WorldWideScience

Sample records for current knowledge awareness

  1. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah

    2017-10-02

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.

  2. Evaluation of Current Knowledge, Awareness and Practice of Spirometry among Hospital -based Nigerian Doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Spirometry is a cost-effective diagnostic tool for evaluation of lung function and for case-finding in a resource-limited setting. The acceptance of this test depends on the awareness of its indications and the ability to interpret the results. No studies have assessed the knowledge of spirometry among Nigerian doctors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current knowledge, awareness and practice of spirometry among hospital-based Nigerian doctors. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey among 321 doctors working in Nigerian hospitals between March 2008 and June 2008. Information on knowledge, awareness, practice of and barriers to spirometry were obtained using a pre-tested, self-administered structured questionnaire and the data were then analysed. Results Of the 321 doctors that participated, 108 (33.6%) reported that they have good knowledge of spirometry. One hundred and ninety-five (60.7%) were aware of the importance of spirometry in aiding the diagnosis of respiratory diseases; 213(66.4%) were aware of the importance of spirometry in determining the severity of diseases. Medical school was the most common source of knowledge on spirometry (64.5%). Eighty-one (25.2%) doctors reported having a spirometer in their hospitals. Doctors having access to a spirometer used it more frequently for aiding the diagnosis of COPD (40.7% vs.27.5%) and for monitoring of asthma (18.5% vs.11.3%) than those without access to a spirometer. The doctors working in University Teaching Hospitals and Federal Medical Centres (FMC) (22.4% vs. 4.5%) and those having access to a spirometer (40.7 vs.11.3%) were very confident of interpreting spirometry results compared to those working in District and General Hospitals and without access to a spirometer. Irrespective of access to a spirometer or the type of hospital they were employed in, doctors reported that unavailability of a spirometer was the greatest barrier to its use (62.5%) followed by lack of awareness

  3. A Case Analysis to Increase Awareness of Current USMC Knowledge Management (KM) Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    cliché for centuries. Descartes ’ cogito ergo sum (I think, therefore I am) is also a cliché, and also a phrase for traditional epistemology. Knowledge...manage what they know. Watertown, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Descartes , R. (1644). Principles of philosophy. Translated by Miller, V. R

  4. Thomson Scientific's expanding Web of Knowledge: beyond citation databases and current awareness services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Sue; Brahmi, Frances A

    2005-01-01

    As end-user demand for easy access to electronic full text continues to climb, an increasing number of information providers are combining that access with their other products and services, making navigating their Web sites by librarians seeking information on a given product or service more daunting than ever. One such provider of a complex array of products and services is Thomson Scientific. This paper looks at some of the many products and tools available from two of Thomson Scientific's businesses, Thomson ISI and Thomson ResearchSoft. Among the items of most interest to health sciences and veterinary librarians and their users are the variety of databases available via the ISI Web of Knowledge platform and the information management products available from ResearchSoft.

  5. Knowledge and Awareness: Linear Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Raghuvanshi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and awareness are factors guiding development of an individual. These may seem simple and practicable, but in reality a proper combination of these is a complex task. Economically driven state of development in younger generations is an impediment to the correct manner of development. As youths are at the learning phase, they can be molded to follow a correct lifestyle. Awareness and knowledge are important components of any formal or informal environmental education. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship of these components among students of secondary/ senior secondary schools who have undergone a formal study of environment in their curricula. A suitable instrument is developed in order to measure the elements of Awareness and Knowledge among the participants of the study. Data was collected from various secondary and senior secondary school students in the age group 14 to 20 years using cluster sampling technique from the city of Bikaner, India. Linear regression analysis was performed using IBM SPSS 23 statistical tool. There exists a weak relation between knowledge and awareness about environmental issues, caused due to routine practices mishandling; hence one component can be complemented by other for improvement in both. Knowledge and awareness are crucial factors and can provide huge opportunities in any field. Resource utilization for economic solutions may pave the way for eco-friendly products and practices. If green practices are inculcated at the learning phase, they may become normal routine. This will also help in repletion of the environment.

  6. Knowledge Management for Shared Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    docx 10. Nonaka , I. and H. Takeuchi . The Knowledge Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation. New York: Oxford... Takeuchi (Reference [10]). The model identified four modes of knowledge conversion:  Socialization: Tacit to tacit knowledge through collaboration to

  7. Current Awareness Services for Electronic Journal Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Yaqub

    2006-01-01

    Current awareness services are the services that provide information about the latest books, articles, events and news in a field. Nowadays, there are many sources of information and the volume of new research is so huge that keeping oneself up to date is a big task. Current awareness services help us to match current awareness news and information to our needs. They can save the effort of scanning and browsing journals, bulletins, newsletters and web sites.

  8. Periodontal Disease Awareness and Knowledge among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Teacher‑led oral health education is equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents as dentist‑led and peer‑led strategies. Aim: The aim was to determine periodontal disease awareness and knowledge among Nigerian primary school teachers. Subjects and ...

  9. Periodontal Disease Awareness and Knowledge among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    irrespective of age, gender, race, and place of residence to a variable extent and severity. It is known to be the more. Periodontal Disease Awareness and Knowledge among Nigerian Primary School Teachers. Azodo CC, Umoh AO. Department of Periodontics, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Abstract.

  10. Knowledge, awareness, and practices concerning breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is by far the most frequent cancer of women. However the preventive measures for such problem are probably less than expected. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess the breast cancer knowledge and awareness and factors associated with the practice of breast self examination ...

  11. Awareness and Knowledge of Ergonomics Among Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irrespective of the affiliation of the participant, only 6 of 27 (22.2%) participants who were aware of ergonomics knew at least a benefit of right application of ergonomics in the laboratory. Knowledge of risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders was reported by 8 of 27 (29.6%) persons who claimed to be ...

  12. Awareness and Knowledge of Undergraduate Dental Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluating the effects of disinfection/sterilization on human extracted teeth.[2,3]. American Dental Association (ADA) and Centers for. Disease Control (CDC) recommend the thorough removal. Awareness and Knowledge of Undergraduate Dental. Students about Sterilization/Disinfection Methods of. Extracted Human Teeth.

  13. Awareness and Knowledge of Undergraduate Dental Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dental undergraduate students work on extracted human teeth in preclinical practical's to learn technical skills before entering the clinics and delivering dental care to the patients. Aim: The aim of the present investigation was to assess the awareness and knowledge toward sterilization/disinfection methods of ...

  14. Awareness and knowledge on modern biotechnology | Amin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology has been considered as a very important industry in helping Malaysia to achieve its goal of becoming a highly industrialized nation by 2020. Thus, assessment of people's knowledge and awareness on biotechnology is very important and according to a theory on decision making, people only form attitudes ...

  15. Awareness, Knowledge and Intentions for Postgraduate Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Denise M.; Varhegyi, Melinda M.

    2011-01-01

    Many university administrators, academics and marketers expend time and financial resources promoting postgraduate study options, yet scant scholarly research has addressed students' attraction to postgraduate study. This study examines awareness and knowledge of, and intentions to pursue postgraduate study from the perspective of current…

  16. Awareness and knowledge of autism among pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rahul; Jariwala, Krutika

    2012-01-01

    In the past few decades, the prevalence of autism has increased tremendously in the United States. The prevalence of autism is now higher than the combined prevalence of juvenile diabetes, pediatric cancer, and pediatric AIDS. As health care professionals with a high visibility in a community, pharmacists are likely to encounter more and more families having a child affected by this disorder. The purpose of this study was to assess pharmacists' awareness and knowledge of autism. The study aimed to assess pharmacists' familiarity with autism symptoms, treatment medications, and community resources devoted to this disorder. Further, pharmacists' knowledge of common myths associated with autism, etiology, prognosis, and treatment were assessed. Using a cross-sectional design, an online survey of pharmacists registered in the state of Mississippi (MS) was conducted, using the Qualtrics software program. Descriptive analysis of study items was conducted. A total of 147 usable responses (5.8%) were received. The results indicated gaps in pharmacists' awareness and knowledge of autism. Approximately, 23% of pharmacists did not know that autism is a developmental disorder, and 32% did not believe that genetics has a major role in autism etiology. More than 18% believed that vaccines can cause autism. Most (>90%) felt that they could benefit from autism continuing education (CE). Policy makers and autism agencies should consider providing educational interventions or CE programs to increase pharmacists' awareness and knowledge of autism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Current awareness in the new millennium: RSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Carol A

    2006-01-01

    Keeping current is essential for both patrons and librarians in the health sciences. We receive electronic and photocopied tables of contents. We subscribe to relevant mailing lists, newspapers and magazines. We review Web sites, books and journals. Our desks are littered with current awareness items that more often get old than read. RSS or "Really Simple Syndication' is a means of organizing and simplifying current awareness efforts. Using RSS feeds from a variety of sources along with aggregator software, librarians can keep up-to-date without the clutter. This article will provide a starting point from which to take advantage of RSS and continue the process of active learning.

  18. Electronic Current Awareness in the Corporate Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Elizabeth

    Technological developments such as groupware and World Wide Web technology have opened up new opportunities for the delivery of information directly to the end-user's desktop. These advances have meant that suppliers are now producing a new breed of current awareness services (CAS), termed alerting services, which automatically filter newswires…

  19. Knowledge, awareness, and preparedness unlinked in layperson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Nakayachi, K.

    2012-12-01

    Risk assessment is of importance for the reduction of natural disasters. By utilizing the risk information such as producing shake maps or tsunami hazard maps, people can learn what kind of natural hazards they have to deal with. Japanese government takes it as an effective strategy in mitigating earthquake disaster to transfer the basic knowledge of the tectonic background of Japan and of the latest research results. In fact, the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion describes in their webpage that their basic concept is: to transfer the knowledge of research results such as long-term evaluation of large earthquake occurrence to the public, so that people will be aware and conscious of the existing risks, and then they take action to mitigate earthquake disaster. On the other hand, it goes without saying that there always exists a constant risk of earthquake disaster in Japan and every single person living in this earthquake prone country knows that. Moreover, residents know what will happen when a big earthquake occurs such as collapse of houses or tsunamis unlike cases for unknown infectious diseases. Thus they do not have to wait for the government's releasing latest research results of long-term evaluation and possibility of large earthquake occurrence to take action to mitigate disaster. Yet, people die from earthquakes of magnitude-7 class almost every year in Japan, and the causes of death are very common ones such as collapse of houses, falloff of furniture, fire or tsunamis. This fact tells us that the knowledge itself will not give serious awareness of earthquake risks or not motivate people to take action for disaster prevention. We have to have another look at the personnel risk management of earthquake disaster, for the concept of 3-steps; giving knowledge, giving awareness, and taking action would not work as expected. To examine this, we conducted experiments to see if knowledge of earthquake science helps people to be aware the risks or to

  20. Sexual Behaviour, Knowledge and Aware-ness of Related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the majority of youth is aware of HIV/AIDS, awareness about other STIs is low. On binary logistic regression analysis, the odds of ever having sexual intercourse were higher for the employed and older youth. Male urban youth was more likely to ever have sexual intercourse than male rural youth (Adjusted OR 4.2; ...

  1. Knowledge and awareness of medical doctors, medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Various studies have reported poor awareness and knowledge of dentistry in the Nigerian population. There is, however, paucity of information assessing the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. The present study is aimed at determining the knowledge and ...

  2. Deconstructing and Assessing Knowledge and Awareness in Public Health Research

    OpenAIRE

    Trevethan, Robert

    2017-01-01

    When people’s knowledge and awareness are the subject of public health research, the meanings applied to the words knowledge and awareness are often unclear. Although frequently used interchangeably without that being problematic, these words sometimes appear to have different intended meanings but those meanings are not made explicit or, despite the meanings having been made explicit, they are not adhered to. It is necessary to overcome obscurities when knowledge and awareness are intended t...

  3. Nursery Rhyme Knowledge and Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Laurie J.

    2011-01-01

    Phonological awareness is an important precursor in learning to read. This awareness of phonemes fosters a child's ability to hear and blend sounds, encode and decode words, and to spell phonetically. This quantitative study assessed pre-K children's existing Euro-American nursery rhyme knowledge and phonological awareness literacy, provided…

  4. Awareness, knowledge and attitude on cleft lip and palate among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-09

    Nov 9, 2012 ... Background: Adequate knowledge and awareness of cleft lip and palate (CLP) deformity may help to counter the negative beliefs and attitudes toward the condition. The objective of this study was to assess the level of awareness, knowledge and attitude of women attending antenatal clinics about CLP.

  5. Awareness and knowledge of the sustainable development goals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is a globally accepted developmental agenda, and it is expected that everyone everywhere in the world would be aware, knowledgeable and be willing to contribute to its attainment. This study aims to assess the level of awareness, knowledge of, and attitudes ...

  6. Comparison in the Knowledge and Awareness of Hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty nine non-clinical hospital workers of the Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching hospital, Sagamu were compared with 52 factory workers in the same locality in order to determine their knowledge and awareness of the subject of Hypertension. In general the level of knowledge and awareness was poor in both study ...

  7. Awareness and knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness and knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus post exposure prophylaxis among Nigerian Family Physicians. ... Conclusion: This study shows that despite high levels of awareness and knowledge of HIV PEP, access to its use among family physicians in Nigeria is still sub‑optimal. Keywords: Family ...

  8. Knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among some senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study to determine the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among some senior secondary school students was undertaken in Katsina, Katsina State, Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary data on HIV/AIDS knowledge and awareness among young people in Katsina. A 26 item ...

  9. knowledge and awareness of hiv/aids among some senior

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. A cross sectional study to determine the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among some senior secondary school students was undertaken in Katsina, Katsina State, Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary data on HIV/AIDS knowledge and awareness among young people in Katsina.

  10. Awareness and knowledge about diabetes mellitus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Epidemic of obesity has propelled type 2 diabetes into an emerging health problem. Alongside hypertension, diabetes is now a foremost non communicable disease (NCD) in Nigeria. Aims & Objectives: This paper reports the outcome of school health club awareness program amongst school children in Oyo ...

  11. Examining the Underlying Dimensions of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Mercedes; Muse, Andrea; Wagner, Richard K.; Foorman, Barbara; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Bishop, M. Denise

    2015-01-01

    We report results from two studies on the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge in elementary-aged children. In Study 1, 99 fourth-grade students were given multiple measures of morphological awareness and vocabulary. A single factor accounted for individual differences in all morphology and vocabulary assessments. Study 2 extended these results by giving 90 eighth-grade students expanded measures of vocabulary and morphology that assessed (a) definitional knowledge, (b) usage, (c) relational knowledge, and (d) knowledge of morphological variants, with each potential aspect of knowledge assessed using an identical set of 23 words to control for differential knowledge of specific vocabulary items. Results indicated that a single-factor model that encompassed morphological and vocabulary knowledge provided the best fit to the data. Finally, explanatory item response modeling was used to investigate sources of variance in the vocabulary and morphological awareness tasks we administered. Implications for assessment and instruction are discussed. PMID:26273128

  12. HPV Vaccine Awareness and Knowledge Among Women Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfall, L T; Bynum, S A; Brandt, H M; Hébert, J R

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer risk is increased among women living with HIV (WLH). Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been shown to be safe and immunogenic among WLH. We examined HPV vaccine awareness and HPV knowledge among WLH. This cross-sectional study collected data from 145 WLH between March 2011 and April 2012. An interviewer-administered survey assessed HPV vaccine awareness and knowledge. Stata/IC 13 was used to perform chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Our sample was 90 % non-Hispanic black and 64 % earned awareness was ten times higher among WLH who knew HPV caused cervical cancer (OR = 10.17; 95 % CI 3.82-27.06). HPV vaccine awareness is low among WLH. Cancer prevention efforts aimed at raising awareness about the HPV vaccine and increasing knowledge about HPV are necessary first steps in reducing cervical cancer disparities among WLH.

  13. Breast cancer knowledge and awareness among university students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The high breast cancer mortality rate in Sub-Saharan Africa has been attributed to a lack of public awareness of the disease which often leads to late diagnosis of the disease. Little is known about the level of knowledge and awareness of breast cancer in Angola. Previous studies have shown that breast cancer ...

  14. Knowledge and Awareness Implication on E-Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of awareness and cautionary information on effective and appropriate management operations associated with e-waste may pose potential threat to human health and the environment. This study assessed the knowledge and awareness implication of e-waste management among undergraduate students of Federal ...

  15. Effects of Morphological Awareness on Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Fatma Demiray

    2017-01-01

    This research has analysed the impact of morphological treatment in English morphological awareness task. The main aim of this study is to understand the relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge of university preparatory class students. In second language learning environment, fifty-two preparatory class students have…

  16. Examining the Underlying Dimensions of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Mercedes; Muse, Andrea; Wagner, Richard K.; Foorman, Barbara; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Bishop, M. Denise

    2015-01-01

    We report results from two studies on the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge in elementary-aged children. In Study 1, 99 fourth-grade students were given multiple measures of morphological awareness and vocabulary. A single factor accounted for individual differences in all morphology and vocabulary…

  17. The reciprocal relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge in Chinese: a latent growth model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yahua; Li, Liping; Wu, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the developmental relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from grades 1 to 2 in Chinese children. In this study, 149 Chinese children were tested on compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from Time 1 to Time 4, with non-verbal IQ, working memory, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, and rapid automatized naming at Time 1 as control variables. Latent growth modeling was conducted to analyze the data. Univariate models separately calculated children's initial levels and growth rates in compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Bivariate model was used to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between the two variables with other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression controlled. The results demonstrated that the initial level of compounding awareness predicted the growth rate of vocabulary knowledge, and the reverse relation was also found, after controlling for other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression. The results suggested a reciprocal developmental relationship between children's compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge for Chinese children, a finding that informs current models of the relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. PMID:25926807

  18. The reciprocal relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge in Chinese: a latent growth model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahua eCheng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the developmental relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from grades 1 to 2 in Chinese children. In this study, 149 Chinese children were tested on compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from Time 1 to Time 4, with nonverbal IQ, working memory, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, and rapid automatized naming at Time 1 as control variables. Latent growth modeling was conducted to analyze the data. Univariate models separately calculated children’s initial levels and growth rates in compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Bivariate model was used to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between the two variables with other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression controlled. The results demonstrated that the initial level of compounding awareness predicted the growth rate of vocabulary knowledge, and the reverse relation was also found, after controlling for other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression. The results suggested a reciprocal developmental relationship between children’s compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge for Chinese children, a finding that informs current models of the relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge.

  19. The reciprocal relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge in Chinese: a latent growth model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yahua; Li, Liping; Wu, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the developmental relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from grades 1 to 2 in Chinese children. In this study, 149 Chinese children were tested on compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from Time 1 to Time 4, with non-verbal IQ, working memory, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, and rapid automatized naming at Time 1 as control variables. Latent growth modeling was conducted to analyze the data. Univariate models separately calculated children's initial levels and growth rates in compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Bivariate model was used to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between the two variables with other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression controlled. The results demonstrated that the initial level of compounding awareness predicted the growth rate of vocabulary knowledge, and the reverse relation was also found, after controlling for other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression. The results suggested a reciprocal developmental relationship between children's compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge for Chinese children, a finding that informs current models of the relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge.

  20. Awareness and Knowledge of Ergonomics Among Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    health problems confronting Sub-Saharan Africa, such as high neonatal and ... Awka, Nigeria, 2Department of Medical Microbiology School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Benin Teaching. Hospital, Benin ... of ergonomics and knowledge of gains of its right application was poor among the study participants.

  1. Breast cancer knowledge and awareness among university students in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambanje, Martha Nyanungo; Mafuvadze, Benford

    2012-01-01

    The high breast cancer mortality rate in Sub-Saharan Africa has been attributed to a lack of public awareness of the disease which often leads to late diagnosis of the disease. Little is known about the level of knowledge and awareness of breast cancer in Angola. Previous studies have shown that breast cancer awareness is higher among well-educated people. The goal of this study was to assess breast cancer knowledge and awareness among university students in Angola. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of university students using a self-administered questionnaire to investigate participants' awareness and knowledge of breast cancer. A total of 595 university students in medical and non-medical programs successfully completed the survey. Our results showed insufficient knowledge of breast cancer among university students in Angola irrespective of whether they were in medical or non-medical programs. The majority of the participants were not aware of some of the early signs of breast cancer such as change in color or shape of the nipple, even though they appreciated the need for monthly breast self-examination. Overall most of the participants indicated the need for increased breast cancer awareness among university students. The study points to the insufficient knowledge of university students in Angola about breast cancer. We expect that our results may provide useful data that may be used by the department of health in Angola and other African countries to formulate health education programs aimed at increasing awareness and promote screening and early detection of breast cancer in the continent.

  2. Deconstructing and Assessing Knowledge and Awareness in Public Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevethan, Robert

    2017-01-01

    When people's knowledge and awareness are the subject of public health research, the meanings applied to the words knowledge and awareness are often unclear. Although frequently used interchangeably without that being problematic, these words sometimes appear to have different intended meanings but those meanings are not made explicit or, despite the meanings having been made explicit, they are not adhered to. It is necessary to overcome obscurities when knowledge and awareness are intended to represent different domains. This occurs when they are compared with each other; it also occurs when knowledge and awareness are assessed separately in relation to such variables as health behavior; physical, psychological, or socioeconomic statuses; gender; age; and ethnic backgrounds. For those particular research ventures, recommendations are made that knowledge be used to refer to information that is, to a greater or lesser extent, detailed and factual, and that awareness be associated with information that is personally relevant. Some suggestions are made, and issues are raised, about how the psychometric foundations for each of those two domains might be established prior to use in empirical research. Adopting the recommendations and suggestions made in this article provides opportunities for greater conceptual and empirical clarity and success.

  3. Women's Awareness and Knowledge of Abortion Laws: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa R Assifi

    Full Text Available Incorrect knowledge of laws may affect how women enter the health system or seek services, and it likely contributes to the disconnect between official laws and practical applications of the laws that influence women's access to safe, legal abortion services.To provide a synthesis of evidence of women's awareness and knowledge of the legal status of abortion in their country, and the accuracy of women's knowledge on specific legal grounds and restrictions outlined in a country's abortion law.A systematic search was carried for articles published between 1980-2015. Quantitative, mixed-method data collection, and objectives related to women's awareness or knowledge of the abortion law was included. Full texts were assessed, and data extraction done by a single reviewer. Final inclusion for analysis was assessed by two reviewers. The results were synthesised into tables, using narrative synthesis.Of the original 3,126 articles, and 16 hand searched citations, 24 studies were included for analysis. Women's correct general awareness and knowledge of the legal status was less than 50% in nine studies. In six studies, knowledge of legalization/liberalisation ranged between 32.3%-68.2%. Correct knowledge of abortion on the grounds of rape ranged from 12.8%-98%, while in the case of incest, ranged from 9.8%-64.5%. Abortion on the grounds of fetal impairment and gestational limits, varied widely from 7%-94% and 0%-89.5% respectively.This systematic review synthesizes literature on women's awareness and knowledge of the abortion law in their own context. The findings show that correct general awareness and knowledge of the abortion law and legal grounds and restrictions amongst women was limited, even in countries where the laws were liberal. Thus, interventions to disseminate accurate information on the legal context are necessary.

  4. Women's Awareness and Knowledge of Abortion Laws: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assifi, Anisa R; Berger, Blair; Tunçalp, Özge; Khosla, Rajat; Ganatra, Bela

    2016-01-01

    Incorrect knowledge of laws may affect how women enter the health system or seek services, and it likely contributes to the disconnect between official laws and practical applications of the laws that influence women's access to safe, legal abortion services. To provide a synthesis of evidence of women's awareness and knowledge of the legal status of abortion in their country, and the accuracy of women's knowledge on specific legal grounds and restrictions outlined in a country's abortion law. A systematic search was carried for articles published between 1980-2015. Quantitative, mixed-method data collection, and objectives related to women's awareness or knowledge of the abortion law was included. Full texts were assessed, and data extraction done by a single reviewer. Final inclusion for analysis was assessed by two reviewers. The results were synthesised into tables, using narrative synthesis. Of the original 3,126 articles, and 16 hand searched citations, 24 studies were included for analysis. Women's correct general awareness and knowledge of the legal status was less than 50% in nine studies. In six studies, knowledge of legalization/liberalisation ranged between 32.3%-68.2%. Correct knowledge of abortion on the grounds of rape ranged from 12.8%-98%, while in the case of incest, ranged from 9.8%-64.5%. Abortion on the grounds of fetal impairment and gestational limits, varied widely from 7%-94% and 0%-89.5% respectively. This systematic review synthesizes literature on women's awareness and knowledge of the abortion law in their own context. The findings show that correct general awareness and knowledge of the abortion law and legal grounds and restrictions amongst women was limited, even in countries where the laws were liberal. Thus, interventions to disseminate accurate information on the legal context are necessary.

  5. Current Awareness in Health Education, February 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herner and Co., Washington, DC.

    In this collection of abstracts on current topics in health education the following subjects are addressed: 1) community health education; 2) health education in occupational settings; 3) health education methodology; 4) professional education; 5) regulation, legislation, and administration; 6) research and evaluation; 7) risk reduction; 8) school…

  6. Adolescents’ knowledge and awareness of diabetes mellitus in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Al-Hussaini; Seham Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim: Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem in Kuwait. This study aimed to evaluate the awareness and the knowledge of diabetes in adolescent about the disease which, will be of a great help to reduce the risk of developing diabetes and its complications. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was done to evaluate the general knowledge of diabetes. The survey was introduced randomly to the students of 30 secondary public and private schools in Kuwait. The question...

  7. Americans' awareness, knowledge, and behaviors regarding fats: 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Robert H; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Groom, Allison; Stitzel, Kimberly F; Yin-Piazza, Shirley

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, epidemiologic and clinical studies, public and regulatory policy activity, and media coverage have focused on issues related to trans fats. To help increase awareness and understanding of trans fats and other fats, the American Heart Association (AHA) launched the "Face the Fats" national consumer education campaign in April 2007. The AHA commissioned a quantitative tracking survey between 2006 and 2007 to measure changes in consumer awareness, knowledge, and behaviors related fats and oils and their perceived impact on heart disease. The survey was conducted by Cogent Research. Data were collected during March 2006 and May 2007. At both time points, the survey included a representative sample of the American population age 18 to 65 years (n=1,000). The sampling plan for the survey was designed based on the 2000 and 2003 US Census. The margin of error was +/-3.10 percentage points. Awareness of trans fats increased during the 1-year study period. In 2007, 92% of respondents were aware of trans fats, an increase from 84% in 2006 (Pbehavioral changes related to trans fat information, such as buying food products because they show "zero trans fat" on labels or packages (37% in 2007 vs. 32% in 2006; Pconsumer awareness about trans fats increased and attained awareness levels similar to saturated fats. The increased awareness is associated with improved self-reported behaviors in grocery shopping. Nonetheless, overall knowledge, especially regarding food sources of saturated and trans fats, remains relatively low, underscoring the need for heightened consumer education activities. The positive change in consumer awareness about trans fats is likely attributable to the wide range of messages available to them, including the AHA "Face the Fats" national consumer education campaign.

  8. Knowledge, awareness and practice regarding needle stick injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Four articles were finally selected for inclusion in the review. All the studies were done involving dental students; 89.23% of the students had correct knowledge about NSI and 91.55% of the students had adequate level of awareness regarding its management in one of the studies. Also, 89% of students in one of ...

  9. Awareness, knowledge and perception of chronic kidney disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-29

    Jun 29, 2015 ... Background: Awareness and education on kidney disease impact on its effective management and will reduce the significant economic and public health burden. Knowledge of CKD and risk factors increases the perception of being at high risk and increasing health seeking behavior. We conducted a ...

  10. Assessment of awareness and knowledge of hepatitis B among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the level of awareness and knowledge of Hepatitis B infection in the selected area of Puchong, Malaysia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 400 subjects (> 12 yrs of age) using validated questionnaire which was distributed and completed by the respondent from January 2013 to ...

  11. Low level of Hepatitis B knowledge and awareness among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low level of Hepatitis B knowledge and awareness among pregnant women in the Kintampo North ... Journal Home > Vol 50, No 3 (2016) > ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed ...

  12. Awareness and Knowledge about Cataract in a Nigerian Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at determining the level of awareness and knowledge about cataract in a Nigerian community. The study was conducted between June and September 2007 at the eye clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. With the aid of semi-structured questionnaire administered on one hundred ...

  13. Awareness, knowledge and perception of chronic kidney disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Awareness and education on kidney disease impact on its effective management and will reduce the significant economic and public health burden. Knowledge of CKD and risk factors increases the perception of being at high risk and increasing health seeking behavior. We conducted a cross‑sectional ...

  14. Knowledge and awareness of Tuberculosis among Students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem worldwide, as one third of the world population is infected with M. tuberculosis. It is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality and a major public health concern in Sudan. Objectives: to determine the awareness and knowledge of tuberculosis among students.

  15. Awareness, knowledge and attitude on cleft lip and palate among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness, knowledge and attitude on cleft lip and palate among antenatal clinic attendees of tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. ... administered questionnaire was conducted among 200 women attending antenatal clinics in three Federal Government Teaching Hospitals in the Northern and Southwestern regions of Nigeria.

  16. Awareness and knowledge of female genital mutilation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: An estimated 130 million reported cases of female genital mutilation (FGM) occur globally, and every year at least 3 million girls and young women are at risk of undergoing this practice. This study was carried out to assess awareness and knowledge of FGM in a sub-urban community, Edo State, to help raise ...

  17. Awareness and knowledge level of cervical cancer among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the awareness and knowledge level of cervical cancer among reproductive women in the Bolgatanga Municipality of the Upper East Region of Ghana. A structured question-naires was used to gather data from one hundred and fifty (150) women. The participants were re-cruited using the convenient ...

  18. Awareness and knowledge of Glaucoma and other diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine awareness and knowledge of glaucoma and diseases associated with blindness in a Ghanaian community. Methods: Data was collected by questionnaire and in- depth interviews. Results: Familiar causes of blindness were cataract (77.2%), eye injuries (71.9%), kooko local name for haemorrhoids ...

  19. Adolescents’ knowledge and awareness of diabetes mellitus in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Al-Hussaini

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The students contributed in this study have good general information about diabetes except for a few areas. Our study will clarify these areas to help in designing educational programs to treat these deficiencies of knowledge about the disease and increase the awareness.

  20. Factors Determining Awareness and Knowledge of Aquatic Invasive Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiswerth, M.E.; Yen, S.T.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Public perceptions of invasive species may influence policies and programs initiated by public and private stakeholders. We investigate the determinants of the public's awareness and knowledge of invasive species as few studies have examined this relationship. We focus on aquatic invasive species

  1. Awareness, Knowledge and Practice of Breast-Self Examination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIM : This study was designed to assess the awareness, knowledge and practice of breast-self examination amongst female health practitioners at Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. METHODOLOGY : This study was conducted in the month of February,2008. One hundred health workers practicing in the ...

  2. Awareness, Knowledge, and Concern about Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Laban-Baker, Allie; Hamilton, Wanda S.; Stuen, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--a common eye disease causing vision loss--can be detected early through regular eye-health examinations, and measures can be taken to prevent visual decline. Getting eye examinations requires certain levels of awareness, knowledge, and concern related to AMD. However, little is known about AMD-related…

  3. Knowledge and Awareness of Breast Cancer among Rural Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-10

    Oct 10, 2016 ... thus early diagnosis and increased survival rate of breast cancer cases. The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge and awareness of women on breast self-examination (BSE) in Umuowa, which would guide future intervention program on breast cancer prevention and control in the ...

  4. Awareness and knowledge of phytonutrient food sources and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    application among health food store customers in the Cape Town city bowl. Awareness and knowledge of phytonutrient food ... The Cape Peninsula University of Technology for financial assistance. ♢ Mr JC Lombard and Ms .... South African Association of Food Science and Tech- nology. The subject of phytonutrients was, ...

  5. Use of dietary supplements, and awareness and knowledge of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5-a-day”. Use of dietary ... health food stores in the Cape Town city bowl, and to determine their awareness and knowledge of the recommended fruit and vegetable .... specify the type they used, but only indicated the brand name and therefore ...

  6. Awareness, knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy: A review of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The medical literature related to awareness, knowledge and attitudes (AKA) towards epilepsy was reviewed from the perspective of research trend since 2000 until 2010. Several databases i.e. PubMed, Science Direct, MedLine, Genamics, EBSCO Host and Springer Link were assessed to search for the relevant literatures ...

  7. Unconventional petroleum: a current awareness bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grissom, M.C. (ed.)

    1983-10-30

    The summaries in this bulletin cover both secondary and tertiary recovery of petroleum and the following topics under Oil Shales and Tar Sands: reserves and exploration; site geology and hydrology; drilling, fracturing, and mining; oil production, recovery, and refining; properties and composition; direct uses and by-products; health and safety; marketing and economics; waste research and management; environmental aspects; and regulations. These summaries and older citations to information on petroleum, oil shales, and tar sands back to the 1960's are available for on-line searching and retrieval on the Energy Data Base using the DOE/RECON system or commercial on-line retrieval systems. Retrospective searches can be made on any aspect of petroleum, oil shales, or tar sands, or customized profiles can be developed to provide current information for each user's needs.

  8. Cervical cancer: current knowledge, perception and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with knowledge and perception about cervical cancer. Results: Of all the interviews conducted, 89.1% were aware that cervical cancer is a life threatening situation, and 67.4% of the respondents knew that cervical cancer is linked to the virus, Human ...

  9. Awareness of knowledge or awareness of processing? Implications for sleep-related memory consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Yordanova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the effects of awareness at encoding on off-line learning during sleep. A new framework is suggested according to which two aspects of awareness are distinguished: awareness of task information, and awareness of task processing. The number reduction task (NRT was employed because it has two levels of organization, an overt one based on explicit knowledge of task instructions, and a covert one based on hidden abstract regularities of task structure (implicit knowledge. Each level can be processed consciously (explicitly or non-consciously (implicitly. Different performance parameters were defined to evaluate changes between two sessions for each of the four conditions of awareness arising from whether explicit or implicit task information was processed explicitly or implicitly. In two groups of subjects, the interval between the pre-sleep and post-sleep sessions was filled either with early-night sleep, rich in slow wave sleep (SWS, or late-night sleep, rich in rapid eye movement (REM sleep. Results show that implicit processing of explicit information was improved in the post-sleep relative to the pre-sleep session only in the early-night group. Independently of sleep stage, changes between sessions occurred for explicit processing of implicit information only in those subjects who gained insight into the task regularity after sleep. It is concluded that SWS but not REM sleep specifically supports computational skills for processing of information that was accessible by consciousness before sleep.

  10. Effects of Phonological Awareness Training on Early Childhood Educators' Knowledge, Instructional Practice and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskolski, Jayne E.

    2013-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effect of a phonological awareness professional development program on teachers' phonological awareness knowledge, the impact phonological awareness knowledge had on the frequency and complexity of phonological awareness instruction, and the impact the instruction had on students' phonological awareness.…

  11. Promoting cultural awareness and knowledge among faculty and doctoral students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiper, Jacoba; Van Horn, Elizabeth R; Hu, Jie; Upadhyaya, Ramesh C

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the activities conducted by the Race and Gender Committee of one school of nursing in North Carolina to promote cultural awareness and knowledge among faculty and doctoral students. Wells's Institutional Cultural Development Model provided a theoretical framework for a systematic approach to the development of activities designed to identify cultural issues as they relate to teaching and research. Strategies used included a variety of seminars and workshops and the participation of consultants and experts. The workshops and other programs led to improved interdepartmental dialogue among faculty and doctoral students, facilitated faculty and students' understanding of cultural diversity, provided the groundwork for promotion of attitudinal and behavioral changes, and increased cultural awareness and knowledge. Recommendations are included for developing similar programs.

  12. Current knowledge of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivielso, Pedro; Ramírez-Bueno, Alba; Ewald, Nils

    2014-10-01

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a well established and the most common cause of acute pancreatitis (AP) after alcohol and gall stone disease. It is alleged to account for up to 10% of all pancreatitis episodes. Studies suggest that in patients with triglyceride (TG) levels>1000 mg/dL (>11.3 mmol/L), hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis (HTGP-AP) occurs in approximately 15-20% of all subjects referred to Lipid Clinics. Until now, there is no clear evidence which patients with severe HTG will develop pancreatitis and which will not. Underlying pathophysiological concepts include hydrolysis of TG by pancreatic lipase and excessive formation of free fatty acids with inflammatory changes and capillary injury. Additionally hyperviscosity and ischemia may play a decisive role. The clinical features of HTG-AP patients are supposed to be no different from patients with AP of other etiologies. Yet, there are well-conducted studies suggesting that HTG-AP is associated with a higher severity and complication rate. Therapeutic measurements in HTG-AP include dietary modifications, different antihyperlipidemic agents, insulin and/or heparin treatment. The beneficial use of plasmapheresis is repeatedly reported and suggested in many studies. Yet, due to the lack of randomized and controlled trials, it is currently unknown if plasmapheresis may improve morbidity and mortality in the clinical setting of HTG-AP. Since there are no commonly accepted clinical guidelines in the management of HTG-AP, there is a definite need for an international, multicenter approach to this important subject. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Relation of Morphological Awareness and Syntactic Awareness to Adults' Reading Comprehension: Is Vocabulary Knowledge a Mediating Variable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Roehrig, Alysia D.; Williams, Rihana S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors' goal was to examine the structural relationships among vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, syntactic awareness, and reading comprehension in English-speaking adults. Structural equation analysis of data collected from 151 participants revealed that morphological awareness affected reading comprehension directly. Syntactic…

  14. Privacy-aware knowledge discovery novel applications and new techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bonchi, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Covering research at the frontier of this field, Privacy-Aware Knowledge Discovery: Novel Applications and New Techniques presents state-of-the-art privacy-preserving data mining techniques for application domains, such as medicine and social networks, that face the increasing heterogeneity and complexity of new forms of data. Renowned authorities from prominent organizations not only cover well-established results-they also explore complex domains where privacy issues are generally clear and well defined, but the solutions are still preliminary and in continuous development. Divided into seve

  15. Periodontal Disease Awareness and Knowledge among Nigerian Primary School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodo, C C; Umoh, A O

    2015-01-01

    Teacher-led oral health education is equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents as dentist-led and peer-led strategies. The aim was to determine periodontal disease awareness and knowledge among Nigerian primary school teachers. This cross-sectional study was conducted among primary school teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire which elicited information on demography, awareness of the periodontal disease and source of information, knowledge of etiology, and symptoms of the periodontal disease, was the data collection tool.. The test of association was done using either Chi-square or Fisher's exact statistics. P value was set at 0.05 for significance level. Out of 180 teachers recruited from seven public primary schools in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, 151 of them fully participated by filling the study questionnaires giving a 83.9% (151/180) response rate. The majority 74.2% (112/151) of the participants reported having heard of the periodontal disease and the leading source of information was television. A total of 29.8% (45/151) of participants considered periodontal disease as the main cause of tooth loss among adult Nigerian. Only 12.6% (19/151) of the participants knew dental plaque as soft debris on teeth and 29.1% (44/151) attested that plaque can cause periodontal disease. The majority of the participants were not aware of age 81.5% (123/151) and gender 96.7% (146/151) predisposition to periodontal disease. The perceived manifestations of the periodontal disease reported by were mainly gum bleeding 35.1% (53/151) and swollen gum 20.5% (31/151). A total of 70.2% (106/151) of the participants considered periodontal disease as a preventable disease and about half 49.0% (74/151) of the participants considered daily mouth cleaning as the best preventive method. The majority 95.4% (144/151) of the participants expressed interest in learning about the periodontal disease and the

  16. Periodontal Disease Awareness and Knowledge among Nigerian Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodo, CC; Umoh, AO

    2015-01-01

    Background: Teacher-led oral health education is equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents as dentist-led and peer-led strategies. Aim: The aim was to determine periodontal disease awareness and knowledge among Nigerian primary school teachers. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among primary school teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire which elicited information on demography, awareness of the periodontal disease and source of information, knowledge of etiology, and symptoms of the periodontal disease, was the data collection tool.. The test of association was done using either Chi-square or Fisher's exact statistics. P value was set at 0.05 for significance level. Results: Out of 180 teachers recruited from seven public primary schools in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, 151 of them fully participated by filling the study questionnaires giving a 83.9% (151/180) response rate. The majority 74.2% (112/151) of the participants reported having heard of the periodontal disease and the leading source of information was television. A total of 29.8% (45/151) of participants considered periodontal disease as the main cause of tooth loss among adult Nigerian. Only 12.6% (19/151) of the participants knew dental plaque as soft debris on teeth and 29.1% (44/151) attested that plaque can cause periodontal disease. The majority of the participants were not aware of age 81.5% (123/151) and gender 96.7% (146/151) predisposition to periodontal disease. The perceived manifestations of the periodontal disease reported by were mainly gum bleeding 35.1% (53/151) and swollen gum 20.5% (31/151). A total of 70.2% (106/151) of the participants considered periodontal disease as a preventable disease and about half 49.0% (74/151) of the participants considered daily mouth cleaning as the best preventive method. The majority 95.4% (144/151) of the participants expressed interest in

  17. Assessment of physicians' awareness and knowledge of familial hypercholesterolemia in Saudi Arabia: Is there a gap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ali Batais

    Full Text Available The scarcity of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH cases reported in Saudi Arabia might be indicative of a lack of awareness of this common genetic disease among physicians.To assess physicians' awareness, practice, and knowledge of FH in Saudi Arabia.This is a cross-sectional study conducted among physicians at four tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between March 2016 and May 2016 using a self-administered questionnaire.A total of 294 physicians completed the survey (response rate 90.1%. Overall, 92.9% of the participants have poor knowledge of FH while only 7.1% have acceptable knowledge. The majority (68.7% of physicians rated their familiarity with FH as average or above average, and these had higher mean knowledge scores than participants with self-reported below average familiarity (mean 3.4 versus 2.6 (P < 0.001. Consultant physicians were 4.2 times more likely to be familiar with FH than residents or registrars (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.9-9.1, P < 0.001. Physicians who currently managed FH patients had higher mean knowledge scores compared to those without FH patients in their care (3.5 versus 2.9 (P = 0.006. In addition, there were statistically significant differences between physicians' mean knowledge scores and their ages, levels of training, and years in practice. Moreover, a substantial deficit was identified in the awareness of various clinical algorithms to diagnose patients with FH, cascade screening, specialist lipid services, and the existence of statin alternatives, such as proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 inhibitors.A substantial deficit was found in the awareness, knowledge, practice, and detection of FH among physicians in Saudi Arabia. Extensive educational programs are required to raise physician awareness and implement best practices; only then can the impact of these interventions on FH management and patient outcome be assessed.

  18. Public awareness and knowledge of oral cancer in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Addas, Abdallah; Tarakji, Bassel; Abbas, Alkasem; Al-Shamiri, Hashem M; Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; Shugaa-Addin, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is in increasing in incidence in Yemen and indeed worldwide. Knowledge regarding risk factors and early signs in the general population can help in prevention and early detection of the disease. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of oral cancer in the general population in Yemen. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted on Yemeni adults aged ≥15 years old. A total of 543 persons participated, the collected data being analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Two thirds (71.5%) of the participants had heard about oral cancer. Smoking and smokeless tobacco usage were identified as the major risk factors by 71.5% and 73.7% of the participants, respectively. Only 24.1% and 21.4%, respectively, were able to correctly identify red and white lesions as early signs of oral cancer. Knowledge of oral cancer was significantly associated with age (p<0.01), gender (p<0.05) and education level (p<0.001). The findings suggest that the knowledge regarding oral cancer in this population is low. Therefore, educational programs are highly needed to improve such knowledge.

  19. Awareness of deficits in traumatic brain injury: a multidimensional approach to assessing metacognitive knowledge and online-awareness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Keeffe, Fiadhnait

    2007-01-01

    Recent models of impaired awareness in brain injury draw a distinction between metacognitive knowledge of difficulties and online awareness of errors (emergent and anticipatory). We examined performance of 31 Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) participants and 31 healthy controls using a three-strand approach to assessing awareness. Metacognitive knowledge was assessed with an awareness interview and discrepancy scores on three questionnaires--Patient Competency Rating Scale, Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Online Emergent Awareness was assessed using an online error-monitoring task while participants performed tasks of sustained attention. Online anticipatory awareness was examined using prediction performance on two cognitive tasks. Results indicated that the TBI Low Self-Awareness (SA) group and High SA group did not differ in terms of severity, chronicity or standard neuropsychological tasks but those with Low SA were more likely to exhibit disinhibition, interpersonal problems and more difficulties in total competency. Sustained attention abilities were associated with both types of online awareness (emergent and anticipatory). There was a strong relationship between online emergent and online anticipatory awareness. Metacognitive knowledge did not correlate with the other two measures. This study highlights the necessity in adopting a multidimensional approach to assessing the multifaceted phenomenon of awareness of deficits.

  20. Practical robotic self-awareness and self-knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    2011-05-01

    The functional software components of an autonomous robotic system express behavior via commands to its actuators, based on processed inputs from its sensors; we propose an additional set of "cognitive" capabilities for robotic systems of all types, based on the comprehensive logging of all available data, including sensor inputs, behavioral states, and outputs sent to actuators. A robot should maintain a "sense" of its own (piecewise) continuous existence through time and space; it should in some sense "get a life," providing a level of self-awareness and self-knowledge. Self-awareness includes the ability to survive and work through unexpected power glitches while executing a task or mission. Selfknowledge includes an extensive world model including a model of self and the purpose context in which it is operating (deontics). Our system must support proactive self-test, monitoring, and calibration, and maintain a "personal" health/repair history, supporting system test and evaluation by continuously measuring performance throughout the entire product lifecycle. It will include episodic memory, and a system "lifelog," and will also participate in multiple modes of Human Robotic interaction (HRI).

  1. Loyalty Programmes : Current Knowledge and Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorotic, Matilda; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    Loyalty programmes (LPs) have increased in number and popularity, but their effects on customer behaviour remain equivocal, due to a lack of understanding of the drivers of LP effectiveness and insufficient generalizable conclusions across prior studies. This paper synthesizes current knowledge

  2. Knowledge and Awareness Among Iranian Women Regarding the Pap Smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Dadkhah

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Screening is a necessity for country health systems. In undeveloped countries that have no screening programs, cervical carcinoma is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity. Although cervical cancer is preventable it is poorly controlled in some countries. The main cause of it is unawareness of people from cervical cancer and screening methods. Methods:The target population consisted of a consecutive sample of 1002 female patients, 15-45 years old, visiting the city health care centers in Tehran for any reason between January 2006 and January 2007. We used a self-administered,written, anonymous, multiple choice questionnaire that was developed by the study authors. Statistical significance was defined as P<0.05.Results: The mean of age was 31.23 ± 4.3 years. Five-hundred and twentytwo cases (52.1% had knowledge about Pap smear test. Only 230 cases (44.1%knew the correct time of the first Pap smear that should be done in women.And 408 cases (77.9% knew Pap smear can detect cancer of the cervix. 364 cases (71.9% had heard about cervical cancer,314 cases (59.9% had heard something about symptoms of cervical cancer. Conclusion: It is obvious that in Iran (and especially in Tehran, Pap smear awareness (52.1% is statistically similar to other developing countries, and only 45.9% had had at least one Pap smear test till the time of the interview. Thus, there is a need for an awareness campaign to increase the uptake of Pap smear testing.

  3. Male’s Knowledge and Awareness about AIDS/STDs in Rajshahi District of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosiur Rahman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available As there is no cure to get rid of the unbearable sufferings from these diseases, prevention is the only solution to get rid of HIV/AIDS and STDs. Raising awareness among men about the long run effects of these diseases is one of the prime objectives of reproductive health programs currently executing in the world. Our study pays attention to get an idea of men's perception about these types of reproductive health problems. Findings reveal that about 87 percent men aware about HIV/AIDS and comparatively women were found same aware of AIDS. Only 54.8 percent men are found aware STIs, and more than 45 percent of the respondents have no knowledge of STIs. This indicates men's careless ness about these diseases. Mass media plays a great role in growing awareness about HIV/AIDS. Electronic, print media and interpersonal communication were the main sources of knowledge. About 30 and 40 percent men and women heard of AIDS from two sources respectively. It was found that majority of the male said uncontrolled sexual relation is the major reason of spreading AIDS. Although men's communication with their spouses can help in preventing AIDS but a large portion respondent don't talk to their spouses about preventing AIDS. Findings also elucidate that education, residence, religion, occupation, and mass media facility are the significant factors to influence AIDS knowledge among men.Key words: HIV/AIDS, STDs, Logistic Regression Analysis, BangladeshDOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1367Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.253-270

  4. Awareness, knowledge and self-reported test rates regarding Hepatitis B in Turkish-Dutch: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Veen Ytje JJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus infection is an important health problem in the Turkish community in the Netherlands. To prevent transmission and progression of the disease in this community, increased screening is necessary. This study aimed to determine 1 the levels of awareness and knowledge regarding hepatitis B, comparing these in tested and non-tested Turkish-Dutch in Rotterdam; 2 the self-reported hepatitis B test status in this population, and how this is related to demographic characteristics, knowledge and awareness. Methods We conducted a postal survey amongst first and second generation migrants, aged 16 - 40 years. Results The response rate was 30.2% (n = 355 respondents. Levels of awareness and knowledge regarding hepatitis B were low, as the majority of respondents (73% never thought about the disease and 58% of the respondents scored 5 or less out of ten knowledge items. Weighted analysis of self-reports showed a test rate of 15%, and a vaccination rate of 3%. Regression analysis showed that having been tested for hepatitis B was related to being married and higher levels of awareness and knowledge. Conclusions This study shows low levels of hepatitis B awareness and knowledge in the Turkish community in Rotterdam. Self-reported test rates are lower in people who are not currently married, and in those who have low levels of awareness and knowledge. Especially, knowledge about the consequences of hepatitis B, such as liver cancer, was lacking. Therefore, a health promotion intervention should foremost raise awareness, and increase knowledge on the seriousness of this disease.

  5. Knowledge and Awareness of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Among Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Jeon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is a leading cause of disabilities in children, yet the general public appears to have little awareness of CMV. Methods. Women were surveyed about newborn infections at 7 different geographic locations. Results. Of the 643 women surveyed, 142 (22% had heard of congenital CMV. Awareness increased with increasing levels of education (P<.0001. Women who had worked as a healthcare professional had a higher prevalence of awareness of CMV than had other women (56% versus 16%, P <.0001. Women who were aware of CMV were most likely to have heard about it from a healthcare provider (54%, but most could not correctly identify modes of CMV transmission or prevention. Among common causes of birth defects and childhood illnesses, women's awareness of CMV ranked last. Conclusion. Despite its large public health burden, few women had heard of congenital CMV, and even fewer were aware of prevention strategies.

  6. An Architecture for Context-Aware Knowledge Flow Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Jarrahi; Mohammad Reza Kangavari

    2012-01-01

    The organizational knowledge is one of the most important and valuable assets of organizations. In such environment, organizations with broad, specialized and up-to-date knowledge, adequately using knowledge resources, will be more successful than their competitors. For effective use of knowledge, dynamic knowledge flow from the sources to destinations is essential. In this regard, a novel complex concept in knowledge management is the analysis, design and implementation of knowledge flow man...

  7. Examining the Contributions of Syntactic Awareness and Syntactic Knowledge to Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimo, Danielle; Apel, Kenn; Fountain, Treeva

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect(s) of syntactic knowledge and syntactic awareness on adolescents' reading comprehension. Method: One hundred and seventy-nine, 9th and 10th grade students' syntactic awareness, syntactic knowledge and reading comprehension skills were assessed. In addition, other known contributors to…

  8. The Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes of Prospective Teachers: A Quantitative and Heuristic Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Rotha M.

    2012-01-01

    Moule (2005) suggest diverse students suffer isolation, invisibility and inappropriate labeling in many educational institutions. This mixed method study explores the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills, and attitudes of prospective teachers. The research questions are: (1) what are the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills and…

  9. Skilled Clinical Knowledge: The Value of Perceptual Awareness, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Patricia; Wrubel, Judith

    1982-01-01

    The authors identify important aspects of clinical knowledge development. They examine different areas and forms of clinical knowledge and share useful strategies that can be applied to the process of clinical knowledge development in practical settings. (Author/CT)

  10. Earth Science knowledge and Geodiversity awareness in the Langhe area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calorio, Matteo; Giardino, Marco; Lozar, Francesca; Perotti, Luigi; Vigna, Rossella

    2017-04-01

    Hills of Central Piemonte Region (Langhe, Monferrato) have a range of geological and geomorphological features that make them very attractive for both viticulture and tourism activities. Particularly, the Langhe area, located at the inner margin of the SW-Alps, is part of the Piedmont Basin (PB) a Late Eocene-Miocene succession composed by continental, shallow and deep marine deposits. Its monocline structure caused the present-day characteristic "cuestas" morphology of the Langhe hills. Quaternary evolution of river network is here characterized by the effects of the Tanaro piracy. Despite of its rich geodiversity and even if on 2014 the area has been included within the UNESCO WH, its recognition is limited to cultural heritage. In fact, a comprehensive use of Earth science knowledge in the assessment of natural heritage of this area is still lacking. As a consequence, geoheritage is under-recognized as well as endangered by both natural hazards and increased human "pressure". The geodiversity loss in the Langhe area is thus due either to human activities, i.e. high mechanization of viticulture activities in the last 30 years, particularly for new vineyards installation, or to active geomorphological processes, such as planar slide, flow, soil slips and floods. The Langhe area is in fact highly sensitive to climate change and prone to these processes. In term of "human sensitivity", several sociological surveys have shown that "perceived risk", not "real risk", influences people's behavior towards natural hazards. The same approach can be applied to geodiversity and geoheritage. Based on these assumptions, we considered the possible strategic roles played by dissemination of scientific research and application of new technologies: 1) to enhance awareness, either of geodiversity or environmental dynamics and 2) to improve knowledge, both on geoheritage management and natural risk reduction. Within the activities of the "PROGEO-Piemonte Project" we performed a

  11. A review of HIV/AIDS awareness and knowledge of preventive methods in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Afful-Mensah, Gloria

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews HIV/AIDS awareness, knowledge and preventive methods in Ghana over the past two decades drawing heavily on the 2003 and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHS). The review reveals that there is almost a universal awareness of HIV/AIDS in Ghana although there are still some deficiencies in comprehensive knowledge of the epidemic. Nevertheless, there seem to be some gender differences in the level of awareness since men have more knowledge on HIV/AIDS including its prevention than women. Besides, it is revealed that knowledge of preventive measures lagged behind awareness of the epidemic. In addition, male respondents between 15 and 24 years are more aware of the preventive measures than their female counterparts. Against the backdrop that women are more affected by the epidemic than men, there is the need to intensify the knowledge and preventive methods of HIV/AIDS especially among the women in their reproductive age.

  12. awareness and knowledge of glaucoma among adult patients at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PATIENTS AT THE EYE CLINIC OF A TEACHING HOSPITAL .... ready significant visual loss. The aim of this study ... factors associated with glaucoma awareness among eye patients ..... Health Attitudes in Switzerland: A survey of the general ...

  13. Sex Trafficking Related Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes among Adolescent Female Students in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study: e0133508

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roman Shrestha; Pramila Karki; Asha Suwal; Michael Copenhaver

    2015-01-01

    .... This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking...

  14. Sex Trafficking Related Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes among Adolescent Female Students in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shrestha, Roman; Karki, Pramila; Suwal, Asha; Copenhaver, Michael

    2015-01-01

    .... This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking...

  15. Skilled Clinical Knowledge: The Value of Perceptual Awareness, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Patricia; Wrubel, Judith

    1982-01-01

    Presents strategies for clinical knowledge development, for documenting, conserving, and enhancing the unique knowledge of the experienced clinician. Examines differences between practical and theoretical knowledge and discusses the implications for enhancing the practical knowledge nurses gain through clinical experience. (Author/CT)

  16. [Male contraception - the current state of knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmynt; Kasperska, Karolina; Lewandowska, Marta

    2016-08-01

    Contraception is important from a health, psychological and socioeconomic point of view. Due to the fact that male-based contraceptive methods are mostly represented by condoms and vasectomy, researchers are working on the new solutions, which could let the men be more involved in a conscious family planning. In this review we will present the current state of knowledge on this subject. There is a lot going on in the field of hormonal contraception. Studies including testosterone, progestins, synthetic androgens and other derivatives are on a different stages of clinical trials and mostly demonstrate high efficacy rates. Recent discovers of Izumo and Juno proteins, essential for the fertilization process, give hope for an easily reversible, non-hormonal method. Researchers are also trying to interfere with the process of spermatogenesis using BRDT inhibitor - JQ1, or neutralize the sperm by injecting styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) into the lumen of the vas deferens. The other studies explore processes involved in proper sperm motility. A vaccine which induces an immune response to the reproductive system is also an interesting method. The latest research use ultrasound waves and mechanical device which blocks the patency of vas deferens. The aim of the study current state of knowledge male contraception. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  17. Morphological Awareness in Chinese: Unique Associations of Homophone Awareness and Lexical Compounding to Word Reading and Vocabulary Knowledge in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Phil D.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Terry T.-Y.; Shu, Hua; Wong, Anita M.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth exploration of the associations of two aspects of morphological awareness in Chinese--homophone awareness and lexical compounding awareness--to Chinese word reading and vocabulary knowledge was the primary focus of the present study. Among 154 9-year-old Hong Kong Chinese children, both lexical compounding and homophone awareness were…

  18. Primordial Germ Cells: Current Knowledge and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Nikolic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is a condition that occurs very frequently and understanding what defines normal fertility is crucial to helping patients. Causes of infertility are numerous and the treatment often does not lead to desired pregnancy especially when there is a lack of functional gametes. In humans, the primordial germ cell (PGC is the primary undifferentiated stem cell type that will differentiate towards gametes: spermatozoa or oocytes. With the development of stem cell biology and differentiation protocols, PGC can be obtained from pluripotent stem cells providing a new therapeutic possibility to treat infertile couples. Recent studies demonstrated that viable mouse pups could be obtained from in vitro differentiated stem cells suggesting that translation of these results to human is closer. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about PGC indicating the perspective of their use in both research and medical application for the treatment of infertility.

