positioning technology. Therefore, this paper proposes a method of knowledge-based optimization of indoor location based on low energy Bluetooth. The main steps include: 1) The establishment and application of a priori and posterior knowledge base. 2) Primary selection of signal source. 3) Elimination of positioning gross error. 4) Accumulation of positioning knowledge. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can eliminate the signal source of outliers and improve the accuracy of single point positioning in the simulation data. The proposed scheme is a dynamic knowledge accumulation rather than a single positioning process. The scheme adopts cheap equipment and provides a new idea for the theory and method of indoor positioning. Moreover, the performance of the high accuracy positioning results in the simulation data shows that the scheme has a certain application value in the commercial promotion.

  17. Formal Support for Development of Knowledge-Based Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fensel, Dieter; Van Harmelen, Frank; Reif, Wolfgang; Ten Teije, Annette

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an approach for developing reliable knowledge-based systems. Its main contributions are: Specification is done at an architectural level that abstracts from a specific implementation formalism. The model of expertise of CommonKADS distinguishs different types of knowledge and

  18. Knowledge-Based Hierarchies: Using Organizations to Understand the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garicano, Luis; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the decision of how to organize the acquisition, use, and communication of knowledge into economic models is essential to understand a wide variety of economic phenomena. We survey the literature that has used knowledge-based hierarchies to study issues such as the evolution of wage inequality, the growth and productivity of firms,…

  19. Knowledge base combinations and innovation performance in Swedish regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grillitsch, M.; Martin, R.; Srholec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 5 (2017), s. 458-479 ISSN 0013-0095 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : knowledge base * knowledge combination * region Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 5.344, year: 2016

  20. Knowledge base combinations and innovation performance in Swedish regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grillitsch, M.; Martin, R.; Srholec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 5 (2017), s. 458-479 ISSN 0013-0095 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : knowledge base * knowledge combination * region Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 5.344, year: 2016

  1. Using Knowledge-Based Systems to Support Learning of Organizational Knowledge: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Nash, Rebecca L.; Phan, Tu-Anh T.; Bailey, Teresa R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the deployment of a knowledge system to support learning of organizational knowledge at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a US national research laboratory whose mission is planetary exploration and to 'do what no one has done before.' Data collected over 19 weeks of operation were used to assess system performance with respect to design considerations, participation, effectiveness of communication mechanisms, and individual-based learning. These results are discussed in the context of organizational learning research and implications for practice.

  2. Knowledge-based interpretation of cranial MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, M.H.; Menhardt, W.; Schmidt, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    A computerized system is described that can be used to evaluate an MR tomogram automatically to support clinical identification of anatomic and pathologic structures and to aid in planning MR measurements. Knowledge from three domains is used for the interpretation of an MR image: nosologic knowledge, knowledge of MR imaging parameters, and anatomic and morphologic knowledge. Nosologic information is used to generate hypotheses about possible pathologies and their locations, based on the signs and symptoms of the patient. With this information, a sequence of interpretation modules, each able to detect substructures in already detected structures with the aid of techniques from image processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence, is generated and executed

  3. Facilitation of Function and Manipulation Knowledge of Tools Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Ishibashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a variety of tools is a common and essential component of modern human life. Patients with brain damage or neurological disorders frequently have cognitive deficits in their recognition and manipulation of tools. In this study, we focused on improving tool-related cognition using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. Converging evidence from neuropsychology, neuroimaging and non- invasive brain stimulation has identified the anterior temporal lobe (ATL and inferior parietal lobule (IPL as brain regions supporting action semantics. We observed enhanced performance in tool cognition with anodal tDCS over ATL and IPL in two cognitive tasks that require rapid access to semantic knowledge about the function or manipulation of common tools. ATL stimulation improved access to both function and manipulation knowledge of tools. The effect of IPL stimulation showed a trend toward better manipulation judgments. Our findings support previous studies of tool semantics and provide a novel approach for manipulation of underlying circuits.

  4. Semantics-based plausible reasoning to extend the knowledge coverage of medical knowledge bases for improved clinical decision support

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hossein; Van Woensel, William; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-01-01

    Background Capturing complete medical knowledge is challenging-often due to incomplete patient Electronic Health Records (EHR), but also because of valuable, tacit medical knowledge hidden away in physicians? experiences. To extend the coverage of incomplete medical knowledge-based systems beyond their deductive closure, and thus enhance their decision-support capabilities, we argue that innovative, multi-strategy reasoning approaches should be applied. In particular, plausible reasoning mech...

  5. [Narrative-based medicine and clinical knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Seiji

    2006-01-01

    Narrative Based Medicine (NBM) can be defined as follows; a) It views the patient's illness as an unfolding story within the wider story of the patient's life and life-world; b) It acknowledges the patient as the narrator of the story and the subject of the tale; c) It recognizes that all medical theories, hypothesis and pathophysiologies as socially constructed narratives and accepts the coexistence of multiple different narratives; d) It regards the emergence of new stories from dialogue and discourse between patients and healthcare professionals as part of the treatment. Because psychiatry is the only area of specialist medicine where talking and listening are explicitly understood to be therapeutic, NBM can be adopted an effective perspective and method in psychiatry.

  6. How Quality Improvement Practice Evidence Can Advance the Knowledge Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼRourke, Hannah M; Fraser, Kimberly D

    2016-01-01

    Recommendations for the evaluation of quality improvement interventions have been made in order to improve the evidence base of whether, to what extent, and why quality improvement interventions affect chosen outcomes. The purpose of this article is to articulate why these recommendations are appropriate to improve the rigor of quality improvement intervention evaluation as a research endeavor, but inappropriate for the purposes of everyday quality improvement practice. To support our claim, we describe the differences between quality improvement interventions that occur for the purpose of practice as compared to research. We then carefully consider how feasibility, ethics, and the aims of evaluation each impact how quality improvement interventions that occur in practice, as opposed to research, can or should be evaluated. Recommendations that fit the evaluative goals of practice-based quality improvement interventions are needed to support fair appraisal of the distinct evidence they produce. We describe a current debate on the nature of evidence to assist in reenvisioning how quality improvement evidence generated from practice might complement that generated from research, and contribute in a value-added way to the knowledge base.

  7. Knowledge Based Help desk System in Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Abdul Muin Abdul Rahman; Norzalina Nasirudin; Khairiel Adyani Abdul Ghani; Abdul Aziz Mhd Ramli; Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge based (K-based) Help desk system is a knowledge oriented web based system that provides support to business process of the technical service providers. It is a multi-centric system which focuses on end-users, technical workers and higher level management through utilization of knowledge which resides and grows within the system. The objectives of the system are to be a user-friendly, capture technical knowledge for efficient performance and educating users for self reliance. These were achieved through the improvement of the help desk business process and better management of technical knowledge. This system has been tested and implemented in Information Technology Center (IT), Engineering Division (BKJ) and Instrumentation and Automation Center (IAC) at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia). Higher levels of user satisfaction and faster growth in technical knowledge repository have been recorded in the system. This paper describes the help desk system in the perspective of management of its technical knowledge contributing to strengthening organizational knowledge asset of Nuclear Malaysia as national nuclear research institution. (Author)

  8. Ambulatory orthopaedic surgery patients' knowledge with internet-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Katja; Leino-Kilpi, H; Salanterä, S

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing need for patient education and an evaluation of its outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare ambulatory orthopaedic surgery patients' knowledge with Internet-based education and face-to-face education with a nurse. The following hypothesis was proposed: Internet-based patient education (experiment) is as effective as face-to-face education with a nurse (control) in increasing patients' level of knowledge and sufficiency of knowledge. In addition, the correlations of demographic variables were tested. The patients were randomized to either an experiment group (n = 72) or a control group (n = 75). Empirical data were collected with two instruments. Patients in both groups showed improvement in their knowledge during their care. Patients in the experiment group improved their knowledge level significantly more in total than those patients in the control group. There were no differences in patients' sufficiency of knowledge between the groups. Knowledge was correlated especially with patients' age, gender and earlier ambulatory surgeries. As a conclusion, positive results concerning patients' knowledge could be achieved with the Internet-based education. The Internet is a viable method in ambulatory care.

  9. Knowledge based economy: The role of expert diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diasporas stand out as an economic or cultural avant-garde of transformation. This is especially true for academic and other intellectual Diaspora communities, because science and knowledge creation are global enterprises. Proclivity of knowledge workers to move in order to improve and absorb transnational knowledge through Diaspora networks might be an essential quality of an emerging national economy of a developing country. The article treats the role of expert Diaspora in knowledge based economy, innovation and talent management. Besides presenting the essentials of knowledge based economy and innovation, it discusses the role of expert Diaspora in science, technology and innovation (STI capacity building. Also, the article emphasizes the importance of leadership for talent and its implications for Diaspora. Using WEF statistics, it illustrates negative consequences of the sad policy of “Chaseaway the brightest and the best” for innovative capacity, competitiveness, and prosperity of nations.

  10. Integrating ICT in Agriculture for Knowledge-Based Economy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agriculture –based livelihoods, demands the integration of ICT knowledge with agriculture. .... (CGIAR) shows the vital role of Agricultural development in Rwanda's ... Network, Rwanda National Backbone Project, Regional Communication.

  11. Knowledge-Base Application to Ground Moving Target Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adve, R

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes a multi-year in-house effort to apply knowledge-base control techniques and advanced Space-Time Adaptive Processing algorithms to improve detection performance and false alarm...

  12. Enhancing acronym/abbreviation knowledge bases with semantic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Manabu; Liu, Hongfang

    2007-10-11

    In the biomedical domain, a terminology knowledge base that associates acronyms/abbreviations (denoted as SFs) with the definitions (denoted as LFs) is highly needed. For the construction such terminology knowledge base, we investigate the feasibility to build a system automatically assigning semantic categories to LFs extracted from text. Given a collection of pairs (SF,LF) derived from text, we i) assess the coverage of LFs and pairs (SF,LF) in the UMLS and justify the need of a semantic category assignment system; and ii) automatically derive name phrases annotated with semantic category and construct a system using machine learning. Utilizing ADAM, an existing collection of (SF,LF) pairs extracted from MEDLINE, our system achieved an f-measure of 87% when assigning eight UMLS-based semantic groups to LFs. The system has been incorporated into a web interface which integrates SF knowledge from multiple SF knowledge bases. Web site: http://gauss.dbb.georgetown.edu/liblab/SFThesurus.

  13. Knowledge Management for Large Scale Condition Based Maintenance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This presentation will review the use of knowledge management in the development and support of Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) systems for complex systems with...

  14. Community Based Health Insurance Knowledge and Willingness to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Based Health Insurance Knowledge and Willingness to Pay; A Survey of a Rural Community in ... Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (2012) > ... and is the most appropriate insurance model for rural areas where incomes are unstable.

  15. Process fault diagnosis using knowledge-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudduth, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    Advancing technology in process plants has led to increased need for computer based process diagnostic systems to assist the operator. One approach to this problem is to use an embedded knowledge based system to interpret measurement signals. Knowledge based systems using only symptom based rules are inadequate for real time diagnosis of dynamic systems; therefore a model based approach is necessary. Though several forms of model based reasoning have been proposed, the use of qualitative causal models incorporating first principles knowledge of process behavior structure, and function appear to have the most promise as a robust modeling methodology. In this paper the structure of a diagnostic system is described which uses model based reasoning and conventional numerical methods to perform process diagnosis. This system is being applied to emergency diesel generator system in nuclear stations

  16. Atmospheric transport and deposition of pesticides: An assessment of current knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pul, W.A.J. van; Bidleman, T.F.; Brorström-Lunden, E.

    1999-01-01

    The current knowledge on atmospheric transport and deposition of pesticides is reviewed and discussed by a working group of experts during the Workshop on Fate of pesticides in the atmosphere; implications for risk assessment, held in Driebergen, the Netherlands, 22-24 April, 1998. In general...... in the exchange processes at the interface between air and soil/water/vegetation. In all process descriptions the uncertainty in the physicochemical properties play an important role. Particularly those in the vapour pressure, Henry's law constant and its temperature dependency. More accurate data...

  17. Somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy: basic science, current knowledge, limitations and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeman, W.A.P.; Jong, M. de; Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Valkema, R.; Bakker, W.H.; Kooij, P.P.M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam (Netherlands); Visser, T.J. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krenning, E.P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam (Netherlands); Dept. of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-09-01

    In vivo somatostatin receptor-mediated scintigraphy has proven to be a valuable method for the visualisation of neuroendocrine tumours and their metastases. A new application is the use of radiolabelled analogues for somatostatin receptor-mediated therapy. This paper presents a review on the basic science, historical background and current knowledge of somatostatin receptor subtypes and their expression in neuroendocrine tumours. New somatostatin analogues, new chelators, ''new'' radionuclides and combinations thereof are also discussed. Due attention is given to limitations and future perspectives of somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy. (orig.)

  18. Somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy: basic science, current knowledge, limitations and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeman, W.A.P.; Jong, M. de; Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Valkema, R.; Bakker, W.H.; Kooij, P.P.M.; Visser, T.J.; Krenning, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    In vivo somatostatin receptor-mediated scintigraphy has proven to be a valuable method for the visualisation of neuroendocrine tumours and their metastases. A new application is the use of radiolabelled analogues for somatostatin receptor-mediated therapy. This paper presents a review on the basic science, historical background and current knowledge of somatostatin receptor subtypes and their expression in neuroendocrine tumours. New somatostatin analogues, new chelators, ''new'' radionuclides and combinations thereof are also discussed. Due attention is given to limitations and future perspectives of somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy. (orig.)

  19. A knowledge management-based intranet: asset or EBM liability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimnagh, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarises the presentation given at the British Computer Society Primary Health Care Specialist Group annual conference 2004. It outlines the four years of experience gained in implementing a knowledge management-based intranet across a local health community. Consideration is given to definitions of knowledge management and evidence-based medicine. The paper outlines the potential impacts and actual results over the four-year period, with reference to the wider issues involved.

  20. Update Knowledge Base for Long-term Core Cooling Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrell, Maria; Sandervag, Oddbjoern; Amri, Abdallah; ); Bang, Young S.; Blomart, Philippe; Broecker, Annette; Pointner, Winfried; Ganzmann, Ingo; Lenogue, Bruno; Guzonas, David; Herer, Christophe; Mattei, Jean-Marie; Tricottet, Matthieu; Masaoka, Hideaki; Soltesz, Vojtech; Tarkiainen, Seppo; Ui, Atsushi; Villalba, Cristina; Zigler, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    This revision of the Knowledge Base for Emergency Core Cooling System Recirculation Reliability (NEA/CSNI/R (95)11) describes the current status (late 2012) of the knowledge base on emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and containment spray system (CSS) suction strainer performance and long-term cooling in operating power reactors. New reactors, such as the AP1000, EPR and APR1400 that are under construction in some Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries, are not addressed in detail in this revision. The containment sump (also known as the emergency or recirculation sump in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) or the suppression pools or wet wells in boiling water reactors (BWRs)) and associated ECCS strainers are parts of the ECCS in both reactor types. All nuclear power plants (NPPs) are required to have an ECCS that is capable of mitigating a design basis accident (DBA). The containment sump collects reactor coolant, ECCS injection water, and containment spray solutions, if applicable, after a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The sump serves as the water source to support long-term recirculation for residual heat removal, emergency core cooling, and containment atmosphere clean-up. This water source, the related pump suction inlets, and the piping between the source and inlets are important safety-related components. In addition, if fibrous material is deposited at the fuel element spacers, core cooling can be endangered. The performance of ECCS/CSS strainers was recognized many years ago as an important regulatory and safety issue. One of the primary concerns is the potential for debris generated by a jet of high-pressure coolant during a LOCA to clog the strainer and obstruct core cooling. The issue was considered resolved for all reactor types in the mid-1990s and the OECD/NEA/CSNI published report NEA/CSNI/R(95)11 in 1996 to document the state of knowledge of ECCS performance

  1. A relational data-knowledge base system and its potential in developing a distributed data-knowledge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Eric N.; Graves, Sara J.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach used in constructing a rational data knowledge base system is described. The relational database is well suited for distribution due to its property of allowing data fragmentation and fragmentation transparency. An example is formulated of a simple relational data knowledge base which may be generalized for use in developing a relational distributed data knowledge base system. The efficiency and ease of application of such a data knowledge base management system is briefly discussed. Also discussed are the potentials of the developed model for sharing the data knowledge base as well as the possible areas of difficulty in implementing the relational data knowledge base management system.

  2. Nonlinear Knowledge in Kernel-Based Multiple Criteria Programming Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongling; Tian, Yingjie; Shi, Yong

    Kernel-based Multiple Criteria Linear Programming (KMCLP) model is used as classification methods, which can learn from training examples. Whereas, in traditional machine learning area, data sets are classified only by prior knowledge. Some works combine the above two classification principle to overcome the defaults of each approach. In this paper, we propose a model to incorporate the nonlinear knowledge into KMCLP in order to solve the problem when input consists of not only training example, but also nonlinear prior knowledge. In dealing with real world case breast cancer diagnosis, the model shows its better performance than the model solely based on training data.

  3. The Latent Structure of Secure Base Script Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Theodore E. A.; Fraley, R. Chris; Groh, Ashley M.; Steele, Ryan D.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Bost, Kelly K.; Veríssimo, Manuela; Coppola, Gabrielle; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that attachment representations abstracted from childhood experiences with primary caregivers are organized as a cognitive script describing secure base use and support (i.e., the "secure base script"). To date, however, the latent structure of secure base script knowledge has gone unexamined--this despite…

  4. Knowledge based support for multiagent control and automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism for developing knowledge based support in multiagent based control and diagnosis. In particular it presents a way for autonomous agents to utilize a qualitative means-ends based model for reasoning about control situations. The proposed mechanism have been used...

  5. Adequacy of Physicians Knowledge Level of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation to Current Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmu Kocalar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to test the level of information on CPR and suitability to current application of the phsicians practicing in hospital ANEAH. Material and Method: The form of a test of 20 questions fort his purpose has been prepared in accordance with the 2010 AHA-ERC CPR guidelines. This form distributed to volunteer physicians to fill in. A total of 173 physicians agreed to participate in he study. The results were analyzed statistically and tried to determine the factors affecting the level of information. Results:According to the results of the study physicians gender, age and the total duration of physicians and medical asistance doesn%u2019t affect the level of information. The number of CPR within 1 month positively affect the level of knowledge. The number of theoretical and practical training in medical school, have taken the positive impact the level of knowledge of physicians. The training period after graduation, significantly increased the level of physicians information. The order of these training sessions with the asistant courses, congress, seminars and lessions on the sempozims are effective. Discussion: CPR trainig programs for physicians should be standardized, updated and expanded. Recurent in-service trainig should be provided to increase phsicians knowledge on skills.

  6. EVALUATING HUMAN CAPITAL IN A KNOWLEDGEBASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoil MUSCALU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The widespread enthusiasm for a knowledge-based approach to understanding the nature of a business and the possible basis for sustained competitive advantage have renewed interest in human capital evaluation or measurement. While many attempts have been made to develop methods for measuring intellectual capital, none have been widely adopted in the business world. In the knowledge-based organizations, and generally, in the information society, human capital is recognized as the fundamental factor of overall progress, and experts agree that long-term investment in human capital has strong drive-propagation effects at the individual, organizational, national and global level. In this paper, we consider that a knowledge-based approach can offer new possibilities and answers to illustrate the importance of evaluation the human capital and knowledge assets by consistently generating added value in the business world.

