WorldWideScience

Sample records for current issues survey

  1. Mathematicians' Views on Current Publishing Issues: A Survey of Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kristine K.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research mathematicians' attitudes about and activity in specific scholarly communication areas, as captured in a 2010 survey of more than 600 randomly-selected mathematicians worldwide. Key findings include: (1) Most mathematicians have papers in the arXiv, but posting to their own web pages remains more common; (2) A third…

  2. Current Issues in Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shi; Martinez, Larry R.; Hubert, Van Hoof; Tews, Michael; Torres, Leonardo; Farfán, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Ram (2015 Ram, Y. (2015). Hostility or hospitality? A review on violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry. Current Issues in Tourism. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1064364 [Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar] . Hostility or hospitality? A review on violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry. Current Issues in Tourism. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1064364) posits that violence and harassment are areas of concern...

  3. Current Issues in Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, J B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester (United States)

    2007-02-07

    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference

  4. Current Issues in Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, J B

    2007-01-01

    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference to a far better review article or book on modern

  5. Current issues in asteroseismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazot, Michael; Monteiro, Mario J P F G; Straka, Christian W [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2008-10-15

    In this contribution we briefly review some of the current issues and promises for the future by asteroseismology. We are entering a new phase in this field driven by the wealth of data that has been collected and data that will soon be available for asteroseismology across the HR Diagram. Major difficulties in the descriptions of stellar interiors that arose in the second half of the 20th century may now be in part addressed and solved (this is the expectation{exclamation_point}) by asteroseismology with unprecedented precision. In this contribution we list some of the key open questions in stellar physics, the seismic data we expect to collect in the near future, and some techniques that will provide the tools to connect data and models.

  6. Current issues and actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  7. Current issues and actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed

  8. Issues in environmental survey design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iachan, R.

    1989-01-01

    Several environmental survey design issues are discussed and illustrated with surveys designed by Research Triangle Institute statisticians. Issues related to sampling and nonsampling errors are illustrated for indoor air quality surveys, radon surveys, pesticide surveys, and occupational and personal exposure surveys. Sample design issues include the use of auxiliary information (e.g. for stratification), and sampling in time. We also discuss the reduction and estimation of nonsampling errors, including nonresponse and measurement bias

  9. Issues in neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental results on low energy confirming the structure of the effective Lagrangian of the weak neutral current processes as predicted by the Salam-Weinberg model are reviewed. Some possible modifications of the effective Lagrangian and the feasibility of their experimental verification are also considered. (P.L.)

  10. Current issues in onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, E F; Amsden, G W

    1998-02-01

    To review the epidemiology, mycology, clinical features and diagnosis, current pharmacotherapy, and pharmacoeconomics of onychomycosis. We conducted a MEDLINE search from 1966 to May 1997. References from these articles, manufacturers of the discussed antimycotics, and relevant abstracts from recent dermatology conferences were used to collect pertinent data. Data were obtained from published controlled studies and case reports. In the pharmacotherapy section, the most weight was placed on fully reported, randomized, controlled comparative trials, but abstracts and case series were included when well-controlled studies were unavailable. Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder that has a substantial impact on patients' quality of life. It is most commonly caused by dermatophytes, but yeasts and molds can also be involved. Diagnosis is made through clinical presentation, potassium hydroxide preparations, and culture of tissue/nail samples. Griseofulvin was the drug of choice for many years, but its low cure rates and the development of newer, more effective drugs made it fall out of favor. Current therapeutic alternatives include fluconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine. Data on the use of fluconazole are limited to case series and reports. Continuous dosing of itraconazole and terbinafine are well-proven therapies. New data are becoming available on the use of pulse itraconazole dosing, which has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for fingernail infections. These drugs are well tolerated, but attention to drug interactions is necessary with the azoles. Currently, continuous terbinafine appears to be the most cost-effective drug for dermatophyte onychomycosis.

  11. Clopidogrel Resistance: Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NS Neki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet agents are mainly used in the prevention and management of atherothrombotic complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy, combining aspirin and clopidogrel, is the standard care for patients having acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention according to the current ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines. But in spite of administration of dual antiplatelet therapy, some patients develop recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events especially stent thrombosis which is a serious clinical problem. Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel varies widely among patients based on ex vivo platelet function measurements. Clopidogrel is an effective inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation due to its selective and irreversible blockade of the P2Y12 receptor. Patients who display little attenuation of platelet reactivity with clopidogrel therapy are labeled as low or nonresponders or clopidogrel resistant. The mechanism of clopidogrel resistance remains incompletely defined but there are certain clinical, cellular and genetic factors including polymorphisms responsible for therapeutic failure. Currently there is no standardized or widely accepted definition of clopidogrel resistance. The future may soon be realised in the routine measurement of platelet activity in the same way that blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar are followed to help guide the therapy, thus improving the care for millions of people. This review focuses on the methods used to identify patients with clopidogrel resistance, the underlying mechanisms, metabolism, clinical significance and current therapeutic strategies to overcome clopidogrel resistance. J Enam Med Col 2016; 6(1: 38-46

  12. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Characteristics and Perceptions of the Medicare Population Data from the 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey is a series of source books based on the...

  13. Current Issues in Maritime Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagtmann, Maria Anne

    2008-01-01

     In the early part of 2008, Maria Anne Wagtmann had the opportunity to interview the former president of the International Maritime Health Association, Dr. Tim Carter, in London about a number of current maritime health issues. In this interview, Dr. Tim Carter, who is cur­rently employed...... as the Chief Medical Advisor for the British government's Department for Transport, gives his personal - and thus non-official - opinions on these issues....

  14. Current trends in research and clinical issues in the study of personality and its disorders: a survey of the presentations at the ISSPD anniversary congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Erik; Sørensen, Per; Pedersen, Liselotte

    2014-10-01

    The International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders (ISSPD) celebrated its 25th anniversary in September 2013 in Copenhagen and commemorated the First International Congress at the same site. The overall theme of the congress was "Bridging Personality and Psychopathology: The Person Behind the Illness." More than 400 abstracts were submitted, and the program included 8 keynote presentations, 18 invited symposia, a debate on current controversial issues in the classification of personality disorders (Fossati, Tyrer, Livesley, and Krueger), an ISSPD award lecture (Silk), a jubilee lecture (Simonsen), a young researchers' symposium (Hopwood, Sharp, and Kaess), and special lectures on the Danish philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Hans Christian Andersen. In this article we will survey the presentations and highlight the important issues in order to underline the current trends in research and clinical interests in personality disorders. The keynote video presentations, invited symposia, and slide presentations are freely available at www.isspd2013.com.

  15. Current issues in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1994-12-01

    This review talk discusses some issues of active research in perturbative QCD. The following topics are discussed: (1) current value of αs; (2) heavy quark production in hadron collisions; (3) production of Ψ and Υ in p anti p collisions; (4) prompt photon production; (5) small-x and related phenomena; and (6) particle multiplicity in heavy quark jets

  16. Solar home systems. Insights from developing countries of the world. A literature survey of current issues and topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlamini, S.N.

    1999-08-01

    The study presents an overview of the main issues discussed and topics in regards and with relevance to Solar Home Systems. The main issues are grouped and discussed in five topics: financing, institutional arrangements, market opportunities, information and communication, and standards and quality control. Major challenges as far as projects are concerned, whether public or private, are highlighted, in particular regarding aspects of financing and institutional mechanisms. The up-front costs make Solar Home Systems out of reach for the greater number of people who need them most. On the other hand, sourcing private finance for renewable energy technologies in general, and Solar Home Systems in particular, has often been very difficult because of the perceived risks. Even if these funds would be available, weak institutional links often undermine project success. However, a handful of success stories exist today and could possibly be replicated elsewhere in the developing world. The subject of information dissemination needs to be revisited and clearly set in perspective. Several countries and organisations have now developed standards and technical norms, but universality and applicability are issues still at hands. 61 refs

  17. Power quality issues current harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkili, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics provides solutions for the mitigation of power quality problems related to harmonics. Focusing on active power filters (APFs) due to their excellent harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three-phase without neutral), and four-wire (three-phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads, the text:Introduces the APF technology, describing various APF configurations and offering guidelines for the selection of APFs for specific application considerationsCompares shunt active filter (SHAF) control strategi

  18. Cloud Computing Security Issue: Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Shailza; Kaur, Rajpreet

    2011-12-01

    Cloud computing is the growing field in IT industry since 2007 proposed by IBM. Another company like Google, Amazon, and Microsoft provides further products to cloud computing. The cloud computing is the internet based computing that shared recourses, information on demand. It provides the services like SaaS, IaaS and PaaS. The services and recourses are shared by virtualization that run multiple operation applications on cloud computing. This discussion gives the survey on the challenges on security issues during cloud computing and describes some standards and protocols that presents how security can be managed.

  19. Trends in Current Issues, Y2K-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Leslie; DeBlois, Peter B.

    2005-01-01

    EDUCAUSE inaugurated its annual Current Issues Survey in 2000 by asking the primary representatives, typically CIOs, of its member institutions to identify up to three critical IT issues (five starting in 2004) from among 30 to 40 in response to each of four questions. The survey response rate has typically been 35 to 40 percent, with a…

  20. Current Issues and Distributive Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosal, Lorenca Consuelo

    1992-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan on the issue of distributive justice, or fairness in the ways things are distributed among individuals and groups. Includes a student reading concerning a proposed guaranteed standard of living. Proposes an activity that calls for student discussion of a constitutional amendment that would offer such a guarantee. (SG)

  1. Preface. Current Issues in Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holy-Luczaj Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This interdisciplinary volume consist of papers on various problems in contemporary ethics. It presents the following issues: equalizing the level of positive liberty, the phenomenon of human cooperation, ethical questions related to artificial intelligence, extending ethical obligations toward artifacts, and soteriological threads of alienation criticism of religion.

  2. Preface. Current Issues in Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Holy-Luczaj Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    This interdisciplinary volume consist of papers on various problems in contemporary ethics. It presents the following issues: equalizing the level of positive liberty, the phenomenon of human cooperation, ethical questions related to artificial intelligence, extending ethical obligations toward artifacts, and soteriological threads of alienation criticism of religion.

  3. Nuclear standards: current issues and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of the important issues that currently face the nuclear standards field is presented and a discussion of how each of these issues is being resolved is given. The economic benefits that properly developed standards produce are listed

  4. Current uranium mill licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarano, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The problems encountered to insure environmentally safe mining and milling of uranium ores are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the management of tailings resulting from milling operations. It is pointed out that although the concentration of radioactivity in the tailings is relatively low, control measures are necessary because of the large quantities involved and because of the long half-life of the parent radionuclides present. The major concerns with mill tailings are radon release to the atmosphere and isolation of the tailings from the human environment. Since it is anticipated that the amount of tailings created by the year 2000 will be more than an order of magnitude greater than the quantities that have been generated during the past 30 years, it is recommended that all mill tailings storage areas be located remote from public contact and in areas such that disruption and dispersion by natural forces and seepage of toxic materials into ground water systems are reduced to the maximum extent achievable. Technical issues that receive attention during the NRC licensing process for uranium mills and the preparation of environmental impact statements are discussed briefly

  5. Current bioethical issues in parasitology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boury D.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases constitute the most common infections among the poorest billion people, entailing high mortality rates and leading to long-term infirmities and poverty. Although the setting-up of public health programs implies many ethical consequences, the range of specific questions in parasitology that can be attributed to bioethics remains, to a large extent, unexplored. From the present analysis, it emerged three main issues which characterize ethical stakes in parasitology: accounting the complexity of the field of intervention, putting the principle of justice into practice and managing the changing context of research. From the research angle, medical parasitology-mycology, as other biological disciplines, is undergoing tensions derived from biological reductionism. Thanks to its links with the history and philosophy of the sciences, bioethics can help to clarify them and to explain the growing hold that technologies have over scientific thinking. On the whole, researchers as well as clinicians are called on to assume a specific responsibility, proportional to their competence and their place in the making of scientific, health, economic and social decisions.

  6. Current resistance issues in antimicrobial therapy | Senekal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 28, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Sexting: Current Research Gaps and Legislative Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Fawn; Jaishankar, K; Agustina, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    'Sexting, the portmanteau of Sex and Texting, has become a hot topic of debate between the legislators, researchers, educators, parents and teens' (Jaishankar, 2009, para 1). In spite of the considerable and growing body of literature on sexting, there are significant gaps in the current research. A review of research to date also reveals a dearth of cross-national and cross-cultural research on the topic of sexting. Notably, legal and ethical issues abound with the current method for punishi...

  8. Surveying Adult Education Practitioners about Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kimberly S.; Wood, George S., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    An Indiana survey of 113 of 248 adult basic educators, 113 of 117 trainers, and 23 of 29 continuing educators identified ethical dilemmas they face. Fifty-two percent believed a code of ethics should be created and enforced by professional associations, covering broad issues. Those who had experience with codes were positive about them. (SK)

  9. Physics issues of high bootstrap current tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, T.; Azumi, M.; Ishii, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Physics issues of a tokamak plasma with a hollow current profile produced by a large bootstrap current are discussed based on experiments in JT-60U. An internal transport barrier for both ions and electrons was obtained just inside the radius of zero magnetic shear in JT-60U. Analysis of the toroidal ITG microinstability by toroidal particle simulation shows that weak and negative shear reduces the toroidal coupling and suppresses the ITG mode. A hard beta limit was observed in JT-60U negative shear experiments. Ideal MHD mode analysis shows that the n = 1 pressure-driven kink mode is a plausible candidate. One of the methods to improve the beta limit against the kink mode is to widen the negative shear region, which can induce a broader pressure profile resulting in a higher beta limit. The TAE mode for the hollow current profile is less unstable than that for the monotonic current profile. The reason is that the continuum gaps near the zero shear region are not aligned when the radius of q min is close to the region of high ∇n e . Finally, a method for stable start-up for a plasma with a hollow current profile is describe, and stable sustainment of a steady-state plasma with high bootstrap current is discussed. (Author)

  10. Current health issues in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ho Hong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During the adolescent period, they experience rapid physical, emotional, cognitive developments while they establish their lifestyle and habitual routines that strongly influence adult health and life. Recent rapid economic growth in Korea, and the earlier onset of physical, sexual, and psychological maturation of adolescents, has resulted in changes in the health status of adolescents from many years ago. Risk-taking behaviors such as drinking alcohol, smoking, and sexual experiences are critical issues that affect the health of, adolescents. Therefore, it is important for pediatricians to note the that risk-taking behaviors of adolescents in Korea that are caused by individual psychosocial factors. This review article illustrates the current health status of Korean adolescents and provides an overview of risktaking behaviors, to inform pediatricians about some of the key issues.

  11. Radiation risk - historical perspective and current issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerer, Albrecht M. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Munich, Germany and Institute for Radiation Biology, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    The assessment of radiation risk needs to be seen against the background of a historical development that has reversed the initial belief in a general beneficial effect of radiation to apprehension and fear. Numerical risk estimates are, today, based on large epidemiological studies, and the observations on the A-bomb survivors are outlined as the primary source of information. Since the epidemiological findings are obtained from relatively high radiation exposures, extrapolations are required to the much lower doses that are relevant to radiation protection. The evolution of extrapolation procedures up to current attempts at mechanistic modelling is outlined, and some of the open issues are reviewed. (author)

  12. Radiation risk - historical perspective and current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, Albrecht M.

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of radiation risk needs to be seen against the background of a historical development that has reversed the initial belief in a general beneficial effect of radiation to apprehension and fear. Numerical risk estimates are, today, based on large epidemiological studies, and the observations on the A-bomb survivors are outlined as the primary source of information. Since the epidemiological findings are obtained from relatively high radiation exposures, extrapolations are required to the much lower doses that are relevant to radiation protection. The evolution of extrapolation procedures up to current attempts at mechanistic modelling is outlined, and some of the open issues are reviewed. (author)

  13. Reforming health care in Canada: current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Enis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current health care reform issues in Canada. The provincial health insurance plans of the 1960s and 1970s had the untoward effects of limiting the federal government's clout for cost control and of promoting a system centered on inpatient and medical care. Recently, several provincial commissions reported that the current governance structures and management processes are outmoded in light of new knowledge, new fiscal realities and the evolution of power among stake-holders. They recommend decentralized governance and restructuring for better management and more citizen participation. Although Canada's health care system remains committed to safeguarding its guiding principles, the balance of power may be shifting from providers to citizens and "technocrats". Also, all provinces are likely to increase their pressure on physicians by means of salary caps, by exploring payment methods such as capitation, limiting access to costly technology, and by demanding practice changes based on evidence of cost-effectiveness.

  14. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey - Limited Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) is a continuous, multipurpose survey of a representative national sample of the Medicare population. There are two...

  15. Hospital safety climate surveys: measurement issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeanette; Sarac, Cakil; Flin, Rhona

    2010-12-01

    Organizational safety culture relates to behavioural norms in the workplace and is usually assessed by safety climate surveys. These can be a diagnostic indicator on the state of safety in a hospital. This review examines recent studies using staff surveys of hospital safety climate, focussing on measurement issues. Four questionnaires (hospital survey on patient safety culture, safety attitudes questionnaire, patient safety climate in healthcare organizations, hospital safety climate scale), with acceptable psychometric properties, are now applied across countries and clinical settings. Comparisons for benchmarking must be made with caution in case of questionnaire modifications. Increasing attention is being paid to the unit and hospital level wherein distinct cultures may be located, as well as to associated measurement and study design issues. Predictive validity of safety climate is tested against safety behaviours/outcomes, with some relationships reported, although effects may be specific to professional groups/units. Few studies test the role of intervening variables that could influence the effect of climate on outcomes. Hospital climate studies are becoming a key component of healthcare safety management systems. Large datasets have established more reliable instruments that allow a more focussed investigation of the role of culture in the improvement and maintenance of staff's safety perceptions within units, as well as within hospitals.