  19. Current knowledge of nocardiosis in teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, S; Yoshida, T; Wang, P-C; Chen, S-C

    2018-03-01

    Nocardia sp. is the causative agent of nocardiosis, a lethal granulomatous disease of the skin, muscle, and various inner tissues affecting various teleost and shellfish. Four species of Nocardia have been isolated from diseased fish and shellfish, namely Nocardia asteroides, Nocardia seriolae, Nocardia salmonicida and Nocardia crassostreae. Therefore, in fish aquaculture, nocardiosis has caused severe economic losses, especially in the Asian region. Considerable research has been performed, since the first report of identified Nocardia sp. in fish, to characterize Nocardia sp. and identify rapid detection techniques, immune response against infection and prophylactic approaches. In this review, the current state of knowledge about nocardiosis in fish has been presented, including the pathogenesis, diagnosis, host immune response and vaccine development. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Assessment of Awareness and Knowledge of Hepatitis B among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    San Francisco Bay Area, California. Asian Pacific. Journal of Cancer Prevention 2007; 8: 127-134. 13. Bijay Misra, Chittaranjan Panda, Haribhakti Seba Das,. Kinshuk Chandra Nayak, Shivaram Prasad Singh. Study on awareness about Hepatitis B viral infection in coastal eastern india. Hepatitis B Annual 2009;. 6(1): 19-28.

  1. awareness and knowledge of glaucoma among adult patients at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUMMARY. Background: Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is an irreversible blinding disease that often presents late because it is symptomless in the early stages. Prognosis depends on early diagnosis and treatment and patient understanding of their condition. Many patients present late because of poor awareness ...

  2. Awareness and knowledge of disease surveillance and notification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative information was also elicited by key informant interviews, whereas an observational checklist, preceded by a desk review was used to examine the availability of facility records. Results: Although 89.8% of the health‑care workers were aware of the DSN system, only 33.3, 31.1, and 33.7% of them knew the ...

  3. Public awareness, knowledge and practice relating to epilepsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Epilepsy associated stigma remains a main hindrance to epilepsy care, especially in developing countries. In Africa, anti-epileptic drugs are available, affordable and effective. As of now, no community survey on epilepsy awareness and attitudes has been reported from this area Cameroon with a reported high ...

  4. Knowledge and Awareness of Breast Cancer among Rural Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. Acceptance Date: 10-10-2016 ... KEYWORDS: Awareness, breast cancer, screening, rural women, health education. Department of Nursing, .... Data were collected with the assistance of three research assistants. The questionnaire, which ...

  5. Awareness and knowledge of glaucoma among adult patients at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is an irreversible blinding disease that often presents late because it is symptomless in the early stages. Prognosis depends on early diagnosis and treatment and patient understanding of their condition. Many patients present late because of poor awareness and ...

  6. Knowledge and awareness of breast cancer among rural women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many women with breast cancer present at the health institutions with advanced multiple nodal involvements have poor prognostic outcome. ... and awareness of women on breast self-examination (BSE) in Umuowa, which would guide future intervention program on breast cancer prevention and control in the ...

  7. Low level of Hepatitis B knowledge and awareness among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Forty-one percent of the 504 women were aware of hepatitis B viral infection, 33.5% of the women were able to correctly mention the ... This could potentially hamper effective HBV prevention and control in Ghana. Education on hepatitis B ... during delivery, i.e. perinatally acquired.6,8,10,11At least. 50% of all HBV ...

  8. Use of dietary supplements, and awareness and knowledge of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and a younger age. Vitamin (63.2%), mineral (42.5%) and herbal (42.5%) supplements were consumed most. The two main reasons for use were to supplement the diet (68.1%) and to prevent disease (59.3%). A third of the sample (33.0%) was aware of the “5-a-day” concept, while only 21.4% understood the concept.

  9. Information Security Awareness On-Line Materials Design with Knowledge Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ruey-Shiang; Keh, Huan-Chao; Huang, Nan-Ching; Huang, Tien-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Information Security Awareness, though known as a primary and important issue in the domain of Information Security, CSI computer crime and security survey showed poor security awareness training in public and private sectors. In many studies, the authors have found that the usage of knowledge maps helps the process of learning and conception…

  10. Awareness and Knowledge of Glaucoma Among Adult Patients at the Eye Clinic of a Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkum, G; Lartey, S; Frimpong, C; Micah, F; Nkum, B

    2015-09-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is an irreversible blinding disease that often presents late because it is symptomless in the early stages. Prognosis depends on early diagnosis and treatment and patient understanding of their condition. Many patients present late because of poor awareness and knowledge. This study was conducted to assess patient's awareness and knowledge of glaucoma in a referral Teaching Hospital. Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among glaucoma patients aged 40 years and above attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH). Patients were selected by simple random sampling. They were recruited after informed consent had been given. A questionnaire on demographics, socio-economics and awareness of glaucoma was administered. There were a total of 117 participants, 61 males and 56 females. The median and modal age group was 50 and 59 years. Amongst the participants, 74% were aware of glaucoma. There were no significant statistical difference in the various age groups, sex, ethnic group or religion and their awareness of glaucoma (P > 0.05).There were statistically significant differences between those who had higher education and their awareness of glaucoma (P < 0.001). Yet only 27% of these had accurate knowledge of glaucoma. Glaucoma awareness in patients attending Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital is high. Higher education was associated with higher awareness yet this was not translated into accurate knowledge as there were significant misconceptions. There is the need to review the contents of health education with the aim of reducing dangerous misconception of glaucoma and targeting the lower socioeconomic population.

  11. Student Affairs Professionals' Self-Report of Multicultural Competence: Understanding Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.; Mayorga, Melissa M.; Salas, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Pope and Reynolds' (1997) theoretical model of multicultural competence for student affairs was empirically tested with 100 student affairs professionals. The domain subscales of awareness, knowledge, and skills revealed high internal consistency and intercorrelation. Males reported significantly higher multicultural awareness in their…

  12. The Effect of Aging Awareness Training on Knowledge of, and Attitudes towards, Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Mahoney, Berenice

    2003-01-01

    Before and 1 month after age awareness workshops, 200 British participants took the Palmore Aging Quiz and Fraboni Scale of Ageism. Palmore scores significantly improved but Fraboni scores were unchanged. Results suggest that increased awareness improves factual knowledge but does not change attitudes toward aging and older people. (Contains 18…

  13. Assessment of the Current Cultural Awareness and Training for the Air Force Contingency Contracting Officer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grigorian, Reza A

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the current cultural awareness of contracting officers and the effectiveness of cross-cultural training provided to contracting officers through the Defense Acquisition University (DAU...

  14. Knowledge and awareness of forensic odontology among dentists in India: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ramandeep Singh Gambhir; Gurminder Singh; Puneet Singh Talwar; Jaskaran Gambhir; Vaibhav Munjal

    2016-01-01

    Forensic dentistry involves the processing, review, evaluation, and presentation of dental evidence with the purpose of contributing scientific and objective data to legal processes. The present, systematic review was conducted to assess knowledge and awareness of forensic odontology among dentists in India. A systematic review of relevant cross-sectional studies was conducted regarding the level of knowledge, awareness, and practical application of forensic odontology among dentists in India...

  15. Awareness of current recommendations and guidelines regarding strength training for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröberg, Andreas; Alricsson, Marie; Ahnesjö, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Physical conditioning of youth has always been a controversial topic as it raises ethical, physiological, and medical issues. Current recommendations and guidelines suggest that strength training is a relatively safe and worthwhile method in conditioning youth. This, however, requires well-informed coaches who follow age-appropriate strength training recommendations and guidelines, compiles well-designed strength training programs, and provides qualified supervision and instructions. The purpose of this study was to investigate coaches' awareness of current recommendations and guidelines regarding strength training for youth. A total of 39 football (US: soccer) coaches (34 males and 5 females) training boys in age groups 8-12 years were included in this study. Data were collected using an attitude statement questionnaire, and the assertions were based upon current recommendations and guidelines. The results revealed significant differences among coaches in terms of knowledge of important aspects of strength training for youth. The results suggested that coaches in the present study were not aware of the latest recommendations and guidelines regarding strength training for youth.

  16. Assessing awareness and knowledge of hypertension in an at-risk population in the Karen ethnic rural community, Thasongyang, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung MN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myo Nyein Aung,1,2 Thaworn Lorga,2 Janthila Srikrajang,2 Nongluk Promtingkran,2 Suchart Kreuangchai,2 Wilawan Tonpanya,2 Phatchanan Vivarakanon,2 Puangpet Jaiin,2 Nara Praipaksin,3 Apiradee Payaprom41Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 3Baan Rekati Health Station, Thasongyang, Thailand; 4Thasongyang Hospital, ThailandBackground: Hypertension is currently a global health concern. Rural and minority populations are increasingly exposed to risk factors as a result of urbanization, leading to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We conducted a survey in the rural Karen community in Thasongyang District, Tak Province, Thailand, with the aims of determining: the distribution of blood pressure across different age groups; the prevalence of hypertension and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, including diabetes, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and excess alcohol use; knowledge and awareness of hypertension as a disease; and knowledge and awareness of risk factors for hypertension among the population at risk.Methods: This was a community-based, cross-sectional survey of 298 rural Karen residents. A set of questionnaires assessing lifestyle-related health risk behaviors and awareness and knowledge of hypertension were used. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, weight, height, and waist circumference were measured.Results: Median systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 110 (range 100–120 mmHg and 70 (range 60–80 mmHg, respectively. High blood pressure was observed in more than 27% of the population, with 15% being hypertensive and 12% being prehypertensive. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that people in the Karen community who were aware of hypertension were less likely to be current smokers (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.29–0.97 and those with primary

  17. Current Knowledge on Cannabinoids in Oral Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dayong; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is a new biological matrix for clinical and forensic drug testing, offering non-invasive and directly observable sample collection reducing adulteration potential, ease of multiple sample collections, lower biohazard risk during collection, recent exposure identification, and stronger correlation with blood than urine concentrations. Because cannabinoids are usually the most prevalent analytes in illicit drug testing, application of OF drug testing requires sufficient scientific data to support sensitive and specific OF cannabinoid detection. This review presents current knowledge on OF cannabinoids, evaluating pharmacokinetic properties, detection windows, and correlation with other biological matrices and impairment from field applications and controlled drug administration studies. In addition, on-site screening technologies, confirmatory analytical methods, drug stability, and effects of sample collection procedure, adulterants, and passive environmental exposure are reviewed. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol OF concentrations could be > 1000 μg/L shortly after smoking, whereas minor cannabinoids are detected at 10-fold and metabolites at 1000-fold lower concentrations. OF research over the past decade demonstrated that appropriate interpretation of test results requires a comprehensive understanding of distinct elimination profiles and detection windows for different cannabinoids, which are influenced by administration route, dose, and drug use history. Thus, each drug testing program should establish cutoff criteria, collection/analysis procedures, and storage conditions tailored to its purposes. Building a scientific basis for OF testing is on-going, with continuing OF cannabinoids research on passive environmental exposure, drug use history, donor physiological conditions, and oral cavity metabolism needed to better understand mechanisms of cannabinoid OF disposition and expand OF drug testing applicability. PMID:23983217

  18. Crowdsourcing awareness: exploration of the ovarian cancer knowledge gap through Amazon Mechanical Turk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca R Carter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic disease in the United States, with more women dying from this cancer than all gynecological cancers combined. Ovarian cancer has been termed the "silent killer" because some patients do not show clear symptoms at an early stage. Currently, there is a lack of approved and effective early diagnostic tools for ovarian cancer. There is also an apparent severe knowledge gap of ovarian cancer in general and of its indicative symptoms among both public and many health professionals. These factors have significantly contributed to the late stage diagnosis of most ovarian cancer patients (63% are diagnosed at Stage III or above, where the 5-year survival rate is less than 30%. The paucity of knowledge concerning ovarian cancer in the United States is unknown. METHODS: The present investigation examined current public awareness and knowledge about ovarian cancer. The study implemented design strategies to develop an unbiased survey with quality control measures, including the modern application of multiple statistical analyses. The survey assessed a reasonable proxy of the US population by crowdsourcing participants through the online task marketplace Amazon Mechanical Turk, at a highly condensed rate of cost and time compared to traditional recruitment methods. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of ovarian cancer was compared to that of breast cancer using repeated measures, bias control and other quality control measures in the survey design. Analyses included multinomial logistic regression and categorical data analysis procedures such as correspondence analysis, among other statistics. We confirmed the relatively poor public knowledge of ovarian cancer among the US population. The simple, yet novel design should set an example for designing surveys to obtain quality data via Amazon Mechanical Turk with the associated analyses.

  19. Awareness training and hearing protection devices: Current practices in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This presentation outlines the importance of awareness training of managers at all levels and miners regarding the importance of hearing protection devices and adequate knowledge, motivation and training to prevent hearing loss....

  20. Current trends on knowledge-based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia-García, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book presents innovative and high-quality research on the implementation of conceptual frameworks, strategies, techniques, methodologies, informatics platforms and models for developing advanced knowledge-based systems and their application in different fields, including Agriculture, Education, Automotive, Electrical Industry, Business Services, Food Manufacturing, Energy Services, Medicine and others. Knowledge-based technologies employ artificial intelligence methods to heuristically address problems that cannot be solved by means of formal techniques. These technologies draw on standard and novel approaches from various disciplines within Computer Science, including Knowledge Engineering, Natural Language Processing, Decision Support Systems, Artificial Intelligence, Databases, Software Engineering, etc. As a combination of different fields of Artificial Intelligence, the area of Knowledge-Based Systems applies knowledge representation, case-based reasoning, neural networks, Semantic Web and TICs used...

  1. Levels of Phonological Awareness, Working Memory, and Lexical Knowledge in Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Motta Bandini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between oral language, phonological awareness, and working memory have been empirically demonstrated, however, phonological awareness encompasses different abilities, assessed at different levels. The present study investigated the possible associations between specific phonological awareness abilities and phonological working memory in first-grade students. In the initial phase ( n = 254, the study evaluated the abilities of phonological awareness and phonological working memory and found a high positive correlation between these abilities, thus confirming the findings of previous studies. The second phase ( n = 12 evaluated the vocabulary of individuals who, in the initial phase, showed low or high working memory and phonological awareness scores. Students with low working memory and low phonological awareness capacities had low scores in expressive language abilities, suggesting that phonological working memory may have direct effects on lexical knowledge. These results contribute to the understanding of the relationships investigated in this study and have important implications for planning teaching strategies.

  2. Validating a Questionnaire Assessing Knowledge and Awareness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After 40 submissions across five departments, it was found that the questionnaire was not capturing the intended information. The initial questionnaire was not able to differentiate between partial understanding and no understanding of an emergency trolley or capture the difference in knowledge on necessary emergency.

  3. Organizational Self-Awareness in the Key to Knowledge Superiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    and Learning. Hershey, PA: IRM Press. There are other paths for knowledge flow, particularly to overcome organization- specific barriers to flow, or...grappling with who we are because we can’t be who we used to be anymore, which s***ed...It’s not clear what the hell to do.” (McNish and Silcoff

  4. Awareness and knowledge of prostate cancer among men in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer of the prostate is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly male population. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of prostate cancer among men in Benin City, Nigeria. This cross sectional study included 402 men above 40 years. A structured questionnaire was administered to each ...

  5. Toxoplasmosis - Awareness and knowledge among medical doctors in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efunshile, Akinwale Michael; Elikwu, Charles John; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite causing high disease burden worldwide. A One Health approach is needed to understand, prevent, and control toxoplasmosis, while knowledge gaps in the One Health aspects have been identified among medical professionals in earlier studies. As a One Health collaboration between veterinary and medical fields, we surveyed the knowledge on toxoplasmosis among medical doctors in Nigeria. The knowledge questions, which the participants answered without consulting literature and colleagues, covered epidemiological One Health aspects as well as clinical interspecialty aspects of T. gondii infections. Altogether 522 medical doctors from four tertiary hospitals completed the questionnaire. The mean number of correct answers in the knowledge questions was 7.5, and 8.4% of the participants selected at least 12 of the 17 correct answers. The proportion of medical doctors scoring such a high score was significantly higher among those who reported having seen a case of clinical toxoplasmosis than in those who did not. While 62% of the medical doctors participating in our study knew that cats can shed T. gondii in their feces, 36% incorrectly suggested that humans could do that too. That T. gondii infection can be meatborne was known by 69%, but that it can be also waterborne only by 28% of the medical doctors participating in our study. Most of the medical doctors, 78%, knew that clinical toxoplasmosis may involve the central nervous system, while only 37% answered that it can involve the eyes. Our results suggested knowledge gaps, which need to be addressed in Continuous Medical Education. The identified gaps included both intersectoral One Health aspects and interspecialty aspects: For prevention and management of toxoplasmosis, knowing the main transmission routes and that the parasite can affect several organs is relevant.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durongritichai, Vanida

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe knowledge, attitudes, and self-awareness, and to identify predictable factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 844 first-year university students using a validated, self-administered questionnaire as a research instrument. The questionnaire included items assessing knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. It was found that 22.4% of the subjects received various sexually provocative media. The university student's knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and preventive behaviors toward HIV/AIDS were at a high level. The results from the multiple regression analysis identified self-awareness, faculty, sex, sexual-risk score, income-per-month, GPA, and knowledge as significant independent predictors of HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. These factors contributed to 36.9% of the explanation of HIV preventive behaviors, and the strongest predictor was found to be self-awareness. Scientific information, and useful and productive life skills are needed to educate the university students regarding the health consequences of HIV/AIDS. An integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating knowledge, attitudes, and awareness to control the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people.

  7. Evaluating a Cultural Competency Curriculum: Changes in Dental Students' Perceived Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrqiq, Hosam M; Scott, Thayer E; Mascarenhas, Ana K

    2015-09-01

    In response to current and projected demographic changes in the United States, many dental schools have taken steps to increase the cultural competence of their students through various educational methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the cultural competency curriculum at Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine (GSDM). The curriculum was evaluated using a pre and post design, utilizing an instrument developed for pharmacy students and modified for dental students. The questionnaire was comprised of 11 items designed to assess changes in students' awareness, knowledge, and skills in providing culturally competent care. Data were collected for two classes of second-year DMD students and first-year Advanced Standing students. The total number of returned surveys was 485, for a response rate of 79.5%. The students' post-curriculum mean scores were all higher than their pre-curriculum scores for overall cultural competence (pre 26.5±6.3 to post 29.8±7.2) and for individual subscores on awareness (pre 5.3±1.4 to post 5.5±1.5), knowledge (pre 7.2±1.9 to post 8.1±2.1), and skills (pre 14.1±4.4 to post 16.2±4.4). The improvements on all scores were statistically significant (pawareness component. This evaluation suggests that the cultural competency curriculum at GSDM has been effective in producing improvements in these students' cultural competence in the domains of knowledge and skills.

  8. Knowledge, Awareness and Behavior: HIV/AIDS and Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Eloise

    2016-02-01

    African Americans are the most affected by HIV/AIDS. Both males and females continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. They are often drug users or participate in street/drug subculture. Recent weather disasters have required identification of knowledge, beliefs, conduct norms and behavior patterns that are HIV/AIDS risk factors for disaster survivors. This paper examines patterns of behavior and common practices related to HIV among disaster survivors. Data for this paper come from a three year renewal project which focused upon the processes by which illicit drug markets were reformulated after disasters and practices of risk behaviors for HIV/AIDS. Hurricanes Katrina, Gustav and Ike presented the opportunity to examine the impact of disasters upon risky behavior among illicit drug users and sellers. From 2010-2013 ethnographic study was conducted in New Orleans, Louisiana, Houston and Galveston, Texas. Staff completed in-depth interviews with 132 focal respondents of drug users and sellers. There were 57 focus groups with 243 focus group participants; 350 drug using/selling respondents completed a survey protocol (CAPI), organized around their experiences during the hurricanes. In both cities respondents displayed knowledge about HIV, modes of transmission and knew that HIV infection can lead to AIDS. Knowledge about time between exposure and infection was mostly imprecise. Most respondents reported they had been tested for HIV multiple times. A large number of participants reported learning about HIV in school, older respondents (mid-40s to 60) reported their knowledge came from television or the streets. Participants expressed fatalistic attitudes toward HIV, believing the virus was fatal even with medication. With the increase of disasters, more attention needs to be placed upon programs focused on drug consumers. Schools, clinics, public information sources, i.e., TV and radio can make understanding HIV/AIDS a priority through taking into

  9. A Review of HIV/AIDS Awareness and Knowledge of Preventive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This paper reviews HIV/AIDS awareness, knowledge and preventive methods in Ghana over the past two decades drawing heavily on the 2003 ... intensify the knowledge and preventive methods of HIV/AIDS especially among the women in their reproductive age. Afr J ..... include inter alia maintenance of safe blood supply ...

  10. Vocabulary Knowledge and Morphological Awareness in Chinese as a Heritage Language (CHL) Reading Comprehension Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haomin; Koda, Keiko

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the role of vocabulary knowledge and morphological awareness in reading comprehension ability of Chinese as a heritage language (CHL) learners. One hundred ninety five CHL students participated in this study and completed a series of measures including two sets of vocabulary knowledge (one consisting of items pertaining to…

  11. Awareness about biomedical waste management and knowledge of effective recycling of dental materials among dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Pathak, Ruchi; Singh, Dhirendra K; Jalaluddin, Md; Kore, Shobha A; Kore, Abhijeet R

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical waste management has become a concern with increasing number of dental practitioners in India. Being health care professionals, dentists should be aware regarding safe disposal of biomedical waste and recycling of dental materials to minimize biohazards to the environment. The aim of the present study was to assess awareness regarding biomedical waste management as well as knowledge of effective recycling and reuse of dental materials among dental students. This cross-sectional study was conducted among dental students belonging from all dental colleges of Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India) from February 2016 to April 2016. A total of 500 students (208 males and 292 females) participated in the study, which was conducted in two phases. A questionnaire was distributed to assess the awareness of biomedical waste management and knowledge of effective recycling of dental materials, and collected data was examined on a 5-point unipolar scale in percentages to assess the relative awareness regarding these two different categorizes. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyzed collected data. Forty-four percent of the dental students were not at all aware about the management of biomedical waste, 22% were moderately aware, 21% slightly aware, 7% very aware, and 5% fell in extremely aware category. Similarly, a higher percentage of participants (61%) were completely unaware regarding recycling and reusing of biomedical waste. There is lack of sufficient knowledge among dental students regarding management of biomedical waste and recycling or reusing of dental materials. Considering its impact on the environment, biomedical waste management requires immediate academic assessment to increase the awareness during training courses.

  12. Awareness and use of Web 2.0 technologies in sharing of agricultural knowledge in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulystan P. Mtega

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the extent to which agricultural researchers and extension workers were aware of Web 2.0 technologies and put them into practice in their daily work. The study involved 107 respondents in the first phase and 148 in the second phase. Respondents were from agricultural research and training institutions as well as agricultural extension departments from selected districts across the country. Structured questionnaires were administered to selected respondents. Findings show that 43.9% of the respondents were aware of Web 2.0 while 56.1% knew nothing about this concept. Facebook and Wikipedia were found to be the most used Web 2.0 tools by many respondents while Delicious, Pbworks, Picasa and Digg were identified as among the less commonly used tools by majority of the respondents. The study recommends the need for providing appropriate Web 2.0 training packages to agricultural extension workers, researchers, trainers and other stakeholders in order to enhance knowledge sharing among them for improved agricultural productivity in the country.

  13. Awareness, knowledge, and attitude of dentistry students in Kerman towards evidence-based dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarani, Arezoo; Sarani, Melika; Abdar, Mohammad Esmaeli; Abdar, Zahra Esmaeili

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Evidence-based care helps dentists provide quality dental services to patients, and such care is based on the use of reliable information about treatment and patient care from a large number of papers, books, and published textbooks. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of dentistry students towards evidence-based dentistry. Methods In this cross-sectional study, all dentistry students who were studying in their sixth semester and higher in the Kerman School of Dentistry (n = 73) were studied. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17 and the independent-samples t-tests and the ANOVA test. Results The means of the students’ knowledge, awareness, and attitude scores were 29.2 ± 10.8, 29.9 ± 8.12 and 44.5 ± 5.3, respectively. Among demographic variables, only the number of semesters showed a significant difference with knowledge, awareness, and attitude of dentistry students toward evidence-based dentistry (p = 0.001). Conclusion According to the results of this study, knowledge and awareness of dentistry students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences towards evidence-based dentistry were average and have a neutral attitude. Thus, providing necessary training in this regard will cause promoting the knowledge, awareness, and improved attitudes of dentistry students. PMID:27382446

  14. Awareness and knowledge of methylmercury in fish in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lando, Amy M., E-mail: amy.lando@fda.hhs.gov [Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Zhang, Yuanting [Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    In the 1970s several states in the Great Lakes region became concerned about mercury contamination in lakes and rivers and were the first to issue local fish consumption advisories. In 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advised pregnant women, nursing mothers, young children, and women who may become pregnant not to consume shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish and recommended that these women not exceed 12 ounces of other fish per week. In 2004, FDA reissued this advice jointly with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and modified it slightly to provide information about consumption of canned tuna and more details about consumption of recreationally caught fish. Though several studies have examined consumers' awareness of the joint FDA and EPA advisory as well as different state advisories, few used representative data. We examined the changes in awareness and knowledge of mercury as a problem in fish using the pooled nationally representative 2001 and 2006 Food Safety Surveys (FSS) with sample sizes of 4482 in 2001 and 2275 in 2006. Our results indicated an increase in consumers' awareness of mercury as a problem in fish (69% in 2001 to 80% in 2006, p<.001). In our regression models, we found that in both years, parents having children less than 5 years of age were more aware of mercury in fish and knowledgeable about the information contained in the national advisories about mercury in fish (p<.01) than other adults. In both 2001 and 2006, women of childbearing age (aged 18-45) were less aware and knowledgeable about this information than other women. However, women of all age groups had larger gains in awareness and knowledge than their male counterparts during this time. Participants' race, education, income, region, fish preparation experiences, having a foodborne illness in the past year, and risk perceptions about the safety of food were significant predictors of their awareness and knowledge. - Research

  15. Level of Awareness and Knowledge of Breast Cancer in Nigeria. A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayide, Agodirin S; Halimat, Akande J; Samuel, Olatoke A; Ganiyu, Rahman A; Soliu, Oguntola A

    2017-03-01

    Despite reports of improved awareness of breast cancer entity and seemingly upbeat levels of other awareness subthemes in Nigeria, patients continue to present late when treatment is least rewarding. This paradoxical trend of both rising awareness and late presentation coupled with reports suggesting other competing drivers of late presentation question the "theory of poor awareness" as the foremost driver of late presentations. By aggregating available data, we aimed to assess what still constitutes poor breast cancer awareness in Nigeria in order to suggest how to allocate resources to reverse the paradox. Studies conducted on Nigerian populace from 2000 to date were reviewed systematically. Search was made in PROSPERO, PubMed/MEDLINE, AJOL, Cochrane library, GOOGLE, ResearchGate and ACADEMIA. Primary outcome was level of awareness about breast cancer entity. Fifty-one eligible (48 descriptive surveys, 3 interventional ones) studies were reviewed. They included 19,598 respondents (98.5% females; 43% rural dwellers). 17,086(87.2%) were laypersons in various walks of life; 2,512(12.8%) were healthcare professionals. There were high levels of awareness of breast cancer entity, BSE, knowledge of fatality and benefit of early detection (weighted percentages 80.6%, 60.1%, 73.2% and 73.9% respectively). Weighted percentages of knowledge of symptoms/signs was 45.1%. Weighted percentages of sense of susceptibility and performance of BSE were low-26.8% and 22.9% respectively. Generally, rate of performance of screening did not vary with changes in the level of awareness/knowledge of concepts. In general, low awareness of breast cancer may not be the direct and foremost driver of persistent late presentation in Nigeria.

  16. Awareness and Knowledge of Ergonomics Among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oladeinde, BH; Ekejindu, IM; R Omoregie; Aguh, OD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ergonomics awareness helps in its right application and contributes significantly to general wellbeing and safety of worker at workplace. Aim: This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing the level of awareness and knowledge of the science of ergonomics among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 106 medical laboratory scientists comprising 64 and 42 in public and private laboratories, respectively, were recruited for t...

  17. Awareness and Knowledge of Glaucoma in Central India: A Hospital-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharana, Prafulla K; Rai, Vaishali G; Pattebahadur, Rajesh; Singhi, Shipra; Chauhan, Ashish K

    2017-01-01

    To assess the awareness and knowledge of glaucoma among people attending the ophthalmology outpatient department at a tertiary care hospital in central India. A prospective observational study. A questionnaire-based study was conducted, involving persons aged 18 and above attending the ophthalmology outpatient department from October 2014 to September 2015. Data on awareness and knowledge of glaucoma was collected through a face-to-face interview. Fourteen hundred people participated in the study. The mean age of participants was 43 ± 15 years (range, 18-85). The study participants included 53% men and 47% women. Only 27% (n = 380/1400) of the participants were aware of glaucoma. Age, sex, and presence or type of refractive error had no impact on glaucoma awareness. Awareness level was greater in individuals with higher education levels and those belonging to an upper socioeconomic class (SEC). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significantly higher levels of glaucoma awareness among participants belonging to the upper 2 SECs (P = 0.05) and those educated above the high school level (P = 0.001). The most common source of awareness was close acquaintance with relatives, famly members, and friends of glaucoma patients. Awareness of glaucoma in India is low. Lack of education and lower socioeconomic status are the major risk factors for late preentation of glaucoma. Continuous presence of a low level of awareness and the same factors accounting for it warrants the need for an aggressive and refined approach to increase awareness of glaucoma to prevent glaucoma-related blindness. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  18. Knowledge and awareness of medical doctors, medical students and nurses about dentistry in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetola, Elijah Olufemi; Oyewole, Taiwo; Adedigba, Micheal; Aregbesola, Stephen Tunde; Umezudike, Kehinde; Adewale, Adedotun

    2016-01-01

    Various studies have reported poor awareness and knowledge of dentistry in the Nigerian population. There is, however, paucity of information assessing the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. The present study is aimed at determining the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. Self-administered questionnaires were randomly distributed among medical doctors/students, and nurses of Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospitals' Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Information collected using the questionnaire included participants' biodata, questions evaluating dental awareness, knowledge of systemic and oral health connections as well as referral practices. The data analysis was done with STATA version 11 software. A total of 300 questionnaires were randomly distributed among doctors/students and nurses, 206 were returned (response rate of 69%). Of the returned questionnaires, 129(63%) were males and 77(37%) were females. There were 42 medical doctors, 49 nurses and 115 medical students. The mean age of the participants was 26.7 years (SD 5.2). Majority (99.5%) was aware of dental profession, but 92% had never referred patients for dental consultation. One third (31%) of medical doctors believed that Ludwig angina was a cardiac disease. A large proportion of the respondents (61%) see no need for routine dental visit while 27% would want to visit the dentist only when they had a dental complaint. Although a large percentage of the participants claimed to be aware of dentistry, our findings revealed low level of knowledge and attitude to Dentistry. Efforts should be made towards closing this knowledge gap to achieve efficient oral health.

  19. REVIEW OF CURRENT TRENDS IN SHAPING FINANCIAL KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Gemzik-Salwach

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The activity of local government units requires them to constantly deepen the financial knowledge and competence of their employees. This article presents review of current trends in shaping financial knowledge of local government units in Poland. The first part of this paper shows trends concerning sources of gaining financial knowledge. The second part shows the most interesting areas of financial knowledge. The third part contains the review of the most popular financial knowledge sharing methods.

  20. A survey of physicians knowledge regarding awareness of maternal alcohol use and the diagnosis of FAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koren Gideon

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol is the most widely used drug in the world that is a human teratogen whose use among women of childbearing age has been steadily increasing. It is also probable that Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is under diagnosed by physicians. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1 to evaluate the experience, knowledge and confidence of family physicians with respect to the diagnosis of FAS and 2 to evaluate physicians awareness of maternal drinking patterns. Methods and Participants A multiple choice anonymous questionnaire was sent to a randomly selected group of family physicians in the Metropolitan Toronto area. Results There was a 73% (75/103 total response rate; Overall, 6/75 (8% of family physicians reported that they had actually diagnosed a child with FAS. 17.9% had suspicions but did not make a diagnosis and 12.7% reported making a referral to confirm the diagnosis. Physician rated confidence in the ability to diagnosis FAS was low, with 49% feeling they had very little confidence. 75% reported counselling pregnant women and 60.8% reported counselling childbearing women in general on the use of alcohol. When asked what screening test they used to detect the use of alcohol, 75% described frequency/quantity. Not a single respondent identified using the current accepted screening method for alcohol use (TWEAK which is recommended by The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Conclusions Family physicians do not feel confident about diagnosing FAS. None of the physicians were aware of the current screening methods to accurately gage alcohol use in pregnant and childbearing women

  1. Awareness, knowledge, and practice: A survey of glaucoma in north Indian rural residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Rewri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies done on the prevalence of glaucoma have reported a high proportion of undiagnosed patients. Late diagnosis is related to increased risk of glaucoma associated with visual disability. Lack of awareness and non-availability of appropriate screening procedures are among the major reasons for non-diagnosis or late diagnosis of glaucoma. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the level of awareness about glaucoma among the North Indian rural population. Materials and Methods: A group-administered, questionnaire-based survey, involving 5000 rural residents (aged 20 and above was conducted through random sampling. The questionnaire was structured to evaluate the level of awareness and knowledge about glaucoma and the effect of gender, education status, and glaucoma diagnosis was also studied. The source of awareness about glaucoma was also questioned. Results: Of the 5000 individuals enrolled for the survey, responses from 4927 (98.5%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 98.2 - 98.9 participants, including 3104 males (63%; 95% CI: 61.7 - 64.3 and 1823 females (37%; 95% CI: 35.7 - 38.3 were evaluated. A total of 409 (~8.3%; 95% CI: 7.6 - 9.14 respondents were aware about glaucoma and only 93 (1.89%; 95% CI: 1.55 - 2.31 were qualified as having knowledge about glaucoma as per the set questionnaire. Education was the only variable significantly correlated (P value < 0.001 with the awareness and knowledge of glaucoma out of the parameters included in this study. Close acquaintance with a glaucoma patient was the most common source of information. Conclusions: There is a lack of awareness about glaucoma among the rural residents of North India. The study findings stress the need to spread awareness about glaucoma for prevention of glaucoma-related blindness.

  2. Awareness, attitudes toward epilepsy, and first aid knowledge of seizures of hospital staff in Henan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting; Gao, Yajuan; Zhu, Xuerui; Wang, Na; Chen, Yanan; Zhang, Jiahui; He, Guinv; Feng, Yan; Xu, Jun; Han, Xiong; Zhang, Jiewen

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate awareness of, attitudes toward, and first aid knowledge of seizures of hospital staff in Henan, China. Two hundred nineteen hospital staff, including doctors, nurses, medical technicians, logisticians, and executives working at tertiary hospitals in Henan, China, completed the survey from March to September in 2016. The data comprised the demographic data section, awareness of epilepsy section, attitude toward epilepsy section, and first aid knowledge of seizure attack section. The participants obtained a mean score of 7.48±1.705 on the awareness of epilepsy section, and a mean score of 5.32±1.165 on the first aid knowledge of seizure attacks section. There were significant correlations between educational level (r=0.187, P=0.006), occupation (r=-0.244, P=0.000), and attitudes toward patients with epilepsy (r=0.351, P=0.000) with the awareness of epilepsy. There were significant correlations between age (r=0.170, P=0.014), educational status (r=0.139, P=0.040), and professional titles (r=0.197, P=0.004) with the first aid knowledge of seizures. The study showed that hospital staff had a moderate level of knowledge regarding epilepsy, and they generally displayed a positive attitude. It was also determined that as the awareness of epilepsy increased, they displayed more positive attitudes toward patients with epilepsy. The study also suggests that specialists working on epilepsy should provide more lectures and educational sessions to improve the knowledge of and attitude toward epilepsy and first aid knowledge of seizures among hospital staff. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Local newspapers, drinking water pathways, and dimensions of knowledge: Public awareness amid the hydrofracking debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Weston

    Studies on determinants of pro-environmental behavior have found environmental knowledge to be a prerequisite for public participation. While much has been written on correlations between media coverage and environmental knowledge in general, a gap exists concerning the linkages between media coverage and knowledge of an individual's local environment. This study measures public awareness of local drinking water supplies in urban communities, using a face-to-face survey of 90 respondents in three upstate New York cities. The findings show no significant correlation between newspaper coverage of local water issues and awareness of one's drinking water source; however, the surveys revealed high correlations between such awareness and home ownership (as opposed to renting) and between awareness and receiving a water bill. In addition, there was a positive correlation between reading about a local water-related issue (in this case, hydraulic fracturing for natural gas in the Marcellus Shale) in a local newspaper and possessing basic knowledge of that issue. These findings contribute to previous research on environmental knowledge, and have practical applications in efforts addressing: civic engagement, public understanding of science, citizen participation, and democratic practices. Keywords: Public understanding, environmental communication, water resources management, hydraulic fracturing, schema theory

  4. Sleep bruxism: Current knowledge and contemporary management

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian U.J. Yap; Ai Ping Chua

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular diso...

  5. Awareness and knowledge of oral cancer among university students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Alabsi, Aied M; Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed; Ali, Riyadh Saif

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge of oral cancer and its associated factors among university students in Malaysia. A cross sectional study was conducted among 200 university students in Malaysia. A self administered questionnaire was used to collect data. It included questions on socio- demographic data, awareness and knowledge of oral cancer. Mean age of the respondents was 21.5 ± 2.5 and the age ranged from 18 to 27 years. The majority of the respondents were aware of oral cancer (92.0%) and recognized the followings as signs and symptoms of oral cancer: ulcer and oral bleeding (71.0%), followed by swelling (61.5%). A satisfactory knowledge was observed on the following risk factors; smoking (95.5%), poor oral hygiene (90.5%), family history (90.0%), alcohol (84.5%) and poor fitting dentures (83.0%). However, unsatisfactory knowledge was observed about hot/spicy food (46.5%), obesity (36.0%), old age (31.5%), dietary factor (29.0%) and smokeless tobacco (25.5%). Knowledge of oral cancer was associated significantly with age (p<0.01), year of study (p<0.01) and course of study (p<0.01). Instead of satisfactory awareness and knowledge of oral cancer and its clinical presentations, inadequate knowledge was observed about its risk factors. There is a need to introduce oral cancer education among university students.

  6. An Explicit/Implicit Lead to Producing Requests: Eliciting Learners’ Awareness or Soliciting Metapragmatic Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Ariana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to investigate the extent to which two types of pragmatic instruction -explicit versus implicit- affect learners’ knowledge in terms of their awareness and production of request strategies. Thirty students with the same level of proficiency were divided into two groups (explicit and implicit. They were exposed to listening excerpts taken from the book Tactics for Listening, with the focus on request making strategies. While the explicit group was equipped with direct awareness-raising tasks and written metapragmatic explanations on the use of appropriate requests, the implicit group was provided with a set of implicit awareness-raising tasks. Outcomes of the study demonstrate that pragmatic instruction of requesting improved learners’ awareness of both groups. Also an improvement of learners’ production of requests did take place in both groups after the interventional period. However, the explicit group outperformed the implicit one as far as production of request making was concerned.

  7. Increased Performance Variability as a Marker of Implicit/Explicit Interactions in Knowledge Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kirov, Roumen; Kolev, Vasil

    2015-01-01

    Only some, but not all, individuals who practice tasks with dual structure, overt and covert, are able to comprehend consciously a hidden regularity. The formation of implicit representations of regularity has been proposed to be critical for subsequent awareness. However, explicit knowledge also has been predicted by the activation of executive control systems during task encoding. The present study analyzed performance patterns in participants who could comprehend task regularity and those who could not at delayed recall. Specifically, the role of practice-based knowledge of sequence for individual awareness was focused on. A lateralized variant of the visual serial response time task (SRTT) comprising structured and random blocks was practiced in implicit conditions by 109 participants before and after 10-h retention, with explicit knowledge about covert sequence tested thereafter. Sequence learning was quantified using the normalized difference between response speed in regular and subsequent random blocks. Patterns of performance dynamics were evaluated using response speed, response variability, and error rate. Major results demonstrate that (1) All participants who became aware of the sequence (solvers), gained practice-based sequence knowledge at learning or after retention, (2) Such knowledge also was accumulated during learning by participants who remained fully unaware about covert task structure, (3) Only in explicit solvers, however, was sequence-specific learning accompanied by a prominent increase in performance variability. (4) Specific features and dynamics of performance patterns distinguished different cognitive modes of SRTT processing, each of which supported subsequent knowledge awareness. It is concluded that a behavioral precursor of sequence awareness is the combination of speeded sequence processing and increased performance variability, pointing to an interaction between implicit and explicit processing systems. These results may

  8. Increased performance variability as a marker of implicit/explicit interactions in knowledge awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana eYordanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Only some, but not all, individuals who practice tasks with dual structure, overt and covert, are able to comprehend consciously a hidden regularity. The formation of implicit representations of regularity has been proposed to be critical for subsequent awareness. However, explicit knowledge also has been predicted by the activation of executive control systems during task encoding. The present study analysed performance patterns in participants who could comprehend task regularity and those who could not at delayed recall. Specifically, the role of practice-based knowledge of sequence for individual awareness was focused on.A lateralized variant of the visual serial response time task (SRTT comprising structured and random blocks was practiced in implicit conditions by 109 participants before and after 10-h retention, with explicit knowledge about covert sequence tested thereafter. Sequence learning was quantified using the normalized difference between response speed in regular and subsequent random blocks. Patterns of performance dynamics were evaluated using response speed, response variability, and error rate. Major results demonstrate that (1 All participants who became aware of the sequence (solvers, gained practice-based sequence knowledge at learning or after retention, (2 Such knowledge also was accumulated during learning by participants who remained fully unaware about covert task structure, (3 Only in explicit solvers, however, was sequence-specific learning accompanied by a prominent increase in performance variability. (4 Specific features and dynamics of performance patterns distinguished different cognitive modes of SRTT processing, each of which supported subsequent knowledge awareness.It is concluded that a behavioural precursor of sequence awareness is the combination of speeded sequence processing and increased performance variability, pointing to an interaction between implicit and explicit processing systems. These results

  9. Current Knowledge on Genetic Biofortification in Lentil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gupta, Debjyoti Sen; Kumar, Shiv; Gupta, Sanjeev; Singh, Narendra Pratap

    2016-08-24

    Micronutrient deficiency in the human body, popularly known as "hidden hunger", causes many health problems. It presently affects >2 billion people worldwide, especially in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Biofortification of food crop varieties is one way to combat the problem of hidden hunger using conventional plant breeding and transgenic methods. Lentils are rich sources of protein, micronutrients, and vitamins including iron, zinc, selenium, folates, and carotenoids. Lentil genetic resources including germplasm and wild species showed genetic variability for these traits. Studies revealed that a single serving of lentils could provide a significant amount of the recommended daily allowance of micronutrients and vitamins for adults. Therefore, lentils have been identified as a food legume for biofortification, which could provide a whole food solution to the global micronutrient malnutrition. The present review discusses the current ongoing efforts toward genetic biofortification in lentils using classical breeding and molecular marker-assisted approaches.

  10. Sleep bruxism: Current knowledge and contemporary management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Adrian U.; Chua, Ai Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular disorders, headaches, tooth wear/fracture, implant, and other restoration failure. Chairside recognition of SB involves the use of subjective reports, clinical examinations, and trial oral splints. Definitive diagnosis of SB can only be achieved using electrophysiological tools. Pharmacological, psychological, and dental strategies had been employed to manage SB. There is at present, no effective treatment that “cures” or “stops” SB permanently. Management is usually directed toward tooth/restoration protection, reduction of bruxism activity, and pain relief. PMID:27656052

  11. Sleep bruxism: Current knowledge and contemporary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Adrian U; Chua, Ai Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular disorders, headaches, tooth wear/fracture, implant, and other restoration failure. Chairside recognition of SB involves the use of subjective reports, clinical examinations, and trial oral splints. Definitive diagnosis of SB can only be achieved using electrophysiological tools. Pharmacological, psychological, and dental strategies had been employed to manage SB. There is at present, no effective treatment that "cures" or "stops" SB permanently. Management is usually directed toward tooth/restoration protection, reduction of bruxism activity, and pain relief.

  12. Knowledge, Awareness, Perceptions, and Use of Emergency Contraceptives among Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen J. Wilder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines emergency contraception (EC knowledge, awareness, perceptions, and prior use and identifies predictors of EC use among a sample of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV. The majority (66.2% of 154 survivors at risk of pregnancy reported EC awareness, only 15.3% reported prior EC use. Logistic regression identified perceived abusive intimate partner approval (OR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.15–4.41 and lack of moral/religious objections (OR = 12.83; 95% CI = 5.48–30.03 as the strongest predictors of EC use. Health care provider interventions acknowledging barriers to EC use, such as partner approval, and education that improves awareness of and knowledge about EC, may have the impact of empowering survivors in their reproductive choices, reducing unwanted pregnancies.

  13. Knowledge, Awareness, Perceptions, and Use of Emergency Contraceptives among Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Kathleen J.; Guise, Jeane-Marie; Perrin, Nancy A.; Hanson, Ginger C.; Hernandez, Rebecca; Glass, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The study examines emergency contraception (EC) knowledge, awareness, perceptions, and prior use and identifies predictors of EC use among a sample of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). The majority (66.2%) of 154 survivors at risk of pregnancy reported EC awareness, only 15.3% reported prior EC use. Logistic regression identified perceived abusive intimate partner approval (OR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.15–4.41) and lack of moral/religious objections (OR = 12.83; 95% CI = 5.48–30.03) as the strongest predictors of EC use. Health care provider interventions acknowledging barriers to EC use, such as partner approval, and education that improves awareness of and knowledge about EC, may have the impact of empowering survivors in their reproductive choices, reducing unwanted pregnancies. PMID:19960056

  14. Awareness and Knowledge of Ergonomics Among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeinde, BH; Ekejindu, IM; Omoregie, R; Aguh, OD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ergonomics awareness helps in its right application and contributes significantly to general wellbeing and safety of worker at workplace. Aim: This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing the level of awareness and knowledge of the science of ergonomics among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 106 medical laboratory scientists comprising 64 and 42 in public and private laboratories, respectively, were recruited for this study using systematic random sampling technique. Data were obtained from the study participants using a questionnaire and subsequently analyzed with the statistical software INSTAT®. Results: Out of 106 study participants, 27 (25.5%) were reported to have heard of the term ergonomics. Awareness was significantly associated with gender (male vs. female: 38.5% [15/39] vs. 17.9% [12/67]; odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 1.2, 7.1;P = 0.02). Awareness of ergonomics was not significantly affected by affiliation (P = 0.18), area of specialization (P = 0.78), post-qualification experience (P = 0.43), and educational qualification (P = 0.23) of the study participants. Irrespective of the affiliation of the participant, only 6 of 27 (22.2%) participants who were aware of ergonomics knew at least a benefit of right application of ergonomics in the laboratory. Knowledge of risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders was reported by 8 of 27 (29.6%) persons who claimed to be aware of ergonomics. Conclusions: Awareness of ergonomics and knowledge of gains of its right application was poor among the study participants. Regular ergonomic education of medical laboratory scientists in Nigeria is advocated. PMID:27057381

  15. Awareness and Knowledge of Ergonomics Among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeinde, B H; Ekejindu, I M; Omoregie, R; Aguh, O D

    2015-01-01

    Ergonomics awareness helps in its right application and contributes significantly to general wellbeing and safety of worker at workplace. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing the level of awareness and knowledge of the science of ergonomics among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Benin City, Nigeria. A total of 106 medical laboratory scientists comprising 64 and 42 in public and private laboratories, respectively, were recruited for this study using systematic random sampling technique. Data were obtained from the study participants using a questionnaire and subsequently analyzed with the statistical software INSTAT(®). Out of 106 study participants, 27 (25.5%) were reported to have heard of the term ergonomics. Awareness was significantly associated with gender (male vs. female: 38.5% [15/39] vs. 17.9% [12/67]; odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 1.2, 7.1;P = 0.02). Awareness of ergonomics was not significantly affected by affiliation (P = 0.18), area of specialization (P = 0.78), post-qualification experience (P = 0.43), and educational qualification (P = 0.23) of the study participants. Irrespective of the affiliation of the participant, only 6 of 27 (22.2%) participants who were aware of ergonomics knew at least a benefit of right application of ergonomics in the laboratory. Knowledge of risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders was reported by 8 of 27 (29.6%) persons who claimed to be aware of ergonomics. Awareness of ergonomics and knowledge of gains of its right application was poor among the study participants. Regular ergonomic education of medical laboratory scientists in Nigeria is advocated.

  16. Creating Multicultural Classrooms. Developing Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills: Diversity Training Makes a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. Camille; Theriot, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    As the population becomes more diverse, social work educators will bear a larger responsibility for educating culturally competent practitioners. To enhance student learning, research should consider those factors that influence students' multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills. This information potentially can help students better prepare…

  17. The Development of Knowledge and Awareness of Environmental Laws and Participation in Environmental Conservation of Probationers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlu, Somchai; Singseewo, Adisak; Suksringarm, Paitool

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to develop knowledge and awareness about environmental laws and participation in environmental conservation of probationers in MahaSarakham Province, Thailand. This study was divided into 3 stages. Stage 1: was the development of a training manual and construction of training evaluation instruments which consisted of a…

  18. Assessing tree care professionals' awareness and knowledge about the Asian Longhorned Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason M. Hathaway; Cem M. Basman; Susan C. Barro

    2003-01-01

    The level of knowledge and awareness possessed by tree care professionals about the Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) is critical for the successful detection and eradication of this pest. A small sample of tree care professionals was surveyed about the ALB (from within the City of Chicago) in the summer of 2001. Results indicate that only 35 percent of survey respondents...

  19. Awareness and knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... to assess awareness of the mothers about HIV/AIDS, evaluate their knowledge of possible routes of transmission and measures to ... Conclusion:There is a need to scale up education about mother-to-child transmission of HIV in our health facilities. ..... attitudes of both men and women in the community.

  20. Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale: Re-Exploration and Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junfei

    2017-01-01

    This study refined the "Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale" (MCKAS; Ponterotto et al. "Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development," 30, 153-180, 2002) in response to concerns in the literature (e.g., Constantine et al. "Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology," 8(4), 334-345,…

  1. Knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among high school girls in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah-Agyekum, Nana Nimo; Suapim, Robert Henry

    2013-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is recognized as a national priority health issue in Ghana. Consequently, the Ghana AIDS Commission and the National AIDS Control Programme were established, among other things, to enhance the knowledge and awareness on the nature, causes, effects and means of managing the spread of HIV/AIDS among populations at risk in Ghana. Through the efforts of these bodies and other stakeholders in health, several awareness creation and sensitization efforts have been targeted at teenage girls, a high risk group in Ghana. This study therefore assesses the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among senior high school girls in their teens in Ghana using a sample of 260 female students of West African Senior High School. The data collected were analyzed and discussed under relevant themes and within the context of the literature. The study revealed that generally, senior high school girls were knowledgeable on the nature, modes of transmission, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. There were however some students who exhibited limited knowledge on some issues including the spiritual causes and treatment of HIV/AIDS, contacts and associations with infected persons, as well as determination of HIV infection from appearances rather than testing. The study also raised important concerns about the reluctance of senior high school girls to use condoms as a preventive measure and the need to reorient HIV/AIDS awareness interventions in Ghana.

  2. A Model for Planning Career Continuation and Change through Increased Awareness, Knowledge, and Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Paul; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents three-stage sequence based on increased awareness of assumptions, knowledge of relevant information, and skill in taking appropriate action as model for outplacement counseling. Rationale, structure, assumptions, principles, and evaluation of outplacement counseling program using this model are discussed. (Author)

  3. Knowledge and Awareness of Teledentistry among Dental Professionals - A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boringi, Mamatha; Waghray, Shefali; Lavanya, Reddy; Babu, Dara Balaji Gandhi; Badam, Raj Kumar; Harsha, Niharika; Garlapati, Komali; Chavva, Sunanda

    2015-08-01

    The use of technology in the form of smart phones and other electronic media in day to day life has become an integral part of life today. Technology today is seeing a paradigm shift towards better inter-professional communications which can help doctors, patients and the masses as a whole. Putting these technological advancements to good use evolves as a major milestone in medicine/ dentistry in the form of telemedicine/teledentistry. The present study was aimed at knowing the knowledge and awareness of teledentistry among dental professionals of a dental college in India. The study was conducted in a dental college in India and was circulated among dental professionals. A questionnaire was prepared to assess the knowledge and awareness of teledentistry and was circulated among dental professionals in a dental college. The data thus collected was statistically analysed and results obtained. The data collected was statistically analysed using SPSS software. A total of 406 persons responded to the questionnaire. In the present study it was found that the knowledge and awareness about teledentistry was very low among post graduates (7.23%) and interns (9.38%) when compared to I & II BDS while most of them agreed that teledentistry is a practice of dentistry through various media options with limited application in dentistry without a legal issue. In the present study, it was apparent that most of the respondents were lacking adequate knowledge and awareness on teledentistry. Hence, there is an immense need to create awareness among dental professionals on teledentistry as the future lies in technological advancement. Tele dentistry can mark the beginning of a new era in dentistry. This can be achieved by conducting CDE programs and awareness campaigns/programs which helps in various levels.

  4. Pneumococcal infections at Hajj: current knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridda, Iman; King, Catherine; Rashid, Harunor

    2014-01-01

    Hajj attendance increases the risk of respiratory infections including pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequently identified pathogen, found in about 10% of respiratory tract samples of symptomatic Hajj pilgrims; and at least 20% of these isolates are penicillin resistant. However, the burden of pneumococcal disease at Hajj is not precisely defined at serotypic level, and it is postulated that due to intense mixing of pilgrims the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes at Hajj could be different from pilgrims' country of origin or of Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia, the most prevalent pneumococcal serotypes are 23F, 6B, 19F, 18C, 4, 14, and 19A, and 90% of the serotypes are covered by 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) as well as 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23). However, due to lack of Hajj-specific data, the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health has not yet recommended pneumococcal vaccine for pilgrims, and the immunisation recommendation and uptake vary greatly across countries. As at least one third of Hajj pilgrims are 'at risk' of pneumococcal disease either by virtue of age or pre-existing medical conditions, consideration should be given to vaccinating high risk pilgrims against pneumococcal disease. Other preventive measures such as smoking cessation, pollution reduction and vaccinations against influenza and pertussis should also be considered. Precisely defining the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease to identify an optimum vaccination schedule for Hajj pilgrims is a current research priority.

  5. Current animal models of bladder cancer: Awareness of translatability (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie; Xu, Ding; Pan, Chunwu; Ye, Min; Kang, Jian; Bai, Qiang; Qi, Jun

    2014-09-01

    Experimental animal models are crucial in the study of biological behavior and pathological development of cancer, and evaluation of the efficacy of novel therapeutic or preventive agents. A variety of animal models that recapitulate human urothelial cell carcinoma have thus far been established and described, while models generated by novel techniques are emerging. At present a number of reviews on animal models of bladder cancer comprise the introduction of one type of method, as opposed to commenting on and comparing all classifications, with the merits of a certain method being explicit but the shortcomings not fully clarified. Thus the aim of the present study was to provide a summary of the currently available animal models of bladder cancer including transplantable (which could be divided into xenogeneic or syngeneic, heterotopic or orthotopic), carcinogen-induced and genetically engineered models in order to introduce their materials and methods and compare their merits as well as focus on the weaknesses, difficulties in operation, associated problems and translational potential of the respective models. Findings of these models would provide information for authors and clinicians to select an appropriate model or to judge relevant preclinical study findings. Pertinent detection methods are therefore briefly introduced and compared.

  6. [Dioxins: current knowledge about health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissing, M

    1998-09-01

    effects at the prevailing level of exposure. Nevertheless this hypothesis is currently unconfirmed by epidemiological studies. The implications of this scientific incertitude for the implementation of preventive measures are briefly discussed.