  7. Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam MR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were employed to explore the predictors of FP knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru women.Results: Only about 40% of respondents had ever heard FP messages or about FP methods – two-fifths of the national figure (99.9%. The current use of contraception was much lower (25.1% among the Mru people than at the national level (55.8%. Among both modern and traditional methods, the contraceptive pill ranked first. About two-thirds (66.0% of married women used this method – more than two times than the national figure (28.5%. On the other hand, the prevalence of male methods was comparatively lower than at the national level. Logistic regression models revealed that place of residence, religion, age, school attendance, husband's school attendance, service provided in the community, distance to the service center, and exposure to mass media had significant effects on knowledge of FP and on use of contraception.Conclusion: Education for mothers and vernacular language-based doorstep FP programs with special emphasis on awareness are suggested for the community.Keywords: family planning, contraceptive use, the Mru, logistic regression, Bangladesh

  8. The Immunology of Neuromyelitis Optica-Current Knowledge, Clinical Implications, Controversies and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiak-Zatonska, Michalina; Kalinowska-Lyszczarz, Alicja; Michalak, Slawomir; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2016-03-02

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with typical clinical manifestations of optic neuritis and acute transverse myelitis attacks. Previously believed to be a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is now considered an independent disorder which needs to be differentiated from MS. The discovery of autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgGs) changed our understanding of NMO immunopathogenesis and revolutionized the diagnostic process. AQP4-IgG is currently regarded as a specific biomarker of NMO and NMO spectrum disorders (NMOsd) and a key factor in its pathogenesis. Nevertheless, AQP4-IgG seronegativity in 10%-25% of NMO patients suggests that there are several other factors involved in NMO immunopathogenesis, i.e., autoantibodies against aquaporin-1 (AQP1-Abs) and antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgGs). This manuscript reviews current knowledge about NMO immunopathogenesis, pointing out the controversial issues and showing potential directions for future research. Further efforts should be made to broaden our knowledge of NMO immunology which could have important implications for clinical practice, including the use of potential novel biomarkers to facilitate an early and accurate diagnosis, and modern treatment strategies improving long-term outcome of NMO patients.

  9. The Immunology of Neuromyelitis Optica—Current Knowledge, Clinical Implications, Controversies and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiak-Zatonska, Michalina; Kalinowska-Lyszczarz, Alicja; Michalak, Slawomir; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with typical clinical manifestations of optic neuritis and acute transverse myelitis attacks. Previously believed to be a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is now considered an independent disorder which needs to be differentiated from MS. The discovery of autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgGs) changed our understanding of NMO immunopathogenesis and revolutionized the diagnostic process. AQP4-IgG is currently regarded as a specific biomarker of NMO and NMO spectrum disorders (NMOsd) and a key factor in its pathogenesis. Nevertheless, AQP4-IgG seronegativity in 10%–25% of NMO patients suggests that there are several other factors involved in NMO immunopathogenesis, i.e., autoantibodies against aquaporin-1 (AQP1-Abs) and antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgGs). This manuscript reviews current knowledge about NMO immunopathogenesis, pointing out the controversial issues and showing potential directions for future research. Further efforts should be made to broaden our knowledge of NMO immunology which could have important implications for clinical practice, including the use of potential novel biomarkers to facilitate an early and accurate diagnosis, and modern treatment strategies improving long-term outcome of NMO patients. PMID:26950113

  10. Big data analytics in immunology: a knowledge-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Sun, Jing; Chitkushev, Lou; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  11. Big Data Analytics in Immunology: A Knowledge-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Lan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  12. Knowledge Base Applications to Adaptive Space-Time Processing, Volume 5: Knowledge-Based Tracker Rule Book

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Charles

    2001-01-01

    ... processing algorithm can be applied. The proactive knowledge-based tracker uses information from other sources such as digital terrain maps, radar clutter and interference maps, and target priority assessments to determine the nature...

  13. Current knowledge on the genetics of autism and propositions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeron, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by problems in social communication, as well as by the presence of restricted interests, stereotyped and repetitive behaviours. In the last 40years, genetic studies have provided crucial information on the causes of ASD and its diversity. In this article, I will first review the current knowledge on the genetics of ASD and then suggest three propositions to foster research in this field. Twin and familial studies estimated the heritability of ASD to be 50%. While most of the inherited part of ASD is captured by common variants, our current knowledge on the genetics of ASD comes almost exclusively from the identification of highly penetrant de novo mutations through candidate gene or whole exome/genome sequencing studies. Approximately 10% of patients with ASD, especially those with intellectual disability, are carriers of de novo copy-number (CNV) or single nucleotide variants (SNV) affecting clinically relevant genes for ASD. Given the function of these genes, it was hypothesized that abnormal synaptic plasticity and failure of neuronal/synaptic homeostasis could increase the risk of ASD. In addition to these discoveries, three propositions coming from institutions, researchers and/or communities of patients and families can be made to foster research on ASD: (i) to use more dimensional and quantitative data than diagnostic categories; (ii) to increase data sharing and research on genetic and brain diversity in human populations; (iii) to involve patients and relatives as participants for research. Hopefully, this knowledge will lead to a better diagnosis, care and integration of individuals with ASD. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. User-based and Cognitive Approaches to Knowledge Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2013-01-01

    ’s PageRank are not based on the empirical studies of users. In knowledge organization, the Book House System is one example of a system based on user studies. In cognitive science the important WordNet database is claimed to be based on psychological research. This article considers such examples......In the 1970s and 1980s, forms of user-based and cognitive approaches to knowledge organization came to the forefront as part of the overall development in library and information science and in the broader society. The specific nature of userbased approaches is their basis in the empirical studies...

  15. Community-based participatory research and integrated knowledge translation: advancing the co-creation of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Janet; Giles, Audrey; Graham, Ian D

    2017-12-19

    Better use of research evidence (one form of "knowledge") in health systems requires partnerships between researchers and those who contend with the real-world needs and constraints of health systems. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) and integrated knowledge translation (IKT) are research approaches that emphasize the importance of creating partnerships between researchers and the people for whom the research is ultimately meant to be of use ("knowledge users"). There exist poor understandings of the ways in which these approaches converge and diverge. Better understanding of the similarities and differences between CBPR and IKT will enable researchers to use these approaches appropriately and to leverage best practices and knowledge from each. The co-creation of knowledge conveys promise of significant social impacts, and further understandings of how to engage and involve knowledge users in research are needed. We examine the histories and traditions of CBPR and IKT, as well as their points of convergence and divergence. We critically evaluate the ways in which both have the potential to contribute to the development and integration of knowledge in health systems. As distinct research traditions, the underlying drivers and rationale for CBPR and IKT have similarities and differences across the areas of motivation, social location, and ethics; nevertheless, the practices of CBPR and IKT converge upon a common aim: the co-creation of knowledge that is the result of knowledge user and researcher expertise. We argue that while CBPR and IKT both have the potential to contribute evidence to implementation science and practices for collaborative research, clarity for the purpose of the research-social change or application-is a critical feature in the selection of an appropriate collaborative approach to build knowledge. CBPR and IKT bring distinct strengths to a common aim: to foster democratic processes in the co-creation of knowledge. As research

  16. Lesson Study: Developing a Knowledge Base for Elementary Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuitty, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    Concern about students' writing skills has led to recommendations that elementary teachers receive more professional development in how to teach writing (National Commission on Writing, 2006). However, there is currently little evidence about the knowledge teachers need to teach writing well, and it is therefore difficult for teacher…

  17. Automated extraction of knowledge for model-based diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Avelino J.; Myler, Harley R.; Towhidnejad, Massood; Mckenzie, Frederic D.; Kladke, Robin R.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of accessing computer aided design (CAD) design databases and extracting a process model automatically is investigated as a possible source for the generation of knowledge bases for model-based reasoning systems. The resulting system, referred to as automated knowledge generation (AKG), uses an object-oriented programming structure and constraint techniques as well as internal database of component descriptions to generate a frame-based structure that describes the model. The procedure has been designed to be general enough to be easily coupled to CAD systems that feature a database capable of providing label and connectivity data from the drawn system. The AKG system is capable of defining knowledge bases in formats required by various model-based reasoning tools.

  18. Knowledge based system for fouling assessment of power plant boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.; He, X.; Carvalho, M.G.; Azevedo, J.L.T.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the design of an expert system for fouling assessment in power plant boilers. It is an on-line expert system based on selected criteria for the fouling assessment. Using criteria for fouling assessment based on 'clean' and 'not-clean' radiation heat flux measurements, the diagnostic variable are defined for the boiler heat transfer surface. The development of the prototype knowledge-based system for fouling assessment in power plants boiler comprise the integrations of the elements including knowledge base, inference procedure and prototype configuration. Demonstration of the prototype knowledge-based system for fouling assessment was performed on the Sines power plant. It is a 300 MW coal fired power plant. 12 fields are used with 3 on each side of boiler

  19. Casemix in the Islamic Republic of Iran: current knowledge and attitudes of health care staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, S; Doran, C M; Wilson, A

    2008-01-01

    Casemix is a tool that classifies patients according to their clinical similarity and the homogeneity of resources required. A descriptive study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge and attitude toward the casemix-based funding system among staff working in the Iranian Social Security Organization in Tehran. The survey showed that knowledge of casemix and diagnosis-related groups (DRG) was poor among the study group and any attempt to implement the casemix system--which about three-quarters of high-level staff had never heard of--would be likely to fail. This highlights the necessity for creating awareness of the casemix and DRG systems among the hospital staff before any action takes place.

  20. Knowledge based system for control rod programming of BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzaki, Takaharu; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro

    1988-01-01

    A knowledge based system has been developed to support designers in control rod programming of BWRs. The programming searches through optimal control rod patterns to realize safe and effective burning of nuclear fuel. Knowledge of experienced designers plays the main role in minimizing the number of calculations by the core performance evaluation code. This code predicts power distibution and thermal margins of the nuclear fuel. This knowledge is transformed into 'if-then' type rules and subroutines, and is stored in a knowledge base of the knowledge based system. The system consists of working area, an inference engine and the knowledge base. The inference engine can detect those data which have to be regenerated, call those subroutine which control the user's interface and numerical computations, and store competitive sets of data in different parts of the working area. Using this system, control rod programming of a BWR plant was traced with about 500 rules and 150 subroutines. Both the generation of control rod patterns for the first calculation of the code and the modification of a control rod pattern to reflect the calculation were completed more effectively than in a conventional method. (author)

  1. Development of a Prototype Model-Form Uncertainty Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainties are generally classified as either aleatory or epistemic. Aleatory uncertainties are those attributed to random variation, either naturally or through manufacturing processes. Epistemic uncertainties are generally attributed to a lack of knowledge. One type of epistemic uncertainty is called model-form uncertainty. The term model-form means that among the choices to be made during a design process within an analysis, there are different forms of the analysis process, which each give different results for the same configuration at the same flight conditions. Examples of model-form uncertainties include the grid density, grid type, and solver type used within a computational fluid dynamics code, or the choice of the number and type of model elements within a structures analysis. The objectives of this work are to identify and quantify a representative set of model-form uncertainties and to make this information available to designers through an interactive knowledge base (KB). The KB can then be used during probabilistic design sessions, so as to enable the possible reduction of uncertainties in the design process through resource investment. An extensive literature search has been conducted to identify and quantify typical model-form uncertainties present within aerospace design. An initial attempt has been made to assemble the results of this literature search into a searchable KB, usable in real time during probabilistic design sessions. A concept of operations and the basic structure of a model-form uncertainty KB are described. Key operations within the KB are illustrated. Current limitations in the KB, and possible workarounds are explained.

  2. Reliability data bases: the current picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragola, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper addresses specific advances in nuclear power plant reliability data base development, a critical review of a select set of relevant data bases and suggested future data bases and suggested future data development needs required for risk assessment techniques to reach full potential

  3. In Search of Museum Professional Knowledge Base: Mapping the Professional Knowledge Debate onto Museum Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Anwar

    2016-01-01

    Museum professionalism remains an unexplored area in museum studies, particularly with regard to what is arguably the core generic question of a "sui generis" professional knowledge base, and its necessary and sufficient conditions. The need to examine this question becomes all the more important with the increasing expansion of the…

  4. Reframing the role of knowledge parks and science cities in knowledge-based urban development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Ratinho, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge-based urban developments (KBUDs) are an increasingly common element of urban planning and strategy making: policy makers and developers set out to stimulate economic prosperity by promoting the integration and concentration of research, technology, and human capital. But KBUD is, by its

  5. Development of a component centered fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge based system for space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. C.; Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    The overall approach currently being taken in the development of AMPERES (Autonomously Managed Power System Extendable Real-time Expert System), a knowledge-based expert system for fault monitoring and diagnosis of space power systems, is discussed. The system architecture, knowledge representation, and fault monitoring and diagnosis strategy are examined. A 'component-centered' approach developed in this project is described. Critical issues requiring further study are identified.

  6. A Conceptualization of Knowledge Governance in Project-based Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Wiewiorac, Anna; Müller, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes and defines knowledge governance (KG) in project-based organizations (PBOs). Two key contributions towards a multi-faceted view of KG and an understanding of KG in PBOs are advanced, as distinguished from knowledge management and organizational learning concepts. The con......This paper conceptualizes and defines knowledge governance (KG) in project-based organizations (PBOs). Two key contributions towards a multi-faceted view of KG and an understanding of KG in PBOs are advanced, as distinguished from knowledge management and organizational learning concepts....... The conceptual framework addresses macro- and micro-level elements of KG and their interaction. Our definition of KG in PBOs highlights the contingent nature of KG processes in relation to their organizational context. These contributions provide a novel platform for understanding KG in PBOs....

  7. Knowledge based analysis of radiology reports using conceptual graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M.

    1992-07-01

    The telegraphic language found in radiological reports can be well understood by a natrual language system using the underlying domain knowledge. We present the METEXA system, which emphasizes the use of radiological domain knowledge to determine the semantics of utterances. Syntactic and semantic analysis, lexical sematics and the structure of the domain model are described in some detail. A resolution-based inference engine answers relevant questions concerning the contents of the reports. As knowledge representation formalism the Conceptual Graph Theory by John Sowa has been chosen. (orig.)

  8. Knowledge Based Product Configuration - a documentatio tool for configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Malis, Martin

    2003-01-01

    . A lot of knowledge isput into these systems and many domain experts are involved. This calls for an effective documentation system in order to structure this knowledge in a way that fits to the systems. Standard configuration systems do not support this kind of documentation. The chapter deals...... with the development of a Lotus Notes application that serves as a knowledge based documentation tool for configuration projects. A prototype has been developed and tested empirically in an industrial case-company. It has proved to be a succes....

  9. Building the knowledge base for environmental action and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    was “Building the knowledge base for environmental action and sustainability”. The joint conference was designed to facilitate ‘within‐the‐domain’, as well as to create a space for developing synergies between the two communities. Altogether 125 research and applied papers (including extended abstracts) from 42......“Knowledge is power” (Sir Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626), Religious Meditations, Of Heresis, 1597) “Science is organised knowledge. Wisdom is organised life” (Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804)) The 29th International Conference on Informatics for Environmental Protection and the third International...

  10. THE ROLE OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL IN KNOWLEDGE - BASED SOCIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Denisa-Elena Parpandel

    2013-01-01

    In a knowledge - based society, organizations undergo permanent changes and transformations, and the key factor of such changes is intellectual capital regarded as one of the most critical, yet most strategic values an organization might own. Analyzing intelectual capital and knowledge society over the last decades has primarily emerged in private companies, whereas at present there is an increasing concern in all the fields of activity. The goal of this paper is to emphasize the im...

  11. Internal Communication and Social Dialogue in Knowledge-Based Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Diana-Maria CISMARU; Cristina LEOVARIDIS

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of...

  12. 3cixty: Building comprehensive knowledge bases for city exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Troncy, Raphaël; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Jameson, Anthony; Corcho, Oscar; Plu, Julien; Palumbo, Enrico; Ballesteros Hermida, Juan Carlos; Spirescu, Adrian; Kuhn, Kai Dominik; Barbu, Catalin; Rossi, Matteo; Celino, Irene; Agarwal, Rachit; Scanu, Christian; Valla, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Planning a visit to Expo Milano 2015 or simply touring in Milan are activities that require a certain amount of a priori knowledge of the city. In this paper, we present the process of building such comprehensive knowledge bases that contain descriptions of events and activities, places and sights, transportation facilities as well as social activities, collected from numerous static, near-and real-time local and global data providers, including hyper local sources suc...

  13. Preventing Medication Error Based on Knowledge Management Against Adverse Event

    OpenAIRE

    Hastuti, Apriyani Puji; Nursalam, Nursalam; Triharini, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Introductions: Medication error is one of many types of errors that could decrease the quality and safety of healthcare. Increasing number of adverse events (AE) reflects the number of medication errors. This study aimed to develop a model of medication error prevention based on knowledge management. This model is expected to improve knowledge and skill of nurses to prevent medication error which is characterized by the decrease of adverse events (AE). Methods: This study consisted of two sta...

  14. Knowledge discovery based on experiential learning corporate culture management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kai-Jan

    2014-10-01

    A good corporate culture based on humanistic theory can make the enterprise's management very effective, all enterprise's members have strong cohesion and centripetal force. With experiential learning model, the enterprise can establish an enthusiastic learning spirit corporate culture, have innovation ability to gain the positive knowledge growth effect, and to meet the fierce global marketing competition. A case study on Trend's corporate culture can offer the proof of industry knowledge growth rate equation as the contribution to experiential learning corporate culture management.

  15. GrandBase: generating actionable knowledge from Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Susie Fang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to propose a system for generating actionable knowledge from Big Data and use this system to construct a comprehensive knowledge base (KB, called GrandBase. Design/methodology/approach – In particular, this study extracts new predicates from four types of data sources, namely, Web texts, Document Object Model (DOM trees, existing KBs and query stream to augment the ontology of the existing KB (i.e. Freebase. In addition, a graph-based approach to conduct better truth discovery for multi-valued predicates is also proposed. Findings – Empirical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the approaches presented in this study and the potential of GrandBase. The future research directions regarding GrandBase construction and extension has also been discussed. Originality/value – To revolutionize our modern society by using the wisdom of Big Data, considerable KBs have been constructed to feed the massive knowledge-driven applications with Resource Description Framework triples. The important challenges for KB construction include extracting information from large-scale, possibly conflicting and different-structured data sources (i.e. the knowledge extraction problem and reconciling the conflicts that reside in the sources (i.e. the truth discovery problem. Tremendous research efforts have been contributed on both problems. However, the existing KBs are far from being comprehensive and accurate: first, existing knowledge extraction systems retrieve data from limited types of Web sources; second, existing truth discovery approaches commonly assume each predicate has only one true value. In this paper, the focus is on the problem of generating actionable knowledge from Big Data. A system is proposed, which consists of two phases, namely, knowledge extraction and truth discovery, to construct a broader KB, called GrandBase.

  16. Arranging ISO 13606 archetypes into a knowledge base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanitsa, Georgy

    2014-01-01

    To enable the efficient reuse of standard based medical data we propose to develop a higher level information model that will complement the archetype model of ISO 13606. This model will make use of the relationships that are specified in UML to connect medical archetypes into a knowledge base within a repository. UML connectors were analyzed for their ability to be applied in the implementation of a higher level model that will establish relationships between archetypes. An information model was developed using XML Schema notation. The model allows linking different archetypes of one repository into a knowledge base. Presently it supports several relationships and will be advanced in future.

  17. Knowledge-based-ness and synthesis of indigenous knowledge with climate in traditional architecture: Evidence from Naeen city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zangi Abadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of indigenous knowledge is an example of knowledge-based-ness considered as the main agenda in most current urban and climate planning as well as geographical studies. It is one of the interesting topics in research on the role of climate on human dwelling and immediate environment. Indeed, building ecology emphasizes the ability to combine climate and environmental factors and rendering them to spatial qualities and structural comfort. This paper investigates the application of indigenous knowledge and the correspondence between traditional texture of Naeen city and its climate. In this regard, the climatic conditions in Naeen were studied in terms of temperature, humidity, wind and tourist comfort index (TCI of climatourism. The data was collected from Isfahan Meteorology Website over the period 1985-2005. Subsequently, the traditional texture of Naeen, construction materials and building styles were studied through considering the special architectural conditions and compatible materials. Eventually, the correspondence between architectural styles and climatic conditions was studied. The results show that traditional architecture based on indigenous knowledge was consistent with climatic conditions. In this regard, using such materials as mud bricks and thatch with suitable heat capacity as well as using wind catchers, high walls around houses, dome construction, southward direction of houses were consistent with east-west wind direction. In addition, concentration of the traditional texture of the city, wall thickness, corridors, long hallways, courtyard ponds and roofed alleys are evidence of the effect of climatic conditions on urban texture in order to provide comfort in different seasons.

  18. Knowledge and knowledge bases in the learning process og polish companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2003-01-01

    strategies of which are analysed and compared. These strategies have much in common and can be seen as quite successful. Some common problems also exist in relation to mismatches within and between the different knowledge bases. The differences are none the less interesting to consider. They are due......The paper deals with the learning and innovation strategies of manufacturing companies in the economies of transformation. The point of departure is the development of a theoretical framework dealing innovation, knowledge and learning. The case is two manufacturing companies in Poland, the learning...