  16. Current issues in allogeneic islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Charles A; Lawrence, Michael C; Naziruddin, Bashoo

    2017-10-01

    Transplantation of allogenic pancreatic islets is a minimally invasive treatment option to control severe hypoglycemia and dependence on exogenous insulin among type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. This overview summarizes the current issues and progress in islet transplantation outcomes and research. Several clinical trials from North America and other countries have documented the safety and efficacy of clinical islet transplantation for T1D patients with impaired hypoglycemia awareness. A recently completed phase 3 clinical trial allows centres in the United States to apply for a Food and Drug Administration Biologics License for the procedure. Introduction of anti-inflammatory drugs along with T-cell depleting induction therapy has significantly improved long-term function of transplanted islets. Research into islet biomarkers, immunosuppression, extrahepatic transplant sites and potential alternative beta cell sources is driving further progress. Allogeneic islet transplantation has vastly improved over the past two decades. Success in restoration of glycemic control and hypoglycemic awareness after islet transplantation has been further highlighted by clinical trials. However, lack of effective strategies to maintain long-term islet function and insufficient sources of donor tissue still impose limitations to the widespread use of islet transplantation. In the United States, wide adoption of this technology still awaits regulatory approval and, importantly, a financial mechanism to support the use of this technology.

  17. Current safety issues of CANDU licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.; Natalizio, A.

    1994-01-01

    As requested by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety(KINS), the status of five generic licensing issues has been examined and their potential impact on a new plant that would be constructed in Canada has been evaluated. The results and conclusions of this evaluation are summarized as follows: steam explosion in calandria, hydrogen explosion in containment, use of PSA in reactor licensing, human factors, safety critical software

  18. Field primatology of today: current ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, K C; Riley, E P

    2010-09-01

    As members of professional organizations such as American Society of Primatologists (ASP) and the International Primatological Society (IPS), primatologists must adhere to a set of nonhuman primate-focused principles outlined in resolutions and policy statements on, for example, the ethical treatment of nonhuman primates. Those of us that work in the field must also address issues such as the protection of primate health in the wild and the conservation of wild primate populations. Moreover, we increasingly find ourselves in complex situations where we must balance human and nonhuman primate needs and interests. The selection of commentary pieces in this edition of the American Journal of Primatology originated from presentations given in the symposium, Field Primatology of Today: Navigating the Ethical Landscape, held at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists (ASP) in September 2009. The goals of that symposium and these resulting commentary pieces are threefold: (1) to revive a discussion of key contemporary ethical issues faced by field primatologists, (2) to highlight the need for centrally placed ethical considerations in various facets of our professional lives, particularly research and teaching, and (3) to consider what a comprehensive ethical code that addresses all of these issues might look like. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Current issues in electromagnetic knockout reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giusti, C.

    2002-01-01

    The role of correlations and two-body currents in one-nucleon emission reactions induced by an electromagnetic probe is discussed. The theoretical framework for cross section calculations is outlined and some results are presented for the exclusive "1"6O(e,e'p) "1"5N and "1"6O(γ, p) "1"5N reactions in relativistic and nonrelativistic models. A reliable and consistent evaluation of different types of correlations is needed to determine the spectroscopic factors. A consistent description of (e,e'p) and (γ, p) data, with the same spectroscopic factors, can be obtained when meson-exchange currents (MEC) are included in the theoretical model. MEC give an important contribution to (γ, p) cross sections and have only a small effect in (e, e'p). In the relativistic model the two-body seagull current affects the calculated cross sections less than in the nonrelativistic calculations.

  20. Current technical issues in international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    Safeguards systems, and the associated need for technical and systems development, reflect changing conditions and concerns associated with the nuclear fuel cycle and the safety and security of nuclear materials and facilities. In particular, the implementation of international safeguards has led to the recognition of certain technical issues, both old and new, which are in need of resolution. These are: 1. The grading of nuclear materials and facilities with respect to their relative safeguards significance. 2. The extension and upgrading of safeguards techniques to maintain adequate protection in view of constantly increasing amounts of material to be safeguarded. 3. The balance between safeguards mechanisms based on physical protection and material accounting, and the role of surveillance and containment in each case. 4. The role of information systems as a basis for both analytical feedback and the determination of the factors affecting system effectiveness and their interrelationship. 5. A determination of the degree to which the overall technical effectiveness of international inspection activities can be quantified. Each of these technical issues must be considered in light of the specific objectives of international safeguards, which differ from domestic safeguards in terms of the level of the threat, the safeguards mechanisms available, and the diversion strategies assumed. Their resolution in this international context is essential if the effectiveness and viability of international safeguards are to be maintained

  1. Current Aeromedical Issues in Rotary Wing Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    by seat and harness design faults. The introduction of armoured seats to protect the pilot from ground small arms fire has altered the geometry of...the flying position by pushing the pilot upwards and forwards. The weight of anterior body armour increases the flexing forces on the thoracic spine...should be put in place. Current four and five point restraint systems in pilot compartments require restraint straps be draped over flight jackets

  2. Gratitude: A Current Issue in Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Kardas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the emphasis on the positive feelings and strengths of individuals in the mental health by the emergence of positive psychology approach. Positive psychology approach points to the potential of positive emotions contributing to clients' well-being, and various studies in this framework show that gratitude as a positive feeling has become one of the tools used to improve clients’ mental health. In this review study, the concept of gratitude, which is quite old in various fields but is a current topic in the field of psychology, is handled in various dimensions and some suggestions are given for practitioners and researchers in this framework.

  3. Current issues and strategies for transmission planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, A.L. [Electranix, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Rajapakse, A. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Following the widespread deregulation of the electric power industry in the early 1990s, significant changes occurred in the regulatory and planning environments of the industry. Several regions of North America remain fully or partially regulated in the traditional sense including most Canadian provinces, except for Alberta and Ontario. Although the Mexican system has separate generation and transmission companies and current restructuring efforts are underway, all companies are state-owned, and private investment in energy is heavily constrained by the Mexican constitution. In these regulated regions, traditional generation and transmission expansion planning methods remain in use. This paper presented an overview of current trends in transmission planning strategies that have evolved in response to the restructuring of the power industry, and a conceptual framework of a procedure that would guide planners faced with the challenges of incorporating large scale wind generation in deregulated environments. The paper provided background information on the effect of deregulation on transmission planning. Planning strategies that were discussed included quantifying risk to help identify best alternatives; use of reference systems to estimate generator costs and reduce uncertainty; project based transmission expansion; transmission construction ahead of generation; and generation ahead of transmission. The impact of wind on transmission planning as well as future work addressing challenges posed by wind were also addressed. Research is continuing in this area to illustrate the concepts proposed through a detailed case study. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Reproductive rights: Current issues of late abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law context and also the matter of the woman's reproductive rights, here observed through legislation and court practice. The gynecologist has an obligation to obtain the informed consent of each patient. Information's should be presented in reasonably understandable terms and include alternative modes of treatment, objectives, risks, benefits, possible complications, and anticipated results of such treatment. Pregnant woman should receive supportive counseling before and particularly after the procedure. The method chosen for all terminations should ensure that the fetus is born dead. This should be undertaken by an appropriately trained practitioner. Reform in abortion law, making it legally accessible to woman, is not necessarily the product of a belief in woman's rights, but can be a means of bringing the practice of abortion back under better control. Counseling and good medical practice in performing late abortion are the instruments to drive this point even further home. It does not undermine the woman who wants to make a positive decision about her life and its purpose is not to produce feelings of insecurity and guilt. It concludes that existing law should not be changed but that clear rules should be devised and board created to review late term abortion. In Serbia, this leads to creation and set up guidelines for reconciling medical justification for late abortion with existing law, especially with solutions which brings comparative law. .

  5. Can Weighting Compensate for Sampling Issues in Internet Surveys?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaske, J.J.; Jacobs, M.H.; Sijtsma, M.T.J.; Beaman, J.

    2011-01-01

    While Internet surveys have increased in popularity, results may not be representative of target populations. Weighting is commonly used to compensate for sampling issues. This article compared two surveys conducted in the Netherlands—a random mail survey (n = 353) and a convenience Internet survey

  6. Current educational issues in the clinical neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiens, R; Elleker, M G; Goldsand, G; Hugenholtz, H; Puddester, D; Toyota, B; Findlay, J M

    2001-11-01

    Canadian training in the clinical neurosciences, neurology and neurosurgery, faces significant challenges. New balances are being set by residents, their associations and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada between clinical service, education and personal time. The nature of hospital-provided medical service has changed significantly over the past decade, impacting importantly on resident training. Finally, future manpower needs are of concern, especially in the field of neurosurgery, where it appears that soon more specialists will be trained than can be absorbed into the Canadian health care system. A special symposium on current challenges in clinical neuroscience training was held at the Canadian Congress of Neurological Sciences in June 2000. Representatives from the Canadian Association of Interns and Residents, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and English and French neurology and neurosurgery training programs made presentations, which are summarized in this report. Residency training has become less service-oriented, and this trend will continue. In order to manage the increasingly sophisticated hospital services of neurology and neurosurgery, resident-alternatives in the form of physician "moonlighters" or more permanent hospital-based clinicians or "hospitalists" will be necessary in order to operate major neuroclinical units. Health authorities and hospitals will need to recognize and assume this responsibility. As clinical experience diminishes during residency training, inevitably so will the concept of the fully competent "generalist" at the end of specialty training. Additional subspecialty training is being increasingly sought by graduates, particularly in neurosurgery. Training in neurology and neurosurgery, as in all medical specialties, has changed significantly in recent years and continues to change. Programs and hospitals need to adapt to these changes in order to ensure the production of fully

  7. Survey Research: Methods, Issues and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ernest W.; Torrisi-Steele, Geraldine; Wang, Victor C. X.

    2015-01-01

    Survey research is prevalent among many professional fields. Both cost effective and time efficient, this method of research is commonly used for the purposes of gaining insight into the attitudes, thoughts, and opinions of populations. Additionally, because there are several types of survey research designs and data collection instruments, the…

  8. Current issues in medical education | Al Shehri | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22, No 4 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Current issues in libraries, information science and related fields

    CERN Document Server

    Woodsworth, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This volume is unusual in that the theme is quite broad in scope yet focused on a specific topic; innovations and boundary-pushing studies in areas not usually found in library literature. It examines the periphery of the field surveyed in previous volumes. The chapters are grouped in two categories: professional issues and transforming services.

  10. Current Issues in LPP Research and Their Impact on Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquennes, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    After a very broad description of what language policy and planning is about this paper presents an overview of some of the current preoccupations of researchers focusing on language policy and planning as one of the blooming fields of applied linguistics. The current issues in language policy and planning research that are dealt with include…

  11. Survey of Security and Privacy Issues of Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Borgohain, Tuhin; Kumar, Uday; Sanyal, Sugata

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a general survey of all the security issues existing in the Internet of Things (IoT) along with an analysis of the privacy issues that an end-user may face as a consequence of the spread of IoT. The majority of the survey is focused on the security loopholes arising out of the information exchange technologies used in Internet of Things. No countermeasure to the security drawbacks has been analyzed in the paper.

  12. Information Technology in New Zealand: Review of Emerging Social Trends, Current Issues, and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Erturk, Emre; Fail, Derwyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the general state of information technology in New Zealand society, current issues, and policies. It is a qualitative study that reviews recent scholarly articles, periodicals, and surveys in order to create an understanding of some of the information technology issues and trends in New Zealand. After reviewing previous research, it assesses the potential existence and nature of a 'digital divide' in New Zealand society whilst also evaluating possible strategic responses ...

  13. A Study of Current Trends and Issues Related to Technical/Engineering Design Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales Alice

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of engineering design graphics educators who responded to questions related to current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education. Concludes that there is a clear trend in institutions towards the teaching of constraint-based modeling and computer-aided manufacturing. (Author/YDS)

  14. A Quebec survey of issues in cancer pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Neil; Ayoub, Joseph; Farley, Justine; Foucault, Claudette; Lesage, Pauline; Mayo, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    We report the results of a cancer pain survey mailed to Quebec hematologist-oncologists and palliative care physicians in 1999. The survey was designed to sample views on the current status of pain management and on obstacles to the provision of adequate pain relief for patients. The survey, formulated by an ethics network centered at the Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, was distributed to all members of the Association of Hematologist-Oncologists of Quebec and to all physician members of the Quebec Palliative Care Association. Responses were obtained from 138 Palliative Care Association members (response rate 61%) and 76 hematologist-oncologists (response rate 45%). Major obstacles reported included inadequate assessment of both contributory psychosocial issues and severity of pain, patient reluctance to take opioids, and inadequate access to non-drug techniques for pain relief. Access to opioids was not regarded as a problem. Both groups felt generally competent in their ability to manage various aspects of cancer pain therapy. They gave little credit to their formal medical school or residency training. Fifty-six percent of the palliative care group and 57% of the hemato-oncologists rated their medical school experience as only "poor" or "fair" on a 4-point scale. Residency ratings were modestly better. We conclude that medical faculties should assign a high priority to teaching health professionals patient assessment techniques. Simple symptom assessment scales should be routinely used in oncology/palliative care practice. Medical school training in pain management is not highly regarded and should be enhanced. We also note that, based on response to the scenario of a patient presenting with severe pain, many physicians, while feeling competent in the use of opioids, may be overly conservative in their initial use.

  15. Internet governance origins, current issues, and future possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Balleste, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Internet Governance: Origins, Current Issues, and Future Possibilities provides an introductory, multidisciplinary account of the forces at work in the evolving concept of internet governance and includes computer history, Internet beginnings, institutions and stakeholders, proposed models of governance, and human rights.

  16. Summary of current issues regarding space flight habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, J B

    2000-09-01

    One of the implicit, yet often under-emphasized qualities of human tended spaceflight is the habitability of the spacecraft and mission. This document summarizes some of the points that characterize the current status of this topic. In addition, the summary concludes with goals for future development for this issue.

  17. Current Economic Issues in Employee Benefits. Background Paper No. 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Stephen A.

    A multitude of public policy issues currently surround the tax treatment of employee benefits, particularly since the tax-favored status of employer contributions to pensions and health insurance has been blamed for a shrinking tax base that has exacerbated the federal budget deficit, an inefficient and bloated health-care sector, overinsurance by…

  18. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-04

    as Putin’s attempt to test how far he can go in destabilizing Ukraine while avoiding the imposition of additional sanctions by the EU and United...cooperative threat reduction and other nonproliferation activities with Russia. Figure 1. Ukraine Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

  19. Exploring Current Issues through the Hot Topics Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbett, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a research paper and poster assignment used in an undergraduate leisure and human behavior course. The intent of this learning activity is to increase student knowledge of current issues within the industry as well as to enhance students' professional communication skills. A description of the assignment is shared along with…

  20. Survey of cyber security issues in smart grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Thomas M.

    2010-04-01

    The future smart grid will enable cost savings and lower energy use by means of smart appliances and smart meters which support dynamic load management and real-time monitoring of energy use and distribution. The introduction of two-way communications and control into power grid introduces security and privacy concerns. This talk will survey the security and privacy issues in smart grids using the NIST reference model, and relate these issues to cyber security in the Internet.

  1. Current status and burning issues in immunotoxicity testing of drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, Jan Willem van der; Loveren, Henk van

    2005-01-01

    Besides pathology endpoints, additional immune function endpoints have been included in the Note for Guidance on Repeated Dose Toxicity by the European Union (July 2001), which concern the analysis of antibody responses to a T-cell-dependent antigen. Guidance papers of other regulatory authorities are published as well. The main issue is the need for functional immunotoxicity testing to detect unintended immunosuppression. The International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) has surveyed studies from the files of the pharmaceutical industry to find the proportion of compounds that can be detected by additional immunotoxicity testing. Preliminary analysis shows that 10-15% of the compounds in the survey only react positively to the additional tests. More data are requested from the pharmaceutical industry. The Expert Working Group of the ICH has decided to choose a cause-for-concern approach to immmunotoxicity rather than a routine-screening approach. The causes for concern are to be defined during ICH negotiations

  2. Nuclear power in the OECD countries results and current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    The first use of nuclear power for the generation of electricity on a commercial scale occurred in the United Kingdom in 1956. Today, 13 OECD countries have 318 nuclear units in operation and 66 more in construction or on order. This outstanding achievement is the result of the successful organization, start up, and operation of an industry to design, build, equip, fuel, and maintain these facilites. Nuclear power, however, is currently troubled by a number of issues that may impair its ability to reach its full potential. The industry has acknowledged problems that can be and are being managed. But the industry also has a number of political difficulties that could be beyond its ability to resolve with its own resources. These are issues common to the introduction of new technologies into a complex world. Nevertheless, nuclear power continues to be the means by which we can provide the electric power needed to raise the living standard of everyone on the globe

  3. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration.

  4. Feminism and nurse-midwifery. Historical overview and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, W F; McCool, S J

    1989-01-01

    Despite the fact that the profession of nurse-midwifery and feminism are both disciplines concerned with women and issues affecting women's lives, there has been little investigation or acknowledgement of relationships between their two paradigms. The work presented here is an attempt to discover both similarities and differences between nurse-midwifery and feminist thought. Using a historical approach, it is shown that despite the common goal of improving and maintaining women's status in the world, whether in general or more specifically with regard to health, feminist theorists and nurse-midwives, to a large degree, have worked separately from each other, rarely acknowledging in any formal way the importance of the other discipline. Current issues that have an effect on the practice of nurse-midwifery today--lay midwifery, the profession of nursing, and nurse-midwifery research--are presented in relation to contemporary feminist thought.

  5. Food and Health Some Current Issues and Future Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan)

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with some of the many current issues and future trends in the area of food, diet and health in Europe. A complete coverage would be impossible in a short article in view of the extent and complexity of the food system and its major interaction with health. It is also important to stress at the outset that food/diet is only one component of health and other factors such as environment, overall lifestyle and genetics also play a major role. The genetic dimension is of particula...

  6. Tabulations of Responses from the 1999 Survey of Spouses of Active Duty Personnel. Volume 2. Programs and Services, Employment, Family, Economic Issues, and Background

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deak, Mary

    2001-01-01

    The 1999 Active Duty Surveys (ADS) gather information on current location, spouse's military assignment, military life, programs and services, spouse employment, family information, economic issues, and background...