  7. Extending knowledge of the public awareness of aphasia in the Balkans: Serbia and Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Mile; Matić, Dušanka; Kovač, Ana; Vuković, Irena; Code, Chris

    2017-11-01

    Public awareness of aphasia has been surveyed in a number of countries revealing that it is universally low. We report results of surveys in the Balkan countries Serbia and Montenegro and compare results with data from Croatia and Slovenia. Convenience surveys of the general public were conducted in public places like shopping centers/malls and parks in Serbia (N = 400) and Montenegro (N = 500) using an adapted version of the public awareness of aphasia survey questionnaire. Respondents were asked whether they have heard of aphasia and tested with questions about aphasia. Information on gender, age, occupation and education was recorded. Twelve percent (Serbia) and 11% (Montenegro) had heard of aphasia, but just 4% (Serbia) and 3.2% (Montenegro) had a basic knowledge of aphasia. Age, gender and occupation interacted variably with awareness. Between 16% (Slovenia) and 60% (Croatia) said they had heard of aphasia (10.5% overall mean for the four countries) and basic knowledge of aphasia across the four countries ranged between 3.2 and 7%. Levels of awareness of aphasia in the Balkans are low and variably associated with age, gender, socio-economic and educational levels. Respondents with some knowledge of aphasia gained it through personal or professional interaction with aphasia or the media. The data provide a basis for awareness raising in Balkan countries to reduce stigmatization, improve community access and understanding. Implications for rehabilitation Awareness of aphasia is low universally, even among healthcare workers. Low public awareness of a condition, like aphasia, results in under-funded research and service provision. In order to raise public awareness of aphasia we need to know how many members of the general public know about it. Improvements in public awareness could positively affect funding, the quality of services, and the public understanding and acceptance of individuals with aphasia in the community. Improving awareness of aphasia in

  8. Knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among high school girls in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appiah-Agyekum NN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nana Nimo Appiah-Agyekum,1,3 Robert Henry Suapim2,3 1Department of Public Administration and Health Services Management, University of Ghana Business School, Accra, Ghana; 2Department of General Administration, Achimota Government Hospital, Ghana Health Service, Achimota, Ghana; 3Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Institute for Health and Wellbeing, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK Abstract: HIV/AIDS is recognized as a national priority health issue in Ghana. Consequently, the Ghana AIDS Commission and the National AIDS Control Programme were established, among other things, to enhance the knowledge and awareness on the nature, causes, effects and means of managing the spread of HIV/AIDS among populations at risk in Ghana. Through the efforts of these bodies and other stakeholders in health, several awareness creation and sensitization efforts have been targeted at teenage girls, a high risk group in Ghana. This study therefore assesses the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among senior high school girls in their teens in Ghana using a sample of 260 female students of West African Senior High School. The data collected were analyzed and discussed under relevant themes and within the context of the literature. The study revealed that generally, senior high school girls were knowledgeable on the nature, modes of transmission, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. There were however some students who exhibited limited knowledge on some issues including the spiritual causes and treatment of HIV/AIDS, contacts and associations with infected persons, as well as determination of HIV infection from appearances rather than testing. The study also raised important concerns about the reluctance of senior high school girls to use condoms as a preventive measure and the need to reorient HIV/AIDS awareness interventions in Ghana. Keywords: adolescent school girls, HIV/AIDS, Ghana, awareness, knowledge

  9. Motivated shortcomings in explanation: the role of comparative self-evaluation and awareness of explanation recipient's knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Devin G; Neugebauer, Josephine; Sassenberg, Kai; Buder, Jürgen; Hesse, Friedrich W

    2013-05-01

    Being aware of someone else's existing knowledge is a prerequisite to effectively adapting an explanation to that person's learning needs. However, such knowledge awareness introduces the potential for motivated self-evaluation based on relative knowledge, that is, for social comparison. Because favorable social comparisons are actively defended, we propose that knowledge awareness might undermine information sharing in explanation when social comparison motives are active. We tested this hypothesis in a series of experiments in which participants provided explanations to an ostensible learning partner with or without knowledge awareness. Both dispositionally and situationally motivated social comparison interacted with knowledge awareness to reduce information sharing in explanation. Intriguingly, knowledge awareness uniformly facilitated adaptation of the information that was shared to address partner knowledge deficit. These results illustrate a tension in the components of effective explanation. At the same time that knowledge awareness effectively coordinates explanation content, it can lead to knowledge hoarding by knowledgeable explainers who are motivated to rely on knowledge differences between the self and the explanation recipient for self-evaluation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. [Epidemiological investigation of macrosomia-related knowledge awareness among pregnant women in Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sha; Guo, Changman; Xi, Haiyang; Zhu, Lihua; Ma, Shanshan; Yang, Xinjun

    2015-07-01

    To understand the awareness rate of macrosomia related knowledge and influencing factors among pregnant women in Zhejiang province and provide evidence for the improvement of pre-gestational and prenatal care. A face to face questionnaire survey was conducted among 1 512 pregnant women selected through multistage cluster random sampling from 20 counties (district) in Zhejiang. Macrosomia-related awareness and related factors were analyzed. A total of 1 494 valid questionnaires were analyzed, the awareness rate was 40.7% for macrosomia diagnostic criteria (95% CI: 38.2%-43.2%), 55.0% for the cause of macrosomia (95% CI: 52.4%-57.6%) and 62.4% for prevention related knowledge (95% CI: 59.9%-64.9%) and the awareness rate of both the cause and the prevention related knowledge was 49.0% (95% CI: 46.4%-51.6%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the third trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.906, 95% CI: 1.128-3.221), urban residence (OR = 1.335, 95% CI: 1.014-1.756), educational level of junior college (OR = 2.474, 95% CI: 1.635-3.744) and educational level of regular college or above (OR = 2.072, 95% CI: 1.338-3.209), receiving health education about health pregnancy (OR = 1.936, 95% CI: 1.509-2.484) and self-learning about the knowledge of health pregnancy (OR = 2.065, 95%CI: 1.338-3.189) were the influencing factors to the awareness rate of macrosomia diagnostic criteria and prevention related knowledge of macrosomia among pregnant women. The awareness rate of the cause and prevention related knowledge of macrosomia was higher in older age group (OR = 2.103, 95% CI: 1.330-3.323). Among the pregnant women in Zhejiang, the awareness rate of macrosomia diagnostic criteria was less than 50%. Therefore, it was necessary to strengthen the health education during pre-gestational and gestational periods among reproductive women, especially the education about pregnancy health in rural area.

  11. Awareness and knowledge of periodontal disease among Saudi primary school teachers in Aseer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Abdulrahman Ahmed Mohammed; Alshehri, Fawaz Dhafer Abdullah; Hakami, Khalid Yahya Abdo; Assiri, Zayed Ali Ahmad; Alshehri, Abdulrahim Abdullah Mohammed; Alqahtani, Zafer Ali Zafer

    2017-01-01

    The consequences of periodontal disease are not limited to the oral cavity. As schools are considered to be one of the principal systems in preventive oral health, teachers' knowledge pertaining to the periodontal disease, their awareness with regard to its implications and their role in increasing the awareness of the students regarding this disease comprises only one aspect with respect to the prevention of the periodontal disease. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the baseline awareness and knowledge of Saudi primary school teachers regarding the periodontal disease. For this purpose, a questionnaire was distributed among the participants of the study. It was observed that 91.4% of the participants reported that the periodontal disease does not need any treatment although 70% of the participants believed that it could result in tooth loss, and 95% considered the periodontal disease to be a preventable disease. Moreover, social media (44%) and television advertisements (39%) were the main sources from where they acquired information about the periodontal disease. Most participants have heard about the importance of periodontal health but are not sufficiently aware of its consequences and negative effects on their body. They are used to receiving information about periodontal diseases from nondental clinics and unreliable sources. This creates misconceptions. Although the participants were keen to attend educational events on periodontal health, the lack of medical communication between the health practitioners and the general public is evident. Mostly, investigated areas and individuals do not have any educational means to be aware of periodontal health.

  12. Adolescent knowledge and awareness about AIDS/HIV and factors affecting them in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Mizanur; Kabir, M; Shahidullah, M

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents are more vulnerable than adults of unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. Among the adolescents, girls are more vulnerable to STDs including HIV/AIDS. Their knowledge about different diseases is very poor. This paper investigated adolescent's knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS, its mode of transmission and ways of its prevention. Cross sectional study design was adopted for this study. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data on 3362 female adolescents irrespective of their marital status was analyzed. The study found that a large proportion of adolescents were not aware about sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS. More than half (54.8%) of the adolescents ever heard about AIDS respectively. On an average, about one tenth of them had better knowledge on AIDS in terms of mode of transmission and prevention. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that adolescent age, years of schooling and knowledge on STDs appeared to be important predictors of the awareness about AIDS (p HIV/AIDS and integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating knowledge and awareness to control the spread of HIV and AIDS among young people in Bangladesh.

  13. KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS, PRACTICE AMONG ADOLESCENTS REGARDING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES IN URBAN SLUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Rai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are very important health challenges for adolescents. Many national and international governmental and nongovernmental health agencies are running programmes to reduce the incidence of these diseases. We can provide an insight to the reproductive and sexual health needs of adolescents by assessing their knowledge, attitude and practice about these diseases. Research Question: What is the level of knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases?  Objectives: To assess the knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases in an urban slum in Dehradun. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Settings and Participants: Adolescents belonging to registered families of Chandreshwar Nagar urban slum under the field practice area of Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC of department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences. Sample Size: 166 Adolescents i.e. Males-88 and Females-78. Study Period: May 2009 to October 2009 Study Variable: A predesigned, pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting information on Age, Sex, Knowledge and awareness regarding STDs, etc. Statistical Analysis: Standard statistical package i.e. SPSS, Microsoft Excel.  Results: 51.2% of the adolescents were having knowledge about STD’s. Majority of (91.4% the adolescents knew about AIDS as a type of STD. Their attitude cum practice towards prevention of STD was found to be 72.9% by use of condoms. Conclusions: Appropriate health care seeking behaviour and Information Education and Communication (IEC activities should be promoted. 

  14. Aware Computing in Spatial Language Understanding Guided by Cognitively Inspired Knowledge Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Yokota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental image directed semantic theory (MIDST has proposed an omnisensory mental image model and its description language Lmd. This language is designed to represent and compute human intuitive knowledge of space and can provide multimedia expressions with intermediate semantic descriptions in predicate logic. It is hypothesized that such knowledge and semantic descriptions are controlled by human attention toward the world and therefore subjective to each human individual. This paper describes Lmd expression of human subjective knowledge of space and its application to aware computing in cross-media operation between linguistic and pictorial expressions as spatial language understanding.

  15. Oral Cancer Awareness and Knowledge in the City of Valongo, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Luís Silva; Salazar, Filomena; Pacheco, Júlio; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey among 602 subjects in order to analyze the awareness and knowledge on oral cancer among residents of the city of Valongo in Portugal. The cancer that most subjects were aware of was breast cancer (99%). Oral cancer was the least mentioned cancer (68.6%). There was awareness of the relationship between oral cancer and smoking among 89.5% subjects, but less of the association with alcohol misuse (63.3%). Nonhealing mouth ulcers were identified as a sign or symptom of oral cancer by 90.0% and red or white patch by only 52.8% subjects. Whereas 94.5% agreed that early detection could improve the treatment outcome, a disheartening 28.1% believed that whether a person developed an oral cancer or not is a matter of luck and therefore is unavoidable. Surprisingly only 1.7% were ever submitted to or had knowledge of receiving a consultation regarding oral cancer. In conclusion, this survey demonstrates a general lack of awareness and knowledge on oral cancer in a population of Valongo. An oral health promotion strategy should involve elements of basic education on oral cancer for this population, and regular oral cancer screenings should be implemented in Valongo. PMID:22919388

  16. Knowledge and awareness regarding menstruation and HIV/AIDS among schoolgoing adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rakhi; Anand, Puneet; Dhyani, Anuj; Bansal, Deshant

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Menstruation in our country is associated with various myths and restrictions leading to lack of awareness among adolescent girls. Insufficient menstrual hygiene practices are the cause of stress associated with menstruation and reproductive tract infections. Sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS are not openly discussed in our society making adolescents vulnerable to them. Aim: To assess the knowledge of school going adolescent girls regarding menstrual hygiene and HIV/AIDS. Materials and Methods: Girls studying in class 8th-12th standard and who have attained menarche were included in the study. A predesigned questionnaire, which consisted of questions related to menstrual awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS was used for data collection. Data was analysed using SPSS software and results were interpreted into percentages. Results: 282 girls took part in the study. Mean age of girls was 14.70 ± 1.5 years. Median age of girls was 15 years. Knowledge regarding menstrual hygiene and HIV/AIDS was found to be only satisfactory leaving a scope of improvement. Mother was the main source of information regarding both menstruation and HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: A comprehensive health education programme involving mothers is required to remove various misconceptions and taboos associated with menstruation and make it a pleasant experience for adolescent girls. Information, education and awareness programmes need to be strengthened to spread awareness regarding HIV/AIDS. PMID:29026748

  17. Knowledge and awareness regarding menstruation and HIV/AIDS among schoolgoing adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rakhi; Anand, Puneet; Dhyani, Anuj; Bansal, Deshant

    2017-01-01

    Menstruation in our country is associated with various myths and restrictions leading to lack of awareness among adolescent girls. Insufficient menstrual hygiene practices are the cause of stress associated with menstruation and reproductive tract infections. Sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS are not openly discussed in our society making adolescents vulnerable to them. To assess the knowledge of school going adolescent girls regarding menstrual hygiene and HIV/AIDS. Girls studying in class 8 th -12 th standard and who have attained menarche were included in the study. A predesigned questionnaire, which consisted of questions related to menstrual awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS was used for data collection. Data was analysed using SPSS software and results were interpreted into percentages. 282 girls took part in the study. Mean age of girls was 14.70 ± 1.5 years. Median age of girls was 15 years. Knowledge regarding menstrual hygiene and HIV/AIDS was found to be only satisfactory leaving a scope of improvement. Mother was the main source of information regarding both menstruation and HIV/AIDS. A comprehensive health education programme involving mothers is required to remove various misconceptions and taboos associated with menstruation and make it a pleasant experience for adolescent girls. Information, education and awareness programmes need to be strengthened to spread awareness regarding HIV/AIDS.

  18. Oral Cancer Awareness and Knowledge in the City of Valongo, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Silva Monteiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a questionnaire survey among 602 subjects in order to analyze the awareness and knowledge on oral cancer among residents of the city of Valongo in Portugal. The cancer that most subjects were aware of was breast cancer (99%. Oral cancer was the least mentioned cancer (68.6%. There was awareness of the relationship between oral cancer and smoking among 89.5% subjects, but less of the association with alcohol misuse (63.3%. Nonhealing mouth ulcers were identified as a sign or symptom of oral cancer by 90.0% and red or white patch by only 52.8% subjects. Whereas 94.5% agreed that early detection could improve the treatment outcome, a disheartening 28.1% believed that whether a person developed an oral cancer or not is a matter of luck and therefore is unavoidable. Surprisingly only 1.7% were ever submitted to or had knowledge of receiving a consultation regarding oral cancer. In conclusion, this survey demonstrates a general lack of awareness and knowledge on oral cancer in a population of Valongo. An oral health promotion strategy should involve elements of basic education on oral cancer for this population, and regular oral cancer screenings should be implemented in Valongo.

  19. Knowledge, Awareness, Perceptions, and Use of Emergency Contraceptives among Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Wilder, Kathleen J.; Jeane-Marie Guise; Perrin, Nancy A.; Hanson, Ginger C; Rebecca Hernandez; Nancy Glass

    2009-01-01

    The study examines emergency contraception (EC) knowledge, awareness, perceptions, and prior use and identifies predictors of EC use among a sample of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). The majority (66.2%) of 154 survivors at risk of pregnancy reported EC awareness, only 15.3% reported prior EC use. Logistic regression identified perceived abusive intimate partner approval (OR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.15–4.41) and lack of moral/religious objections (OR = 12.83; 95% CI = 5.48–30.03) as t...

  20. Knowledge and awareness regarding oral health among anganwadi workers in India: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh Gambhir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anganwadi workers (AWWs play a vital role in improving health of the community whom they serve especially in rural areas. They form a potential vehicle for disseminating even oral health-related message and knowledge. Aim: To conduct a systematic review of observational studies to assess AWWs' knowledge and awareness regarding oral health. Materials and Methods: Relevant cross-sectional observational studies were included in the systematic review to assess the level of knowledge and awareness regarding oral health among AWWs. Eight studies out of 32 were finally included in the present review after conducting both electronic and manual search of scientific databases like PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. No limitation in terms of publication date was considered. Potential biases were reported and appropriate data were extracted by the concerned investigators. Results: More than 90% of subjects had education till graduation level in some studies. Very few subjects were aware regarding the role of fluorides in other two studies (7.9% and 3.4%. Very few subjects (17.1% and 37.5% felt the need for visiting a dentist during pregnancy in two studies. Majority of the subjects cited tooth decay/pain as the main reason to visit the dentist in three studies. There were only two studies in which > 90% of subjects were aware regarding the association of oral health and general health. Conclusion: The results of the present review had shown that knowledge and awareness of AWWs is not adequate. Therefore, there is an urgent need for further education on certain preventive and curative aspects of oral diseases and maintenance of oral health.

  1. Induction of self awareness in dreams through frontal low current stimulation of gamma activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Holzmann, Romain; Hobson, Allan; Paulus, Walter; Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Klimke, Ansgar; Nitsche, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Recent findings link fronto-temporal gamma electroencephalographic (EEG) activity to conscious awareness in dreams, but a causal relationship has not yet been established. We found that current stimulation in the lower gamma band during REM sleep influences ongoing brain activity and induces self-reflective awareness in dreams. Other stimulation frequencies were not effective, suggesting that higher order consciousness is indeed related to synchronous oscillations around 25 and 40 Hz.

  2. Awareness, Trial, and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in 10 Countries: Findings from the ITC Project

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Gravely; Fong, Geoffrey T.; K. Michael Cummings; Mi Yan; Quah, Anne C. K.; Ron Borland; Hua-Hie Yong; Hitchman, Sara C.; Ann McNeill; David Hammond; Thrasher, James F.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Hong Gwan Seo; Yuan Jiang; Tania Cavalcante

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have generated considerable interest and debate on the implications for tobacco control and public health. Although the rapid growth of e-cigarettes is global, at present, little is known about awareness and use. This paper presents self-reported awareness, trial and current use of e-cigarettes in 10 countries surveyed between 2009 and 2013; for six of these countries, we present the first data on e-cigarettes from probabilit...

  3. Labile sleep promotes awareness of abstract knowledge in a serial reaction time task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumen eKirov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has been identified as a critical brain state enhancing the probability of gaining insight into covert task regularities. Both non-rapid eye movement (NREM and REM sleep have been implicated with offline re-activation and reorganization of memories supporting explicit knowledge generation. According to two-stage models of sleep function, offline processing of information during sleep is sequential requiring multiple cycles of NREM and REM sleep stages. However, the role of overnight dynamic sleep macrostructure for insightfulness has not been studied so far. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that the frequency of interactions between NREM and REM sleep stages might be critical for awareness after sleep. For that aim, the rate of sleep stage transitions was evaluated in 53 participants who learned implicitly a serial reaction time task (SRTT in which a determined sequence was inserted. The amount of explicit knowledge about the sequence was established by verbal recall after a night of sleep following SRTT learning. Polysomnography was recorded in this night and in a control night before and was analyzed to compare the rate of sleep-stage transitions between participants who did or did not gain awareness of task regularity after sleep. Indeed, individual ability of explicit knowledge generation was strongly associated with increased rate of transitions between NREM and REM sleep stages and between light sleep stages and slow wave sleep. However, the rate of NREM-REM transitions specifically predicted the amount of explicit knowledge after sleep in a trait-dependent way. These results demonstrate that enhanced lability of sleep goes along with individual ability of knowledge awareness. Observations suggest that facilitated dynamic interactions between sleep stages, particularly between NREM and REM sleep stages play a role for offline processing which promotes rule extraction and awareness.

  4. Stroke awareness in two Estonian cities: better knowledge in subjects with advanced age and higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibo, Riina; Kõrv, Liisa; Väli, Merle; Tomson, Kadi; Piirsoo, Erika; Schneider, Siim; Kõrv, Janika

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess stroke awareness of the Estonian population. Investigators were asked to fill in an original, closed-ended multiple-choice questionnaire about the definition, risk factors, symptoms and behavior at the onset of stroke by randomly selected subjects in public places of the two biggest cities in Estonia (Tallinn and Tartu). The study included 355 persons. Most of the respondents knew that stroke is an acute disease and that one should call the ambulance at the onset of a stroke. Speech disorder and paresis were the best known symptoms, while hypertension was the best known risk factor. There were no differences between the sexes, but advanced age and higher level of education were related to higher awareness. The overall knowledge was better compared to many other studies. Future awareness campaigns should be addressed to younger subjects with lower education. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab

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    Jaspal Singh Hundal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab. Materials and Methods: 250 livestock farmers were selected randomly and interviewed with a pretested questionnaire, which contained both open and close ended questions on different aspects of zoonotic diseases, i.e., awareness, knowledge, risks, etc. Knowledge scorecard was developed, and each correct answer was awarded one mark, and each incorrect answer was given zero mark. Respondents were categorized into low (mean − ½ standard deviation [SD], moderate (mean ± ½ SD, and high knowledge (Mean + ½ SD category based on the mean and SD. The information about independent variables viz., age, education, and herd size were collected with the help of structured schedule and scales. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, and results were prepared to assess awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases and its relation with independent variables. Results: Majority of the respondents had age up to 40 years (70%, had their qualification from primary to higher secondary level (77.6%, and had their herd size up to 10 animals (79.6%. About 51.2% and 54.0% respondents had the history of abortion and retained placenta, respectively, at their farms. The respondents not only disposed off the infected placenta (35.6%, aborted fetus (39.6%, or feces (56.4% from a diarrheic animal but also gave intrauterine medication (23.2% bare-handedly. About 3.6-69.6% respondents consumed uncooked or unpasteurized animal products. About 84.8%, 46.0%, 32.8%, 4.61%, and 92.4% of livestock farmers were aware of zoonotic nature of rabies, brucellosis, tuberculosis, anthrax, and bird flu, respectively. The 55.6%, 67.2%, 52.0%, 64.0%, and 51.2% respondents were aware of the transmission of zoonotic diseases to human being through contaminated milk, meat, air, feed, or through contact with infected animals, respectively. The transmission of

  6. Oral cancer awareness and knowledge among dental patients in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth Reddy, B; Doshi, Dolar; Padma Reddy, M; Kulkarni, Suhas; Gaffar, Abdul; Ram Reddy, Venkat

    2012-09-01

    To assess the 1) levels of awareness and knowledge about risk factors and early signs of oral cancer among dental patients visiting dental hospital in Hyderabad city, South India 2) and to correlate the knowledge levels according to age, gender and education levels. The survey comprised of 16-item questionnaire which was distributed to patients attending Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences, Hyderabad. Data was collected and statistically analysis was done using SPSS software (12.0 version). p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. 2045 participants completed the questionnaire (response rate - 97. 9%). The reliability of the questionnaire as calculated by Cronbach's alpha was 0.75. Mean age of the study population was 37.9 years. 60.2% of the respondents had heard about oral cancer. When knowledge towards risk factors of oral cancer was taken into consideration along with variables, significant differences were seen only in gender with female having better knowledge (p=0.02). No significant difference was noted among the age group and varying education levels. However, knowledge about early signs of oral cancer revealed a highly significant difference with the level of education (p=0.000). The awareness levels and knowledge about risk factors and early signs of oral cancer in this cross-section of Indian dental patients were satisfactory. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Awareness and knowledge about human papillomavirus among high school students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shuang-yang; Liu, Zhi-hua; Li, Le; Cai, Heng-ling; Wan, Yan-ping

    2014-01-01

    To investigate awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among high school students and to provide a basis for health education on HPV infection for high school students in China. A questionnaire on HPV awareness and knowledge was administered to 900 high school students in Xiangtan City of Hunan Province in China by layer cluster sampling. A total of 848 anonymous valid questionnaires were received from volunteers who completed the questionnaire correctly. Only 10.1% had heard of HPV, and of those only 18.6% knew that HPV could lead to cervical cancer. Single factor analysis indicated that home address, age, grade, academic achievement, sex history, gender, father's education level and mother's education level were impact factors for HPV knowledge of high school students. Multiple regression analysis showed 4 independent risk factors associated with HPV knowledge: academic achievement, sex history, gender, and mother's education level. The limited knowledge came primarily from television and radio broadcasts (59.3%), the Internet (57.0%), parents (25.6%), medical workers (20.9%), and teachers (18.6%). High school students lack HPV knowledge, which is affected by multiple factors. Targeted health education of all sorts must be provided. Both schools and families are responsible for reinforcing HPV education provided to high school students.

  8. Diuretics in pediatrics: Current knowledge and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. van der Vorst (Maria); M. Kist (Manfred); A.J. van der Heijden (Bert); J. Burggraaf (Jacobus)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis review summarizes current knowledge on the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical application of the most commonly used diuretics in children. Diuretics are frequently prescribed drugs in children. Their main indication is to reduce fluid overload in acute

  9. Awareness, Knowledge, and Acceptance of Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Sickle Cell Anaemia in Nigeria

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    Adewumi Adediran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sickle cell anaemia (SCA is an inherited condition whose clinical manifestations arise from the tendency of haemoglobin to polymerize and deform red blood cells into characteristic sickle shape. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation offers a cure. The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness, knowledge, and acceptance of this beneficial procedure in Nigeria. Materials and Methods. This multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 tertiary hospitals in Nigeria in 2015. Approval was obtained from each institution’s research and ethics committee. A pretested structured questionnaire was administered to respondents aged 18 years and above and to the parents or guardians of those below 18 years of age. Results. There were 265 respondents comprising 120 males and 145 females. One hundred and seventy-one (64.5% respondents were aware of BMT for the treatment of SCA. About 67.8% (116 of 171 of those who were aware believed SCA can be cured with BMT (p=0.001 and 49.7% (85 of 171 of the respondents accepted BMT (p=0.001. Conclusion. Awareness of BMT in Nigeria is low when compared with reports from developed countries. The knowledge is poor and acceptance is low. With adequate information, improved education, and psychological support, more Nigerians will embrace BMT.

  10. Knowledge, awareness, and attitude among practicing dentists about teledentistry in Indore, Central India

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    Swati V Balsaraf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Telemedicine is a rapidly forming subset of health informatics. Until now, no studies are documented on the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of practicing dentists on teledentistry. Aim: To conduct a survey among the practicing dentist regarding knowledge, awareness and attitude among practicing dentists about teledentistry in Indore, Central India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among the practicing dentists from April 2014 to July 2014 in Indore. The sample size of 142 dentists was selected through convenience sampling. Chi-square test was used for the association. Results: Overall 121 dentists had heard about teledentistry. Internet was recorded as the most common source of obtaining information about teledentistry. In this study, almost 20 BDS dentists said that teledentistry is useful in oral medicine and radiology. Conclusion: Most of the dentists were aware of teledentistry, and the practicing dentists are aware of working technique, uses and advantages and disadvantages of teledentistry. Until date, no teledentistry projects in India, although there are few telemedicine projects run by the Government of India. There are a lot of gray areas in teledentistry to be worked on.

  11. How Gaining Knowledge and Awareness of Ego Strength Will Assist Teachers in Understanding Learners Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanday, L. A.; Venter, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives a historical overview of the development as well as the current usage of the term ego strength. The factors involved in the development of ego strength, the impact of ego strength on learners and the necessity for teachers' awareness are discussed. A combined quantitative-qualitative research design was followed, where a group…

  12. Sexualization of Awareness: Catchy, but Does It Actually Increase Knowledge of Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Melinda C. R.; Murray, Ashley B.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, in the United States, there exist numerous public awareness campaigns about breast cancer. Many of these campaigns are highly sexualized, focusing on the breasts as an object of fun, as opposed to focusing on information about prevention/diagnosis/treatment. In spite of their popularity, it is unknown what effect they actually have on…

  13. Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer among HIV-Infected Women in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Netsanet Shiferaw; Brooks, Mohamad I; Graciela Salvador-Davila; Shumet Lonsako; Konjit Kassahun; Jodi Ansel; Chidude Osakwe; Teklu Weldegebreal; Ismael Ahmed; Mengistu Asnake; Blumenthal, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among Ethiopian women. Low awareness of cervical cancer, in combination with low health care seeking behavior, is a key challenge for cervical cancer prevention. This study assessed the knowledge of cervical cancer among HIV-infected women in Ethiopia. Methods. A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from August to September 2012 among HIV-infected women between 21 and 49 years of age. Basic descriptive s...

  14. The Comparison of Knowledge Level and Awareness of Osteoporosis between Women and Men

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Altın; Bahar Karadeniz; Fatma Türkyön

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Osteoporosis is a disease which causes fractures depending on decreasing bone mineral density. Nutrition and life style which support the bone health must be known for prevention of the disease. This study was conducted to assess awareness about OP between men and women. Materials and Methods: The study was performed between the dates November 2012-May 2014 in Denizli Pamukkale University. A form including sociodemographic features, Osteoporosis Knowledge Test (OKT) and...

  15. Tuberculosis awareness program and associated changes in knowledge levels of school students

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    Jayashree S Gothankar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Health education program by medical students helped significantly to improve the knowledge of school students regarding tuberculosis. Thus, medical college students can be involved to some extent for conducting health-related behavioral change communication (BCC activities in schools during their Community Medicine morning posting. Collaboration of private medical colleges, schools, and district tuberculosis units (DTUs can be ideally achieved under public private partnership (PPP for health awareness programs.

  16. The knowledge and awareness on research methodology among dentists in Telangana region, India

    OpenAIRE

    J Vijay Kumar; Venkat Baghirath Pacha; Yashovardhan Naishadham

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In this era of scientific advancement, research is vital and forms the heart of the knowledge expansion. Dentistry is one the fastest evolving branches of science in today's world and needless to say, it is centered on research. In India, research is a part of postgraduate curriculum. Many research works are conducted by postgraduates as a necessity, but very few do it with actual interest. Hence, in this study, we plan to conduct a survey on the awareness of dentists toward res...

  17. Young men's awareness and knowledge of intrauterine devices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Cassondra J; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2015-11-01

    Increasing use of long-acting methods of contraception, such as intrauterine devices (IUDs), has been recognized as a promising strategy to reduce the incidence of unintended pregnancy. While men may play an important role in promoting or discouraging contraceptive use, very little research has examined men's knowledge of and attitudes toward IUDs. We used data from the 903 men included in the 2009 National Survey of Reproductive and Contraceptive Knowledge to examine their awareness and knowledge of IUDs and other contraceptive methods by several individual-level characteristics. Men's awareness and perceived knowledge of IUDs is low in comparison to condoms and birth control pills. Men's perceived knowledge of IUDs was lower than their objective knowledge, as measured by true/false questions about IUDs, suggesting that men may be more knowledgeable of IUDs than they perceive. In the multivariate models, men who were uninsured [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.2-0.6], identified as Christian (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-1.0) and who had never had a sexual health visit (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-1.0) were less likely to have heard of IUDs. Among men who had heard of the method, Hispanic men were less likely (AOR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.5) to be more knowledgeable of the method. Young men report low awareness of IUDs in comparison to other methods, and this varies by demographic characteristics including health insurance status. Family planning programs should consider targeted knowledge promotion for young men, with a focus on contraceptive methods besides condoms and oral contraception. Male partners are influential in contraceptive use, yet little research has examined their IUD knowledge. Our findings indicate that healthcare providers may play important role in increasing young men's knowledge of contraceptive methods, including IUDs. This study highlights the need to better incorporate young men into contraception research and programs

  18. Awareness and Knowledge of Undergraduate Dental Students about Sterilization/Disinfection Methods of Extracted Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deogade, S C; Mantri, S S; Saxena, S; Sumathi, K

    2016-01-01

    Dental undergraduate students work on extracted human teeth in preclinical practical's to learn technical skills before entering the clinics and delivering dental care to the patients. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the awareness and knowledge toward sterilization/disinfection methods of extracted human teeth in a selected group of Indian dental students. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the participants consisted of 2 nd -, 3 rd -, 4 th -, and 5 th -year dental students. Data were collected by questionnaires and analyzed by Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test using SPSS software version 16 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). In this study, 235 dental students participated in the study. The average awareness and knowledge score was 7.27 (1.92). Based on the opinion of 57% (134/235) students, hydrogen peroxide was selected as the suitable material for sterilization and 24.6% (58/235) students believed that autoclave sterilization is a good way for the purpose. The results of this investigation indicated that awareness and knowledge of undergraduate dental students in relation to sterilization/disinfection methods of extracted human teeth were good. However, deficiencies were observed in relation to teaching the material and methods suitable for sterilization.

  19. Knowledge and awareness of forensic odontology among dentists in India: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Singh, Gurminder; Talwar, Puneet Singh; Gambhir, Jaskaran; Munjal, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Forensic dentistry involves the processing, review, evaluation, and presentation of dental evidence with the purpose of contributing scientific and objective data to legal processes. The present, systematic review was conducted to assess knowledge and awareness of forensic odontology among dentists in India. A systematic review of relevant cross-sectional studies was conducted regarding the level of knowledge, awareness, and practical application of forensic odontology among dentists in India. Four out of 129 studies were finally included in the present review after conducting a search of both electronic and manual scientific databases. Potential biases were addressed and the relevant data were extracted by the concerned investigators. Almost all the subjects were familiar with the subject of forensic odontology in one of the study reports. Only 12% of dentists were maintaining complete dental records in the findings of another study. Only 4% of dentists reported to have contributed to the identification of victims in a mass disaster in yet another study. The findings of another study revealed that 40% of dental practitioners did not have the expertise to identify child abuse. The results of the present review showed that the knowledge and awareness level of subjects was inadequate and that there is considerable variation in the practice of forensic odontology among dentists. It is necessary to expose dentists to the basic principles and techniques of the subject. PMID:27051215

  20. Knowledge and awareness of forensic odontology among dentists in India: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Singh, Gurminder; Talwar, Puneet Singh; Gambhir, Jaskaran; Munjal, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Forensic dentistry involves the processing, review, evaluation, and presentation of dental evidence with the purpose of contributing scientific and objective data to legal processes. The present, systematic review was conducted to assess knowledge and awareness of forensic odontology among dentists in India. A systematic review of relevant cross-sectional studies was conducted regarding the level of knowledge, awareness, and practical application of forensic odontology among dentists in India. Four out of 129 studies were finally included in the present review after conducting a search of both electronic and manual scientific databases. Potential biases were addressed and the relevant data were extracted by the concerned investigators. Almost all the subjects were familiar with the subject of forensic odontology in one of the study reports. Only 12% of dentists were maintaining complete dental records in the findings of another study. Only 4% of dentists reported to have contributed to the identification of victims in a mass disaster in yet another study. The findings of another study revealed that 40% of dental practitioners did not have the expertise to identify child abuse. The results of the present review showed that the knowledge and awareness level of subjects was inadequate and that there is considerable variation in the practice of forensic odontology among dentists. It is necessary to expose dentists to the basic principles and techniques of the subject.

  1. Community knowledge, awareness and preventive practices regarding dengue fever in Puducherry - South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, S; Sabesan, S; Subramanian, S

    2015-06-01

    To ascertain the knowledge, attitudes and practices of adult population in Puducherry, India, regarding Dengue Fever (DF). A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess the Knowledge, Awareness and Preventive practices (KAP) among a selected community in Puducherry on DF, following a major dengue outbreak in 2012. Between October 2012 & February 2013, an epidemiological survey was conducted among 400 households (HHs) from the most affected areas during dengue outbreak, which came under eight health delivery jurisdictions i.e. Primary Health Centres (PHCs) in Puducherry. Knowledge of dengue and the use of preventive measures were assessed by means of a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was done to examine the association between different levels of education and income status with the knowledge of DF. The DF knowledge map was created based on the results achieved through the questionnaire using Arc GIS 10.2 software. Although about 86% of the participants had heard of dengue, although there was no adequate knowledge on dengue vector breeding habitat as 68% of the respondents thought drains & garbage as breeding places of dengue vectors. Only 25% of participants were aware of clean water as a breeding habitat. Insufficient knowledge of disease symptoms was found, with fever (59%) being the most common symptom. There is a lack of in-depth knowledge on dengue epidemiology in the Puducherry community and observation revealed that more needs to be done by the Government as well as community members to prevent vector mosquito breeding. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Current Levels of Salt Knowledge: A Review of the Literature

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    Rani Sarmugam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High salt intake increases the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the role of knowledge as a determinant of food intake, this paper aims to review the current levels of salt knowledge and the association between salt knowledge and dietary salt intake and salt-related dietary practices in the general population. Twenty two studies were included in the review. In general, the studies showed consumers were able to identify the health risks associated with high salt intake. However, knowledge of recommended daily intakes, understanding of the relationships between salt and sodium and foods that contribute most salt to the diet were poor. Four of the five studies which examined the relationships between salt knowledge and salt-related dietary practices reported significant associations. Two important gaps in the current literature were identified. First, there is a need for a robustly validated tool to examine salt knowledge and its impact on salt intake. Second, a comprehensive salt knowledge assessment should include assessment of procedural, as well as declarative, knowledge.

  3. The pharmacists' awareness, knowledge and attitude about childhood autism in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luleci, Nimet Emel; Hidiroglu, Seyhan; Karavus, Melda; Karavus, Ahmet; Sanver, Furkan Fatih; Ozgur, Fatih; Celik, Mehmethan; Celik, Samed Cihad

    2016-12-01

    Background Being one of the key players in healthcare, pharmacists could have an important role in the early detection and care of children with autism, by familiarizing themselves with autism-related resources and helping families to find relevant professional resources. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the awareness of pharmacists about autism, and their knowledge and attitude towards autism. Setting İstanbul Province of Turkey. Method This descriptive study was carried out in pharmacists working in Istanbul Province of Turkey in 7 municipalities out of 39. One hundred forty-one out of 150 pharmacists who agreed to participate in our study were interviewed with the help of questionnaires. Main outcome measure Knowledge about childhood ASD and the social characteristics thereoff amongst pharmacists. Results Minimum 33.4 and maximum 73.1 % of the pharmacists gave correct answers to each question. Furthermore pharmacists' knowledge about causative factors of childhood ASD proved to be lacking and they tend to believe in outdated theories. The percentage of pharmacists believing that autism holds social stigma in this community was 66.0 %. Conclusion Pharmacists' knowledge regarding ASD needs to be improved. Enhancing their awareness, especially about basic social characteristics of childhood ASD will help pharmacists direct families of children with ASD to responsible health authorities.

  4. Increasing fertility knowledge and awareness by tailored education: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Désirée; Vassena, Rita; Prat, Andrés; Vernaeve, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Women of reproductive age have insufficient fertility knowledge and awareness. Reproductive lifespan and assisted reproduction are the primary areas in which awareness is lacking. Relatively simple interventions can be used to increase knowledge among university students; however, no intervention has been tested to date in a population with more varied education levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate which intervention most improved fertility knowledge in women attending a fertility centre for oocyte donation. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with three intervention groups: tailored, untailored and control. A questionnaire was administered on the day of the first consultation, and again at the oocyte retrieval. Two hundred and one women were enrolled and completed the pre-test, 109 started the cycle and 90 completed the post-test. The effect of the intervention was measured as the difference between the groups in their score from the pre-test to the post test. Only the tailored group showed a significant increase (+2.5; 95% CI [1.8, 3.3]; P = 0.001). Information relating to a woman's most fertile age and limits for childbearing were the most useful. Tailored oral education, therefore, increases fertility knowledge in young women, particularly in relation to their fertility lifespan. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Awareness and knowledge of ocular cancers in a resource-limited economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanniyi, Abdulkabir A; Jamda, Abubakar M; Badmos, Kabir B; Adelaiye, Rabi S; Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O; Kyari, Fatima; Nwana, Edmund J

    2010-11-01

    To determine awareness and knowledge of ocular cancers in a resource-limited setting. A descriptive cross-sectional survey (2009) of 1,887 Nigerians using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Respondents were 55.6% males, and mean age was 30 years, SD 9.5. Most respondents (77.8%) had at least secondary education. Fewer respondents were aware of eye cancers (57.1%) compared to cancers in general (73.7%) (Pknowledge of patients having ocular cancers on sources other than hospital diagnosis. Of 148 respondents, 16.2% were related to 'patients' they knew had ocular cancers. There were 202 respondents who indicated challenges to accessing orthodox medical eye care services by ocular cancer patients as high cost 55.5%, long waiting period 23.3%, long distance 15.4% and poor attitude of health workers 5.9%. Awareness of ocular cancers compared to other cancers is low. Misconceptions on the causes of ocular cancers exist. Public ocular cancers health education can enhance awareness. The need to address barriers to accessing eye care is underscored.

  6. Beyond Knowledge and Awareness: Addressing Misconceptions in Ghana's Preparation towards an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease.

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    Philip Baba Adongo

    Full Text Available Ebola Virus Disease (EVD is not new to the world. However, the West African EVD epidemic which started in 2014 evolved into the largest, most severe and most complex outbreak in the history of the disease. The three most-affected countries faced enormous challenges in stopping the transmission and providing care for all patients. Although Ghana had not recorded any confirmed Ebola case, social factors have been reported to hinder efforts to control the outbreak in the three most affected countries. This qualitative study was designed to explore community knowledge and attitudes about Ebola and its transmission.This study was carried out in five of the ten regions in Ghana. Twenty-five focus group discussions (N = 235 and 40 in-depth interviews were conducted across the five regions with community members, stakeholders and opinion leaders. The interviews were recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis was adopted in the analysis of the data using Nvivo 10.The results showed a high level of awareness and knowledge about Ebola. The study further showed that knowledge on how to identify suspected cases of Ebola was also high among respondents. However, there was a firm belief that Ebola was a spiritual condition and could also be transmitted through air, mosquito bites and houseflies. These misconceptions resulted in perceptions of stigma and discrimination towards people who may get Ebola or work with Ebola patients.We conclude that although knowledge and awareness about Ebola is high among Ghanaians who participated in the study, there are still misconceptions about the disease. The study recommends that health education on Ebola disease should move beyond creating awareness to targeting the identified misconceptions to improve future containment efforts.

  7. KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS REGARDING HIV/AIDS AMONG FIRST YEAR MEDICAL UNDERGRADUATES: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Sharma Panchsheel, Khan Mohammad Shibly

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS affects the most productive age group, the knowledge of which is clouded with many myths and misconceptions. Objective: To determine the knowledge and awareness about various aspects of HIV/AIDS among the students of MBBS first year. Methodology: The students were asked to fill a pre-designed, structured, semi open ended questionnaire. All efforts were made to ensure the originality of the responses. Statistical Analysis: The data collected so, was analysed, tabulated and presented in the forms of percentages and proportions. Appropriate statistical tests applied, wherever applicable. Results: Among the total of 122 respondents, all of them have heard about HIV/AIDS and that it is caused by a virus. About 43.4% students believed that HIV infection means AIDS. The place where HIV testing is done, was known to about 78%. Knowledge about the routes of spread included; through infected injections (100%, through blood transfusion (98%, Unprotected Sexual contact (97.5%, Infected Mother to child (86%. The respondents were aware that it doesn’t spread through touching/hand shaking (99.2%, sharing food (93.4%, using common cups/glasses (89%, used clothes/towels/soap (88.5%. About 80% responded to have discussed about HIV/AIDS ever with anybody, while about 82% considered safe working with a patient of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Most of students were aware about the basic knowledge while they also had a misconception which implies that the students should be equipped more, especially since the beginning of their career.

  8. Awareness and knowledge of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among Australian gay and bisexual men: results of a national, online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Martin; Lea, Toby; Kippax, Susan; Kolstee, Johann; Ellard, Jeanne; Velecky, Marlene; Murphy, Dean; de Wit, John

    2016-04-21

    Background: Expanded access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is being actively debated in Australia. Awareness and knowledge of this HIV-prevention method have not been assessed in detail in the primary affected population, gay and bisexual men. Methods: Awareness and knowledge of PrEP were assessed among Australian gay and bisexual men, who were asked to complete a national, anonymous, online survey in 2015. Associations with PrEP awareness were identified with multivariate logistic regression and associations with PrEP knowledge were identified using multivariate linear regression. Results: Among 1251 participants, 954 (77%) were aware of PrEP. The most common sources of information were gay community media, Australian websites and friends. Awareness of PrEP was independently associated with older age, living in a capital city, having a university degree, being tested for HIV, being HIV-positive, having condomless anal intercourse with regular male partners, and ever having taken post-exposure prophylaxis. Men in monogamous relationships were less likely to be aware of PrEP. Among men who were aware of PrEP, the mean PrEP knowledge score was 6.8 out of 13. Relatively few participants knew that taking PrEP involved regular clinical monitoring and that in Australia PrEP was only recommended for people at risk of HIV. Better knowledge was independently associated with living in a capital city, having a university degree, being in full-time employment, being HIV-positive, and ever having taken post-exposure prophylaxis or PrEP. Conclusions: To assist in appropriate PrEP uptake, we recommend educating gay and bisexual men about current Australian prescribing guidelines and how PrEP is accessed in Australia.

  9. Self-reported knowledge and awareness about blood pressure and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Ina; Thomsen, Marie D; Lindholt, Jes S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In general, it is assumed that patient education, by increasing knowledge, may change behavior and lifestyle and promote health. In this context, it is a surprise that knowledge and awareness about blood pressure and hypertension among elderly people is poor. We hypothesized...... that knowledge about blood pressure and hypertension would be better among individuals with self-reported hypertension compared with subjects without self-reported hypertension. METHODS: We mailed a questionnaire to a random sample of 1,000 subjects living in the municipality of Silkeborg, Denmark. The study...... often had a family history of hypertension. More than 80% reported that overweight and obesity increases blood pressure. More than 60% reported that untreated hypertension may cause heart disease or stroke. More than half of the responders did not know their blood pressure, and only 21% knew...

  10. Developing methodological awareness of reading, thinking and writing as knowledge producing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katan, Lina Hauge; Baarts, Charlotte

    in the humanities and social sciences. Still, in the sections on method in academic papers we mostly neglect any mentioning of the ways we go about reading, how we further our thinking and move into first draftings of our texts and later revisionings. Likewise we see reading, writing and thinking omitted from most......Developing methodological awareness among university students about reading, thinking and writing as knowledge producing practices Integrated acts of reading, thinking and writing comprise an extensive and extremely significant part of the learning processes through which we produce knowledge...... text books on method and classes too. As a consequence students have few chances of encountering the practices of reading, thinking and writing depicted as those imperative parts of knowledge making that we as researchers of the humanities and social sciences know them to be. Subsequently students...

  11. Knowledge and Awareness of Sickle Cell Trait Among Young African American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Sayward E; Walcott, Christy M; Warner, Tamara D

    2017-09-01

    Sickle cell trait (SCT) places individuals at risk of passing an abnormal hemoglobin gene to biological children and is associated with rare but serious complications. The present study sought to examine knowledge of SCT and awareness of personal trait status among 258 young African American adults. Participants were surveyed regarding demographics, medical history, and sources of sickle cell information before completing a trait knowledge questionnaire. Overall, participants possessed significant misinformation about the condition. Women and those who had learned about sickle cell from families displayed higher levels of knowledge. Most participants were uncertain of personal trait status, and many did not wish to be informed of it. Health care providers should be alert that individuals with SCT may be unaware of their condition and potential reproductive and health implications. Screening and reporting procedures should be examined to ensure individuals have access to and control of this vital health information.

  12. Contribution of Communication Inequalities to Disparities in Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Awareness and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Karen M.; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association of Internet-related communication inequalities on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine awareness and infection knowledge. Methods. We drew data from National Cancer Institute’s 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 7674). We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to assess Internet use and Internet health information seeking on HPV vaccine awareness and infection knowledge. Results. Non–Internet users, compared with general Internet users, had significantly lower odds of being aware of the HPV vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.34, 0.51) and knowing that HPV causes cervical cancer (OR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.52, 0.95). Among general health information seekers, non–Internet seekers compared with Internet information seekers exhibit significantly lower odds of HPV vaccine awareness (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.46, 0.75), and of knowing about the link between HPV infection and cervical cancer (OR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.63, 0.99) and the sexual transmission of HPV (OR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.57, 0.89). Among cancer information seekers, there were no differences in outcomes between Internet seekers and non–Internet seekers. Conclusions. Use of a communication channel, such as the Internet, whose use is already socially and racially patterned, may widen observed disparities in vaccine completion rates. PMID:22970692

  13. The Use of Online Current Awareness Services by Natural Sciences and Engineering Faculty at Western Michigan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Carrie C.; Eckel, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every commercial database that covers natural sciences and engineering offers some type of current awareness (CA) service that provides regular updates to users on current literature in a selected field of interest. Current awareness services include e-mail alerts, tables of contents, and RSS feeds. This study was designed to find out what…

  14. Awareness and use of Web 2.0 technologies in sharing of agricultural knowledge in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Wulystan P. Mtega; Frankwell W. Dulle; Andrew W. Malekani; Angela M. Chailla

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the extent to which agricultural researchers and extension workers were aware of Web 2.0 technologies and put them into practice in their daily work. The study involved 107 respondents in the first phase and 148 in the second phase. Respondents were from agricultural research and training institutions as well as agricultural extension departments from selected districts across the country. Structured questionnaires were administered to selected respondents. Find...

  15. Self-perception, knowledge, and awareness of halitosis among female university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Mubayrik, Azizah; Al Hamdan, Rana; Al Hadlaq, Emad M; AlBagieh, Hamad; AlAhmed, Dan; Jaddoh, Hend; Demyati, Mawadh; Abu Shryei, Rawan

    2017-01-01

    Background Halitosis or oral malodor is defined as an unpleasant breath odor. It can become a serious problem affecting individuals’ social communication and self-confidence. Furthermore, it is a discomforting issue for the people around the person affected, because they consider it embarrassing to inform the person of the problem. Aim This study was designed to measure self-perception, knowledge, and awareness of halitosis among female university students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was implemented with 392 volunteer participants who responded to a questionnaire on their self-perception, knowledge, and awareness of halitosis. Results The response rate was 89.1% (392/440). Self-perception of halitosis was low (21.4%), whereas a larger percentage (78.1%) indicated noticing people with bad breath. Most participants (80.4%) thought that the gastrointestinal tract is the primary source of halitosis. Seventy-seven percent preferred using personal methods such as mouthwash and chewing gum to treat oral malodor. According to 82.1% of respondents, a dentist is the most appropriate professional to treat halitosis. Conclusion The investigation revealed low self-perception and limited knowledge regarding halitosis. Therefore, the role of dentists in informing and educating their patients concerning oral malodor should be enhanced. Public education about the causes of and possible ways of managing bad breath should be increased. PMID:28603430

  16. Access to Awareness for Faces during Continuous Flash Suppression Is Not Modulated by Affective Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabovsky, Milena; Stein, Timo; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2016-01-01

    It is a controversially debated topic whether stimuli can be analyzed up to the semantic level when they are suppressed from visual awareness during continuous flash suppression (CFS). Here, we investigated whether affective knowledge, i.e., affective biographical information about faces, influences the time it takes for initially invisible faces with neutral expressions to overcome suppression and break into consciousness. To test this, we used negative, positive, and neutral famous faces as well as initially unfamiliar faces, which were associated with negative, positive or neutral biographical information. Affective knowledge influenced ratings of facial expressions, corroborating recent evidence and indicating the success of our affective learning paradigm. Furthermore, we replicated shorter suppression durations for upright than for inverted faces, demonstrating the suitability of our CFS paradigm. However, affective biographical information did not modulate suppression durations for newly learned faces, and even though suppression durations for famous faces were influenced by affective knowledge, these effects did not differ between upright and inverted faces, indicating that they might have been due to low-level visual differences. Thus, we did not obtain unequivocal evidence for genuine influences of affective biographical information on access to visual awareness for faces during CFS.

  17. Awareness and Knowledge of Child and Adolescent Risky Behaviors: A Parent's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Nancy R; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Thacker, Paige

    2016-04-01

    Adolescence is a developmental stage marked by risk-taking and limited comprehension of dangers of risky behaviors. Previous research has focused on adolescents' perspective of risk with little evidence on parents' knowledge regarding risk. This qualitative study examined parental knowledge and perspectives of child/teen risk behaviors associated with salvia, sexting, inhalant use/abuse, and self/participant-assisted choking. A sample of 30 parents of children/teens aged 10-17 completed a self-administered survey based on Flanagan's critical incident technique. Data were analyzed according to Flanagan's guidelines. Two advanced practice nurses determined category reliability with 95% agreement. The survey yielded five categories of parental responses to potential risky behaviors in their child/teen including the following: talking to my children, setting up consequences, confronting the child, seeking help, and talking to others. Although the majority of the parents were aware of newer behaviors, less than one half of the participants reported discussing risks with their child/teen. One third reported that their child knew a friend who was thinking about/tried sexting. One quarter of parents reported that they were not monitoring their child/teen's media use. Study findings provide important implications for developing an evidence-based education intervention to improve parents' awareness, knowledge, and identification of risk behaviors in their children/teens. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Exploring the Dimensionality of Morphological Awareness and Its Relations to Vocabulary Knowledge in Adult Basic Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the construct of morphological awareness and its relations to vocabulary knowledge in Adult Basic Education (ABE) students. Morphological awareness has emerged as an important predictor of children's and ABE students' reading comprehension abilities; however, there has been a dearth of research…

  19. Healthcare professionals' awareness and knowledge of adverse drug reactions and pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almandil, Noor B

    2016-12-01

    To document the knowledge of, attitudes toward, and practices of adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting and pharmacovigilance systems among healthcare professionals. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire. This study took place at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU), Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,  between  April 2015 and  April 2016. Healthcare professionals, including physicians, pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and nurses, were considered eligible and invited to take part in the study. A link to the online questionnaire was sent to each participant via E-mail, and a hard copy was circulated at the hospital after the objectives of the study were explained. The questionnaire comprised items regarding knowledge/awareness of pharmacovigilance and ADRs, perception/attitude towards pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting, and practices of ADR reporting. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed to the healthcare professionals and 331 participants responded, providing a response rate of 82.75%. The healthcare professionals comprised 161 physicians, 39 pharmacists, 21 pharmacist technicians, and 110 nurses. Most of the participants were female (n=198) and Saudi (61.9%). Most healthcare professionals (62.5%) were unaware of the term pharmacovigilance; the pharmacists and pharmacist technicians had the highest rate of pharmacovigilance awareness (60.5% of the pharmacists and 40% of pharmacist technicians). Conclusion: There is a lack of awareness and knowledge of pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting among healthcare professionals working at KFHU.

  20. Self-perception, knowledge, and awareness of halitosis among female university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Mubayrik A

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Azizah Bin Mubayrik,1 Rana Al Hamdan,2 Emad M Al Hadlaq,1 Hamad AlBagieh,1 Dan AlAhmed,3 Hend Jaddoh,3 Mawadh Demyati,3 Rawan Abu Shryei3 1Oral Medicine and Diagnostic Science Department, 2Restorative Dental Science Department, 3Interns, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Halitosis or oral malodor is defined as an unpleasant breath odor. It can become a serious problem affecting individuals’ social communication and self-confidence. Furthermore, it is a discomforting issue for the people around the person affected, because they consider it embarrassing to inform the person of the problem.Aim: This study was designed to measure self-perception, knowledge, and awareness of halitosis among female university students in Saudi Arabia.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey was implemented with 392 volunteer participants who responded to a questionnaire on their self-perception, knowledge, and awareness of halitosis.Results: The response rate was 89.1% (392/440. Self-perception of halitosis was low (21.4%, whereas a larger percentage (78.1% indicated noticing people with bad breath. Most participants (80.4% thought that the gastrointestinal tract is the primary source of halitosis. Seventy-seven percent preferred using personal methods such as mouthwash and chewing gum to treat oral malodor. According to 82.1% of respondents, a dentist is the most appropriate professional to treat halitosis.Conclusion: The investigation revealed low self-perception and limited knowledge regarding halitosis. Therefore, the role of dentists in informing and educating their patients concerning oral malodor should be enhanced. Public education about the causes of and possible ways of managing bad breath should be increased. Keywords: halitosis, female, self-perception, awareness

  1. Knowledge and level of awareness of renal transplantation among medical students in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine O Takure

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Augustine O Takure1, Sylvester O Alikah2, Vincent C Onuora31Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria; 2Department of Pediatrics, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 3Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Igbinedion University, Okada, Benin, NigeriaBackground: Although renal transplantation has been available since 2000 in Nigeria at St Nicholas Hospital, Lagos, only 134 procedures have been performed as of March 2010. This may be related to the level of knowledge of medical practitioners in the Nigerian communities. Our medical students come from different communities, and assessing their level of awareness may contribute to better utilization of the available resources for renal transplantation in our country. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and level of awareness of renal transplantation among medical students in a potential university transplant center.Methods: A 10-item questionnaire was administered to fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year medical students at Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria. The data obtained were analyzed using standard simple statistical tools in Microsoft Excel Office 2007.Results: The level of participation of respondents was 69.6%; mean age was 26.2 (range 21–45 years. Seventy percent of the respondents were males. The majority of the respondents had obtained information on renal transplantation from school lectures, electronic media, and the Internet. Many were also aware of the indications, pretransplant evaluation, and renal transplant complications. Only five (3.2% knew of the four existing renal transplant centers in Nigeria. In total, 79.1% knew of living donors, while 11.4% knew of cadaveric donors. One hundred and three respondents (65.2% were aware of open surgery for recipient transplantation, while 125 (79.1% knew of open or laparoscopic procedures for donor nephrectomy.Conclusion: The medical students

  2. Teachers’ Attitudes, Knowledge and Skills in Respect to the Language Awareness Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra; Lefever, Samúel; Rimšāne, Inta

    2018-01-01

    This article presents findings from the DELA-NOBA project. During the project, quantitative and qualitative data from the participating teachers from pilot schools in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Sweden were collected to investigate the participating teachers......’ attitudes, knowledge and skills and experiences of using language awareness activities in teaching. Based on teacher cognition as theoretical and methodological framework, we will present data from the teachers’ survey at the beginning of the project, the teachers’ interim survey and the focus group...

  3. Occupational Therapy in Preschools: A Synthesis of Current Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Emmanuelle; Gauthier, Anne; Julien, Marjorie; Hui, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of current knowledge about occupational therapy in preschools (for 3-6 year olds) in order to provide a better understanding of this field of practice and to guide the implementation or programming of this service. In the literature, occupational therapy in preschools has been documented mainly in the USA. Results…

  4. Current knowledge and attitudes: Russian olive biology, ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharlene E. Sing; Kevin J. Delaney

    2016-01-01

    The primary goals of a two-day Russian olive symposium held in February 2014 were to disseminate current knowledge and identify data gaps regarding Russian olive biology and ecology, distributions, integrated management, and to ascertain the feasibility and acceptance of a proposed program for classical biological control of Russian olive. The symposium was...