  19. Knowledge-Based Object Detection in Laser Scanning Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boochs, F.; Karmacharya, A.; Marbs, A.

    2012-07-01

    Object identification and object processing in 3D point clouds have always posed challenges in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. In practice, this process is highly dependent on human interpretation of the scene represented by the point cloud data, as well as the set of modeling tools available for use. Such modeling algorithms are data-driven and concentrate on specific features of the objects, being accessible to numerical models. We present an approach that brings the human expert knowledge about the scene, the objects inside, and their representation by the data and the behavior of algorithms to the machine. This "understanding" enables the machine to assist human interpretation of the scene inside the point cloud. Furthermore, it allows the machine to understand possibilities and limitations of algorithms and to take this into account within the processing chain. This not only assists the researchers in defining optimal processing steps, but also provides suggestions when certain changes or new details emerge from the point cloud. Our approach benefits from the advancement in knowledge technologies within the Semantic Web framework. This advancement has provided a strong base for applications based on knowledge management. In the article we will present and describe the knowledge technologies used for our approach such as Web Ontology Language (OWL), used for formulating the knowledge base and the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) with 3D processing and topologic built-ins, aiming to combine geometrical analysis of 3D point clouds, and specialists' knowledge of the scene and algorithmic processing.

  20. Developing and Assessing Teachers' Knowledge of Game-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis

    2015-01-01

    Research focusing on the development and assessment of teacher knowledge in game-based learning is in its infancy. A mixed-methods study was undertaken to educate pre-service teachers in game-based learning using the Game Network Analysis (GaNA) framework. Fourteen pre-service teachers completed a methods course, which prepared them in game…

  1. Malaysia Transitions toward a Knowledge-Based Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Ramlee; Abdullah, Abu

    2004-01-01

    The emergence of a knowledge-based economy (k-economy) has spawned a "new" notion of workplace literacy, changing the relationship between employers and employees. The traditional covenant where employees expect a stable or lifelong employment will no longer apply. The retention of employees will most probably be based on their skills…

  2. Intelligent Tools for Planning Knowledge base Development and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve A.

    1996-01-01

    A key obstacle hampering fielding of AI planning applications is the considerable expense of developing, verifying, updating, and maintaining the planning knowledge base (KB). Planning systems must be able to compare favorably in terms of software lifecycle costs to other means of automation such as scripts or rule-based expert systems.

  3. Generic knowledge-based analysis of social media for recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, V.; van de Venis, Anne; van Keulen, Maurice; de By, R.A.; Bogers, Toine; Koolen, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems have been around for decades to help people find the best matching item in a pre-defined item set. Knowledge-based recommender systems are used to match users based on information that links the two, but they often focus on a single, specific application, such as movies to watch

  4. Dynamic Strategic Planning in a Professional Knowledge-Based Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrom; Reventlow, Susanne; Quelle, Dan Grevelund; Tulinius, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Professional, knowledge-based institutions have a particular form of organization and culture that makes special demands on the strategic planning supervised by research administrators and managers. A model for dynamic strategic planning based on a pragmatic utilization of the multitude of strategy models was used in a small university-affiliated…

  5. MATHEMATICAL APPARATUS FOR KNOWLEDGE BASE PROJECT MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валентина Николаевна ПУРИЧ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The occupational safety project (OSP management is aimed onto a rational choice implementation. With respect to the subjectivity of management goals the project selection is considered as a minimum formalization level information process, The proposed project selection model relies upon the enterprise’s occupational and industrial safety assessment using fuzzy logic and linguistic variables based on occupational safety knowledge base.

  6. Novel nonlinear knowledge-based mean force potentials based on machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiwen; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2011-01-01

    The prediction of 3D structures of proteins from amino acid sequences is one of the most challenging problems in molecular biology. An essential task for solving this problem with coarse-grained models is to deduce effective interaction potentials. The development and evaluation of new energy functions is critical to accurately modeling the properties of biological macromolecules. Knowledge-based mean force potentials are derived from statistical analysis of proteins of known structures. Current knowledge-based potentials are almost in the form of weighted linear sum of interaction pairs. In this study, a class of novel nonlinear knowledge-based mean force potentials is presented. The potential parameters are obtained by nonlinear classifiers, instead of relative frequencies of interaction pairs against a reference state or linear classifiers. The support vector machine is used to derive the potential parameters on data sets that contain both native structures and decoy structures. Five knowledge-based mean force Boltzmann-based or linear potentials are introduced and their corresponding nonlinear potentials are implemented. They are the DIH potential (single-body residue-level Boltzmann-based potential), the DFIRE-SCM potential (two-body residue-level Boltzmann-based potential), the FS potential (two-body atom-level Boltzmann-based potential), the HR potential (two-body residue-level linear potential), and the T32S3 potential (two-body atom-level linear potential). Experiments are performed on well-established decoy sets, including the LKF data set, the CASP7 data set, and the Decoys “R”Us data set. The evaluation metrics include the energy Z score and the ability of each potential to discriminate native structures from a set of decoy structures. Experimental results show that all nonlinear potentials significantly outperform the corresponding Boltzmann-based or linear potentials, and the proposed discriminative framework is effective in developing knowledge-based

  7. Knowledge-driven computational modeling in Alzheimer's disease research: Current state and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Hugo; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Anastasio, Thomas J

    2017-11-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) follow a slowly progressing dysfunctional trajectory, with a large presymptomatic component and many comorbidities. Using preclinical models and large-scale omics studies ranging from genetics to imaging, a large number of processes that might be involved in AD pathology at different stages and levels have been identified. The sheer number of putative hypotheses makes it almost impossible to estimate their contribution to the clinical outcome and to develop a comprehensive view on the pathological processes driving the clinical phenotype. Traditionally, bioinformatics approaches have provided correlations and associations between processes and phenotypes. Focusing on causality, a new breed of advanced and more quantitative modeling approaches that use formalized domain expertise offer new opportunities to integrate these different modalities and outline possible paths toward new therapeutic interventions. This article reviews three different computational approaches and their possible complementarities. Process algebras, implemented using declarative programming languages such as Maude, facilitate simulation and analysis of complicated biological processes on a comprehensive but coarse-grained level. A model-driven Integration of Data and Knowledge, based on the OpenBEL platform and using reverse causative reasoning and network jump analysis, can generate mechanistic knowledge and a new, mechanism-based taxonomy of disease. Finally, Quantitative Systems Pharmacology is based on formalized implementation of domain expertise in a more fine-grained, mechanism-driven, quantitative, and predictive humanized computer model. We propose a strategy to combine the strengths of these individual approaches for developing powerful modeling methodologies that can provide actionable knowledge for rational development of preventive and therapeutic interventions. Development of these computational approaches is likely to

  8. HISTORICAL CRITICAL PEDAGOGY AND OBJECTIVE KNOWLEDGE VERSUS THE MULTICULTURALISM AND RELATIVISM CURRENT ACADEMIC DEBATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Malanchen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the existing antagonistic understanding among the authors who discuss curriculum from the multiculturalist perspective and the authors of the Historical-Critical Pedagogy. The aim is to explain the postmodern relativists bases and multiculturalism, which opposes the defense of objective knowledge as central to the organization of a curriculum. Finally we point out what content should integrate an academic, with the objective, human development, human emancipation and social transformation, which allow the human being aim to provide social and consciously so increasingly free and universal.

  9. Knowledge-based operation and management of communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggestad, Harold M.

    1988-01-01

    Expert systems techniques are being applied in operation and control of the Defense Communications System (DCS), which has the mission of providing reliable worldwide voice, data and message services for U.S. forces and commands. Thousands of personnel operate DCS facilities, and many of their functions match the classical expert system scenario: complex, skill-intensive environments with a full spectrum of problems in training and retention, cost containment, modernization, and so on. Two of these functions are: (1) fault isolation and restoral of dedicated circuits at Tech Control Centers, and (2) network management for the Defense Switched Network (the modernized dial-up voice system currently replacing AUTOVON). An expert system for the first of these is deployed for evaluation purposes at Andrews Air Force Base, and plans are being made for procurement of operational systems. In the second area, knowledge obtained with a sophisticated simulator is being embedded in an expert system. The background, design and status of both projects are described.

  10. Development of knowledge acquisition methods for knowledge base construction for autonomous plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, S. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Sasajima, M.; Kitamura, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Mizoguchi, R.

    1993-03-01

    In order to enhance safety and reliability of nuclear plant operation, it is strongly desired to construct diagnostic knowledge base without lacking, contradiction, and description inconsistency. Nowadays, an advanced method Knowledge Compiler` has been studied to acquire diagnostic knowledge, mainly based on qualitative reasoning technique, without accumulating heuristics by interviews. Until now, 2 methods to suppress the ambiguity observed when qualitative reasoning mechanism were applied to heat transport systems of nuclear power plants: In the first method, qualitative values are allocated to the system variables along with the causality direction, avoiding contradictions among plural variables in each qualitative constraint describing knowledge of deviation propagation, heat balance, or energy conservation. In the second method, all the qualitative information is represented as a set of simultaneous qualitative equations. And, an appropriate subset is selected so that the qualitative solutions of unknowns in this subset can be derived independently of the remaining part. A contrary method is applied for the selected subset to derive local solutions. Then the problem size is reduced by substituting solutions of the subset, in a recursive manner. In the previous report on this research project, complete computer softwares have been constructed based on these methods, and applied to a 2-loop heat transport system of a nuclear power plant. The detailed results are discussed in this report. In addition, an integrated configuration of diagnostic knowledge generation system of nuclear power plants is proposed, based upon the results and new foundings obtained through the research activities so far, and the future works to overcome remaining problems are also identified. (author)

  11. [Specific inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2): current knowledge and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioda, W T; Nervetti, A

    2001-01-01

    The Authors summarize the current knowledge on a new class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the coxib (celecoxib and rofecoxib), in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Celecoxib and rofecoxib are selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors which possess the same anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, but a better gastric tolerability compared to the non-selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors. The Authors also report other possible therapeutic effects of these NSADIs as evidenced by the more recent data of the literature. Celecoxib seems to reduce the incidence of new polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. It has been suggested the use of celecoxib as a protective drug against the development of colorectal cancer. Other (neoplastic) or pre-neoplastic conditions, such as bladder dysplasia, Barret esophagus, attinic keratosis and Alzheimer's disease seem to have benefit from this class of drugs.

  12. Current State of Knowledge About Cancer in Lesbians, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolies, Liz; Brown, Carlton G

    2018-02-01

    To review the current state of knowledge about cancer in lesbians, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people by focusing on four major issues across the cancer continuum including: 1) lack of data collection on sexual orientation and gender identity; 2) need for a culturally competent workforce; 3) the need for a culturally competent health care system; and 4) creating LGBT tailored patient/client information and education. Published literature. Oncology nurses and health care providers can work to improve the care of LGBT patients with cancer by following suggestions in this article. Oncology nurses and other health care providers have many distinct occasions to improve overall cancer care for LGBT patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A critical review of the current knowledge regarding the biological impact of nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endes, C; Camarero-Espinosa, S; Mueller, S; Foster, E J; Petri-Fink, A; Rothen-Rutishauser, B; Weder, C; Clift, M J D

    2016-12-01

    Several forms of nanocellulose, notably cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrillated cellulose, exhibit attractive property matrices and are potentially useful for a large number of industrial applications. These include the paper and cardboard industry, use as reinforcing filler in polymer composites, basis for low-density foams, additive in adhesives and paints, as well as a wide variety of food, hygiene, cosmetic, and medical products. Although the commercial exploitation of nanocellulose has already commenced, little is known as to the potential biological impact of nanocellulose, particularly in its raw form. This review provides a comprehensive and critical review of the current state of knowledge of nanocellulose in this format. Overall, the data seems to suggest that when investigated under realistic doses and exposure scenarios, nanocellulose has a limited associated toxic potential, albeit certain forms of nanocellulose can be associated with more hazardous biological behavior due to their specific physical characteristics.

  14. Pangolins (Manis crassicaudata in Sri Lanka: A Review of Current Knowledge, Threats and Research Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K.P. Perera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata is arguably the least studied species of all Asiatic pangolin species and, is the solitary pangolin species recorded in Sri Lanka. Growing concerns over their population decline due to poaching and trading has triggered a move to uplift Indian Pangolin to Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES. However, lack of reliable scientific information on the behavior, ecology and threats for the survival of Indian Pangolin remains a major limitation in conservation of the species. This narrative review discusses the current knowledge on Indian Pangolin with special reference to Sri Lanka, and identifies key research priorities for better conservation planning of the species.

  15. Current Knowledge and Practice of Pediatric Providers in Umbilical Cord Blood Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Amy E; Fonstad, Rachel; Spellman, Stephen; Tullius, Zoe; Chaudhury, Sonali

    2018-02-01

    More than 35 000 umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplants have been performed worldwide, prompting the development of private and public banks to collect and store UCB cells. We hypothesized that pediatricians, who are uniquely poised to discuss UCB banking (UCBB) during prenatal or sibling visits, rarely do so. Through distribution of a 26-question electronic survey to general and subspecialty pediatric providers, we assessed baseline knowledge and conversations about UCBB. A total of 473 providers completed the survey; only 22% of physicians ever discussed UCBB with expectant parents. The majority responded that autologous UCB transplants were indicated in malignant (73%) and nonmalignant (61%) conditions; however, these are rare indications. Providers practicing >10 years were more likely to address UCBB ( P ≤ .001), whereas younger and female general pediatric providers were significantly less likely ( P < .001). Overall, pediatric providers rarely speak to families about UCBB, and we believe that they can be better informed to its current clinical utility.

  16. Chemical and molecular factors in irritable bowel syndrome: current knowledge, challenges, and unanswered questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Oduyebo, Ibironke; Halawi, Houssam

    2016-11-01

    Several chemical and molecular factors in the intestine are reported to be altered and to have a potentially significant role in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), particularly in IBS with diarrhea. These include bile acids; short-chain fatty acids; mucosal barrier proteins; mast cell products such as histamine, proteases, and tryptase; enteroendocrine cell products; and mucosal mRNAs, proteins, and microRNAs. This article reviews the current knowledge and unanswered questions in the pathobiology of the chemical and molecular factors in IBS. Evidence continues to point to significant roles in pathogenesis of these chemical and molecular mechanisms, which may therefore constitute potential targets for future research and therapy. However, it is still necessary to address the interaction between these factors in the gut and to appraise how they may influence hypervigilance in the central nervous system in patients with IBS. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. The Role of Soil Microorganisms in Plant Mineral Nutrition—Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Richard; Peukert, Manuela; Succurro, Antonella; Koprivova, Anna; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    In their natural environment, plants are part of a rich ecosystem including numerous and diverse microorganisms in the soil. It has been long recognized that some of these microbes, such as mycorrhizal fungi or nitrogen fixing symbiotic bacteria, play important roles in plant performance by improving mineral nutrition. However, the full range of microbes associated with plants and their potential to replace synthetic agricultural inputs has only recently started to be uncovered. In the last few years, a great progress has been made in the knowledge on composition of rhizospheric microbiomes and their dynamics. There is clear evidence that plants shape microbiome structures, most probably by root exudates, and also that bacteria have developed various adaptations to thrive in the rhizospheric niche. The mechanisms of these interactions and the processes driving the alterations in microbiomes are, however, largely unknown. In this review, we focus on the interaction of plants and root associated bacteria enhancing plant mineral nutrition, summarizing the current knowledge in several research fields that can converge to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon. PMID:28974956

  18. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, S. K.

    2010-02-26

    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef fishes were invited to submit five questions that, if addressed, would improve our understanding of climate change effects on coral reef fishes. Thirty-three scientists provided 155 questions, and 32 scientists scored these questions in terms of: (i) identifying a knowledge gap, (ii) achievability, (iii) applicability to a broad spectrum of species and reef habitats, and (iv) priority. Forty-two per cent of the questions related to habitat associations and community dynamics of fish, reflecting the established effects and immediate concern relating to climate-induced coral loss and habitat degradation. However, there were also questions on fish demographics, physiology, behaviour and management, all of which could be potentially affected by climate change. Irrespective of their individual expertise and background, scientists scored questions from different topics similarly, suggesting limited bias and recognition of a need for greater interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Presented here are the 53 highest-scoring unique questions. These questions should act as a guide for future research, providing a basis for better assessment and management of climate change impacts on coral reefs and associated fish communities.

  19. Knowledge management: An abstraction of knowledge base and database management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedesel, Joel D.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial intelligence application requirements demand powerful representation capabilities as well as efficiency for real-time domains. Many tools exist, the most prevalent being expert systems tools such as ART, KEE, OPS5, and CLIPS. Other tools just emerging from the research environment are truth maintenance systems for representing non-monotonic knowledge, constraint systems, object oriented programming, and qualitative reasoning. Unfortunately, as many knowledge engineers have experienced, simply applying a tool to an application requires a large amount of effort to bend the application to fit. Much work goes into supporting work to make the tool integrate effectively. A Knowledge Management Design System (KNOMAD), is described which is a collection of tools built in layers. The layered architecture provides two major benefits; the ability to flexibly apply only those tools that are necessary for an application, and the ability to keep overhead, and thus inefficiency, to a minimum. KNOMAD is designed to manage many knowledge bases in a distributed environment providing maximum flexibility and expressivity to the knowledge engineer while also providing support for efficiency.

  20. Current Research on Containment Technologies for Verification Activities: Advanced Tools for Maintaining Continuity of Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smartt, H.; Kuhn, M.; Krementz, D.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Non-proliferation and Verification Research and Development currently funds research on advanced containment technologies to support Continuity of Knowledge (CoK) objectives for verification regimes. One effort in this area is the Advanced Tools for Maintaining Continuity of Knowledge (ATCK) project. Recognizing that CoK assurances must withstand potential threats from sophisticated adversaries, and that containment options must therefore keep pace with technology advances, the NNSA research and development on advanced containment tools is an important investment. The two ATCK efforts underway at present address the technical containment requirements for securing access points (loop seals) and protecting defined volumes. Multiple U.S. national laboratories are supporting this project: Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SNL and SRNL are developing the ''Ceramic Seal,'' an active loop seal that integrates multiple advanced security capabilities and improved efficiency housed within a small-volume ceramic body. The development includes an associated handheld reader and interface software. Currently at the prototype stage, the Ceramic Seal will undergo a series of tests to determine operational readiness. It will be field tested in a representative verification trial in 2016. ORNL is developing the Whole Volume Containment Seal (WCS), a flexible conductive fabric capable of enclosing various sizes and shapes of monitored items. The WCS includes a distributed impedance measurement system for imaging the fabric surface area and passive tamper-indicating features such as permanent-staining conductive ink. With the expected technology advances from the Ceramic Seal and WCS, the ATCK project takes significant steps in advancing containment technologies to help maintain CoK for various verification

  1. Knowledge representation to support reasoning based on multiple models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, April; Seidel, Jorge P.; Parker, Alice C.

    1990-01-01

    Model Based Reasoning is a powerful tool used to design and analyze systems, which are often composed of numerous interactive, interrelated subsystems. Models of the subsystems are written independently and may be used together while they are still under development. Thus the models are not static. They evolve as information becomes obsolete, as improved artifact descriptions are developed, and as system capabilities change. Researchers are using three methods to support knowledge/data base growth, to track the model evolution, and to handle knowledge from diverse domains. First, the representation methodology is based on having pools, or types, of knowledge from which each model is constructed. In addition information is explicit. This includes the interactions between components, the description of the artifact structure, and the constraints and limitations of the models. The third principle we have followed is the separation of the data and knowledge from the inferencing and equation solving mechanisms. This methodology is used in two distinct knowledge-based systems: one for the design of space systems and another for the synthesis of VLSI circuits. It has facilitated the growth and evolution of our models, made accountability of results explicit, and provided credibility for the user community. These capabilities have been implemented and are being used in actual design projects.