  7. Nuclear power systems: Their safety. Current issue review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.C.

    1994-04-01

    Human beings utilize energy in many forms and from a variety of sources. A number of countries have chosen nuclear-electric generation as a component of their energy system. At the end of 1992, there were 419 power reactors operating in 29 countries, accounting for more than 15% of the world's production of electricity. In 1992, 13 countries derived at least 25% of their electricity from nuclear units, with Lithuania leading at just over 78%, followed closely by France at 72%. In the same year, Canada produced about 16% of its electricity from nuclear units. Some 53 power reactors are under construction in 14 countries outside the former USSR. Within the ex-USSR countries, six new reactors are currently under construction. No human endeavour carries the guarantee of perfect safety and the question of whether of not nuclear-electric generation represents an 'acceptable' risk to society has long been vigorously debated. Until the events of late April 1986 in the then Soviet Union, nuclear safety had indeed been an issue for discussion, for some concern, but not for alarm. The accident at the Chernobyl reactor irrevocably changed all that. This disaster brought the matter of nuclear safety into the public mind in a dramatic fashion. Subsequent opening of the ex-Soviet nuclear power program to outside scrutiny has done little to calm people's concerns about the safety of nuclear power in that part of the world. This paper discusses the issue of safety in complex energy systems and provides brief accounts of some of the most serious reactor accidents that have occurred to date, as well as more recent, less dramatic events touching on the safety issue. (author). 7 refs

  8. Urban science education: examining current issues through a historical lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions. When the findings from these urban science education studies were consolidated with the historical overview provided, it was revealed that the basic design and regulatory policies of urban schools have not substantively changed since their establishment in the nineteenth century. Teachers in urban science classrooms continue to face issues of inequality, poverty, and social injustice as they struggle to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse student population. Furthermore, persistent concerns of conflicting Discourses, cultural dissonance, and oppression create formidable barriers to science learning. Despite the many modifications in structure and organization, urban students are still subjugated and marginalized in systems that emphasize control and order over high-quality science education.

  9. Current issues and perspectives in food safety and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrand, G

    2015-12-01

    In this review, current issues and opportunities in food safety assessment are discussed. Food safety is considered an essential element inherent in global food security. Hazard characterization is pivotal within the continuum of risk assessment, but it may be conceived only within a very limited frame as a true alternative to risk assessment. Elucidation of the mode of action underlying a given hazard is vital to create a plausible basis for human toxicology evaluation. Risk assessment, to convey meaningful risk communication, must be based on appropriate and reliable consideration of both exposure and mode of action. New perspectives, provided by monitoring human exogenous and endogenous exposure biomarkers, are considered of great promise to support classical risk extrapolation from animal toxicology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Current safety issues related to research reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala-Ruiz, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Agency has included activities on research reactor safety in its Programme and Budget (P and B) since its inception in 1957. Since then, these activities have traditionally been oriented to fulfil the Agency's functions and obligations. At the end of the decade of the eighties, the Agency's Research Reactor Safety Programme (RRSP) consisted of a limited number of tasks related to the preparation of safety related publications and the conduct of safety missions to research reactor facilities. It was at the beginning of the nineties when the RRSP was upgraded and expanded as a subprogramme of the Agency's P and B. This subprogramme continued including activities related to the above subjects and started addressing an increasing number of issues related to the current situation of research reactors (in operation and shut down) around the world such as reactor ageing, modifications and decommissioning. The present paper discusses some of the above issues as recognised by various external review or advisory groups (e.g., Peer Review Groups under the Agency's Performance Programme Appraisal System (PPAS) or the standing International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG)) and the impact of their recommendations on the preparation and implementation of the part of the Agency's P and B relating to the above subject. (author)

  11. Mycoplasma genitalium infections: current treatment options and resistance issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunil Sethi, Kamran Zaman, Neha Jain Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India Abstract: Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the important causes of non-gonococcal urethritis. Rising incidence and emerging antimicrobial resistance are a major concern these days. The poor clinical outcomes with doxycycline therapy led to the use of azithromycin as the primary drug of choice. Single-dose azithromycin regimen over a period of time was changed to extended regimen following studies showing better clinical cures and less risk of resistance development. However, emerging macrolide resistance, either due to transmission of resistance or drug pressure has further worsened the management of this infection. The issues of drug resistance and treatment failures also exist in cases of M. genitalium infection. At present, the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR M. genitalium strains is an alarming sign for its treatment and the associated public health impact due to its complications. However, newer drugs like pristinamycin, solithromycin, sitafloxacin, and others have shown a hope for the clinical cure, but need further clinical trials to optimize the therapeutic dosing schedules and formulate appropriate treatment regimens. Rampant and inappropriate use of these newer drugs will further sabotage future attempts to manage MDR strains. There is currently a need to formulate diagnostic algorithms and etiology-based treatment regimens rather than the syndromic approach, preferably using combination therapy instead of a monotherapy. Awareness about the current guidelines and recommended treatment regimens among clinicians and local practitioners is of utmost importance. Antimicrobial resistance testing and global surveillance are required to assess the efficacy of current treatment regimens and for guiding future research for the early detection and management of MDR M. genitalium infections

  12. Survey of Current Best Practices for Diving in Contaminated Water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steigleman, W

    2002-01-01

    .... Navy divers operating in contaminated water. This survey attempted to identify the current best practices and equipment for diving in contaminated water, including personal protective equipment as well as hazard identification, diver training...

  13. Current management of anorectal malformation in Egypt: a survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/aim: Anorectal malformation (ARM) represents a wide spectrum of anomalies. Its management includes various strategies. This survey aims at detecting the current preferences of Egyptian pediatric surgeons regarding the management of ARM. Materials and methods: A survey was circulated individually to the ...

  14. Current trends in research and clinical issues in the study of personality and its disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Sørensen, Per; Pedersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    lecture (Simonsen), a young researchers' symposium (Hopwood, Sharp, and Kaess), and special lectures on the Danish philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Hans Christian Andersen. In this article we will survey the presentations and highlight the important issues in order to underline the current......The International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders (ISSPD) celebrated its 25th anniversary in September 2013 in Copenhagen and commemorated the First International Congress at the same site. The overall theme of the congress was "Bridging Personality and Psychopathology: The Person...... Behind the Illness." More than 400 abstracts were submitted, and the program included 8 keynote presentations, 18 invited symposia, a debate on current controversial issues in the classification of personality disorders (Fossati, Tyrer, Livesley, and Krueger), an ISSPD award lecture (Silk), a jubilee...

  15. Animal-cell culture media: History, characteristics, and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tatsuma; Asayama, Yuta

    2017-04-01

    Cell culture technology has spread prolifically within a century, a variety of culture media has been designed. This review goes through the history, characteristics and current issues of animal-cell culture media. A literature search was performed on PubMed and Google Scholar between 1880 and May 2016 using appropriate keywords. At the dawn of cell culture technology, the major components of media were naturally derived products such as serum. The field then gradually shifted to the use of chemical-based synthetic media because naturally derived ingredients have their disadvantages such as large batch-to-batch variation. Today, industrially important cells can be cultured in synthetic media. Nevertheless, the combinations and concentrations of the components in these media remain to be optimized. In addition, serum-containing media are still in general use in the field of basic research. In the fields of assisted reproductive technologies and regenerative medicine, some of the medium components are naturally derived in nearly all instances. Further improvements of culture media are desirable, which will certainly contribute to a reduction in the experimental variation, enhance productivity among biopharmaceuticals, improve treatment outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies, and facilitate implementation and popularization of regenerative medicine.

  16. Australian survey on current practices for breast radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Kylie L; Pogson, Elise M; Batumalai, Vikneswary; Boxer, Miriam M; Yap, Mei Ling; Delaney, Geoff P; Metcalfe, Peter; Holloway, Lois

    2015-12-01

    Detailed, published surveys specific to Australian breast radiotherapy practice were last conducted in 2002. More recent international surveys specific to breast radiotherapy practice include a European survey conducted in 2008/2009 and a Spanish survey conducted in 2009. Radiotherapy techniques continue to evolve, and the utilisation of new techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), is increasing. This survey aimed to determine current breast radiotherapy practices across Australia. An online survey was completed by 50 of the 69 Australian radiation therapy treatment centres. Supine tangential beam whole breast irradiation remains the standard of care for breast radiotherapy in Australia. A growing number of institutions are exploring prone positioning and IMRT utilisation. This survey demonstrated a wide variation in the benchmarks used to limit and report organ at risk doses, prescribed dose regimen, and post-mastectomy bolus practices. This survey also indicated, when compared with international literature, that there may be less interest in or uptake of external beam partial breast irradiation, prone positioning, simultaneous integrated boost and breath hold techniques. These are areas where further review and research may be warranted to ensure Australian patients are receiving the best care possible based on the best evidence available. This survey provides insight into the current radiotherapy practice for breast cancer in Australia. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  17. Current and Future Critical Issues in Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaz, Homayun K.; Dix, Jeff C.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research was to tackle several problems that are currently of great importance to NASA. In a liquid rocket engine several complex processes take place that are not thoroughly understood. Droplet evaporation, turbulence, finite rate chemistry, instability, and injection/atomization phenomena are some of the critical issues being encountered in a liquid rocket engine environment. Pulse Detonation Engines (PDE) performance, combustion chamber instability analysis, 60K motor flowfield pattern from hydrocarbon fuel combustion, and 3D flowfield analysis for the Combined Cycle engine were of special interest to NASA. During the summer of 1997, we made an attempt to generate computational results for all of the above problems and shed some light on understanding some of the complex physical phenomena. For this purpose, the Liquid Thrust Chamber Performance (LTCP) code, mainly designed for liquid rocket engine applications, was utilized. The following test cases were considered: (1) Characterization of a detonation wave in a Pulse Detonation Tube; (2) 60K Motor wall temperature studies; (3) Propagation of a pressure pulse in a combustion chamber (under single and two-phase flow conditions); (4) Transonic region flowfield analysis affected by viscous effects; (5) Exploring the viscous differences between a smooth and a corrugated wall; and (6) 3D thrust chamber flowfield analysis of the Combined Cycle engine. It was shown that the LTCP-2D and LTCP-3D codes are capable of solving complex and stiff conservation equations for gaseous and droplet phases in a very robust and efficient manner. These codes can be run on a workstation and personal computers (PC's).

  18. Telemedicine for Developing Countries. A Survey and Some Design Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Carlo; Pozzani, Gabriele; Pozzi, Giuseppe

    2016-11-02

    Developing countries need telemedicine applications that help in many situations, when physicians are a small number with respect to the population, when specialized physicians are not available, when patients and physicians in rural villages need assistance in the delivery of health care. Moreover, the requirements of telemedicine applications for developing countries are somewhat more demanding than for developed countries. Indeed, further social, organizational, and technical aspects need to be considered for successful telemedicine applications in developing countries. We consider all the major projects in telemedicine, devoted to developing countries, as described by the proper scientific literature. On the basis of such literature, we want to define a specific taxonomy that allows a proper classification and a fast overview of telemedicine projects in developing countries. Moreover, by considering both the literature and some recent direct experiences, we want to complete such overview by discussing some design issues to be taken into consideration when developing telemedicine software systems. We considered and reviewed the major conferences and journals in depth, and looked for reports on the telemedicine projects. We provide the reader with a survey of the main projects and systems, from which we derived a taxonomy of features of telemedicine systems for developing countries. We also propose and discuss some classification criteria for design issues, based on the lessons learned in this research area. We highlight some challenges and recommendations to be considered when designing a telemedicine system for developing countries.

  19. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanica...

  20. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan Budd Russo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issue in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirement for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration Botanical Guidance. The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety and public health issues remain.

  1. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain. PMID:27683558

  2. Methodological Issues in Survey Research: A Historical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer, W.; de Leeuw, E.D.; van der Zouwen, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a historical overview of social surveys and describe the historical development of scientific survey methodology and survey statistics. The origins of survey research can be traced back to the early 19th century and the first scientiflc survey was conducted in England in

  3. AGRICULTURAL DYNAMICS IN PAKISTAN: CURRENT ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawad Zafar Ahmad Khan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is heavily contributing towards the economy of Pakistan. Water deficiency and drought conditions, long duration load shedding issue, poor extension services, absence of land reforms, absence of distribution of certified varieties, high price of fertilizers, deliberate use of adulterated, non-recommended and expired insecticides, non utilization of cultivable waste land, conventional farming practices, indirect access of farmer to main market, absence of ecological based cropping pattern, smuggling of agricultural inputs and outputs, lack of cooperation between agricultural research, education & extension services, absence of crop insurance, depletion of forests, lack of modern post-harvest technologies and disease outbreaks of poultry birds are some of the key issues that are playing a negative role in demotion of agricultural sector in Pakistan. The review article will briefly discuss above mentioned issues and some of the possible remedies under the environment of Pakistanand their adoption to improve the agricultural productivity in the country.

  4. Current issues regarding radiation risk education in Medical Universities of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, Teruhisa; Hosoi, Yoshio; Matsuda, Naoki; Kanda, Reiko; Hosoya, Noriko; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Awai, Kazuo; Kondo, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of radiation research is to understand the biological effects of radiation exposure to humans, the molecular mechanisms of biological response m organisms, and its sale application for medical and industrial use. In order to know the current state or education on fundamentals of radiology including radiation biology, a nation-wide questionnaire survey had been performed at medical schools and different co-medical courses in Japanese universities, during the period of 2004 and 2005. The survey results showed: (1) Difference in teaching hours for education on radiation between medical schools with and without department or division of radiation biology or radiation-related field. (2) Teaching hours for education on radiation in nursing course were very limited among the co-medical courses. Although, some improvement have been found about the state of education on radiation risk at medical schools, after the disaster of nuclear accident at Fukushima No.1 Nuclear Power Plant of TEPCO in March 2011. However, still much more effort t is needed to improve basic education on radiation. Science Council of Japan issued the recommendation on September 4, 2014 'Making radiation health risk education compulsory in medical education'. The working group for this purpose was set up under the Council of Head of National Medical Schools of Japan, on January 28, 2015. Here, we describe the details and current issues regarding radiation risk education in medical schools of Japan, as well as the efforts required for its betterment. (author)

  5. Delphi survey of issues after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Yasunobu; Seo, Kami; Motoyoshi, Tadahiro; Okada, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 has catastrophic impacts on Japan. Japan is currently on the way to recovery. However, as the damage on the country as well as society is so serious, Japanese society is urged to change some systems including hazard management, energy policy, information systems and city planning. These changes are accompanied with social group realignments, thus necessarily followed by various risks. To cope with these risk issues, SRA-Japan established the special research committee for the Great East Japan Earthquake. The aim of the committee is, from viewpoints of risk analysts, to create and relate messages about risk issues in 2-3 years, in ten years and in thirty years from the earthquake. To do this, the committee garners SRA-Japan member's opinions about possible risks in Japan by using Delphi method. In SRA-Japan, there are over 600 members in interdisciplinary fields from various backgrounds, thus the messages are expected to be helpful for Japanese society to lower its risks and to optimize the resource allocation. The research is now underway. An interim report will be presented. (author)

  6. Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: An SLA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2006-01-01

    The study of how learners acquire a second language (SLA) has helped to shape thinking about how to teach the grammar of a second language. There remain, however, a number of controversial issues. This paper considers eight key questions relating to grammar pedagogy in the light of findings from SLA. As such, this article complements…

  7. Spain: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woehrel, Steven

    2007-01-01

    .... The United States and Spain have generally enjoyed good relations. However, problems have arisen in recent years over such issues as the war in Iraq, promoting democracy in Latin America, and the tactics to be used in fighting the war on terrorism...

  8. Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Wilma; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

  9. Current Issues for Higher Education Information Resources Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Issues identified as important to the future of information resources management and use in higher education include information policy in a networked environment, distributed computing, integrating information resources and college planning, benchmarking information technology, integrated digital libraries, technology integration in teaching,…

  10. Theological education, considered from South Africa: Current issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taking into review the newly published series of substantial multi-authored volumes on ecumenical theological education internationally, this article identifies, from the author's own experience in ecumenical theological education and from his publications in this field, the central issue of specificity, locality and context in ...

  11. A Survey of Current Computer Information Science (CIS) Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Rios Community Coll. District, Sacramento, CA. Office of Institutional Research.

    This document is a survey designed to be completed by current students of Computer Information Science (CIS) in the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD), which consists of three community colleges: American River College, Cosumnes River College, and Sacramento City College. The students are asked about their educational goals and how…

  12. Current management of Hirschsprung's disease in Egypt: A survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/purpose Significant progress has been made in the management of Hirschsprung's disease (HD). The choice of the management plan, surgical approach, and operative details is still variable among pediatric surgeons. This survey aims to determine the current preferences of Egyptian pediatric surgeons in the ...

  13. Current situation and issue of Industrial Accident Compensation insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inah; Rhie, Jeongbae; Yoon, Jo-Duk; Kim, Jinsoo; Won, Jonguk

    2012-05-01

    Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI) has a history of about 50 yr, and is the oldest social insurance system in Korea. After more than 20 times of revision improvements in benefits, its contents and claim systems have been upgraded. It became the protector of injured workers and their families, and at the same time became the system which could cope with both financial burden of employers and their responsibilities. However, there are some issues to be reformed to upgrade the IACI: 1) the problems in the approval system of occupational diseases, 2) quality improvement of workers' compensation medical care, 3) vocational rehabilitation and return to work, 4) workers' compensation premiums and out-of-pocket money of injured workers, 5) issues in application of IACI. Growth of IACI cannot be achieved by an effort of an individual. Efforts by workers, owners, and government, in addition to physicians and welfare professionals toward the same goal are required for the next level improvement of IACI.

  14. Current issues on a standard for surrogate pregnancy procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Jung-Ok

    2012-01-01

    While Korea does not have any legal statement on surrogacy, treatments are carried out in practice. As a result, every Institutional Review Board (IRB) of each fertility clinic faces an ethical predicament in reviewing each case. There is a need to arrange the institutions' own standards of surrogate pregnancy procedures before the establishment of national or professional regulation. This article examines the legal, social, and medical issues of surrogacy to help IRBs to judge their cases.

  15. Current issues on a standard for surrogate pregnancy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Ok

    2012-12-01

    While Korea does not have any legal statement on surrogacy, treatments are carried out in practice. As a result, every Institutional Review Board (IRB) of each fertility clinic faces an ethical predicament in reviewing each case. There is a need to arrange the institutions' own standards of surrogate pregnancy procedures before the establishment of national or professional regulation. This article examines the legal, social, and medical issues of surrogacy to help IRBs to judge their cases.