  5. Marine aerosol production: a review of the current knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dowd, C.D.; Leeuw, G. de

    2007-01-01

    The current knowledge in primary and secondary marine aerosol formation is reviewed. For primary marine aerosol source functions, recent source functions have demonstrated a significant flux of submicrometre particles down to radii of 20 nm. Moreover, the source functions derived from different

  6. Knowledge and awareness of dental implants among elderly people in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjcic, Josip; Mikus, Anja; Mehulic, Ketij; Vojvodic, Denis

    2015-01-01

    The use of inserted dental implants is growing every day in order to improve retention and stability of complete removable dental prostheses (RDPs), especially in the mandible. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the knowledge and awareness of dental implants among elderly people wearing complete RDPs. This study, based on answers from a questionnaire designed for the purpose of this study, included 301 participants wearing complete RDPs from elderly care homes with average age of 74 years. The awareness of dental implants was statistically significantly (p dental implants (56.5%; p dental implants (56.1%; p dental implants (59.4%; p dental implants (82.4%; p dental implants, this did not mean they were well informed about the implant insertion procedure and the costs for such a treatment. In conclusion, awareness of dental implants in studied participants was insufficient. The results reinforce the need for better education and the provision of proper information to elderly people about dental implants and implant treatment options. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. Awareness, trial, and current use of electronic cigarettes in 10 countries: Findings from the ITC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravely, Shannon; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cummings, K Michael; Yan, Mi; Quah, Anne C K; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hitchman, Sara C; McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F; Willemsen, Marc C; Seo, Hong Gwan; Jiang, Yuan; Cavalcante, Tania; Perez, Cristina; Omar, Maizurah; Hummel, Karin

    2014-11-13

    In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have generated considerable interest and debate on the implications for tobacco control and public health. Although the rapid growth of e-cigarettes is global, at present, little is known about awareness and use. This paper presents self-reported awareness, trial and current use of e-cigarettes in 10 countries surveyed between 2009 and 2013; for six of these countries, we present the first data on e-cigarettes from probability samples of adult smokers. A cross-sectional analysis of probability samples of adult (≥ 18 years) current and former smokers participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) surveys from 10 countries. Surveys were administered either via phone, face-to-face interviews, or the web. Survey questions included sociodemographic and smoking-related variables, and questions about e-cigarette awareness, trial and current use. There was considerable cross-country variation by year of data collection and for awareness of e-cigarettes (Netherlands (2013: 88%), Republic of Korea (2010: 79%), United States (2010: 73%), Australia (2013: 66%), Malaysia (2011: 62%), United Kingdom (2010: 54%), Canada (2010: 40%), Brazil (2013: 37%), Mexico (2012: 34%), and China (2009: 31%)), in self-reports of ever having tried e-cigarettes (Australia, (20%), Malaysia (19%), Netherlands (18%), United States (15%), Republic of Korea (11%), United Kingdom (10%), Brazil (8%), Mexico (4%), Canada (4%), and China (2%)), and in current use (Malaysia (14%), Republic of Korea (7%), Australia (7%), United States (6%), United Kingdom (4%), Netherlands (3%), Canada (1%), and China (0.05%)) [corrected]. The cross-country variability in awareness, trial, and current use of e-cigarettes is likely due to a confluence of country-specific market factors, tobacco control policies and regulations (e.g., the legal status of e-cigarettes and nicotine), and the survey timing along the trajectory of e-cigarette awareness and trial

  8. Awareness, Trial, and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in 10 Countries: Findings from the ITC Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Gravely

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes have generated considerable interest and debate on the implications for tobacco control and public health. Although the rapid growth of e-cigarettes is global, at present, little is known about awareness and use. This paper presents self-reported awareness, trial and current use of e-cigarettes in 10 countries surveyed between 2009 and 2013; for six of these countries, we present the first data on e-cigarettes from probability samples of adult smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of probability samples of adult (≥ 18 years current and former smokers participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC surveys from 10 countries. Surveys were administered either via phone, face-to-face interviews, or the web. Survey questions included sociodemographic and smoking-related variables, and questions about e-cigarette awareness, trial and current use. Results: There was considerable cross-country variation by year of data collection and for awareness of e-cigarettes (Netherlands (2013: 88%, Republic of Korea (2010: 79%, United States (2010: 73%, Australia (2013: 66%, Malaysia (2011: 62%, United Kingdom (2010: 54%, Canada (2010: 40%, Brazil (2013: 35%, Mexico (2012: 34%, and China (2009: 31%, in self-reports of ever having tried e-cigarettes (Australia, (20%, Malaysia (19%, Netherlands (18%, United States (15%, Republic of Korea (11%, United Kingdom (10%, Mexico (4%, Canada (4%, Brazil (3%, and China (2%, and in current use (Malaysia (14%, Republic of Korea (7%, Australia (7%, United States (6%, United Kingdom (4%, Netherlands (3%, Canada (1%, and China (0.05%. Conclusions: The cross-country variability in awareness, trial, and current use of e-cigarettes is likely due to a confluence of country-specific market factors, tobacco control policies and regulations (e.g., the legal status of e-cigarettes and nicotine, and the survey timing along the trajectory of e

  9. Validity and Reliability of Asbestos Knowledge and Awareness Questionnaire for Environmental Asbestos Exposure in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Metintaş

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is no treatment for asbestos–related diseases, but they can be prevented. One of the first interventions is to improve the knowledge level of people in order to protect people from asbestos and asbestos–related diseases. The present study was conducted to develop a questionnaire for measuring the knowledge and awareness level of asbestos and also assess its validity and reliability in a rural population that is exposed to asbestos environmentally. Methods: A questionnaire, interviewer–administered, that included 37 items was employed on a convenient sample consisting of adult persons who attended a tertiary teaching hospital in Eskişehir where asbestos exposure is widespread in its rural areas. After assessment of validity and reliability of the results, the questionnaire was refined to 19 items and one subscale. Results: A total of 760 participants were included in this study. The mean age of participants was 53.2±15.1 years and 51.6% of them were male. The discrimination and difficulty indices of the asbestos knowledge and awareness questionnaire ranged between 20.0–60.5% and 0.39–0.98, respectively. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.951 for overall items. The median (min–max and mean (SD score of the study population were 30 (19–56 and 33.9 (11.9, respectively. The score increased correspondingly with greater knowledge levels. Conclusion: This questionnaire is a practical and easy tool to apply with acceptable reliability and validity on high-risk adults in rural areas with environmental asbestos exposure.

  10. Pregnant women's awareness, knowledge and beliefs about pelvic floor muscles: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Anne-Marie; McPhail, Steven M; Wilson, Judith M; Berlach, Richard G

    2017-10-01

    Pregnant women benefit from completing pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFMEs). The aims of the study were to evaluate pregnant women's levels of awareness, knowledge, and beliefs about the pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) and PFMEs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Respondents were pregnant women over the age of 18 years who attended antenatal clinics in Western Australia (WA). Questionnaire items measured awareness and knowledge about PFMs, confidence and beliefs about engaging in PFMEs, and attendance at antenatal education (ANE) classes. Chi-squared tests examined potential associations between questionnaire items and respondent characteristics. Mean gestation of respondents (n = 633 out of 850; 74% response rate) was 28.7 (+7.8) weeks and 50% were giving birth for the first time. Although 76% of respondents knew that PFMs can prevent urinary incontinence, only 27% knew that they prevented faecal incontinence and 41% thought it was normal to leak urine when pregnant. Only n = 72 (11%) were practicing PFMEs. Respondents who had attended ANE (28%) were significantly more knowledgeable about pelvic floor function (p pregnancy was normal (p = 0.02), compared with those who had not attended ANE. Respondents who did not speak English at home (18%) were significantly less knowledgeable about PFMs and PFMEs, and significantly less likely to have attended, or planned to attend, ANE classes. Pregnant women require more health education regarding PFMs. Education should be provided using diverse modes, especially for women from migrant backgrounds and women who do not plan to attend formal ANE classes.

  11. AIDS awareness in an Indian metropolitan slum dweller : A KAP (knowledge, attitude, practice study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalasagar M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To assess the awareness and attitude towards AIDS and PLHA in slum dwellers of Chennai, an Indian metropolis by KAP (Knowledge, Attitude, Practice study. METHODS : A cross sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of 650 subjects (400 females and 250 females, aged 15-45 years, by means of a questionnaire in the local dialect Tamil. RESULTS : The overall literacy rate was 64%, with males being 70% and females being 60% literate. 20% of males and 11% of females do not know about a disease called AIDS. Only 67% of males and 55% of females are aware of the sexual mode of transmission. 34% of males and 50% females opine that AIDS is also a hereditary disease. Also 45% of males and 62% of females feel that AIDS also spreads by air, fomites, or mosquito-bite. Only 30% of males and 22% females know about the possible symptoms of AIDS. 30% of males and 45% of females never ask for a new syringe if not provided, as they are totally unaware of its significance. 43% of males and 78% of females do not know about the risk of a barber′s blade. 56% of males and 71% of females feel that AIDS can be treated at least by a traditional medicine. Lastly, 48% of males and 60% females prefer outcasting an AIDS patient from the slum. CONCLUSIONS : AIDS awareness in the slum dwellers of Chennai is very poor. Corresponding awareness in suburbs and rural areas will be much worse. Conventional IEC methods targeting general population via mass media are not reaching the slum dwellers, even in a metropolitan city. A specially designed targeted intervention is needed.

  12. AWARENESS, KNOWLEDGE, AND BEHAVIOR REGARDING HIV/AIDS AMONG FRESHMAN STUDENTS AT OAKLAND UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Mackman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV causes a sexually transmitted disease (STD affecting the human immune system. It is mainly transmitted through sexual intercourse, blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and parenterally. Multiple actions can be taken to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS, such as condom and sterile needle use and HIV testing for pregnant women. This study aims to assess freshmen students’ awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral perceptions regarding HIV/AIDS at Oakland University (OU in Michigan. This study is a cross-sectional survey targeting freshman students at OU. The questionnaire is comprised of seven sections including demographics, risk perception, protection measures, alcohol tendencies, health-seeking behaviors, culturally sensitive issues, and methods of dissemination of information. The mean age of respondents was 20. The majority of respondents knew that HIV is transmitted sexually (98% and by sharing needles (98%. Many misconceptions about transmission of HIV were expressed by 53%. Data showed that while there was good knowledge regarding HIV transmission and prevention, some misconceptions still prevailed. Our results indicate the need to develop educational programs with specific interventions to raise awareness about preventive measures, clear misconceptions, and promote healthy lifestyle in order to prevent new HIV infections among young college students.

  13. Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer among HIV-Infected Women in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netsanet Shiferaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among Ethiopian women. Low awareness of cervical cancer, in combination with low health care seeking behavior, is a key challenge for cervical cancer prevention. This study assessed the knowledge of cervical cancer among HIV-infected women in Ethiopia. Methods. A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from August to September 2012 among HIV-infected women between 21 and 49 years of age. Basic descriptive statistics were performed using SPSS. Results. A total of 432 HIV-infected women participated in this study. About 71% of participants had ever heard of cervical cancer. Among women who had ever heard of cervical cancer, 49% did not know the cause while 74% were able to identify at least one risk factor for cervical cancer. Only 33% of women were able to correctly address when women should seek care and 33% identified at least one treatment option for cervical cancer. Conclusion. This study revealed that knowledge about cervical cancer was generally low, in particular for health care seeking behavior and treatment of cervical cancer. Health awareness programs should be strengthened at both community and health facility levels with emphasis highlighting the causes, risk factors, care seeking behaviors, and treatment options for cervical cancer.

  14. Public awareness and knowledge of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) control activities in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olamiju, Olatunwa J; Olamiju, Francisca O; Adeniran, Adebiyi A; Mba, Ifeanyi C; Ukwunna, Chidera C; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Ekpo, Uwem F

    2014-09-01

    The need to engage the public in Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) control activities has become imperative in the context of morbidity reduction through preventive chemotherapy and community participation. Therefore, a survey was conducted among the general public to assess their knowledge and awareness of NTDs control activities in Nigeria. A simple questionnaire was administered to the general public attending a job fair in Abuja, Nigeria. Of the 461 respondents, a significant proportion 337 (73.1%) have heard of NTD before, but only 291 (63.1%) have good knowledge about NTDs. However, among the specific NTDs, only the control of onchocerciasis (50.8%) was of average public awareness in Nigeria, while all the other NTDs control activities were significantly less known to the general public. 397 (87.1%) stated that government support for NTD control activities is poor and were willing to assist to advocate for NTDs control. This survey demonstrates that despite government's numerous activities towards the control of NTDs in Nigeria, there is little sensitization of the general public. There is a need for policy changes that would raise the participation and involvement of the general public in NTDs control activities for sustainability.

  15. The Early Awareness and Alert System in Sweden: History and Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Eriksson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past decades, early awareness and alert (EAA activities and systems have gained importance and become a key early health technology assessment (HTA tool. While a pioneer in HTA, Sweden had no national level EAA activities until 2010. We describe the evolution and current status of the Swedish EAA System.Methods: This was a historical analysis based on the knowledge and experience of the authors supplemented by a targeted review of published and gray literature as well as documents relating to EAA activities in Sweden. Key milestones and a description of the current state of the Swedish EAA System is presented.Results: Initiatives to establish a system for the identification and assessment of emerging health technologies in Sweden date back to the 1980s. In the 1990s, the Swedish Agency for HTA and Assessment of Social Services (SBU supported the development of EuroScan as one of its founder members. In the mid-2000s, an independent regional initiative, driven by the Stockholm County Drug and Therapeutics Committee, resulted in the establishment of a regional horizon scanning function. By 2009, this work had expanded to a collaboration between the four biggest counties in Sweden. The following year it was further expanded to the national level and since then the Swedish EAA System has been carrying out identification, filtration and prioritization of new medicines, early assessment of the prioritized medicines, and dissemination of information. In 2015, the EAA System was incorporated into the Swedish national process for managed introduction and follow-up of new medicines. Outputs from the EAA System are now used to select new medicines for inclusion in this process.Conclusions: The Swedish EAA System started as a regional initiative and rapidly grew to become a national level activity. An important feature of the system today is its complete integration into the national process for managed introduction and follow-up of

  16. Knowledge, Awareness and Practices Regarding Cystic Echinococcosis among Livestock Farmers in Basrah Province, Iraq

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    Mohanad F. Abdulhameed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is an endemic neglected parasitic zoonosis in many of the countries of the Middle East. The disease poses a remarkable economic burden for both animals and humans. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire survey among livestock farmers in Basrah province, southern Iraq, in order to evaluate their knowledge and awareness about CE, and to understand some of the risky practices that could contribute to spread and persistence of such disease. Of the interviewed participants (N = 314, 27.4% owned dogs on their farms. Among farmers owning dogs, 76.7% (66/86 never tied up their dogs, and 43% (37/86 indicated feeding uncooked animal viscera to their dogs. The majority (96.5% of the farmers indicated that they did not de-worm their dogs at all. Only 9.8% (31/314 of the respondents indicated eating raw leafy vegetables without washing. Added to that, 32% of the interviewees indicated that they source water for domestic use from a river; meanwhile 94.3% (296/314 of them do not boil water before using it for domestic purposes. Half of the interviewed livestock farmers in Basrah were not aware about how humans get infected with CE disease, and 41.4% (130/314 did not even realize that CE is a dangerous disease to human health. Almost one in three of the respondents who owned dogs on their farms viewed de-worming of their dogs as a low priority practice. This study highlights the gap in knowledge and awareness about CE among the study population. Risky practices associated with dog keeping management and food and water handling practices were identified. The insight from this research could be used to improve the delivery of a health education message relevant to cystic echinococcosis control at the human-animal interface in Iraq.

  17. Knowledge and Awareness of Age Related Eye Diseases: a Population-Based Survey

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    Marzieh Katibeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine general awareness and knowledge about cataracts, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy (DR, as common avoidable causes of blindness in an Iranian population. Methods: This cross-sectional population-based survey was performed on residents over 45 years of age in Tehran. The sampling frame was the list of all landline phone numbers registered by the Telecommunications Center of Iran, through which systematic random sampling was performed. Data was collected by phone-call interviews and completing a semi-structured questionnaire. Awareness was defined as whether the respondent had ever heard of the disease. Knowledge was assessed by realizing different aspects of each disease. Results: Of a total of 1,084 eligible people including 574 (52.9% women and 510 (47.1% men were included and 957 subjects (response rate, 88.3% completed the interview. Awareness regarding glaucoma, cataract and DR was 46.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]:43.4 -49.8%, 82.9% (95% CI: 80.5 -85.3% and 86.2% (95% CI: 84-88.4%. In addition, 19.2% (95% CI: 16.7 -21.7%, 57.3% (95% CI: 54.2-60.4% and 72% (95% CI: 69.2 -74.8% of respondents could give at least a basic definition of the mentioned diseases, respectively. Only 22.6% (95% CI: 20-25.2% and 41.6% (95% CI: 38.5-44.7% realized glaucoma and DR as a treatable condition; in contrast, 77.2% (95% CI: 74.5-79.9% categorized cataract as treatable. Only 19% and 7.1% knew that DR and glaucoma may commence without any apparent symptoms. Conclusion: Compared with cataract and DR, most participants had limited information about glaucoma. In addition, few of the respondents were familiar with the initial symptoms of DR and glaucoma.

  18. Cultural Competence in Pediatrics: Health Care Provider Knowledge, Awareness, and Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Kirk; McClarin, Lavisha; Romano, Emily; Fitzgerald, Diane; Bayne, Lynn; Oceanic, Patricia; Nettles, Arie L; Holmes, Laurens

    2015-12-22

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a cultural competence training (CCT) program on pediatric health care providers' self-reported ability to provide culturally competent care to a diverse pediatric patient population. This quantitative, nested ecologic level study design used a repeated measure in the form of pre-test and post-test data to assess percent change in providers' cultural awareness, experience working or learning about different cultures, and preparedness and skills in working with different cultures before and after CCT. The study was conducted between 2011 and 2012 in a pediatric hospital and associated outpatient offices. The sample consisted of pediatric health care providers from various departments, mainly physicians and nurses (n = 69). Participants completed a pre-intervention cultural competence assessment and then were subjected to a cultural competence-training program, after which they completed the assessment a second time. The baseline and post-intervention data were collected in the form of Likert scales and transformed into a quintile or quartile scale as appropriate. Data were assessed using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon's signed-rank tests. Providers indicated a 13% increase in knowledge (53.9% vs. 66.7%, t = 3.4, p = 0.001), 8.7% increase in awareness (46.7% vs. 55.4%, t = 3.0, p = 0.002), and 8% statistically marginal increase in skills (66.4% vs. 74.5%, z = 1.8, p = 0.06). Culturally competent training in a pediatric environment significantly enhances knowledge, awareness and to some extent skills in providing care to culturally diverse patient population.

  19. Awareness, Knowledge, and Practices Regarding Occupational Hazards Among Medical Students: A Longitudinal Study Before and After Admission as Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeckman, Lutgart; Verbrugghe, Mathieu; Janssens, Heidi; Verpraet, Rini; Cobbaut, Luc

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices of students regarding occupational hazards before and after entering clinical training. A self-administered questionnaire was used to follow up a cohort of Belgian medical students in 2014 and 2015. Inquiries about students' characteristics, awareness, knowledge, and practices of protective measures were included. Descriptive and multivariable analyses were performed. Overall, 249 (94%) students completed the preclinical questionnaire and 147 (56%) responded on both occasions. Our findings revealed that student awareness and knowledge scores were inadequate but increased after admission as trainees. Students with an accidental blood contact (n = 43) showed no better knowledge of postexposure management than those without such an incident. The observed lack of awareness and knowledge regarding occupational hazards among students provides an opportunity to improve basic education and training environments.

  20. Knowledge, awareness, and attitude regarding infection prevention and control among medical students: a call for educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Awab Ali; Elshafie, Sittana Shamseldin

    2016-01-01

    Medical students can be exposed to serious health care-associated infections, if they are not following infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. There is limited information regarding the knowledge, awareness, and practices of medical students regarding IPC and the educational approaches used to teach them these practices. To evaluate the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of medical students toward IPC guidelines, and the learning approaches to help improve their knowledge. A cross-sectional, interview-based survey included 73 medical students from Weill Cornell Medical College, Qatar. Students completed a questionnaire concerning awareness, knowledge, and attitude regarding IPC practices. Students' knowledge was assessed by their correct answers to the survey questions. A total of 48.44% of the respondents were aware of standard isolation precautions, 61.90% were satisfied with their training in IPC, 66.13% were exposed to hand hygiene training, while 85.48% had sufficient knowledge about hand hygiene and practiced it on a routine basis, but only 33.87% knew the duration of the hand hygiene procedure. Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of IPC measures among Weill Cornell Medical Students in Qatar were found to be inadequate. Multifaceted training programs may have to target newly graduated medical practitioners or the training has to be included in the graduate medical curriculum to enable them to adopt and adhere to IPC guidelines.

  1. CURRENT SITUATION OF CIVIL AWARENESS OF UNDERGRADUATE AND PROMOTION STRATEGY RESEARCH

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    Li Hong-Mei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted on a questionnaire survey for the current college students’ civic awareness from four aspects of equality consciousness, national consciousness, freedom consciousness and public consciousness. Survey data was analyzed with the SAS® statistical software, the results shown that some of our country’s College Students with a strong national consciousness, and their patriotic feeling is deep at present. They identity the consciousness of equality, but their awareness of fighting for rights is not strong. They have a sense of freedom, but some students are not clear about the relationship between freedom and law. Their enthusiasm to participate in public affairs is not high. Their awareness of social morality is not comprehensive. The reason is that the influence of traditional culture and the political development can’t keep up with the development of economy and the systematic citizenship education is lacked. Finally, we put forward a method of improve the civic awareness of Contemporary College Students in this paper.

  2. Knowledge Discovery for Smart Grid Operation, Control, and Situation Awareness -- A Big Data Visualization Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yi; Jiang, Huaiguang; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun Jason; Gao, Tianlu; Muljadi, Eduard

    2016-11-21

    In this paper, a big data visualization platform is designed to discover the hidden useful knowledge for smart grid (SG) operation, control and situation awareness. The spawn of smart sensors at both grid side and customer side can provide large volume of heterogeneous data that collect information in all time spectrums. Extracting useful knowledge from this big-data poll is still challenging. In this paper, the Apache Spark, an open source cluster computing framework, is used to process the big-data to effectively discover the hidden knowledge. A high-speed communication architecture utilizing the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model is designed to transmit the data to a visualization platform. This visualization platform uses Google Earth, a global geographic information system (GIS) to link the geological information with the SG knowledge and visualize the information in user defined fashion. The University of Denver's campus grid is used as a SG test bench and several demonstrations are presented for the proposed platform.

  3. Modeling the Relations Among Morphological Awareness Dimensions, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study extended the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) by investigating the predictive utility of separate dimensions of morphological awareness as well as vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension in adult basic education (ABE) students. We competed two- and three-factor structural equation models of reading comprehension. A three-factor model of real word morphological awareness, pseudoword morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge emerged as the best fit and accounted for 79% of the reading comprehension variance. The results indicated that the constructs contributed jointly to reading comprehension; however, vocabulary knowledge was the only potentially unique predictor (p = 0.052), accounting for an additional 5.6% of the variance. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a latent variable modeling approach to examine individual differences in the reading comprehension skills of ABE students. Further, this study replicates the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) on the importance of differentiating among dimensions of morphological awareness in this population. PMID:26869981

  4. Modeling the Relations Among Morphological Awareness Dimensions, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study extended the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) by investigating the predictive utility of separate dimensions of morphological awareness as well as vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension in adult basic education (ABE) students. We competed two- and three-factor structural equation models of reading comprehension. A three-factor model of real word morphological awareness, pseudoword morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge emerged as the best fit and accounted for 79% of the reading comprehension variance. The results indicated that the constructs contributed jointly to reading comprehension; however, vocabulary knowledge was the only potentially unique predictor (p = 0.052), accounting for an additional 5.6% of the variance. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a latent variable modeling approach to examine individual differences in the reading comprehension skills of ABE students. Further, this study replicates the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) on the importance of differentiating among dimensions of morphological awareness in this population.

  5. Self-reported interoceptive awareness in primary care patients with past or current low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, Wolf E; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Price, Cynthia J; Acree, Mike; Bartmess, Elizabeth; Stewart, Anita L

    2013-01-01

    Mind-body interactions play a major role in the prognosis of chronic pain, and mind-body therapies such as meditation, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais presumably provide benefits for pain patients. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) scales, designed to measure key aspects of mind-body interaction, were developed and validated with individuals practicing mind-body therapies, but have never been used in pain patients. We administered the MAIA to primary care patients with past or current low back pain and explored differences in the performance of the MAIA scales between this and the original validation sample. We compared scale means, exploratory item cluster and confirmatory factor analyses, scale-scale correlations, and internal-consistency reliability between the two samples and explored correlations with validity measures. Responses were analyzed from 435 patients, of whom 40% reported current pain. Cross-sectional comparison between the two groups showed marked differences in eight aspects of interoceptive awareness. Factor and cluster analyses generally confirmed the conceptual model with its eight dimensions in a pain population. Correlations with validity measures were in the expected direction. Internal-consistency reliability was good for six of eight MAIA scales. We provided specific suggestions for their further development. Self-reported aspects of interoceptive awareness differ between primary care patients with past or current low back pain and mind-body trained individuals, suggesting further research is warranted on the question whether mind-body therapies can alter interoceptive attentional styles with pain. The MAIA may be useful in assessing changes in aspects of interoceptive awareness and in exploring the mechanism of action in trials of mind-body interventions in pain patients.

  6. [Awareness and knowledge about risks of drinking during pregnancy in pregnant Lebanese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, D; El Hachem, H; Kesrouani, A; Hleis, S; Rohayem, J; Chammai, R; Haddad, G; Haddad, R; Richa, S

    2011-04-01

    To assess the awareness and knowledge of pregnant Lebanese women about the risks of drinking during pregnancy and the factors that influence their drinking patterns. A prospective study was conducted on a sample of 107 women consulting the gynecology outpatient department of Hôtel-Dieu de France in Beirut, Lebanon, who completed the T-ACE screening test included in a 21 multiple choice questionnaire which examine knowledge and beliefs about alcohol use during pregnancy, drinking patterns and awareness of fetal alcohol exposure. The 107 women of our sample were all married, between 20 and 41 years old and had mostly a high educational level (86%). Most of the women (47%) were at their first pregnancy. Of the 20 women who self-reported drinking during pregnancy, 60% obtained a positive score on the T-ACE questionnaire, which indicates that more than 11% of the women engaged with potentially high risk drinking for the baby. There is not a significant difference between the different age categories or educational levels. This proportion is lower than that found in international publications. However, the rate of excessive drinking (4 drinks or more on any one occasion in females) was higher and one woman in five reported excessive drinking in the previous year. There is a high level of knowledge that alcohol use during pregnancy is harmful to the child, and the more consumption the more harmful and likely the effects, but there is confusion about the safety of small amounts of alcohol. Women (37%) think that there is a safe level of drinking during pregnancy; 29% tolerate up to one drink a month, 9% tolerate up to one drink a week and one woman thinks having one drink a day is safe. Women who actually drink during pregnancy are more likely to think that alcohol consumption to a certain level is safe. Women (31%) think that beer and/or wine are safe alcohols to a certain level during pregnancy. When asked about the source of this belief, 22% mention a gynecologist but

  7. Awareness of Diagnosis and Knowledge of HPV in Women Patients: Data from a Multi-Site Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCree, Donna Hubbard; Daley, Ellen M.; Gorbach, Pamina; Hamm, Robert M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Brandt, Heather M.; McFarlane, Mary; Kerndt, Peter; McDermott, Robert J.; Perrin, Karen M.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with cervical and other anogenital cancers. Purpose: This paper reports results of awareness of an HPV diagnosis and HPV knowledge from a multi-site study of HPV knowledge, attitudes and behavior, and the impact of an HPV diagnosis on women and their…

  8. Awareness and Knowledge of Autism Spectrum Disorders among Pharmacists: A Cross-Sectional Study in Palestinian Pharmacy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Fahed, Basel; Qadri, Dana; Sharawi, Lamees; Soroghli, Mai; Dweik, Maen

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacists are trusted and easily accessible healthcare providers. We assessed awareness and knowledge of symptoms, etiology, and treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) among pharmacists practicing in Palestine. The pharmacists reported low familiarity with ASDs. The median score on the 12-item knowledge section was 50.0% with an…

  9. The Effect of Teaching Vocabulary through Semantic Mapping on EFL Learners' Awareness of the Affective Dimensions of Deep Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilforoushan, Somayeh

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of teaching vocabulary through semantic mapping on the awareness of two affective dimensions, evaluation and potency dimensions of deep vocabulary knowledge as well as the general vocabulary knowledge of EFL students. Sixty intermediate EFL female adult learners participated in this study; they were chosen among 90…

  10. Self-reported interoceptive awareness in primary care patients with past or current low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehling WE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wolf E Mehling,1,2 Jennifer Daubenmier,1,3 Cynthia J Price,5 Mike Acree,1 Elizabeth Bartmess,1 Anita L Stewart41Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, 4School of Nursing, Institute for Health and Aging, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 5School of Nursing, Department of Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Systems, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USABackground: Mind–body interactions play a major role in the prognosis of chronic pain, and mind–body therapies such as meditation, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais presumably provide benefits for pain patients. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA scales, designed to measure key aspects of mind–body interaction, were developed and validated with individuals practicing mind–body therapies, but have never been used in pain patients.Methods: We administered the MAIA to primary care patients with past or current low back pain and explored differences in the performance of the MAIA scales between this and the original validation sample. We compared scale means, exploratory item cluster and confirmatory factor analyses, scale–scale correlations, and internal-consistency reliability between the two samples and explored correlations with validity measures.Results: Responses were analyzed from 435 patients, of whom 40% reported current pain. Cross-sectional comparison between the two groups showed marked differences in eight aspects of interoceptive awareness. Factor and cluster analyses generally confirmed the conceptual model with its eight dimensions in a pain population. Correlations with validity measures were in the expected direction. Internal-consistency reliability was good for six of eight MAIA scales. We provided specific suggestions for their further development.Conclusion: Self-reported aspects of interoceptive awareness differ between primary care patients with past or current

  11. Knowledge and awareness of heat-related morbidity among adult recreational endurance athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G.; Alexander, Melannie S.; Lorentzson, Lauren; McCarty, Frances A.

    2010-07-01

    Adults have been increasingly motivated to compete in recreational endurance sports events. Amateurs may lack a complete understanding of recommended strategies for handling heat and humidity, making heat-related illnesses increasingly possible. This is compounded by global climate change and increasing average surface and air temperatures, especially in urban areas of industrialized nations in Europe and North America that have hosted most events to date. We conducted an on-line, secure survey at the 2nd Annual ING Georgia Marathon and Half-Marathon in Atlanta, Georgia, in 2008. We included previously validated questions on participant socio-demographics, training locations, and knowledge and awareness of heat-related illnesses. Participants were aware of heat illnesses, and of heat stroke as a serious form of heat stress. However, the majority, across age and gender, did not understand the potential severity of heat stroke. Furthermore, 1-in-5 participants did not understand the concept of heat stress as a form of heat-related illness, and how heat stress may result from buildup of muscle-generated heat in the body. Adult recreational endurance athletes are another susceptible, vulnerable population sub-group for applied research and public health educational interventions, especially in urban areas of industrialized nations in Europe and North America.

  12. Understanding software developers’ awareness and knowledge about user experience and usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz İnal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand software developers’ awareness and level of knowledge about user experience and usability. The study also examined software developers’ opinions regarding integrating usability activities into software development processes. Fifty-nine software developers participated to the study. In the first part of the study, data were collected through questionnaire. In the second part of the study, in-depth interviews were conducted with a group of volunteer participants and detailed information was obtained about the topic. Results of the study revealed that majority of the software developers did not have any training related to user experience, usability or human-computer interaction. The majority of the participants consider themselves as the least experienced and uninformed members of a software development project about user experience and usability. The results also revealed that software developers in the study have incomplete and misinformation about user experience and usability.

  13. Knowledge and awareness of children's food safety among school-based street food vendors in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mamun, Mohammad; Rahman, Shah Md Mahfuzur; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury

    2013-04-01

    We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine the level of knowledge and awareness regarding children's food safety issues among the school-based street food vendors in Dhaka city. A total of 250 school-based street food vendors were interviewed employing a pre-tested structured questionnaire comprising foodborne illness and food hygiene-related questions. We used a scoring system based on the responses obtained from them, and categorized the overall level of knowledge and awareness into "adequate" and "inadequate." Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the association between selected sociodemographic characteristics and the level of knowledge and awareness. The most common food item vended by school-based street food vendors was chotpoti/fuchka (37.2%). The median number of schoolchildren customers was 120 per vendor per day. All (100%) vendors were male with a mean age of 30.95±8.8 years, and their mean daily income was 131.16±62.54 Bangladeshi Taka (1.97±0.94 USD). Most (40.1%) of the respondents belonged to the age group 25-34 years, and the majority (43.6%) did not have any formal education. More than two-thirds (68%) vendors could not show adequate level of knowledge and awareness of children's food safety issues. The most common source of obtaining food safety information by vendors was electronic media (91.8%). Elderly (≥45 years) vendors were 17.73 times more likely to have adequate level of knowledge and awareness than the vendors belonging to age group 15-24 years (pknowledge and awareness than those who did not have any formal education (pfood vendors showed an inadequate level of knowledge and awareness of children's food safety issues.

  14. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avigdor, Elizabeth; Wohlmuth, Hans; Asfaw, Zemede; Awas, Tesfaye

    2014-05-06

    A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes

  15. MODIFIED SIMULATION LEARNING METHOD ON KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF NURSING STUDEN T’S CULTURAL AWARENESS AT UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

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    Enie Novieastari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nursing students should be prepared to be culturally competent nurses. Cultural awareness is believed as the most important elements of cultural competence. The purpose of this article is to describe the effectiveness of Modified Simulation Learning Methods on cultural awareness as one atribute of cultural competence. Aquasi-experimental (control group design was used to explore the relationship between variabels among 98 first year nursing studentattending Basic Nursing Concept I course at Faculty of Nursing Universitas Indonesia. The knowledge of cultural awareness was found statistically different between participants in Modified Simulation Methods group (intervention and participants using the regular method. However, there were no statistical differences in attitude of cultural awareness between intervention and control groups. It could be concluded that Modified Simulation Learning methods is an effective learning method for increasing cultural knowledge of nusing student to be a competent nurse. Further research should be developed in continuing the improvement of cultural competence such as cultural skills.

  16. Current state of knowledge on Virilastacus species (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae

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    Erich H Rudolph

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Virilastacus was created in 1991 to accommodate Parastacus araucanius Faxon, 1914. At present, Virilastacus comprises four burrowing species, three of which were described at the beginning of the XXI century, and biological knowledge about these species is mainly limited to taxonomic and distributional aspects. This review compiles published information about these species, together with other data available to the author in order to update the current state of biological knowledge and, in turn, to promote the conservation of these species. An upgraded diagnosis of the genus Virilastacus is provided, together with information related to each species with regard to: distinctive morphological traits, geographic distribution, habitat, burrow morphology, burrowing behavior, body size, sexual system, and state of conservation. Some aspects related to morphological adaptations to their burrowing life style, phylogenetic affinities and main threats to conservation are also discussed. It is concluded that biological knowledge about these four species is scarce and fragmentary; furthermore, they are currently under threat as a result of anthropogenic activities that are degrading and fragmenting their habitat.

  17. TB and HIV in the Central African region: current knowledge and knowledge gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.; Huson, M. A. M.; Bélard, S.; Stolp, S.; Kapata, N.; Bates, M.; van Vugt, M.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and comprehensive data on the HIV/AIDS and TB co-pandemics from Central Africa remain scarce. This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview on current and past research activities in the region and provides a basis for future research work to close knowledge gaps. The scientific

  18. Effects of Awareness Material on Suicide-Related Knowledge and the Intention to Provide Adequate Help to Suicidal Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Florian; Scherr, Sebastian; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Krallmann, Sabrina; Till, Benedikt

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of educative media reports on the intention to provide help to suicidal individuals and on suicide-related knowledge. To test whether material debunking widely shared myths influences knowledge and the intention to provide adequate help to others, and if such information reduces reading enjoyment. A randomized controlled trial was utilized. Participants allocated to the intervention group were exposed to awareness material explicitly addressing suicide myths. Analyses show that exposure to printed awareness material increased knowledge, which in turn positively influenced intentions to provide help. The inclusion of information regarding suicide myths did not reduce reading enjoyment. The awareness material used in this study only addressed two suicide myths that were considered to be especially important. Information debunking suicide myths in suicide-related media reports is therefore both feasible and potentially helpful.

  19. Current research knowledge about adolescent victimization via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Janis; Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly; Finkelhor, David

    2007-08-01

    We review current knowledge about adolescent Internet-mediated victimization, including Internet-initiated sex crimes in which offenders use the Internet to meet victims, unwanted online sexual solicitations, Internet harassment, and unwanted and wanted exposure to online pornography. Internet-initiated sex crimes have received considerable publicity, but the media stories have contributed to stereotypes that do not accurately portray adolescent Internet experience. Adults' concerns are valid but need to be supported with information that illuminates the real safety issues and targets the specific population of youth impacted.

  20. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: current knowledge and open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Israel; Kennedy, Peter G E

    2015-10-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is usually an acute, multi-focal, and monophasic immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. The disorder is mainly a condition of the pediatric age group, but neurologists are also involved in the management of adult patients. The lack of defined diagnostic criteria for ADEM underlies the limited understanding of its epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, course, prognosis, therapy, as well as the association with, and distinction from, multiple sclerosis. The present review summarizes current knowledge and outlines unanswered questions the answers to which should be eventually provided through a synergistic combination of clinical and basic research.

  1. Epigenetics of Addiction: Current Knowledge, Challenges, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Charlotte A M; Walton, Esther; Viding, Essi

    2016-09-01

    Addiction to psychoactive substances is a debilitating condition underpinned by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. At present, a key challenge for research is to delineate how, at a molecular level, these influences become "biologically embedded," contributing to the onset and persistence of addictive behaviors. Recently, epigenetic processes that regulate gene expression have emerged as a potential mechanism of interest. In this commentary, we discuss the relevance of epigenetics to addiction research, starting with the current state of knowledge, what challenges we have yet to overcome, and what the future may hold in terms of research methodology and translational potential.

  2. Azelaic acid in dermatological treatment – current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Reszke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Azelaic acid (AZA is a naturally occurring substance produced by Malassezia furfur which exerts various effects on the skin. Azelaic acid has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, keratolytic, comedolytic, sebostatic and tyrosinase-inhibiting properties. Topical application of AZA as 20% cream or 15% gel is a well-established therapeutic method in various common dermatoses, mainly acne vulgaris, rosacea and disorders associated with hyperpigmentation. Azelaic acid is used as a component of chemical peels as well. The paper summarizes the most relevant issues concerning AZA application in dermatological treatment based on current knowledge.

  3. Women's knowledge and awareness of gynecologic cancer: a multisite qualitative study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Polonec, Lindsey; Gelb, Cynthia A

    2011-04-01

    U.S. women's awareness and knowledge of gynecologic cancer have not been well studied, with the exception of cervical cancer screening and risk factors. Fifteen focus groups were conducted with women aged 40-60 years in Miami, New York City, Chicago, and Los Angeles. Most participants said they had heard of cervical, ovarian, and uterine cancers but were unfamiliar with vaginal and vulvar cancers. The misconception that the Pap test screens for multiple gynecologic cancers was prevalent and engendered a false sense of security in some women. An annual Pap screening interval was most familiar to participants; some mentioned a shorter screening interval for high-risk women; few mentioned an extended screening interval. A few participants thought the pelvic examination could detect a variety of conditions, including ovarian cancer. Some knew that the human papillomavirus (HPV) could cause cervical cancer, but no other risk factors for specific cancers were mentioned with any consistency. Although some recognized unexplained vaginal bleeding as a symptom of cervical cancer, participants generally were unfamiliar with gynecologic cancer symptoms. Participants reported learning about the discussion topics from a variety of sources, including the mass media. Participants lacked critical knowledge needed to understand their gynecologic cancer risk and seek appropriate care. Pap tests and routine examinations offer ideal opportunities to educate women about the purpose of the Pap test as well as risk factors and symptoms associated with various gynecologic cancers. The reported influence of the mass media also supports the viability of multimedia educational strategies.

  4. Awareness of forensic odontology among dental practitioners in Chennai: A knowledge, attitude, practice study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, S; Einstein, A; Sivapathasundharam, B

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze the knowledge, attitude and practice of forensic odontology among dental practitioners in Chennai. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 322 dental practitioners in Chennai and data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Twenty-one percent of the dental practitioners did not maintain dental records in their clinic/workplace, with only 12% of the practitioners maintaining complete records. Ninety-three percent of dental practitioners were not maintaining dental records for more than seven years. The significance of ante-mortem records in identifying deceased suspects was not known to 17% of the dental practitioners. Forty percent of the dental practitioners were not aware of child abuse and the actions to be taken. Dental age estimation was not known to 41% of the dental practitioners. Thirty-eight percent of the practitioners were unaware of the accurate method of individual identification. About 18% of the dental practitioners did not know the significance of bite mark patterns of the teeth. Ninety-three percent of the practitioners lacked formal training in collecting, evaluating and presenting dental evidence. Thirty percent of dental practitioners did not know they can testify as an expert witness in the court of law. Forty percent of the dental practitioners were unaware of identifying the age and gender of an individual in mass disasters. Our study revealed inadequate knowledge, poor attitude and lack of practice of forensic odontology prevailing among the dental practitioners in Chennai.

  5. Risk perception and knowledge about osteoporosis: well informed but not aware? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Patricia; Lavielle, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    Identify the level of knowledge and risk perception of developing osteoporosis (OP) and its association with socio-demographic variables and risk factors. Individuals older than 18 years living in Mexico City were surveyed. The sample, which was designed to be representative of this population, was randomly selected and stratified by socioeconomic level, age, and sex. The Multiple Osteoporosis Prevention Survey, designed to assess OP-related knowledge, risk perception, was used. Four hundred and fifty-five individuals, homogeneously distributed according to defined strata, were surveyed. Almost 29 % (28.9 %) of subjects consumed tobacco, and 13.4 % had a family history of OP. Most subjects reported a lower-than-recommended calcium daily intake. Fifty-three and a half percent identified most risk factors adequately, and almost all (97.9 %) had received some sort of information about OP. Sixty-six and a half percent of subjects perceived OP as a serious disease; 51.5 % considered themselves to be personally responsible for acquiring it; 50.2 % were concerned about suffering from it; and 47.1 % considered it likely they would develop it. The most important variables associated with the perception of risk were age (perception of their risk in developing it. Interventions should aim at raising awareness about personal responsibility and about the likelihood of developing this condition.

  6. The knowledge, awareness, attitude and motivational analysis of plastic waste and household perspective in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Rafia; Rahman, Ataur; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Akhtar, Rulia

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this study is to analyze the level of knowledge, awareness, and attitude toward plastic waste and to distinguish the key drivers that encourage the households in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to participate in "No plastic campaign," This study used the logistic regression model to explain the factors that may affect the willingness to participate (WTP) of households in the campaign. In this study, it is found that 35 % of households are willing to participate in the campaign. The results of the study also indicate that people who are more informed and more convinced of their knowledge have a more positive attitude toward recycling than their counterparts do. Furthermore, this study provides additional evidence of the level and classification of importance of motivating factors for plastic recycling, using the modified average and coefficient of variation of the models. From the analysis, the factor "helps reduce landfill use" is found as the most important factor and the factor of "raising money for charity" is found as the least important factor that motivates households to participate in recycling. The determinations of the study suggest some strategies that could hold implications for government and households to boost them to participate in the campaign "No Plastic Bag."

  7. [In the light of current knowledge right ventricle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taçoy, Gülten; Cengel, Atiye

    2014-09-01

    There are important differences between left and right ventricle. Due to anatomical location and structural features, in daily clinical practice the right ventricle cannot be assessed easily as the left ventricle. Therefore, the right ventricle has remained in the background of the left ventricle. Recent clinical studies and advanced imaging modalities have demonstrated that right ventricle is decisive for survival particularly in patients with congenital heart disease, pulmonary hypertension and heart failure. Therefore, the detailed evaluation of the right ventricle has become necessary in current clinical practice. For this reason, in our review we aimed to examine the embryological development, anatomical structure, physiological, metabolic characteristics, responses to different pathological conditions, effects on arrhythmias, causes of failure and imaging modalities of the right ventricle in light of the current knowledge's.

  8. Hepatitis B awareness, testing, and knowledge among Vietnamese American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Victoria M; Choe, John H; Yasui, Yutaka; Li, Lin; Burke, Nancy; Jackson, J Carey

    2005-12-01

    Southeast Asians have higher rates of liver cancer than any other racial/ethnic group in the United States. Chronic carriage of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common underlying cause of liver cancer in the majority of Asian populations. Our objectives were to describe Vietnamese Americans' awareness of hepatitis B, levels of HBV testing, and knowledge about hepatitis B transmission; and to compare the HBV knowledge and practices of men and women. A community-based, in-person survey of Vietnamese men and women was conducted in Seattle during 2002. Seven hundred and fifteen individuals (345 men and 370 women) completed the questionnaire. Eighty-one percent of the respondents had heard of hepatitis B (76% of men, 86% of women) and 67% reported HBV testing (66% of men, 68% of women). A majority of the participants knew that HBV can be transmitted during sexual intercourse (71% of men, 68% of women), by sharing toothbrushes (67% of men, 77% of women), and by sharing razors (59% of men, 67% of women). Less than one-half knew that hepatitis B is not spread by eating food prepared by an infected person (46% of men, 27% of women), nor by coughing (39% of men, 25% of women). One-third of our respondents did not recall being tested for HBV. Important knowledge deficits about routes of hepatitis B transmission were identified. Continued efforts should be made to develop and implement hepatitis B educational campaigns for Vietnamese immigrant communities. These efforts might be tailored to male and female audiences.

  9. Knowledge and awareness of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus among Saudi and Non-Saudi Arabian pilgrims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althobaity, Hosam M; Alharthi, Raed A S; Altowairqi, Mohammed H; Alsufyani, Ziyad A; Aloufi, Nahar S; Altowairqi, Abdulrahman E; Alqahtani, Abdulrahman S; Alzahrani, Ali K; Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S

    2017-01-01

    The current study was intended to evaluate the knowledge and awareness toward Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) of pilgrims from Saudi Arabia and from different Arabian countries. A prospective study was conducted among pilgrims from Saudi Arabia and those from other Arab nations. A total number of 2120 participants including 736 Saudi pilgrims (436 males and 300 females) and 1384 non-Saudi Arabian pilgrims (1384; 909 males and 475 females) were included in the study. The responses of the participants were descriptively analyzed. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to screen the possible correlations among different variables. The differences in the responses between the two groups were evaluated using Mann-Whitney analysis. The responses of the Saudi pilgrims showed statistically significant results in comparison to non-Saudi pilgrims in answering all questions except those related to the presence of efficient vaccination or treatment and the source of information. It was clear that the Saudi pilgrims were more oriented about different aspects of MERS-CoV including the nature of the causative agent, the signs, the severity of the disease, the animals that can transmit the infection to humans, the risk groups, and when one need to be screened for infection. In both Saudi and non-Saudi pilgrims, the official websites of health organizations constitute the main source of their information. It was concluded that Saudi pilgrims possess good knowledge about the MERS-CoV although more orientation is still required.

  10. Current Knowledge and Recent Advances in Marine Dinoflagellate Transcriptomic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Afiq Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are essential components in marine ecosystems, and they possess two dissimilar flagella to facilitate movement. Dinoflagellates are major components of marine food webs and of extreme importance in balancing the ecosystem energy flux in oceans. They have been reported to be the primary cause of harmful algae bloom (HABs events around the world, causing seafood poisoning and therefore having a direct impact on human health. Interestingly, dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are major components of coral reef foundations. Knowledge regarding their genes and genome organization is currently limited due to their large genome size and other genetic and cytological characteristics that hinder whole genome sequencing of dinoflagellates. Transcriptomic approaches and genetic analyses have been employed to unravel the physiological and metabolic characteristics of dinoflagellates and their complexity. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and findings from transcriptomic studies to understand the cell growth, effects on environmental stress, toxin biosynthesis, dynamic of HABs, phylogeny and endosymbiosis of dinoflagellates. With the advancement of high throughput sequencing technologies and lower cost of sequencing, transcriptomic approaches will likely deepen our understanding in other aspects of dinoflagellates’ molecular biology such as gene functional analysis, systems biology and development of model organisms.

  11. Leveraging Social Media to Promote Public Health Knowledge: Example of Cancer Awareness via Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua; Markson, Christopher; Costello, Kaitlin L; Xing, Cathleen Y; Demissie, Kitaw; Llanos, Adana Am

    2016-01-01

    As social media becomes increasingly popular online venues for engaging in communication about public health issues, it is important to understand how users promote knowledge and awareness about specific topics. The aim of this study is to examine the frequency of discussion and differences by race and ethnicity of cancer-related topics among unique users via Twitter. Tweets were collected from April 1, 2014 through January 21, 2015 using the Twitter public streaming Application Programming Interface (API) to collect 1% of public tweets. Twitter users were classified into racial and ethnic groups using a new text mining approach applied to English-only tweets. Each ethnic group was then analyzed for frequency in cancer-related terms within user timelines, investigated for changes over time and across groups, and measured for statistical significance. Observable usage patterns of the terms "cancer", "breast cancer", "prostate cancer", and "lung cancer" between Caucasian and African American groups were evident across the study period. We observed some variation in the frequency of term usage during months known to be labeled as cancer awareness months, particularly September, October, and November. Interestingly, we found that of the terms studied, "colorectal cancer" received the least Twitter attention. The findings of the study provide evidence that social media can serve as a very powerful and important tool in implementing and disseminating critical prevention, screening, and treatment messages to the community in real-time. The study also introduced and tested a new methodology of identifying race and ethnicity among users of the social media. Study findings highlight the potential benefits of social media as a tool in reducing racial and ethnic disparities.

  12. Current knowledge, gaps and challenges in the Southern European Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanassiou, Evangelos

    2015-04-01

    New knowledge advances our current understanding on the selection and application of the appropriate tools for assessing the state of the marine environment in the Southern European Seas (SES). Diminishing the lack of knowledge is a prerequisite for sound policy decisions. Although gaps and knowledge are fewer today, the health of marine and coastal ecosystems in the SES is under pressure and shows, in places, some signs of deterioration and declining quality. Overall, there is a lack of data accessibility and long time series in the SES, while in many cases poorly constrained processes cannot really support knowledge-based policy making (e.g. ecosystem functioning, climate change, fisheries management, etc.). New knowledge has to be produced and excellence must be promoted to support sustainable economic growth. At the same time, existing and new capacities have to be upgraded and increased in order to support sustainable convergence between SES countries. There are several gaps that have been identified and processes that have been poorly understood in the SES, mainly from research projects that have been working at basin level. The main research priorities that have been identified from the SeasERA Project for both, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea include: the climate change and its impacts, the hydrological cycle, the ventilation and the inter-basin coupling, the marine biodiversity and the provision of goods and services, the marine protected areas, the deep sea ecosystems, the biological invasions, the marine pollution and the ocean and human health, the renewable energy, the maritime transport, the fisheries and aquaculture activities and the biotechnology and the exploitation of marine resources for industrial application. More important, however, is the fact that the economic, the social and the scientific and the environmental challenges must be collectively tackled. They should have prioritisation and clear objectives as well as data sharing for

  13. Knowledge, awareness, and attitude regarding infection prevention and control among medical students: a call for educational intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim AA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Awab Ali Ibrahim,1 Sittana Shamseldin Elshafie,2 1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, 2Aspetar, Laboratory Department, Qatar Orthopedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar Background: Medical students can be exposed to serious health care-associated infections, if they are not following infection prevention and control (IPC measures. There is limited information regarding the knowledge, awareness, and practices of medical students regarding IPC and the educational approaches used to teach them these practices. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of medical students toward IPC guidelines, and the learning approaches to help improve their knowledge. Methods: A cross-sectional, interview-based survey included 73 medical students from Weill Cornell Medical College, Qatar. Students completed a questionnaire concerning awareness, knowledge, and attitude regarding IPC practices. Students’ knowledge was assessed by their correct answers to the survey questions. Findings: A total of 48.44% of the respondents were aware of standard isolation precautions, 61.90% were satisfied with their training in IPC, 66.13% were exposed to hand hygiene training, while 85.48% had sufficient knowledge about hand hygiene and practiced it on a routine basis, but only 33.87% knew the duration of the hand hygiene procedure. Conclusion: Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of IPC measures among Weill Cornell Medical Students in Qatar were found to be inadequate. Multifaceted training programs may have to target newly graduated medical practitioners or the training has to be included in the graduate medical curriculum to enable them to adopt and adhere to IPC guidelines. Keywords: infection prevention, education, medical students

  14. Level of awareness and knowledge of breast cancer in Nigeria. A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite reports of improved awareness of breast cancer entity and seemingly upbeat levels of other awareness subthemes in Nigeria, patients continue to present late when treatment is least rewarding. This paradoxical trend of both rising awareness and late presentation coupled with reports suggesting other ...

  15. Emergency Contraception Pill Awareness and Knowledge in Uninsured Adolescents: High Rates of Misconceptions Concerning Indications for Use, Side Effects, and Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Sophia; Parmar, Deepika D; Lin, Emily L; Ammerman, Seth

    2015-10-01

    To determine the awareness of, access to, and knowledge of the proper use of emergency contraception pills (ECPs) among uninsured adolescents. Anonymous surveys were used to assess awareness of, knowledge of, and access to ECPs. From 2010 to 2012 at mobile primary care clinic in the San Francisco Bay Area. Patients were uninsured adolescents aged 13 to 25; 40% of the participants were currently or had been homeless in the past year. Ethnicity was 50% Asian, 22% Hispanic, 17% Pacific Islanders, 5.5% white, and 5.5% other/mixed ethnicity. Post survey completion, patients received one-on-one 15-minute dedicated ECP education. Awareness of, knowledge of, and access to ECPs. Of the study population of 439, 30% of the participants were 13-16 years old and 70% were 17-25 years old (mean age 17.8 years); 66% were women. Young women (86%) reported higher rates of "hearing about emergency contraception" than did young men (70%) (P pill (40%) or could be used as regular birth control (40%) or to prevent sexually transmitted infections (19%). Only 40% of women and 43% of men aged 17 and older correctly answered that they could obtain EC over the counter; 72% did not know that males could receive EC for use by their partner; 12% incorrectly selected that infertility was a side effect; 44% were under the false impression that EC had to be taken within 1 day of unprotected sex. Uninsured adolescents have high rates of ECP awareness but low ECP knowledge. These adolescents need more ECP education to alleviate misconceptions and increase practical knowledge, specifically, education about male access, side effects, over-the-counter availability for young men and women, and the 120-hour window of use. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Awareness and knowledge of glaucoma and associated factors among adults: a cross sectional study in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Destaye Shiferaw; Gudeta, Alemayehu Desalegn; Gebreselassie, Kbrom Legesse

    2017-08-24

    Raising public awareness and knowledge about glaucoma is a key for early case identification and prevention of blindness. However, awareness and knowledge about glaucoma is unknown at community level, making provision of interventions difficult. This study was intended to assess the awareness and knowledge of adults about glaucoma and the factors affecting it in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Community based cross - sectional study was conducted on 701 adults 35 and above years in Gondar from April 12-30, 2016. Multistage sampling technique was used to select study participants. Interviewer administered pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data after verbal informed consent. Data were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models and Odds ratio with 95% interval were used to identify factors. P-value glaucoma aware participants. Education (primary [AOR: 3.21; 1.73, 5.95], secondary [AOR: 4.34; 2.30, 8.22]; college and above [AOR: 9.82; 4.27, 22.60]) and having eye examination [AOR: 2.78; 1.86, 4.15] were positively associated with awareness of glaucoma whereas older age (65 -74 years [AOR: 0.31(0.21, 0.76]) was inversely related. Level of Education (primary[AOR:2.83;1.04,7.71],secondary[AOR:3.45;1.33,9.41],college and above [AOR: 4.86;1.82,12,99] and having eye examination [AOR: 2.61;1.53,4.45] were significantly associated with knowledge. The study has indicated higher level of awareness and knowledge about glaucoma in urban communities than previous studies. It has also identified educational status, eye examination at least once in life are related with better awareness and knowledge. The present awareness and knowledge should be enhanced through public oriented glaucoma education via mass media and incorporating eye check up as a routine in older people.

  17. The Comparison of Knowledge Level and Awareness of Osteoporosis between Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Altın

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Osteoporosis is a disease which causes fractures depending on decreasing bone mineral density. Nutrition and life style which support the bone health must be known for prevention of the disease. This study was conducted to assess awareness about OP between men and women. Materials and Methods: The study was performed between the dates November 2012-May 2014 in Denizli Pamukkale University. A form including sociodemographic features, Osteoporosis Knowledge Test (OKT and Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS were used in the collection of the data for evaluation the osteoporosis knowledge level and awarenes of the volunteers who accept to attend the study. Results: Hundred forty-seven volunteers of 96 women and 51 men attended to the study. Mean age was 36.1±14,6 years and 6.1% of the participants had a diagnosis osteoporosis and 13.6% of the participants had a family history of osteoporosis. When the participants were compared according to gender, there were statistically significant difference between two groups for education level, had own and a family history of osteoporosis (p<0,05. Men had higher education level than the women group. Women have higher own and familiy history of osteoporosis. When the scores of the questionnaires were compared between women and men, the mean score of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale- Susceptibility score was 16.8±5.0 and 13.7±4.0, respectively. The women’s score were higher than men (p<0.05. Significant difference wasn’t found in the other subscales. Conclusion: Despite the high educational level of the men, it was detected that the level of the osteoporosis susceptibility was lower than women. High Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale level of women shows that women think osteoporosis is serious illness. Since the basic treatment approach was the prevention for osteoporosis, the education programs must be organized for either women who have high risk, or also for men to improve the

  18. Smoking, awareness of smoking-associated health risks, and knowledge of national tobacco legislation in Gaza, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Shomar, Reem T; Lubbad, Ihab K; El Ansari, Walid; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Alharazin, Hatem J

    2014-06-01

    To assess university students' extent of smoking, knowledge of smoking health risks, and awareness of existing national anti-smoking laws. Self-administered questionnaire was employed across 7 universities (1,104 students, equal proportions of males and females) located in Gaza Strip, Palestine. About 55% of participants reported ever smoking, 31% were current cigarette smokers, and 36% were 'strictly' (only) narghile (water pipe) smokers. Mean age of smoking initiation was 17 +/- 3.15 years. Smokers had less knowledge of smoking associated health risks than nonsmokers. Students' knowledge of existing anti-smoking laws was generally low (11.3-25.5%), and significantly more smokers had knowledge about existing laws (ban of advertisement of smoking, ban of smoking in public places, and ban of selling cigarettes to minors) than non-smokers. About 81% of current smokers tried to quit smoking at least once during their life, 53% felt ready to quit smoking if cessation assistance was provided, 17% were not ready to quit, and 30% were reluctant/felt unsure if they were ready to quit. Most students (94.3%) reported that there were no smoking cessation centres in Palestine, or did not know if such centres existed. Males were associated with almost all categories of smoking (e.g. smoking both cigarettes and narghile, or smoking narghile only). There is a lack of knowledge about the existing national anti-smoking legislation among university students in Gaza, Palestine. Smoking cessation centres also seem non-existent in Gaza. Multi-level interventions and actions are required by policy makers, educators and non-governmental agencies to prevent smoking among university students in Gaza, and to educate them on tobacco cessation counselling, on the dangers of tobacco use, and about effective stress management strategies to help them to cope with stressors. Smoking cessation interventions are required to address both cigarette and narghile use. Efforts need to be invested in

  19. Tuning in and catching on? Examining the relationship between pandemic communication and awareness and knowledge of MERS in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Leesa; McCloud, Rachel F; Bigman, Cabral A; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2017-06-01

    Large-scale influenza outbreaks over the last decade, such as SARS and H1N1, have brought to global attention the importance of emergency risk communication and prompted the international community to develop communication responses. Since pandemic outbreaks are relatively infrequent, there is a dearth of evidence addressing the following questions: (i) Have the resources invested in strategic and routine communication for past pandemic outbreaks yielded public health preparedness benefits? (ii) Have past efforts sensitized people to pay attention to new pandemic threats? The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) that was followed closely by major media outlets in the USA provides an opportunity to examine the relationship between exposure to public communication about epidemics and public awareness and knowledge about new risks. In December, 2013, we surveyed a nationally representative sample of 627 American adults and examined the associations between people's awareness to prior pandemics and their awareness of and knowledge about MERS. Awareness of prior pandemics was significantly associated with awareness and knowledge of MERS. The most common sources from which people first heard about MERS were also identified. Communication inequalities were observed between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic positions, suggesting a need for more effective pandemic communication.