  2. A knowledge based method for nuclear plant loading pattern determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauboin, P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a knowledge based system for solving an industrial problem which occurs in nuclear fuel management. The problem lies in determining satisfactory loading patterns for nuclear plants. Its primary feature consists in the huge search space involved. Conventional resolution processes are formally defined and analyzed: there is no general algorithm which guarantees to always provide a reasonable solution in each situation. We propose a new approach to solve this constrained search problem using domain-specific knowledge and general constraint-based heuristics. During a preprocessing step, a problem dependent search algorithm is designed. This procedure is then automatically implemented in FORTRAN. The generated routines have proved to be very efficient finding solutions which could not have been provided using logic programming. A prototype expert system has already been applied to actual reload pattern searches. While combining efficiency and flexibility, this knowledge based system enables human experts to rapidly match new constraints and requirements

  3. Speech-language pathologists' knowledge of genetics: perceived confidence, attitudes, knowledge acquisition and practice-based variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontana, G Michael; Blood, Ingrid M; Blood, Gordon W

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the general knowledge bases demonstrated by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the area of genetics, (b) the confidence levels of SLPs in providing services to children and their families with genetic disorders/syndromes, (c) the attitudes of SLPs regarding genetics and communication disorders, (d) the primary sources used by SLPs to learn about genetic disorders/syndromes, and (e) the association between general knowledge, confidence, attitudes, the number of years of experience working as an SLP, and the number of children currently provided services with genetic disorders/syndromes on SLPs' caseloads. Survey data from a nationwide sample of 533 SLPs was analyzed. Results showed SLPs earned a median knowledge score about genetics of 66% correct responses. Their mean confidence and attitude ratings were in the "unsure" categories while they reported they learned about genetics from three main sources, (a) self-study via web and internet-based searches, (b) on-the-job training and (c) popular press magazines and newspapers. Analyses revealed that Confidence summary scores, Attitude Summary scores, the number of children with genetic disorders/syndromes on SLPs' caseloads are positively associated with the ratings of participants with the highest Knowledge scores. Readers will be able to (a) explain the important links between developmental and communication disabilities and genetics, (b) describe the associations between knowledge about genetics and confidence, attitudes, and the number of children with genetic disorders/syndromes on their caseloads, and (c) outline the clinical and theoretical implications of the results from this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PDA: A coupling of knowledge and memory for case-based reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharwani, S.; Walls, J.; Blevins, E.

    1988-01-01

    Problem solving in most domains requires reference to past knowledge and experience whether such knowledge is represented as rules, decision trees, networks or any variant of attributed graphs. Regardless of the representational form employed, designers of expert systems rarely make a distinction between the static and dynamic aspects of the system's knowledge base. The current paper clearly distinguishes between knowledge-based and memory-based reasoning where the former in its most pure sense is characterized by a static knowledge based resulting in a relatively brittle expert system while the latter is dynamic and analogous to the functions of human memory which learns from experience. The paper discusses the design of an advisory system which combines a knowledge base consisting of domain vocabulary and default dependencies between concepts with a dynamic conceptual memory which stores experimental knowledge in the form of cases. The case memory organizes past experience in the form of MOPs (memory organization packets) and sub-MOPs. Each MOP consists of a context frame and a set of indices. The context frame contains information about the features (norms) common to all the events and sub-MOPs indexed under it.

  5. A knowledge-based system for prototypical reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieto, Antonio; Minieri, Andrea; Piana, Alberto; Radicioni, Daniele P.

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present a knowledge-based system equipped with a hybrid, cognitively inspired architecture for the representation of conceptual information. The proposed system aims at extending the classical representational and reasoning capabilities of the ontology-based frameworks towards the realm of the prototype theory. It is based on a hybrid knowledge base, composed of a classical symbolic component (grounded on a formal ontology) with a typicality based one (grounded on the conceptual spaces framework). The resulting system attempts to reconcile the heterogeneous approach to the concepts in Cognitive Science with the dual process theories of reasoning and rationality. The system has been experimentally assessed in a conceptual categorisation task where common sense linguistic descriptions were given in input, and the corresponding target concepts had to be identified. The results show that the proposed solution substantially extends the representational and reasoning 'conceptual' capabilities of standard ontology-based systems.

  6. Semantics-based plausible reasoning to extend the knowledge coverage of medical knowledge bases for improved clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hossein; Van Woensel, William; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-01-01

    Capturing complete medical knowledge is challenging-often due to incomplete patient Electronic Health Records (EHR), but also because of valuable, tacit medical knowledge hidden away in physicians' experiences. To extend the coverage of incomplete medical knowledge-based systems beyond their deductive closure, and thus enhance their decision-support capabilities, we argue that innovative, multi-strategy reasoning approaches should be applied. In particular, plausible reasoning mechanisms apply patterns from human thought processes, such as generalization, similarity and interpolation, based on attributional, hierarchical, and relational knowledge. Plausible reasoning mechanisms include inductive reasoning , which generalizes the commonalities among the data to induce new rules, and analogical reasoning , which is guided by data similarities to infer new facts. By further leveraging rich, biomedical Semantic Web ontologies to represent medical knowledge, both known and tentative, we increase the accuracy and expressivity of plausible reasoning, and cope with issues such as data heterogeneity, inconsistency and interoperability. In this paper, we present a Semantic Web-based, multi-strategy reasoning approach, which integrates deductive and plausible reasoning and exploits Semantic Web technology to solve complex clinical decision support queries. We evaluated our system using a real-world medical dataset of patients with hepatitis, from which we randomly removed different percentages of data (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) to reflect scenarios with increasing amounts of incomplete medical knowledge. To increase the reliability of the results, we generated 5 independent datasets for each percentage of missing values, which resulted in 20 experimental datasets (in addition to the original dataset). The results show that plausibly inferred knowledge extends the coverage of the knowledge base by, on average, 2%, 7%, 12%, and 16% for datasets with, respectively, 5%, 10%, 15

  7. A Case for Embedded Natural Logic for Ontological Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    2014-01-01

    We argue in favour of adopting a form of natural logic for ontology-structured knowledge bases as an alternative to description logic and rule based languages. Natural logic is a form of logic resembling natural language assertions, unlike description logic. This is essential e.g. in life sciences......, where the large and evolving knowledge specifications should be directly accessible to domain experts. Moreover, natural logic comes with intuitive inference rules. The considered version of natural logic leans toward the closed world assumption (CWA) unlike the open world assumption with classical...

  8. A real time knowledge-based alarm system EXTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, J.; Gaussot, J.P.; Legaud, P.

    1987-01-01

    EXTRA is an experimental expert system for industrial process control. The main objectives are the diagnosis and operation aids. From a methodological point of view, EXTRA is based on a deep knowledge of the plant operation and on qualitative simulation principles. The application concerns all the electric power and the Chemical and Volume Control System of a P.W.R. nuclear plant. The tests conducted on a full-scope simulator representative of the real plant yielded excellent results and taught the authors a number of lessons. The main lesson concerns the efficiency and flexibility provided by the combination of a knowledge-based system and of an advanced mini-computer

  9. Current state about the cuaternary knowledge of Uruguay; Estado actual sobre los conocimientos del cuaternario en Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, D; Goso, H

    1974-07-01

    This work is about current state of cuaternary knowledge Uruguayan. It is considered that the cuaternary presented a change from the hot and dry weather of the Pliocene to more humid and colder weather in Uruguay.

  10. Problem-Oriented Corporate Knowledge Base Models on the Case-Based Reasoning Approach Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhih, I. N.; Akhmadulin, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    One of the urgent directions of efficiency enhancement of production processes and enterprises activities management is creation and use of corporate knowledge bases. The article suggests a concept of problem-oriented corporate knowledge bases (PO CKB), in which knowledge is arranged around possible problem situations and represents a tool for making and implementing decisions in such situations. For knowledge representation in PO CKB a case-based reasoning approach is encouraged to use. Under this approach, the content of a case as a knowledge base component has been defined; based on the situation tree a PO CKB knowledge model has been developed, in which the knowledge about typical situations as well as specific examples of situations and solutions have been represented. A generalized problem-oriented corporate knowledge base structural chart and possible modes of its operation have been suggested. The obtained models allow creating and using corporate knowledge bases for support of decision making and implementing, training, staff skill upgrading and analysis of the decisions taken. The universal interpretation of terms “situation” and “solution” adopted in the work allows using the suggested models to develop problem-oriented corporate knowledge bases in different subject domains. It has been suggested to use the developed models for making corporate knowledge bases of the enterprises that operate engineer systems and networks at large production facilities.

  11. Integrated knowledge base tool for acquisition and verification of NPP alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition and knowledge base verification are important activities in developing knowledge-based systems such as alarm processing systems. In this work, we developed the integrated tool, for knowledge acquisition and verification of NPP alarm processing systems, by using G2 tool. The tool integrates document analysis method and ECPN matrix analysis method, for knowledge acquisition and knowledge verification, respectively. This tool enables knowledge engineers to perform their tasks from knowledge acquisition to knowledge verification consistently

  12. [Oligometastasis in pancreatic cancer : Current state of knowledge and spectrum of local therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, F; Damanakis, A I; Bruns, C

    2018-03-20

    Several case series reported results of surgical resection in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in a metastasized stage. A summarized overview of the current state of knowledge and a summary of the results of currently available studies. A systematic search was carried out in MEDLINE and PubMed with respect to metastasized pancreatic cancer and surgical resection. The evidence level for surgical resection in the metastasized stage is weak and so far no prospective trials are available. The largest single-arm trial included 85 patients with hepatic metastasis. In cases of hepatic oligometastasis an overall survival of 11-14 months was observed. In the presence of pulmonary metastasis, overall survival seems to be prolonged compared to intra-abdominal metastasis, although the evidence level is relatively weak. According to the available results, a general recommendation for surgical resection in a metastasized stage cannot be given; however, the results show a possible benefit for some well-selected patient subgroups. Prospective trials must validate these data and investigate the use of combined surgical and systemic treatments in the case of resectable metastatic pancreatic cancer.

  13. Beer Polyphenols and Menopause: Effects and Mechanisms—A Review of Current Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Ramírez, Berner Andrée; M. Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa; Estruch, Ramon; Sasot, Gemma; Doménech, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Beer is one of the most frequently consumed fermented beverages in the world, and it has been part of the human diet for thousands of years. Scientific evidence obtained from the development of new techniques of food analysis over the last two decades suggests that polyphenol intake derived from moderate beer consumption may play a positive role in different health outcomes including osteoporosis and cardiovascular risk and the relief of vasomotor symptoms, which are commonly experienced during menopause and are an important reason why women seek medical care during this period; here, we review the current knowledge regarding moderate beer consumption and its possible effects on menopausal symptoms. The effect of polyphenol intake on vasomotor symptoms in menopause may be driven by the direct interaction of the phenolic compounds present in beer, such as 8-prenylnaringenin, 6-prenylnaringenin, and isoxanthohumol, with intracellular estrogen receptors that leads to the modulation of gene expression, increase in sex hormone plasma concentrations, and thus modulation of physiological hormone imbalance in menopausal women. Since traditional hormone replacement therapies increase health risks, alternative, safer treatment options are needed to alleviate menopausal symptoms in women. The present work aims to review the current data on this subject. PMID:28904736

  14. THE ROLE OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL IN KNOWLEDGE - BASED SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa-Elena Parpandel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a knowledge - based society, organizations undergo permanent changes and transformations, and the key factor of such changes is intellectual capital regarded as one of the most critical, yet most strategic values an organization might own. Analyzing intelectual capital and knowledge society over the last decades has primarily emerged in private companies, whereas at present there is an increasing concern in all the fields of activity. The goal of this paper is to emphasize the importance of intellectual capital as a source of innovation and novelty used to create competitive advantages for organizations in the era of knowledge where man must rely on intellect, intuition and creativity. The present paper is an exploratory endeavour based on the qualitative method as various information sources are resorted to in order to conceptualize the terms of intellectual capital and knowledge society: specialty literature, case studies, mass-media articles, reports of in-field organizations etc. Organizations should use all the tangible or non-tangible resources they have in order to secure their success and also to build a knowledge society which involves going a long way, based on an ample, complex process where innovation has a major role and a global nature.

  15. Practice Patterns of School-Based Occupational Therapists Targeting Handwriting: A Knowledge-to-Practice Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Heidi; Egan, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Poor handwriting is a common reason for referral to school-based occupational therapy. A survey was used to explore the extent to which current practice patterns in Ontario, Canada, align with evidence on effective intervention for handwriting. Knowledge-to-practice gaps were identified related to focus on performance components versus…

  16. Models, methods and software for distributed knowledge acquisition for the automated construction of integrated expert systems knowledge bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejneko, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Based on an analysis of existing models, methods and means of acquiring knowledge, a base method of automated knowledge acquisition has been chosen. On the base of this method, a new approach to integrate information acquired from knowledge sources of different typologies has been proposed, and the concept of a distributed knowledge acquisition with the aim of computerized formation of the most complete and consistent models of problem areas has been introduced. An original algorithm for distributed knowledge acquisition from databases, based on the construction of binary decision trees has been developed [ru

  17. A knowledge-based system for fluidization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    Chemical engineers depend on process simulation models to determine optimal'' plant configurations which are technically feasible and economically viable. This research was undertaken to develop a comprehensive knowledge based simulation environment IPSE (Intelligent Process Simulation Environment) that can enhance the productivity of chemical engineers/modelers by serving as an intelligent assistant during all phases of process simulation involving fossil energy processes. In summary, the goals of this research are: application of knowledge-based techniques to the process modeling domain for enhancement of productivity; archiving and distribution of the knowledge of the best experts of process modeling; cross-model inference assistance to modelers not familiar with the process; and development of IPSE to serve as an intelligent tutoring system for process simulation. 18 figs.

  18. Developing a knowledge base for the management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.; Jenkins, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Prior to the accident at Three Mile Island, little attention was given to the development of procedures for the management of severe accidents, that is, accidents in which the reactor core is damaged. Since TMI, however, significant effort has been devoted to developing strategies for severe accident management. At the same time, the potential application of artificial intelligence techniques, particularly expert systems, to complex decision-making tasks such as accident diagnosis and response has received considerable attention. The need to develop strategies for accident management suggests that a computerized knowledge base such as used by an expert system could be developed to collect and organize knowledge for severe accident management. This paper suggests a general method which could be used to develop such a knowledge base, and how it could be used to enhance accident management capabilities

  19. Current knowledge of burn injury first aid practices and applied traditional remedies: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Abdullah E; AlShomer, Feras; Alhujayri, Abdulaziz K; Addar, Abdullah; Aljerian, Albaraa

    2016-01-01

    Burn first aid awareness has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality. We present a report on the knowledge and practices of the Saudi population with regard to burn first aid and the application of traditional remedies. An internet-based survey was conducted to assess the public's knowledge on first aid practices and home remedies applied for burn injuries among Saudi adults. A total of 2758 individuals responded to the survey. There were 1178 (42.7 %) respondents who had previously received burn first aid information. One thousand five hundred fifty respondents had a history of burn exposure in which burn injury first aid was applied as follows: 1118 (72.1 %) removed clothing and accessories from the injured area; water was applied by 990 (63.9 %); among those who applied water, 877 (88.6 %) applied cold water; and only 57 (5.8 %) did so for more than 15 min. Wrapping the burn area was performed by 526 (33.9 %), and 985 (63.5 %) sought medical assistance. When it comes to traditional remedies, 2134 (77.4 %) knew of and/or implemented these remedies as first aid or to treat burns. Honey and toothpaste were the commonest among these remedies with 1491 (69.9 %) and 1147 (53.7 %), respectively. This was associated with female gender ( r  = 0.87, P  first aid. Proper burn first aid is a simple, cheap, and accessible means of managing burns initially. Although the majority of the respondents were university graduates (51.1 %), knowledge and implementation of burn first aid was very poor. Major healthcare agencies should review and promote a consistent guideline for burn first aid in an effort to tackle and minimize the effect of this grave injury.

  20. Generating inferences from knowledge structures based on general automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, E C

    1983-01-01

    The author shows that the model for knowledge structures for computers based on general automata accommodates procedures for establishing inferences. Algorithms are presented which generate inferences as output of a computer when its sentence input names appropriate knowledge elements contained in an associated knowledge structure already stored in the memory of the computer. The inferences are found to have either a single graph tuple or more than one graph tuple of associated knowledge. Six algorithms pertain to a single graph tuple and a seventh pertains to more than one graph tuple of associated knowledge. A named term is either the automaton, environment, auxiliary receptor, principal receptor, auxiliary effector, or principal effector. The algorithm pertaining to more than one graph tuple requires that the input sentence names the automaton, transformation response, and environment of one of the tuples of associated knowledge in a sequence of tuples. Interaction with the computer may be either in a conversation or examination mode. The algorithms are illustrated by an example. 13 references.

  1. Space nuclear reactor system diagnosis: Knowledge-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Y.T.D.

    1990-01-01

    SP-100 space nuclear reactor system development is a joint effort by the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The system is designed to operate in isolation for many years, and is possibly subject to little or no remote maintenance. This dissertation proposes a knowledge based diagnostic system which, in principle, can diagnose the faults which can either cause reactor shutdown or lead to another serious problem. This framework in general can be applied to the fully specified system if detailed design information becomes available. The set of faults considered herein is identified based on heuristic knowledge about the system operation. The suitable approach to diagnostic problem solving is proposed after investigating the most prevalent methodologies in Artificial Intelligence as well as the causal analysis of the system. Deep causal knowledge modeling based on digraph, fault-tree or logic flowgraph methodology would present a need for some knowledge representation to handle the time dependent system behavior. A proposed qualitative temporal knowledge modeling methodology, using rules with specified time delay among the process variables, has been proposed and is used to develop the diagnostic sufficient rule set. The rule set has been modified by using a time zone approach to have a robust system design. The sufficient rule set is transformed to a sufficient and necessary one by searching the whole knowledge base. Qualitative data analysis is proposed in analyzing the measured data if in a real time situation. An expert system shell - Intelligence Compiler is used to develop the prototype system. Frames are used for the process variables. Forward chaining rules are used in monitoring and backward chaining rules are used in diagnosis

  2. Skull base osteomyelitis: current microbiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, P M; Yu, R; Neeff, M

    2013-01-01

    Skull base osteomyelitis typically presents in an immunocompromised patient with severe otalgia and otorrhoea. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the commonest pathogenic micro-organism, and reports of resistance to fluoroquinolones are now emerging, complicating management. We reviewed our experience of this condition, and of the local pathogenic organisms. A retrospective review from 2004 to 2011 was performed. Patients were identified by their admission diagnostic code, and computerised records examined. Twenty patients were identified. A facial palsy was present in 12 patients (60 per cent). Blood cultures were uniformly negative, and culture of ear canal granulations was non-diagnostic in 71 per cent of cases. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in only 10 (50 per cent) cases; one strain was resistant to ciprofloxacin but all were sensitive to ceftazidime. Two cases of fungal skull base osteomyelitis were identified. The mortality rate was 15 per cent. The patients' treatment algorithm is presented. Our treatment algorithm reflects the need for multidisciplinary input, early microbial culture of specimens, appropriate imaging, and prolonged and systemic antimicrobial treatment. Resolution of infection must be confirmed by close follow up and imaging.

  3. Thyristor based short circuit current injection in isolated grids

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Bjarte; Sharma, Pawan; Østrem, Trond

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a thyristor based short circuit current injector for providing short circuit current in isolated and weak grids, where sufficient fault current to trigger circuit breakers may not be available. This will allow the use of conventional miniature circuit breakers, which requires high fault current for instantaneous tripping. The method has been validated through experiments.

  4. Business Intelligence & Knowledge Management - Technological Support for Strategic Management in the Knowledge Based Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel PARASCHIV

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The viability and success of modern enterprises are subject to the increasing dynamic of the economic environment, so they need to adjust rapidly their policies and strategies in order to respond to sophistication of competitors, customers and suppliers, globalization of business, international competition. Perhaps the most critical component for success of the modern enterprise is its ability to take advantage of all available information - both internal and external. Making sense of all this information, gaining value and competitive advantage through represents real challenges for the enterprise. The IT solutions designed to address these challenges have been developed in two different approaches: structured data management (Business Intelligence and unstructured content management (Knowledge Management. Integrating Business Intelligence and Knowledge Management in new software applications designated not only to store highly structured data and exploit it in real time but also to interpret the results and communicate them to decision factors provides real technological support for Strategic Management. Integrating Business Intelligence and Knowledge Management in order to respond to the challenges the modern enterprise has to deal with represents not only a "new trend" in IT, but a necessity in the emerging knowledge based economy. These hybrid technologies are already widely known in both scientific and practice communities as Competitive Intelligence. In the end of paper,a competitive datawarehouse design is proposed, in an attempt to apply business intelligence technologies to economic environment analysis making use of romanian public data sources.