  16. Cruise Crimes: Economic-Legal Issues and Current Debates

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas R Panko; Babu P George; Tony L Henthorne

    2009-01-01

    Cruise tourism is one of the sunshine sectors of international tourism and is growing rapidly in many parts of the world. It is estimated that the growth rate of cruise tourism is twice the rate of tourism overall. Notwithstanding all the positives that accompany this growth, many critics have drawn attention to the “dark side” of cruise crimes. The eco-system aboard the cruise ship offers a fertile ground for the occurrence of crimes. The present paper examines the issue of crimes onboard fr...

  17. Cloud portability and interoperability issues and current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Di Martino, Beniamino; Esposito, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a quick, comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the most important methodologies, technologies, APIs and standards related to the portability and interoperability of cloud applications and services, illustrated by a number of use cases representing a variety of interoperability and portability scenarios. The lack of portability and interoperability between cloud platforms at different service levels is the main issue affecting cloud-based services today. The brokering, negotiation, management, monitoring and reconfiguration of cloud resources are challenging tasks

  18. Sovereignty: analysis of its current issues in certain countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Koščo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The purpose of my article work is analyzing of the issue of sovereignty in international law. Originality of my article is that events described in the text are for people little known. Method: In the text I used to describe the method. Result: I evaluated the most important facts and influences for States Kosovo, South Ossetia, Abkhazia, Tibet and South Sudan. Society: The lives of people in the above countries, the history and present. Limitation: I clarified the important facts and dates, also bring comparison between past and the future.

  19. Revisiting Antipsychotic-induced Akathisia: Current Issues and Prospective Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Haitham; Nagpal, Caesa; Pigott, Teresa; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Akathisia continues to be a significant challenge in current neurological and psychiatric practice. Prompt and accurate detection is often difficult and there is a lack of consensus concerning the neurobiological basis of akathisia. No definitive treatment has been established for akathisia despite numerous preclinical and clinical studies. Method: We reviewed antipsychotic-induced akathisia including its clinical presentation, proposed underlying pathophysiology, current and under investigation therapeutic strategies. Conclusion: Despite the initial promise that second generation antipsychotics would be devoid of akathisia effects, this has not been confirmed. Currently, there are limited therapeutic options for the clinical practice and the evidence supporting the most widely used treatments (beta blockers, anticholinergic drugs) is still absent or inconsistent. PMID:27928948

  20. Credentialing Public Health Nurses: Current Issues and Next Steps Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhouten, Christine L; DeVance-Wilson, Crystal L; Little, Barbara Battin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to identify Public Health Nurses' (PHN) perceived motivators and barriers to seeking PHN board certification. In collaboration with the Quad Council of Public Health Nursing Organizations, PHNs from across the United States were invited to complete the PHN Certification Survey, a 14-item online questionnaire. A total of 912 surveys were completed. PHNs were motivated to seek PHN board certification by three overarching categories: professional competence, personal satisfaction, and financial incentives. Frequently cited barriers to certification were lack of knowledge of certification opportunities, being unaware of eligibility criteria, cost, perceived lack of value/reward by employer, and preparation time. Demonstrating a highly educated, competent, and reliable PHN workforce can only be achieved through ongoing professional development and credentialing. PH stakeholders (i.e., PHN organizations, employers, PHNs, etc.) need a strategic approach to address the main barriers to certification identified in this study (a) awareness of certification and eligibility criteria, and (b) recognition of the credential by employers. In addition, research on the relationship between PHN credentialing and population health outcomes is essential. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Power sector reform in India: current issues and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anoop

    2006-01-01

    Power sector reforms in India were initiated at a juncture when the sector was plagued with commercial losses and burgeoning subsidy burden. Investment in the sector was not able to keep pace with growing demand for electricity. This paper takes stock of pre-reform situation in Indian power sector and identifies key concerns that led to initiation of the process of reform. The paper discusses major policy and regulatory changes undertaken since the early 1990s. The paper also illustrates changes in the market structure as we move along the reform process. We also discuss some of the major provisions of the recently enacted Electricity Act 2003 that aims to replace the prevailing acts which govern the functioning of the power sector in the country. In this context, we discuss two issues arising out of it, namely open access and multi-year tariff that we think would have a significant bearing on the performance of the sector in the near future. The paper also evaluates the reform process in the light of some of the regulatory changes undertaken. Finally, the paper briefly discusses the issues involved in introduction of competition in the power sector primarily through development of a market for bulk power

  2. Urban Science Education: Examining Current Issues through a Historical Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions.…

  3. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  4. Medical photography: current technology, evolving issues and legal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, M T; DeWees, J M; Vela, K M; Khirallah, R T

    2015-04-01

    Medical photographic image capture and data management has undergone a rapid and compelling change in complexity over the last 20 years. This is because of multiple factors, including significant advances in ease of photograph capture, alongside an evolution of mechanisms of data portability/dissemination, combined with governmental focus on health information privacy. Literature to guide medical, legal, governmental and business professionals when dealing with issues related to medical photography is virtually nonexistent. Herein, we will address the breadth of uses of medical photography, device properties/specific devices utilised for image capture, methods of data transfer and dissemination and patient perceptions and attitudes regarding photography in a medical setting. In addition, we will address the legal implications, including legal precedent, copyright and privacy law, informed consent, protected health information and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), as they pertain to medical photography. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Current issues in nuclear power projects decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Y.; Rogner, H.

    2011-01-01

    Concluding Comments: Firm government commitment and support - imminent; New financing approaches/models are emerging, repackaging existing methods and combination of project finance/co-operative mode; Global financial crisis will make financing for investors very challenging, especially for large scale infrastructure projects like NNP –financial regulators to impose tougher rules (Basel III, UK bank levy, US Financial Regulatory Bill, etc; Pure project finance is still challenging for nuclear projects - the availability of finance for new NPPs will depend on the initial government support. This presentation presents a “free market” view on investment in nuclear power projects; If the public sector (governments) wishes to invest in nuclear power as part of its socioeconomic development priorities, finance is not a real obstacle; It becomes an issue in the presence of other equally important development needs and private sector participation is sought

  6. Provision of genetic services in Europe: current practices and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, Béatrice; Kääriäinen, Helena; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Tranebjaerg, Lisbeth; Coviello, Domenico; Aymé, Ségolène

    2003-12-01

    This paper examines the professional and scientific views on the social, ethical and legal issues that impact on the provision of genetic services in Europe. Many aspects have been considered, such as the definition and the aims of genetic services, their organization, the quality assessment, public education, as well as the partnership with patients support groups and the multicultural aspects. The methods was primarily the analysis of professional guidelines, legal frameworks and other documents related to the organization of genetic services, mainly from Europe, but also from USA and international organizations. Then, the method was to examine the background data emerging from an updated report produced by the Concerted Action on Genetic Services in Europe, as well as the issues debated by 43 experts from 17 European countries invited to an international workshop organized by the European Society of Human Genetics Public and Professional Policy Committee in Helsinki, Finland, 8 and 9 September 2000. Some conclusions were identified from the ESHG workshop to arrive at outlines for optimal genetic services. Participants were concerned about equal accessibility and effectiveness of clinical genetic services, quality assessment of services, professional education, multidisciplinarity and division of tasks as well as networking. Within European countries, adherence to the organizational principles of prioritization, regionalization and integration into related health services would maximize equal accessibility and effectiveness of genetic actions. There is a need for harmonization of the rules involved in financial coverage of DNA tests in order to make these available to all Europeans. Clear guidelines for the best practice will ensure that the provision of genetic services develops in a way that is beneficial to its customers, be they health professionals or the public, especially since the coordination of clinical, laboratory and research perspectives within a

  7. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-27

    benefit Kyiv for a while longer. Current Economic Situation After Russia proper, the Ukrainian republic was the most important economic component of...greater strides in energy conservation, which has required a steep and politically unpopular hike in natural gas prices, including for households...or enthusiasm for funding social policies, Moscow has been bankrolling pensions, social benefits , and salaries of local officials and the separatist

  8. The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Terry E; Berridge, Kent C

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the incentive sensitization theory of addiction. This posits that addiction is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems that attribute incentive salience to reward-associated stimuli. If rendered hypersensitive, these systems cause pathological incentive motivation (‘wanting’) for drugs. We address some current questions including: what is the role of learning in incentive sensitization and addiction? Does incentive s...

  9. Oxidative stress and life histories: unresolved issues and current needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, John R; Blount, Jonathan D; Bronikowski, Anne M; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Isaksson, Caroline; Kirkwood, Tom B L; Monaghan, Pat; Ozanne, Susan E; Beaulieu, Michaël; Briga, Michael; Carr, Sarah K; Christensen, Louise L; Cochemé, Helena M; Cram, Dominic L; Dantzer, Ben; Harper, Jim M; Jurk, Diana; King, Annette; Noguera, Jose C; Salin, Karine; Sild, Elin; Simons, Mirre J P; Smith, Shona; Stier, Antoine; Tobler, Michael; Vitikainen, Emma; Peaker, Malcolm; Selman, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Life-history theory concerns the trade-offs that mold the patterns of investment by animals between reproduction, growth, and survival. It is widely recognized that physiology plays a role in the mediation of life-history trade-offs, but the details remain obscure. As life-history theory concerns aspects of investment in the soma that influence survival, understanding the physiological basis of life histories is related, but not identical, to understanding the process of aging. One idea from the field of aging that has gained considerable traction in the area of life histories is that life-history trade-offs may be mediated by free radical production and oxidative stress. We outline here developments in this field and summarize a number of important unresolved issues that may guide future research efforts. The issues are as follows. First, different tissues and macromolecular targets of oxidative stress respond differently during reproduction. The functional significance of these changes, however, remains uncertain. Consequently there is a need for studies that link oxidative stress measurements to functional outcomes, such as survival. Second, measurements of oxidative stress are often highly invasive or terminal. Terminal studies of oxidative stress in wild animals, where detailed life-history information is available, cannot generally be performed without compromising the aims of the studies that generated the life-history data. There is a need therefore for novel non-invasive measurements of multi-tissue oxidative stress. Third, laboratory studies provide unrivaled opportunities for experimental manipulation but may fail to expose the physiology underpinning life-history effects, because of the benign laboratory environment. Fourth, the idea that oxidative stress might underlie life-history trade-offs does not make specific enough predictions that are amenable to testing. Moreover, there is a paucity of good alternative theoretical models on which contrasting

  10. Review. The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Terry E; Berridge, Kent C

    2008-10-12

    We present a brief overview of the incentive sensitization theory of addiction. This posits that addiction is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems that attribute incentive salience to reward-associated stimuli. If rendered hypersensitive, these systems cause pathological incentive motivation ('wanting') for drugs. We address some current questions including: what is the role of learning in incentive sensitization and addiction? Does incentive sensitization occur in human addicts? Is the development of addiction-like behaviour in animals associated with sensitization? What is the best way to model addiction symptoms using animal models? And, finally, what are the roles of affective pleasure or withdrawal in addiction?

  11. Metabolic syndrome in children: current issues and South Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Khurana, Lokesh; Vikram, Naval K; Goel, Ashish; Wasir, Jasjeet S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss definition, determinants, and management issues of the metabolic syndrome in children with a focus on South Asians. The literature search was done using the PubMed search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA). Manual searches for other important references and medical databases were also done. There is a need for an integrated definition of the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents, taking cognizance of the ethnic-specific variations. Obesity and body fat patterning are important determinants of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in children and ethnic variations in these parameters are seen. Excess body fat and thicker truncal subcutaneous fat are important predisposing factors for development of insulin resistance in South Asian children. Because the metabolic syndrome tracks into adulthood, its manifestations need to be recognized early for prevention of diabetes and coronary heart disease. Therapeutic lifestyle changes, maintenance of high levels of physical activity and normal weight are most important strategies; pharmacologic therapy for individual components of the metabolic syndrome is occasionally needed. The metabolic syndrome in children is an important clinical marker of diabetes and coronary heart disease in adults. In view of the rapid increase in the metabolic syndrome in most populations, high-risk screening and effective public-intervention educational programs are urgently needed.

  12. PALLIATIVE CARE IN GERIATRICS: CURRENT ISSUES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Рonomareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the main problems and prospects of development of palliative care in geriatrics at the present stage. Method of research was to analyze the printed and electronic databases that meet the stated issues. The results of the study highlight the problems of the development of palliative care in geriatric practice: the lack of a developed procedure of rendering palliative care and adequate elderly patient selection criteria, the lack of trained professional staff. The main prospects-association of palliative practices and concepts of modern geriatrics required specialized geriatric assessment and the provision of clinical, medical, social and socio-psychological geriatric syndromes. While promising option for the development of palliative care geriatrics is the integration into the existing health care system, acceptance of the fact that it is a part of the specialized geriatric care. This requires the involvement and training of not only specialists with medical education, but also persons without medical training from among social workers and volunteers working in palliative care. Therefore, the obtained data allowed to conclude that topical is the development of palliative care in geriatrics, taking into account not only clinical but medico-social, socio-psychological features.

  13. Transdisciplinarity: A Review of Its Origins, Development, and Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Hillel Bernstein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transdisciplinarity originated in a critique of the standard configuration of knowledge in disciplines in the curriculum, including moral and ethical concerns. Pronouncements about it were first voiced between the climax of government-supported science and higher education and the long retrenchment that began in the 1970s. Early work focused on questions of epistemology and the planning of future universities and educational programs. After a lull, transdisciplinarity re-emerged in the 1990s as an urgent issue relating to the solution of new, highly complex, global concerns, beginning with climate change and sustainability and extending into many areas concerning science, technology, social problems and policy, education, and the arts. Transdisciplinarity today is characterized by its focus on “wicked problems” that need creative solutions, its reliance on stakeholder involvement, and engaged, socially responsible science. In simultaneously studying multiple levels of, and angles on, reality, transdisciplinary work provides an intriguing potential to invigorate scholarly and scientific inquiry both in and outside the academy.

  14. Legal issues related to adolescent pregnancy: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A M

    1986-09-01

    Adolescent pregnancies have risen in recent years. Options open to the pregnant adolescent are: terminating the pregnancy; giving birth to the child out of wedlock; keeping the baby; giving the baby up for adoption; and marriage before or after the birth of the baby. Each of these options carries certain legal ramifications, since the adolescent patients have not reached the age of majority. The state or the parents usually assume the role of decision making on behalf of the adolescent or assist in the decision making process. Court rulings since the early seventies have legalized abortion and enlarged the rights of minors seeking termination of their pregnancies. Both parents and minors have rights under the certain state laws; parent have the right to notification, minors have the right to privacy. Keeping the child, out of wedlock, might result in legal battles over custody and/or establishing financial support from the father. Some adolescent mothers give up their children for adoption. There are 2 legal procedures that have to be accomplished before a child can be adopted: termination of the rights of the natural parents and adoption proceedings. If the parents marry after the birth of the child, the child is then considered legitimate and the father does not have to go through the process of adopting the child. Other issues requiring parental or individual consent include consent to treatment, contraception, or sterilization. In the case of forcible rape or incest, the physician is required to report incidents to law enforcement officials.

  15. A Survey of Current Valued Academic Leadership Qualities in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cheryl; Mitchell, Maureen M

    2016-01-01

    An informal survey was used to identify nurse faculty leadership qualities currently valued and relevant. The accelerating retirement rate for seasoned leaders has created a need for nurse educators and academic leaders. Our school was concerned that we were not meeting students' needs for today's leadership challenges. We were also interested in the experiences of leadership preparation. This was a cross-sectional, online survey of faculty at top nursing schools as determined by US News & World Report. The top leadership qualities identified were integrity, communication clarity, and problem-solving ability. Current challenges for leaders were finding qualified faculty, obtaining resources, and team building. The results may guide curricular adjustments and the transition to a new generation of nurse academic leaders.

  16. A Survey of Current e-Business (E-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Vance Kerr

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is a dynamic part of the business scene and there have been many examples of success and failures of e-commerce and e-business ventures. A survey was administered asking questions about industries understanding of current e-business (e-government practices in Australia. The object of the survey was to provide a benchmark of current practice. The results of this survey could have a major impact on academic curricula. The survey was sent to 671 Australian Businesses and was addressed to the Chief Information Officer. Only twenty four usable questionnaires were returned and while it is accepted that this is a limited sample, disturbing trends have appeared with respect to the lack of strategic planning for information technology use particularly in medium sized businesses in Australia. In addition, relationships between key factors associated with the business objectives for their IT infrastructure and the benefits of the organisation’s Extranet, Intranet and Internet initiatives were identified.

  17. Cognition in epilepsy: current clinical issues of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Juri-Alexander; Helmstaedter, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    This review provides an update and summary of recent neuropsychological findings in epilepsy focusing on three major clinical topics among the many developments in the field. We will critically outline the current state with regard to cognition in new-onset epilepsies, social cognition in epilepsy, and the long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery and the cognitive outcomes of superselective surgical procedures. Current studies indicate that neuropsychological impairments are prevalent already at the onset of epilepsy and even before, social cognition (i.e., emotion recognition and theory of mind) is impaired in different epilepsy populations, the long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery is mostly characterized by a stable or even improved cognitive status, and superselective epilepsy surgeries are associated with a promising neuropsychological outcome. The high prevalence of cognitive deficits around epilepsy onset challenges the assumption that epilepsy is the major cause of cognitive problems and calls for early neuropsychological diagnostics. Social cognition seems to be a relevant domain that is not yet routinely considered in epilepsy. The cognitive long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery is mostly positive. Stereotactic thermocoagulation and gamma knife surgery appear to be cognitively safe procedures.