  20. Gender and occupation wise knowledge, Awareness and prevention of tuberculosis among people of district Muzaffarabad AJ & K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Atif; Rafique, Muhammad; Saghir, Amir; Abbas, Kamran; Shaheen, Shabnum; Abdullah, Farooq

    2016-11-01

    To assess the awareness about the spread and control of tuberculosis as well as to investigate the gender and occupation wise differences among people regarding knowledge and attitude towards tuberculosis in the State of AJ & K. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in district Muzaffarabad and a sample of 4000 respondents was selected by using stratified random sampling technique. The stratification was done with respect to gender and occupation. The occupation wise classification includes households, labors, and shop keepers, government employers, under graduate students of social and natural sciences, medical students and doctors. A close ended structured questionnaire was developed to collect the data and data were analyzed by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). Chi-Square test was used for association and Logistic Regression model was used to find out the most significant risk factors with gender. Majority of the males were more aware of tuberculosis than females regarding different aspects related to tuberculosis. The respondents from household, labors and shopkeepers have less awareness and knowledge than those who belong to other professions. The doctors and medical students have almost 100% awareness and knowledge of tuberculosis. It was examined that all the variables were associated with gender except threat, curable and transmissible. Only three variables mentioned above showed non- significant result, while all other variables were strongly associated with gender. Males were found more aware about TB than females. Moreover, the literate people were more conscious concerning the prevalence and threats of the disease.

  1. Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV Vaccine Among HPV-Infected Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Zulqarnain; Yasmeen, Nafeesa; Li, Yuanyue; Zhang, Wenhui; Lu, Hongyu; Wu, Xiaomei; Xia, Xueshan; Yang, Shihua

    2017-09-04

    BACKGROUND It is important to understand the knowledge that various groups of a population have about cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) and their attitudes toward HPV vaccination, as it will ultimately influence their decision-making for or against the acceptability of vaccines and other preventive methods. This study was designed to determine the level of knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine among Chinese women in Yunnan province. MATERIAL AND METHODS A survey was conducted in Yunnan province by the Laboratory of Molecular Virology in collaboration with the Yunnan First People's Hospital in Feb 2015. A total of 388 women were recruited and asked to participate in a questionnaire-based interview that collected information related to their awareness and knowledge about: (1) cervical cancer, (2) HPV and HPV vaccine and willingness to have their children receive vaccination, and (3) demographic characteristics. RESULTS A total of 388 HPV-positive women were included; 300/388 (73.3%) were Han, and 88/388 (22.7%) were other ethnicities. Overall, 204/388 (52.6%) of the women were aware of cervical cancer, with a significant difference between Han women and women of other ethnic groups (168/388, 56.0% and 36/88, 40.9%; P=0.015). Overall, 26.5% of the women were aware of the role of HPV in cervical cancer; 29.0% of the Han women and 18.2% of women of other ethnic groups were aware of this role of HPV (P=0.05). The knowledge that HPV infection leads to cervical cancer was higher among Han women (29.0%) compared to women of other ethnicities (18.2%). Knowledge about the HPV vaccine was very low in all ethnic groups, but the Han women were more willing to allow their children to be vaccinated before they become sexually active. A similar difference has also been found in women from various regions. CONCLUSIONS Although level of awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer was moderate, knowledge and awareness of HPV and the HPV

  2. A Study to Assess the Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Awareness of Ideal Body Weight among Adolescents at V.O.C School, Karaikal

    OpenAIRE

    G.Raji

    2017-01-01

    Associate Professor, Vinayaka Mission’s College of Nursing, Karaikal, Puducherry, India.A study to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding awareness of ideal body weight among adolescents at V.O.C school, Karaikal. To assess the knowledge and attitude regarding awareness of ideal body weight among adolescents at V.O.C school, Karaikal. To associate the knowledge and attitude regarding awareness of ideal body weight among adolescents with selected demographic variables at V.O.C school, Kar...

  3. Awareness of knowledge and practice regarding physical activity: A population-based prospective, observational study among students in Nanjing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xu

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA promotion has proven effectiveness in preventing childhood obesity. Increasing children's health knowledge is the most frequently used approach in PA intervention programs targeting childhood obesity prevention. However, little is known about the specific association between the change in a child's knowledge awareness and their PA practice.A one-year follow-up study was conducted among primary and junior high school students in Nanjing, China. At baseline students' knowledge of healthy behavior, and their PA levels, were assessed. Students who were unaware of the association between PA and obesity were followed for one academic year. After nine-months their knowledge and PA levels were re-measured using the same validated questionnaire. Mixed effects regression models were used to estimate the relationship between awareness of knowledge about the link between PA and obesity and PA changes.Of the 1899 students who were unaware of the association between PA and obesity at baseline, 1859 (follow-up rate = 97.9% were successfully followed-up. After nine months 1318 (70.9% participants had become aware of PA-obesity association. Compared to their counterparts who remained unaware, students who became aware of the PA-obesity association were more likely to increase both the frequency (odds ratio (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.09, 1.64 and duration (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.09, 1.65 of PA, after adjusting for potentially confounding variables.Becoming aware of the known link between PA and obesity led to positive behavior modification regarding PA in this cohort of Chinese students. This is of particular importance that knowledge disimination and health education may be a useful approach for population-based physical activity promotion aiming at childhood obesity prevention in China.

  4. Staff Knowledge, Awareness, Perceptions, and Beliefs About Infection Prevention in Pediatric Long-term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løyland, Borghild; Wilmont, Sibyl; Hessels, Amanda J; Larson, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    The burden of healthcare-associated infection worldwide is considerable, and there is a need to improve surveillance and infection control practices such as hand hygiene. The aims of this study were to explore direct care providers' knowledge about infection prevention and hand hygiene, their attitudes regarding their own and others' hand hygiene practices, and their ideas and advice for improving infection prevention efforts. This exploratory study included interviews with direct care providers in three pediatric long-term care facilities. Two trained nurse interviewers conducted semistructured interviews using an interview guide with open-ended questions. Two other nurse researchers independently transcribed the audio recordings and conducted a thematic analysis using a strategy adapted from the systematic text condensation approach. From 31 interviews, four major thematic categories with subthemes emerged from the analysis: (a) hand hygiene products; (b) knowledge, awareness, perceptions, and beliefs; (c) barriers to infection prevention practices; and (d) suggested improvements. There was confusion regarding hand hygiene recommendations, use of soap or sanitizer, and isolation precaution policies. There was a robust "us" and "them" mentality between professionals. One essential driver of staff behavior change is having expectations that are meaningful to staff, and many staff members stated that they wanted more in-person staff meetings with education and hands-on, practical advice. Workflow patterns and/or the physical environment need to be carefully evaluated to identify systems and methods to minimize cross-contamination. Further studies need to evaluate if personal sized containers of hand sanitizer (e.g., for the pocket, attached to a belt or lanyard) would facilitate improvement of hand hygiene in these facilities.

  5. Awareness of HIV Status, Prevention Knowledge and Condom Use among People Living with HIV in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokubo, E. Kainne; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Young, Peter W.; Neal, Joyce J.; Aberle-Grasse, John; Honwana, Nely; Mbofana, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine factors associated with HIV status unawareness and assess HIV prevention knowledge and condom use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in Mozambique. Design Cross-sectional household-based nationally representative AIDS Indicator Survey. Methods Analyses focused on HIV-infected adults and were weighted for the complex sampling design. We identified PLHIV who had never been tested for HIV or received their test results prior to this survey. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with HIV status unawareness. Results Of persons with positive HIV test results (N = 1182), 61% (95% confidence interval [CI] 57–65%) were unaware of their serostatus. Men had twice the odds of being unaware of their serostatus compared with women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.05, CI 1.40–2.98]. PLHIV in the poorest wealth quintile were most likely to be unaware of their serostatus (aOR 3.15, CI 1.09–9.12) compared to those in the middle wealth quintile. Most PLHIV (83%, CI 79–87%) reported not using a condom during their last sexual intercourse, and PLHIV who reported not using a condom during their last sexual intercourse were more likely to be unaware of their serostatus (aOR 2.32, CI 1.57–3.43) than those who used a condom. Conclusions Knowledge of HIV-positive status is associated with more frequent condom use in Mozambique. However, most HIV-infected persons are unaware of their serostatus, with men and persons in the poorest wealth quintile being more likely to be unaware. These findings support calls for expanded HIV testing, especially among groups less likely to be aware of their HIV status and key populations at higher risk for infection. PMID:25222010

  6. The knowledge and awareness on research methodology among dentists in Telangana region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this era of scientific advancement, research is vital and forms the heart of the knowledge expansion. Dentistry is one the fastest evolving branches of science in today's world and needless to say, it is centered on research. In India, research is a part of postgraduate curriculum. Many research works are conducted by postgraduates as a necessity, but very few do it with actual interest. Hence, in this study, we plan to conduct a survey on the awareness of dentists toward research in Telangana region. Aim: To assess the knowledge and highlight the need to learn research methodology for dentists in Telangana region. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted with 15 close-ended questions to know different ideologies among dentists for planning a research and to correlate opinions from dentists of various regions of Telangana state. A total of 115 participants took part in the study. They gave their consent for the study and gave their opinions with their free will. We categorized our results according to the designation of the participants and the answers that were given for each question. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 22. Results: A statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 of opinions was obtained with regards to the type of study that was preferred, type of analysis that was done, and obtaining a statistically significant value for their results. Conclusion: There is considerable variation when it comes to planning minor steps of study with few basics being overlooked. There is a need for establishing a standardized protocol for planning a study.

  7. Awareness of forensic odontology among dental practitioners in Chennai: A knowledge, attitude, practice study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, S; Einstein, A; Sivapathasundharam, B

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the knowledge, attitude and practice of forensic odontology among dental practitioners in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 322 dental practitioners in Chennai and data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Results: Twenty-one percent of the dental practitioners did not maintain dental records in their clinic/workplace, with only 12% of the practitioners maintaining complete records. Ninety-three percent of dental practitioners were not maintaining dental records for more than seven years. The significance of ante-mortem records in identifying deceased suspects was not known to 17% of the dental practitioners. Forty percent of the dental practitioners were not aware of child abuse and the actions to be taken. Dental age estimation was not known to 41% of the dental practitioners. Thirty-eight percent of the practitioners were unaware of the accurate method of individual identification. About 18% of the dental practitioners did not know the significance of bite mark patterns of the teeth. Ninety-three percent of the practitioners lacked formal training in collecting, evaluating and presenting dental evidence. Thirty percent of dental practitioners did not know they can testify as an expert witness in the court of law. Forty percent of the dental practitioners were unaware of identifying the age and gender of an individual in mass disasters. Conclusion: Our study revealed inadequate knowledge, poor attitude and lack of practice of forensic odontology prevailing among the dental practitioners in Chennai. PMID:22408322

  8. Autophagy in Drosophila: From Historical Studies to Current Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulakkal, Nitha C.; Nagy, Peter; Takats, Szabolcs; Tusco, Radu; Juhász, Gábor; Nezis, Ioannis P.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of evolutionarily conserved Atg genes required for autophagy in yeast truly revolutionized this research field and made it possible to carry out functional studies on model organisms. Insects including Drosophila are classical and still popular models to study autophagy, starting from the 1960s. This review aims to summarize past achievements and our current knowledge about the role and regulation of autophagy in Drosophila, with an outlook to yeast and mammals. The basic mechanisms of autophagy in fruit fly cells appear to be quite similar to other eukaryotes, and the role that this lysosomal self-degradation process plays in Drosophila models of various diseases already made it possible to recognize certain aspects of human pathologies. Future studies in this complete animal hold great promise for the better understanding of such processes and may also help finding new research avenues for the treatment of disorders with misregulated autophagy. PMID:24949430

  9. The Transition to High School: Current Knowledge, Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In the American educational system, school transitions are frequent and predictable, but they can disrupt student functioning across developmental domains. How students experience school transitions has been a focus of research for some time, but the high school transition has received less attention, and the limited research often focuses on a particular developmental domain (e.g., academics and socioemotional well-being) to the exclusion of a more integrated model. This review relies on life course theory to establish an organizational framework for interpreting and connecting the diffuse and sometimes disparate findings on the high school transition, including adolescent developmental trajectories and the influence of social ties, changing sociocultural contexts, and stratification systems. Conclusions identify aspects for future inquiry suggested by current knowledge and the tenets of the life course perspective. PMID:21966178

  10. Awareness, knowledge and practice of dyslipidaemia management among postgraduate primary care trainees in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Abdul Hadi; Chia, Yook Chin

    2017-03-01

    Dyslipidaemia is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in Malaysia. This study assessed the awareness, knowledge and practice of lipid management among primary care physicians undergoing postgraduate training in Malaysia. Cross sectional study. Postgraduate primary care trainees in Malaysia. 759 postgraduate primary care trainees were approached through email or hard copy, of whom 466 responded. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess their awareness, knowledge and practice of dyslipidaemia management. The total cumulative score derived from the knowledge section was categorised into good or poor knowledge based on the median score, where a score of less than the median score was categorised as poor and a score equal to or more than the median score was categorised as good. We further examined the association between knowledge score and sociodemographic data. Associations were considered significant when p0.05). The level of awareness and use of the lipid guideline among postgraduate primary care trainees was good. However, there were still gaps in their knowledge and practice which are not in accordance with standard guidelines. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Parents' awareness and knowledge of the special needs of their hearing-impaired child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukari, S Z; Vandort, S; Ahmad, K; Saim, L; Mohamed, A S

    1999-03-01

    We surveyed parents of school-aged hearing impaired children to investigate their awareness and knowledge of the special needs of their child, especially in the area of the usage of hearing aids and methods of communication. Questionnaires were distributed to parents of hearing impaired children at 13 special schools for the deaf in Malaysia. Out of 1,267 questionnaires given out, 787 (62.1%) were completed and returned. Results of the survey indicated the majority of parents (68.6%) suspected hearing loss late, that is after their child's first birthday, and there was a significant time lag before the suspicion was confirmed. Over 82.8% of the children were diagnosed only after 1 year of age, with 41.3% being diagnosed after 3 years of age. Hearing aids were fitted late (mean = 5.32 years; SD = 2.66). Hearing aid ownership was influenced by the factors of socio-economic level and ethnic group (p Malaysia Kod Tangan, the sign language that is commonly used by their children. The parents' choice of communication method was not significantly influenced by socio-economic level or ethnic group. The study revealed the present inadequate state of services available for the rehabilitation of children with congenital hearing impairment.

  12. Community environmental quality knowledge and awareness among nurses: developing and piloting an assessment survey in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G; Alexander, Melannie S; Huang, Yuqi

    2010-01-01

    About one in five Americans spends a considerable number of hours in school each week, and thus, is exposed to a variety of environmental agents. Community health nursing professionals require resources and specific training to acquire the environmental knowledge needed to raise personal and community awareness as an enhancement of their practice. Given limited resources for schools and local public health education initiatives, identifying and prioritizing environmental concerns comes before actions to prevent or reduce exposures. With the rise in prevalence of childhood asthma, of special concern are those agents within the school environment that may serve as asthma triggers. This pilot project, within a larger study in a large school district in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, developed and piloted an environmental health priorities survey with school nurses and other school staff about indoor and outdoor microenvironments relevant to school-aged children. Findings indicate that participants (N = 34) could prioritize environmental issues to inform future intervention activities (such as continuing education training), and distinguish predominantly indoor from typical outdoor exposure agents and their major sources.

  13. Evaluation of an Educational Intervention on Knowledge and Awareness of Medication Safety in Older Adults with Low Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Chanel F.; Tom, Sarah E.; Bivens, Angel; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Older adults with low health literacy are at increased risk of nonadherence, accidental drug exposure, and adverse events. Purpose: This study evaluated older adults' knowledge and awareness of medication safety and poison prevention resources using an interactive educational game compared to a less intensive intervention involving…

  14. Low fertility awareness in United States reproductive-aged women and medical trainees: creation and validation of the Fertility & Infertility Treatment Knowledge Score (FIT-KS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudesia, Rashmi; Chernyak, Elizabeth; McAvey, Beth

    2017-10-01

    To create, validate, and use a fertility awareness survey based on current U.S. Cross-sectional study. Not applicable. Phase 1 included U.S. women ages 18-45; phase 2 included female medical students and obstetrics and gynecology trainees at two urban academic programs. Survey including demographics, the Fertility & Infertility Treatment Knowledge Score (FIT-KS) instrument, and General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire. Knowledge of natural fertility and infertility treatments. The FIT-KS was validated through detailed item and validity analyses. In phase 1, 127 women participated; their median age was 31 years, and 43.7% had children. Their mean FIT-KS score was 16.2 ± 3.5 (55.9% correct). In phase 2, 118 medical trainees participated; their median age was 25 years, and 12.4% had children. Their mean FIT-KS score was 18.8 ± 2.1 (64.9% correct), with year of training correlating to a higher score (r=0.40). Participant awareness regarding lifestyle factors varied, but it was particularly low regarding the effects of lubricants. The majority underestimated the spontaneous miscarriage rate and overestimated the fecundability of 40-year-old women. There was general overestimation of success rates for assisted reproductive technologies, particularly among medical trainees. The FIT-KS is validated to current U.S. data for use in both general and medical populations as a quick assessment of fertility knowledge. The knowledge gaps demonstrated in this study correlate with national trends in delayed childbearing and time to initiate treatment. For medical trainees, these results raise concerns about the quality of fertility counseling they may be able to offer patients. Greater educational outreach must be undertaken to enhance fertility awareness. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pre-service teachers' knowledge of phonemic awareness: relationship to perceived knowledge, self-efficacy beliefs, and exposure to a multimedia-enhanced lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Ferrari, Julia; Aitken, Madison; Willows, Dale

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the relations among perceived and actual knowledge of phonemic awareness (PA), exposure to PA instruction during practicum, and self-efficacy for teaching PA in a sample of 54 teacher candidates (TCs) enrolled in a 1-year Bachelor of Education program in a Canadian university. It also assessed the effects of a brief multimedia-enhanced lecture on TCs' actual knowledge of PA and efficacy ratings. Prior to the lecture, teacher candidates' scores on the PA assessment were relatively low with a mean percentage correct of 56.3%. Actual knowledge was not significantly correlated with perceived knowledge or self-efficacy ratings. Perceived knowledge was significantly and positively correlated with efficacy ratings and students' rating of their exposure to PA instruction during their practicum experience. A path analysis revealed that the relationship between exposure to PA instruction and self-efficacy beliefs was mediated by perceived knowledge controlling for actual knowledge and general prior experience working with young children. Analyses also revealed that TCs made significant gains in self-efficacy as well as actual knowledge when re-assessed after the lecture with a mean post-lecture score of 71.4%. Written feedback from the TCs indicated that the digital video clips included in the lecture provided clarity regarding the type of instructional practices that teachers could use to support phonemic awareness development in children. Implications for practice and future research on teacher preparation are discussed.

  16. Animal health care seeking behavior of pets or livestock owners and knowledge and awareness on zoonoses in a university community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awosanya, Emmanuel J; Akande, H O

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the attitude of pets or livestock owning households in a university community to animal health care services and assessed the knowledge and awareness level of the residents on zoonoses. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, pet or livestock ownership, animal health care seeking behavior, awareness and knowledge of zoonoses from 246 households. We did descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis to determine the level of association in discrete variables between owners and non-owners of pets or livestock at a significant level of powners. The animal health care seeking behavior of the 80 pets or livestock owners in terms of treatment and vaccination was 70%. Of the 56 (70%) who provided health care services for their animals, about 48 (85.7%) engaged the services of a veterinarian. Dog owning households (42) had the highest frequency of treating their pets against endoparasites (97.6%); ectoparasites (81%) and vaccination against diseases (73.8%). Of the 246 respondents, only 47 (19.1%) have heard of the term zoonoses. Of the considered zoonoses; their awareness of rabies (79.3%) was the highest, followed by Lassa fever (66.3%), the least was pasteurellosis with 18.7%. Having pets or livestock was significantly associated (p=0.04) with rabies awareness. However, there is no significant difference in the level of awareness of zoonoses; knowledge of zoonoses, knowledge of prevention of zoonoses and knowledge of risk of zoonoses between owners and non-owners of pets or livestock. The animal health care seeking behavior of households with pets or livestock is good and should be encouraged. Public education should be created for other zoonoses aside from rabies, Lassa fever, and avian influenza.

  17. Animal health care seeking behavior of pets or livestock owners and knowledge and awareness on zoonoses in a university community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel J. Awosanya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We investigated the attitude of pets or livestock owning households in a university community to animal health care services and assessed the knowledge and awareness level of the residents on zoonoses. Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, pet or livestock ownership, animal health care seeking behavior, awareness and knowledge of zoonoses from 246 households. We did descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis to determine the level of association in discrete variables between owners and non-owners of pets or livestock at a significant level of p<0.05. Results: Of the 246 respondents, 80 (32.5% were either pet or livestock owners. The animal health care seeking behavior of the 80 pets or livestock owners in terms of treatment and vaccination was 70%. Of the 56 (70% who provided health care services for their animals, about 48 (85.7% engaged the services of a veterinarian. Dog owning households (42 had the highest frequency of treating their pets against endoparasites (97.6%; ectoparasites (81% and vaccination against diseases (73.8%. Of the 246 respondents, only 47 (19.1% have heard of the term zoonoses. Of the considered zoonoses; their awareness of rabies (79.3% was the highest, followed by Lassa fever (66.3%, the least was pasteurellosis with 18.7%. Having pets or livestock was significantly associated (p=0.04 with rabies awareness. However, there is no significant difference in the level of awareness of zoonoses; knowledge of zoonoses, knowledge of prevention of zoonoses and knowledge of risk of zoonoses between owners and non-owners of pets or livestock. Conclusion: The animal health care seeking behavior of households with pets or livestock is good and should be encouraged. Public education should be created for other zoonoses aside from rabies, Lassa fever, and avian influenza.

  18. Brown carbon in the cryosphere: Current knowledge and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Ming Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the light-absorbing organic carbon, i.e., brown carbon (BrC, has received an increasing attention, because they could significantly absorb the solar radiation in the range of short wavelengths rather than the purely scattering effect. BrC is ubiquitous in the troposphere. It could undergo long range transport within the atmospheric circulation. After the deposition on the surface of snow or ice in the cryospheric region, as the major light absorbing impurities with black carbon and dust, BrC could reduce the snow albedo and accelerate the glacier melting. In this context, this paper summarized the current knowledge of BrC (in aerosols and snow in the cryospheric regions including the Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpines. Although some works have been conducted in those region, the current dataset on the optical properties of BrC like Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE and Mass Absorption Efficiency (MAE is still limited, which hampers stimulating an accurate evaluation of its climate effects. Especially in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, where very limited information concerning BrC is available. Considering biomass burning as a dominant source of BrC, a large amount of emissions from biomass burning in South Asia could reach the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, where the climate effect of BrC merits more investigation in the future.

  19. Effectiveness of Geosciences Exploration Summer Program (GeoX) for Increasing Awareness and Knowledge of Geosciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chris Houser; Sonia Garcia; Janet Torres

    2015-01-01

      Summer research experiences are an increasingly popular means of increasing awareness of, and developing interest in, the geosciences and other science, technology, engineering, and math programs...

  20. HIV Awareness and Knowledge among Viewers of a Documentary Film about HIV among Racial- or Ethnic-Minority Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebor, Megan; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline

    2015-08-01

    A documentary film on HIV was developed based on social cognitive theory and entertainment educational methods in an effort to increase awareness and encourage protective behavior change related to HIV among older adults. The documentary includes perspectives from racial- or ethnic-minority older adults who are living with HIV and those of health care providers, and was screened in several venues. Authors of this article conducted thematic content analysis of anonymous, written, open-ended responses from 341 film viewers (clinicians and laypeople) who described what they learned about HIV after viewing the film. Four key themes emerged from the analysis: (1) increased awareness about the epidemiology of HIV among older, minority groups and about sexuality among older people; (2) improved general HIV knowledge, including risk reduction strategies and details about HIV testing; (3) awareness of lack of sexual health education among health care providers, and that a call to action is needed; and (4) awareness that HIV reinfection can occur in certain circumstances with people who are already infected. Findings suggest that an educational documentary can be used to effectively increase awareness and knowledge about the impact of HIV among minority older adults, and may also encourage HIV prevention action steps by providers.

  1. Awareness and knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer in female students: A survey (with a cautionary note).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, S M; Nailer, E; Minshall, C; Coombes, R; Cooper, J; Redman, C W E

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a survey to explore levels of awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer in 170 female students and whether mode of data collection (online vs. paper) affected the results. 27% of women named HPV as a cause of cervical cancer with online respondents more likely to do so. 75% of women had heard of HPV. More online respondents had heard of HPV than paper respondents. 127 women reported having heard of HPV, with a mean knowledge score of 2.989 (standard deviation [SD] 1.599). Online respondents scored higher (3.57, SD 1.316) than paper respondents (2.688, SD 1.591). Knowledge and awareness of HPV and its link to cervical cancer appear to have increased which may be related to the HPV vaccination programme. However, there is still a considerable number of women with little to no knowledge of HPV. Online surveys may result in an inflated estimation of awareness and knowledge.

  2. The impact of gambling advertising: Problem gamblers report stronger impacts on involvement, knowledge, and awareness than recreational gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune A; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-06-01

    Although there is a general lack of empirical evidence that advertising influences gambling participation, the regulation of gambling advertising is hotly debated among academic researchers, treatment specialists, lobby groups, regulators, and policymakers. This study contributes to the ongoing debate by investigating perceived impacts of gambling advertising in a sample of gamblers drawn from the general population in Norway (n = 6,034). Three dimensions of advertising impacts were identified, representing perceived impacts on (a) gambling-related attitudes, interest, and behavior ("involvement"); (b) knowledge about gambling options and providers ("knowledge"); and (c) the degree to which people are aware of gambling advertising ("awareness"). Overall, impacts were strongest for the knowledge dimension, and, for all 3 dimensions, the impact increased with level of advertising exposure. Those identified as problem gamblers in the sample (n = 57) reported advertising impacts concerning involvement more than recreational gamblers, and this finding was not attributable to differences in advertising exposure. Additionally, younger gamblers reported stronger impacts on involvement and knowledge but were less likely to agree that they were aware of gambling advertising than older gamblers. Male gamblers were more likely than female gamblers to report stronger impacts on both involvement and knowledge. These findings are discussed with regard to existing research on gambling advertising as well as their implications for future research and policy-making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The role of phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge in the reading development of children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; de Chambrier, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated if phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge were predictors of reading progress in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) with unspecified etiology. An academic achievement test was administered to 129 children with mild or moderate ID when they were 6-8 years old, as well as one and two school years later. Findings indicated that phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age predicted progress in word and non-word reading after one school year and two school years after controlling for IQ, age, expressive vocabulary, spoken language, and type of placement. Phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age also predicted progress in reading comprehension after one school year and two school years. These findings suggest that training phonological awareness skills combined with explicit phonics instruction is important to foster reading progress in children with mild and moderate ID with unspecified etiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of Nutrition Awareness and Knowledge on Health Habits and Performance Among Pharmacy Students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ahmady, Sherweit; El-Wakeel, Lamia

    2017-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of pharmacy students to assess the relation between nutritional knowledge and awareness of university students and their nutrition habits and health related performance and indicators. The students were subjected to a questionnaire designed to approach four health related topics including nutrition literacy, health awareness, nutritional habits and health related performance. Answers on each topic were collected and statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 5 software including a measure of gender differences and correlative studies. No significant difference between genders in the overall responses but discrepancies in certain questions were observed. Female students showed higher awareness of nutrition concepts and practices but poor implementation from their side was observed. The study revealed that a positive and significant correlation existed between health related performance and nutrition literacy (r = 0.32). Healthier eating habits and lifestyle were associated more with nutrition conscious students (r = 0.73) than knowledgeable students (r = 0.56). It was concluded that knowledge alone is not enough to stimulate individuals to practice healthy habits. Other implementations are required to raise awareness of the issues at hand.

  5. Awareness and knowledge of pediatric cardio- pulmonary resuscitation in the community of Al-Khobar city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim K. Al-Turkistani

    2014-01-01

    of the unavailability of such courses, 41.4% said because of time constraints, and 10% gave financial reasons. Finally, the study showed that 365 females (84.3% and 247 males (91.2% did not know when to perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and/or chest compression, and would do it for the wrong reasons. Conclusion: Public awareness and knowledge on CPR was inadequate even among the younger population, and among parents with disabled children. The general public were willing to improve their knowledge and skills of CPR. We recommend that CPR courses/campaigns should be provided to the public and be included in high school curricula.

  6. Current expertise location by exploiting the dynamics of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Nozicka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Systems for expertise location are either very expensive in terms of the costs of maintenance or they tend to become obsolete or incomplete during the time. This article presents a new approach to knowledge mapping/expertise location allowing reducing the costs of knowledge mapping by maintaining the accuracy of the knowledge map. The efficiency of the knowledge map is achieved by introducing the knowledge estimation measures analysing the dynamics of knowledge of company employees and their textual results of work. Finding an expert with most up-to date knowledge is supported by focusing publishing history analysis. The efficiency of proposed measures within various timeframes of publishing history is evaluated by evaluation method introduced within the article. The evaluation took place in the environment of a middle-sized software company allowing seeing directly a practical usability of the expertise location technique. The results form various implications deployment of knowledge map within the company.

  7. Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children. PMID:22057983

  8. Phonological awareness, reading skills, and vocabulary knowledge in children who use cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Caitlin M; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B

    2012-01-01

    In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children's phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children.

  9. Metacognitions and Mindful Attention Awareness in Depression: A Comparison Of Currently Depressed, Previously Depressed and Never Depressed Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solem, Stian; Hagen, Roger; Wang, Catharina E A; Hjemdal, Odin; Waterloo, Knut; Eisemann, Martin; Halvorsen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to test (1) how metacognition relates to the concept of mindful attention awareness, and (2) whether metacognitions or mindful attention awareness best predicted symptoms of depression. Data was collected from three samples: currently depressed (n = 37), previously depressed (n = 81) and never depressed controls (n = 50). There was a moderate correlation between mindful attention awareness and three of five metacognitive subscales. Both mindful attention awareness and metacognition were significantly correlated with depression severity scores after controlling for anxiety. The depressed group had significantly more dysfunctional metacognitions and less mindful attention awareness than the never depressed group. Negative beliefs about worry and mindful attention awareness were also significantly different in the previously depressed group compared with the never depressed. This suggests that metacognitions and mindful attention awareness can be vulnerability factors for depression. The results also indicated that anxiety symptoms and negative beliefs about worry were the most important factors in predicting depression. In conclusion, the study shows that metacognitions and mindful attention awareness are two related but separate constructs and that metacognitions emerged as the best predictor of depression. These results provide support for the metacognitive model of emotional disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Metacognitions and mindful attention awareness are related but separate constructs Both mindful attention awareness and metacognition are associated with depression Anxiety and negative beliefs about worry (metacognitions) are most important in predicting depression Addressing metacognitions in therapy should be considered in treatment of depression. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Assessment of knowledge and awareness of global warming among inhabitants of industrial areas of an urban community in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Ochanya Adio-Moses

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming with its attendant consequences such as extreme heat, natural disasters, poor air quality and allergens has increased health problems. The risk of injury, illness and resulting death among inhabitants are expected to be frequent and intense especially in areas with heavy industrial presence. The current low level of literacy and the socio-economic situation of Nigerians could be responsible for their low consciousness of this unpreventable changes in our climate in one hand and lack of willingness on the part of people to seek environmental health and safety information on the causes, effect and how to mitigate global warming on the other hand. This study focuses on assessment of knowledge and awareness of causes, effects and mitigating measures of global warming among inhabitants of industrial areas of Ibadan southwestern Nigeria. In this descriptive survey, purposive sampling technique was used to select 200 respondents from among the inhabitants of this area. A questionnaire with reliability co-efficient (r of 0.78 was used for data collection. Two research questions were answered and three hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. Statistical methods such as Chi-square, frequency count, simple percentage and pie chart were used for data analysis. Results showed that only 20% had 34.0% had negative attitude while 81 (40.5% were indifferent, all the three hypotheses were rejected. Consequently, it was deduced that respondents have significant knowledge of global warming. In recommendation, people’s environmental health seeking behaviour should be promoted through multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research and the development of inclusive environmental health and safety intervention strategies.

  11. Patient awareness, knowledge and use of colchicine: an exploratory qualitative study in the Counties Manukau region, Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Caraliese; Thomson, Maree; Bassett-Clarke, Deborah; Martini, Nataly

    2016-06-01

    INTRODUCTION Treatment of gout, specifically with colchicine, varies globally. Colchicine can be fatal due to its narrow therapeutic index and potential for interactions. In New Zealand, cases of intentional and unintentional colchicine overdose have been documented. AIMS To explore patients' knowledge on the use of gout medicines, and in particular their awareness of the maximum dose of colchicine, the dangers of colchicine overdose, and their opinions on restricting colchicine dispensing. The study also investigates where patients receive gout information. METHODS Thirty people with gout presenting to their regular gout clinic in Auckland currently or previously taking colchicine were invited to participate in a 30-min semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using a general inductive thematic approach. FINDINGS Overall, participants had a lack of knowledge regarding colchicine and used variable doses during an acute gout attack. Participants were unsure of the maximum dose of colchicine and several took more than prescribed. The prophylactic use of colchicine and allopurinol varied from 3 weeks to 15 years. Mixed views were reported on restricting colchicine supply. Most participants received gout information from their general practitioner (GP). CONCLUSION Poor understanding of colchicine contributed to inappropriate use and highlights the need for targeted patient education. Considerable inter-patient variability exists in the use of colchicine for acute gout, suggesting the efficacy of low dose regimens be explored. The length of adjunctive colchicine use, as part of a prophylaxis regimen, needs to be regularly reviewed and tailored to each patient. Further research is required on limiting the amount of colchicine dispensed.

  12. Current status of knowledge on public-speaking anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pull, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the current knowledge on public-speaking anxiety, that is, the fear of speaking in front of others. This article summarizes the findings from previous review articles and describes new research findings on basic science aspects, prevalence rates, classification, and treatment that have been published between August 2008 and August 2011. Recent findings highlight the major aspects of psychological and physiological reactivity to public speaking in individuals who are afraid to speak in front of others, confirm high prevalence rates of the disorder, contribute to identifying the disorder as a possibly distinct subtype of social anxiety disorder (SAD), and give support to the efficacy of treatment programs using virtual reality exposure and Internet-based self-help. Public-speaking anxiety is a highly prevalent disorder, leading to excessive psychological and physiological reactivity. It is present in a majority of individuals with SAD and there is substantial evidence that it may be a distinct subtype of SAD. It is amenable to treatment including, in particular, new technologies such as exposure to virtual environments and the use of cognitive-behavioral self-help programs delivered on the Internet.

  13. Phocine Distemper Virus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pádraig J. Duignan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phocine distemper virus (PDV was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years.

  14. Phocine distemper virus: current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duignan, Pádraig J; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Baker, Jason D; Barbieri, Michelle; Colegrove, Kathleen M; De Guise, Sylvain; de Swart, Rik L; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dobson, Andrew; Duprex, W Paul; Early, Greg; Fauquier, Deborah; Goldstein, Tracey; Goodman, Simon J; Grenfell, Bryan; Groch, Kátia R; Gulland, Frances; Hall, Ailsa; Jensen, Brenda A; Lamy, Karina; Matassa, Keith; Mazzariol, Sandro; Morris, Sinead E; Nielsen, Ole; Rotstein, David; Rowles, Teresa K; Saliki, Jeremy T; Siebert, Ursula; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-12-22

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years.

  15. Traumatic dental injuries--knowledge and awareness among present and prospective teachers in selected urban and rural areas of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, Marit S; Audestad, Esther; Bårdsen, Asgeir

    2010-06-01

    to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of traumatic dental injuries (TDI) in children and adolescents among present and prospective teachers in selected parts of Norway. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study among present and prospective teachers. It was based on a questionnaire about TDI in children and adolescents (7-15 years of age). The participants originated from two areas, one rural and one urban. The teacher trainee students were from classes focusing on sport and physical education. Chi-square tests were used for comparisons of groups of responders and relevant variables. A total of 143 individuals responded to the questionnaire (response rate 73.7%). Few respondents were aware of the existence of information about managing TDI at their respective schools. Only one responder (rural area) had had any education about TDI, although more than one-third of all the teachers had encountered TDI in school settings. Knowledge related to handling avulsed teeth was lower compared with handling crown fractures. Generally, the teachers had a higher level of knowledge related to the correct handling of TDI compared with the student group and they were also more confident in their respective decisions than the younger group. The findings revealed poor knowledge and awareness of TDI among present and prospective teachers in selected parts of Norway.

  16. Assessing local patients' knowledge and awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with medical imaging: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Ho-kwan; Wong, Chun-Sing; Huang, Bingsheng; Yiu, Ka-ling; Wong, Wai-lam; Chu, Yiu Ching Tiffany

    2013-02-01

    To assess the awareness of radiation dose and associated risks caused by radiological procedures among local patients. All subjects were recruited by randomly sampling the patients receiving radiological examinations. These subjects were stratified on age, sex and education. The questionnaire was in Chinese and consisted of 28 questions mostly in multiple choice/true-or-false format, divided into three sections examining demographic data, radiation knowledge/awareness and expectations. A total of 173 questionnaires were returned (83 females and 84 females; mean age of 53). Of these, 32.6% had attended college, 32.6% had completed matriculation and 24.4% secondary school. Most subjects underwent CT (75), MRI (70) and PET-CT (18). Education significantly affected the radiation knowledge (P = 0.013). 60.7% and 32.7% were not aware of the radiation-free nature of MRI and USG, respectively. Respectively, 45.4% and 43.5% were of the misconception that Barium enema and Barium swallow studies do not involve radiation. Moreover, 77.6% and 87.9% were aware of the radiation-laden nature of CT and plain X-rays, respectively. Furthermore, 34% and 50%, respectively, think that they are not exposed to radiation at home and on a plane. Regarding the fatal cancer risk from CT, 17.8% chose the correct answer and 62% underestimated the risk. 32.2% correctly estimated the equivalent dose of CT in terms of number of conventional X-rays and 43.2% underestimated the dose. Most (98.2%) were told of the indication, and 42.7% were told the associated radiation dose. Patient radiation awareness is unsatisfactory. There is need to increase patient radiation awareness, and to provide them with the necessary information. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  17. Knowledge Management in healthcare libraries: the current picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Emily

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge management has seen something of a resurgence in attention amongst health librarians recently. Of course it has never ceased to exist, but now many library staff are becoming more involved in organisational knowledge management, and positioning themselves as key players in the sphere. No single model of knowledge management is proliferating, but approaches that best fit the organisation's size, structure and culture, and a blending of evidence based practice and knowledge sharing. Whatever it is called and whatever models are used, it's clear that for librarians and information professionals, the importance of putting knowledge and evidence into practice, sharing knowledge well and capturing it effectively, are still what we will continue to do. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  18. Prophylaxis and therapeutic potential of ozone in buiatrics: Current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đuričić, Dražen; Valpotić, Hrvoje; Samardžija, Marko

    2015-08-01

    Ozone therapy has been in use since 1896 in the USA. As a highly reactive molecule, ozone may inactivate bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeasts and protozoans, stimulate the oxygen metabolism of tissue, treat diseases, activate the immune system, and exhibit strong analgesic activity. More recently, ozone has been used in veterinary medicine, particularly in buiatrics, but still insufficiently. Medical ozone therapy has shown effectiveness as an alternative to the use of antibiotics, which are restricted to clinical use and have been withdrawn from non-clinical use as in-feed growth promoters in animal production. This review is an overview of current knowledge regarding the preventive and therapeutic effects of ozone in ruminants for the treatment of puerperal diseases and improvement in their fertility. In particular, ozone preparations have been tested in the treatment of reproductive tract lesions, urovagina and pneumomovagina, metritis, endometritis, fetal membrane retention and mastitis, as well as in the functional restoration of endometrium in dairy cows and goats. In addition, the preventive use of the intrauterine application of ozone has been assessed in order to evaluate its effectiveness in improving reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. No adverse effects were observed in cows and goats treated with ozone preparations. Moreover, there is a lot of evidence indicating the advantages of ozone preparation therapy in comparison to the application of antibiotics. However, there are certain limitations on ozone use in veterinary medicine and buiatrics, such as inactivity against intracellular microbes and selective activity against the same bacterial species, as well as the induction of tissue inflammation through inappropriate application of the preparation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Increasing awareness and knowledge of lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention in Lynch syndrome carriers: Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, A; Visser, A; Hoedjes, M; Hurks, M; Gómez García, E; Hoogerbrugge, N; Kampman, E

    2018-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) mutation carriers may reduce their cancer risk by adhering to lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention. This study tested the effect of providing LS mutation carriers with World Cancer Research Fund-the Netherlands (WCRF-NL) health promotion materials on awareness and knowledge of and adherence to these recommendations. In this randomized controlled trial (n = 226), the intervention group (n = 114) received WCRF-NL health promotion materials. All LS mutation carriers were asked to fill out questionnaires at 2 weeks before (baseline, T0) and at 2 weeks (T1) and 6 months (T2) after the intervention. Linear mixed models were performed on awareness (0-7) and knowledge (0-7) of the recommendations, and on the secondary outcomes, that is adherence, distress, cancer worry, and risk perception. Compared with the control group, the intervention group became significantly more aware (overall mean difference = 1.24; 95%CI = 0.82-1.67) and obtained significantly improved knowledge of the recommendations (overall mean difference = 1.65; 95%CI = 1.27-2.03). Differences were significantly larger for T1 (Pinteraction  = .003 and ≤.001, respectively) but remained significant for T2. No effect on secondary outcomes was found. In conclusion, provision of WCRF-NL health promotion materials increases awareness and knowledge of lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention among LS mutation carriers without causing additional distress, but does not affect adherence. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Trends and current status of indigenous knowledge among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through this experiential co-adaptation the Turkana people have accumulated a wealth of indigenous knowledge and established institutions that have helped them to cope with their fragile environment. However, not much of this knowledge has been used in the design and implementation of development initiatives.

  1. Awareness and knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer in female students: A survey (with a cautionary note)

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, SM; Nailer, E; Minshall, C; Coombes, R; Cooper, J.; Redman, CW

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey to explore levels of awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer in 170 female students and whether mode of data collection (online vs. paper) affected the results. 27% of women named HPV as a cause of cervical cancer with online respondents more likely to do so. 75% of women had heard of HPV. More online respondents had heard of HPV than paper respondents. 127 women reported having heard of HPV, with a mean knowledge score of 2.989 (standar...

  2. Colostomy irrigation: current knowledge and practice of WOC nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Martha D; Grant, Marcia; Tallman, Nancy J; Wendel, Christopher S; Colwell, Janice; McCorkle, Ruth; Krouse, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    This study builds on the authors' previous studies that demonstrate that persons living with a colostomy who practice colostomy irrigation (CI) experience quality-of-life benefits. Studies also reveal that patients may not be taught about CI. The purpose of this study was to determine current knowledge, attitudes, and practices of WOC nurses on CI. The target population was ostomy nurses who were members of the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurse's Society. Nine hundred eighty-five nurses out of a possible pool of 4191 members responded, providing a response rate of 24%. Their average age was 53 years (range, 25-79 years). Respondents averaged 12 years' experience as a WOC nurse (range, 1-40 years) and 90% (n = 875) were certified. Participants practiced in a variety of settings, including acute and long-term care facilities, home health, and ambulatory clinics. They saw an average of 37 ± 60.5 (mean ± SD) ostomy patients per year (range, 0-1100). A 1-time online survey (SurveyMonkey) of members of the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses (WOCN) Society was conducted. In addition to demographic and educational information, questions also included (1) CI advantages and disadvantages; (2) CI content routinely taught; (3) challenges in assisting patients to learn CI; and (4) where preparation was received for teaching this procedure. Nurses were asked whether they believe CI is evidence-based. More than half identified irrigation as an evidence-based practice (59%), but half indicated they do not routinely teach CI. Multiple factors correlated with nurses' decisions to teach CI, including years of experience (P = .03), specific CI education (P < .001), and considering the intervention evidence-based (P < .001). Factors influencing CI instruction are multifactorial; they include nurses' attitudes, experience base, education, medical indications, setting characteristics, and patient interest and physical abilities. Education on this procedure is urgently needed for

  3. Awareness, knowledge and attitudes to non-melanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis among the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Allan C; Kopp, Laura J

    2005-02-01

    The incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has dramatically increased worldwide. In areas of high incidence this will place a significant burden on the health system. Objectives To establish the awareness, knowledge and attitudes of the general public to NMSC and provide an overview on their level of understanding and knowledge of preventative measures. Two thousand and one hundred Caucasian and Hispanic individuals, aged 40-75 years, from the UK, Italy, Germany, Spain, France, the USA and Australia were randomly selected to participate in this market research survey. In a structured telephone interview lasting approximately 10 min, respondents answered questions on NMSC, specifically actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Overall, 6% of respondents had been diagnosed with NMSC, of which the incidence was highest in Australia and the USA. The frequency of skin cancer detection examinations was also greater within these populations. Countries with a high incidence of NSMC had greater awareness of the condition, with more awareness of BCC than AK. The majority of respondents believed there was a correlation between skin cancer and sun exposure, however, a minority of respondents associated skin cancer with 'moderate' tanning. Overall, 86% of respondents claimed that they always took precautions against ultraviolet exposure when in the sun, but only 26% applied sunscreen most or all of the time when they were exposed to the sun for more than 1 h. In most of the countries, outside workers reported lower sunscreen use than other respondents. Nonmelanoma skin cancer awareness and prevention behaviors varied significantly among the countries studied. Improved population-specific documentation of skin cancer knowledge and prevention behaviors will facilitate the development and assessment of public health campaigns.

  4. Evaluation of the current practices of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) awareness training in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, AL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the current practices in relation to best practice criteria and make recommendations for improvements to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) awareness training in the South African mining industry. A survey tool based...

  5. Knowledge, awareness, and behaviors of endocrinologists and dentists for the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hanxiao; Zhang, Hua; Yan, Yuxia; Liu, Duan; Zhang, Ruyi; Liu, Yeungyeung; Chen, Pei; Zhang, Jincai; Xuan, Dongying

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the opinions of dentists and endocrinologists regarding diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontitis, and to investigate the possible effects on their practice. Cross-sectional data were collected from 297 endocrinologists and 134 dentists practicing in southern China using two separated questionnaires. Questions were close-ended or Likert-scaled. Statistical analyses were done by descriptive statistics, bivariate and binary logistic regression analysis. Compared with endocrinologists, dentists presented more favorable attitudes for the relationship of DM and periodontitis (Pdentists reported they would frequently refer patients with severe periodontitis for DM evaluation, while only 26.6% of endocrinologists reported they would frequently advise patients with DM to visit a dentist. Nearly all of the respondents (94.4%) agreed that the interdisciplinary collaboration should be strengthened. The logistic regression analysis exhibited that respondents with more favorable attitudes were more likely to advise a dental visit (P=0.003) or to screen for DM (P=0.006). Endocrinologists and dentists are not equally equipped with the knowledge about the relationship between DM and periodontitis, and there is a wide gap between their practice and the current evidence, especially for endocrinologists. It's urgent to take measures to develop the interdisciplinary education and collaboration among the health care providers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Knowledge and awareness of high blood pressure in Ward F, Ifako ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: In Nigeria, most people living with an elevated blood pressure are unaware of it until they suffer complications. The aim of this study was to determine levels of awareness of high blood pressure in Ward F, Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagos, Nigeria. Design: A multistage sampling technique was used to ...

  7. Breast Cancer Knowledge and Awareness among High School and College Students in Mid-Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafuvadze, Benford; Manguvo, Angellar; He, Jiaxin; Whitney, Stephen D.; Hyder, Salman M.

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of breast cancer and its subsequent treatment lead to better patient prognosis and survival rates. However, despite advanced screening and detection techniques, the disease all too frequently remains undetected until it has reached an advanced stage. Despite a number of means of disseminating breast cancer awareness, such as public…

  8. Increasing awareness and knowledge of lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention in Lynch syndrome carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Visser, A.; Hoedjes, Meeke; Hurks, H.M.H.; Gómez García, E.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Kampman, E.

    2018-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) mutation carriers may reduce their cancer risk by adhering to lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention. This study tested the effect of providing LS mutation carriers with World Cancer Research Fund-the Netherlands (WCRF-NL) health promotion materials on awareness and

  9. Using Instructional Technology to Improve Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Phonological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Melissa K.; Pullen, Paige C.; Kennedy, Michael J.; Williams, Mira Cole; Ely, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Teacher understanding of phonological awareness (PA) and how to teach PA is related to student outcomes; however, many teachers have an inadequate understanding of PA. The purpose of this study is to describe an intervention intended to improve preservice teachers' understanding of PA, using an example of instructional technology called Content…

  10. Effectiveness of Geosciences Exploration Summer Program (GeoX) for Increasing Awareness and Knowledge of Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Chris; Garcia, Sonia; Torres, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Summer research experiences are an increasingly popular means of increasing awareness of, and developing interest in, the geosciences and other science, technology, engineering, and math programs. We describe and report the preliminary results of a 1-wk Geosciences Exploration Summer Program in the College of Geosciences at Texas A&M…

  11. Impact of educational intervention on knowledge, attitude and awareness of good clinical practice among health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Divya; Walia, Rani; Sharma, Poonam; Kaur, Harmanjeet; Agnihotri, Pallak

    2017-01-01

    Clinical trials play an important role in the generation of evidence-based data in health care practices. To ensure the credibility of data and the safety and well-being of the patients Good clinical practice (GCP) guidelines play an important role. At present, we have little knowledge about awareness of GCP guidelines among health care providers in India. To assess the level of awareness, and perception of the health care providers toward GCP and subsequent change in these after a dayer training session on GCP guidelines. A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire-based study was conducted amongst health care providers, that is, doctors, dentists, nurses of a Tertiary Health Care and Teaching Institute. Participants were given descriptive questionnaire; they completed the questionnaire before and after undergoing a day training program in GCP guidelines. The impact of the effectiveness of educational intervention among healthcare professionals was evaluated by two-tailed Z-test. Out of 120 participants, 80 were medical doctors, 20 dental doctors, and 20 nurses. A dayse training program on GCP guidelines was found to increase positive attitudes toward various aspects of clinical trials. A day's training program on GCP guidelines may help to increase the knowledge as well as awareness about principles and techniques of clinical research, which will increase the credibility of clinical research in the country.

  12. Bidirectional Relations between Phonological Awareness and Letter Knowledge in Preschool Revisited: A Growth Curve Analysis of the Relation between Two Code-Related Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of phonological awareness for the development of reading in alphabetic languages, little attention has been paid to its developmental origins. In this study, dual-process, latent growth models were used to examine patterns of bidirectional relations between letter knowledge and phonological awareness during preschool. The sample comprised 358 children (mean age = 48.60 months, SD = 7.26). Growth models were used to quantify the unique longitudinal relations between the initial level of each skill and growth in the other skill during the preschool year, after controlling for initial level of the same skill, vocabulary, age, and growth in the code-related skill being used as a predictor. Letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness were bi-directionally related; the initial level of each uniquely predicted growth in the other. Initial letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness growth were not uniquely related, and vocabulary was not related to growth in phonological awareness. These findings extend the evidence of the relation between letter knowledge and phonological awareness to supra-phonemic tasks, indicating that this bidirectional relation begins at an earlier point in the development of phonological awareness than previously reported. In addition, these findings help to rule out general growth in letter knowledge and phonological awareness as an alternative explanation for the bidirectional relation between these two code-related skills. PMID:26745710

  13. Bidirectional relations between phonological awareness and letter knowledge in preschool revisited: A growth curve analysis of the relation between two code-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Matthew D; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    Despite the importance of phonological awareness for the development of reading in alphabetic languages, little attention has been paid to its developmental origins. In this study, dual-process, latent growth models were used to examine patterns of bidirectional relations between letter knowledge and phonological awareness during preschool. The sample comprised 358 children (mean age=48.60 months, SD=7.26). Growth models were used to quantify the unique longitudinal relations between the initial level of each skill and growth in the other skill during the preschool year, after controlling for initial level of the same skill, vocabulary, age, and growth in the code-related skill being used as a predictor. Letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness were bidirectionally related; the initial level of each uniquely predicted growth in the other. Initial letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness growth were not uniquely related, and vocabulary was not related to growth in phonological awareness. These findings extend the evidence of the relation between letter knowledge and phonological awareness to supra-phonemic tasks, indicating that this bidirectional relation begins at an earlier point in the development of phonological awareness than previously reported. In addition, these findings help to rule out general growth in letter knowledge and phonological awareness as an alternative explanation for the bidirectional relation between these two code-related skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Beyond Knowledge and Awareness: Addressing Misconceptions in Ghana’s Preparation towards an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adongo, Philip Baba; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Asampong, Emmanuel; Ansong, Joana; Robalo, Magda; Adanu, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is not new to the world. However, the West African EVD epidemic which started in 2014 evolved into the largest, most severe and most complex outbreak in the history of the disease. The three most-affected countries faced enormous challenges in stopping the transmission and providing care for all patients. Although Ghana had not recorded any confirmed Ebola case, social factors have been reported to hinder efforts to control the outbreak in the three most affected countries. This qualitative study was designed to explore community knowledge and attitudes about Ebola and its transmission. Methods This study was carried out in five of the ten regions in Ghana. Twenty-five focus group discussions (N = 235) and 40 in-depth interviews were conducted across the five regions with community members, stakeholders and opinion leaders. The interviews were recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis was adopted in the analysis of the data using Nvivo 10. Results The results showed a high level of awareness and knowledge about Ebola. The study further showed that knowledge on how to identify suspected cases of Ebola was also high among respondents. However, there was a firm belief that Ebola was a spiritual condition and could also be transmitted through air, mosquito bites and houseflies. These misconceptions resulted in perceptions of stigma and discrimination towards people who may get Ebola or work with Ebola patients. Conclusion We conclude that although knowledge and awareness about Ebola is high among Ghanaians who participated in the study, there are still misconceptions about the disease. The study recommends that health education on Ebola disease should move beyond creating awareness to targeting the identified misconceptions to improve future containment efforts. PMID:26889683

  15. Approaching a decade since HPV vaccine licensure: Racial and gender disparities in knowledge and awareness of HPV and HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei Boakye, Eric; Tobo, Betelihem B; Rojek, Rebecca P; Mohammed, Kahee A; Geneus, Christian J; Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba

    2017-08-30

      Purpose: Gaps remain in the public's knowledge of the human papillomavirus (HPV). We assessed racial/ethnic and gender disparities in knowledge and awareness of HPV and the HPV vaccine among US adults. Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey 4 Cycle 3 (September - December 2013) and Cycle 4 (August - November 2014) were analyzed for 6,862 respondents aged 18 years and older. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate racial/ethnic and gender disparities in HPV knowledge and HPV vaccination awareness. Sixty-six percent of respondents had heard of HPV and the HPV vaccine (57% of men vs. 75% of women). In multivariable analyses, compared with men, women were 225% (95% CI: 2.60 - 4.07) more likely to have heard of HPV, and 281% (95% CI: 3.06 - 4.74) more likely to have heard of the HPV vaccine. Non-Hispanic Blacks were 33% (95% CI: 0.47 - 0.96) and 44% (95% CI: 0.39 - 0.81) less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to have heard of HPV and the HPV vaccine, respectively. Hispanics were 27% (95% CI: 0.52 - 1.02) and 53% (95% CI: 0.34 - 0.64) less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to have heard of HPV and the HPV vaccine, respectively. There was evidence of disparities in HPV and HPV vaccine awareness among men compared with women and non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Whites. To foster improvements in HPV vaccine uptake and reduce disparities in HPV associated cancers, future interventions must target men and minority populations, for whom knowledge gaps exist.

  16. Knowledge visualization currents from text to art to culture

    CERN Document Server

    Marchese, Francis T

    2012-01-01

    Presents the state of the art in visualization research and development Highlights research developing at key intersections with other disciplines and its applicability to addressing complex real-world problems Discusses how visualization researchers are addressing complex issues of representation in knowledge, art, and culture

  17. High awareness of hepatitis C virus (HCV) but limited knowledge of HCV complications among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers, Femke A E; Prins, Maria; Davidovich, Udi; Stolte, Ineke G

    2014-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has emerged as a sexually transmitted infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries. Little is reported about HCV awareness among MSM, although this is essential for developing targeted prevention strategies. We, therefore, studied HCV awareness and knowledge among HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM from the Amsterdam Cohort Studies (ACS). During two visits, 1 year apart and starting in October 2007, MSM from the ACS answered questions regarding HCV awareness, knowledge of HCV transmission (7 items), complications (8 items) and sexual risk behaviour. We examined the percentage of HCV awareness and correctly answered knowledge items, and whether awareness and knowledge improved significantly over time. Using logistic regression, we studied whether HIV status and sexual risk behaviour were associated with awareness. Seventy percent (312/444) of HIV-negative and 80% (74/92) of HIV-positive MSM reported to have ever heard of HCV on the first visit. Overall, awareness increased with 9% between the first and second visit (p awareness was borderline significant (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.97-2.30). Compared with knowledge of transmission routes, knowledge of complications appeared to be limited. In the ACS, awareness of HCV is high, particularly among those reporting group sex, an important risk factor for HCV transmission. The majority of participants had good knowledge of transmission routes, but limited knowledge of complications of chronic HCV infection. HCV prevention messages could be strengthened, therefore, by further addressing the complications of HCV infection.