  5. Current Knowledge in lentil genomics and its application for crop improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv eKumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the lentil growing countries face a certain set of abiotic and biotic stresses causing substantial reduction in crop growth, yield, and production. Until-to date, lentil breeders have used conventional plant breeding techniques of selection-recombination-selection cycle to develop improved cultivars. These techniques have been successful in mainstreaming some of the easy-to-manage monogenic traits. However in case of complex quantitative traits, these conventional techniques are less precise. As most of the economic traits are complex, quantitative and often influenced by environments and genotype-environment (GE interaction, the genetic improvement of these traits becomes difficult. Genomics assisted breeding is relatively powerful and fast approach to develop high yielding varieties more suitable to adverse environmental conditions. New tools such as molecular markers and bioinformatics are expected to generate new knowledge and improve our understanding on the genetics of complex traits. In the past, the limited availability of genomic resources in lentil could not allow breeders to employ these tools in mainstream breeding program. The recent application of the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS and Genotyping by sequencing (GBS technologies has facilitated to speed up the lentil genome sequencing project and large discovery of genome-wide SNP markers. Recently, several linkage maps have been developed in lentil through the use of Expressed Sequenced Tag (EST-derived Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers. These maps have emerged as useful genomic resources to identify QTL imparting tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in lentil. In this review, the current knowledge on available genomic resources and its application in lentil breeding program are discussed.

  6. The representation of knowledge within model-based control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygand, D.P.; Koul, R.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to represent knowledge is often considered essential to build systems with reasoning capabilities. In computer science, a good solution often depends on a good representation. The first step in development of most computer applications is selection of a representation for the input, output, and intermediate results that the program will operate upon. For applications in artificial intelligence, this initial choice of representation is especially important. This is because the possible representational paradigms are diverse and the forcing criteria for the choice are usually not clear in the beginning. Yet, the consequences of an inadequate choice can be devastating in the later state of a project if it is discovered that critical information cannot be encoded within the chosen representational paradigm. Problems arise when designing representational systems to support any kind of Knowledge-Base System, that is a computer system that uses knowledge to perform some task. The general case of knowledge-based systems can be thought of as reasoning agents applying knowledge to achieve goals. Artificial Intelligence (AI) research involves building computer systems to perform tasks of perception and reasoning, as well as storage and retrieval of data. The problem of automatically perceiving large patterns in data is a perceptual task that begins to be important for many expert systems applications. Most of AI research assumes that what needs to be represented is known a priori; an AI researcher's job is just figuring out how to encode the information in the system's data structure and procedures. 10 refs

  7. Structural design systems using knowledge-based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsborn, K.

    1993-01-01

    Engineering information management and the corresponding information systems are of a strategic importance for industrial enterprises. This thesis treats the interdisciplinary field of designing computing systems for structural design and analysis using knowledge-based techniques. Specific conceptual models have been designed for representing the structure and the process of objects and activities in a structural design and analysis domain. In this thesis, it is shown how domain knowledge can be structured along several classification principles in order to reduce complexity and increase flexibility. By increasing the conceptual level of the problem description and representation of the domain knowledge in a declarative form, it is possible to enhance the development, maintenance and use of software for mechanical engineering. This will result in a corresponding increase of the efficiency of the mechanical engineering design process. These ideas together with the rule-based control point out the leverage of declarative knowledge representation within this domain. Used appropriately, a declarative knowledge representation preserves information better, is more problem-oriented and change-tolerant than procedural representations. 74 refs

  8. Ada as an implementation language for knowledge based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Debates about the selection of programming languages often produce cultural collisions that are not easily resolved. This is especially true in the case of Ada and knowledge based programming. The construction of programming tools provides a desirable alternative for resolving the conflict.

  9. Evidence and/or Experience-Based Knowledge in Lifestyle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More precisely, it is argued that what will be “effective” therapy for a person diagnosed as obese cannot be reduced ..... they had come to rely on their experience-based know- ledge. ..... knowledge – “tracking down the best evidence to answer.

  10. Towards an Intelligent Planning Knowledge Base Development Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, S.

    1994-01-01

    ract describes work in developing knowledge base editing and debugging tools for the Multimission VICAR Planner (MVP) system. MVP uses artificial intelligence planning techniques to automatically construct executable complex image processing procedures (using models of the smaller constituent image processing requests made to the JPL Multimission Image Processing Laboratory.

  11. Development of a Knowledge Base for Incorporating Technology into Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Logan

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses a project resulting from the request of a group of faculty at The College at Brockport to create a website for best practices in teaching and technology. The project evolved into a knowledge base powered by WordPress. Installation and configuration of WordPress resulted in the creation of custom taxonomies and post types,…

  12. Mobile Communication and Work Practices in Knowledge-based Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertti Hurme

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of mobile communication, mobile tools and work practices in the context of organizations, especially knowledge-based organizations. Today, organizations are highly complex and diverse. Not surprisingly, various solutions to incorporating mobile tools and mobile communication in organizations have been devised. Challenges to technological development and research on mobile communication are presented.

  13. Value Creation in the Knowledge-Based Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Effective investment strategies help companies form dynamic core organizational capabilities allowing them to adapt and survive in today's rapidly changing knowledge-based economy. This dissertation investigates three valuation issues that challenge managers with respect to developing business-critical investment strategies that can have…

  14. The Ignorance of the Knowledge-Based Economy. The Iconoclast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, John

    1996-01-01

    Castigates the supposed "knowledge-based economy" as simply a public relations smokescreen covering up the free market exploitation of people and resources serving corporate interests. Discusses the many ways that private industry, often with government collusion, has controlled or denied dissemination of information to serve its own interests.…

  15. Integrating knowledge based functionality in commercial hospital information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M L; Ganslandt, T; Eich, H P; Lang, K; Ohmann, C; Prokosch, H U

    2000-01-01

    Successful integration of knowledge-based functions in the electronic patient record depends on direct and context-sensitive accessibility and availability to clinicians and must suit their workflow. In this paper we describe an exemplary integration of an existing standalone scoring system for acute abdominal pain into two different commercial hospital information systems using Java/Corba technolgy.

  16. Beyond the Keyword Barrier: Knowledge-Based Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes the inability of traditional subject index terms to represent relational information among concepts, and the development of frame based knowledge representation methods that provide relational semantic representations of documents and user queries. The discussion covers research in user interfaces and automatic document classifications,…

  17. Knowledge-based analysis of functional impacts of mutations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Knowledge-based analysis of functional impacts of mutations in microRNA seed regions. Supplementary figure 1. Summary of predicted miRNA targets from ... All naturally occurred SNPs in seed regions of human miRNAs. The information of the columns is given in the second sheet. Hihly expressed miRNAs are ...

  18. Intelligent assembly time analysis, using a digital knowledge based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Y.; Curran, R.; Butterfield, J.; Burke, R.; Welch, B.

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of effective time analysis methods fast and accurately in the era of digital manufacturing has become a significant challenge for aerospace manufacturers hoping to build and maintain a competitive advantage. This paper proposes a structure oriented, knowledge-based approach for

  19. Competencies for Central American SMEs in the Knowledge-Based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Knowledge-based economy not only affects well developed countries but also the performance and possibilities of small economic actors positioned on less developed countries. Micro, small and medium enterprises - characterized by low financial and human capital - are also exposed to the opportunities and risks ...

  20. Knowledge-based society, peer production and the common good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orsi, Cosma

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the societal conditions that might help the establishment of peer-to-peer modes of production. First, the context within which such a new model is emerging - the neoliberal knowledge-based-societies - is described, and its shortcomings unveiled; and second, a robust argu...

  1. Knowledge Based Engineering for Spatial Database Management and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuquet, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The use of artificial intelligence techniques that are applicable to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are examined. Questions involving the performance and modification to the database structure, the definition of spectra in quadtree structures and their use in search heuristics, extension of the knowledge base, and learning algorithm concepts are investigated.

  2. Knowledge base, information search and intention to adopt innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsoever, van F.J.; Castaldi, C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovation is a process that involves searching for new information. This paper builds upon theoretical insights on individual and organizational learning and proposes a knowledge based model of how actors search for information when confronted with innovation. The model takes into account different

  3. Enhancing Canadian Civil Society Research and Knowledge-Based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enhancing Canadian Civil Society Research and Knowledge-Based Practice in a Rapidly Changing Landscape for International Development ... Women in the developing world continue to face obstacles that limit their ability to establish careers and become leaders in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and ...

  4. Scientific publications in XML - towards a global knowledge base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Murray-Rust

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments on the World-Wide Web provide an unparalleled opportunity to revolutionise scientific, technical and medical publication. The technology exists for the scientific world to use primary publication to create a knowledge base, or Semantic Web, with a potential greatly beyond the paper archives and electronic databases of today.

  5. Finding Environmental Knowledge in SCUBA-Based Textual Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündogdu, Cemal; Aygün, Yalin; Ilkim, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    As marine environments within the adventure domain are future key-settings for recreational SCUBA diving experience, SCUBA-based textual materials should provide insight into environmental knowledge that is well connected to the novice divers' behaviour and attitude. This research is concerned with a major recreational SCUBA diver manual for…

  6. Strategies for rehabilitation professionals to move evidence-based knowledge into practice: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Anita; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Kastner, Monika; McKibbon, K Ann; Straus, Sharon

    2009-11-01

    Rehabilitation clinicians need to stay current regarding best practices, especially since adherence to clinical guidelines can significantly improve patient outcomes. However, little is known about the benefits of knowledge translation interventions for these professionals. To examine the effectiveness of single or multi-component knowledge translation interventions for improving knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors of rehabilitation clinicians. Systematic review of 7 databases conducted to identify studies evaluating knowledge translation interventions specific to occupational therapists and physical therapists. 12 studies met the eligibility criteria. For physical therapists, participation in an active multi-component knowledge translation intervention resulted in improved evidence-based knowledge and practice behaviors compared with passive dissemination strategies. These gains did not translate into change in clinicians' attitudes towards best practices. For occupational therapists, no studies have examined the use of multi-component interventions; studies of single interventions suggest limited evidence of effectiveness for all outcomes measured. While this review suggests the use of active, multi-component knowledge translation interventions to enhance knowledge and practice behaviors of physical therapists, additional research is needed to understand the impact of these strategies on occupational therapists. Serious research gaps remain regarding which knowledge translation strategies impact positively on patient outcomes.

  7. Creative economy and knowledge-based society. Perspectives for Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istudor Laura Gabriela

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Creative economy is a rather new concept that started developing during the last decade, being currently applied to a variety of activities and professions. It has become an important sector of the global economy, being sustained and promoted by the European Union, especially in the context of an innovative and knowledge-based society. Within this new type of economy, creativity, innovation and knowledge management are essential factors that lead to a smart, sustainable and inclusive development in regard to the creation of new jobs and to the social inclusion requirements. According to John Howkins (2001, the creative industries / sectors include art, research, advertising, movies, theatre, software, with the possibility of the concept of creative economy to be extended to other non-artistic and IT related fields, where improvements are expected to arise through innovation and creativity. The Global Creativity Index (GCI and the European Innovation Scoreboard (EIS, are two benchmarking tools that measure the creativity and innovation degree of the countries in the European Union, placing Romania within the last positions, especially with respect to intellectual property rights and entrepreneurship. The research methodology consists of both qualitative and quantitative methods, while the research questions to be answered are What is the degree of innovation in Romania compared to other states? What can be done in order to increase the level of innovation in Romania? In this viewpoint, the paper analyzes the development of the creative industries / sectors in Romania, in the context of creative economy and innovation. The objective of the paper is to analyze the extent to which the concept of creative economy can be promoted and implemented in Romania, given its increasing importance at the international level, with countries such as the United Kingdom that already adopted strategies to sustain this kind of economy in the past years. In order to

  8. SQUID based cryogenic current comparator for measurements of the dark current of superconducting cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodel, W.; Nietzsche, S.; Neubert, R.; Nawrodt, R. [Friedrich Schiller Univ. Jena (Germany); Peters, A. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Knaack, K.; Wendt, M.; Wittenburg, K. [DESY Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The linear accelerator technology, based on super-conducting L-band (1.3 GHz) is currently under study at DESY (Hamburg, Germany). The two 10 km long main Linacs will be equipped with a total of nearly 20.000 cavities. The dark current due to the emission of electrons in these high gradient field super-conducting cavities is an unwanted particle source. A newly high performance SQUID based measurement system for detecting dark currents is proposed. It makes use of the Cryogenic Current Comparator principle and senses dark currents in the pA range with a measurement bandwidth of up to 70 kHz. The use of a cryogenic current comparator as dark current sensor has some important advantages: -) the measurement of the absolute value of the dark current, -) the non-dependence on the electron trajectories, -) the accurate absolute calibration with an additional wire loop, and -) extremely high resolution.

  9. Employee knowledge of value-based insurance design benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrikson, Nora B; Anderson, Melissa L; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Fishman, Paul; Grossman, David C

    2014-08-01

    Value-based insurance designs (VBD) incorporate evidence-based medicine into health benefit design. Consumer knowledge of new VBD benefits is important to assessing their impact on health care use. To assess knowledge of features of a VBD. The eligible study population was employees receiving healthcare benefits in an integrated care system in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. In 2010, participants completed a web-based survey 2 months after rollout of the plan, including three true/false questions about benefit design features including copays for preventive care visits and chronic disease medications and premium costs. Analysis was completed in 2012. Knowledgeable was defined as correct response to all three questions; self-reported knowledge was also assessed. A total of 3,463 people completed the survey (response rate=71.7%). The majority of respondents were female (80.1%) Caucasians (79.6%) aged 35-64 years (79.0%), reflecting the overall employee population. A total of 45.7% had at least a 4-year college education, and 69.1% were married. About three quarters of respondents correctly answered each individual question; half (52.1%) of respondents answered all three questions correctly. On multivariate analysis, knowledge was independently associated with female gender (OR=1.80, 95% CI=1.40, 2.31); Caucasian race (OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.28, 2.32); increasing household income (OR for ≥$100,000=1.86, 95% CI=1.29, 2.68); nonunion job status (OR compared to union status=1.63, 95% CI=1.17, 2.26); and high satisfaction with the health plan (OR compared to low satisfaction=1.26; 95% CI=1.00, 1.57). Incomplete knowledge of benefits is prevalent in an employee population soon after VBD rollout. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. KNOWLEDGE-BASED OBJECT DETECTION IN LASER SCANNING POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Boochs

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Object identification and object processing in 3D point clouds have always posed challenges in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. In practice, this process is highly dependent on human interpretation of the scene represented by the point cloud data, as well as the set of modeling tools available for use. Such modeling algorithms are data-driven and concentrate on specific features of the objects, being accessible to numerical models. We present an approach that brings the human expert knowledge about the scene, the objects inside, and their representation by the data and the behavior of algorithms to the machine. This “understanding” enables the machine to assist human interpretation of the scene inside the point cloud. Furthermore, it allows the machine to understand possibilities and limitations of algorithms and to take this into account within the processing chain. This not only assists the researchers in defining optimal processing steps, but also provides suggestions when certain changes or new details emerge from the point cloud. Our approach benefits from the advancement in knowledge technologies within the Semantic Web framework. This advancement has provided a strong base for applications based on knowledge management. In the article we will present and describe the knowledge technologies used for our approach such as Web Ontology Language (OWL, used for formulating the knowledge base and the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL with 3D processing and topologic built-ins, aiming to combine geometrical analysis of 3D point clouds, and specialists’ knowledge of the scene and algorithmic processing.

  11. Current and future health care professionals attitudes toward and knowledge of statistics: How confidence influences learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghi, Heibatollah; Kornides, Melanie L

    2013-01-01

    Health care professionals require some understanding of statistics to successfully implement evidence based practice. Developing competency in statistical reasoning is necessary for students training in health care administration, research, and clinical care. Recently, the interest in healthcare professional's attitudes toward statistics has increased substantially due to evidence that these attitudes can hinder professionalism developing an understanding of statistical concepts. In this study, we analyzed pre- and post-instruction attitudes towards and knowledge of statistics obtained from health science graduate students, including nurses and nurse practitioners, enrolled in an introductory graduate course in statistics (n = 165). Results show that the students already held generally positive attitudes toward statistics at the beginning of course. However, these attitudes-along with the students' statistical proficiency-improved after 10 weeks of instruction. The results have implications for curriculum design and delivery methods as well as for health professionals' effective use of statistics in critically evaluating and utilizing research in their practices.

  12. A review on current knowledge and future prospects of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in Asian birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Malik, Riffat Naseem, E-mail: r_n_malik2000@yahoo.co.uk [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Frantz, Adrien [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UPEC, Paris 7, CNRS, INRA, IRD, Institut d' Ecologie et des Sciences de l' Environnement de Paris, F-75005, Paris (France); Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard [Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway)

    2016-01-15

    The release of harmful chemicals in the Asian environment has recently increased dramatically due to rising industrial and agricultural activities. About 60% of the global human population is currently living on the Asian continent and may thus be exposed to a large range of different chemicals. Different classes of organohalogen chemicals have indeed been reported in various environmental compartments from Asia including humans and wildlife, but this issue has received less attention in birds. In this article, we reviewed the available literature on levels of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and various flame retardants (FRs) in Asian avifauna to analyze the existing pool of knowledge as well as to identify the gaps that should be addressed in future research. Furthermore, we discussed the variation in levels of organohalogens based on differences in regions, trophic level, dietary sources and migratory behaviors of species including distribution patterns in different tissues of birds. Although the mass of published literature is very low and even absent in many important regions of Asia, we deduced from the reported studies that levels of almost all classes of organohalogens (OHCs) including FRs were highest in East Asian countries such as Japan, China and South Korea, except for HCHs that were found at maximum levels in birds of South India. Concentrations (ng/g LW) of different OHCs in Asian birds ranged between < LOD (limit of detection) to 14,000,000 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), < LOD to 790,000 for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), < LOD to 12,000 for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), < LOD to 29,000 for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), < LOD to 47,000 for chlordanes (CHLs) and < LOD to 4600 for total cyclodienes. Further, ranges (ng/g LW) of 1.1 to 150,000 for Co-PCBs; < LOD to 27 for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs); < LOD to 45 for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 0.02 to 73 for PCDD/DFs have been reported in Asian aves

  13. A review on current knowledge and future prospects of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in Asian birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Frantz, Adrien; Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The release of harmful chemicals in the Asian environment has recently increased dramatically due to rising industrial and agricultural activities. About 60% of the global human population is currently living on the Asian continent and may thus be exposed to a large range of different chemicals. Different classes of organohalogen chemicals have indeed been reported in various environmental compartments from Asia including humans and wildlife, but this issue has received less attention in birds. In this article, we reviewed the available literature on levels of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and various flame retardants (FRs) in Asian avifauna to analyze the existing pool of knowledge as well as to identify the gaps that should be addressed in future research. Furthermore, we discussed the variation in levels of organohalogens based on differences in regions, trophic level, dietary sources and migratory behaviors of species including distribution patterns in different tissues of birds. Although the mass of published literature is very low and even absent in many important regions of Asia, we deduced from the reported studies that levels of almost all classes of organohalogens (OHCs) including FRs were highest in East Asian countries such as Japan, China and South Korea, except for HCHs that were found at maximum levels in birds of South India. Concentrations (ng/g LW) of different OHCs in Asian birds ranged between < LOD (limit of detection) to 14,000,000 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), < LOD to 790,000 for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), < LOD to 12,000 for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), < LOD to 29,000 for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), < LOD to 47,000 for chlordanes (CHLs) and < LOD to 4600 for total cyclodienes. Further, ranges (ng/g LW) of 1.1 to 150,000 for Co-PCBs; < LOD to 27 for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs); < LOD to 45 for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 0.02 to 73 for PCDD/DFs have been reported in Asian aves

  14. Explicit Knowledge-based Reasoning for Visual Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peng; Wu, Qi; Shen, Chunhua; Hengel, Anton van den; Dick, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We describe a method for visual question answering which is capable of reasoning about contents of an image on the basis of information extracted from a large-scale knowledge base. The method not only answers natural language questions using concepts not contained in the image, but can provide an explanation of the reasoning by which it developed its answer. The method is capable of answering far more complex questions than the predominant long short-term memory-based approach, and outperform...