  18. Gastroesophageal reflux disease in pediatric practice: current topical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Bielousova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, much attention has been paid to the upper digestive tract diseases in children, particularly gastroesophageal reflux disease, as a cause that has an impact on the quality of life, even in children of school age, and thereafter in young adults. Consequently, there are searches for optimization of early detection, new me-thods of non-invasive diagnosis, screening of this pathology in children’s population in order to determine persons with risk factors and to control disease development and complicated course, as well as searches for the formation of preventive activities algorithm. Scientists came to a consensus that all examinations, which are used in pediatric practice, must be maximally available, simple and non-invasive to the extent of child’s condition. The question about advisability of performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy for all patients with complaints of heartburn and with other symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, the question relative to performing ultrasonography of the esophagus in children as an additional method of examination, usage of questionnaire in pediatric practice, formation of disease course prediction algorithm, and identification of preventive measures specific to every patient remain open. In order to explain their application, the developmental mechanisms of this pathology must be well-understood, and individual risk factors that may influence disease severity and disease course prediction, which occur in children in different periods of life, must be taken into account. Therefore, the goal of this research is to provide an overview of modern literature with reference to topical issues of clinical evidence, risk factors, diagnosis, prediction of gastroesophageal reflux disease course in children of different ages (regarding main causative and pathogenic factors, clinical evidence (esophageal and extra-esophageal, diagnostic methods and modern approaches to gastroesophageal reflux disease

  19. Data Analysis and Data Mining: Current Issues in Biomedical Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Diomidous, Marianna; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Takabayashi, Katsuhiko; Ziegler, Andreas; McCray, Alexa T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Medicine and biomedical sciences have become data-intensive fields, which, at the same time, enable the application of data-driven approaches and require sophisticated data analysis and data mining methods. Biomedical informatics provides a proper interdisciplinary context to integrate data and knowledge when processing available information, with the aim of giving effective decision-making support in clinics and translational research. Objectives To reflect on different perspectives related to the role of data analysis and data mining in biomedical informatics. Methods On the occasion of the 50th year of Methods of Information in Medicine a symposium was organized, that reflected on opportunities, challenges and priorities of organizing, representing and analysing data, information and knowledge in biomedicine and health care. The contributions of experts with a variety of backgrounds in the area of biomedical data analysis have been collected as one outcome of this symposium, in order to provide a broad, though coherent, overview of some of the most interesting aspects of the field. Results The paper presents sections on data accumulation and data-driven approaches in medical informatics, data and knowledge integration, statistical issues for the evaluation of data mining models, translational bioinformatics and bioinformatics aspects of genetic epidemiology. Conclusions Biomedical informatics represents a natural framework to properly and effectively apply data analysis and data mining methods in a decision-making context. In the future, it will be necessary to preserve the inclusive nature of the field and to foster an increasing sharing of data and methods between researchers. PMID:22146916

  20. Bimodal Programming: A Survey of Current Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siburt, Hannah W; Holmes, Alice E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current clinical practice in approaches to bimodal programming in the United States. To be specific, if clinicians are recommending bimodal stimulation, who programs the hearing aid in the bimodal condition, and what method is used for programming the hearing aid? An 11-question online survey was created and sent via email to a comprehensive list of cochlear implant programming centers in the United States. The survey was sent to 360 recipients. Respondents in this study represented a diverse group of clinical settings (response rate: 26%). Results indicate little agreement about who programs the hearing aids, when they are programmed, and how they are programmed in the bimodal condition. Analysis of small versus large implant centers indicated small centers are less likely to add a device to the contralateral ear. Although a growing number of cochlear implant recipients choose to wear a hearing aid on the contralateral ear, there is inconsistency in the current clinical approach to bimodal programming. These survey results provide evidence of large variability in the current bimodal programming practices and indicate a need for more structured clinical recommendations and programming approaches.

  1. [Current issues of assisted reproduction in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventruba, P; Žáková, J; Trávník, P; Crha, I; Mrázek, M; Rumpík, D; Štěpán, J; Režábek, K; Mardešić, T; Malenovská, A; Veselá, K; Brandejská, M

    2013-08-01

    Participants of the lunch table discussion held during the 22nd symposium of assisted reproduction in Brno discussed some current topics of assisted reproduction. DISCUSSED TOPICS: More than 150 participants at round tables discussed 10 topics: 1. IVF in native AR cycle,2. observation of the embryo development dynamics, 3. evaluation and support of endometrial receptivity,4. increased number of elective single embryo transfers (eSET), 5. transport of gametes and embryos in the Czech Republic and between the Czech Republic and abroad, 6. National registry of assisted reproduction,7. new view on sperm pathology, 8. problems with the SAR membership records, 9. surogacy motherhood and 10. preimplantation genetic diagnosis and preimplantation genetic screening. All findings were presented in the afternoon session. Some of the topics brought concrete results. Some topics could not be clearly concluded and will be the subject of further discussions. A brief summary of those discussion conclusions presents this paper.

  2. Improve processes on healthcare: current issues and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jason C H; Dolan, Matt; Lin, Binshan

    2004-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) is a critical resource for improving today's business competitiveness. However, many healthcare providers do not proactively manage or improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their services with IT. Survival in a competitive business environment demands continuous improvements in quality and service, while rigorously maintaining core values. Electronic commerce continues its development, gaining ground as the preferred means of business transactions. Embracing e-healthcare and treating IT as a strategic tool to improve patient safety and the quality of care enables healthcare professionals to benefit from technology formerly used only for management purposes. Numerous improvement initiatives, introduced by both the federal government and the private sector, seek to better the status quo in IT. This paper examines the current IT climate using an enhanced "Built to Last" model, and comments on future IT strategies within the healthcare industry.

  3. Current issues of RNAi therapeutics delivery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussecker, D

    2014-12-10

    12 years following the discovery of the RNAi mechanism in Man, a number of RNAi therapeutics development candidates have emerged with profiles suggesting that they could become drugs of significant medical importance for diseases like TTR amyloidosis, HBV, solid cancers, and hemophilia. Despite this robust progress, the perception of RNAi therapeutics has been on a roller-coaster ride driven not only by science, but also regulatory trends, the stock markets, and Big Pharma business development decisions [1]. This presentation provides an update on the current state of RNAi therapeutics development with a particular focus on what RNAi delivery can achieve today and key challenges to be overcome to expand therapeutic opportunities. The delivery of RNAi triggers to disease-relevant cell types clearly represents the rate-limiting factor in broadly expanding the applicability of RNAi therapeutics. Today, with at least 3 delivery options (lipid nanoparticles/LNPs, GalNAc-siRNA conjugates, Dynamic PolyConjugates/DPCs) for which profound gene knockdowns have been demonstrated in non-human primates and in the clinic, RNAi therapeutics should in principle be able to address most diseases related to gene expression in the liver. Given the central importance of the liver in systemic physiology, this already represents a significant therapeutic and commercial opportunity rivaling that of e.g. monoclonal antibodies. Beyond the liver, there is a reason to believe that current RNAi therapeutics technologies can address a number of solid tumors (e.g. LNPs), diseases of the eye (e.g. self-delivering RNAi triggers) as well as diseases involving the respiratory epithelium (e.g. aerosolized LNPs), certain phagocytic cells (LNPs), hematopoietic stem cells and their progeny (lentiviral DNA-directed RNAi), vascular endothelial cells (cationic lipoplexes), and certain cell types in the kidney (self-delivering RNAi triggers, DPCs; Table 1). Despite this success, there has been a sense that

  4. [Current issues in legal cases of compensation for healthcare malpractice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Tamás; Barzó, Tímea

    2014-09-21

    dogmatic and practical problems related to this topic. Another important area of current analysis is the institution of injury fees, which replaced the reimbursement of non-pecuniary damages. The mere fact of infringement allows setting injury fees. Taking into consideration the current resources in staff and equipment available in healthcare, this regulation may promote claims for injury fees impartial. Consequently, courts will have to apply other criteria when judgment in 'trivial cases', which might not require legal assessment, is delivered.

  5. Current Issues in Histology, Biology and Prognosis of Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Goran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High risk Hodgkin lymphoma patients may occasionally have borderline characteristics similar to gray zone lymphomas and T-cell/histiocyte rich B cell lymphomas. These entities require different and more aggressive treatment modalities. Aggressive behavior is often associated with disturbances caused by Epstein Barr virus, or immune evasion caused by overexpression of check point inhibitors PDL-1 and PDL-2 coupled with the lack of expression of Class I and II MHC molecules. Galectin-1, TARC, sCD163 and other surrogate markers of immunosuppression in Hodgkin lymphoma may be useful for the assessment of treatment response. The improvements in lymphoma management diminished the importance of prognostic factors unified in the International Prognostic Scoring system, reducing them from 7 to 3 factors that remained relevant. Interim PET analysis is the only method able to identify resistant patients while chemotherapy is ongoing, thus enabling adjustment of treatment according to the treatment response. Efforts for stratification of patients according to disease histology, biology, microenvironment, clinical scoring systems and PET scan are ongoing. Current breakthroughs have set strong background for novel therapies with monoclonal antibodies and check point inhibitors that will result in improvement of management of high risk patients.

  6. Current Status and Issues in Basic Pharmaceutical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Tomohisa

    2017-01-01

    Basic research in pharmaceutical sciences has a long and successful history. Researchers in this field have long given prime importance to the knowledge they have gained through their pharmaceutical education. The transition of pharmacy education to a 6-year course term has not only extended its duration but also placed more emphasis on practical clinical education. The School Education Act (in article 87, second paragraph) determines that "the term of the course, whose main purpose is to cultivate practical ability in clinical pharmacy, shall be six years" (excerpt). The 6-year pharmacy education is an exception to the general 4-year university term determined by the School Education Act. Therefore, the purpose of the 6-year course in pharmacy is clearly proscribed. This is true of the basic course in pharmaceutical education as well; hence, the basic course must be oriented toward developing "practical ability in clinical" education, too. The 6-year pharmacy course, starting from practice (Do), has evolved with the development of a syllabus that includes a model core curriculum (Plan). Furthermore, improvement in the course can be seen by the promoted development of faculty (Act). Now, evidence-based education research will be introduced (Check). This is how the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle in pharmaceutical education is expected to work. Currently, pedagogy research in pharmacy education has just begun, so it is difficult to evaluate at this time whether basic pharmaceutical education does in fact contribute to enhancing the "practical clinical ability" component of pharmaceutical education.

  7. Sleep disturbance due to noise: Current issues and future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Hume

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in carrying out further research to understand and reduce the impact of aircraft noise on airport neighborhood in anticipation of the projected substantial increase in global aviation. Soundscapes provide new analytical methods and a broader, more comprehensive appreciation of the aural environment, which may have a useful role in understanding noise-induced sleep disturbance and annoyance. Current noise metrics like Leq do not provide a common language to report noise environment to residents, which is a key obstacle to effective noise management and acceptance. Non-auditory effects complicate the production of consistent dose-response functions for aircraft noise affecting sleep and annoyance. There are various end-points that can be chosen to assess the degree of sleep disturbance, which has detracted from the clarity of results that has been communicated to wider audiences. The World Health Organization (WHO-Europe has produced Night Noise Guidelines for Europe, which act as a clear guide for airports and planners to work towards. Methodological inadequacies and the need for simpler techniques to record sleep will be considered with the exciting potential to greatly increase cost-effective field data acquisition, which is needed for large scale epidemiological studies

  8. Current Situation in Vocational Schools: Issues and Some Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reha Metin ALKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vocational Schools which have undertaken various missions throughout history were established in order to train intermediate staff s with suff icient knowledge and skills in their fields, in accordance with the requirements of trade, industry and services sectors and they are the most important components of ‘vocational and technical education system' today. Analyzing the education given in the vocational schools in accordance with the national and international requirements, developing technologies and the needs of business world and making the necessary arrangements in line with these will contribute to the employability and preferability of graduates of these schools in an eff icient way. Many industrialists/businessmen in our country stated that they experienced serious problems in the supply of qualified staff with suff icient knowledge and skills needed in sectors. Although much progress has been achieved in this subject, it is a fact that there are still a lot of work to be done. In this study, current situation and main troubles in vocational schools are discussed in the light of the experiences gained at Hitit University Vocational School which was established about 40 years ago in Çorum and which is one of the first high schools in Turkey and some solutions are suggested in accordance with the problems mentioned.

  9. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood - current knowledge and open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Mariacarolina; Capalbo, Donatella; Cerbone, Manuela; De Luca, Filippo

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as serum levels of TSH above the upper limit of the reference range, in the presence of normal concentrations of total T 4 or free T 4 . This biochemical profile might be an indication of mild hypothyroidism, with a potential increased risk of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease recorded among adults. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism results in adverse health outcomes among children is a matter of debate and so management of this condition remains challenging. Mild forms of untreated subclinical hypothyroidism do not seem to be associated with impairments in growth, bone health or neurocognitive outcome. However, ongoing scientific investigations have highlighted the presence of subtle proatherogenic abnormalities among children with modest elevations in their TSH levels. Although current findings are insufficient to recommend levothyroxine treatment for all children with mild asymptomatic forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, they highlight the potential need for assessment of cardiovascular risk among children with this condition. Increased understanding of the early metabolic risk factors associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood will help to improve the management of affected individuals.

  10. Relevant training issues for introduction of digital radiology: Results of a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peer, S.; Faulkner, K.; Torbica, P.; Peer, R.; Busch, H. P.; Vetter, S.; Neofotistou, E.; Back, C.; Bosmans, H.; Vano, E.

    2005-01-01

    Council Directive 97/43/Euratom establishes the need for adequate training of radiology staff. The transition to digital radiology implies changes in various imaging aspects, which are not sufficiently covered by current institutional training programmes. This work aimed to assess how professionals, experienced in digital imaging, acquired their expertise and hence, what form institutional training should take. Within DIMOND III, a survey on training and resources was performed among radiology professionals. A lack of institutional education for digital radiology was found. In the transition to digital radiology, 30-35% train on the job and another 23-28% receive training from digital equipment vendors. A general agreement exists on the need for new quality criteria and strategies for dose management. Issues relevant for conventional/digital transition are only sparsely covered in EC training programmes. Based on these results, a set of training issues was produced, to be included in future European guidelines. (authors)

  11. Current issues in billing and coding in interventional pain medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, L

    2000-10-01

    Interventional pain management is a dynamic field with changes occurring on a daily basis, not only with technology but also with regulations that have a substantial financial impact on practices. Regulations are imposed not only by the federal government and other regulatory agencies, and also by a multitude of other payors, state governments and medical boards. Documentation of medical necessity with coding that correlates with multiple components of the patient's medical record, operative report, and billing statement is extremely important. Numerous changes which have occurred in the practice of interventional pain management in the new millennium continue to impact the financial viability of interventional pain practices along with patient access to these services. Thus, while complying with regulations of billing, coding and proper, effective, and ethical practice of pain management, it is also essential for physicians to understand financial aspects and the impact of various practice patterns. This article provides guidelines which are meant to provide practical considerations for billing and coding of interventional techniques in the management of chronic pain based on the current state of the art and science of interventional pain management. Hence, these guidelines do not constitute inflexible treatment, coding, billing or documentation recommendations. It is expected that a provider will establish a plan of care on a case-by-case basis taking into account an individual patient's medical condition, personal needs, and preferences, along with physician's experience and in a similar manner, billing and coding practices will be developed. Based on an individual patient's needs, treatment, billing and coding, different from what is outlined here is not only warranted but essential.

  12. The US Opioid Crisis: Current Federal and State Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, Cobin D; Brown, Raeford E; Du Vivier, Derick; Meyer, John E; Ramachandran, Banu K

    2017-11-01

    The United States is in the midst of a devastating opioid misuse epidemic leading to over 33,000 deaths per year from both prescription and illegal opioids. Roughly half of these deaths are attributable to prescription opioids. Federal and state governments have only recently begun to grasp the magnitude of this public health crisis. In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released their Guidelines for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain. While not comprehensive in scope, these guidelines attempt to control and regulate opioid prescribing. Other federal agencies involved with the federal regulatory effort include the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), and the Department of Justice. Each federal agency has a unique role in helping to stem the burgeoning opioid misuse epidemic. The DEA, working with the Department of Justice, has enforcement power to prosecute pill mills and physicians for illegal prescribing. The DEA could also implement use of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs), currently administered at the state level, and use of electronic prescribing for schedule II and III medications. The FDA has authority to approve new and safer formulations of immediate- and long-acting opioid medications. More importantly, the FDA can also ask pharmaceutical companies to cease manufacturing a drug. Additionally, state agencies play a critical role in reducing overdose deaths, protecting the public safety, and promoting the medically appropriate treatment of pain. One of the states' primary roles is the regulation of practice of medicine and the insurance industry within their borders. Utilizing this authority, states can both educate physicians about the dangers of opioids and make physician licensure dependent on registering and using PDMPs when prescribing controlled substances. Almost every state has implemented a PDMP to some degree; however, in addition to mandating their use, increased interstate

  13. Current issues and future prospects of dairy sector in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.J.; Naeem, M.; Abbas, A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the current status of livestock resources, their status of utilisation and the future research concepts in dairy production and milk processing in Pakistan. Advances in the areas of genetics of dairy species, cow reproduction, nutrition, dairy chemistry, milk microbiology, processing technology and milk-based functional foods, have to be applied in Pakistan since the increase in Pakistan's population from 65 to 165 million over the past 3 decades is forecasted to an increase to 234 million by 2025. The need to increase food production means that competition for land and water resources will become more intense. The ecological sustainability of already fragile systems will be further challenged. Agro-industrial byproducts and non-conventional feed resources could be used for feeding of livestock, if farmers are trained accordingly. Situation may be significantly improved if fodder conservation techniques are introduced in livestock feeding systems. Pakistan needs a competitive and profitable dairy farming industry not just for economic but also environmental and social reasons. Productivity potential of local breeds is low and an attempt to genetically improve the local cattle through cross breeding has resulted in improvement in milk yield, acceleration in growth rates and higher prices; however, its discriminate use has been also associated with decreased immunity against temperature changes, disease and nutritional and environmental stresses prevailing in the region. The long-term effects of new systems (such as extended lactations, robot milking and all-year-round housing) will call for ever more intelligent approaches to the simultaneous achievement of quality systems that minimise environmental burdens, sustain high standards of health and welfare and deliver nutritionally valuable products into well organised food supply chains. Value addition, processing, packaging and marketing of milk, meat and eggs, backed up by

  14. Recent Trends in Veteran Unemployment as Measured in the Current Population Survey and the American Community Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savych, Bogdan; Klerman, Jacob A; Loughran, David S

    2008-01-01

    This technical report explores recent trends in the unemployment of recent veterans as estimated from two nationally representative surveys, the Current Population Survey "CPS" and the American Community Survey "ACS...