  18. A Survey of Privacy Awareness and Current Online Practices of Indian Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhotre, Prashant Shantaram; Olesen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Today, users with their smart devices can communicate and access a wide range of services via the Internet to make their life easier. However, loss of privacy is becoming a major issue for architects or policy makers, accelerated by the rapid development of mobile and wireless technologies...... that eases the collection, storage, sharing, analysis, and manipulation of the individual’s information. The main objective of this paper is to study the privacy perception and awareness of Internet users in an Indian context. Results of comprehensive survey with 297 users are presented, focusing...... on their perception and awareness towards personal information privacy (PIP). The survey responses show that the user’s perception is noticeably low considering PIP and that the privacy awareness is not the same as their understanding. The results indicate the need for a solution for PIP protection where the users...

  19. Knowledge and cultural beliefs of mothers regarding the risk factors of infant hearing loss and awareness of audiology services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha M. Govender

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to describe the knowledge of mothers in Durban, South Africa, regarding risk factors of hearing loss in infants and their awareness of audiology services, and to describe their cultural beliefs about the risk factors for hearing loss in infants. A descriptive survey design with quantitative methods of analysis were used. Conveniently sampled mothers (n=102 receiving postnatal care for their infants from eight provincial clinics within Durban consented to participate, yielding a response rate of 48%. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and the Cronbach α was calculated yielding a score of 0.835, indicating good internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire. Sixty percent of the mothers were aware of risk factors, such as middle ear infections, ototoxic medication and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Seventy percent were unaware that NICU/mechanical ventilation for more than 5 days, prematurity, rubella and jaundice are considered risk factors for hearing loss, implying a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding such risk factors. Sixty percent (n=62 believed that bewitchment and ancestral curses can cause hearing loss. Cultural beliefs were associated with hearing loss, therefore, health professionals need to demonstrate cultural competence when providing audiology services, especially in a culturally and linguistically diverse countries such as South Africa. Although the mothers had an average knowledge about risk factors, two thirds did not know which professional to seek help from. There is a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding the risk factors of infant hearing loss as well as audiology services in order to facilitate early detection and intervention. There is a need for health professionals to demonstrate cultural competence when working with their patients.

  20. Knowledge and Cultural Beliefs of Mothers Regarding the Risk Factors of Infant Hearing Loss and Awareness of Audiology Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Samantha M; Khan, Nasim Banu

    2017-06-23

    The aim of the paper is to describe the knowledge of mothers in Durban, South Africa, regarding risk factors of hearing loss in infants and their awareness of audiology services, and to describe their cultural beliefs about the risk factors for hearing loss in infants. A descriptive survey design with quantitative methods of analysis were used. Conveniently sampled mothers (n=102) receiving postnatal care for their infants from eight provincial clinics within Durban consented to participate, yielding a response rate of 48%. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and the Cronbach α was calculated yielding a score of 0.835, indicating good internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire. Sixty percent of the mothers were aware of risk factors, such as middle ear infections, ototoxic medication and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Seventy percent were unaware that NICU/mechanical ventilation for more than 5 days, prematurity, rubella and jaundice are considered risk factors for hearing loss, implying a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding such risk factors. Sixty percent (n=62) believed that bewitchment and ancestral curses can cause hearing loss. Cultural beliefs were associated with hearing loss, therefore, health professionals need to demonstrate cultural competence when providing audiology services, especially in a culturally and linguistically diverse countries such as South Africa. Although the mothers had an average knowledge about risk factors, two thirds did not know which professional to seek help from. There is a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding the risk factors of infant hearing loss as well as audiology services in order to facilitate early detection and intervention. There is a need for health professionals to demonstrate cultural competence when working with their patients.

  1. Building vocabulary knowledge and phonological awareness skills in children with specific language impairment through hybrid language intervention: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Natalie; Lee, Kerrie; Baker, Elise

    2008-01-01

    Preschool and early school-aged children with specific language impairment not only have spoken language difficulties, but also are at risk of future literacy problems. Effective interventions targeting both spoken language and emergent literacy skills for this population are limited. This paper reports a feasibility study of a hybrid language intervention approach that targets vocabulary knowledge and phonological awareness skills within the context of oral narrative, storybook reading, and drill-based games. This study also reports on two novel, experimental assessments that were developed to expand options for measuring changes in lexical skills in children. Seventeen children with specific language impairment participated in a pilot within-group evaluation of a hybrid intervention programme. The children's performance at pre- and post-intervention was compared on a range of clinical and experimental assessment measures targeting both spoken language and phonological awareness skills. Each child received intervention for six one-hour sessions scheduled on a weekly basis. Intervention sessions focused on training phonological awareness skills as well as lexical-semantic features of words within the context of oral and storybook narrative and drill-based games. The children significantly improved on clinical measures of phonological awareness, spoken vocabulary and oral narrative. Lexical-semantic and sublexical vocabulary knowledge also significantly improved on the experimental measures used in the study. The results of this feasibility study suggest that a larger scale experimental trial of an integrated spoken language and emergent literacy intervention approach for preschool and early school-aged children with specific language impairment is warranted.

  2. Birds of Pernambuco: Current state of ornithological knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Beserra de Farias

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the present state of ornithological knowledge is required for the guidance of researchers in their future investigations. This work provides a survey of literature describing the development of ornithological research in the state. Between 1880 and 2008, many lists were organized, which contributed towards the systematization of the knowledge about Pernambuco’s birds. Out if the 535 species recorded, 49 are found in marine environments or wetlands, 450 occur in the Atlantic Rainforest, and 270 reside in the semi-arid Caatinga. We suggest that studies on the birds of the Caatinga are most important and should be prioritized at present, in addition to effective actions for the conservation of endemic species and of species under risk of extinction.

  3. Sex Trafficking Related Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes among Adolescent Female Students in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Shrestha

    Full Text Available Sex trafficking has been a long-standing concern in Nepal. Very little has been achieved, however, in terms of actual reduction in the number of victims despite numerous anti-sex trafficking programs. This situation may be attributable to a lack of empirical evidence upon which to formulate anti-sexual trafficking interventions. This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns among adolescent female students in Nepal.A cross-sectional study was conducted between August-September 2013 among 292 adolescent female students (>10 years old using systematic random sampling from three high schools in Sindhupalchowk district, Nepal. As an initial step, descriptive analyses were employed to characterize the data and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and related attitudes.Seventy-six percent of sampled students reported that they were aware of sex trafficking and 94.6% indicated media (i.e., radio or television as the primary sources of their knowledge. Fifty-one percent mentioned relatives/friends as mediators of sex trafficking, 60.4% reported promise for better jobs as the primary attraction behind sex trafficking, and 48.6% mentioned adolescent females as the most vulnerable group for sex trafficking. Over half (56.8% of the respondents had positive attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns. Age (OR = 3.38, 95% CI:2.51-4.55, parents' occupation (OR = 3.89, 95% CI:1.58-9.58, and having a radio/TV at home (OR = 6.67, 95% CI:3.99-9.54 were significantly associated with awareness, whereas being younger (OR = 0.67, 95% CI:0.55-0.79 and having joint-family (OR = 2.67, 95% CI:1.49-4.80 were significantly associated with having a positive attitudes towards

  4. Knowledge, Attitudes and Awareness of Pre-Service Teachers on Biodiversity Conservation in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuste, Nsengimana; Olivier, Habimana; Valens, Ngarukiye

    2017-01-01

    This research presents a case study on the knowledge of pre-service teachers of the school of lower secondary education on biodiversity conservation in Rwanda. It critically examines the implication of the level of knowledge on attitudes and behaviors towards biodiversity conservation and the potential implications of a lack of the courses…

  5. Current floristic and phytogeographic knowledge of Mexican Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Espejo Serna

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available A current floristic and phytogeographic knowledge of native Mexican Bromeliaceae is presented. There are 22 genera of Bromeliaceae recorded from the country that include 326 species. The genus Ursulaea with 2 species is endemic to Mexico, while Hechtia with 48 of its 50 species has its principal center of diversity in the country. Tillandsia (175 spp, Hechtia (48 spp and Pitcairnia (46 spp are the genera with the greatest number of species. We present a comparative analysis of Mexican Bromeliaceae with that of other American regions that have recently published accounts for the Family, particularly the Mesomerican area, Venezuela, Ecuador, and the Guianas. Our results led us to the conclusion that all these floras should be considered as distinct. We observe a progressive decrease of the Simpson index value related with the remoteness of the Mexican area. A general analysis of the species numbers of Mexican bromeliad genera shows a distinct preference of the species for coniferous and oak forests, followed by tropical caducifolious forests. There is also significant representation of the family in other vegetation types such as cloud forests and tropical perennifolious forests. Generally Mexican Bromeliaceae species have scarce and sparse populations and in many cases they inhabit cliffs, bluffs and scarps in restricted areas. Concerning the geographic distribution of Mexican genera, 77.27 % are neotropical, 4.54% are South American and the remainder are Mexican and Central American. The generic endemism is very low (4.54 %, even if we extend the country limits to Megamexico sensu Rzedowsi (1991 it reaches only 13.63 %. The family endemism at specific level reaches 63.07 %. There are not available data about a specific analysis of the conservation status of Mexican Bromeliaceae, but we can point out that a great number of taxa are only known from the type collection or at the most from the type locality. This can perhaps be attributed in part to

  6. The Anatomy of the Role of Morphological Awareness in Chinese Character Learning: The Mediation of Vocabulary and Semantic Radical Knowledge and the Moderation of Morpheme Family Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Li, Hong; Wong, Kwok Shing Richard

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the mediating roles of syllable awareness, orthographic knowledge, and vocabulary skills and the moderating role of morpheme family size in the association between morphological awareness and Chinese character reading were investigated with 176 second-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. In the path analyses, the results…

  7. Knowledge and Awareness of HPV Vaccine and Acceptability to Vaccinate in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Stacey; Wamai, Richard G.; Bain, Paul A.; Welty, Thomas; Welty, Edith; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine, and willingness and acceptability to vaccinate in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. We further identified countries that fulfill the two GAVI Alliance eligibility criteria to support nationwide HPV vaccination. Methods We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed studies on the knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine, and willingness and acceptability to vaccinate. Trends in Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) vaccine coverage in SSA countries from 1990–2011 were extracted from the World Health Organization database. Findings The review revealed high levels of willingness and acceptability of HPV vaccine but low levels of knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV or HPV vaccine. We identified only six countries to have met the two GAVI Alliance requirements for supporting introduction of HPV vaccine: 1) the ability to deliver multi-dose vaccines for no less than 50% of the target vaccination cohort in an average size district, and 2) achieving over 70% coverage of DTP3 vaccine nationally. From 2008 through 2011 all SSA countries, with the exception of Mauritania and Nigeria, have reached or maintained DTP3 coverage at 70% or above. Conclusion There is an urgent need for more education to inform the public about HPV, HPV vaccine, and cervical cancer, particularly to key demographics, (adolescents, parents and healthcare professionals), to leverage high levels of willingness and acceptability of HPV vaccine towards successful implementation of HPV vaccination programs. There is unpreparedness in most SSA countries to roll out national HPV vaccination as per the GAVI Alliance eligibility criteria for supporting introduction of the vaccine. In countries that have met 70% DTP3 coverage, pilot programs need to be rolled out to identify the best practice and strategies for delivering HPV vaccines to adolescents and also to qualify for GAVI

  8. Stroke awareness in the general population: knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Emer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is a leading cause of death and functional impairment. While older people are particularly vulnerable to stroke, research suggests that they have the poorest awareness of stroke warning signs and risk factors. This study examined knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors among community-dwelling older adults. Methods Randomly selected community-dwelling older people (aged 65+ in Ireland (n = 2,033; 68% response rate. Participants completed home interviews. Questions assessed knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors, and personal risk factors for stroke. Results Of the overall sample, 6% had previously experienced a stroke or transient ischaemic attack. When asked to identify stroke risk factors from a provided list, less than half of the overall sample identified established risk factors (e.g., smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension being the only exception (identified by 74%. Similarly, less than half identified established warning signs (e.g., weakness, headache, with slurred speech (54% as the exception. Overall, there were considerable gaps in awareness with poorest levels evident in those with primary level education only and in those living in Northern Ireland (compared with Republic of Ireland. Conclusion Knowledge deficits in this study suggest that most of the common early symptoms or signs of stroke were recognized as such by less than half of the older adults surveyed. As such, many older adults may not recognise early symptoms of stroke in themselves or others. Thus, they may lose vital time in presenting for medical attention. Lack of public awareness about stroke warning signs and risk factors must be addressed as one important contribution to reducing mortality and morbidity from stroke.

  9. Stroke awareness in the general population: knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Anne; O'Hanlon, Ann; McGee, Hannah; Donnellan, Claire; Shelley, Emer; Horgan, Frances; O'Neill, Desmond

    2009-01-01

    Background Stroke is a leading cause of death and functional impairment. While older people are particularly vulnerable to stroke, research suggests that they have the poorest awareness of stroke warning signs and risk factors. This study examined knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors among community-dwelling older adults. Methods Randomly selected community-dwelling older people (aged 65+) in Ireland (n = 2,033; 68% response rate). Participants completed home interviews. Questions assessed knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors, and personal risk factors for stroke. Results Of the overall sample, 6% had previously experienced a stroke or transient ischaemic attack. When asked to identify stroke risk factors from a provided list, less than half of the overall sample identified established risk factors (e.g., smoking, hypercholesterolaemia), hypertension being the only exception (identified by 74%). Similarly, less than half identified established warning signs (e.g., weakness, headache), with slurred speech (54%) as the exception. Overall, there were considerable gaps in awareness with poorest levels evident in those with primary level education only and in those living in Northern Ireland (compared with Republic of Ireland). Conclusion Knowledge deficits in this study suggest that most of the common early symptoms or signs of stroke were recognized as such by less than half of the older adults surveyed. As such, many older adults may not recognise early symptoms of stroke in themselves or others. Thus, they may lose vital time in presenting for medical attention. Lack of public awareness about stroke warning signs and risk factors must be addressed as one important contribution to reducing mortality and morbidity from stroke. PMID:19656359

  10. Stroke awareness in the general population: knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in older adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Anne

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and functional impairment. While older people are particularly vulnerable to stroke, research suggests that they have the poorest awareness of stroke warning signs and risk factors. This study examined knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Randomly selected community-dwelling older people (aged 65+) in Ireland (n = 2,033; 68% response rate). Participants completed home interviews. Questions assessed knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors, and personal risk factors for stroke. RESULTS: Of the overall sample, 6% had previously experienced a stroke or transient ischaemic attack. When asked to identify stroke risk factors from a provided list, less than half of the overall sample identified established risk factors (e.g., smoking, hypercholesterolaemia), hypertension being the only exception (identified by 74%). Similarly, less than half identified established warning signs (e.g., weakness, headache), with slurred speech (54%) as the exception. Overall, there were considerable gaps in awareness with poorest levels evident in those with primary level education only and in those living in Northern Ireland (compared with Republic of Ireland). CONCLUSION: Knowledge deficits in this study suggest that most of the common early symptoms or signs of stroke were recognized as such by less than half of the older adults surveyed. As such, many older adults may not recognise early symptoms of stroke in themselves or others. Thus, they may lose vital time in presenting for medical attention. Lack of public awareness about stroke warning signs and risk factors must be addressed as one important contribution to reducing mortality and morbidity from stroke.

  11. Knowledge and awareness of HPV vaccine and acceptability to vaccinate in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Perlman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We assessed the knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine, and willingness and acceptability to vaccinate in sub-Saharan African (SSA countries. We further identified countries that fulfill the two GAVI Alliance eligibility criteria to support nationwide HPV vaccination. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed studies on the knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine, and willingness and acceptability to vaccinate. Trends in Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3 vaccine coverage in SSA countries from 1990-2011 were extracted from the World Health Organization database. FINDINGS: The review revealed high levels of willingness and acceptability of HPV vaccine but low levels of knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV or HPV vaccine. We identified only six countries to have met the two GAVI Alliance requirements for supporting introduction of HPV vaccine: 1 the ability to deliver multi-dose vaccines for no less than 50% of the target vaccination cohort in an average size district, and 2 achieving over 70% coverage of DTP3 vaccine nationally. From 2008 through 2011 all SSA countries, with the exception of Mauritania and Nigeria, have reached or maintained DTP3 coverage at 70% or above. CONCLUSION: There is an urgent need for more education to inform the public about HPV, HPV vaccine, and cervical cancer, particularly to key demographics, (adolescents, parents and healthcare professionals, to leverage high levels of willingness and acceptability of HPV vaccine towards successful implementation of HPV vaccination programs. There is unpreparedness in most SSA countries to roll out national HPV vaccination as per the GAVI Alliance eligibility criteria for supporting introduction of the vaccine. In countries that have met 70% DTP3 coverage, pilot programs need to be rolled out to identify the best practice and strategies for delivering HPV vaccines to adolescents and also to

  12. Phantom limb pain and bodily awareness: current concepts and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giummarra, Melita J; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2011-10-01

    Phantom pain is a frequent consequence of amputation or deafferentation. There are many possible contributing mechanisms, including stump-related pathology, spinal and cortical changes. Phantom limb pain is notoriously difficult to treat. Continued consideration of the factors associated with phantom pain and its treatment is of utmost importance, not only to advance the scientific knowledge about the experience of the body and neuropathic pain, but also fundamentally to promote efficacious pain management. This review first discusses the mechanisms associated with phantom pain and summarizes the current treatments. The mechanisms underlying phantom pain primarily relate to peripheral/spinal dysfunction, and supraspinal and central plasticity in sensorimotor body representations. The most promising methods for managing phantom pain address the maladaptive changes at multiple levels of the neuraxis, for example, complementing pharmacological administration with physical, psychological or behavioural intervention. These supplementary techniques are even efficacious in isolation, perhaps by replacing the absent afferent signals from the amputated limb, thereby restoring disrupted bodily representations. Ultimately, for optimal patient outcomes, treatments should be both symptom and mechanism targeted.

  13. TB and HIV in the Central African region: current knowledge and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, S; Huson, M A M; Bélard, S; Stolp, S; Kapata, N; Bates, M; van Vugt, M; Grobusch, M P

    2014-04-01

    Reliable and comprehensive data on the HIV/AIDS and TB co-pandemics from Central Africa remain scarce. This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview on current and past research activities in the region and provides a basis for future research work to close knowledge gaps. The scientific literature was searched for publications meeting the following search terms: "tuberculosis" or "HIV" or "acquired immunodeficiency syndrome", combined with "Central Africa", or the names of individual countries within the region. Original studies, reviews and case series were included, and a selection of relevant articles was made. Most research in the field of HIV and TB has been conducted in Cameroon, where the epidemics have been described fairly well. The Democratic Republic of Congo ranked second on the amount of publications, despite the civil wars over the past several decades. Very little has been published on HIV and TB in the other countries, possibly due to the poor infrastructure of health care systems, lack of scientific capacity building or shortage of laboratory equipment. Despite the relatively high burden of HIV and TB in the Central African region, the amount of research activities on these topics is limited. A better understanding of the co-epidemics in this region is urgently needed. The occurrence of opportunistic infections, treatment complications and drug resistance in TB and HIV need to be better described; the failure of public health systems needs to be understood, and research infrastructure needs to be developed. Only then will it be possible to turn the tide against the HIV and TB epidemics in this region.

  14. Awareness and knowledge about human papillomavirus vaccination and its acceptance in China: a meta-analysis of 58 observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanru Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have been widely introduced in immunization programs worldwide, however, it is not accepted in mainland China. We aimed to investigate the awareness and knowledge about HPV vaccines and explore the acceptability of vaccination among the Chinese population. Methods A meta-analysis was conducted across two English (PubMed, EMBASE and three Chinese (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang Database and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals electronic databases in order to identify HPV vaccination studies conducted in mainland China. We conducted and reported the analysis in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines. Results Fifty-eight unique studies representing 19 provinces and municipalities in mainland China were assessed. The pooled awareness and knowledge rates about HPV vaccination were 15.95 % (95 % CI: 12.87–19.29, I 2  = 98.9 % and 17.55 % (95 % CI: 12.38–24.88, I 2  = 99.8 %, respectively. The female population (17.39 %; 95 % CI: 13.06–22.20, I 2 = 98.8 % and mixed population (18.55 %; 95 % CI: 14.14–23.42, I 2 = 98.8 % exhibited higher HPV vaccine awareness than the male population (1.82 %; 95 % CI: 0.50–11.20, I 2 = 98.5 %. Populations of mixed ethnicity had lower HPV vaccine awareness (9.61 %; 95 % CI: 5.95–14.03, I 2 = 99.0 % than the Han population (20.17 %; 95 % CI: 16.42–24.20, I 2 = 98.3 %. Among different regions, the HPV vaccine awareness was higher in EDA (17.57 %; 95 % CI: 13.36–22.21, I 2 = 98.0 % and CLDA (17.78 %; 95 % CI: 12.18–24.19, I 2 = 97.6 % than in WUDA (1.80 %; 95 % CI: 0.02–6.33, I 2 = 98.9 %. Furthermore, 67.25 % (95 % CI: 58.75–75.21, I 2  = 99.8 % of participants were willing to be vaccinated, while this number was lower for their daughters (60.32 %; 95 % CI: 51.25–69.04, I 2

  15. Knowledge of thromboprophylaxis guidelines pre- and post-didactic lectures during a venous thromboembolism awareness day at a tertiary-care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan M Al-Dorzi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Education via didactic lectures resulted in a modest improvement of HCPs′ knowledge of thromboprophylaxis guidelines. This supports the need for a multifaceted approach to improve the awareness and implementation of thromboprophylaxis guidelines.

  16. Awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among school-going adolescents in Europe: a systematic review of published literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samkange-Zeeb, Florence N; Spallek, Lena; Zeeb, Hajo

    2011-01-01

    ... countries.We conducted this systematic review to determine awareness and knowledge of school-going male and female adolescents in Europe of STDs and if possible, how they perceive their own risk of contracting an STD...

  17. A Systematic Review of Athletes' and Coaches' Nutrition Knowledge and Reflections on the Quality of Current Nutrition Knowledge Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakman, Gina L; Forsyth, Adrienne; Devlin, Brooke L; Belski, Regina

    2016-09-16

    Nutrition knowledge can influence dietary choices and impact on athletic performance. Valid and reliable measures are needed to assess the nutrition knowledge of athletes and coaches. (1) To systematically review the published literature on nutrition knowledge of adult athletes and coaches and (2) to assess the quality of measures used to assess nutrition knowledge. MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscuss, Web of Science, and SCOPUS. 36 studies that provided a quantitative measure of nutrition knowledge and described the measurement tool that was used were included. Participant description, questionnaire description, results (mean correct and responses to individual items), study quality, and questionnaire quality. All studies were of neutral quality. Tools used to measure knowledge did not consider health literacy, were outdated with regards to consensus recommendations, and lacked appropriate and adequate validation. The current status of nutrition knowledge in athletes and coaches is difficult to ascertain. Gaps in knowledge also remain unclear, but it is likely that energy density, the need for supplementation, and the role of protein are frequently misunderstood. Previous reports of nutrition knowledge need to be interpreted with caution. A new, universal, up-to-date, validated measure of general and sports nutrition knowledge is required to allow for assessment of nutrition knowledge.

  18. A Systematic Review of Athletes’ and Coaches’ Nutrition Knowledge and Reflections on the Quality of Current Nutrition Knowledge Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina L. Trakman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nutrition knowledge can influence dietary choices and impact on athletic performance. Valid and reliable measures are needed to assess the nutrition knowledge of athletes and coaches. Objectives: (1 To systematically review the published literature on nutrition knowledge of adult athletes and coaches and (2 to assess the quality of measures used to assess nutrition knowledge. Data Sources: MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscuss, Web of Science, and SCOPUS. Study Selection: 36 studies that provided a quantitative measure of nutrition knowledge and described the measurement tool that was used were included. Data extraction: Participant description, questionnaire description, results (mean correct and responses to individual items, study quality, and questionnaire quality. Data synthesis: All studies were of neutral quality. Tools used to measure knowledge did not consider health literacy, were outdated with regards to consensus recommendations, and lacked appropriate and adequate validation. The current status of nutrition knowledge in athletes and coaches is difficult to ascertain. Gaps in knowledge also remain unclear, but it is likely that energy density, the need for supplementation, and the role of protein are frequently misunderstood. Conclusions: Previous reports of nutrition knowledge need to be interpreted with caution. A new, universal, up-to-date, validated measure of general and sports nutrition knowledge is required to allow for assessment of nutrition knowledge.

  19. Awareness, knowledge, healthy lifestyle behaviors, and their correlates to coronary heart disease among working women in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Hadassah Joann; Wu, Vivien Xi; He, Hong-Gu; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Wenru

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate awareness, knowledge, healthy lifestyle behaviors, and their correlates to coronary heart disease (CHD) among working women in Singapore. CHD is the leading cause of death for women globally, yet women are unaware of this or the associated risk factors that make them vulnerable to CHD. A cross-sectional descriptive study with a quota sample of 200 working women was conducted in Singapore. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires, including the Heart Disease Fact Questionnaire-2, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and a section on Awareness of CHD. Participants demonstrated suboptimal awareness of CHD being the leading cause of death among women and the risk factors associated with morbidity. Healthy lifestyle behaviors were found to be affected by age, ethnicity, marital status, income status, presence of chronic diseases, and working groups. Health care providers should systematically evaluate women at risk for CHD and provide both gender-sensitive and age-specific education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  1. First Contact to Odors: Our Current Knowledge about Odorant Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheil Moon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical senses – especially smell – are known to be important for the fundamental life events such as sensing predators, selecting mates, as well as finding food. The chemical senses are decoded in the olfactory system which is able to detect and differentiate thousands of odorous substances comprised of chemically divergent structures (i.e. odorants. The high selectivity of the olfactory system is heavily dependent on the receptors for each odorants (i.e. odorant receptors. Thus, studying odorant receptors may not only facilitate our understanding the initial events of olfaction but provide crucial knowledge for developing a novel, odorant receptor-based biosensor for chemical screening. Here we provide a review of recent advances in our understanding of odorant receptors.

  2. Racial/ethnic differences in electronic cigarette knowledge, social norms, and risk perceptions among current and former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Kolar, Stephanie K

    2017-04-01

    Psychosocial factors that may affect electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) initiation or maintenance among racial/ethnic minorities are not well-understood. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in e-cigarette knowledge, risk perceptions, and social norms among current and former smokers. Individuals with a tobacco smoking history and an awareness of e-cigarettes (N=285) were recruited from the community from June to August 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, smoking status, and e-cigarette knowledge, risk perceptions, and normative beliefs. Analyses of covariance and multinomial logistic regression tested associations by race/ethnicity. Controlling for sociodemographics and smoking status, White participants scored significantly higher on e-cigarette knowledge, compared to both Hispanics and African Americans/Blacks. Knowledge was lower among African Americans/Blacks compared to Hispanics. Compared to both Whites and Hispanics, African American/Black participants held lower perceptions regarding e-cigarette health risks and were less likely to view e-cigarettes as addictive. Normative beliefs did not differ by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, e-cigarette knowledge, health risk perceptions, and perceived addictiveness differed by race/ethnicity. The variation in e-cigarette knowledge and beliefs among smokers and former smokers has implications for use, and potentially, dual use. Understanding these relationships in unrepresented populations can inform future research and practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Women's awareness of the importance of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption during pregnancy: knowledge of risks, benefits and information accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikovic, Danka S; Yeatman, Heather R; Cameron, Deborah; Meyer, Barbara J

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate pregnant women's knowledge regarding the importance of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) consumption during pregnancy and assess their views on current information availability. A 27-item demographic and food safety/behaviour questionnaire was administered to pregnant women during their antenatal clinic visits. chi2 tests were performed using SPSS. Antenatal clinics at two regional hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. One hundred and ninety (n 190) pregnant women. Three quarters of the women had not received information regarding LC n-3 PUFA. Approximately half of the women were aware of issues relating to LC n-3 PUFA; however, their knowledge was limited, with most obtaining their knowledge from books and magazines. Women generally had low (30 %, 29 %) to moderate (28 %, 24 %) levels of concern about LC n-3 PUFA and mercury, respectively. Pregnant women lack knowledge of LC n-3 PUFA and health-care services do not provide pregnant women with adequate information on the importance of eating foods high in LC n-3 PUFA during pregnancy.

  4. Arrhythmogenic KCNE gene variants: current knowledge and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn M Crump

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are twenty-five known inherited cardiac arrhythmia susceptibility genes, all of which encode either ion channel pore-forming subunits or proteins that regulate aspects of ion channel biology such as function, trafficking and localization. The human KCNE gene family comprises five potassium channel regulatory subunits, sequence variants in each of which are associated with cardiac arrhythmias. KCNE gene products exhibit promiscuous partnering and in some cases ubiquitous expression, hampering efforts to unequivocally correlate each gene to specific native potassium currents. Likewise, deducing the molecular etiology of cardiac arrhythmias in individuals harboring rare KCNE gene variants, or more common KCNE polymorphisms, can be challenging. In this review we provide an update on putative arrhythmia-causing KCNE gene variants, and discuss current thinking and future challenges in the study of molecular mechanisms of KCNE-associated cardiac rhythm disturbances.

  5. Awareness-Knowledge and Practices of Dental Waste Management among Private Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishek, K N; Supreetha, S; Varma Penumatsa, N; Sam, G; Khanapure, S C; Sivarajan, S

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental wastes are materials that have been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longer wanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harm to the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist. Objective The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practices regarding Dental waste management among private practitioners. Method The study population included 186 private practitioners in three districts of Karnataka (Coorg, Mysore, Hassan), south India. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was distributed to assess the knowledge and practices regarding dental waste management. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the results. The data will be statistically analyzed using chi-square test, correlation. Result Out of 186 study subjects, 71(38%) were females and 115(62%) were males, Chisquare analysis showed highly significant association between qualification of the study participants and their knowledge, practice of dental waste management. A statistically significant (0.0001) correlation was found between the knowledge and practice scores. Conclusion There was a lacunae of knowledge regarding proper biomedical waste disposal among the participants. In order to fill this vacuum CDE (Continuing Dental Education) programs have to be conducted in pursuance to maintain health of the community.

  6. Student knowledge and awareness of oral cancer (study at Senior High School 2 Baubau, Southeast of Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mardhiana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a malignancy  which came from oral mucosal epithelial and other oral’s part including from saliva glands (majority the minor one inside the mouth. Oral cancer has a quick spread. A half of oral cancer diagnosed at a late stage with a high level of death. Only half of this malignancy sufferer survive more than five years. However, the survival prognosis will increase 80-90% if the cancer could diagnose in early stage. The objective of this study is to measure qualitatively oral cancer knowledge and awareness among the students at SMAN 2 Baubau. This study is descriptive study by cross-section approach. Oral cancer knowledge and awareness among the students in SMAN 2 Baubau is in a low stage.  Students hardly hear the information about the signs of oral cancer and have no idea what must they do if they find someone presented with one of the oral cancer signs. The reason behind unknown action lack of information and socialization about oral cancer.

  7. Vaccination status, knowledge and awareness towards hepatitis B among students of health professions in Vientiane, Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathoumthong, Kolakoth; Khampanisong, Phonepaseuth; Quet, Fabrice; Latthaphasavang, Vatthanaphone; Souvong, Vimalay; Buisson, Yves

    2014-09-03

    Health care workers (HCW) are a population at high risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, especially in endemic countries such as Lao PDR. Effective vaccines are available since over 10 years, but many HCWs are not aware of the risk of infection and are still not immunized against hepatitis B. This study aimed to assess immunization coverage against hepatitis B among the students of the University of Health Sciences (UHS) of Lao PDR in 2013 and to look for the causes of non-vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by self-administered questionnaire on a representative stratified sample of each academic year in each faculty. In total, 961 questionnaires were collected, Basic Sciences: 143, Medicine: 167, Pharmacy: 148, Dentistry: 139, Nursing Sciences: 159, Medical Technology: 99, and Postgraduate Studies: 106. Respondents were predominantly female (59.1%), mean age 25.1±7.0 years, single (76.3%), from the provinces (68.0%), of the Lao Loum ethnic group (84.4%). Among them, 21% were fully vaccinated against hepatitis B and 9.5% partially. Immunization coverage rates were significantly higher among women (p=0.01), students aged over 25 years, married or belonging to the post-graduate faculty (phepatitis B, scored from 0 to 5, was poor (0-1) for 86.5% of the students, but 77.5% were aware of the hepatitis B vaccine. The knowledge scores were significantly higher for students aged over 25 years, married or post-graduated (phepatitis B is dramatically low among students of health professions in Laos, largely because of their lack of knowledge and awareness. Upon admission to the University, all future HCWs should receive information about the occupational risks of blood-borne viruses transmission and be encouraged to get vaccinated against hepatitis B. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacotherapy for Neonatal Seizures: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Maria D; Griffin, Brendan T; Kharoshankaya, Liudmila; Cryan, John F; Boylan, Geraldine B

    2016-04-01

    Seizures are the most common neurological emergencies in the neonatal period and are associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Seizures affect up to five per 1000 term births and population-based studies suggest that they occur even more frequently in premature infants. Seizures are a sign of an underlying cerebral pathology, the most common of which is hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in term infants. Due to a growing body of evidence that seizures exacerbate cerebral injury, effective diagnosis and treatment of neonatal seizures is of paramount importance to reduce long-term adverse outcomes. Electroencephalography is essential for the diagnosis of seizures in neonates due to their subtle clinical expression, non-specific neurological presentation and a high frequency of electro-clinical uncoupling in the neonatal period. Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy may require neuroprotective therapeutic hypothermia, accompanying sedation with opioids, anticonvulsant drugs or a combination of all of these. The efficacy, safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of seven anticonvulsant drugs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, levetiracetam, lidocaine, midazolam, topiramate and bumetanide) are reviewed. This review is focused only on studies reporting electrographically confirmed seizures and highlights the knowledge gaps that exist in optimal treatment regimens for neonatal seizures. Randomised controlled trials are needed to establish a safe and effective treatment protocol for neonatal seizures.

  9. Current knowledge on biodegradable microspheres in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Kapadia, Jinita R

    2015-08-01

    Biodegradable microspheres have gained popularity for delivering a wide variety of molecules via various routes. These types of products have been prepared using various natural and synthetic biodegradable polymers through suitable techniques for desired delivery of various challenging molecules. Selection of biodegradable polymers and technique play a key role in desired drug delivery. This review describes an overview of the fundamental knowledge and status of biodegradable microspheres in effective delivery of various molecules via desired routes with consideration of outlines of various compendial and non-compendial biodegradable polymers, formulation techniques and release mechanism of microspheres, patents and commercial biodegradable microspheres. There are various advantages of using biodegradable polymers including promise of development with different types of molecules. Biocompatibility, low dosage and reduced side effects are some reasons why usage biodegradable microspheres have gained in popularity. Selection of biodegradable polymers and formulation techniques to create microspheres is the biggest challenge in research. In the near future, biodegradable microspheres will become the eco-friendly product for drug delivery of various genes, hormones, proteins and peptides at specific site of body for desired periods of time.

  10. Vitamin K metabolism: current knowledge and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, David J; Gorska, Renata; Cutler, Jacky; Harrington, Dominic J

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin K is an essential fat-soluble micronutrient that is required for the post-translational γ-carboxylation of specific glutamic acid residues in hepatic and extra-hepatic proteins involved in blood coagulation and preventing cartilage and vasculature calcification. In humans, sources of vitamin K are derived from plants as phylloquinone and bacteria as the menaquinones. Menadione is a synthetic product used as a pharmaceutical but also represents an intermediate in the tissue-specific conversion of vitamin K to menaquinone-4, which preferentially resides in tissues such as brain. Research into vitamin K metabolism is essential for the understanding of vitamin K biology in health and disease. Progress in this area, driven by knowledge of vitamin K and the availability of markers of vitamin K status, has already proved beneficial in many areas of medicine and further opportunities present themselves. Areas of interest discussed in this review include prophylactic administration of vitamin K1 in term and preterm neonates, interactions between vitamins K and E, the industrial conversion of vitamin K to dihydro-vitamin K in foods, tissue-specific conversion of vitamin K to menaquinone-4, the biological activity of the five and seven carbon metabolites of vitamin K and circadian variations. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Consumer health plan choice: current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, D P; Chernew, M; Lave, J R

    1997-01-01

    A keystone of the competitive strategy in health insurance markets is the assumption that "consumers" can make informed choices based on the costs and quality of competing health plans, and that selection effects are not large. However, little is known about how individuals use information other than price in the decision making process. This review summarizes the state of knowledge about how individuals make choices among health plans and outlines an agenda for future research. We find that the existing literature on health plan choice is no longer sufficient given the widespread growth and acceptance of managed care, and the increased proportion of consumers' income now going toward the purchase of health plans. Instead, today's environment of health plan choice requires better understanding of how plan attributes other than price influence plan choice, how other variables such as health status interact with plan attributes in the decision making process, and how specific populations differ from one another in terms of the sensitivity of their health plan choices to these different types of variables.

  12. Current knowledge of the aetiology of human tubal ectopic pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J.L.V.; Dey, S.K.; Critchley, H.O.D.; Horne, A.W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy which occurs outside of the uterine cavity, and over 98% implant in the Fallopian tube. Tubal ectopic pregnancy remains the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester of pregnancy. The epidemiological risk factors for tubal ectopic pregnancy are well established and include: tubal damage as a result of surgery or infection (particularly Chlamydia trachomatis), smoking and in vitro fertilization. This review appraises the data to date researching the aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. METHODS Scientific literature was searched for studies investigating the underlying aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. RESULTS Existing data addressing the underlying cause of tubal ectopic pregnancy are mostly descriptive. There are currently few good animal models of tubal ectopic pregnancy. There are limited data explaining the link between risk factors and tubal implantation. CONCLUSIONS Current evidence supports the hypothesis that tubal ectopic pregnancy is caused by a combination of retention of the embryo within the Fallopian tube due to impaired embryo-tubal transport and alterations in the tubal environment allowing early implantation to occur. Future studies are needed that address the functional consequences of infection and smoking on Fallopian tube physiology. A greater understanding of the aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy is critical for the development of improved preventative measures, the advancement of diagnostic screening methods and the development of novel treatments. PMID:20071358

  13. Current state of knowledge about nutritional care of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barretto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy involves a significant anabolic activity that leads to increased nutritional needs relative to the preconception period. This paper aims to review the current understanding of the energy needs of macro and micronutrients during pregnancy as well as guidelines to address common gastrointestinal disorders during pregnancy, the issue of pica and anthropometric assessment to ensure an optimum weight gain. With the exception of iron, most of the nutrients needed by the pregnancy can be provided by a complete and balanced diet. Currently the scientific evidence shows that routine supplementation with iron and folic acid during pregnancy is a practice that prevents iron deficiency anemia, neural tube disorders and preterm births. Intermittent iron supplementation can also be an appropriated intervention. If the diet does not guarantee and adequate support, iodine, vitamin B12 and vitamin D supplements should also be necessaries. The anthropometric assessment by the pattern of weight gain should be present at each prenatal care visit to prevent maternal and fetal complications. In situations where the mother’s weight cannot be assessed, arm muscle circumference is possible to make an overall assessment as it correlates with maternal weight gain alternative. Measurements of biceps, triceps and subscapular skinfolds are another alternative that is useful to evaluate the fatty deposits and their location, in a complementary way to gain weight.

  14. Enhancing Evacuation Plans with a Situation Awareness System Based on End-User Knowledge Provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Morales

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP system, which allows creating end-user business rules that technically support the specific events, conditions and actions related to evacuation plans. An experimental validation was carried out where 32 people faced a simulated emergency situation, 16 of them using SASEP and the other 16 using a legacy system based on static signs. From the results obtained, we compare both techniques and discuss in which situations SASEP offers a better evacuation route option, confirming that it is highly valuable when there is a threat in the evacuation route. In addition, a study about user satisfaction using both systems is presented showing in which cases the systems are assessed as satisfactory, relevant and not frustrating.

  15. Using Knowledge Translation to Craft "Sticky" Social Media Health Messages That Provoke Interest, Raise Awareness, Impart Knowledge, and Inspire Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Sanchia; Gardner, Karen; Sibthorpe, Beverly

    2016-10-05

    In Australia, there is growing use of technology supported knowledge translation (KT) strategies such as social media and mobile apps in health promotion and in Indigenous health. However, little is known about how individuals use technologies and the evidence base for the impact of these health interventions on health behavior change is meager. The objective of our study was to examine how Facebook is used to promote health messages to Indigenous people and discuss how KT can support planning and implementing health messages to ensure chosen strategies are fit for the purpose and achieve impact. A desktop audit of health promotion campaigns on smoking prevention and cessation for Australian Indigenous people using Facebook was conducted. Our audit identified 13 out of 21 eligible campaigns that used Facebook. Facebook pages with the highest number of likes (more than 5000) were linked to a website and to other social media applications and demonstrated stickiness characteristics by posting frequently (triggers and unexpected), recruiting sporting or public personalities to promote campaigns (social currency and public), recruiting Indigenous people from the local region (stories and emotion), and sharing stories and experiences based on real-life events (credible and practical value). KT planning may support campaigns to identify and select KT strategies that are best suited and well-aligned to the campaign's goals, messages, and target audiences. KT planning can also help mitigate unforeseen and expected risks, reduce unwarranted costs and expenses, achieve goals, and limit the peer pressure of using strategies that may not be fit for purpose. One of the main challenges in using KT systems and processes involves coming to an adequate conceptualization of the KT process itself.

  16. Lead me gently: Facilitating knowledge gain through attention-aware ambient learning displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This empirical study reports an intervention to investigate identified research challenges on the evaluation and use of ambient displays in a learning context with the objective to gain insights into the interplay between display design, user attention, and knowledge acquisition. The main research

  17. Understanding Parents' and Professionals' Knowledge and Awareness of Autism in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heys, Michelle; Alexander, Amy; Medeiros, Emilie; Tumbahangphe, Kirti M.; Gibbons, Felicity; Shrestha, Rita; Manandhar, Mangala; Wickenden, Mary; Shrestha, Merina; Costello, Anthony; Manandhar, Dharma; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Autism is a global phenomenon. Yet, there is a dearth of knowledge of how it is understood and its impact in low-income countries. We examined parents' and professionals' understanding of autism in one low-income country, Nepal. We conducted focus groups and semi-structured interviews with parents of autistic and non-autistic children and…

  18. Awareness and Knowledge of Cardiovascular Risk through Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Testing in College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, J. A.; Panza, G.; Zaleski, A.; Taylor, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, yet knowledge of CVD risk factors is surprisingly low in college students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an individualized blood pressure, cholesterol, and CVD education intervention on college freshmen. Methods:…

  19. Awareness Knowledge Attitude Skills of Telemedicine among Health Professional Faculty Working in Teaching Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayapragassarazan, Zayabalaradjane; Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Telemedicine is an emerging technology in health sector in India. The success of any new technology depends on many factors including the knowledge and understanding of the concept, skills acquired, attitude towards technology and working environment by the concerned professionals. Aim: The main objective of this study was to assess…

  20. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung

    2017-06-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  1. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents’ use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying—cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:28562094

  2. Comparative effectiveness of a serious game and an e-module to support patient safety knowledge and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankbaar, Mary E W; Richters, Olivier; Kalkman, Cor J; Prins, Gerrie; Ten Cate, Olle T J; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J G; Schuit, Stephanie C E

    2017-02-02

    Serious games have the potential to teach complex cognitive skills in an engaging way, at relatively low costs. Their flexibility in use and scalability makes them an attractive learning tool, but more research is needed on the effectiveness of serious games compared to more traditional formats such e-modules. We investigated whether undergraduate medical students developed better knowledge and awareness and were more motivated after learning about patient-safety through a serious game than peers who studied the same topics using an e-module. Fourth-year medical students were randomly assigned to either a serious game that included video-lectures, biofeedback exercises and patient missions (n = 32) or an e-module, that included text-based lectures on the same topics (n = 34). A third group acted as a historical control-group without extra education (n = 37). After the intervention, which took place during the clinical introduction course, before the start of the first rotation, all students completed a knowledge test, a self-efficacy test and a motivation questionnaire. During the following 10-week clinical rotation they filled out weekly questionnaires on patient-safety awareness and stress. The results showed patient safety knowledge had equally improved in the game group and e-module group compared to controls, who received no extra education. Average learning-time was 3 h for the game and 1 h for the e-module-group. The serious game was evaluated as more engaging; the e-module as more easy to use. During rotations, students in the three groups reported low and similar levels of patient-safety awareness and stress. Students who had treated patients successfully during game missions experienced higher self-efficacy and less stress during their rotation than students who treated patients unsuccessfully. Video-lectures (in a game) and text-based lectures (in an e-module) can be equally effective in developing knowledge on specific topics. Although

  3. Awareness and knowledge regarding of cervical cancer, Pap smear screening and human papillomavirus infection in Gabonese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assoumou, Samira Zoa; Mabika, Barthelemy Mabika; Mbiguino, Angelique Ndjoyi; Mouallif, Mustapha; Khattabi, Abdelkim; Ennaji, My Mustapha

    2015-04-19

    Cervical cancer is the commonest cancer and the leading cause of cancer mortality in women in Gabon. The age-standardized incidence of cervical cancer is 19.9 per 100 000 women and the mortality rate is 8.4 per 100 000. Various international studies have identified the lack of awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer as barriers to use preventive methods. This article assesses the awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear testing and its use and HPV among women living in Libreville, Gabon. This study was conducted in October 2014 in Libreville. A total of 452 women aged 16 years and above were recruited from different town locations. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the effect of demographic characteristics on the level of knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear testing and HPV. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were used to identify the strength of association. Associations were considered statistically significant at p Pap smear test. Of these 126 women, only 65.1% (82/126) had done cervical cancer screening and 68.3% (56/82) on the suggestion of a doctor. The most common reason for not undergoing Pap smear testing was neglect (50%, 22/44) followed by lack of financial resources (13.6%, 6/44), fear of discovering a serious disease (13.6%, 6/44) and deeming it unimportant (13.6%, 6/44). Only 8% (40/452) of the participants had heard about HPV and their knowledge of HPV was fair. There is a very poor level of knowledge about cervical cancer among Gabonese women. This study demonstrates a very low level of knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear testing and HPV in a sample of Gabonese women. There is a critical need for Gabonese women to be informed about cervical cancer and the Pap smear test to improve the use of this preventive method. The implication of health staff and Gabonese media should be included as a centerpiece in the effort to inform the population in order to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in

  4. 46 CFR 11.713 - Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters... § 11.713 Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated. (a) If a first class pilot has not served over a particular route within the past 60 months, that person's license or MMC...

  5. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood - current knowledge and open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Mariacarolina; Capalbo, Donatella; Cerbone, Manuela; De Luca, Filippo

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as serum levels of TSH above the upper limit of the reference range, in the presence of normal concentrations of total T4 or free T4. This biochemical profile might be an indication of mild hypothyroidism, with a potential increased risk of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease recorded among adults. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism results in adverse health outcomes among children is a matter of debate and so management of this condition remains challenging. Mild forms of untreated subclinical hypothyroidism do not seem to be associated with impairments in growth, bone health or neurocognitive outcome. However, ongoing scientific investigations have highlighted the presence of subtle proatherogenic abnormalities among children with modest elevations in their TSH levels. Although current findings are insufficient to recommend levothyroxine treatment for all children with mild asymptomatic forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, they highlight the potential need for assessment of cardiovascular risk among children with this condition. Increased understanding of the early metabolic risk factors associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood will help to improve the management of affected individuals.

  6. Pain in Neurodegenerative Disease: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases are going to increase as the life expectancy is getting longer. The management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and other dementias, Parkinson’s disease (PD and PD related disorders, motor neuron diseases (MND, Huntington’s disease (HD, spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA, and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, is mainly addressed to motor and cognitive impairment, with special care to vital functions as breathing and feeding. Many of these patients complain of painful symptoms though their origin is variable, and their presence is frequently not considered in the treatment guidelines, leaving their management to the decision of the clinicians alone. However, studies focusing on pain frequency in such disorders suggest a high prevalence of pain in selected populations from 38 to 75% in AD, 40% to 86% in PD, and 19 to 85% in MND. The methods of pain assessment vary between studies so the type of pain has been rarely reported. However, a prevalent nonneuropathic origin of pain emerged for MND and PD. In AD, no data on pain features are available. No controlled therapeutic trials and guidelines are currently available. Given the relevance of pain in neurodegenerative disorders, the comprehensive understanding of mechanisms and predisposing factors, the application and validation of specific scales, and new specific therapeutic trials are needed.

  7. Web-based recruiting for a survey on knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer prevention among young women living in Kanagawa prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Etsuko; Motoki, Yoko; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Taguri, Masataka; Morita, Satoshi; Hirahara, Fumiki; Wark, John D; Garland, Suzanne M

    2014-09-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) incidence and mortality among young women have been increasing in Japan. To develop effective measures to combat this, we assessed the feasibility of using a social networking site (SNS) to recruit a representative sample of young women to conduct a knowledge and attitude study about CC prevention via an internet-based questionnaire. From July 2012 to March 2013, advertising banners targeting women aged 16 to 35 years in Kanagawa Prefecture were placed on Facebook in a similar manner as an Australian (AUS) study conducted in 16- to 25-year-olds in 2010 and on a homepage to advertise our CC advocacy activities. Eligible participants were emailed instructions for accessing our secure Web site where they completed an online survey including demographics, awareness, and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and CC. Data for the study population were compared with the general Japanese population and the AUS study. Among 394 women who expressed interest, 243 (62%) completed the survey, with 52% completing it via Facebook. Women aged 26 to 35 years, living in Yokohama City, with an education beyond high school, were overrepresented. Participants had high awareness and knowledge of HPV and CC, comparable with the AUS study participants. However, the self-reported HPV vaccination rate (22% among participants aged 16-25 years) and the recognition rate of the link between smoking and CC (31%) were significantly lower than in the AUS study (58% and 43%, respectively) (P women into health surveys, which can effectively be performed online. A nationwide survey using SNSs would be an appropriate next step to better understand the current lack of uptake of the national HPV vaccine program by young women in Japan.

  8. Awareness, Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Cervical Cancer Amongst HIV-Positive Women Receiving Care in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibe, Maxwell O; Aluh, Deborah O

    2017-05-05

    The incidence of cervical cancer (CC) in the sub-Saharan Africa region, where Nigeria is located, is amongst the highest in the world; it is estimated that 70,722 new cases of invasive cervical cancer occur annually in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunosuppression, especially due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is a predisposing factor for persistent infection with high-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) and the development of squamous intraepithelial lesions. Four hundred and fifty women who attended the HIV clinic at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly selected. They were given self-administered questionnaires which sought to determine their awareness and knowledge of cervical cancer and attitudes towards cervical cancer screening and prevention. The media 23% (n = 103) was the most common source of information amongst respondents who had heard about cervical cancer. For all the women surveyed, the average percentage knowledge was 9.95%. Having attitude scores greater than or equal to the mean attitude score of 55.16% was regarded as having a positive attitude while a score lower than that was regarded as negative attitude. About 43.5% (n = 195) respondents had a positive attitude towards cervical cancer screening and prevention. Cervical cancer awareness and knowledge amongst women attending the HIV clinic in the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, were very poor. Their attitude towards cervical cancer screening practices and prevention was also very poor.

  9. Cancer prevention awareness among young adult Polish females on the basis of the assessment of knowledge and health behaviours

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    Grażyna R. Wiraszka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The accelerating rate of incidence of malignant cancers in Polish women as compared to men and the higher mortality due to these diseases as compared to other regions in Europe is an important medical and social problem. Aim of the research : To attempt an assessment of cancer prevention awareness among young adult Polish females on the basis of the analysis of their knowledge as well as of the prevalence of negative health behaviours. Material and methods : The study was conducted in 270 young Polish females: students of nursing and pedagogy. The study was conducted using a proprietary questionnaire, the Inventory of Health Behaviour, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, and Nina Schenider’s Motivation for Quitting Smoking Test. Results : The highest percentages of negative behaviours included low intake of fruit and vegetables (76.3%, whole-grain products (78.9%, and fish (93.3%, as well as tanning (56.7% and smoking (37% and health check behaviours (breast self-exams 60.7%, cervical cytological screening 36%. Conclusions: Despite the relatively high level of knowledge, cancer risk-related lifestyles and behaviours unfavourable for the possibility of early diagnosis were observed among the subjects. The less favourable model of cognitive and behavioural competence in health and cancer prevention was observed at bachelor-level students of pedagogy at the ages below 24 years. Development of skills and motivation for pro-health behaviours and the awareness of behaviour models presented by educators are, along with appropriate knowledge, the most desirable strategies for the success of health education in the area of cancer prevention.

  10. Reforming perspectives: MSN graduates' knowledge, attitudes and awareness of self-transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulk, Debbie R; Parker, Francine M; Morris, Arlene H

    2010-01-01

    Socialization includes internalization of attitudes and values critical to the development of a professional identity. Resocialization relates to the returning registered nurse student's development of professional values and roles. Nurse educators' challenge is to consider socialization/resocialization as a formation/re-formation process. The purpose of this article is to report findings from a replication qualitative descriptive study that examined the process of change in knowledge and attitudes of recent MSN graduates using Mezirow's (1994)Transformative Learning Theory. Findings substantiated the changes in attitudes, knowledge and skills of MSN graduates identified by Cragg and Andrusyszyn (2005). Results further inform nurse educators of the process of transformation in MSN graduates according to Mezirow's Phases of Perspective Transformation.

  11. Building awareness of their origins from the knowledge of the territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Brindisi (main town in the Salento peninsula, Puglia, Italy) is an important natural harbor known for centuries as the "Valigia delle Indie". The whole coast that develops in NW and SE deserves great attention to structural characteristics, values, physical-environmental relationships, nature, history, settlement and landscape. An increased sense of citizenship in young people of 11-13 years of age range is built starting from the knowledge of the territory understood as a set of experiences and climbing habits from individual perception to the collective. The 3 years of junior high school is proposed to the students with a general overview of the landscape of the province: the study of the coastal environment as a result of geological processes and ecosystem relationships is a key part of the curriculum. This specific comprehensive teaching programs in the 2nd and 3rd year include the study of ecosystems and a general overview of the geology of the planet Earth. The extracurricular part of the program consists of projects aimed at the knowledge of the area by hiking the sites and use of various technologies, both physical-chemical (environmental analysis) and computer (for the geographical classification). In particular in the coming months they will be examining the lagoon environment analysis of the biotope Torre Guaceto, a wetland safeguarded according to the Ramsar Convention 1972. For the computer part every year a literacy course is organized which includes the knowledge of the use of GIS and image processing. During these winter months also some classes will prepare for participating in a race at the national level based on knowledge of ecosystems.

  12. Occult HCV Infection: The Current State of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Hadi, Reza; Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Hossein Khosravi, Mohammad; Ajudani, Reza; Dolatimehr, Fardin; Ramezani-Binabaj, Mahdi; Miri, Seyyed Mohammad; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2015-01-01

    Context Occult HCV infection (OCI) is defined as the presence of HCV-RNA in hepatocytes and the absence of HCV in the serum according to usual tests. We aimed to define OCI and provide information about the currently available diagnostic methods. Then we focus on specific groups that are at high risk of OCI and finally investigate immune responses to OCI and the available treatment approaches. Evidence Acquisition PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were comprehensively searched with combination of following keywords: “occult”, “hepatitis C virus” and “occult HCV infection”. The definition of OCI, diagnostic methods, specific groups that are at high risk and available treatment approaches were extract from literature. An analysis of available articles on OCI also was done based on Scopus search results. Results OCI has been reported in several high-risk groups, especially in hemodialysis patients and subjects with cryptogenic liver disease. Furthermore, some studies have proposed a specific immune response for OCI in comparison with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Conclusions With a clinical history of approximately 11 years, occult HCV infection can be considered an occult type of CHC. Evidences suggest that considering OCI in these high-risk groups seems to be necessary. We suggest that alternative diagnostic tests should be applied and that there is a need for the participation of all countries to determine the epidemiology of this type of HCV infection. Additionally, evaluating OCI in blood transfusion centers and in patients who receive large amounts of blood and clotting factors, such as patients with hemophilia, should be performed in future projects. PMID:26734487

  13. Oxytocin and Socioemotional Aging─Current Knowledge and Future Trends

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    Natalie C. Ebner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The oxytocin (OT system is involved in various aspects of social cognition and prosocial behavior. Specifically, OT has been examined in the context of social memory, emotion recognition, cooperation, trust, empathy, and bonding, and─though evidence is somewhat mixed─intranasal OT appears to benefit aspects of socioemotional functioning. However, most of the extant data on aging and OT is from animal research and human OT research has focused largely on young adults. As such, though we know that various socioemotional capacities change with age, we know little about whether age-related changes in the OT system may underlie age-related differences in socioemotional functioning. In this review, we take a genetic-neuro-behavioral approach and evaluate current evidence on age-related changes in the OT system as well as the putative effects of these alterations on age-related socioemotional functioning. Looking forward, we identify informational gaps and propose an Age-Related Genetic, Neurobiological, Sociobehavioral Model of Oxytocin (AGeNeS-OT model which may structure and inform investigations into aging-related genetic, neural, and sociocognitive processes related to OT. As an exemplar of the use of the model, we report exploratory data suggesting differences in socioemotional processing associated with genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR in samples of young and older adults. Information gained from this arena has translational potential in depression, social stress, and anxiety─all of which have high relevance in aging─and may contribute to reducing social isolation and improving well-being of individuals across the lifespan.