  15. A Knowledge-Based Consultant for Financial Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kastner, John; Apte, Chidanand; Griesmer, James

    1986-01-01

    This article describes an effort to develop a knowledge-based financial marketing consultant system. Financial marketing is an excellent vehicle for both research and application in artificial intelligence (AI). This domain differs from the great majority of previous expert system domains in that there are no well-defined answers (in traditional sense); the goal here is to obtain satisfactory arguments to support the conclusions made. A large OPS5-based system was implemented as an initial pr...

  16. A Case for Embedded Natural Logic for Ontological Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    2014-01-01

    We argue in favour of adopting a form of natural logic for ontology-structured knowledge bases as an alternative to description logic and rule based languages. Natural logic is a form of logic resembling natural language assertions, unlike description logic. This is essential e.g. in life sciences...... negation in description logic. We embed the natural logic in DATALOG clauses which is to take care of the computational inference in connection with querying...

  17. A Description Logic Based Knowledge Representation Model for Concept Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    This research employs Description Logics in order to focus on logical description and analysis of the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’. The article will deal with a formal-semantic model for figuring out the underlying logical assumptions of ‘concept understanding’ in knowledge representation...... systems. In other words, it attempts to describe a theoretical model for concept understanding and to reflect the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’ in terminological knowledge representation systems. Finally, it will design an ontology that schemes the structure of concept understanding based...

  18. Application of knowledge based software to industrial automation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yoshihiro

    1985-01-01

    In Japan, large industrial undertakings such as electric utilities or steel works are making first steps towards knowledge engineering, testing the applicability of knowledge based software to industrial automation. The goal is to achieve more intelligent, computer-aided assistance for the personnel and thus to enhance safety, reliability, and maintenance efficiency in large industrial plants. The article presents various examples showing advantages and draw-backs of such systems, and potential applications among others in nuclear or fossil fueled power plants or in electricity supply control systems. (orig./HP) [de

  19. ISPE: A knowledge-based system for fluidization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, S.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical engineers use mathematical simulators to design, model, optimize and refine various engineering plants/processes. This procedure requires the following steps: (1) preparation of an input data file according to the format required by the target simulator; (2) excecuting the simulation; and (3) analyzing the results of the simulation to determine if all specified goals'' are satisfied. If the goals are not met, the input data file must be modified and the simulation repeated. This multistep process is continued until satisfactory results are obtained. This research was undertaken to develop a knowledge based system, IPSE (Intelligent Process Simulation Environment), that can enhance the productivity of chemical engineers/modelers by serving as an intelligent assistant to perform a variety tasks related to process simulation. ASPEN, a widely used simulator by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) was selected as the target process simulator in the project. IPSE, written in the C language, was developed using a number of knowledge-based programming paradigms: object-oriented knowledge representation that uses inheritance and methods, rulebased inferencing (includes processing and propagation of probabilistic information) and data-driven programming using demons. It was implemented using the knowledge based environment LASER. The relationship of IPSE with the user, ASPEN, LASER and the C language is shown in Figure 1.

  20. Internal Communication and Social Dialogue in Knowledge-Based Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria CISMARU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of Eurofound shows that knowledge-based organizations have a low number of trade unions, while professional associations are more relevant for them. There is no tradition to defend through negotiation the working conditions of employees, thus it is important for managers to use the best practices, in order to increase the employees’ loyalty. We conducted a qualitative research concerning the quality of professional life of employees in five sectors of knowledge-based services: advertising-marketing, IT, banking and finance, research and development, and higher education; 15-20 employees from each sector were interviewed. Some of the questions referred directly to trade unions and affiliation, and also to internal communication. Although the results showed a different situation in each of the five sectors, there are few common characteristics: descendant communication is more frequent than ascendant communication, trade unions were reported as missing, unrepresentative or not very active, and the greatest part of employees in this sector are not affiliated, facts that limits the possibility of maintaining employees’ motivation on long term.

  1. Incorporating personalized gene sequence variants, molecular genetics knowledge, and health knowledge into an EHR prototype based on the Continuity of Care Record standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xia; Kay, Stephen; Marley, Tom; Hardiker, Nicholas R.; Cimino, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objectives The current volume and complexity of genetic tests, and the molecular genetics knowledge and health knowledge related to interpretation of the results of those tests, are rapidly outstripping the ability of individual clinicians to recall, understand and convey to their patients information relevant to their care. The tailoring of molecular genetics knowledge and health knowledge in clinical settings is important both for the provision of personalized medicine and to reduce clinician information overload. In this paper we describe the incorporation, customization and demonstration of molecular genetic data (mainly sequence variants), molecular genetics knowledge and health knowledge into a standards-based electronic health record (EHR) prototype developed specifically for this study. Methods We extended the CCR (Continuity of Care Record), an existing EHR standard for representing clinical data, to include molecular genetic data. An EHR prototype was built based on the extended CCR and designed to display relevant molecular genetics knowledge and health knowledge from an existing knowledge base for cystic fibrosis (OntoKBCF). We reconstructed test records from published case reports and represented them in the CCR schema. We then used the EHR to dynamically filter molecular genetics knowledge and health knowledge from OntoKBCF using molecular genetic data and clinical data from the test cases. Results The molecular genetic data were successfully incorporated in the CCR by creating a category of laboratory results called “Molecular Genetics ” and specifying a particular class of test (“Gene Mutation Test”) in this category. Unlike other laboratory tests reported in the CCR, results of tests in this class required additional attributes (“Molecular Structure” and “Molecular Position”) to support interpretation by clinicians. These results, along with clinical data (age, sex, ethnicity, diagnostic procedures, and therapies) were used

  2. Concussion As a Multi-Scale Complex System: An Interdisciplinary Synthesis of Current Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin S. Kenzie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI has been called “the most complicated disease of the most complex organ of the body” and is an increasingly high-profile public health issue. Many patients report long-term impairments following even “mild” injuries, but reliable criteria for diagnosis and prognosis are lacking. Every clinical trial for TBI treatment to date has failed to demonstrate reliable and safe improvement in outcomes, and the existing body of literature is insufficient to support the creation of a new classification system. Concussion, or mild TBI, is a highly heterogeneous phenomenon, and numerous factors interact dynamically to influence an individual’s recovery trajectory. Many of the obstacles faced in research and clinical practice related to TBI and concussion, including observed heterogeneity, arguably stem from the complexity of the condition itself. To improve understanding of this complexity, we review the current state of research through the lens provided by the interdisciplinary field of systems science, which has been increasingly applied to biomedical issues. The review was conducted iteratively, through multiple phases of literature review, expert interviews, and systems diagramming and represents the first phase in an effort to develop systems models of concussion. The primary focus of this work was to examine concepts and ways of thinking about concussion that currently impede research design and block advancements in care of TBI. Results are presented in the form of a multi-scale conceptual framework intended to synthesize knowledge across disciplines, improve research design, and provide a broader, multi-scale model for understanding concussion pathophysiology, classification, and treatment.

  3. Constructing regional advantage: platform policies based on related variety and differentiated knowledge bases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asheim, B.T.; Boschma, R.A.; Cooke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing regional advantage: platform policies based on related variety and differentiated knowledge bases, Regional Studies. This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related

  4. End user interface and knowledge base editing system of CSPAR: a knowledge-based consultation system for preventive maintenance in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinohara, Yasusi; Terano, Takao; Nishiyama, Takuya

    1988-01-01

    Consultation System for Prevention of Abnormal-event Recurrence (CSPAR) is a knowledge-based system to analyze the same kind of events to a given fault reported on a nuclear power plant and to give users some informations for effective measures preventing them. This report discusses the interfaces of CSPAR for both end-users and knowledge-base editors. The interfaces are highly interactive and multi-window oriented. The features are as follows: (1) The end-user interfaces has Japanese language processing facility, which enables the users to consult CSPAR with various synonims and related terms for knowledge-base handling; (2) The knowledge-base editing system is used by knowledge-base editors for maintaining the knowledge on both plants' equipments and abnormal events sequences. It has facilities for easy maintenance of knowledge-bases, which includes a graphic oriented browser, a knowledge-base retriever, and a knowledge-base checker. (author)

  5. Patient knowledge, perceptions, and acceptance of generic medicines: a comprehensive review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrasheedy AA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alian A Alrasheedy,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,1 Kay Stewart,2 David CM Kong,2 Hisham Aljadhey,3 Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim,4 Saleh Karamah Al-Tamimi1 1Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Medication Safety Research Chair, Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Background: Generic medicines have the same quality, safety, and efficacy as their counterpart original brand medicines. Generic medicines provide the same therapeutic outcomes but at a much cheaper cost, so are promoted in many countries to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and sustain the health care system. Thus, the perspective of patients and medicine consumers as end users of these medicines is an important factor to enhance the use and utilization of generic medicines. The objective of this paper is to review patients’ and consumers’ knowledge, perceptions, acceptance, and views of generic medicines in the current literature. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed in several databases, namely Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and the Wiley online library, to identify relevant studies published in the English literature for the period 1990–2013. Results: A total of 53 studies were included in the review, comprising 24 studies from Europe, ten from North America, six from Asia, five from Australia and New Zealand, five from the Middle East, one from Africa, one from Latin America, and one from the Caribbean region. A large body of literature has reported misconceptions and negative perceptions about generic medicines on the part of patients and medicine consumers. Moreover, although it is reported in almost all countries, the percentage of consumers who had

  6. Humpback Dolphins of Western Australia: A Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Daniella M; Hunt, Tim; Parra, Guido J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many cetacean species that occupy Australian coastal waters, Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, are one of the most vulnerable to extirpation due to human activities. This review summarises the existing knowledge, presently occurring and planned research projects, and current conservation measures for humpback dolphins in Western Australia (WA). Rapid and wide-scale coastal development along the northern WA coastline has occurred despite a lack of baseline data for inshore dolphins and, therefore, without a precautionary approach to their conservation. The distribution, abundance, habitat use, and population structure of humpback dolphins remain poorly understood. Less than 1% of their inferred distribution has so far been studied to understand local population demography. The sparse data available suggest that WA humpback dolphins occur as localised populations in low numbers within a range of inshore habitats, including both clear and turbid coastal waters. Marine protected areas cover a third of their inferred distribution in WA, but the efficacy of these reserves in protecting local cetacean populations is unknown. There is a pressing need for coordination and collaboration among scientists, government agencies, industry bodies, Traditional Owners, and local community groups to fill in the gaps of information on humpback dolphins in WA. The recently developed strategies and sampling guidelines developed by state and federal governments should serve as a best practise standard for collection of data aimed at assessing the conservation status of humpback dolphins in WA and Australia. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The iron-sulfur cluster assembly machineries in plants: current knowledge and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Jérémy; Touraine, Brigitte; Briat, Jean-François; Gaymard, Frédéric; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Many metabolic pathways and cellular processes occurring in most sub-cellular compartments depend on the functioning of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins, whose cofactors are assembled through dedicated protein machineries. Recent advances have been made in the knowledge of the functions of individual components through a combination of genetic, biochemical and structural approaches, primarily in prokaryotes and non-plant eukaryotes. Whereas most of the components of these machineries are conserved between kingdoms, their complexity is likely increased in plants owing to the presence of additional assembly proteins and to the existence of expanded families for several assembly proteins. This review focuses on the new actors discovered in the past few years, such as glutaredoxin, BOLA and NEET proteins as well as MIP18, MMS19, TAH18, DRE2 for the cytosolic machinery, which are integrated into a model for the plant Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems. It also discusses a few issues currently subjected to an intense debate such as the role of the mitochondrial frataxin and of glutaredoxins, the functional separation between scaffold, carrier and iron-delivery proteins and the crosstalk existing between different organelles. PMID:23898337

  8. The effects of strontium on bone mineral: A review on current knowledge and microanalytical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, William; Rossi, Andre L; Farina, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The interest in effects of strontium (Sr) on bone has greatly increased in the last decade due to the development of the promising drug strontium ranelate. This drug is used for treating osteoporosis, a major bone disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, especially postmenopausal women. The novelty of strontium ranelate compared to other treatments for osteoporosis is its unique effect on bone: it simultaneously promotes bone formation by osteoblasts and inhibits bone resorption by osteoclasts. Besides affecting bone cells, treatment with strontium ranelate also has a direct effect on the mineralized bone matrix. Due to the chemical similarities between Sr and Ca, a topic that has long been of particular interest is the incorporation of Sr into bones replacing Ca from the mineral phase, which is composed by carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Several groups have analyzed the mineral produced during treatment; however, most analysis were done with relatively large samples containing numerous nanocrystals, resulting thus on data that represents an average of many crystalline domains. The nanoscale analysis of the bone apatite crystals containing Sr has only been described in a few studies. In this study, we review the current knowledge on the effects of Sr on bone mineral and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used in the field. In particular, we focus on the great potential that advanced microscopy and microanalytical techniques may have on the detailed analysis of the nanostructure and composition of bone apatite nanocrystals produced during treatment with strontium ranelate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Influence of Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields on the Circadian System: Current Stage of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żak, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    One of the side effects of each electrical device work is the electromagnetic field generated near its workplace. All organisms, including humans, are exposed daily to the influence of different types of this field, characterized by various physical parameters. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine the effects of an electromagnetic field on the physiological and pathological processes occurring in cells, tissues, and organs. Numerous epidemiological and experimental data suggest that the extremely low frequency magnetic field generated by electrical transmission lines and electrically powered devices and the high frequencies electromagnetic radiation emitted by electronic devices have a potentially negative impact on the circadian system. On the other hand, several studies have found no influence of these fields on chronobiological parameters. According to the current state of knowledge, some previously proposed hypotheses, including one concerning the key role of melatonin secretion disruption in pathogenesis of electromagnetic field induced diseases, need to be revised. This paper reviews the data on the effect of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on melatonin and cortisol rhythms—two major markers of the circadian system as well as on sleep. It also provides the basic information about the nature, classification, parameters, and sources of these fields. PMID:25136557

  10. Panel: Current Status of Knowledge and Recommendations for Further Related Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldarola, L.; Costa, J.; Fauske, Hans K.; Jakeman, D.; Mizuta, H.; Wright, R.W.; Stadie, K.B.

    1976-01-01

    This Panel consists of two parts, in the first part the participants attempt to summarise their views on the current status and knowledge of SFI and its importance for the LMFBR safety case and in the second part they try to agree on recommendations for future actions. The first question tackled was: what progress has been made since the Ispra meeting which was a little over two years ago - in answering the question: 'what role does SFI play in LMFBR safety'? The second question approached was: 'Is it possible to identify SFI areas which are not yet covered by the present research and development programme? Finally 4 recommendations were proposed: 1. to have another meeting of the same nature as this one and the previous ones in two years' time; 2. to create a group dealing with the fundamental science with a view to further the safety of the LMFBR. This group would meet more regularly and would not require, and that is the important thing, approval from-CSNI every time it meets; 3. to discontinue the group on calculational models; 4. to publish at least one to two newsletters between this SFI meeting and the next SFI meeting in two years

  11. The current state of knowledge on the use of the benchmark dose concept in risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Salomon; Victorin, Katarina; Filipsson, Agneta Falk

    2008-05-01

    This review deals with the current state of knowledge on the use of the benchmark dose (BMD) concept in health risk assessment of chemicals. The BMD method is an alternative to the traditional no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and has been presented as a methodological improvement in the field of risk assessment. The BMD method has mostly been employed in the USA but is presently given higher attention also in Europe. The review presents a number of arguments in favor of the BMD, relative to the NOAEL. In addition, it gives a detailed overview of the several procedures that have been suggested and applied for BMD analysis, for quantal as well as continuous data. For quantal data the BMD is generally defined as corresponding to an additional or extra risk of 5% or 10%. For continuous endpoints it is suggested that the BMD is defined as corresponding to a percentage change in response relative to background or relative to the dynamic range of response. Under such definitions, a 5% or 10% change can be considered as default. Besides how to define the BMD and its lower bound, the BMDL, the question of how to select the dose-response model to be used in the BMD and BMDL determination is highlighted. Issues of study design and comparison of dose-response curves and BMDs are also covered. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Current knowledge of microRNA-mediated regulation of drug metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masataka; Nakajima, Miki

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the factors causing inter- and intra-individual differences in drug metabolism potencies is required for the practice of personalized or precision medicine, as well as for the promotion of efficient drug development. The expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes is controlled by transcriptional regulation by nuclear receptors and transcriptional factors, epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation, and post-translational modification. In addition to such regulation mechanisms, recent studies revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous ~22-nucleotide non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression through the translational repression and degradation of mRNAs, significantly contribute to post-transcriptional regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Areas covered: This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding miRNAs-dependent regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transcriptional factors and its physiological and clinical significance. We also describe recent advances in miRNA-dependent regulation research, showing that the presence of pseudogenes, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and RNA editing affects miRNA targeting. Expert opinion: It is unwavering fact that miRNAs are critical factors causing inter- and intra-individual differences in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Consideration of miRNA-dependent regulation would be a helpful tool for optimizing personalized and precision medicine.

  13. SMAD family proteins: the current knowledge on their expression and potential role in neoplastic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Witkowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β plays a crucial role and takes part in many processes in the human body both in physiology and pathology. This cytokine is involved in angiogenesis, regulates apoptosis and stimulates divisions of cells, such as hepatocytes, lymphocytes or hematopoietic cells. SMAD proteins family is a unique group of particles responsible for transducting the signal induced by TGF-β into the nucleus. This molecules, after receiving a signal from activated TGF-β, act on transcription factors in the nucleus, leading directly to the expression of the corresponding genes. According to current knowledge, disturbances in the functioning of SMAD proteins are present in a number of diseases. The reduced expression was observed, for example in cardiovascular diseases such as primary pulmonary hypertension or myocardial infarction, autoimmune diseases for instance systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease or osteoporosis. The latest clinical data showed the presence of mutations in SMAD proteins in cancerogenesis. Mutation of SMAD-4 protein can be detected in half of the patients with pancreatic cancer, 20% of patients with colorectal cancer and 10% of patients with lung cancer. However, mutation in SMAD-2 protein was observed in 7% of both patients with colorectal cancer and lung cancer. On the basis of numerous works, SMAD protein expression would be valuable prognostic factor in some of neoplastic diseases.

  14. Bridging the gap between formal and experience-based knowledge for context-aware laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Darko; Schuck, Jürgen; Wekerle, Anna-Laura; Kenngott, Hannes; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie

    2016-06-01

    Computer assistance is increasingly common in surgery. However, the amount of information is bound to overload processing abilities of surgeons. We propose methods to recognize the current phase of a surgery for context-aware information filtering. The purpose is to select the most suitable subset of information for surgical situations which require special assistance. We combine formal knowledge, represented by an ontology, and experience-based knowledge, represented by training samples, to recognize phases. For this purpose, we have developed two different methods. Firstly, we use formal knowledge about possible phase transitions to create a composition of random forests. Secondly, we propose a method based on cultural optimization to infer formal rules from experience to recognize phases. The proposed methods are compared with a purely formal knowledge-based approach using rules and a purely experience-based one using regular random forests. The comparative evaluation on laparoscopic pancreas resections and adrenalectomies employs a consistent set of quality criteria on clean and noisy input. The rule-based approaches proved best with noisefree data. The random forest-based ones were more robust in the presence of noise. Formal and experience-based knowledge can be successfully combined for robust phase recognition.

  15. A Network Based Methodology to Reveal Patterns in Knowledge Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando López-Cruz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper motivates, presents and demonstrates in use a methodology based in complex network analysis to support research aimed at identification of sources in the process of knowledge transfer at the interorganizational level. The importance of this methodology is that it states a unified model to reveal knowledge sharing patterns and to compare results from multiple researches on data from different periods of time and different sectors of the economy. This methodology does not address the underlying statistical processes. To do this, national statistics departments (NSD provide documents and tools at their websites. But this proposal provides a guide to model information inferences gathered from data processing revealing links between sources and recipients of knowledge being transferred and that the recipient detects as main source to new knowledge creation. Some national statistics departments set as objective for these surveys the characterization of innovation dynamics in firms and to analyze the use of public support instruments. From this characterization scholars conduct different researches. Measures of dimensions of the network composed by manufacturing firms and other organizations conform the base to inquiry the structure that emerges from taking ideas from other organizations to incept innovations. These two sets of data are actors of a two- mode-network. The link between two actors (network nodes, one acting as the source of the idea. The second one acting as the destination comes from organizations or events organized by organizations that “provide” ideas to other group of firms. The resulting demonstrated design satisfies the objective of being a methodological model to identify sources in knowledge transfer of knowledge effectively used in innovation.