  15. Exploring Ethical Issues Associated with Using Online Surveys in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Allen, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Online surveys are increasingly used in educational research, yet little attention has focused on ethical issues associated with their use in educational settings. Here, we draw on the broader literature to discuss 5 key ethical issues in the context of educational survey research: dual teacher/researcher roles; informed consent; use of…

  16. COMPREHENSIVE SURVEY OF POSSIBLE SECURITY ISSUES ON 4G NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Sumant Ku Mohapatra; Biswa Ranjan Swain; Pravanjan Das

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a brief study of recent advances in wireless network security issues. The paper makes a number of contributions to the wireless networking field. First, it studies the 4G mail threats and risk and their design decisions. Second, the security of 4G architecture with next generation network security and 8- security dimensions of 4G network. Third, security issues and possible threats on 4G are discussed. Finally, we proposed four layer security model which manage...

  17. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  18. Current Issues and Situation of Producer Responsibility in Waste Management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Priyo Nugroho Sulami

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Producer responsibility for wastes has been encouraged in Indonesia since 2008. The Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Indonesia also promoted the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R concept using the community-based approach of waste banks integrated with the extended producer responsibility (EPR concept. However, related research and implementation are still limited. This study aims to identify the challenges of fulfilling producer responsibility in waste management and determine whether the integration concept could generate outcomes expected from the EPR concept. A semi-structured interview survey of several stakeholders from the government, industrial, and waste management sectors was conducted and the data generated was used to simulate an integration scheme using a system dynamics approach. Secondary data and information from Bandung municipality were used as input for the simulation. The interview survey found that the concerns and issues of fulfilling producer responsibility in waste management include lack of awareness, unavailability of clear guidelines, and the limited capacity of the current recycling sector. The results of the simulation suggested that if the integration scheme is applied, each business entity might bear the responsibility of IDR 29.4 million per year and 14.7 tons of waste per year for the scope of four sectors and IDR 34.1 million per year and 17 tons of waste per year for the scope of two sectors.

  19. Wake Survey of a Marine Current Turbine Under Steady Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Ethan; Luznik, Luksa; Flack, Karen

    2016-11-01

    A submersible particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to study the wake of a horizontal axis marine current turbine. The turbine was tested in a large tow tank facility at the United States Naval Academy. The turbine is a 1/25th scale model of the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Reference Model 1 (RM1) tidal turbine. It is a two-bladed turbine measuring 0.8 m in diameter and featuring a NACA 63-618 airfoil cross section. Separate wind tunnel testing has shown the foil section used on the turbine to be Reynolds number independent with respect to lift at the experimental parameters of tow carriage speed (Utow = 1 . 68 m/s) and tip speed ratio (TSR = 7). The wake survey was conducted over an area extending 0.25D forward of the turbine tip path to 2.0D aft, and to a depth of 1.0D beneath the turbine output shaft in the streamwise plane. Each field of view was approximately 30 cm by 30 cm, and each overlapped the adjacent fields of view by 5 cm. The entire flow field was then reconstructed into a single field of investigation. Results include streamwise and vertical ensemble average velocity fields averaged over approximately 1,000 realizations, as well as higher-order statistics. Turbine tip vortex centers were identified and plotted showing increasing aperiodicity with wake age. keywords: horizontal axis marine current turbine, particle image velocimetry, towing tank, wake survey

  20. Hydrology of and Current Monitoring Issues for the Chicago Area Waterway System, Northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, James J.; Johnson, Kevin K.

    2015-10-28

    The Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) consists of a combination of natural and manmade channels that form an interconnected navigable waterway of approximately 90-plus miles in the metropolitan Chicago area of northeastern Illinois. The CAWS serves the area as the primary drainage feature, a waterway transportation corridor, and recreational waterbody. The CAWS was constructed by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC). Completion of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (initial portion of the CAWS) in 1900 breached a low drainage divide and resulted in a diversion of water from the Lake Michigan Basin. A U.S. Supreme Court decree (Consent Decree 388 U.S. 426 [1967] Modified 449 U.S. 48 [1980]) limits the annual diversion from Lake Michigan. While the State of Illinois is responsible for the diversion, the MWRDGC regulates and maintains water level and water quality within the CAWS by using several waterway control structures. The operation and control of water levels in the CAWS results in a very complex hydraulic setting characterized by highly unsteady flows. The complexity leads to unique gaging requirements and monitoring issues. This report provides a general discussion of the complex hydraulic setting within the CAWS and quantifies this information with examples of data collected at a range of flow conditions from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gaging stations and other locations within the CAWS. Monitoring to address longstanding issues of waterway operation, as well as current (2014) emerging issues such as wastewater disinfection and the threat from aquatic invasive species, is included in the discussion.

  1. Towards an Airframe Noise Prediction Methodology: Survey of Current Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farassat, Fereidoun; Casper, Jay H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a critical survey of the current airframe noise (AFN) prediction methodologies. Four methodologies are recognized. These are the fully analytic method, CFD combined with the acoustic analogy, the semi-empirical method and fully numerical method. It is argued that for the immediate need of the aircraft industry, the semi-empirical method based on recent high quality acoustic database is the best available method. The method based on CFD and the Ffowcs William- Hawkings (FW-H) equation with penetrable data surface (FW-Hpds ) has advanced considerably and much experience has been gained in its use. However, more research is needed in the near future particularly in the area of turbulence simulation. The fully numerical method will take longer to reach maturity. Based on the current trends, it is predicted that this method will eventually develop into the method of choice. Both the turbulence simulation and propagation methods need to develop more for this method to become useful. Nonetheless, the authors propose that the method based on a combination of numerical and analytical techniques, e.g., CFD combined with FW-H equation, should also be worked on. In this effort, the current symbolic algebra software will allow more analytical approaches to be incorporated into AFN prediction methods.

  2. Breaking bad news issues: A survey among radiation oncologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discussion of bad news and resuscitation in terminal cancer is an important but difficult and often neglected issue in day-to-day oncology practice. Materials and Methods: We interviewed 35 radiation oncologists using an indigenous 15-item questionnaire on their beliefs about breaking bad news and resuscitation to terminal cancer patients. Results: Most responders had an oncology experience of three to seven years (20/35.Thirty-two were comfortable discussing cancer diagnosis, prognosis and life expectancy-related issues. A similar number believed all cancer-related information should be disclosed, while only four believed in imparting all information in one visit. All agreed that disclosing sensitive information did not affect survival. When requested by relatives to withhold truth from patients, 11 said they would not comply, 22 agreed to tell the truth only if asked and two agreed to avoid difficult questions. Twenty responders denied having been adequately trained in breaking bad news and were keen on dedicated classes or sessions in this area of practice. Most (33/35 believed that Indian patients were keen on knowing their diagnosis and prognosis. Although all agreed to the importance of discussing resuscitation, only 17 believed patients should be involved. Majority (20/35 agreed that the issue needs to be discussed while the patient was conscious. Patients with unsalvageable disease were deemed unsuitable for aggressive resuscitation by 30 responders while the rest believed it should be offered to all. Most (21/35 admitted to feeling depressed after breaking bad news though only seven felt disclosure was more stressful than untruthful statements. Only four knew of a law regarding resuscitation in cancer. Conclusion: Observing the widely varied beliefs and practices for disclosing bad news, it is recommended that such training be a regular part of medicine curriculum, especially in the Oncology setting.

  3. Web-based survey of fertility issues in young women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Ann H; Gelber, Shari; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Sampson, Ebonie; Knudsen, Katherine; Laufer, Marc; Rosenberg, Randi; Przypyszny, Michele; Rein, Alison; Winer, Eric P

    2004-10-15

    Young women with breast cancer often seek advice about whether treatment will affect their fertility. We sought to gain a better understanding of women's attitudes about fertility and how these concerns affect decision making. We developed a survey about fertility issues for young women with a history of early-stage breast cancer. The survey was e-mailed to all registered Young Survival Coalition survivor members (N = 1,702). E-mail reminders were used. Six hundred fifty-seven eligible respondents completed the survey. Mean age at breast cancer diagnosis was 32.9 years; mean current age was 35.8 years. Ninety percent of women were white; 62% were married; 76% were college graduates. Stages at diagnosis were as follows: 0, 10%; I, 27%; II, 47%; III, 13%. Sixty-two percent of women were within 2 years of diagnosis. Fifty-seven percent recalled substantial concern at diagnosis about becoming infertile with treatment. In multivariate logistic regression, greater concern about infertility was associated with wish for children/more children (odds ratio [OR], 120; P women reported that infertility concerns influenced treatment decisions. Seventy-two percent of women reported discussing fertility concerns with their doctors; 51% felt their concerns were addressed adequately. Women seemed to overestimate their risk of becoming postmenopausal with treatment. Fertility after treatment is a major concern for young women with breast cancer. There is a need to communicate with and educate young patients regarding fertility issues at diagnosis and a need for future research directed at preserving fertility for young breast cancer survivors.

  4. A survey of synthetic cannabinoid consumption by current cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Erik W; Haughey, Heather M; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Joshi, Amruta S; Hart, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    Despite growing concern about the increased rates of synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use and their effects, only limited data are available that addresses these issues. This study assessed the extent of SC product use and reported effects among a cohort of adult marijuana and tobacco users. A brief telephone interview was conducted with individuals who had given permission to be contacted for future research while screening for a cannabis/nicotine dependence medication development study (NCT01204723). Respondents (N = 42; 88% participation rate) were primarily young adults, male, racially diverse, and high school graduates. Nearly all currently smoked tobacco and cannabis, with 86% smoking cannabis on 5 or more days per week. Nearly all (91%) were familiar with SC products, half (50%) reported smoking SC products previously, and a substantial minority (24%) reported current use (i.e., past month). Despite a federal ban on 5 common SCs, which went into effect on March 1, 2011, a number of respondents reported continued SC product use. Common reasons reported for use included, but were not limited to, seeking a new "high" similar to that produced by marijuana and avoiding drug use detection via a positive urine screen. The primary side effects were trouble thinking clearly, headache, dry mouth, and anxiety. No significant differences were found between synthetic cannabinoid product users (ever or current) and nonusers by demographics or other characteristics. Among current marijuana and tobacco users, SC product consumption was common and persisted despite a federal ban. The primary reasons for the use of SC-containing products seem to be to evade drug detection and to experience a marijuana-like high.

  5. Survey on Issues related to National Nuclear Promotion Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Byungchool; Lee, Youngjoon; Lee, Youngcheol; Jeong, I. K.; Kim, Hyunjun; Kim, Youngsoo; Yun, Sungwon; Moon, Keehwan; Chung, Whansam

    2013-06-01

    Ο Major issues surrounding nuclear are including suspicions about nuclear safety, spent-fuel management, acquiring the advanced R and D capabilities and making the nuclear a creative industry Ο Solid measures for securing safety should be formulated and implemented for reducing public anxiety of nuclear use Ο The long-term R and D performance system from a scientific perspective should be established for expanding Research and Development for safer use of nuclear Ο The spent-fuel management policy should be determined through publicizing process Ο Establishing small and medium enterprises-oriented supply system of reactors and SMRs and Encouraging the radiation fusion technology industrialization for promoting creative industry utilizing nuclear

  6. Chernobyl, Three Mile Island and beyond: Lessons for Ontario? Current issue paper 117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeager, K L

    1991-03-01

    This current issue paper reviews major accidents which have occurred at commercial and military nuclear facilities, and provides basic background on nuclear power and reactor design features to assist the novice in understanding the very complex technical issues surrounding these events. Above all, the role of human factors in the prevention of potential accident situations is emphasized. (author).

  7. Chernobyl, Three Mile Island and beyond: Lessons for Ontario? Current issue paper 117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeager, K.L.

    1991-03-01

    This current issue paper reviews major accidents which have occurred at commercial and military nuclear facilities, and provides basic background on nuclear power and reactor design features to assist the novice in understanding the very complex technical issues surrounding these events. Above all, the role of human factors in the prevention of potential accident situations is emphasized. (author)

  8. Current and Emerging Ethical Issues in Counseling: A Delphi Study of Expert Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Barbara; Dufrene, Roxane L.

    2011-01-01

    A Delphi study was conducted to ascertain the opinions of panel experts regarding the most important current and emerging ethical issues facing the counseling profession. Expert opinions on ethical issues in counselor preparation also were sought. Eighteen panelists responded to 3 rounds of data collection interspersed with feedback. Themes that…

  9. Obtaining subjects' consent to publish identifying personal information: current practices and identifying potential issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akiko; Dowa, Yuri; Murakami, Hiromi; Kosugi, Shinji

    2013-11-25

    In studies publishing identifying personal information, obtaining consent is regarded as necessary, as it is impossible to ensure complete anonymity. However, current journal practices around specific points to consider when obtaining consent, the contents of consent forms and how consent forms are managed have not yet been fully examined. This study was conducted to identify potential issues surrounding consent to publish identifying personal information. Content analysis was carried out on instructions for authors and consent forms developed by academic journals in four fields (as classified by Journal Citation Reports): medicine general and internal, genetics and heredity, pediatrics, and psychiatry. An online questionnaire survey of editors working for journals that require the submission of consent forms was also conducted. Instructions for authors were reviewed for 491 academic journals (132 for medicine general and internal, 147 for genetics and heredity, 100 for pediatrics, and 112 for psychiatry). Approximately 40% (203: 74 for medicine general and internal, 31 for genetics and heredity, 58 for pediatrics, and 40 for psychiatry) stated that subject consent was necessary. The submission of consent forms was required by 30% (154) of the journals studied, and 10% (50) provided their own consent forms for authors to use. Two journals mentioned that the possible effects of publication on subjects should be considered. Many journal consent forms mentioned the difficulties in ensuring complete anonymity of subjects, but few addressed the study objective, the subjects' right to refuse consent and the withdrawal of consent. The main reason for requiring the submission of consent forms was to confirm that consent had been obtained. Approximately 40% of journals required subject consent to be obtained. However, differences were observed depending on the fields. Specific considerations were not always documented. There is a need to address issues around the study

  10. Obtaining subjects’ consent to publish identifying personal information: current practices and identifying potential issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In studies publishing identifying personal information, obtaining consent is regarded as necessary, as it is impossible to ensure complete anonymity. However, current journal practices around specific points to consider when obtaining consent, the contents of consent forms and how consent forms are managed have not yet been fully examined. This study was conducted to identify potential issues surrounding consent to publish identifying personal information. Methods Content analysis was carried out on instructions for authors and consent forms developed by academic journals in four fields (as classified by Journal Citation Reports): medicine general and internal, genetics and heredity, pediatrics, and psychiatry. An online questionnaire survey of editors working for journals that require the submission of consent forms was also conducted. Results Instructions for authors were reviewed for 491 academic journals (132 for medicine general and internal, 147 for genetics and heredity, 100 for pediatrics, and 112 for psychiatry). Approximately 40% (203: 74 for medicine general and internal, 31 for genetics and heredity, 58 for pediatrics, and 40 for psychiatry) stated that subject consent was necessary. The submission of consent forms was required by 30% (154) of the journals studied, and 10% (50) provided their own consent forms for authors to use. Two journals mentioned that the possible effects of publication on subjects should be considered. Many journal consent forms mentioned the difficulties in ensuring complete anonymity of subjects, but few addressed the study objective, the subjects’ right to refuse consent and the withdrawal of consent. The main reason for requiring the submission of consent forms was to confirm that consent had been obtained. Conclusion Approximately 40% of journals required subject consent to be obtained. However, differences were observed depending on the fields. Specific considerations were not always documented. There is a need

  11. Radiation survey at video display terminals (VDTs): a credibility issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitchman, R.; Gross, L.

    1986-01-01

    New York Telephone and Harvard University routinely monitor video display terminals as part of employee education or office design projects. Measurements are made with sensitive geiger end window or pancake detectors at the screen surface. In previous years all measurements indicated no difference from background levels in the occupied space. Recently, some newer VDTs were found to have measurable levels consistently above normal background at the screen surface. A gamma spectral analysis was made of one of the VDTs using a high resolution Ge-Li gamma ray detector coupled to a multi-channel gamma ray spectrometer. A slightly elevated potassium-40 level was detected and it was hypothesized that the potassium-40 was contained in the glass of the screen surface. The authors recommend that VDTs should be surveyed with the unit turned off to determine if the source of elevated readings may be in the glass. They also recommend expert advice in determining the proper radiation monitoring instrumentation for use in making these measurements

  12. A Survey of Solver-Related Geometry and Meshing Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, James; Daniel, Derick; Gudenkauf, Jared; Hine, David; Sideroff, Chris

    2016-01-01

    There is a concern in the computational fluid dynamics community that mesh generation is a significant bottleneck in the CFD workflow. This is one of several papers that will help set the stage for a moderated panel discussion addressing this issue. Although certain general "rules of thumb" and a priori mesh metrics can be used to ensure that some base level of mesh quality is achieved, inadequate consideration is often given to the type of solver or particular flow regime on which the mesh will be utilized. This paper explores how an analyst may want to think differently about a mesh based on considerations such as if a flow is compressible vs. incompressible or hypersonic vs. subsonic or if the solver is node-centered vs. cell-centered. This paper is a high-level investigation intended to provide general insight into how considering the nature of the solver or flow when performing mesh generation has the potential to increase the accuracy and/or robustness of the solution and drive the mesh generation process to a state where it is no longer a hindrance to the analysis process.