  14. Vitamin D in the light of current knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D, i.e. 1,25(OH 2D, is an essential factor, not only of homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus, but also of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, immune and hormonal regulation, as well as other body processes. Thus, its optimal presence in the body is of exceptional significance for health, both of children, as well as adults and elderly persons. Today, it is known that the lack of vitamin D, besides having negative effects on the skeleton and teeth, also contributes to the development of various malignancies, primarily of the large bowel, prostate and breasts, as well as of autoimmune and allergic diseases, diabetes mellitus type II, arterial hypertension and others. Considered from the biological aspect, physiological requirements in vitamin D are achieved by cutaneous synthesis from 7-dehydrocholesterol during sun exposure, while, except rarely, it is very scarce in food. Having in mind extensive evidence that sun exposure presents a high risk for the development of skin malignancies, primarily melanoma, it is clear that humans are deprived of the natural and basic source of vitamin D. In accordance, as well as based on numerous epidemiological studies showing the increase of diseases, in the basis of which vitamin D deficiency plays the important role, next led to the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin D, regardless of age. According to current attitudes, it is recommended that the daily dietary allowances of vitamin D. i.e. the quantity of oral intake that would safely cover the optimal body requirements should be 400 IU for ages 0-18 years, 600 IU for ages 19-70 years and 800 IU for persons aged over 70 years.

  15. Vitamin D in the light of current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radlović, Nedeljko; Mladenović, Marija; Simić, Dusica; Radlović, Petar

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D, i.e., 1.25(OH)2D, is an essential factor, not only of homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus, but also of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, immune and hormonal regulation, as well as other body processes.Thus, its optimal presence in the body is of exceptional significance for health, both of children, as well as adults and elderly persons. Today, it is known that the lack of vitamin D, besides having negative effects on the skeleton and teeth, also contributes to the development of various malignancies, primarily of the large bowel, prostate and breasts, as well as of autoimmune and allergic diseases, diabetes mellitus type II, arterial hypertension and others. Considered from the biological aspect, physiological requirements in vitamin D are achieved by cutaneous synthesis from 7-dehydrocholesterol during sun exposure, while, except rarely, it is very scarce in food. Having in mind extensive evidence that sun exposure presents a high risk for the development of skin malignancies, primarily melanoma, it is clear that humans are deprived of the natural and basic source of vitamin D. In accordance, as well as based on numerous epidemiological studies showing the increase of diseases, in the basis of which vitamin D deficiency plays the important role, next led to the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin D, regardless of age. According to current attitudes, it is recommended that the daily dietary allowances of vitamin D, i.e., the quantity of oral intake that would safely cover the optimal body requirements should be 400 IU for ages 0-18 years, 600 IU for ages 19-70 years and 800 IU for persons aged over 70 years.

  16. Impact of a Mental Illness Stigma Awareness Intervention on Pharmacy Student Attitudes and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbade, Benita A; Ford, Kentya H; Barner, Jamie C

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To determine if exposure to an intervention course impacts pharmacy students' mental health stigma (MHS) and mental health knowledge (MHK). Methods. A one-group pre/posttest intervention study of third-year pharmacy students (N=120) was conducted. Dependent variables were subdomains of MHS (recovery, safety, disclosure, separation, comfort) which were measured on a 5-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree; 5=strongly agree). Mental health knowledge was measured with 10 true/false questions. The 2.5-hour intervention included presentations, videos, discussions, and active-learning exercises. Pre/posttests were administered, and data were analyzed using paired t tests and McNemar's tests. Results. Among responding students (n=88; 73.3% response rate), the following stigma subdomains significantly decreased after the intervention for depression and schizophrenia: recovery, safety, separation, and comfort. Mental health knowledge scores significantly increased from 5.9 (1.5) to 6.8 (1.5). Conclusion. Pharmacy students' MHS and MHK related to depression and schizophrenia can be improved through a brief and interactive anti-stigma intervention.

  17. Potential and Impact Factors of the Knowledge and Information Awareness Approach for Fostering Net-Based Collaborative Problem-Solving: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    For effective communication and collaboration in learning situations, it is important to know what the collaboration partners know. However, the acquisition of this knowledge is difficult, especially in collaborating groups with spatially distributed members. One solution is the "Knowledge and Information Awareness" approach developed by…

  18. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Pap Smear as a Screening Test for Cervical Cancer among Saudi Population in Riyadh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khudairi, Hassan; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Alomar, Osama; Salem, Hany

    2017-01-17

    To explore the public awareness, knowledge, and attitudes of Saudi women towards Pap smear as a screening test for cervical cancer. A descriptive cross-sectional study took place in four major secondary and tertiary healthcare hospitals located in the capital city Riyadh between January 2016 and June 2016. A self-administered, coded, close-ended survey was randomly distributed to 1000 non-single women attending the obstetrics/gynecology outpatient clinics or inpatient wards. Five hundred and seven women participated in the survey (overall response rate: 50.7%). The vast majority of respondents aged between 20-40 years (88%) and were married (94.1%), Saudi citizens (96.5%), university educated (45.6%) and housewives (64.5%). A total of 234 women (46.2%) did not hear whatsoever about Pap smear previously. Only 273 women (53.9%) heard about it, mostly during their hospital visits for obstetric/gynecologic purposes (57.1%). A sum of 381 women (75.2%) did not do a single Pap smear previously. A sum of 383 women (75.5%) reported that their physicians never advised them to do Pap smear. Regarding knowledge of Pap smear, 415 women (82%) did not know when to start doing Pap smear, 471 women (92.9%) did not know how frequently they should do Pap smear and 476 women (93.9%) did not know when to stop doing Pap smear. Moreover, 456 women (89.9%) did not know the difference between Pap smear and high vaginal swap. A total of 429 women (84.6%) never requested their physician to do Pap smear. Almost all women (95.3%) expressed an interest in knowing more information about the Pap smear screening test. The awareness and knowledge of Pap smear as a screening test for cervical cancer among Saudi population living in Riyadh is unsatisfactory. There is an urgent necessity to educate and foster awareness concerning cervical cancer and its screening through Pap smear.

  19. Inquiries about awareness and knowledge of children and pupils on the concept related with atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atobe, Kozo; Kobayashi, T.; Matukawa, Tokuo; Honda, Makoto; Awata, Takaaki; Fukuoka, Noboru [Naruto University of Education, Naruto, Tokushima (Japan); Okada, Moritami [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Nakagawa, Masuo [Faculty of Education, Kagawa University, Takamatsu, Kagawa (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    There is almost no chance to learn about the words (atomic energy), (radioactivity) and (radiation) in the middle and/or high school educations in Japan, because physics is one of the options in the high school curriculum, and 80-90% of students do not like to choose physics. This inquires aim to know the level of their knowledge on energy resources, atomic energy, radioactivity, radiation, and information sources on their related knowledge. Inquiries are made for the middle and high school students in Tokushima and Tsuruga. There are coal power plants in Tokushima, while atomic power plants in Tsuruga. Fossils energy gets the highest points in Tokushima, while Atomic energy gets the highest points in Tsuruga for a present-day energy source. Solar energy sources get the highest point as a promising 21st century energy source in both prefectures, especially for female students. Radioactivity reminds them of words atomic bomb, disease, injury, and harmful, those give very negative images. Radiation reminds them of words roentgen, radiation therapy, x-ray, and hospital use, those designate a sort of plus-image. More than 50 to 60% of them obtained their knowledge from mass media, particularly, television. In addition, less than a few % of them can give any scientific description about these words. As a whole, authors can say that the students have got a certain concept for these words from information of mass media. Meanwhile the school education has approximately no effect on the formation of their concept. Authors are giving some advises and recommendations for the school education and mass media in Japan. (Y. Tanaka)

  20. An investigation into school children's knowledge and awareness of food and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K H; Bishop, J A; Truby, H

    2002-04-01

    With the diet and exercise behaviours of UK school children showing little improvement over recent years, the need for dietary change is clearly indicated. This study aimed to assess the nutritional knowledge and understanding of primary school children in order to identify the most effective format for future nutrition messages. A qualitative methodology was employed and 114 children, aged 7-11 years, took part in 23 focus groups separated by age, gender and socio-economic status (SES). Issues discussed included parental food rules, children's perceptions of 'good' and 'bad' foods, diet-disease links and food groupings. Across the groups restrictive food rules were most frequently reported whilst between groups gender and SES differences were apparent in relation to parental control over food and children's nutritional knowledge. The limitations of the children's cognitive development could be seen in their conceptualization of food groups, where concrete grouping schemes were frequently used, and in the lack of understanding inherent in their food-health or food-nutrient associations. Taste and preference were confirmed as consistent influences in children's food classification. Primary school children may be receptive to food based dietary guidelines based on familiar, concrete food classifications. These should be cognitively appropriate and possibly need to be gender specific.

  1. A survey of pet ownership, awareness and public knowledge of pet zoonoses with particular reference to roundworms and hookworms in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfukenyi, Davies Mubika; Chipunga, S L; Dinginya, L; Matenga, E

    2010-02-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was carried out in Harare to assess pet ownership and public awareness with regard to pet zoonoses. The questionnaire was designed to obtain information on pet ownership, health and welfare of pets, pet owners' knowledge and awareness of pet zoonoses with particular emphasis on hookworms and roundworms. The results demonstrated that the proportion of pet owners who knew helminths as zoonoses in dogs (21.3%) and cats (1.1%) was low compared to rabies (95.7%) with ancylostomosis (4.3%) and toxocariosis (2.1%) being the specific parasitic zoonoses known to occur in dogs and toxoplasmosis (2.1%) in cats. More than 50% of the pet owners indicated that veterinarians never discussed the potential hazards of zoonoses or discussed it only when asked and 33% indicated that veterinarians initiated discussion of the subject whenever zoonoses were diagnosed in pets. Over 90% of the pet owners indicated that veterinarians should discuss zoonoses with them. Further investigations are necessary to determine the current prevalence of intestinal nematode infections in dogs and cats in the various regions of the country.

  2. A survey of the awareness, knowledge and behavior of hair dye use in a korean population with gray hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Jung, Hee Dam; Kang, Hoon

    2012-08-01

    Gray hair naturally develops in the process of human aging. Many people with gray hair periodically dye their hair. Hair dyeing products are widely used and they can cause adverse effects. Therefore, the user's knowledge and recognition about hair dyeing and related side effects are important. The goal of this study was to lay the foundation for understanding, preventing and treating side effects caused by hair coloring products. We conducted a questionnaire survey for adult males and females aged over 20 who had gray hair. A total of 500 subjects were included in this study and statistical analysis was performed. Large numbers of the people who had experience with hair dye (233 out of 319 people, 73.0%) did not know about the exact brand name of the hair dye product that they were using. Of 319 hair dye users, 23.8% (76 out of 319) people stated that they experienced side effects. Despite the occurrence of side effects from hair dyeing products, it seems they did not realize the seriousness of the side effects or the need for treatment. It is advisable to introduce a system that enables users to become aware of the ingredients and side effects of hair coloring products and give opportunities for users to become aware of the side effects of hair coloring through education, publicity and publication of an informational booklet.

  3. Earthquake ethics through scientific knowledge, historical memory and societal awareness: the experience of direct internet information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rubeis, Valerio; Sbarra, Paola; Sebaste, Beppe; Tosi, Patrizia

    2013-04-01

    The experience of collection of data on earthquake effects and diffusion of information to people, carried on through the site "haisentitoilterremoto.it" (didyoufeelit) managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), has evidenced a constantly growing interest by Italian citizens. Started in 2007, the site has collected more than 520,000 compiled intensity questionnaires, producing intensity maps of almost 6,000 earthquakes. One of the most peculiar feature of this experience is constituted by a bi-directional information exchange. Every person can record observed effects of the earthquake and, at the same time, look at the generated maps. Seismologists, on the other side, can find each earthquake described in real time through its effects on the whole territory. In this way people, giving punctual information, receive global information from the community, mediated and interpreted by seismological knowledge. The relationship amongst seismologists, mass media and civil society is, thus, deep and rich. The presence of almost 20,000 permanent subscribers distributed on the whole Italian territory, alerted in case of earthquake, has reinforced the participation: the subscriber is constantly informed by the seismologists, through e-mail, about events occurred in his-her area, even if with very small magnitude. The "alert" service provides the possibility to remember that earthquakes are a phenomenon continuously present, on the other hand it shows that high magnitude events are very rare. This kind of information is helpful as it is fully complementary to that one given by media. We analyze the effects of our activity on society and mass media. The knowledge of seismic phenomena is present in each person, having roots on fear, idea of death and destruction, often with the deep belief of very rare occurrence. This position feeds refusal and repression. When a strong earthquake occurs, surprise immediately changes into shock and desperation. A

  4. Awareness of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign, knowledge of the fruit and vegetable recommendation, and fruit and vegetable intake of adults in the 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors (FAB) Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinosho, Temitope O; Moser, Richard P; Oh, April Y; Nebeling, Linda C; Yaroch, Amy L

    2012-08-01

    Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables is recommended to reduce chronic disease risk. Few studies have examined awareness of the current fruit and vegetable campaign in the United States, Fruits and Veggies-More Matters. This study assessed awareness of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign and knowledge of the 7-13 serving recommendation for fruit and vegetable consumption among adults, and determined whether these were associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Cross-sectional data from 3021 adults in the United States' National Cancer Institute's 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey were analyzed. Few participants were aware of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign (2%) and the 7-13 recommendation (6%) for adults. More participants were aware of the former 5 A Day campaign (29%) and recommendation (30%). Thirty-nine percent reported consuming ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Participants were more likely to consume ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables/day if they were aware of the 5 A Day/Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign, and reported that the recommendation for adults was ≥5 servings/day. Findings suggest the need to increase awareness of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign, and the 7-13 recommendation among adults to support high fruit and vegetable intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Knowledge of Ebola virus disease: An evaluation of university students and staff regarding the current Ebola issue around the globe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Abubakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ebola virus disease (EVD is at the moment a global pandemic disease. The importance of public awareness and alertness toward the disease cannot be underestimated since it is an important step to prevent unnecessary anxiety, fear, as well as an excessive reaction that accompany such anxiety. The main objective of this study is to assess the current level of knowledge and perception of students and staff at Universiti Sains Malaysia toward EVD. Method: A cross sectional survey method was used, and a self-administered questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. The questionnaire consisted of three sections. Section A with 6 questions pertaining to demographic data of respondents′, Section B had 20 questions pertaining to respondents knowledge of cause, symptoms, transmission, prevention, and current affairs about EVD. Section C had 12 questions pertaining to respondents′ perception toward EVD. Respondents in this study included both students and staff. Results: From the 520 questionnaire (400 among students and 120 among staff distributed, only 458 were retrieved (380 from students and 78 from staff. Results showed that majority of the students were female (163; 66.0% for undergraduates, 71; 53.4% for postgraduate and 50; 64.1% for staff. The majority of the students first learned about EVD from the internet (193, 80.4%; 102, 81.0%; and 43, 58.9%, respectively, for undergraduate, postgraduate, and staff. This study found that the current level of knowledge about EVD among respondents is low (median knowledge score <50%. However, postgraduate students possess more knowledge than undergraduate and staff (median score 46.2%, P = 0.002. In addition, staff respondents from the university hospital (clinic were found to possess more knowledge than other category of staff (median score = 61.5%, P = 0.002. Furthermore, sciences based students were found to have more knowledge than arts and social sciences based students

  6. Interaction between HIV awareness, knowledge, safe sex practice and HIV prevalence: evidence from Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ranjan; Sinha, Kompal

    2012-05-01

    This paper makes methodological and empirical contributions to the study of HIV in the context of Botswana, a country with high HIV prevalence. Comparable evidence is presented from India to put the Botswana results in perspective. The results point to the strong role played by affluence and education in increasing HIV knowledge, promoting safe sex and reducing HIV prevalence. The study presents African evidence on the role played by the empowerment of women in promoting safe sex practices such as condom use. The lack of significant association between HIV prevalence and safe sex practice points to the danger of HIV-infected individuals spreading the disease through multiple sex partners and unprotected sex. This danger is underlined by the finding that females with multiple sex partners are at higher risk of being infected with HIV. These results take on special policy significance in the context of Botswana, where the issue of multiple sex partners has not been adequately addressed in the programme to contain the spread of HIV.

  7. Awareness, Attitude, and Knowledge of Basic Life Support among Medical, Dental, and Nursing Faculties and Students in the University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangamesh, N C; Vidya, K C; Pathi, Jugajyoti; Singh, Arpita

    2017-01-01

    To assess the awareness, attitude, and knowledge about basic life support (BLS) among medical, dental, and nursing students and faculties and the proposal of BLS skills in the academic curriculum of undergraduate (UG) course. Recognition, prevention, and effective management of life-threatening emergencies are the responsibility of health-care professionals. These situations can be successfully managed by proper knowledge and training of the BLS skills. These life-saving maneuvers can be given through the structured resuscitation programs, which are lacking in the academic curriculum. A questionnaire study consisting of 20 questions was conducted among 659 participants in the Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University. Medical junior residents, BDS faculties, interns, nursing faculties, and 3(rd)-year and final-year UG students from both medical and dental colleges were chosen. The statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software version 20.0 (Armonk, NY:IBM Corp). After collecting the data, the values were statistically analyzed and tabulated. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U-test. The results with P skills for effectively managing the life-threatening emergencies.

  8. A neurocognitive theory of higher mental emergence: from anoetic affective experiences to noetic knowledge and autonoetic awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, Marie; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    This essay provides an overview of evolutionary levels of consciousness, with a focus on a continuum of consciousness: from primarily affective to more advanced cognitive forms of neural processing-from anoetic (without knowledge) consciousness based on affective feelings, elaborated by brain networks that are subcortical- and can function without neocortical involvement, to noetic (knowledge based) and autonoetic (higher reflective mental) processes that permits conscious awareness. An abundance of such mind-brain linkages have been established using standard neuropsychological and brain-imaging procedures. Much of the characterization of human mental landscapes has been achieved with long accepted psychometric procedures that often do not adequately tap the lived anoetic experiential phenomenological aspects of mind. Without an understanding of affective based anoetic forms of consciousness, an adequate characterization of the human mind may never be achieved. A full synthesis will require us to view mental-experiential processes concurrently at several distinct neurophysiological levels, including foundational affective-emotional issues that are best probed with cross-species affective neuroscience strategies. This essay attempts to relate these levels of analysis to the neural systems that constitute lived experience in the human mind. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes about Research Ethics among Dental Faculty in the Middle East: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadir F. El-Dessouky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the knowledge, awareness, and attitudes of dental faculty regarding research ethics and research ethics committees (RECs. Design. Through convenience sampling, we distributed a survey to academics at dental faculties at two universities in the Middle East. We used descriptive, chi-square, and logistic regression statistics to analyze the data. Results. Our response rate was 62.5%. A large majority (>90% held positive attitudes towards RECs; however, almost half (44.0% thought that RECs would delay research. Less than half (36.8% had received prior training in research ethics, and the average score they achieved on the questions on research ethics was only 40.2%. Most (>90%, however, were favorable towards research ethics education. Finally, some faculty held attitudes regarding certain research ethics practices that were not optimal. Conclusions. We conclude that among the dental faculties participating in our study, there is broad-based acceptance of RECs and training in research ethics, while there are knowledge gaps in research ethics. We recommend further studies to determine the generalizability of our findings to other institutions.

  10. The hazard of Sea Level Rise (SLR) in Greece: from scientific knowledge towards risk awareness of main actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandoulaki, Miranda; Karymbalis, Efthimios; Yorgos, Melissourgos; Skordili, Sophia; Valkanou, Kanella

    2014-05-01

    A natural hazard that is expected to affect coastal areas in the near future is Sea-Level Rise (SLR) due to climate change. According to recent reports the eustatic sea-level rise caused by global warming will reach approximately 18-59 cm by the year 2100. Potential impacts of future sea-level rise include coastal erosion, frequent and intensified cyclonic activity and associated storm surge flooding that may affect the coastal zones, saltwater intrusion into groundwater aquifers, the inundation of ecologically significant wetlands, and threats to cultural and historical resources, as well as to infrastructure. The identification of sensitive sections of coasts and the assessment of potential impacts of SLR on these is therefore a fundamental, yet initial, step towards their protection. Greece has the most extensive coastline among all Mediterranean countries with most of the socio-economic activities concentrated along the coastal zone. Almost all big urban centres are coastal ones and the same stands for a great part of infrastructure (ports, airports, roads, electricity and telecommunications network etc). As a result, the impacts of a potential rise of the sea level are expected to seriously affect the entire country. The paper examines the vulnerability to SLR of coastal zones in Greece; however its main focus is how knowledge can lead to policy making and the protection of coastal areas. The main actors in respect to protection from SLR in Greece are identified and there is an attempt to pin point how the knowledge is communicated and shared between them. Barriers, bridges and gaps are detected as regards how information and knowledge lead to risk awareness and finally to the implementation of protection policies. A main finding of the paper is that SLR risk is far from becoming a policy priority in Greece, although steps are taken for addressing impacts attributed to SLR such as coastal erosion. In order to address this risk, there are many potential

  11. DENTAL FLUOROSIS AND ITS RELATION TO SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, PARENTS' KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS AMONG 12-YEAR-OLD SCHOOL CHILDREN IN QUETTA, PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Erum; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Satitvipawee, Pratana

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and its relationship to socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness among 12-year-old school children in Quetta, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted among 349 school children aged 12 years in Quetta, Pakistan. By interviewing children and questionnaire for parents, socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness of fluorosis were collected. Dental fluorosis was examined using Dean's Index and Community Fluorosis Index. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was high (63.6%) among children with a majority of moderate and mild degree at 32.1% and 27.5%, respectively. The community fluorosis index was 1.6. While most children and parents had low-to-moderate levels of fluorosis knowledge, the majority of them worried about dental fluorosis. Most parents (84.8%) were uncertain about the condition of fluorosis in their children, and 87.4% did not know about fluorosis before. Dental fluorosis was found significantly associated with gender, family income, and parents' awareness (p ≤ 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that gender, and parent's awareness significantly predicted children's dental fluorosis. Knowledge and basic information regarding dental fluorosis is lacking in the community. Efforts in dissemination and communication about dental fluorosis should be increased in order to raise awareness and prevent the dental fluorosis in Pakistan.

  12. Influence of a Short-Term Disability Awareness Program on Knowledge and Attitudes of School-Aged Children in Southern Belize: Results of a Community-University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Dawn M; Cal, Francisco; Boissonnault, Jill S

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the attitudes of children living in Central America toward people with disabilities or the effectiveness of a disability awareness program in influencing their knowledge and attitudes. The study objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of a disability awareness program in influencing Belizean children's knowledge of and attitudes toward people with disabilities in the immediate short term and to describe the development of a university-community partnership that resulted in the development of a culturally appropriate disability awareness program. This was a single-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study with cluster sampling. Study participants included 247 children (11-14 years old) from 8 primary schools in Toledo District, Belize. A paper-based disability awareness survey measuring knowledge of and attitudes toward people with disabilities was administered before and after an intervention. The intervention was a 90-minute multimodal disability awareness program. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to model the influence of the intervention on knowledge of and attitudes toward people with disabilities. Significant improvements in knowledge of and attitudes toward people with disabilities were evident immediately after the intervention. Children were not randomized to a control group. Although this feature was a limitation in terms of study design, the researchers believed that respecting the wishes of the school principals by providing the disability awareness intervention to all students was important. This study provided an example of how a university-community partnership can positively influence community outcomes. Further research is needed to assess long-term changes in Belizean children's knowledge of, attitudes toward, and behaviors toward people with disabilities, as well as the social inclusion and participation of children with disabilities.

  13. Identification of the Competencies, Knowledge, and Skills Needed by School Nutrition Assistants in the Current Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.; Cater, Jerry B.; Federico, Holly A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Study objectives were to identify the functional areas, competencies, knowledge, and skills needed by effective school nutrition (SN) assistants in the current SN environment, and determine at what point the SN assistant should be able to know/perform the knowledge/skill statement, at time of hire or after training. Methods: In…

  14. An Exploration of EFL Teachers’ Awareness of the Sources of Pedagogical Knowledge in a Teacher Education Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macías Diego Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This project set out to investigate the extent to which the sources of English as a foreign language teachers’ pedagogical knowledge are acknowledged and addressed in a teacher education program in a public university in Colombia. It involved the participation of teacher educators and novice teachers as well as the analysis of documents. This research followed a qualitative design with an interpretive approach to inquiry, and the data used were semi-structured interviews and official documents. The results indicate that while most of the teacher educators appeared to be aware of the many sources of teachers’ pedagogical knowledge, novice teachers emphasized their initial teacher education and teaching experience as the only sources of their pedagogical knowledge.Este proyecto buscó investigar hasta qué punto las diferentes fuentes de conocimiento pedagógico de los docentes de inglés como lengua extranjera son reconocidas y abordadas en un programa de formación inicial en una universidad pública en Colombia. El proyecto involucró la participación de formadores de docentes y docentes principiantes y el análisis de documentos. La investigación siguió un diseño cualitativo con un enfoque interpretativo y los datos utilizados fueron entrevistas semiestructuradas y documentos oficiales. Los resultados indican que mientras la mayoría de los formadores de docentes parecían ser conscientes de las muchas fuentes del conocimiento pedagógico de los docentes, los docentes principiantes enfatizaron su educación inicial como docentes y la experiencia docente como las únicas fuentes de su conocimiento pedagógico.

  15. Fertility awareness online: the efficacy of a fertility education website in increasing knowledge and changing fertility beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, J.C.; Koert, E.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How effective is online education in increasing knowledge of fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and changing beliefs about the timing of parenthood? SUMMARY ANSWER Exposure to an online educational intervention resulted in immediate changes in participants' beliefs about the ideal timing of parenthood, and a significant increase in their knowledge of fertility and ART treatments and options; most of these changes were not sustained over time, particularly for men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Research has identified significant gaps in men's and women's knowledge of fertility and ART, contributing to the trend to delay childbearing. Effective educational programs need to be developed, to support informed fertility and child-timing decisions. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Pre-post intervention study of 199 currently childless men and women, and a 6-month follow-up of 110 of these participants. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS One hundred and ninety-nine childless participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were asked to complete 4 beliefs and 22 knowledge questions prior to, and immediately after, reading 10 online posts related to: fertility testing and preservation, fertility history and lifespan, the effects of health and fitness on fertility, and assisted reproduction. Six months later, 110 of the original sample repeated the 26-item survey. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Participants' fertility and ART knowledge scores increased significantly immediately after the intervention, as did their confidence in their fertility and ART knowledge. Participants' beliefs about the ideal and latest age a woman or man should consider producing a child decreased. However, 6 months later, participants' beliefs and knowledge levels largely returned to their pre-intervention levels, particularly for the men in the study. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION The sample size and the recruitment methods may limit the generalizability of these

  16. Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis

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    Islam MR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were employed to explore the predictors of FP knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru women.Results: Only about 40% of respondents had ever heard FP messages or about FP methods – two-fifths of the national figure (99.9%. The current use of contraception was much lower (25.1% among the Mru people than at the national level (55.8%. Among both modern and traditional methods, the contraceptive pill ranked first. About two-thirds (66.0% of married women used this method – more than two times than the national figure (28.5%. On the other hand, the prevalence of male methods was comparatively lower than at the national level. Logistic regression models revealed that place of residence, religion, age, school attendance, husband's school attendance, service provided in the community, distance to the service center, and exposure to mass media had significant effects on knowledge of FP and on use of contraception.Conclusion: Education for mothers and vernacular language-based doorstep FP programs with special emphasis on awareness are suggested for the community.Keywords: family planning, contraceptive use, the Mru, logistic regression, Bangladesh

  17. Knowledge and Awareness of Colorectal Cancer among Undergraduate Students at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a Survey-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Sayedalamin, Zaid; Alsulami, Salhah S; Atta, Magdi; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the knowledge and awareness about colorectal cancer (CRC) among undergraduate students of one of the leading universities in Saudi Arabia, along with the mode of information access. The present cross-sectional study was conducted at the King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, among students of different faculties. The study questionnaire, containing 28 items, was adapted from surveys identified in the relevant literature. The CRC awareness questionnaire consisted of an awareness section (early CRC signs and symptoms, and risk factors) and a knowledge section. The data were analyzed using the SPSS version 21.0. A total of 525 undergraduate students participated in the study. The majority were females (63.0%) and approximately half (56.8%) were medical students. The majority of the students (82.3%) were aware of CRC, and 68% thought that CRC is a preventable disease. Regarding colorectal cancer screening tests, only one-third of students (33%) had actual knowledge, while the majority of the students (77.0%) thought that there are tests which help in early detection. Only 4% of the participants had a family history of CRC. The majority of the participants (84%) thought that CRC is a disease that can be cured. Almost 50-60% participants had good awareness level regarding risk factors, and signs and symptoms. Regarding knowledge, participant responses varied for family history (52%), age (59%), chronic infection of the colon (72%), obesity and lack of exercise (66%). More than one-third of the students had received information material regarding CRC from their curriculum followed by social media (20.4%), and nearly 40% from other sources such as TV, hospital and mass media. Female participants had significantly better awareness in a few questions regarding CRC awareness as compared to their male counterparts. There was a significant difference observed between medical and non-medical students (knowledge about CRC while no significant

  18. Awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among school-going adolescents in Europe: a systematic review of published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkange-Zeeb, Florence N; Spallek, Lena; Zeeb, Hajo

    2011-09-25

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major health problem affecting mostly young people, not only in developing, but also in developed countries.We conducted this systematic review to determine awareness and knowledge of school-going male and female adolescents in Europe of STDs and if possible, how they perceive their own risk of contracting an STD. Results of this review can help point out areas where STD risk communication for adolescents needs to be improved. Using various combinations of the terms "STD", "HIV", "HPV", "Chlamydia", "Syphilis", "Gonorrhoea", "herpes", "hepatitis B", "knowledge", "awareness", and "adolescents", we searched for literature published in the PubMed database from 01.01.1990 up to 31.12.2010. Studies were selected if they reported on the awareness and/or knowledge of one or more STD among school-attending adolescents in a European country and were published in English or German. Reference lists of selected publications were screened for further publications of interest. Information from included studies was systematically extracted and evaluated. A total of 15 studies were included in the review. All were cross-sectional surveys conducted among school-attending adolescents aged 13 to 20 years. Generally, awareness and knowledge varied among the adolescents depending on gender.Six STDs were focussed on in the studies included in the review, with awareness and knowledge being assessed in depth mainly for HIV/AIDS and HPV, and to some extent for chlamydia. For syphilis, gonorrhoea and herpes only awareness was assessed. Awareness was generally high for HIV/AIDS (above 90%) and low for HPV (range 5.4%-66%). Despite knowing that use of condoms helps protect against contracting an STD, some adolescents still regard condoms primarily as an interim method of contraception before using the pill. In general, the studies reported low levels of awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases, with the exception of HIV/AIDS. Although

  19. Awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs among school-going adolescents in Europe: a systematic review of published literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spallek Lena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a major health problem affecting mostly young people, not only in developing, but also in developed countries. We conducted this systematic review to determine awareness and knowledge of school-going male and female adolescents in Europe of STDs and if possible, how they perceive their own risk of contracting an STD. Results of this review can help point out areas where STD risk communication for adolescents needs to be improved. Methods Using various combinations of the terms "STD", "HIV", "HPV", "Chlamydia", "Syphilis", "Gonorrhoea", "herpes", "hepatitis B", "knowledge", "awareness", and "adolescents", we searched for literature published in the PubMed database from 01.01.1990 up to 31.12.2010. Studies were selected if they reported on the awareness and/or knowledge of one or more STD among school-attending adolescents in a European country and were published in English or German. Reference lists of selected publications were screened for further publications of interest. Information from included studies was systematically extracted and evaluated. Results A total of 15 studies were included in the review. All were cross-sectional surveys conducted among school-attending adolescents aged 13 to 20 years. Generally, awareness and knowledge varied among the adolescents depending on gender. Six STDs were focussed on in the studies included in the review, with awareness and knowledge being assessed in depth mainly for HIV/AIDS and HPV, and to some extent for chlamydia. For syphilis, gonorrhoea and herpes only awareness was assessed. Awareness was generally high for HIV/AIDS (above 90% and low for HPV (range 5.4%-66%. Despite knowing that use of condoms helps protect against contracting an STD, some adolescents still regard condoms primarily as an interim method of contraception before using the pill. Conclusion In general, the studies reported low levels of awareness and knowledge of

  20. Fertility awareness online: the efficacy of a fertility education website in increasing knowledge and changing fertility beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, J C; Koert, E

    2015-02-01

    How effective is online education in increasing knowledge of fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and changing beliefs about the timing of parenthood? Exposure to an online educational intervention resulted in immediate changes in participants' beliefs about the ideal timing of parenthood, and a significant increase in their knowledge of fertility and ART treatments and options; most of these changes were not sustained over time, particularly for men. Research has identified significant gaps in men's and women's knowledge of fertility and ART, contributing to the trend to delay childbearing. Effective educational programs need to be developed, to support informed fertility and child-timing decisions. Pre-post intervention study of 199 currently childless men and women, and a 6-month follow-up of 110 of these participants. One hundred and ninety-nine childless participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were asked to complete 4 beliefs and 22 knowledge questions prior to, and immediately after, reading 10 online posts related to: fertility testing and preservation, fertility history and lifespan, the effects of health and fitness on fertility, and assisted reproduction. Six months later, 110 of the original sample repeated the 26-item survey. Participants' fertility and ART knowledge scores increased significantly immediately after the intervention, as did their confidence in their fertility and ART knowledge. Participants' beliefs about the ideal and latest age a woman or man should consider producing a child decreased. However, 6 months later, participants' beliefs and knowledge levels largely returned to their pre-intervention levels, particularly for the men in the study. The sample size and the recruitment methods may limit the generalizability of these findings. Previous studies have demonstrated the short-term efficacy of online educational approaches to increase fertility knowledge and support informed family planning decisions. Web

  1. Psychology's Role in the Assessment of Erectile Dysfunction: Historical Precedents, Current Knowledge, and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Mark D.; Carey, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role of the psychologist in the evaluation of erectile dysfunction. Reviews current diagnostic criteria and provides a historical overview of the topic. Summarizes current epidemiologic knowledge, including data on prevalence and research on cognitive, affective, dydactic, and lifestyle etiologic risk factors. Discusses assessment…

  2. A study to determine the knowledge and level of awareness of medical undergraduates about herbal medicines and herb-drug interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspreet K. Boparai; Amandeep Singh; Ashwani K. Gupta; Prithpal S. Matreja; P. M. L. Khanna; Vipan Gupta; Rakesh K. Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Background: The increasing usage of herbal medicines worldwide has increased the probability of co-administration of herbal and allopathic medicines. This may lead to serious safety concerns, including herb-drug interactions (HDIs). Many HDIs may be overlooked due to poor doctor-patient communication about herbal drug usage probably because of lack of knowledge of herbal medicines and HDIs among physicians. The study was thus planned to identify the knowledge and awareness of medical students...

  3. Occupational exposure to HIV in a developing country: assessing knowledge and attitude of healthcare professional before and after an awareness symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Samina; Awan, Safia; Naeem, Rubaba; Siddiqui, Sarfraz; Afzal, Badar; Jamil, Bushra; Khan, Uzma Rahim

    2018-02-15

    Health care providers (HCPs) are at risk of occupational exposure to HIV infection. In developing world these exposure occur due to general lack of awareness, education and structured training of HCPs. The objective of the study was to asses if continuing medical education symposium can be used as an effective educational tool to improve attitude, awareness and knowledge regarding occupational exposure to HIV infection. This quasi-experimental study was conducted among HCPs from Karachi, Pakistan. After assessing the baseline knowledge, awareness, and attitude by means of pretest; HCPs were reassessed with posttest after an education symposium on occupational exposure to HIV infection. Among 364 participating HCPs, 14.2% had previous training on post exposure prophylaxis. There was an overall statistically significant (P value HIV was observed after the education symposium.

  4. Awareness and knowledge of HIV and its effect on ocular health among the Nigerian graduate youth corps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkabir Ayansiji Ayanniyi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This survey of Nigerian youth corps graduates assessed their knowledge of HIV/AIDS and its association with ocular health. Methods: Nigerian youth corps graduates were surveyed using a structured, self-administered questionnaire. The study included 181 participants, including 95 males, with a mean age of 26 years. Results: 94.5% of the graduates knew the full HIV and AIDS acronyms; only 10 gave either the wrong expanded form or did not know it. 60.8% knew that HIV had no cure, while 22.7% believed that it did. Mass media and health workers were the two most common sources of information about HIV/AIDS. Most members of the corps knew sexual intercourse (97.2%, contaminated blood (91.7%, contaminated sharps (89.5%, and placental transfer or breastfeeding (80.1% could transmit HIV. About two-fifths of the corps knew HIV could affect the eyes (42%, be contracted through tears (40.9%, and cause blindness (38.7%. However, at least one-fifth believed that HIV could not be contracted through these means. Moreover, about half of the participants did not know that HIV had been isolated from tears (52.5%, intraocular fluids (54.1%, and eye tissues (52.5% or that it could be contracted through donor eye tissue (44.8%. 26.5% knew that an eye condition could be the first symptom of the onset of HIV/AIDS. Conclusions: This study revealed a high level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among Nigerian youths. However, gaps in knowledge of HIV and the need to drive HIV prevention should be addressed through continuing HIV education.

  5. The relationship between chiropractor required and current level of business knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolfi, Michael Anthony; Kasen, Patsy Anne

    2017-01-01

    Chiropractors frequently practice within health care systems requiring the business acumen of an entrepreneur. However, some chiropractors do not know the relationship between the level of business knowledge required for practice success and their current level of business knowledge. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between chiropractors' perceived level of business knowledge required and their perceived level of current business knowledge. Two hundred and seventy-four participants completed an online survey (Health Care Training and Education Needs Survey) which included eight key business items. Participants rated the level of perceived business knowledge required (Part I) and their current perceived level of knowledge (Part II) for the same eight items. Data was collected from November 27, 2013 to December 18, 2013. Data were analyzed using Spearman's ranked correlation to determine the statistically significant relationships for the perceived level of knowledge required and the perceived current level of knowledge for each of the paired eight items from Parts I and II of the survey. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Tests were performed to determine the statistical difference between the paired items. The results of Spearman's correlation testing indicated a statistically significant (p ethical, (e) managerial decisions, and (f) operations. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks testing indicated a significant difference for three paired items: strategic management; marketing and; legal and ethical. The results suggest that relationships exist for the majority of business items (6 of 8) however a statistically difference was demonstrated in only three of the paired business items. The implications of this study for social change include the potential to improve chiropractors' business knowledge and skills, enable practice success, enhance health services delivery and positively influence the profession as a viable career.

  6. Development of Knowledge, Awareness, Global Warming Decreasing Behavior and Critical Thinking of Grade 11 Students Using the Four Noble Truths Method with Meta-Cognitive Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattuchai, Sakkarin; Singseewo, Adisak; Suksringarm, Paitool

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of learning environmental education on the knowledge, awareness, global warming decreasing behavior, and critical thinking of eighty grade 11 students from two classes. The Four Noble Truths method with metacognitive techniques and traditional teaching method were used for the investigation. The sample…

  7. Predictors of Adults' Knowledge and Awareness of HPV, HPV-Associated Cancers, and the HPV Vaccine: Implications for Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Kimberly R.; Singh, Shipra

    2018-01-01

    High human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and low HPV vaccine uptake are significant public health concerns. Disparities in HPV-associated cancers and HPV vaccine uptake rates suggest the need for additional research examining factors associated with vaccine acceptance. This study assessed HPV awareness and knowledge and identified…

  8. The Effects of Green Schooling Knowledge Level and Intensity of Parental Guidance on the Environmental Awareness of the Early Age Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihardjo, Sihadi Darmo; Hartati, Sofia; Nurani, Yuliani; Sujarwanta, Agus

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of green schooling knowledge and parents guidance on the environmental awareness of the students. This study used a quantitative approach with the expost facto method. This study was conducted in Muhammadiyah 41 elementary school in East Jakarta at July to December on the 2nd semester of the…

  9. Assessment of Secondary School Students' Awareness, Knowledge and Attitudes to Environmental Pollution Issues in the Mining Regions of South Africa: Implications for Instruction and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufemi, Adejoke Christianah; Mji, Andile; Mukhola, Murembiwa S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we compared the levels of awareness, knowledge and attitudes (AKA) about environmental pollution of secondary school students from two South African provinces. The purpose was to determine the levels of AKA between students living under different environmental conditions. These two groups were students from a coal-mining province…

  10. Farmers and retailers knowledge and awareness of the risk from pesticide use: a case study in the Wei River catchment, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Wang, L.; Meng, L.; Zhang, W.; Fan, L.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the educational level of farmers and retailers on pesticide use would be useful to assess the appropriateness of information for reducing or/and avoiding the risks from pesticides in rural regions. The levels of knowledge and awareness of the dangers to the environment and human health

  11. Contribution of Morphological Awareness and Lexical Inferencing Ability to L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Advanced EFL Learners: Testing Direct and Indirect Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling)…

  12. Current state of knowledge in microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajyoti Ghosal

    2016-08-01

    PAHs. The main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge of bacteria, halophilic archaea, fungi and algae mediated degradation/transformation of PAHs. In addition, factors affecting PAHs degradation in the environment, recent advancement in genetic, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques are also highlighted with an aim to facilitate the development of a new insight into the bioremediation of PAH in the environment.

  13. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K.; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge of bacteria, halophilic archaea, fungi and algae mediated degradation/transformation of PAHs. In addition, factors affecting PAHs degradation in the environment, recent advancement in genetic, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques are also highlighted with an aim to facilitate the development of a new insight into the bioremediation of PAH in the environment. PMID:27630626

  14. Tiger Beetles' (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) pupal stage: current state of knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roza, André S; Mermudes, José R M

    2017-01-26

    The tiger beetles (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) include about 2,822 species and 120 genera around the world. They are one of the most widely studied families of Coleoptera. However, the knowledge about their immature stages is incipient and usually restricted to the larval stages. Pupal characteristics have been among the most ignored aspects of tiger beetle biology. Here we compile and update the current knowledge of tiger beetle pupae.

  15. Low level of Hepatitis B knowledge and awareness among pregnant women in the Kintampo North Municipality: implications for effective disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulai, Martha Ali; Baiden, Frank; Adjei, George; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2016-09-01

    Over 2 billion people are infected with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and about 240 million are chronic carriers of the virus. Chronic HBV infection is an important cause of liver cancer. The infectivity of HBV is hundred times higher than the HIV virus yet it receives comparatively little attention in public health. The study assessed knowledge and awareness of HBV among pregnant women in the Kintampo Municipality of Ghana. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in two facilities between September 2010 and November 2010. We performed analysis to determine factors associated with hepatitis B awareness. Forty-one percent of the 504 women were aware of hepatitis B viral infection, 33.5% of the women were able to correctly mention the transmission routes of Hepatitis B. The radio was the most (42%) mentioned source of information on HBV and the least source of information were places of worship (2.7%).After adjusting for other factors, level of education; SSS/SHS and above OR=4.2, PHepatitis B awareness. There is a low level of knowledge and awareness of HBV among pregnant women in this municipality. This could potentially hamper effective HBV prevention and control in Ghana. Education on hepatitis B need to be included in health promotion activities. The study was funded by KHRC Director's small grant Initiative.

  16. Awareness and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in Indonesia, Malaysia, Qatar, and Greece: Findings From 2011–2013 Global Adult Tobacco Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Mbulo, Lazarous; Morton, Jeremy; Mbulo, Lazarous; Bunnell, Rebecca; Blutcher-Nelson, Glenda; Kosen, Soewarta; Tee, Guat Hiong; Abdalla, Amani Mohamed Elkhatim; Al Mutawa, Kholood Ateeq; Barbouni, Anastasia; Antoniadou, Eleni; Fouad, Heba; Khoury, Rula N.; Rarick, James; Sinha, Dhirendra N.; Asma, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increases in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) awareness and current use have been documented in high income countries but less is known about middle and low income countries. Methods Nationally representative household survey data from the first four Global Adult Tobacco Surveys to assess e-cigarettes were analyzed, including Indonesia (2011), Malaysia (2011), Qatar (2013), and Greece (2013). Correlates of e-cigarette awareness and current use were calculated. Sample sizes for Greece and Qatar allowed for further analysis of e-cigarette users. Results Awareness of e-cigarettes was 10.9% in Indonesia, 21.0% in Malaysia, 49.0% in Qatar, and 88.5% in Greece. In all four countries, awareness was higher among male, younger, more educated, and wealthier respondents. Current e-cigarette use among those aware of e-cigarettes was 3.9% in Malaysia, 2.5% in Indonesia, 2.2% in Greece and 1.8% in Qatar. Across these four countries, an estimated 818 500 people are currently using e-cigarettes. Among current e-cigarette users, 64.4% in Greece and 84.1% in Qatar also smoked cigarettes, and, 10.6% in Greece and 6.0% in Qatar were never-smokers. Conclusions E-cigarette awareness and use was evident in all four countries. Ongoing surveillance and monitoring of awareness and use of e-cigarettes in these and other countries could help inform tobacco control policies and public health interventions. Future surveillance should monitor use of e-cigarettes among current smokers and uptake among never-smokers and relapsing former smokers. PMID:25895951

  17. Awareness and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in Indonesia, Malaysia, Qatar, and Greece: Findings From 2011-2013 Global Adult Tobacco Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Mbulo, Lazarous; Morton, Jeremy; Mbulo, Lazarous; Bunnell, Rebecca; Blutcher-Nelson, Glenda; Kosen, Soewarta; Tee, Guat Hiong; Abdalla, Amani Mohamed Elkhatim; Mutawa, Kholood Ateeq Al; Barbouni, Anastasia; Antoniadou, Eleni; Fouad, Heba; Khoury, Rula N; Rarick, James; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Asma, Samira

    2016-04-01

    Increases in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) awareness and current use have been documented in high income countries but less is known about middle and low income countries. Nationally representative household survey data from the first four Global Adult Tobacco Surveys to assess e-cigarettes were analyzed, including Indonesia (2011), Malaysia (2011), Qatar (2013), and Greece (2013). Correlates of e-cigarette awareness and current use were calculated. Sample sizes for Greece and Qatar allowed for further analysis of e-cigarette users. Awareness of e-cigarettes was 10.9% in Indonesia, 21.0% in Malaysia, 49.0% in Qatar, and 88.5% in Greece. In all four countries, awareness was higher among male, younger, more educated, and wealthier respondents. Current e-cigarette use among those aware of e-cigarettes was 3.9% in Malaysia, 2.5% in Indonesia, 2.2% in Greece and 1.8% in Qatar. Across these four countries, an estimated 818 500 people are currently using e-cigarettes. Among current e-cigarette users, 64.4% in Greece and 84.1% in Qatar also smoked cigarettes, and, 10.6% in Greece and 6.0% in Qatar were never-smokers. E-cigarette awareness and use was evident in all four countries. Ongoing surveillance and monitoring of awareness and use of e-cigarettes in these and other countries could help inform tobacco control policies and public health interventions. Future surveillance should monitor use of e-cigarettes among current smokers and uptake among never-smokers and relapsing former smokers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Assessment of knowledge about, attitudes toward, and awareness of a forensic medicine course among medical students at the University of Dammam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadin, Mohammed S

    2013-11-01

    This study assesses the knowledge about, awareness of, and attitudes toward forensic medicine and the forensic medicine undergraduate course among medical students at the University of Dammam in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 143 fourth-year students. We used a structured, self-administered questionnaire containing 10 items relating to forensic medicine to assess the knowledge about, awareness of, and attitudes toward forensic medicine and the forensic medicine undergraduate course. The results showed inadequate knowledge about, poor attitudes toward, and limited awareness of the importance of the forensic medicine course among medical students. Media had an effect on the students as they are a major source of forensic science information among medical students. The forensic medicine undergraduate course is important for medical students. We recommended that it be taught at the undergraduate level because it is the only academic source for forensic medicine that physicians may encounter in their careers. Teaching how to conduct an autopsy is important and has a positive role in medical education, and the forensic medicine curriculum must include instruction on autopsies, both from theoretical and practical perspectives. Medical institutes must take responsibility to increase awareness about the effect of media on medical education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Implicit Learning in the Crowd: Investigating the Role of Awareness in the Acquisition of L2 Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerz, Elma; Wiechmann, Daniel; Riedel, Florian B.

    2017-01-01

    A growing field of research has made use of a semiartificial language paradigm to investigate the role of awareness in L2 acquisition. A central and empirically still unresolved issue in this field concerns the possibility of learning implicitly, that is, without intention to learn and without awareness of what has been learned. Up until now,…

  20. Knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer and its prevention amongst interns and nursing staff in Tertiary Care Hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Faizan Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality amongst the gynecological cancers worldwide, especially in developing countries. It is imperative for at least health professionals in developing countries like Pakistan to have a sound knowledge about the disease. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer and its prevention amongst health professionals in tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS AND DESIGN: A cross-sectional, interview based survey was conducted in June, 2009. Sample of 400 was divided between the three tertiary care centers. Convenience sampling was applied as no definitive data was available regarding the number of registered interns and nurses at each center. RESULTS: Of all the interviews conducted, 1.8% did not know cervical cancer as a disease. Only 23.3% of the respondents were aware that cervical cancer is the most common cause of gynecological cancers and 26% knew it is second in rank in mortality. Seventy-eight percent were aware that infection is the most common cause of cervical cancer, of these 62% said that virus is the cause and 61% of the respondents knew that the virus is Human Papilloma Virus (HPV. Majority recognized that it is sexually transmitted but only a minority (41% knew that it can be detected by PCR. Only 26% of the study population was aware of one or more risk factors. Thirty seven percent recognized Pap smear as a screening test. In total only 37 out of 400 respondents were aware of the HPV vaccine. CONCLUSION: This study serves to highlight that the majority of working health professionals are not adequately equipped with knowledge concerning cervical cancer. Continuing Medical Education program should be started at the hospital level along with conferences to spread knowledge about this disease.

  1. EduGeoPark: international student/span>s exchanges for promoting Earth Science knowledge and Geoheritage awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Magagna, Alessandra; Dellarole, Edoardo; Kiuttu, Mikko

    2015-04-01

    Geoparks are the ideal destination for international study tours based on the sustainable tourism concept, in which the travel is conceived as an opportunity for sharing both scientific knowledge and intangible and tangible culture. Equally, they are the appropriate places for testing and practicing innovative educational strategies, shareable in an international context. The innovative idea of EduGeoPark project is to involve students and teachers in research activities in Geoparks, including sampling and digital mapping: practical field and laboratory activities for stimulating the geological interpretation of an unknown territory. An approach devoted to improve teamwork and problem solving competences. By means of a partnerships between the Rokua (Finland) and the Sesia-Val Grande (Italy) Geoparks, an exchange program for Secondary School's students started during 2014 (Vaala High School; I.I.S. Luigi Cobianchi High School in Verbania). The study and the visit of both territories was an opportunity for students to observe some relevant geological elements and processes that do not exist in their own country. Moreover, the hosting in families allowed them to feel the culture of the area. Teachers and staff of the Geoparks led field trips to the main geological and cultural attractions of both areas. During the activities, students used mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) and GPS to track field trips, to catch and gather georeferenced data and pictures. They acted as researchers, by using both digital and traditional tools: they observed, asked questions, gathered data, and made hypothesis. By sharing ideas, together with the local guides, they reconstructed the cultural and geological history of the area. Students appreciated the experience: not only they had the opportunity of visiting a different country, but also of deepening the geological awareness on their own territory. EduGeoPark project is opening the participation to other Geoparks, in order to

  2. Religion and HPV vaccine-related awareness, knowledge, and receipt among insured women aged 18-26 in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodson, Julia; Wilson, Andrew; Warner, Echo L; Kepka, Deanna

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the associations between religious practice and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-related awareness, knowledge, and receipt among young women in Utah. We surveyed 326 insured women aged 18-26 by mail. Fisher's Exact Tests and multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relations between religious practice and HPV vaccine-related outcomes. Data collection occurred January-December 2013; analyses were conducted June-September 2015. Multivariable analyses reveal that when controlling for age, educational attainment, and marital status, participants who practiced an organized religion were significantly less likely to have heard of HPV (aOR = 0.25, p = 0.0123), to have heard of the HPV vaccine (aOR = 0.41, p = 0.0368), to know how HPV is spread (aOR = 0.45, p = 0.0074), to have received a provider recommendation for the HPV vaccine (aOR = 0.36, p = 0.0332), and to have received at least one (aOR = 0.50, p = 0.0073) or all three (aOR = 0.47, p = 0.0026) doses of the HPV vaccine. Bivariate analyses produce parallel results. Results indicate that religious young women in Utah are not only under-vaccinated, but are also under-informed about HPV and the HPV vaccine. These results suggest that suboptimal vaccine coverage among religious young women may present a serious health risk for the community. Strategies for educational interventions targeted to this population are discussed.

  3. Awareness, knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy among rural populations in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia: a preliminary exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neni, Selamat Widiasmoro; Latif, Ahmad Zubaidi Abdul; Wong, Sok Yee; Lua, Pei Lin

    2010-06-01

    This study was carried out to gauge the preliminary insight regarding epilepsy among the rural society. The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine general level of awareness, knowledge and attitudes (AKA) towards epilepsy among rural communities, (2) to compare the AKA level based on socio-demographic characteristics and (3) to investigate rural cohort's perception of the best epilepsy treatment, preference for epilepsy information delivery and preference for mode of transportation to seek medical treatment. This prospective, cross sectional study included a sample of 615 rural residents enrolled via cluster sampling in East Coast region of Peninsular Malaysia (mean age=41.6+/-18.02, female=56.6%, married=65.5%, Malay=94.0%, monthly income low (2.66+/-0.7). Gender-wise no significant difference was shown regarding AKA level (p>0.05). However, respondents with higher education significantly possessed better attitudes and higher Total AKA level compared to those with lower education level (pincome rural cohorts possessed both significantly better attitudes and better AKA. These rural communities perceived modern medicine as the best epilepsy treatment (56.60%), preferred to obtain direct epilepsy-related information from health personnel (60.4%) and chose to use their own car to seek medical treatment in hospital (76.30%). The outcomes of this preliminary study signified the need to devise a dedicated epilepsy education program for implementation among rural residents. Increased AKA level in the society could enhance the people's acceptance, reduce stigmatisation and improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for epilepsy patients and their family. Copyright 2010 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain Death and Organ Donation: Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes of Medical, Law, Divinity, Nursing, and Communication Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaay, A F; Celik, S U; Eker, T; Oksuz, N E; Akyol, C; Tuzuner, A

    2015-06-01

    Throughout the world, there is a shortage of suitable organs for organ transplantation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, awareness, and attitudes of medical, law, divinity, nursing, and communication students, who will be involved in this issue in the future, regarding brain death and organ donation. Data were collected with the use of a 30-item questionnaire. Of the 341 participants, 228 (66.8%) were female and overall average age was 21.6 ± 2.8 years. Nearly one-half of them (51.3%), especially nursing and medical students, wanted to be a donor, but only 2% had an organ donation card; 78.3% emphasized that family must have the right to make the decision for organ donation, and the vast majority of the participants considered that the organs could not be taken without any permission. Kidney and heart were the most commonly identified transplantable organs; the less frequently known organ was intestine. Only 71 participants, most of them medical, divinity, and law students, correctly answered all questions about brain death; 68.6% stated that organ donation is allowed by religion, and 5% expressed that it is religiously forbidden; 37.3% did not have confidence in health care policy. Law students were more confident, nursing students less confident. Better understanding of organ donation and concepts by the doctors, nurses, legislators, religious officials, and mass communications professionals who will give direction to society's behaviors and beliefs would help to spread positive attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation in the public. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Taking stock of current societal, political and academic stakeholders in the Canadian healthcare knowledge translation agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott-Findlay Shannon

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past 15 years, knowledge translation in healthcare has emerged as a multifaceted and complex agenda. Theoretical and polemical discussions, the development of a science to study and measure the effects of translating research evidence into healthcare, and the role of key stakeholders including academe, healthcare decision-makers, the public, and government funding bodies have brought scholarly, organizational, social, and political dimensions to the agenda. Objective This paper discusses the current knowledge translation agenda in Canadian healthcare and how elements in this agenda shape the discovery and translation of health knowledge. Discussion The current knowledge translation agenda in Canadian healthcare involves the influence of values, priorities, and people; stakes which greatly shape the discovery of research knowledge and how it is or is not instituted in healthcare delivery. As this agenda continues to take shape and direction, ensuring that it is accountable for its influences is essential and should be at the forefront of concern to the Canadian public and healthcare community. This transparency will allow for scrutiny, debate, and improvements in health knowledge discovery and health services delivery.

  6. Current state of knowledge on aetiology, diagnosis, management, and therapy of myocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caforio, Alida L P; Pankuweit, Sabine; Arbustini, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    In this position statement of the ESC Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases an expert consensus group reviews the current knowledge on clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis, and proposes new diagnostic criteria for clinically suspected myocarditis and its di...

  7. Encouraging Civic Knowledge and Engagement: Exploring Current Events through a Psychological Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Debbie; Baugh, Stacey-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Engagement with political, social, and civil issues is a fundamental component of an educated population, but civic knowledge and engagement are decreasing among adolescents and young adults. A Psychology in Current Events class sought to increase this engagement and key skills such as critical thinking. A one-group pretest-posttest…

  8. Determining Science Teacher Candidates' Academic Knowledge and Misconceptions about Electric Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert Çibik, Ayse

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is two-fold. Its first aim is to determine science teacher candidates' knowledge (academic success) and misconceptions about electric current and its second aim is to compare these results across participants' year of study and gender. A total of 132 teacher candidates studying in their 2nd, 3rd, and 4th years in Gazi…

  9. Rheumatologists' knowledge, attitude and current management of fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repping-Wuts, H.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Achterberg, T. van

    2008-01-01

    To describe rheumatologists' knowledge, attitude and current management of fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a postal questionnaire was sent to all rheumatologists (N = 204) and trainees (N = 49), members of the Dutch Society of Rheumatology. The overall response rate was 44% (N =

  10. Evaluation of the current practices of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) awareness training in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, AL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available of different sizes and different commodities. Results indicate that NIHL awareness training is not treated as a priority training area. Only 20% of NIHL awareness training programmes had a theoretical basis in health promotion or adult education. Employees...