  16. Cultural and Rhetorical Bases for communicating knowledge in web based communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance; Kommers, Piet

    2008-01-01

    Cultural and Rhetorical Bases for communicating knowledge in web based communities How can we extend learner-centred theories for educational technology to include, for instance, the cultural and rhetorical backgrounds which influence participants in online communities as they engage in knowledge...... via web-based communities the intersection of culture and rhetoric in web-based communication rhetoric and discourse in the process of communicating knowledge via technology heuristics for knowledge communication from teaching in online forums connections between identity and knowledge communication...... This call for papers invites papers focused on theoretical frameworks or empirical research which highlights the cultural and/or rhetorical aspects of communicating knowledge in web based communities. We are looking for work that brings together methods and perspectives across disciplines...

  17. Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, D.U.; Chapin, F. S.; Ewel, J.J.; Hector, A.; Inchausti, P.; Lavorel, S.; Lawton, J.H.; Lodge, D.M.; Loreau, M.; Naeem, S.; Schmid, B.; SetSlS, H.; Symstad, A.J.; Vandermeer, J.; Wardle, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Humans are altering the composition of biological communities through a variety of activities that increase rates of species invasions and species extinctions, at all scales, from local to global. These changes in components of the Earth's biodiversity cause concern for ethical and aesthetic reasons, but they also have a strong potential to alter ecosystem properties and the goods and services they provide to humanity. Ecological experiments, observations, and theoretical developments show that ecosystem properties depend greatly on biodiversity in terms of the functional characteristics of organisms present in the ecosystem and the distribution and abundance of those organisms over space and time. Species effects act in concert with the effects of climate, resource availability, and disturbance regimes in influencing ecosystem properties. Human activities can modify all of the above factors; here we focus on modification of these biotic controls.The scientific community has come to a broad consensus on many aspects of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, including many points relevant to management of ecosystems. Further progress will require integration of knowledge about biotic and abiotic controls on ecosystem properties, how ecological communities are structured, and the forces driving species extinctions and invasions. To strengthen links to policy and management, we also need to integrate our ecological knowledge with understanding of the social and economic constraints of potential management practices. Understanding this complexity, while taking strong steps to minimize current losses of species, is necessary for responsible management of Earth's ecosystems and the diverse biota they contain.Based on our review of the scientific literature, we are certain of the following conclusions:1) Species' functional characteristics strongly influence ecosystem properties. Functional characteristics operate in a variety of contexts

  18. The advertisement calls of Brazilian anurans: Historical review, current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Vinicius; Llusia, Diego; Gambale, Priscilla Guedes; Morais, Alessandro Ribeiro de; Márquez, Rafael; Bastos, Rogério Pereira

    2018-01-01

    Advertisement calls are often used as essential basic information in studies of animal behaviour, ecology, evolution, conservation, taxonomy or biodiversity inventories. Yet the description of this type of acoustic signals is far to be completed, especially in tropical regions, and is frequently non-standardized or limited in information, restricting the application of bioacoustics in science. Here we conducted a scientometric review of the described adverstisement calls of anuran species of Brazil, the world richest territory in anurans, to evaluate the amount, standard and trends of the knowledge on this key life-history trait and to identify gaps and directions for future research strategies. Based on our review, 607 studies have been published between 1960 to 2016 describing the calls of 719 Brazilian anuran species (68.8% of all species), a publication rate of 10.6 descriptions per year. From each of these studies, thirty-one variables were recorded and examined with descriptive and inferential statistics. In spite of an exponential rise over the last six decades in the number of studies, described calls, and quantity of published metadata, as revealed by regression models, clear shortfalls were identified with regard to anuran families, biomes, and categories of threat. More than 55% of these species belong to the two richest families, Hylidae or Leptodactylidae. The lowest percentage of species with described calls corresponds to the most diverse biomes, namely Atlantic Forest (65.1%) and Amazon (71.5%), and to the IUCN categories of threat (56.8%), relative to the less-than-threatened categories (74.3%). Moreover, only 52.3% of the species have some of its calls deposited in the main scientific sound collections. Our findings evidence remarkable knowledge gaps on advertisement calls of Brazilian anuran species, emphasizing the need of further efforts in standardizing and increasing the description of anuran calls for their application in studies of the

  19. The advertisement calls of Brazilian anurans: Historical review, current knowledge and future directions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Guerra

    Full Text Available Advertisement calls are often used as essential basic information in studies of animal behaviour, ecology, evolution, conservation, taxonomy or biodiversity inventories. Yet the description of this type of acoustic signals is far to be completed, especially in tropical regions, and is frequently non-standardized or limited in information, restricting the application of bioacoustics in science. Here we conducted a scientometric review of the described adverstisement calls of anuran species of Brazil, the world richest territory in anurans, to evaluate the amount, standard and trends of the knowledge on this key life-history trait and to identify gaps and directions for future research strategies. Based on our review, 607 studies have been published between 1960 to 2016 describing the calls of 719 Brazilian anuran species (68.8% of all species, a publication rate of 10.6 descriptions per year. From each of these studies, thirty-one variables were recorded and examined with descriptive and inferential statistics. In spite of an exponential rise over the last six decades in the number of studies, described calls, and quantity of published metadata, as revealed by regression models, clear shortfalls were identified with regard to anuran families, biomes, and categories of threat. More than 55% of these species belong to the two richest families, Hylidae or Leptodactylidae. The lowest percentage of species with described calls corresponds to the most diverse biomes, namely Atlantic Forest (65.1% and Amazon (71.5%, and to the IUCN categories of threat (56.8%, relative to the less-than-threatened categories (74.3%. Moreover, only 52.3% of the species have some of its calls deposited in the main scientific sound collections. Our findings evidence remarkable knowledge gaps on advertisement calls of Brazilian anuran species, emphasizing the need of further efforts in standardizing and increasing the description of anuran calls for their application in

  20. Proximity and Distance in Knowledge Relationships : From Micro to Structural Considerations based on Territorial Knowledge Dynamics (TKDs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crespo, Joan; Vicente, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Crespo J. and Vicente J. Proximity and distance in knowledge relationships: from micro to structural considerations based on territorial knowledge dynamics (TKDs), Regional Studies. Among the key parameters identified in territorial knowledge dynamics (TKDs), this paper focuses on the balance and

  1. SAFOD Brittle Microstructure and Mechanics Knowledge Base (BM2KB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Hassan A.; Broda Cindi, M.; Hadizadeh, Jafar; Kumar, Anuj

    2013-07-01

    Scientific drilling near Parkfield, California has established the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), which provides the solid earth community with short range geophysical and fault zone material data. The BM2KB ontology was developed in order to formalize the knowledge about brittle microstructures in the fault rocks sampled from the SAFOD cores. A knowledge base, instantiated from this domain ontology, stores and presents the observed microstructural and analytical data with respect to implications for brittle deformation and mechanics of faulting. These data can be searched on the knowledge base‧s Web interface by selecting a set of terms (classes, properties) from different drop-down lists that are dynamically populated from the ontology. In addition to this general search, a query can also be conducted to view data contributed by a specific investigator. A search by sample is done using the EarthScope SAFOD Core Viewer that allows a user to locate samples on high resolution images of core sections belonging to different runs and holes. The class hierarchy of the BM2KB ontology was initially designed using the Unified Modeling Language (UML), which was used as a visual guide to develop the ontology in OWL applying the Protégé ontology editor. Various Semantic Web technologies such as the RDF, RDFS, and OWL ontology languages, SPARQL query language, and Pellet reasoning engine, were used to develop the ontology. An interactive Web application interface was developed through Jena, a java based framework, with AJAX technology, jsp pages, and java servlets, and deployed via an Apache tomcat server. The interface allows the registered user to submit data related to their research on a sample of the SAFOD core. The submitted data, after initial review by the knowledge base administrator, are added to the extensible knowledge base and become available in subsequent queries to all types of users. The interface facilitates inference capabilities in the

  2. Research on the construction of knowledge base for institutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ru

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge base (KB in short) is very important for institutes. It can train employees to improve their ability of work. It can supply more information to directors for making right decisions, and can help constructing learning organization to promote innovation. Institutes possess several information systems, but there are some problems such as inadequate use of documents, and connotative knowledge isn't described and communicated. KB of institute is based on programs. It stress integrity, secrecy of programs and authorized access. Libraries have abilities to construct KB, since it's the center of information for the institute. KB of institute includes: KB of training, communion of technique issues, KB of department, personal KB, KB of specialists. Because of low cost many institutes adopt softwares of free codes such as: DSpace, EPrints, Fedodra, CDSware, Greenstone. KB systems are choosed by institutes, depending on types of knowledge, ability of technique, fund and so on. KB is constructed by collecting, sorting, describing key knowledge, connecting, accessing, updating and innovating. Program KB of different places and majors will unite in the future. (author)

  3. Aging management: Control of the knowledge data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeckle, F., E-mail: fs@amtec.de [Amtec Services, Hoher Steg 13, 74348 Laufen (Germany); Rothenhoefer, H. [Amtec Services, Hoher Steg 13, 74348 Laufen (Germany); Koenig, G. [EnBW Kernkraft, Kernkraftwerk Neckarwestheim, 74380 Neckarwestheim (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Aging management is part of the safety management system in NPP Neckarwestheim, Germany. The central goal of aging management is to increase knowledge about aging mechanisms acting on systems, structures and components (SSC), steadily. Comprehensive knowledge is a pre-requisite to guard against aging related systematic failures. To increase knowledge it is necessary to gather and evaluate data of different departments, systematically. While a nuclear power plant is in service numerous events may occur which are related to aging and may have an influence on the quality of SSC. Relevant events may be malfunction, maintenance results, operational experience, results of surveillance or events in other utilities. It is important to evaluate these events concerning the aspect of aging, regularly, and to decide which measures are required to prevent similar unexpected events in the future. In some cases the new experience has to be assigned to comparable SSC. These evaluations and the necessary measures as well as the tracking of their effectiveness are performed by an aging management team that meets every 3 months. The resulting knowledge data base (aging management data base) supports the application of the PDCA cycle and provides an overview and fast access to all quality documents related to each SSC including surveillance measures and results. It simplifies the generation of annual status reports which demonstrate the efficiency of aging management. Finally, the procedure can be extended to SSC which are important for the availability of the plant and thus take a step forward from aging management to plant life management.

  4. An empirically based model for knowledge management in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, Shannon L; Wathen, C Nadine; Kothari, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge management (KM) encompasses strategies, processes, and practices that allow an organization to capture, share, store, access, and use knowledge. Ideal KM combines different sources of knowledge to support innovation and improve performance. Despite the importance of KM in health care organizations (HCOs), there has been very little empirical research to describe KM in this context. This study explores KM in HCOs, focusing on the status of current intraorganizational KM. The intention is to provide insight for future studies and model development for effective KM implementation in HCOs. A qualitative methods approach was used to create an empirically based model of KM in HCOs. Methods included (a) qualitative interviews (n = 24) with senior leadership to identify types of knowledge important in these roles plus current information-seeking behaviors/needs and (b) in-depth case study with leaders in new executive positions (n = 2). The data were collected from 10 HCOs. Our empirically based model for KM was assessed for face and content validity. The findings highlight the paucity of formal KM in our sample HCOs. Organizational culture, leadership, and resources are instrumental in supporting KM processes. An executive's knowledge needs are extensive, but knowledge assets are often limited or difficult to acquire as much of the available information is not in a usable format. We propose an empirically based model for KM to highlight the importance of context (internal and external), and knowledge seeking, synthesis, sharing, and organization. Participants who reviewed the model supported its basic components and processes, and potential for incorporating KM into organizational processes. Our results articulate ways to improve KM, increase organizational learning, and support evidence-informed decision-making. This research has implications for how to better integrate evidence and knowledge into organizations while considering context and the role of

  5. Analysis of the relation between knowledge engineering and knowledge management based on the Nonaka and Takeuchi models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reyes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Knowledge Management is fundamental in the creation of value within the companies, being at the present time a new form to obtain competitive advantages in specific market. Also, for the process of value creation is necessary to use specifics Information Technologies that they allow to reach the objectives drawn up when implementing a Knowledge Management project. In this sense, one of the more complete and efficient Information Technologies is the Knowledge Based System that as well comprises of the Knowledge Engineering. This article tries to analyze the existing relation between Knowledge Management, a specific model of knowledge creation, the Knowledge Based System and how this Information Technologies play a very important role in the creation, codification and transference of knowledge.

  6. A Case Analysis to Increase Awareness of Current USMC Knowledge Management (KM) Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge Management System KPI Key Performance Indicator KS Knowledge Superiority KVA Knowledge Value Added MAGTF Marine Air Ground Task Force...quantitative KPIs [key performance indicators] developed to monitor efficiency and some qualitative KPIs to assess effectiveness in the implementation...integration,” and the level of control is “qualitative and quantitative KPIs in place to monitor the implementation of an effective and efficient KM

  7. Knowledge and method base for shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welp, E.G.; Breidert, J. [Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute of Engineering Design, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    It is often impossible for design engineers to decide whether it is possible to use shape memory alloys (SMA) for a particular task. In case of a decision to use SMA for product development, design engineers normally do not know in detail how to proceed in a correct and beneficial way. In order to support design engineers who have no previous knowledge about SMA and to assist in the transfer of results from basic research to industrial practice, an essential knowledge and method base has been developed. Through carefully conducted literature studies and patent analysis material and design information could be collected. All information is implemented into a computer supported knowledge and method base that provides design information with a particular focus on the conceptual and embodiment design phase. The knowledge and method base contains solution principles and data about effects, material and manufacturing as well as design guidelines and calculation methods for dimensioning and optimization. A browser-based user interface ensures that design engineers have immediate access to the latest version of the knowledge and method base. In order to ensure a user friendly application, an evaluation with several test users has been carried out. Reactions of design engineers from the industrial sector underline the need for support related to knowledge on SMA. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Fuer Konstrukteure ist es haeufig schwierig zu entscheiden, ob sich der Einsatz von Formgedaechtnislegierungen (FGL) fuer eine bestimmte Aufgabe eignet. Fuer den Fall, dass FGL fuer die Produktentwicklung genutzt werden sollen, besitzen Ingenieure zumeist nur unzureichende Detailkenntnisse, um Formgedaechtnislegierungen richtig und in vorteilhafter Weise anwenden zu koennen. Zur Unterstuetzung von Konstrukteuren, die ueber kein Vorwissen und keine Erfahrungen zu FGL verfuegen und zum Transfer von Forschungsergebnissen in die industrielle Praxis, ist eine

  8. NetWeaver for EMDS user guide (version 1.1): a knowledge base development system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith M. Reynolds

    1999-01-01

    The guide describes use of the NetWeaver knowledge base development system. Knowledge representation in NetWeaver is based on object-oriented fuzzy-logic networks that offer several significant advantages over the more traditional rulebased representation. Compared to rule-based knowledge bases, NetWeaver knowledge bases are easier to build, test, and maintain because...

  9. SIIA: a knowledge-based assistant for the SAFT ultrasonic inspection system(a)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melton, R.B.; Doctor, S.R.; Taylor, T.T.; Badalamente, R.V.

    1987-01-01

    SIIA(b) is a knowledge-based system designed to assist in making the operation of the Synthetic Aperture Focussing Technique (SAFT) Ultrasonic Inspection System more reliable and efficient. This paper reports on their effort to develop a prototype version of SIIA to demonstrate the feasibility of using knowledge-based systems in nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The first section of the paper describes the structure of the problem and their conceptual design of the knowledge-based system. The next section describes the current state of the prototype SIIA system and relates some of their experiences in developing the system. The final section discusses their plans for future development of SIIA and the implications of this type of system for other NDE techniques and applications

  10. Improving medical students' knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolyniak MJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Wolyniak,1 Lynne T Bemis,2 Amy J Prunuske2 1Department of Biology, Hampden-Sydney College, Hampden-Sydney, VA, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota Medical School, Duluth, MN, USA Abstract: Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student's critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics. Keywords: genetics education, medical genetics, pedagogical practice, active learning, problem-based learning

  11. Development of a tool for knowledge base verification of expert system based on Design/CPN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun

    1998-02-01

    Verification is a necessary work in developing a reliable expert system. Verification is a process aimed at demonstrating whether a system meets it's specified requirements. As expert systems are used in various applications, the knowledge base verification of systems takes an important position. The conventional Petri net approach that has been studied recently in order to verify the knowledge base is found that it is inadequate to verify the knowledge base of large and complex system, such as alarm processing system of nuclear power plant. Thus, we propose an improved method that models the knowledge base as enhanced colored Petri net. In this study, we analyze the reachability and the error characteristics of the knowledge base. Generally, verification process requires computational support by automated tools. For this reason, this study developed a tool for knowledge base verification based on Design/CPN, which is a tool for editing, modeling, and simulating Colored Petri net. This tool uses Enhanced Colored Petri net as a modeling method. By applying this tool to the knowledge base of nuclear power plant, it is noticed that it can successfully check most of the anomalies that can occur in a knowledge base

  12. Radiation protection optimization using a knowledge based methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Jimenez, J.; Tsoukalas, L.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a knowledge based methodology for radiological planning and radiation protection optimization. The cost-benefit methodology described on International Commission of Radiation Protection Report No. 37 is employed within a knowledge based framework for the purpose of optimizing radiation protection and plan maintenance activities while optimizing radiation protection. 1, 2 The methodology is demonstrated through an application to a heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system. HVAC is used to reduce radioactivity concentration levels in selected contaminated multi-compartment models at nuclear power plants when higher than normal radiation levels are detected. The overall objective is to reduce personnel exposure resulting from airborne radioactivity, when routine or maintenance access is required in contaminated areas. 2 figs, 15 refs

  13. Distance learning, problem based learning and dynamic knowledge networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, U; Martone, P

    1998-06-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a distance learning model grounded upon a strict integration of problem based learning (PBL), dynamic knowledge networks (DKN) and web tools, such as hypermedia documents, synchronous and asynchronous communication facilities, etc. The main objective is to develop a theory of distance learning based upon the idea that learning is a highly dynamic cognitive process aimed at connecting different concepts in a network of mutually supporting concepts. Moreover, this process is supposed to be the result of a social interaction that has to be facilitated by the web. The model was tested by creating a virtual classroom of medical and nursing students and activating a learning session on the concept of knowledge representation in health sciences.

  14. Integrated Knowledge Based Expert System for Disease Diagnosis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaiy, Nureize; Sulaiman, Shafiza Eliza; Hassan, Norlida; Afizah Afip, Zehan

    2017-08-01

    The role and importance of healthcare systems to improve quality of life and social welfare in a society have been well recognized. Attention should be given to raise awareness and implementing appropriate measures to improve health care. Therefore, a computer based system is developed to serve as an alternative for people to self-diagnose their health status based on given symptoms. This strategy should be emphasized so that people can utilize the information correctly as a reference to enjoy healthier life. Hence, a Web-based Community Center for Healthcare Diagnosis system is developed based on expert system technique. Expert system reasoning technique is employed in the system to enable information about treatment and prevention of the diseases based on given symptoms. At present, three diseases are included which are arthritis, thalassemia and pneumococcal. Sets of rule and fact are managed in the knowledge based system. Web based technology is used as a platform to disseminate the information to users in order for them to optimize the information appropriately. This system will benefit people who wish to increase health awareness and seek expert knowledge on the diseases by performing self-diagnosis for early disease detection.

  15. Knowledge collaborative incentive based on inter-organizational cooperative innovation of project-based supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Wu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Within project-based supply chain inter-organizational cooperative innovation, the achievement of project value-adding reflects by factors such as project-based organizational effect level, the relationship between project cooperative innovation objectives etc. The purpose is to provide a reliable reference for the contractor reasonably allocate the effect level and resources between the knowledge input and innovation stage and realize the knowledge collaboration for project-based supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the assumption of equal cooperation between project-based organizations, from the view of maximizing project value-adding and the relationship of effect cost between knowledge input and innovation stage in consideration, the knowledge collaborative incentive model for project-based supply chain inter-organizational cooperative innovation was established, and solved through the first-order and second-order approach, then the digital simulation and example analysis were presented. Findings: The results show that, the project management enterprise resorted to adjust project knowledge collaboration incentive intensity and implemented knowledge input-innovation coordinative incentive strategy, not only could achieve project value-adding maximization, but also could realize net earnings Pareto improvement between project management enterprise and contractor. Research limitations/implications: To simplify the knowledge flow among project-based organizations, the knowledge flow in the model hypothesis is presented as knowledge input and knowledge innovation stage, thus it may affect the final analysis results. Originality/value: In construction project practice, knowledge is become more and more important to achieve project value-adding. The research can provide a theoretical guideline for the project-based organizations, such as the contractor, the owner, especially how to utilize their core knowledge.