  13. Academic plastic surgery: a study of current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetrenne, Eleonore; Kosins, Aaron M; Wirth, Garrett A; Bui, Albert; Evans, Gregory R D; Wells, James H

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the role of a full-time academic plastic surgeon, (2) to define the indicators predictive of a successful career in academic plastic surgery, and (3) to understand the current issues that will affect future trends in the practice of academic plastic surgery. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the role of current full-time academic plastic surgeons and to understand the current issues and future challenges facing academic plastic surgery. Each plastic surgery program director in the United States was sent the survey for distribution among all full-time academic plastic surgeons. Over a 6-week period, responses from 143 full-time academic plastic surgeons (approximately 31%) were returned. Fifty-three percent of respondents had been academic plastic surgeons for longer than 10 years. Seventy-three percent of respondents defined academic plastic surgeons as clinicians who are teachers and researchers. However, 53% of respondents believed that academic plastic surgeons were not required to teach or practice within university hospitals/academic centers. The 3 factors reported most frequently as indicative of a successful career in academic plastic surgery were peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation. Dedication and motivation were the personal characteristics rated most likely to contribute to academic success. Forty-four percent of respondents were unable to identify future academic plastic surgeons from plastic surgery residency applicants, and 27% were not sure. Most (93%) of the respondents believed that academic surgery as practiced today will change. The overall job description of a full-time academic plastic surgeon remains unchanged (teacher and researcher). Whereas peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation were most frequently cited as indicative of a successful plastic surgery career, financial success was rated the least indicative. Similarly, whereas the

  14. [Security Management in Clinical Laboratory Departments and Facilities: Current Status and Issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Haku; Nakamura, Junji; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Koike, Masaru; Inoue, Yuji

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey regarding the current activities for protecting patients' privacy and the security of information systems (IS) related to the clinical laboratory departments of university hospitals, certified training facilities for clinical laboratories, and general hospitals in Yamaguchi Prefecture. The response rate was 47% from 215 medical institutions, including three commercial clinical laboratory centers. The results showed that there were some differences in management activities among facilities with respect to continuing education, the documentation or regulation of operational management for paper records, electronic information, remaining samples, genetic testing, and laboratory information for secondary use. They were suggested to be caused by differences in functions between university and general hospitals, differences in the scale of hospitals, or whether or not hospitals have received accreditation or ISO 15189. Regarding the IS, although the majority of facilities had sufficiently employed the access control to IS, there was some room for improvement in the management of special cases such as VIPs and patients with HIV infection. Furthermore, there were issues regarding the login method for computers shared by multiple staff, the showing of the names of personnel in charge of reports, and the risks associated with direct connections to systems and the Internet and the use of portable media such as USB memory sticks. These results indicated that further efforts are necessary for each facility to continue self-assessment and make improvements.

  15. The formation, properties and impact of secondary organic aerosol: current and emerging issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wildt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA accounts for a significant fraction of ambient tropospheric aerosol and a detailed knowledge of the formation, properties and transformation of SOA is therefore required to evaluate its impact on atmospheric processes, climate and human health. The chemical and physical processes associated with SOA formation are complex and varied, and, despite considerable progress in recent years, a quantitative and predictive understanding of SOA formation does not exist and therefore represents a major research challenge in atmospheric science. This review begins with an update on the current state of knowledge on the global SOA budget and is followed by an overview of the atmospheric degradation mechanisms for SOA precursors, gas-particle partitioning theory and the analytical techniques used to determine the chemical composition of SOA. A survey of recent laboratory, field and modeling studies is also presented. The following topical and emerging issues are highlighted and discussed in detail: molecular characterization of biogenic SOA constituents, condensed phase reactions and oligomerization, the interaction of atmospheric organic components with sulfuric acid, the chemical and photochemical processing of organics in the atmospheric aqueous phase, aerosol formation from real plant emissions, interaction of atmospheric organic components with water, thermodynamics and mixtures in atmospheric models. Finally, the major challenges ahead in laboratory, field and modeling studies of SOA are discussed and recommendations for future research directions are proposed.

  16. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Part one discusses some principal mite pests in agroecosystems and urban horticulturein European countries, Serbia and its neighbouring countries focusing primarily on issueswith regard to plant production, novel methods and approaches in applied acaralogy. Parttwo displays some major properties of acaricides inhibiting respiration, growth and developmentand other synthetic substances with acaricide action on the market in the last decadeof the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century. Also some products of naturalorigin (azadirachtin, oils, micoacaricides are said to be gaining in importance. Issues withregard to the fact that mites can readily develop resistance to acardicides are discussed anda survey on the results of biochemical, physiological and genetical causes of resistance areanalyzed. Some basic principles of biological control of phytophagous mites and modernadvances and approaches are discussed as well as current knowledge on host plant resistanceto mites. Eventually, the possibility of using a combination of selective acaricides andbiological control agents is discussed but also the inclusion of other modes of control (agriculturalpractices and physical measures expected to contribute to an integrated managementof pest populations.

  17. Survey on current practices for neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Hans; Cronberg, Tobias; Dünser, Martin W; Duranteau, Jacques; Horn, Janneke; Oddo, Mauro

    2015-05-01

    To investigate current practices and timing of neurological prognostication in comatose cardiac arrest patients. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to the 8000 members of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine during September and October 2012. The survey had 27 questions divided into three categories: background data, clinical data, decision-making and consequences. A total of 1025 respondents (13%) answered the survey with complete forms in more than 90%. Twenty per cent of respondents practiced outside of Europe. Overall, 22% answered that they had national recommendations, with the highest percentage in the Netherlands (>80%). Eighty-nine per cent used induced hypothermia (32-34 °C) for comatose cardiac arrest patients, while 11% did not. Twenty per cent had separate prognostication protocols for hypothermia patients. Seventy-nine per cent recognized that neurological examination alone is not enough to predict outcome and a similar number (76%) used additional methods. Intermittent electroencephalography (EEG), brain computed tomography (CT) scan and evoked potentials (EP) were considered most useful. Poor prognosis was defined as cerebral performance category (CPC) 3-5 (58%) or CPC 4-5 (39%) or other (3%). When prognosis was considered poor, 73% would actively withdraw intensive care while 20% would not and 7% were uncertain. National recommendations for neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest are uncommon and only one physician out of five uses a separate protocol for hypothermia treated patients. A neurological examination alone was considered insufficient to predict outcome in comatose patients and most respondents advocated a multimodal approach: EEG, brain CT and EP were considered most useful. Uncertainty regarding neurological prognostication and decisions on level of care was substantial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. SURVEY ON SOLIDARITY GROUPS OF BUYERS: CRITICAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pennisi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work is intended to provide, through the analysis of the dynamics of purchase of solidarity groups of buyers, a contribution to the study of current trends that are affecting the alternative to the dominant agro-food industry. Through the use of a questionnaire the paper investigated the perception as consumers this particular class of buyers have of themselves and how their concepts of “conscious choice” and “responsibility” drive their shopping list and consequently influence the growth and development of the Short Supply Chain, as the work remarked the progressive and notable increment of commerce and families circling around this young but widespreading phenomenon. Particularly striking, in fact, emerge from the role that consumers are becoming part of this phenomenon and the most of them have matured during time the idea that biological and hand-made products are for themselves also Safe, while the Long Supply Chain should incarnate the role of an alienating and wholly food system. The analysis of the questionnaires revealed some problems concerning the methods of transport and storage.

  19. International online survey to assess current practice in equine anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfender, F D; Doherr, M G; Driessen, B; Hartnack, S; Johnston, G M; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R

    2015-01-01

    Multicentre Confidential Enquiries into Perioperative Equine Fatalities (CEPEF) have not been conducted since the initial CEPEF Phases 1-3, 20 years ago. To collect data on current practice in equine anaesthesia and to recruit participants for CEPEF-4. Online questionnaire survey. An online questionnaire was prepared and the link distributed internationally to veterinarians possibly performing equine anaesthesia, using emails, posters, flyers and an editorial. The questionnaire included 52 closed, semiclosed and open questions divided into 8 subgroups: demographic data, anaesthetist, anaesthesia management (preoperative, technical equipment, monitoring, drugs, recovery), areas of improvements and risks and motivation for participation in CEPEF-4. Descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests for comparison of categorical variables were performed. A total of 199 questionnaires were completed by veterinarians from 14 different countries. Of the respondents, 43% worked in private hospitals, 36% in private practices and 21% in university teaching hospitals. In 40 institutions (23%) there was at least one diplomate of the European or American colleges of veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia on staff. Individual respondents reported routinely employ the following anaesthesia monitoring modalities: electrocardiography (80%), invasive arterial blood pressures (70%), pulse oximetry (60%), capnography (55%), arterial blood gases (47%), composition of inspired and expired gases (45%) and body temperature (35%). Drugs administered frequently or routinely as part of a standard protocol were: acepromazine (44%), xylazine (68%), butorphanol (59%), ketamine (96%), diazepam (83%), isoflurane (76%), dobutamine (46%), and, as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, phenylbutazone (73%) or flunixin meglumine (66%). Recovery was routinely assisted by 40%. The main factors perceived by the respondents to affect outcome of equine anaesthesia were the preoperative health status of the

  20. Grading of direct laryngoscopy. A survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A M; Fleming, B G; Wace, J R

    1994-06-01

    One hundred and twenty anaesthetists (30 of each grade), from three separate regions, were interviewed as to how they recorded the appearance of laryngeal structures at direct laryngoscopy and about their knowledge of the commonly used numerical grading system. About two-thirds of anaesthetists surveyed (69.2%) used the numerical grading system, but of these, over half could not identify a 'grade 2' laryngoscopic appearance correctly. Of anaesthetists who did not use the numerical method, over half could not correctly state the difference between a 'grade 2' and a 'grade 3' laryngoscopic appearance. Over 40% of anaesthetists stated incorrectly that the grading should be made on the initial view, even when laryngeal pressure had been needed. Junior anaesthetists were more likely to use the numerical method of recording. The results show that there is unacceptable uncertainty and inaccuracy in the use of the numerical grading system by users as well as non-users, which makes the current routine clinical use of the numerical grading system unsatisfactory.

  1. Current State of Agile User-Centered Design: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zahid; Slany, Wolfgang; Holzinger, Andreas

    Agile software development methods are quite popular nowadays and are being adopted at an increasing rate in the industry every year. However, these methods are still lacking usability awareness in their development lifecycle, and the integration of usability/User-Centered Design (UCD) into agile methods is not adequately addressed. This paper presents the preliminary results of a recently conducted online survey regarding the current state of the integration of agile methods and usability/UCD. A world wide response of 92 practitioners was received. The results show that the majority of practitioners perceive that the integration of agile methods with usability/UCD has added value to their adopted processes and to their teams; has resulted in the improvement of usability and quality of the product developed; and has increased the satisfaction of the end-users of the product developed. The top most used HCI techniques are low-fidelity prototyping, conceptual designs, observational studies of users, usability expert evaluations, field studies, personas, rapid iterative testing, and laboratory usability testing.

  2. Ethical issues in palliative care for nursing homes: Development and testing of a survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preshaw, Deborah Hl; McLaughlin, Dorry; Brazil, Kevin

    2018-02-01

    To develop and psychometrically assess a survey instrument identifying ethical issues during palliative care provision in nursing homes. Registered nurses and healthcare assistants have reported ethical issues in everyday palliative care provision. Identifying these issues provides evidence to inform practice development to support healthcare workers. Cross-sectional survey of Registered nurses and healthcare assistants in nursing homes in one region of the UK. A survey instrument, "Ethical issues in Palliative Care for Nursing homes", was developed through the findings of qualitative interviews with Registered nurses and healthcare assistants in nursing homes and a literature review. It was reviewed by an expert panel and piloted prior to implementation in a survey in 2015 with a convenience sample of 596 Registered nurses and healthcare assistants. Descriptive and exploratory factor analyses were used to assess the underlying structure of the Frequency and Distress Scales within the instrument. Analysis of 201 responses (response rate = 33.7%) revealed four factors for the Frequency Scale and five factors for the Distress Scale that comprise the Ethical issues in Palliative Care for Nursing homes. Factors common to both scales included "Processes of care," "Resident autonomy" and "Burdensome treatment." Additionally, the Frequency Scale included "Competency," and the Distress Scale included "Quality of care" and "Communication." The Ethical issues in Palliative Care for Nursing homes instrument has added to the palliative care knowledge base by considering the ethical issues experienced specifically by Registered nurses and healthcare assistants within the nursing home. This research offers preliminary evidence of the psychometric properties of the Ethical issues in Palliative Care for Nursing homes survey instrument. The two largest factors highlight the need to address the organisational aspects of caring and provide training in negotiating conflicting

  3. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  4. Report on the Current Technical Issues on ASME Nuclear Code and Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2008-11-01

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  5. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-15

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  6. Current legal issues of European integration in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handrlica, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    The main issues of current discussions concerning the status of European integration in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy are described with focus on the present and future of the EURATOM Treaty. The basic features of the EURATOM Treaty are highlighted and those issues which are currently subject to discussion in foreign literature (e.g. EURATOM's legitimacy, specification of competencies, obsolete provisions, etc.) are pointed out. The major attempts to reform the wording of the EURATOM Treaty and the relevance of the Treaty to its Member States in the future, in relation to the 'Nuclear New Build' in particular, are also described. (orig.)

  7. Bipolar disorder and complementary medicine: current evidence, safety issues, and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; Lake, James; Hoenders, Rogier

    2011-10-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating syndrome that is often undiagnosed and undertreated. Population surveys show that persons with BD often self-medicate with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) or integrative therapies in spite of limited research evidence supporting their use. To date, no review has focused specifically on nonconventional treatments of BD. The study objectives were to present a review of nonconventional (complementary and integrative) interventions examined in clinical trials on BD, and to offer provisional guidelines for the judicious integrative use of CAM in the management of BD. PubMed, CINAHL,(®) Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for human clinical trials in English during mid-2010 using Bipolar Disorder and CAM therapy and CAM medicine search terms. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were also calculated where data were available. Several positive high-quality studies on nutrients in combination with conventional mood stabilizers and antipsychotic medications in BD depression were identified, while branched-chain amino acids and magnesium were effective (small studies) in attenuating mania in BD. In the treatment of bipolar depression, evidence was mixed regarding omega-3, while isolated studies provide provisional support for a multinutrient formula, n-acetylcysteine, and l-tryptophan. In one study, acupuncture was found to have favorable but nonsignificant effects on mania and depression outcomes. Current evidence supports the integrative treatment of BD using combinations of mood stabilizers and select nutrients. Other CAM or integrative modalities used to treat BD have not been adequately explored to date; however, some early findings are promising. Select CAM and integrative interventions add to established conventional treatment of BD and may be considered when formulating a treatment plan. It is hoped that the safety issues and clinical considerations addressed in this article may encourage the practice

  8. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue on Current Trends in Integrability and Nonlinear Phenomena Special issue on Current Trends in Integrability and Nonlinear Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ullate, D.; Lombardo, S.; Mañas, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Nijhoff, F.; Sommacal, M.

    2009-12-01

    may be found at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa. Contributions to the special issue should if possible be submitted electronically by web upload at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa, or by email to jphysa@iop.org, quoting 'JPhysA Special Issue: Current Trends in Integrability and Nonlinear Phenomena' Submissions should ideally be in standard LaTeX form. Please see the website for further information on electronic submissions. Authors unable to submit electronically may send hard-copy contributions to: Publishing Administrators, Journal of Physics A, IOP Publishing, Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Please quote 'JPhysA Special Issue—Current Trends in Integrability and Nonlinear Phenomena'. All contributions should be accompanied by a read-me file or covering letter giving the postal and e-mail addresses for correspondence. The Publishing Office should be notified of any subsequent change of address. This special issue will be published in the paper and online version of the journal.

  9. Current practice and recommendations in UK epilepsy monitoring units. Report of a national survey and workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamandi, Khalid; Beniczky, Sandor; Diehl, Beate; Kandler, Rosalind H; Pressler, Ronit M; Sen, Arjune; Solomon, Juliet; Walker, Matthew C; Bagary, Manny

    2017-08-01

    Inpatient video-EEG monitoring (VEM) is an important investigation in patients with seizures or blackouts, and in the pre-surgical workup of patients with epilepsy. There has been an expansion in the number of Epilepsy Monitoring Units (EMU) in the UK offering VEM with a necessary increase in attention on quality and safety. Previous surveys have shown variation across centres on issues including consent and patient monitoring. In an effort to bring together healthcare professionals in the UK managing patients on EMU, we conducted an online survey of current VEM practice and held a one-day workshop convened under the auspices of the British Chapter of the ILAE. The survey and workshop aimed to cover all aspects of VEM, including pre-admission, consent procedures, patient safety, drug reduction and reinstatement, seizure management, staffing levels, ictal testing and good data recording practice. This paper reports on the findings of the survey, the workshop presentations and workshop discussions. 32 centres took part in the survey and there were representatives from 22 centres at the workshop. There was variation in protocols, procedures and consent processes between units, and levels of observation of monitored patients. Nevertheless, the workshop discussion found broad areas of agreement on points. A survey and workshop of UK epilepsy monitoring units found that some variability in practice is inevitable due to different local arrangements and patient groups under investigation. However, there were areas of clear consensus particularly in relation to consent and patient safety that can be applied to most units and form a basis for setting minimum standards. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Implementation issues on the design of current loops based on resonant regulators for isolated microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Pastorelli, Michele; Antonio DeSouza Ribeiro, Luiz

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of state feedback coupling between the capacitor voltage and inductor current in voltage source inverters (VSI) operating in stand-alone microgrids. A decoupling technique is proposed as an effective measure to enhance the dynamics. Further implementation issues ...

  11. Assessment of BSBA Students' Conversancy in Current Business Issues: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Eileen A.; Maskulka, Therese A.; Kaminski, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the faculty of the College of Business at Kutztown University developed a set of five learning goals for its BSBA program. In fall, 2011, the college's Assurance of Learning Committee began to pursue the assessment of the last of these goals: "BSBA graduates will be conversant in current business issues, including ethics, social…

  12. Interpersonal Relationships, Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement: Yields for Theory, Current Issues, and Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Dowson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we scope the role of interpersonal relationships in students' academic motivation, engagement, and achievement. We argue that achievement motivation theory, current issues, and educational practice can be conceptualized in relational terms. Influential theorizing, including attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, goal theory,…

  13. Health care issues in Croatian elections 2005-2010: series of public opinion surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Dagmar; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Benkovic, Vanesa

    2011-10-15

    To compare the results of a series of public opinion surveys on experiences with the health care sector in Croatia conducted in the time of elections and to analyze whether political party affiliation had any influence on issues of priority ranking. The surveys were conducted during 2005, 2007, and 2009. They were administered through a Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing method to representative samples of Croatian population and were statistically weighted according to sex, age, level of education, and political party affiliation. The random sampling of the person within the household was done using the table of random numbers. Health and health care system was the most important issue (58%) during the 2007 parliamentary election and the second most important issue during the 2005 and 2009 elections (46% and 28%). In the 2007 election, health care was viewed as most important by women, respondents with lower education levels, and respondents with lower income. In 2005, the most important health care issues were corruption and lack of funding (45% and 43%, respectively), in 2007 poor organization and lack of funding (43% and 42%, respectively), and in 2009 lack of funding and corruption (51% and 45%, respectively). Health and health care system were consistently among the top two issues in all elections from 2005 to 2009. The top three most important health care sector issues were corruption, poor organization, and lack of funding. This indicates that political parties should include solutions to these issues in their health care policymaking.