  11. [Present situation of awareness of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge and AIDS-related behaviors among youth students in gay dating sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-18

    To investigate the awareness of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge and AIDS-related behaviors among youth students in gay dating sites, and to provide evidences for AIDS prevention education through the internet. The students in gay dating sites, selected by a snowball sampling, were interviewed by questionnaires. Chi-square tests were used to analyze the awareness of AIDS knowledge among the students of different characteristics. The Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors associated with ever testing for HIV. In the study, 469 youth students in gay dating sites filled in the questionnaires, and a total of 442 (94.2%) valid samples were collected. The awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge for the public among the youth students in gay dating sites was 83.9% (371).The awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge for the youth students was 77.1% (341), and the rate of ever testing for HIV was 52.0% (230). The awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge for the public in the students were different in different age groups (P=0.001), different marital statuses (Psexual orientations (Psexual partner (Psexual orientations (Psexual partner (Psexual intercourse among the youth students in gay dating sites was 75.1% (332), and the rate of multiple sexual partnerships among the youth students was 41.3% (137). Compared with homosexual orientation, sexual orientation as heterosexual (OR=0.282, 95%CI: 0.151 to 0.528) and not sure (OR=0.175, 95%CI: 0.035 to 0.885) were risk factors of ever testing for HIV. Multiple sexual partnerships (OR=2.103, 95%CI: 1.278 to 3.462) were promoting factors of ever testing for HIV. The rate of high-risk behaviors among the youth students in gay dating sites was high. The concern should be raised to heterosexual male students who had tendency to homosexual behavior. The AIDS prevention education should be developed in gay dating sites, to improve the self-protection awareness of the youth students.

  12. Febrile Seizures and Febrile Seizure Syndromes: An Updated Overview of Old and Current Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Abdulhafeez M.; Elmagrabi, Dalal

    2015-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common paroxysmal episode during childhood, affecting up to one in 10 children. They are a major cause of emergency facility visits and a source of family distress and anxiety. Their etiology and pathophysiological pathways are being understood better over time; however, there is still more to learn. Genetic predisposition is thought to be a major contributor. Febrile seizures have been historically classified as benign; however, many emerging febrile seizure syndromes behave differently. The way in which human knowledge has evolved over the years in regard to febrile seizures has not been dealt with in depth in the current literature, up to our current knowledge. This review serves as a documentary of how scientists have explored febrile seizures, elaborating on the journey of knowledge as far as etiology, clinical features, approach, and treatment strategies are concerned. Although this review cannot cover all clinical aspects related to febrile seizures at the textbook level, we believe it can function as a quick summary of the past and current sources of knowledge for all varieties of febrile seizure types and syndromes. PMID:26697219

  13. Knowledge and Awareness among Parents and General Dental Practitioners regarding Rehabilitation with Full Coverage Restoration in Children: A Multi-centric Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Aman; Saroj, Gyanendra; Sharma, Swati; Gupta, Basant

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and awareness among parents and general dental practitioners regarding rehabilitation with full coverage restoration in children following pulp therapy. A multiple choice questionnaire was given to 1,000 parents and 400 general practitioners in this multicentric trial. The questionnaire assessed their beliefs, knowledge regarding care of primary teeth, assessment of treating children, and knowledge regarding importance of primary teeth. All the questionnaires were then compiled and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. 53% parents did not know the importance of primary teeth and 73% parents also thought that no treatment is possible for pulpally involved primary teeth. 20% parents believed that root canal treatment can be possible for children and only 10% knew about full coverage restorations. 40% of the general dentists felt that the best treatment in the case of primary necrotic teeth is extraction and only 13% knew about stainless steel crowns. 62% of general dental practitioners pointed out patients' noninterest in providing crowns whereas 68% parents reported non-information by dentists. Both parents and general dental practitioners have incomplete and inadequate knowledge regarding full coverage restorations, and we need to improve the knowledge and dental awareness of the parents and the general dental practitioners. How to cite this article: Moda A, Saroj G, Sharma S, Gupta B. Knowledge and Awareness among Parents and General Dental Practitioners regarding Rehabilitation with Full Coverage Restoration in Children: A Multi-centric Trial. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):177-180.

  14. Knowledge and Awareness among Parents and General Dental Practitioners regarding Rehabilitation with Full Coverage Restoration in Children: A Multi-centric Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj, Gyanendra; Sharma, Swati; Gupta, Basant

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and awareness among parents and general dental practitioners regarding rehabilitation with full coverage restoration in children following pulp therapy. Materials and methods: A multiple choice questionnaire was given to 1,000 parents and 400 general practitioners in this multicentric trial. The questionnaire assessed their beliefs, knowledge regarding care of primary teeth, assessment of treating children, and knowledge regarding importance of primary teeth. All the questionnaires were then compiled and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results and discussion: 53% parents did not know the importance of primary teeth and 73% parents also thought that no treatment is possible for pulpally involved primary teeth. 20% parents believed that root canal treatment can be possible for children and only 10% knew about full coverage restorations. 40% of the general dentists felt that the best treatment in the case of primary necrotic teeth is extraction and only 13% knew about stainless steel crowns. 62% of general dental practitioners pointed out patients’ noninterest in providing crowns whereas 68% parents reported non-information by dentists. Conclusion: Both parents and general dental practitioners have incomplete and inadequate knowledge regarding full coverage restorations, and we need to improve the knowledge and dental awareness of the parents and the general dental practitioners. How to cite this article: Moda A, Saroj G, Sharma S, Gupta B. Knowledge and Awareness among Parents and General Dental Practitioners regarding Rehabilitation with Full Coverage Restoration in Children: A Multi-centric Trial. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):177-180. PMID:27365944

  15. Promoting Awareness of Key Resources for Evidence-Informed Decision-making in Public Health: An Evaluation of a Webinar Series about Knowledge Translation Methods and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Jennifer; Mackintosh, Jeannie; Read, Kristin; Dobbins, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    The National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (NCCMT) has developed several resources to support evidence-informed decision-making – the process of distilling and disseminating best available evidence from research, context, and experience – and knowledge translation, applying best evidence in practice. One such resource, the Registry of Methods and Tools, is a free online database of 195 methods and tools to support knowledge translation. Building on the identification of webinars as a strategy to improve the dissemination of information, NCCMT launched the Spotlight on Knowledge Translation Methods and Tools webinar series in 2012 to promote awareness and use of the Registry. To inform continued implementation of this webinar series, NCCMT conducted an evaluation of the series’ potential to improve awareness and use of the methods/tools within the Registry, as well as identify areas for improvement and “what worked.” For this evaluation, the following data were analyzed: electronic follow-up surveys administered immediately following each webinar; an additional electronic survey administered 6 months after two webinars; and Google Analytics for each webinar. As of November 2015, there have been 22 webinars conducted, reaching 2048 people in multiple sectors across Canada and around the world. Evaluation results indicate that the webinars increase awareness about the Registry and stimulate use of the methods/tools. Although webinar attendees were significantly less likely to have used the methods/tools 6 months after webinars, this may be attributed to the lack of an identified opportunity in their work to use the method/tool. Despite technological challenges and requests for further examples of how the methods/tools have been used, there is overwhelming positive feedback that the format, presenters, content, and interaction across webinars “worked.” This evaluation supports that webinars are a valuable strategy for increasing awareness

  16. Awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among school-going adolescents in Europe: a systematic review of published literature

    OpenAIRE

    Spallek Lena; Samkange-Zeeb Florence N; Zeeb Hajo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major health problem affecting mostly young people, not only in developing, but also in developed countries. We conducted this systematic review to determine awareness and knowledge of school-going male and female adolescents in Europe of STDs and if possible, how they perceive their own risk of contracting an STD. Results of this review can help point out areas where STD risk communication for adolescents needs to be improved. Me...

  17. Promoting awareness of key resources for evidence-informed decision making in public health: An evaluation of a webinar series about knowledge translation methods and tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eYost

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (NCCMT has developed several resources to support evidence-informed decision making – the process of distilling and disseminating best available evidence from research, context and experience – and knowledge translation – applying best evidence in practice. One such resource, the Registry of Methods and Tools, is a free, online database of 195 methods and tools to support knowledge translation. Building on the identification of webinars as a strategy to improve the dissemination of information, NCCMT launched the Spotlight on Knowledge Translation Methods and Tools webinar series in 2012 to promote awareness and use of the Registry. To inform continued implementation of this webinar series, NCCMT conducted an evaluation of the series potential to improve awareness and use of the methods/tools within the Registry, as well as identify areas for improvement and what worked. For this evaluation, the following data was analyzed: electronic follow-up surveys administered immediately following each webinar; an additional electronic survey administered 6-months after two webinars; and Google Analytics for each webinar. As of November, 2015, there have been 22 webinars conducted, reaching 2,048 people in multiple sectors across Canada and around the world. Evaluation results indicate that the webinars increase awareness about the Registry and stimulate use of the methods/tools. Although webinar attendees were significantly less likely to have used the methods/tools 6-months after webinar, this may be attributed to the lack of an identified opportunity in their work to use the method/tool. Despite technological challenges and requests for further examples of how the methods/tools have been used, there is overwhelming positive feedback that the format, presenters, content, and interaction across webinars worked. This evaluation supports that webinars are a valuable strategy for increasing

  18. Promoting Awareness of Key Resources for Evidence-Informed Decision-making in Public Health: An Evaluation of a Webinar Series about Knowledge Translation Methods and Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Jennifer; Mackintosh, Jeannie; Read, Kristin; Dobbins, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    The National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (NCCMT) has developed several resources to support evidence-informed decision-making - the process of distilling and disseminating best available evidence from research, context, and experience - and knowledge translation, applying best evidence in practice. One such resource, the Registry of Methods and Tools, is a free online database of 195 methods and tools to support knowledge translation. Building on the identification of webinars as a strategy to improve the dissemination of information, NCCMT launched the Spotlight on Knowledge Translation Methods and Tools webinar series in 2012 to promote awareness and use of the Registry. To inform continued implementation of this webinar series, NCCMT conducted an evaluation of the series' potential to improve awareness and use of the methods/tools within the Registry, as well as identify areas for improvement and "what worked." For this evaluation, the following data were analyzed: electronic follow-up surveys administered immediately following each webinar; an additional electronic survey administered 6 months after two webinars; and Google Analytics for each webinar. As of November 2015, there have been 22 webinars conducted, reaching 2048 people in multiple sectors across Canada and around the world. Evaluation results indicate that the webinars increase awareness about the Registry and stimulate use of the methods/tools. Although webinar attendees were significantly less likely to have used the methods/tools 6 months after webinars, this may be attributed to the lack of an identified opportunity in their work to use the method/tool. Despite technological challenges and requests for further examples of how the methods/tools have been used, there is overwhelming positive feedback that the format, presenters, content, and interaction across webinars "worked." This evaluation supports that webinars are a valuable strategy for increasing awareness and

  19. Galictis cuja (Mammalia: an update of current knowledge and geographic distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A. Poo-Muñoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The lesser grison (Galictis cuja is one of the least-known mustelids in the Neotropics, despite its broad range across South America. This study aimed to explore current knowledge of the distribution of the species to identify gaps in knowledge and anticipate its full geographic distribution. Eighty-nine articles have mentioned G. cuja since 1969, but only 13 focused on the species. We generated a detailed model of the species' potential distribution that validated previous maps, but with improved detail, supporting previous southernmost records, and providing a means of identifying priority sites for conservation and management of the species.

  20. Epigenetic mechanisms in microbial members of the human microbiota: current knowledge and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Natacha; AlJahdali, Nesreen; Vo, Nguyen; Carbonero, Franck

    2016-09-01

    The human microbiota and epigenetic processes have both been shown to play a crucial role in health and disease. However, there is extremely scarce information on epigenetic modulation of microbiota members except for a few pathogens. Mainly DNA adenine methylation has been described extensively in modulating the virulence of pathogenic bacteria in particular. It would thus appear likely that such mechanisms are widespread for most bacterial members of the microbiota. This review will present briefly the current knowledge on epigenetic processes in bacteria, give examples of known methylation processes in microbial members of the human microbiota and summarize the knowledge on regulation of host epigenetic processes by the human microbiota.

  1. The WHISK (Women's Health: Increasing the Awareness of Science and Knowledge) Pilot Project: Recognizing Sex and Gender Differences in Women's Health and Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lorece V; Dennis, Sabriya; Weaks, Francesca

    2013-09-01

    Women's health encompasses a continuum of biological, psychological, and social challenges that differ considerably from those of men. Despite the remarkable advances in science, women's health and sex differences research is slowly gaining recognition and acceptance. It is important that women's health gain attention as women are usually the gatekeepers of care for the family. Women's health and health outcomes are strongly influenced by sex and gender differences as well as geography. Around the world, the interplay of biology and culture brings about differences in men's and women's health, which have been largely overlooked. The Women's Health: Increasing the Awareness of Science and Knowledge (WHISK) Pilot Project was a multidisciplinary project aimed to increase the awareness of sex and gender differences in women's health and research among healthcare professionals. Theater expression and creative art were used to translate knowledge, enhance understanding, and increase the awareness of sex differences. Findings from this project clearly showed an apparent increase in knowledge and cultivation of new insights.

  2. Knowledge regarding fertility preservation in cancer patients: a population-based survey among Brazilian people during the Pink October awareness event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehin, Mauricio B; Bonetti, Tatiana Cs; Serafini, Paulo C; Motta, Eduardo LA

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge about the risk of infertility in cancer patients after treatment, and the options for fertility preservation based on a survey carried out during the 2013 Pink October campaign. This survey was carried out during the 2013 Pink October event in the most important public park of São Paulo, Brazil. Approximately 900 people expressed interest in learning about breast cancer prevention and fertility preservation by participating in workshops, and 242 people filled out a questionnaire. Most of the respondents (78.5%) were women, and one-fourth (25%) had at least one relative with gynecological cancer. Among women over 40 years of age, 86.3% had been screened for breast cancer at some point. However, few participants (34.0%) were aware that cancer treatment can lead to infertility or had heard about fertility preservation options (22.0%). Having a relative with cancer did not influence their knowledge about fertility preservation (22.4% versus 21.3%; p=0.864). However, a higher educational level was significantly associated with more knowledge about the effects of cancer on fertility and options for fertility preservation. The majority of participants did not have knowledge about the impact of oncologic treatment on fertility and did not know that there are options to preserve fertility in cancer patients. Awareness of infertility risk factors is an essential first step to safeguard future fertility, and therefore, more educational initiatives are needed to spread knowledge about oncofertility.

  3. Players' and coaches' knowledge and awareness of the BokSmart Safe Six injury prevention programme: an ecological cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewry, Nicola; Verhagen, Evert; Lambert, Mike; van Mechelen, Willem; Brown, James

    2017-11-03

    Rugby has a high injury incidence and therefore BokSmart introduced the Safe Six injury prevention programme in 2014 in an attempt to decrease this incidence. In 2015, BokSmart used a 'targeted marketing approach' to increase the awareness and knowledge of the Safe Six. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the change in the knowledge of coaches and players of the Safe Six programme, compared with the launch year, following a 'targeted marketing approach'. Ecological cross-sectional questionnaire study SETTING: The 2014-2016 South African rugby union youth week tournaments. Questionnaires were completed by 4502 players and coaches who attended any of the four youth week tournaments during 2014-2016. Logistic regression (adjusted OR, 95% CI) was performed in comparison to year prior to targeted marketing, separately for coaches and players, for changes in awareness and knowledge. The awareness of the Safe Six increased significantly for players in 2015 (1.74 times (95% CI 1.49 to 2.04)) and in 2016 (1.54 times (95% CI 1.29 to 1.84)). Similarly for coaches, there was a 3.55 times (95% CI 1.23 to 9.99) increase in 2015 and a 10.11 times (95% CI 2.43 to 42.08) increase in 2016 compared with 2014. Furthermore, a player was significantly more likely to be aware of the Safe Six if his coach was aware of the programme (pawareness of the BokSmart Safe Six of both players and coaches increased in 2015 and 2016 (compared with 2014) since the launch of the programme. Coaches, the Unions/the South African Rugby Union and social media were the largest contributors to knowledge in coaches and players. While the 'targeted marketing approach' was associated with an increase in awareness, future studies should determine if this translates into behavioural change. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Survey on Awareness and Knowledge about the Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Systemic and Oral Health in Patients Visiting General Medicine Outpatient Department in Dental Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantala Arunkumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This survey was conducted on known diabetic patients to appraise the awareness and knowledge about the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM on systemic and oral health and to evaluate the source of the information. Aim: The aim of this study was to gather baseline information on awareness and knowledge of diabetic patients regarding their systemic and oral health with the view of enhancing their oral health education. Which will help in updating their knowledge regarding strong association of DM on oral diseases, also about importance of maintaining glycemic levels and good oral health. Methodology: This experimental study was conducted on known diabetic patients visiting general medicine outpatient department for fitness to undergo dental treatments. Patients were evaluated by using a self developed questionnaire by interview method. The questions were about awareness regarding effect of DM on systemic and oral health, sources of information patients have received and elicit the symptoms of DM in those diabetics and educate them regarding importance of glycemic control and maintenance of oral health. Results: All the participants had Type 2 DM. The knowledge about DM disease was poor and most of them attended camps related to DM and their systemic consequences, but none of them attended DM associated oral health camps. Many patients(47.5% were educated about the effect of DM on systemic organs and their prevention, by their treating physician, but none of the physicians informed about effect of DM on oral tissues (0%. Surprisingly, only some dentists (24% told regarding oral complications of DM, large number of patients gathered information by other sources mainly from relatives and friends, who are diabetics (61.9%. So awareness of diabetic patients of their increased risk for oral diseases is low compared to their awareness of systemic diseases. Conclusion: It is of paramount importance for dental specialist to raise the attentiveness

  5. Awareness and knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection among high-risk men of Hispanic origin attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colón-López Vivian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital Human papilloma virus (HPV is one of the most commonly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infection (STIs in men and women. Knowledge about HPV infection among men is limited. This study aims to determine correlates of adequate knowledge of HPV infection among men who attend an STI clinic in Puerto Rico. Methods A cross-sectional study of 206 men was conducted at an STI clinic in San Juan, PR. Adequate knowledge was defined as a score of at least 70% of correct responses among those men who reported having ever heard of HPV. Variables that achieved statistical significance in the bivariate analysis (p Results Although 52.5% of men reported having heard of HPV infection before the survey, only 29.3% of this sub-group had an adequate knowledge of HPV. Most men did not know that HPV is a risk factor for anal (38.7%, penile (50.0% and oral (72.6% cancer. Factors associated with adequate knowledge of HPV in age-adjusted models were being men who have sex with men (MSM (OR=2.6;95%CI=1.1-6.1, self-report of genital warts (OR=3.2;95%CI=1.3-7.9 and herpes (OR=7.4;95% CI=2.2-25.1. MSM was marginally associated with adequate knowledge (OR=2.3;95% CI=0.9-5.9 and self-report of herpes remained significantly associated (OR=5.0;95%CI=1.3-18.4 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Awareness and knowledge of HPV was very low in this group of men. Interventions to increase knowledge and awareness in this group are necessary to promote preventive practices for HPV-related cancers in high-risk groups.

  6. Knowledge and Awareness of MTCT and PMTCT Post-Natal Follow-up Services Among HIV Infected Mothers in the Mankweng Region, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoshaba, Refilwe; Sithole, Sello Levy

    2017-01-01

    The pandemic of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the most severe health challenge affecting children across the world. It is estimated that more than 90% of all HIV infections in children result from Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT). Poor knowledge and awareness of MTCT and Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) among HIV positive mothers and their babies is a major setback to the success of the PMTCT programmes. A qualitative approach and a cross-sectional design were applied in this study. The sample size of the study was 26 participants. Purposive sampling was used to select HIV infected mothers enrolled for PMTCT follow-up services and health care providers responsible for the implementation of the PMTCT programmes. In-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen HIV infected mothers at two health facilities. Two Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted with eleven health workers at the two health facilities. Focus groups comprised of six participants from Mankweng Clinic and five participants from Mankweng Gateway Clinic. The findings from the study reveal that the majority of the respondents were aware of MTCT, but lacked knowledge and understanding about how a mother can transmit HIV to her child during pregnancy, labour and breastfeeding. The majority of the participants did not understand the risk of MTCT after birth and failed to mention breastfeeding as a mode of transmission. However, most of the participants were aware that MTCT can be prevented. The respondents were aware of the importance of treatment adherence as a prevention measure to avoid MTCT. Based on these findings, a number of recommendations were made. The first is that educational and awareness programmes need to be developed or strengthened on health risks. Mass campaign media should provide information on the importance of PMTCT activities through the use of community radio stations, Television, newsletters, bill boards etc. People need to know more about PMTCT

  7. A qualitative study of Ottawa university students’ awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, infertility risk factors and assisted reproductive technologies (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Awareness of infertility risk factors is an essential first step to safeguard future fertility. Whereas several studies have examined university students’ awareness of female fertility and related risk factors, the topic of male infertility has not been well examined. The objective of this study was to assess young men and women’s awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, male and female infertility risk factors and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2008 with a multi-ethnic sample of sixteen male and twenty-three female Ottawa university students, followed by qualitative data analysis to identify major themes. Interview topics included awareness of male and female infertility risk factors, infertility diagnosis/treatments and personal options in the event of future infertility. Results Participants were generally familiar with infertility as a biomedical health problem, could identify sex-specific risk factors but overestimated fertility of women in their thirties and ART success rates. Reproductive health knowledge gaps and confusion of the physiological life-stage of menopause with infertility were apparent. Most participants would pursue in vitro fertilization or international adoption in the event of personal infertility. Some participants wished to use a ‘natural’ approach and were concerned with potential side effects of ART-related medications. Conclusions The general awareness of infertility in young adults is promising and supports the potential uptake for health promotion of fertility preservation. This study underscores the continued need for comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education and promotion for adolescents and young adults. PMID:23962162

  8. Current knowledge on helicobacter pylori infection in end stage renal disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedmat Hossein

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric infection with Helicobacter Pylori in end-stage renal disease patients is of rele-vance because of its potential impact on the quality of life as well as morbidity and mortality of patients. Existed data on the issue are controversial, and we attempt in this article to evaluate the available data to approach extended perception of the current knowledge on the epidemiology, relevance, and optimum therapeutic strategies.

  9. Preliminary study of Korean orthodontic residents' current concepts and knowledge of cleft lip and palate management

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Il-Sik; Shin, Hyo-Keun; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2012-01-01

    Objective A national survey was conducted to assess orthodontic residents' current concepts and knowledge of cleft lip and palate (CLP) management in Korea. Methods A questionnaire consisting of 7 categories and 36 question items was distributed to 16 senior chief residents of orthodontic department at 11 dental university hospitals and 5 medical university hospitals in Korea. All respondents completed the questionnaires and returned them. Results All of the respondents reported that they bel...

  10. [A mental health awareness anti-stigma program including user-trainers has a significant impact on knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of job centre professionals in Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouet, E; Moineville, M; Favriel, S; Leriche, P; Greacen, T

    2014-04-01

    Developing programs and actions to fight stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders is a priority both internationally and in France. Involving mental health service users in these anti-stigma programs has proved to be a key element for effective programs. The present study evaluates the impact of user-trainers in an anti-stigma campaign with job counselors on their knowledge, beliefs, and desire for social distance with regard to mental illness and the mentally ill. Eighty-nine professionals participated in eight mental health awareness days from December 2008 to June 2009. Each training day was built around two pedagogical units: firstly, a psychiatrist providing a theoretical overview of mental illness and care and secondly, user-trainers describing their point of view on mental illness and exchanging with participants. A questionnaire administered at the beginning and at the end of the mental health awareness day assessed the impact of the day on participants' knowledge, beliefs, and desire for social distance. Answers to open questions were evaluated using thematic qualitative analysis. The intervention had statistically significant positive effects on all three training objectives: knowledge, beliefs and desire for social distance. Analysis of qualitative data confirmed participants' need for information and training with regard to providing support to clients with mental health problems; participants frequently attributed their improved self-confidence at the end of the day with regard to providing job coaching for this population group to the presence of user-trainers. A mental health awareness day using mental health service users and psychiatrists as trainers had significant positive effects in terms of reducing stigma with regard to people with mental illness. Further research is needed to understand whether the impact of such awareness approaches can be maintained in everyday professional practice over time. Copyright © 2013

  11. Socio-demographic study on extent of knowledge, awareness, attitude, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock owners in Puducherry region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rajkumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to assess the extent of knowledge, awareness, attitude, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock owners in Puducherry region. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 livestock farmers were selected randomly from eight revenue villages. And each farmer was interviewed with a questionnaire containing both open- and close-ended questions on various aspects of zoonotic diseases, a total of 49 questionnaires were framed to assess the source and transmission of infection to the farmers and to test their knowledge and awareness about zoonotic diseases. The data collected were analyzed by chi-square test using software Graph pad prism, and results were used to assess the relationship between education level and zoonotic disease awareness; risk of zoonotic diseases and its relation with independent variables. Results: The present survey analysis represents that most of the respondents are belonging to the age group of 41-60 years. About 42.8% of respondents’ household having a graduate. The most of the respondent are small-scale farmers and their monthly income was less than Rs. 10,000. About 61.2% of farmers were keeping their animal shed clean. About 29.6% of the respondents were ignorant about cleaning the dog bitten wound. Only 16.4% of respondents knew that diseases in animals can be transmitted to humans. Only 4.8%, 3.6%, 6.8%, and 22.4% of respondents knew about the zoonotic potential of diseases such as brucellosis, tuberculosis (TB, anthrax, and avian flu, respectively. Only 18% of the respondents were aware about zoonotic diseases from cattle. Regarding the list of zoonotic diseases contracted, 37.7% reported respiratory infection, 31.1% digestive disturbances, 15.5% had dermatological problem, and 15.5% reported indiscrete disease such as fever, body pain, and headache joint pain. From the respondent got the zoonotic disease (n=45, 51.2% of the respondent reported chronic infection and 48.8% of the

  12. Current state of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes toward organ transplantation among academic students in Poland and the potential means for altering them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, E; Pfitzner, R; Koźlik, P; Kozynacka, A; Durajski, L; Przybyłowski, P

    2014-10-01

    Students manifest a high level of social commitment. Improving their knowledge and developing more positive attitudes toward organ transplantation may increase the number of organ donations. This study was an assessment of the knowledge and attitudes toward organ transplantation among young people in Poland, with an overview of current beliefs and potential methods for improving transplantology awareness. The study included 400 medical students and 400 nonmedical students from public universities in Kraków, Poland. Data were collected by using an anonymous questionnaire examining demographic factors and transplantology issues. Despite the overall positive attitude toward transplantology among academic students in Poland, the state of knowledge of the nonmedical population remains relatively low. The most important issues for social education to focus on are the role of presumed consent and brain death diagnosis, actual hazards of living donations, recipient qualification criteria, and the attitudes of religious authorities. The overall level of knowledge and the number of positive attitudes were significantly higher among medical students than among nonmedical students, proving that formal educational programs are more efficient than the more accessible but less reliable sources of knowledge. Introduction of transplantology issues in schools and churches, promoting the positive outcomes of organ transplantation rather than negating false beliefs, and eliminating misleading information from the media may significantly increase young people's knowledge and result in more positive attitudes toward transplantology in a society-wide fashion. This outcome could create a favorable background for introducing an opt-in system of consent for organ donation.

  13. Knowledge, awareness and practice of the importance of hand-washing amongst children attending state run primary schools in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimason, Anthony Martin; Masangwi, Salule Joseph; Morse, Tracy Dawn; Jabu, George Christopher; Beattie, Tara Kate; Taulo, Steven Elias; Lungu, Kingsley

    2014-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of hygiene practices in 2 primary schools in Malawi. The study determined: (1) presence of Escherichia coli on the hands of 126 primary school pupils, (2) knowledge, awareness and hygiene practices amongst pupils and teachers and (3) the school environment through observation. Pupil appreciation of hygiene issues was reasonable; however, the high percentage presence of E. coli on hands (71%) and the evidence of large-scale open defaecation in school grounds revealed that apparent knowledge was not put into practice. The standard of facilities for sanitation and hygiene did not significantly impact on the level of knowledge or percentage of school children's hands harbouring faecal bacteria. Evidence from pupils and teachers indicated a poor understanding of principles of disease transmission. Latrines and hand-washing facilities constructed were not child friendly. This study identifies a multidisciplinary approach to improve sanitation and hygiene practices within schools.

  14. Survival in extreme environments – on the current knowledge of adaptations in tardigrades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Jørgensen, Aslak

    2011-01-01

    of the tardigrades and highlight species that are currently used as models for physiological and molecular investigations. Tardigrades are uniquely adapted to a range of environmental extremes. Cryptobiosis, currently referred to as a reversible ametabolic state induced by e.g. desiccation, is common especially...... among limno-terrestrial species. It has been shown that the entry and exit of cryptobiosis may involve synthesis of bioprotectants in the form of selective carbohydrates and proteins as well as high levels of antioxidant enzymes and other free radical scavengers. However, at present a general scheme...... to below )20 C, presumably relying on efficient DNA repair mechanisms and osmoregulation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on adaptations found among tardigrades, and presents new data on tardigrade cell numbers and osmoregulation....

  15. [Housing quality and its health impact in Italy: current knowledge, methodological issues, new evaluation models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Lorenzo; Capolongo, Stefano; Flacco, Maria Elena; Manzoli, Lamberto; Buffoli, Maddalena

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was performed to evaluate the current state of knowledge regarding housing quality in Italy and the adequacy of methods used to assess it. The simple adoption of current criteria required by national and local legislation for the evaluation of dwellings seems to be inadequate, because some crucial parameters, including radon testing and evaluation of accessibility are not considered. Also, current assessment methods have been used exclusively at the local level, and the health impact of housing quality in Italy has never been estimated. There is a strong need for more sensitive methods of evaluation of indoor environments, to be validated on large and representative samples. The authors discuss two possible alternative models which may ensure a multifactorial, holistic assessment of the quality of housing spaces, also by including an evaluation of psycho-social components.

  16. Sensory perception in cetaceans: Part I – Current knowledge about dolphin senses as a representative species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee eKremers

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the literature on sensory perception and behavior in dolphins is devoted to its well-developed vocal and echolocation abilities. In this review, we aim to augment current knowledge by examining the literature on dolphins’ entire Merkwelt (which refers to everything a subject perceives, creating a crucial part of the subject’s Umwelt. We will show that despite extensive knowledge on audition, aspects such as context relatedness, the social function of vocalizations or socio-sexual recognition, remain poorly understood. Therefore, we propose areas for further lines of investigation. Recent studies have shown that the sensory world of dolphins might well be much more diverse than initially thought. Indeed, although underwater and aerial visual systems differ in dolphins, they have both been shown to be important. Much debated electro- and magnetoreception appear to be functional senses according to recent studies. Finally, another neglected area is chemoreception. We will summarize neuroanatomical and physiological data on olfaction and taste, as well as corresponding behavioral evidence. Taken together, we will identify a number of technical and conceptual reasons for why chemosensory data appear contradictory, which is much debated in the literature. In summary, this article aims to provide both an overview of the current knowledge on dolphin perception, but also offer a basis for further discussion and potential new lines of research.

  17. Knowledge and Practice of Standard Precautions and Awareness Regarding Post-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV among Interns of a Medical College in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvankar Mukherjee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the knowledge of interns on standard precautions and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV, and identify the gap between knowledge and practice relating to standard precautions, as well as determining the perceived barriers against adherence to standard precautions.Methods: The study was conducted on 130 interns of 2010-11 batch from a government-run medical college in Kolkata, India. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire with items relating to basic components of standard precautions and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV. The questionnaire also included open ended questions relating to reasons for non-adherence to the practice of standard precautions along with additional space for specific comments, if any.Results: Poor adherence in the use of personal protective equipment, hand washing, safe handling and disposal of needles and sharp objects were found to be among the practices for which the interns expressed correct knowledge. While the main reasons for non-adherence were found to be clumsiness in handling needles, wearing gloves, feeling uncomfortable when wearing aprons, impracticality of regular hand-washing and non-availability of equipment. Although the majority of the respondents (84.6% expressed awareness of washing sites of injured with soap and water, approximately 32.3% did not know that antiseptics could cause more damage. Also, only 63.8% expressed awareness of reporting any incidence of occupational exposure, while knowledge on post-exposure prophylaxis regimens was generally found to be poor.Conclusion: The considerable gap between knowledge and practice of standard precautions and inadequate knowledge of post-exposure prophylaxis emphasizes the need for continuous onsite training of interns with supportive supervision and monitoring of their activities.

  18. Q Fever: Current State of Knowledge and Perspectives of Research of a Neglected Zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rebecca Porter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is an ubiquitous zoonosis caused by an resistant intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. In certain areas, Q fever can be a severe public health problem, and awareness of the disease must be promoted worldwide. Nevertheless, knowledge of Coxiella burnetii remains limited to this day. Its resistant (intracellular and environmental and infectious properties have been poorly investigated. Further understanding of the interactions between the infected host and the bacteria is necessary. Domestic ruminants are considered as the main reservoir of bacteria. Infected animals shed highly infectious organisms in milk, feces, urine, vaginal mucus, and, very importantly, birth products. Inhalation is the main route of infection. Frequently asymptomatic in humans and animals, Q fever can cause acute or chronic infections. Financial consequences of infection can be dramatic at herd level. Vaccination with inactive whole-cell bacteria has been performed and proved effective in humans and animals. However, inactive whole-cell vaccines present several defects. Recombinant vaccines have been developed in experimental conditions and have great potential for the future. Q fever is a challenging disease for scientists as significant further investigations are necessary. Great research opportunities are available to reach a better understanding and thus a better prevention and control of the infection.

  19. Facilitation of Function and Manipulation Knowledge of Tools Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Ishibashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a variety of tools is a common and essential component of modern human life. Patients with brain damage or neurological disorders frequently have cognitive deficits in their recognition and manipulation of tools. In this study, we focused on improving tool-related cognition using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. Converging evidence from neuropsychology, neuroimaging and non- invasive brain stimulation has identified the anterior temporal lobe (ATL and inferior parietal lobule (IPL as brain regions supporting action semantics. We observed enhanced performance in tool cognition with anodal tDCS over ATL and IPL in two cognitive tasks that require rapid access to semantic knowledge about the function or manipulation of common tools. ATL stimulation improved access to both function and manipulation knowledge of tools. The effect of IPL stimulation showed a trend toward better manipulation judgments. Our findings support previous studies of tool semantics and provide a novel approach for manipulation of underlying circuits.

  20. Breast Density Awareness and Knowledge, and Intentions for Breast Cancer Screening in a Diverse Sample of Women Age Eligible for Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Benjamin, Shayna; Andrews, Janna Z; Jandorf, Lina

    2017-08-14

    The objectives of this study were to assess breast density knowledge and breast density awareness, and to identify information associated with intention to complete routine and supplemental screening for breast cancer in a diverse sample of women age eligible for mammography. We quantitatively (self-report) assessed breast density awareness and knowledge (N = 264) in black (47.7%), Latina (35.2%), and white (17%) women recruited online and in the community. Most participants reported having heard about breast density (69.2%); less than one third knew their own breast density status (30.4%). Knowing their own breast density, believing that women should be notified of their breast density in their mammogram report, and feeling informed if being provided this information are associated with likelihood of completing mammogram. Intending mammogram completion and knowledge regarding the impact of breast density on mammogram accuracy are associated with likelihood of completing supplemental ultrasound tests of the breast. These findings help inform practitioners and policy makers about information and communication factors that influence breast cancer screening concerns and decisions. Knowing this information should prepare practitioners to better identify women who may have not been exposed to breast density messages.

  1. [Social awareness related to the rights of the patient and knowledge of the possible actions in case of a breach of those under 30 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełbasa, Sylwia; Niedzielski, Antoni

    2015-06-01

    Patients' rights are a special case of broadly defined human rights. They specify what patient can expect during treatment process and determine his status in contacts with the healthcare system. The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness of patients' rights and knowledge of possible proceedings in case of violation of them among people under 30 years of age. The research was conducted in February and March 2014 on a group of 269 respondents. Research tool was an author-made questionnaire. More than half of respondents (54.6%) had never heard about patients' rights. Among rights, that respondents know the best were: the right to health benefits (58.2%), the right to information (39.3%), the right to consent to health services (33.6%) and the right to the secrecy of information associated with the patient (32%). More than half of respondents declared that they would report a violation of their rights to appropriate institution - 49.2% of respondents indicated the Commissioner for Patients' Rights, 14.8% the National Health Fund, 11.5% Ministry of Health. The study showed also that the main source of acquiring knowledge about patients' rights for the study population is the internet. Analysis of the results showed that the awareness of the patients' rights and knowledge of possible proceedings for violation of them among the study population is low. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  2. Awareness and Knowledge Levels of 18-Year-Old and Older Individuals Regarding Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV Vaccine in Hatay, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Ebru; Cetin, Sirin; Cetin, Meryem; Abacigil, Fatma

    2017-10-23

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and awareness levels of 18-year-old and older women and men on HPV infection, HPV vaccine, and the potential risk factors in Hatay, Turkey. In our study, it was found that overall 27.0 and 23.2% of the participants reported having heard of HPV infection and HPV vaccine. The rate of participants who had heard of HPV infection and HPV vaccine was higher in women than in men (p HPV triggers cervical cancer, 10.2% penile cancer, and 16.7% genital warts, respectively. The overall vaccination rate of the participants was 2.7%. When the total knowledge score of the participants about HPV infection and HPV vaccine was evaluated according to independent variables, it was found that being a woman, urbanization, and having a high level of education had a positive effect on knowledge score, while never having heard of HPV infection and HPV vaccine had a negative effect on knowledge score (p HPV infection before influenced knowledge levels. It was determined that the relation between these variables and the total knowledge scores of the participants was statistically significant (p HPV infection before had higher knowledge levels. The level of knowledge of the participants about HPV infection and HPV vaccine was found to be very low. Having adequate knowledge about HPV infection and increasing the acceptance of HPV vaccination in public will play an important role in decreasing the rate of mortality and morbidity of the different HPV-associated cancers in women and men.

  3. Current practice patterns and knowledge among gynecologic surgeons of InterStim® programming after implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Deslyn T G; Gaskins, Jeremy T; Frazier, LaTisha; Francis, Sean L; Kinman, Casey L; Meriwether, Kate V

    2017-10-03

    The objective of this study was to describe surgeons' current practices in InterStim® programming after initial implantation and their knowledge of programming parameters. We hypothesized that surgeons performing their own reprogramming would have increased knowledge. We administered a written survey to attendees at the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons Scientific Meeting and analyzed those on which surgeons indicated they offer InterStim® care. The survey queried surgeon characteristics, experience with InterStim® implantation and programming, and clinical opinions regarding reprogramming and tested six knowledge-based questions about programming parameters. Correct response to all six questions was the primary outcome. One hundred and thirty-five of 407 (33%) attendees returned the survey, of which 99 met inclusion criteria. Most respondents (88 of 99; 89%) were between 36 and 60 years, 27 (73%) were women, 76 (77%) practiced in a university setting, and 76 (77%) were trained in Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery (FPMRS). Surgeons who had InterStim® programming training were more likely to perform their own programming [15/46 (32%) vs 6/47 (13%), p = 0.03]. Most answered all knowledge-based questions correctly (62/90, 69%); no surgeon characteristics were significantly associated with this outcome. Most surgeons cited patient comfort (71/80, 89%) and symptom relief (64/80, 80%) as important factors when reprogramming, but no prevalent themes emerged on how and why surgeons change certain programming parameters. Surgeons who had formal InterStim® programming training are more likely to perform programming themselves. No surgeon characteristic was associated with improved programming knowledge. We found that surgeons prioritize patient comfort and symptoms when deciding to reprogram.

  4. AMP!: A Cross-site Analysis of the Effects of a Theater-based Intervention on Adolescent Awareness, Attitudes, and Knowledge about HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Tamara; Taboada, Arianna; Stein, Judith A; Milburn, Norweeta G; Gere, David; Lightfoot, Alexandra F

    2016-07-01

    AMP! (Arts-based, Multiple component, Peer-education) is an HIV intervention developed for high school adolescents. AMP! uses interactive theater-based scenarios developed by trained college undergraduates to deliver messages addressing HIV/STI prevention strategies, healthy relationships, and stigma reduction towards people living with HIV/AIDS. We used a pre-test/post-test, control group study design to simultaneously assess intervention effect on ninth grade students in an urban county in California (N = 159) and a suburban county in North Carolina (N = 317). In each location, the control group received standard health education curricula delivered by teachers; the intervention group received AMP! in addition to standard health education curricula. Structural equation modeling was used to determine intervention effects. The post-test sample was 46 % male, 90 % self-identified as heterosexual, 32 % reported receiving free or reduced lunch, and 49 % White. Structural models indicated that participation in AMP! predicted higher scores on HIV knowledge (p = 0.05), HIV awareness (p = 0.01), and HIV attitudes (p = 0.05) at the post-test. Latent means comparison analyses revealed post-test scores were significantly higher than pre-test scores on HIV knowledge (p = 0.001), HIV awareness (p = 0.001), and HIV attitudes (p = 0.001). Further analyses indicated that scores rose for both groups, but the post-test scores of intervention participants were significantly higher than controls (HIV knowledge (p = 0.01), HIV awareness (p = 0.01), and HIV attitudes (p = 0.05)). Thus, AMP!'s theater-based approach shows promise for addressing multiple adolescent risk factors and attitudes concerning HIV in school settings.

  5. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy - historical report in comparison with the current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Agnieszka; Korwin, Magdalena; Bartnik, Ewa; Tońska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-15

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a genetic, maternally inherited disease caused by point mutations in the mitochondrial genome. LHON patients present with sudden, painless and usually bilateral loss of vision caused by optic nerve atrophy. The first clinical description of the disease was made by Theodor Leber, a German ophthalmologist, in 1871. Here we present his thorough notes about members of four families and their pedigrees. We also provide insights into the current knowledge about LHON pathology, genetics and treatment in comparison with Leber's findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Global forces and local currents in Argentina's science policy crossroads: restricted access or open knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Javier Etchichury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the tensions between two competing approaches to scientific policy in Argentina. The traditional vision favors autonomous research. The neoliberal conception fosters the link between science and markets. In the past few years, a neodevelopmentalist current also tries to stress relevance of scientific research. Finally, the article describes how the Open Access movement has entered the debate. The World Bank intervention and the human rights dimension of the question are discussed in depth. The article introduces the notion of open knowledge as a guiding criterion to design a human-rights based scientific policy.

  7. Men’s knowledge and awareness of maternal, neonatal and child health care in rural Bangladesh: a comparative cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasreen Hashima E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The status of men’s knowledge of and awareness to maternal, neonatal and child health care are largely unknown in Bangladesh and the effect of community focused interventions in improving men’s knowledge is largely unexplored. This study identifies the extent of men’s knowledge and awareness on maternal, neonatal and child health issues between intervention and control groups. Methods This cross sectional comparative study was carried out in six rural districts of Bangladesh in 2008. BRAC health programme operates ‘improving maternal, neonatal and child survival’ intervention in four of the above-mentioned six districts. The intervention comprises a number of components including improving awareness of family planning, identification of pregnancy, providing antenatal, delivery and postnatal care, newborn care, under-5 child healthcare, referral of complications and improving clinical management in health facilities. In addition, communities are empowered through social mobilization and advocacy on best practices in maternal, neonatal and child health. Three groups were identified: intervention (2 years exposure; transitional (6 months exposure and control. Data were collected by interviewing 7,200 men using a structured questionnaire. Results Men prefer to gather in informal sites to interact socially. Overall men’s knowledge on maternal care was higher in intervention than control groups, for example, advice on tetanus injection should be given during antenatal care (intervention = 50%, control = 7%. There were low levels of knowledge about birth preparedness (buying delivery kit = 18%, arranging emergency transport = 13% and newborn care (wrapping = 25%, cord cutting with sterile blade = 36%, cord tying with sterile thread = 11% in the intervention. Men reported joint decision-making for delivery care relatively frequently (intervention = 66%, control = 46%, p

  8. Men's knowledge of their own fertility: a population-based survey examining the awareness of factors that are associated with male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumler, D; Chan, P; Lo, K C; Takefman, J; Zelkowitz, P

    2016-12-01

    How knowledgeable are men about the medical, environmental and psychological factors that are associated with male infertility? Men, across most demographic groups, have limited knowledge of the various factors that are associated with male infertility. Few surveys have focused on men's knowledge of their own fertility. Studies of both men and women have found that men are comparatively less knowledgeable about issues of fertility and reproductive health. A regionally representative sample of Canadian men completed a web-based survey of male fertility and reproductive health, over a 2-month period in 2015. Men, aged 18-50 years, were recruited for the study. There were 701 male participants, with a mean age of 34.1 years. Each participant was asked to identify factors associated with male infertility; fertility knowledge was assessed through two open-ended questions and a comprehensive list of risk factors and attendant health issues. Men were only able to identify 51% of the risk factors and 45% of the health issues associated with male infertility. Men were most aware of the modifiable risk factors for infertility (e.g. sexually transmitted infections, smoking cigarettes), relative to their knowledge of fixed risk factors (e.g. delayed puberty, size of testicles) and the attendant health issues (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes). The overall level of fertility knowledge did not vary by most demographic characteristics (e.g. age, education, employment, income), though men from ethnic minority groups displayed moderately greater awareness. Additionally, younger men, those with lower incomes and those who had no desire to have future biological children were more likely to identify themselves as unaware of associations with infertility in the open-ended questions. Self-reported knowledge was significantly associated with higher overall knowledge scores. More than half of the sample expressed an interest in obtaining information about male fertility and

  9. Management of newborn infant born to mother suffering from tuberculosis: current recommendations & gaps in knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Hema; Das, Saurabhi; Faridi, M M A

    2014-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global disease with increase in concern with growing morbidity and mortality after drug resistance and co-infection with HIV. Mother to neonatal transmission of disease is well known. Current recommendations regarding management of newborns of mothers with tuberculosis are variable in different countries and have large gaps in the knowledge and practices. We compare and summarize here current recommendations on management of infants born to mothers with tuberculosis. Congenital tuberculosis is diagnosed by Cantwell criteria and treatment includes three or four anti-tubercular drug regimen. Prophylaxis with isoniazid (3-6 months) is recommended in neonates born to mother with TB who are infectious. Breastfeeding should be continued in these neonates and isolation is recommended only till mother is infectious, has multidrug resistant tuberculosis or non adherent to treatment. BCG vaccine is recommended at birth or after completion of prophylaxis (3-6 months) in all neonates.

  10. Adequacy of Physicians Knowledge Level of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation to Current Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmu Kocalar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to test the level of information on CPR and suitability to current application of the phsicians practicing in hospital ANEAH. Material and Method: The form of a test of 20 questions fort his purpose has been prepared in accordance with the 2010 AHA-ERC CPR guidelines. This form distributed to volunteer physicians to fill in. A total of 173 physicians agreed to participate in he study. The results were analyzed statistically and tried to determine the factors affecting the level of information. Results:According to the results of the study physicians gender, age and the total duration of physicians and medical asistance doesn%u2019t affect the level of information. The number of CPR within 1 month positively affect the level of knowledge. The number of theoretical and practical training in medical school, have taken the positive impact the level of knowledge of physicians. The training period after graduation, significantly increased the level of physicians information. The order of these training sessions with the asistant courses, congress, seminars and lessions on the sempozims are effective. Discussion: CPR trainig programs for physicians should be standardized, updated and expanded. Recurent in-service trainig should be provided to increase phsicians knowledge on skills.

  11. Sexual chemoecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae): Current knowledge and implications for vector control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of medical and veterinary importance, due to their ability to transmit many pathogens and parasites. Renewed interest has been recently devoted to the potential of sterile insect technique (SIT) for mosquito suppression. However, the success of the SIT is mostly dependent on the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with the wild ones in the field. Nevertheless, little is known on the sexual chemical ecology of mosquitoes, with special reference to the role of chemical signals in males. We reviewed the current knowledge on mosquito sexual chemical ecology and other key cues affecting courtship and mating behavior. The information available on the aggregation and sex pheromones in mosquito males is rather limited. To the best of our knowledge, the components of the aggregation pheromone stimulating swarming mechanisms have been fully characterized only for Aedes aegypti, while evidence for aggregation pheromones in other mosquito species remains elusive. Further research on this issue is needed, as well as to dissect the relative importance of visual (with special reference to swarming landmarks), vibrational, olfactory and tactile cues perceived during swarming and mate. On the other hand, more knowledge is available for cuticular hydrocarbons, which modulate mating behavior in several species of economic importance. These compounds, coupled with volatile aggregation components, have potential interest for the development of monitoring and trapping systems. In addition, the analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons are essential for discrimination between closely related mosquito species and/or populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Female genital cosmetic surgery: a critical review of current knowledge and contemporary debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Virginia

    2010-07-01

    Female genital cosmetic surgery procedures have gained popularity in the West in recent years. Marketing by surgeons promotes the surgeries, but professional organizations have started to question the promotion and practice of these procedures. Despite some surgeon claims of drastic transformations of psychological, emotional, and sexual life associated with the surgery, little reliable evidence of such effects exists. This article achieves two objectives. First, reviewing the published academic work on the topic, it identifies the current state of knowledge around female genital cosmetic procedures, as well as limitations in our knowledge. Second, examining a body of critical scholarship that raises sociological and psychological concerns not typically addressed in medical literature, it summarizes broader issues and debates. Overall, the article demonstrates a paucity of scientific knowledge and highlights a pressing need to consider the broader ramifications of surgical practices. "Today we have a whole society held in thrall to the drastic plastic of labial rejuvenation."( 1 ) "At the present time, the field of female cosmetic genital surgery is like the old Wild, Wild West: wide open and unregulated"( 2 ).

  13. Translator awareness Translator awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Wilss

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness. If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness.

  14. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Vea, Maria; Zuazo, Miren; Gato, Maria; Arasanz, Hugo; Fernández-Hinojal, Gonzalo; Escors, David; Kochan, Grazyna

    2017-10-14

    The current knowledge on tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is based mainly on the extensive work performed in murine models. Data obtained for human counterparts are generated on the basis of tumor analysis from patient samples. Both sources of information led to determination of the main suppressive mechanisms used by these cell subsets in tumor-bearing hosts. As a result of the identification of protein targets responsible for MDSCs suppressive activity, different therapeutics agents have been used to eliminate/reduce their adverse effect. In the present work, we review the current knowledge on suppressive mechanisms of MDSCs and therapeutic treatments that interfere with their differentiation, expansion or activity. Based on the accumulation of new evidences supporting their importance for tumor progression and metastasis, the interest in these cell types is increasing. We revise the methods of MDSC generation/differentiation ex vivo that may help in overcoming problems associated with limited numbers of cells available from animals and patients for their study.

  15. Biological determinants linking infant weight gain and child obesity: current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bridget E; Johnson, Susan L; Krebs, Nancy F

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions. Excessive weight gain in infancy is associated with persistence of elevated weight status and later obesity. In this review, we make the case that weight gain in the first 6 mo is especially predictive of later obesity risk due to the metabolic programming that can occur early postpartum. The current state of knowledge regarding the biological determinants of excess infant weight gain is reviewed, with particular focus on infant feeding choice. Potential mechanisms by which different feeding approaches may program the metabolic profile of the infant, causing the link between early weight gain and later obesity are proposed. These mechanisms are likely highly complex and involve synergistic interactions between endocrine effects and factors that alter the inflammatory and oxidative stress status of the infant. Gaps in current knowledge are highlighted. These include a lack of data describing 1) what type of infant body fat distribution may impart risk and 2) how maternal metabolic dysfunction (obesity and/or diabetes) may affect milk composition and exert downstream effects on infant metabolism. Improved understanding and management of these early postnatal determinants of childhood obesity may have great impact on reducing its prevalence.

  16. The Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Alphabet Knowledge, and Letter Writing to Name Writing in Children With Specific Language Impairment and Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelko, Stacey L; Lieberman, R Jane; Schwartz, Jamie; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie

    2018-01-19

    Name writing is one aspect of emergent writing that has been used to understand emergent literacy development. Name-writing skills and the relationship of name writing to other emergent literacy skills have not been studied extensively in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Children with SLI consistently demonstrate delays in phonological awareness (PA), alphabet knowledge (AK), print awareness, and emergent writing. The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of PA, AK, and letter writing to name writing in children with SLI and typically developing (TD) children. Participants were 65 children (22 SLI, 43 TD) with an average age of 53 months. Participants completed the Assessment of Literacy and Language (Lombardino, Lieberman, & Brown, 2005), a letter-writing task, and a name-writing task. Data were analyzed using correlation and mediation modeling. Mediation modeling, a more sophisticated analysis, revealed that PA, AK, and letter writing, in serial, were mediating variables for language status on name writing. Phonemic awareness, AK, and letter writing help to explain the relationship between language status and name writing. These skills should be integrated during treatment, using a horizontal approach with developmentally appropriate activities, particularly for children with SLI.

  17. NETWORKED LEARNING AS A PROCESS OF IDENTIFICATION IN THE INTERSECTION OF COLLABORATIVE KNOWLEDGE BUILDING - FOSTERING CREATIVITY, AWARENESS AND RE-USE OF OER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Rina; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Within professional education a recent shift has taken place. Professional education has moved from specialized education and update of professional knowledge, over competence-based education, to, recently, education with goals such as creativity, innovation, entrepreneur- and entrepreneurship...... to lifelong learning. Our elucidation and discussion of OER are targeted towards educators and educational designers and take their point of departure in the intersection between 1) a view of knowledge production and change in action patterns as a result of education, 2) a view of dialogue as tool...... for negotiation of meaning in learning, and 3) a view of OER as potential resources and triggers of pedagogic/strategic awareness in educational design. The three phenomena are viewed and discussed in relation to societal and political reforms. The claim of the authors is that there is a strong need for a new...

  18. Legal rights to safe abortion: knowledge and attitude of women in North-West Ethiopia toward the current Ethiopian abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzeyen, R; Ayichiluhm, M; Manyazewal, T

    2017-07-01

    To assess women's knowledge and attitude toward Ethiopian current abortion law. A quantitative, community-based cross-sectional survey. Women of reproductive age in three selected lower districts in Bahir Dar, North-West Ethiopia, were included. Multi-stage simple random sampling and simple random sampling were used to select the districts and respondents, respectively. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire comprising questions related to knowledge and attitude toward legal status of abortion and cases where abortion is currently allowed by law in Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data and multivariable logistic regression computed to assess the magnitude and significance of associations. Of 845 eligible women selected, 774 (92%) consented to participate and completed the interview. A total of 512 (66%) women were aware of the legal status of the Ethiopian abortion law and their primary sources of information were electronic media such as television and radio (43%) followed by healthcare providers (38.7%). Among women with awareness of the law, 293 (57.2%) were poor in knowledge, 188 (36.7%) fairly knowledgeable, and 31 (6.1%) good in knowledge about the cases where abortion is allowed by law. Of the total 774 women included, 438 (56.5%) hold liberal and 336 (43.5%) conservative attitude toward legalization of abortion. In the multivariable logistic regression, age had a significant association with knowledge, whereas occupation had a significant association with attitude toward the law. Women who had poor knowledge toward the law were more likely to have conservative attitude toward the law (adjusted odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.61). Though the Ethiopian criminal code legalized abortion under certain circumstances since 2005, a significant number of women knew little about the law and several protested legalization of abortion. Countries such as Ethiopia with high maternal mortality records need to lift

  19. Biological variation in musculoskeletal injuries: current knowledge, future research and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Malcolm; September, Alison V; Posthumus, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Evidence from familial and genetic association studies have reported that DNA sequence variants play an important role, together with non-genetic factors, in the aetiology of both exercise-associated and occupational-associated acute and chronic musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. The associated variants, which have been identified to date, may contribute to the interindividual variation in the structure and, by implication, mechanical properties of the collagen fibril and surrounding matrix within musculoskeletal soft tissues, as well as their response to mechanical loading and other stimuli. Future work should focus on the establishment of multidisciplinary international consortia for the identification of biologically relevant variants involved in modulating injury risk. These consortia will improve the limitations of the published hypothesis-driven genetic association studies, since they will allow resources to be pooled in recruiting large well-characterised cohorts required for whole-genome screening. Finally, clinicians and coaches need to be aware that many direct-to-consumer companies are currently marketing genetic tests directly to athletes without it being requested by an appropriately qualified healthcare professional, and without interpretation alongside other clinical indicators or lifestyle factors. These specific genetic tests are premature and are not necessarily required to evaluate susceptibility to musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Current practice should rather consider susceptibility through known risk factors such as a positive family history of a specific injury, a history of other tendon and/or ligament injuries and participation in activities associated with the specific musculoskeletal injuries. Potential susceptible athletes may then be individually managed to reduce their risk profile. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Improving knowledge, awareness, and use of flexible career policies through an accelerator intervention at the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villablanca, Amparo C; Beckett, Laurel; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Howell, Lydia P

    2013-06-01

    The challenges of balancing a career and family life disproportionately affect women in academic health sciences and medicine, contributing to their slower career advancement and/or their attrition from academia. In this article, the authors first describe their experiences at the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine developing and implementing an innovative accelerator intervention designed to promote faculty work-life balance by improving knowledge, awareness, and access to comprehensive flexible career policies. They then summarize the results of two faculty surveys--one conducted before the implementation of their intervention and the second conducted one year into their three-year intervention--designed to assess faculty's use and intention to use the flexible career policies, their awareness of available options, barriers to their use of the policies, and their career satisfaction. The authors found that the intervention significantly increased awareness of the policies and attendance at related educational activities, improved attitudes toward the policies, and decreased perceived barriers to use. These results, however, were most pronounced for female faculty and faculty under the age of 50. The authors next discuss areas for future research on faculty use of flexible career policies and offer recommendations for other institutions of higher education--not just those in academic medicine--interested in implementing a similar intervention. They conclude that having flexible career policies alone is not enough to stem the attrition of female faculty. Such policies must be fully integrated into an institution's culture such that faculty are both aware of them and willing to use them.