  16. Model-based formalization of medical knowledge for context-aware assistance in laparoscopic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Darko; Wekerle, Anna-Laura; Gärtner, Fabian; Kenngott, Hannes G.; Müller-Stich, Beat P.; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie

    2014-03-01

    The increase of technological complexity in surgery has created a need for novel man-machine interaction techniques. Specifically, context-aware systems which automatically adapt themselves to the current circumstances in the OR have great potential in this regard. To create such systems, models of surgical procedures are vital, as they allow analyzing the current situation and assessing the context. For this purpose, we have developed a Surgical Process Model based on Description Logics. It incorporates general medical background knowledge as well as intraoperatively observed situational knowledge. The representation consists of three parts: the Background Knowledge Model, the Preoperative Process Model and the Integrated Intraoperative Process Model. All models depend on each other and create a concise view on the surgery. As a proof of concept, we applied the system to a specific intervention, the laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy.

  17. Constructing and Refining Knowledge Bases: A Collaborative Apprenticeship Multistrategy Learning Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tecuci, Gheorghe

    2000-01-01

    This research has developed a theory, methodology and learning agent shell for development of knowledge bases and knowledge-based agents, by domain experts, with limited assistance from knowledge engineers...

  18. Mapping Base Modifications in DNA by Transverse-Current Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jose R.; Skachkov, Dmitry; Massey, Steven E.; Kalitsov, Alan; Velev, Julian P.

    2018-02-01

    Sequencing DNA modifications and lesions, such as methylation of cytosine and oxidation of guanine, is even more important and challenging than sequencing the genome itself. The traditional methods for detecting DNA modifications are either insensitive to these modifications or require additional processing steps to identify a particular type of modification. Transverse-current sequencing in nanopores can potentially identify the canonical bases and base modifications in the same run. In this work, we demonstrate that the most common DNA epigenetic modifications and lesions can be detected with any predefined accuracy based on their tunneling current signature. Our results are based on simulations of the nanopore tunneling current through DNA molecules, calculated using nonequilibrium electron-transport methodology within an effective multiorbital model derived from first-principles calculations, followed by a base-calling algorithm accounting for neighbor current-current correlations. This methodology can be integrated with existing experimental techniques to improve base-calling fidelity.

  19. Knowledge based operation assist system for JAERI AVF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agematsu, T.; Okumura, S.; Yokota, W.; Arakawa, K.; Murakami, T.; Okamura, T.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed two operation assist systems for easy and rapid operation of the JAERI AVF cyclotron. One is a knowledge based expert system guiding the sequence of parameter adjustment to inexperienced cyclotron operators. The other is a real-time simulation of the beam trajectories which are calculated from actual operating parameters. It graphically indicates feasible setting range of parameters that satisfies the acceptance of the cyclotron. These systems provide a human interface to adjust the parameters of the cyclotron. (author)

  20. Knowledge Based Components of Expertise in Medical Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    the ability to ac- cess and use knowledge that one "has" is situationally dependent (e.g., Melton, 1963)1 Tulving and Pearlstone , 1966). For example...Londons Wiley, 1976. Tulving , E., & Pearlstone , E. Availability versus accessibility of information in memory for words. Journal of Verbal Learning...encounter (c.f.Flexser’and Tulving , 19781 Tulving ., 1976). Expert-based instructional devices (computer assisted instruction or decision support sys

  1. Wikipedia Infobox Temporal RDF Knowledge Base and Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Aige

    2015-01-01

    As real world evolves, Infoboxes for Wikipedia subjects are updated to reflect the information changes in the real world, and there is a growing interest in the evolution history of subjects in the Wikipedia. Thus, the management of historical information and the efficiencies of queries for these temporal information have become the major concern. In this paper, we introduce the Wikipedia Infobox temporal RDF knowledge base that constructed from the Wikipedia Infobox history dump, and evaluat...

  2. Of tacit knowledge, texts and thing-based learning (TBL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangachari, P K

    2008-09-01

    Practical knowledge has two dimensions- a visible, codified component that resembles the tip of an iceberg. The larger but crucial tacit component which lies submerged consists of values, procedures and tricks of the trade and cannot be easily documented or codified. Undergraduate science students were given an opportunity to explore this component through an inquiry-based course. Copyright © 2008 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Quality Management in the Knowledge Based Economy – Kaizen Method

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Liliana Viorica

    2010-01-01

    In the knowledge based economy, organisations are influenced by the quality movement, Kaizen, which plays a strategic role for optimization of organizational capabilities of managers as well as of all the employees. Kaizen represents the philosophy of continuous improvement, until the economic activities inside the organisation reach zero deficiencies. In order to implement in a proper manner Kaizen into the organization, managers must decide what to improve, why to improve, who shall improve...

  4. USE OF ONTOLOGIES FOR KNOWLEDGE BASES CREATION TUTORING COMPUTER SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Cheremisina Lyubov

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of ontology for the use and development of intelligent tutoring systems. We consider the shortcomings of educational software and distance learning systems and the advantages of using ontology’s in their design. Actuality creates educational computer systems based on systematic knowledge. We consider classification of properties, use and benefits of ontology’s. Characterized approaches to the problem of ontology mapping, the first of which – manual mapping, the s...

  5. Ontology-Based Knowledge Organization for the Radiograph Images Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEI, O.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The quantity of thoracic radiographies in the medical field is ever growing. An automated system for segmenting the images would help doctors enormously. Some approaches are knowledge-based; therefore we propose here an ontology for this purpose. Thus it is machine oriented, rather than human-oriented. That is all the structures visible on a thoracic image are described from a technical point of view.

  6. Natural or Plant Products for the Treatment of Neurological Disorders: Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Mohammad Khalid

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become very popular in the treatment of several chronic diseases. Natural products as one of the CAM modalities offer potential opportunities to discover lead compounds for novel drug development. The use of CAM or natural products in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases is comparatively a newer area. A structured online literature search for peer-reviewed research articles was conducted on the PubMed, Europe PMC, Medline and Google Scholar portals, using phrases: natural products for neurologic disorders, phytomedicine for neurodegenerative diseases, natural therapeutics for neurological symptopms etc. Results: The retrieved data showed the natural therapeutics with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory salutations evidently plays a crucial role in protecting neurons. Of these, the most promising are caffeine, trigonelline, shogaol, curcumin, resveratrol, baicalein, wogonin, ginsenosides, tanshinones, withanolides, picrosides, parthenolide, cannabinoids, Devil's claw and white willow bark, including Chinese formulations Renshen Shouwu and Shengmai San. Though several herbs and their active ingredients have been studied in laboratory and clinical settings, only a few have been investigated for their molecular mechanisms of action. Notably, despite the promising and safe therapeutic benefits of CAM/herbal medicines, there exists a possible risk when combining them with prescription drugs. As a result, many drugs have shown changes in blood pressure, hepatotoxicity, seizures etc. when combined with certain herbs. Certainly, extensive work is needed to make sure that patients should take a regimen of protective and restorative therapy under an experienced healthcare professional. This article updates on the current knowledge of promising natural products used in neurological disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Synthesis of current knowledge on post-fire seeding for soil stabilization and invasive species control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyers, Jan L.; Pyke, David A.; Wirth, Troy

    2015-01-01

    The General Accounting Office has identified a need for better information on the effectiveness of post-fire emergency stabilization and rehabilitation methods used by the U.S. Forest Service and Department of Interior (DOI) agencies. Since reviews were published on treatment effectiveness in the early 2000s, treatment choices have changed and increased monitoring has been done. Greater use of native species has added substantially to burned area emergency response (BAER) treatment costs, for example, but quantitative data on this treatment were scarce in earlier reviews. We synthesized current information on the effectiveness of post-fire seeding for both soil stabilization and for prevention of the spread of invasive species in rangelands. We reviewed published literature (peer-reviewed and “gray”) and agency monitoring reports, as well as compiled and analyzed quantitative data in agency files. Products of this review include a web-accessible database of monitoring reports and published information, a scientific journal paper summarizing findings of scientific studies, an annotated bibliography of peer-reviewed papers, a summary report published as a General Technical Report that will be available online (in progress), and presentations to scientific meetings and BAER/ESR team training sessions and workshops. By combining results from studies done by Forest Service and DOI agency personnel with research studies published since the initial reviews, we presented a comprehensive synthesis of seeding effectiveness knowledge that complements the review of other hillslope treatments published by other researchers. This information will help federal land managers make more cost-effective decisions on post-fire stabilization and rehabilitation treatments.

  8. Knowledge-based computer systems for radiotherapy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalet, I J; Paluszynski, W

    1990-08-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the first areas of clinical medicine to utilize computers in support of routine clinical decision making. The role of the computer has evolved from simple dose calculations to elaborate interactive graphic three-dimensional simulations. These simulations can combine external irradiation from megavoltage photons, electrons, and particle beams with interstitial and intracavitary sources. With the flexibility and power of modern radiotherapy equipment and the ability of computer programs that simulate anything the machinery can do, we now face a challenge to utilize this capability to design more effective radiation treatments. How can we manage the increased complexity of sophisticated treatment planning? A promising approach will be to use artificial intelligence techniques to systematize our present knowledge about design of treatment plans, and to provide a framework for developing new treatment strategies. Far from replacing the physician, physicist, or dosimetrist, artificial intelligence-based software tools can assist the treatment planning team in producing more powerful and effective treatment plans. Research in progress using knowledge-based (AI) programming in treatment planning already has indicated the usefulness of such concepts as rule-based reasoning, hierarchical organization of knowledge, and reasoning from prototypes. Problems to be solved include how to handle continuously varying parameters and how to evaluate plans in order to direct improvements.

  9. Knowledge-based processing for aircraft flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, John H.; Glass, Emily; Economides, Gregory; Russell, Paul

    1994-01-01

    This Contractor Report documents research in Intelligent Control using knowledge-based processing in a manner dual to methods found in the classic stochastic decision, estimation, and control discipline. Such knowledge-based control has also been called Declarative, and Hybid. Software architectures were sought, employing the parallelism inherent in modern object-oriented modeling and programming. The viewpoint adopted was that Intelligent Control employs a class of domain-specific software architectures having features common over a broad variety of implementations, such as management of aircraft flight, power distribution, etc. As much attention was paid to software engineering issues as to artificial intelligence and control issues. This research considered that particular processing methods from the stochastic and knowledge-based worlds are duals, that is, similar in a broad context. They provide architectural design concepts which serve as bridges between the disparate disciplines of decision, estimation, control, and artificial intelligence. This research was applied to the control of a subsonic transport aircraft in the airport terminal area.

  10. Developing a Knowledge Management Framework to Assist With Current USMC Information Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................1 II. LITERATURE...LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION Marine Corps Information Management is performed in accordance with Marine Corps Warfighting Publication (MCWP) 3...November 13). Air Force Center of Excellence for Knowledge Mangement Briefing. Washington, D.C. Alavi, M., & Leidner, D. E. (2001). Review: Knowledge

  11. Conceptual Pathway Querying of Natural Logic Knowledge Bases from Text Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    2013-01-01

    language than predicate logic. Natural logic accommodates a variety of scientific parlance, ontologies and domain models. It also supports a semantic net or graph view of the knowledge base. This admits computation of relationships between concepts simultaneously through pathfinding in the knowledge base...

  12. A Knowledge-based Environment for Software Process Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Chaves Lessa Schots

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Process performance analysis is a key step for implementing continuous improvement in software organizations. However, the knowledge to execute such analysis is not trivial and the person responsible to executing it must be provided with appropriate support. Aim: This paper presents a knowledge-based environment, named SPEAKER, proposed for supporting software organizations during the execution of process performance analysis. SPEAKER comprises a body of knowledge and a set of activities and tasks for software process performance analysis along with supporting tools to executing these activities and tasks. Method: We conducted an informal literature reviews and a systematic mapping study, which provided basic requirements for the proposed environment. We implemented the SPEAKER environment integrating supporting tools for the execution of activities and tasks of performance analysis and the knowledge necessary to execute them, in order to meet the variability presented by the characteristics of these activities. Results: In this paper, we describe each SPEAKER module and the individual evaluations of these modules, and also present an example of use comprising how the environment can guide the user through a specific performance analysis activity. Conclusion: Although we only conducted individual evaluations of SPEAKER’s modules, the example of use indicates the feasibility of the proposed environment. Therefore, the environment as a whole will be further evaluated to verify if it attains its goal of assisting in the execution of process performance analysis by non-specialist people.

  13. Transfusion-transmitted CMV infection - current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, M; Thiele, T

    2017-08-01

    Transmission of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) via transfusion (TT-CMV) may still occur and remains a challenge in the treatment of immunocompromised CMV-seronegative patients, e.g. after stem cell transplantation, and for low birthweight infants. Measures to reduce the risk of TT-CMV have been evaluated in clinical studies, including leucocyte depletion of cellular blood products and/or the selection of CMV-IgG-negative donations. Studies in large blood donor cohorts indicate that donations from newly CMV-IgG-positive donors should bear the highest risk for transmitting CMV infections because they contain the highest levels of CMV-DNA, and early CMV antibodies cannot neutralise CMV. Based on this knowledge, rational strategies to reduce the residual risk of TT-CMV using leucoreduced blood products could be designed. However, there is a lack of evidence that CMV is still transmitted by transfusion of leucoreduced units. In low birthweight infants, most (if not all) CMV infections are caused by breast milk feeding or congenital transmission rather than by transfusion of leucoreduced blood products. For other patients at risk, no definitive data exist about the relative importance of alternative transmission routes of CMV compared to blood transfusion. As a result, only the conduction of well-designed studies addressing strategies to prevent TT-CMV and the thorough examination of presumed cases of TT-CMV will achieve guidance for the best transfusion regimen in patients at risk. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  14. Recognition of risk situations based on endoscopic instrument tracking and knowledge based situation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, Stefanie; Sudra, Gunther; Senemaud, Julien; Drentschew, Maximilian; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Gutt, Carsten; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2008-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has gained significantly in importance over the last decade due to the numerous advantages on patient-side. The surgeon has to adapt special operation-techniques and deal with difficulties like the complex hand-eye coordination, limited field of view and restricted mobility. To alleviate these constraints we propose to enhance the surgeon's capabilities by providing a context-aware assistance using augmented reality (AR) techniques. In order to generate a context-aware assistance it is necessary to recognize the current state of the intervention using intraoperatively gained sensor data and a model of the surgical intervention. In this paper we present the recognition of risk situations, the system warns the surgeon if an instrument gets too close to a risk structure. The context-aware assistance system starts with an image-based analysis to retrieve information from the endoscopic images. This information is classified and a semantic description is generated. The description is used to recognize the current state and launch an appropriate AR visualization. In detail we present an automatic vision-based instrument tracking to obtain the positions of the instruments. Situation recognition is performed using a knowledge representation based on a description logic system. Two augmented reality visualization programs are realized to warn the surgeon if a risk situation occurs.

  15. Knowledge service decision making in business incubators based on the supernetwork model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liming; Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing

    2017-08-01

    As valuable resources for incubating firms, knowledge resources have received gradually increasing attention from all types of business incubators, and business incubators use a variety of knowledge services to stimulate rapid growth in incubating firms. Based on previous research, we generalize the knowledge transfer and knowledge networking services of two main forms of knowledge services and further divide knowledge transfer services into knowledge depth services and knowledge breadth services. Then, we construct the business incubators' knowledge supernetwork model, describe the evolution mechanism among heterogeneous agents and utilize a simulation to explore the performance variance of different business incubators' knowledge services. The simulation results show that knowledge stock increases faster when business incubators are able to provide knowledge services to more incubating firms and that the degree of discrepancy in the knowledge stock increases during the process of knowledge growth. Further, knowledge transfer services lead to greater differences in the knowledge structure, while knowledge networking services lead to smaller differences. Regarding the two types of knowledge transfer services, knowledge depth services are more conducive to knowledge growth than knowledge breadth services, but knowledge depth services lead to greater gaps in knowledge stocks and greater differences in knowledge structures. Overall, it is optimal for business incubators to select a single knowledge service or portfolio strategy based on the amount of time and energy expended on the two types of knowledge services.

  16. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...

  17. The Search for Life on Mars - Current Knowledge, Earth Analogues, and Principal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    For centuries, the planet Mars has been imagined as a possible abode for life. Serious searches for life's signatures began in the 19th century via ground-based visual astronomy that stimulated a vibrant fantasy literature but little lasting scientific knowledge. Modern scientific inquiry has emphasized the search for chemical signatures of life in the soil and rocks at the planet's surface, and via biomarker gases in the atmosphere. Today, investigations are based on high-resolution spectroscopy at Earth's largest telescopes along with planet orbiting and landed space missions. Methane has assumed central importance in these searches. Living systems produce more than 900/0 of Earth's atmospheric methane; the balance is of geochemical origin. Abundant methane is not expected in an oxidizing atmosphere such as Mars', and its presence would imply recent release - whether biological or geochemical. F or that reason, the quest for methane on Mars has been a continuing thread in the fabric of searches conducted since 1969. I will review aspects of the discovery and distribution of methane on Mars, and will mention ongoing extended searches for clues to its origin and destruction. On Earth, hydrogen (generated via serpentinization or radiolysis of water) provides an important 'fuel' for carbonate-reducing and sulphate-reducing biota (CH4 and H2S producers, respectively). Several such communities are known to reside at depth in continental domains (e.g., Lidy Hot Springs, Idaho; Witwatersrand Basin, S. Africa). If similar conditions exist in favourable locations on Mars, organisms similar to these could likely prosper there. Geologic (abiotic) production will also be mentioned, especially abiotic methane production associated with low-temperature serpentinization (e.g., terrestrial ophiolites). It is vitally important to pursue evidence for geochemical and biological production with equal vigour and intellectual weight lest unwanted and unintended bias contaminate the

  18. [Gene Therapy for Inherited RETINAL AND OPTIC NERVE Disorders: Current Knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďuďáková, Ľ; Kousal, B; Kolářová, H; Hlavatá, L; Lišková, P

    The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of current gene therapy clinical trials for monogenic and optic nerve disorders.The number of genes for which gene-based therapies are being developed is growing. At the time of writing this review gene-based clinical trials have been registered for Leber congenital amaurosis 2 (LCA2), retinitis pigmentosa 38, Usher syndrome 1B, Stargardt disease, choroideremia, achromatopsia, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and X-linked retinoschisis. Apart from RPE65 gene therapy for LCA2 and MT-ND4 for LHON which has reached phase III, all other trials are in investigation phase I and II, i.e. testing the efficacy and safety.Because of the relatively easy accessibility of the retina and its ease of visualization which allows monitoring of efficacy, gene-based therapies for inherited retinal disorders represent a very promising treatment option. With the development of novel therapeutic approaches, the importance of establishing not only clinical but also molecular genetic diagnosis is obvious.Key words: gene therapy, monogenic retinal diseases, optic nerve atrophy, mitochondrial disease.

  19. A structural informatics approach to mine kinase knowledge bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooijmans, Natasja; Mobilio, Dominick; Walker, Gary; Nilakantan, Ramaswamy; Denny, Rajiah A; Feyfant, Eric; Diller, David; Bikker, Jack; Humblet, Christine

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we describe a combination of structural informatics approaches developed to mine data extracted from existing structure knowledge bases (Protein Data Bank and the GVK database) with a focus on kinase ATP-binding site data. In contrast to existing systems that retrieve and analyze protein structures, our techniques are centered on a database of ligand-bound geometries in relation to residues lining the binding site and transparent access to ligand-based SAR data. We illustrate the systems in the context of the Abelson kinase and related inhibitor structures. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery via Logic-Based Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Triantaphyllou, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    There are many approaches to data mining and knowledge discovery (DM&KD), including neural networks, closest neighbor methods, and various statistical methods. This monograph, however, focuses on the development and use of a novel approach, based on mathematical logic, that the author and his research associates have worked on over the last 20 years. The methods presented in the book deal with key DM&KD issues in an intuitive manner and in a natural sequence. Compared to other DM&KD methods, those based on mathematical logic offer a direct and often intuitive approach for extracting easily int