  14. Health care issues in Croatian elections 2005-2009: series of public opinion surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Dagmar; Džakula, Aleksandar; Benković, Vanesa

    2011-01-01

    Aim To compare the results of a series of public opinion surveys on experiences with the health care sector in Croatia conducted in the time of elections and to analyze whether political party affiliation had any influence on issues of priority ranking. Methods The surveys were conducted during 2005, 2007, and 2009. They were administered through a Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing method to representative samples of Croatian population and were statistically weighted according to sex, age, level of education, and political party affiliation. The random sampling of the person within the household was done using the table of random numbers. Results Health and health care system was the most important issue (58%) during the 2007 parliamentary election and the second most important issue during the 2005 and 2009 elections (46% and 28%). In the 2007 election, health care was viewed as most important by women, respondents with lower education levels, and respondents with lower income. In 2005, the most important health care issues were corruption and lack of funding (45% and 43%, respectively), in 2007 poor organization and lack of funding (43% and 42%, respectively), and in 2009 lack of funding and corruption (51% and 45%, respectively). Conclusion Health and health care system were consistently among the top two issues in all elections from 2005 to 2009. The top three most important health care sector issues were corruption, poor organization, and lack of funding. This indicates that political parties should include solutions to these issues in their health care policymaking. PMID:21990075

  15. What Do People Know about Key Environmental Issues? A Review of Environmental Knowledge Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelia, Beth; Murphy, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results from 15 little publicized state and national environmental surveys in the US that used similar questions. Our analysis reveals trends in adult understanding of environmental issues. These trends indicate that many may have difficulty making informed decisions about environmental policy as citizens, voters, and…

  16. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders' Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z.; Haselager, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4th International BCI conference, which took place

  17. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders’ Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, F.; Clausen, J.; Allison, B.Z.; Haselager, W.F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4th International BCI conference, which took place

  18. Current management of anorectal malformation in Egypt: a survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    duplicate responses, yielding 82 survey charts for analysis. The 82 responses represent 74.5% of the 110 ... aDepartment of Pediatric Surgery, Qena University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine,. South Valley University, Qena and .... complex and improvement in rectal resting pressure and anorectal inhibitory reflex, which result ...

  19. Current Status and Issues of Nuclear Engineering Research and Educational Facilities in Universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    It is important to discuss about nuclear engineering research and educational facilities in universities after new educational foundation. 12 universities investigated issues and a countermeasure of them. The results of a questionnaire survey, issues and countermeasure are shown in this paper. The questionnaire on the future nuclear researches, development of education, project, maintenance of nuclear and radioactive facilities and accelerator, control of uranium in subcritical test facilities, use of new corporation facilities, the fixed number of student, number of graduate, student experiments, themes of experiments and researches, the state of educational facilities are carried out. The results of questionnaire were summarized as followings: the fixed number of student (B/M/D) on nuclear engineering, exercise of reactor, education, themes, educational and research facilities, significance of nuclear engineering education in university and proposal. (S.Y.)

  20. Survey of current trends in DNA synthesis core facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, K M; Fox, J W; Gunthorpe, M; Lilley, K S; Yeung, A

    1999-12-01

    The Nucleic Acids Research Group of the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) last surveyed DNA synthesis core facilities in April 1995. Because of the introduction of new technologies and dramatic changes in the market, we sought to update survey information and to determine how academic facilities responded to the challenge presented by commercial counterparts. The online survey was opened in January 1999 by notifying members and subscribers to the ABRF electronic discussion group. The survey consisted of five parts: general facility information, oligonucleotide production profile, oligonucleotide charges, synthesis protocols, and trends in DNA synthesis (including individual comments). All submitted data were anonymously coded. Respondents from DNA synthesis facilities were primarily from the academic category and were established between 1984 and 1991. Typically, a facility provides additional services such as DNA sequencing and has upgraded to electronic ordering. There is stability in staffing profiles for these facilities in that the total number of employees is relatively unchanged, the tenure for staff averages 5.9 years, and experience is extensive. On average, academic facilities annually produce approximately 1/16 the number of oligonucleotides produced by the average commercial facilities, but all facilities report an increase in demand. Charges for standard oligonucleotides from academic facilities are relatively higher than from commercial companies; however, the opposite is true for modified phosphoramidites. Subsidized facilities charge less than nonsubsidized facilities. Synthesis protocols and reagents are standard across the categories. Most facilities offer typical modifications such as biotinylation. Despite the competition by large commercial facilities that have reduced costs dramatically, academic facilities remain a stable entity. Academic facilities enhance the quality of service by focusing on nonstandard

  1. Roof Moisture Surveys: Current State Of The Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiasson, Wayne

    1983-03-01

    Moisture is the big enemy of compact roofing systems. Non-destructive nuclear, capacitance and infrared methods can all find wet insulation in such roofs but a few core samples are needed for verification. Nuclear and capacitance surveys generate quantitative results at grid points but examine only a small portion of the roof. Quantitative results are not usually provided by infrared scanners but they can rapidly examine every square inch of the roof. Being able to find wet areas when they are small is an important advantage. Prices vary with the scope of the investigation. For a particular scope, the three techniques are often cost-competitive. The limitations of each technique are related to the people involved as well as the equipment. When the right people are involved, non-destructive surveys are a very effective method for improving the long-term performance and reducing the life-cycle costs of roofing systems. Plans for the maintenance, repair or replacement of a roof should include a roof moisture survey.

  2. Introduction to the Issue on Current Trends in Terahertz Photonics and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Since the last special issue on terahertz science and technology, nearly three years have been passed. During this period, while there have been further developments in terahertz (THz) sources, detectors, materials, and applications, there have been new discoveries. The purpose of this issue of t...... reviews on recent THz research, the contributed papers cover a wide range of the cutting-edge research in the topics described earlier....... of the IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics (JSTQE) is to highlight the advances in materials, devices, and applications and new directions in the THz domain within the last three years. Broad technical areas include: 1) materials; 2) matamaterials, plasmonics, and plasmons; 3) techniques...... and effects; 4) generation and power scaling; 5) detectors; 6) devices; 7) applications. These key THz topics are discussed in both invited and contributed papers published in this issue, providing comprehensive overviews of the current status and future directions as well as publishing original results...

  3. Current ethical and legal issues in health-related direct-to-consumer genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Emilia; Kalokairinou, Louiza; Howard, Heidi Carmen

    2017-09-01

    A variety of health-related genetic testing is currently advertized directly to consumers. This article provides a timely overview of direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT) and salient ethical issues, as well as an analysis of the impact of the recently adopted regulation on in vitro diagnostic medical devices on DTC GT. DTC GT companies currently employ new testing approaches, report on a wide spectrum of conditions and target new groups of consumers. Such activities raise ethical issues including the questionable analytic and clinical validity of tests, the adequacy of informed consent, potentially misleading advertizing, testing in children, research uses and commercialization of genomic data. The recently adopted regulation on in vitro diagnostic medical devices may limit the offers of predisposition DTC GT in the EU market.

  4. Measurement issues associated with using survey data matched with administrative data from the Social Security Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Paul S; Fisher, T Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Researchers using survey data matched with administrative data benefit from the rich demographic and economic detail available from survey data combined with detailed programmatic data from administrative records. The research benefits of using these matched data are too numerous to mention. But there are drawbacks as well, and those drawbacks have received less systematic attention from researchers. We focus on survey data matched with administrative data from the Social Security Administration and address the strengths and weaknesses of each in four specific areas: (1) program participation and benefits, (2) disability and health information, (3) earnings, and (4) deferred compensation. We discuss the implications of these strengths and weaknesses for decisions that researchers must make regarding the appropriate data source and definition for the concepts in question. From this discussion, some general conclusions are drawn about measurement issues associated with using matched survey and administrative data for research, policy evaluation, and statistics.

  5. Current issues in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J; Nigg, Joel T

    2012-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification.

  6. Current Issues in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification. PMID:22035245

  7. Defining a caring hospital by using currently implemented survey tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Nancy

    2010-09-01

    Health care organizations are constantly striving to provide a more cost-effective and higher quality treatment within a caring environment. However, balancing the demands of regulatory agencies with the holistic needs of the patient is challenging. Further challenging is how to define those hospitals that provide an exceptional caring environment for their patients. By using survey tools that are already being administered in hospital settings, the opportunity exists to analyze the results obtained from these tools to define a hospital as a caring organization without the added burden of separate data collection.

  8. Current-drive theory I: survey of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of methods may be employed to drive toroidal electric current in a plasma torus. The most promising scheme is the injection of radiofrequency waves into the torus to push electrons or ions. The pushing mechanism can be either the direct conversion of wave to particle momentum, or a more subtle effect involving the alteration by waves of interparticle collisions. Alternatively, current can be produced through the injection of neutral beams, the reflection of plasma radiation, or the injection of frozen pellets. The efficacy of these schemes, in a variety of regimes, will be assessed. 9 refs

  9. Predicting the behavioural impact of transcranial direct current stimulation: issues and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archy Otto De Berker

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The transcranial application of weak currents to the human brain has enjoyed a decade of success, providing a simple and powerful tool for non-invasively altering human brain function. However, our understanding of current delivery and its impact upon neural circuitry leaves much to be desired. We argue that the credibility of conclusions drawn with tDCS is contingent upon realistic explanations of how tDCS works, and that our present understanding of tDCS limits the technique’s use to localize function in the human brain. We outline two central issues where progress is required: the localization of currents, and predicting their functional consequence. We encourage experimenters to eschew simplistic explanations of mechanisms of transcranial current stimulation. We suggest the use of individualized current modelling, together with computational neurostimulation to inform mechanistic frameworks in which to interpret the physiological impact of tDCS. We hope that through mechanistically richer descriptions of current flow and action, insight into the biological processes by which transcranial currents influence behaviour can be gained, leading to more effective stimulation protocols and empowering conclusions drawn with tDCS.

  10. Survey of Digital Feedback Systems in High Current Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teytelman, Dmitry

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade demand for brightness in synchrotron light sources and luminosity in circular colliders led to construction of multiple high current storage rings. Many of these new machines require feedback systems to achieve design stored beam currents. In the same time frame the rapid advances in the technology of digital signal processing allowed the implementation of these complex feedback systems. In this paper I concentrate on three applications of feedback to storage rings: orbit control in light sources, coupled-bunch instability control, and low-level RF control. Each of these applications is challenging in areas of processing bandwidth, algorithm complexity, and control of time-varying beam and system dynamics. I will review existing implementations as well as comment on promising future directions

  11. The 19th KAIF/KNS annual conference growth of nuclear industry and its current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhn, Poong Eil

    2004-01-01

    After the president Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' speech at the UN general Conference in December 1953, nuclear industry for peaceful uses of nuclear energy has been developed steadily worldwide through international co-operation and collaboration during last half a century. However, from late 1980s, in particular, after Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 and growing public opposition on nuclear waste management and disposal, the growth of nuclear power plants worldwide, except some Asian countries, has been slowed down. Nuclear power currently supplies about 16 % of the world's electricity. In the next 50 years, it is expected that the world energy demand will increase about two times comparing current level while electricity demand will be tripled. Therefore, the nuclear industry should be expanded significantly in the next 50 years to meet the role for 'Prosperity beyond Peace'. The main issues for nuclear industry to take this important role are to increase in economics of nuclear power, and to resolve nuclear waste management and disposal. Some of these issues have been resolved mainly through international co-operation. For example, there are significant efforts to improve economics of nuclear power. This paper reviews worldwide efforts to resolve these issues and mentions what are the remaining ones

  12. Literature Survey on Technical Issues and Insights of Multi-Unit PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Sejin; Park, Soyoung; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2016-01-01

    The need consider the risk impact in case of multi-unit in a single site increased after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011. This means that we have to consider the single-unit initiators impacting the other units and the simultaneous accidents of the multi-unit on the same site. Particularly, this kind of technical concern is serious in case of the Republic of Korea where multi-units had to be located in high-density population area due to geographical features. The Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) in the Republic of Korea has been trying to identify the state of the art of international and domestic regulations and techniques on multi-unit risk assessment and planning the road map for the safety researches. However, we have to say that finding a common accepted methodology along with safety criteria for multi-unit PSA was not an easy task up to now. This paper summarizes and analyzes related international and domestic journals' papers, conferences' papers and reports about the multi-unit PSA classifying categories with themes to understand the technical tendency of multi-unit PSA. In addition, some insights that were obtained from this classification have been arranged too. This paper investigated the technical trend of the multi-unit PSA as collecting of the international and domestic journals' papers, conferences papers and reports, and analyzing them. Upon the literature survey, a few statistics, technical issues, and insights were summarized. Both of the fundamental and practical researches need to find a globally accepted methodology to calculate and determine quantitative objectives for a multi-unit PSA. We want to expect that this paper can be shared to understand the current status of multi-unit PSA

  13. Scoping survey of perceived concerns, issues, and problems for near-surface disposal of FUSRAP waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.E.; Gilbert, T.L.

    1982-12-01

    This report is a scoping summary of concerns, issues, and perceived problems for near-surface disposal of radioactive waste, based on a survey of the current literature. Near-surface disposal means land burial in or within 15 to 20 m of the earth's surface. It includes shallow land burial (burial in trenches, typically about 6 m deep with a 2-m cap and cover) and some intermediate-depth land burial (e.g., trenches and cap similar to shallow land burial, but placed below 10 to 15 m of clean soil). Proposed solutions to anticipated problems also are discussed. The purpose of the report is to provide a better basis for identifying and evaluating the environmental impacts and related factors that must be analyzed and compared in assessing candidate near-surface disposal sites for FUSRAP waste. FUSRAP wastes are of diverse types, and their classification for regulatory purposes is not yet fixed. Most of it may be characterized as low-activity bulk solid waste, and is similar to mill tailings, but with somewhat lower average specific activity. It may also qualify as Class A segregated waste under the proposed 10 CFR 61 rules, but the parent radionuclides of concern in FUSRAP (primarily U-238 and Th-232) have longer half-lives than do the radionuclides of concern in most low-level waste. Most of the references reviewed deal with low-level waste or mill tailings, since there is as yet very little literature in the public domain on FUSRAP per se

  14. Literature Survey on Technical Issues and Insights of Multi-Unit PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Sejin; Park, Soyoung; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The need consider the risk impact in case of multi-unit in a single site increased after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011. This means that we have to consider the single-unit initiators impacting the other units and the simultaneous accidents of the multi-unit on the same site. Particularly, this kind of technical concern is serious in case of the Republic of Korea where multi-units had to be located in high-density population area due to geographical features. The Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) in the Republic of Korea has been trying to identify the state of the art of international and domestic regulations and techniques on multi-unit risk assessment and planning the road map for the safety researches. However, we have to say that finding a common accepted methodology along with safety criteria for multi-unit PSA was not an easy task up to now. This paper summarizes and analyzes related international and domestic journals' papers, conferences' papers and reports about the multi-unit PSA classifying categories with themes to understand the technical tendency of multi-unit PSA. In addition, some insights that were obtained from this classification have been arranged too. This paper investigated the technical trend of the multi-unit PSA as collecting of the international and domestic journals' papers, conferences papers and reports, and analyzing them. Upon the literature survey, a few statistics, technical issues, and insights were summarized. Both of the fundamental and practical researches need to find a globally accepted methodology to calculate and determine quantitative objectives for a multi-unit PSA. We want to expect that this paper can be shared to understand the current status of multi-unit PSA.

  15. Support time-dependent transformations for surveying and GIS : current status and upcoming challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudabadi, H.; Lercier, D.; Vielliard, S.; Mein, N.; Briggs, G.

    2016-12-01

    The support of time-dependent transformations for surveying and GIS is becoming a critical issue. We need to convert positions from the realizations of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame to any national reference frame. This problem is easy to solve when all of the required information is available. But it becomes really complicated in a worldwide context. We propose an overview of the current ITRF-aligned reference frames and we describe a global solution to support time-dependent transformations between them and the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. We focus on the uncertainties of station velocities used. In a first approximation, we use a global tectonic plate model to calculate point velocities. We show the impact of the velocity model on the coordinate accuracies. Several countries, particularly in active regions, are developing semi-dynamic reference frames. These frames include local displacement models updated regularly and/or after major events (such as earthquakes). Their integration into surveying or GIS applications is an upcoming challenge. We want to encourage the geodetic community to develop and use standard formats.

  16. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders? Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing

    OpenAIRE

    Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z.; Haselager, Pim

    2011-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4th International BCI conference, which took place in May–June 2010 in Asilomar, California. We assessed respondents’ opinions about a number of topics. First, we investigated preferences for terminology and definitions relating to BCIs. Second, w...

  17. [Brief survey of some foreign currents of classical acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Z; Zhang, S J

    2017-05-28

    This paper reviews the history of acupuncture's dissemination to Japan, France, and England in the modern period. In particular, it examines how Chinese acupuncture methods were modified in each of these countries and how these modifications were theoretically justified based on new readings of classical texts. In each country, these currents of acupuncture practice all claimed to be transmitting true traditional acupuncture, even as they developed along different trajectories and created new and different theories and practices of acupuncture. Some of these foreign methods were re-exported back to China, where they, in turn, have influenced the development of Chinese acupuncture.

  18. The treatment of Parkinson's disease with deep brain stimulation: current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Alexia-Sabine; Groiss, Stefan Jun; Elben, Saskia; Südmeyer, Martin; Schnitzler, Alfons; Wojtecki, Lars

    2015-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation has become a well-established symptomatic treatment for Parkinson's disease during the last 25 years. Besides improving motor symptoms and long-term motor complications, positive effects on patients' mobility, activities of daily living, emotional well-being and health-related quality of life have been recognized. Apart from that, numerous clinical trials analyzed effects on non-motor symptoms and side effects of deep brain stimulation. Several technical issues and stimulation paradigms have been and are still being developed to optimize the therapeutic effects, minimize the side effects and facilitate handling. This review summarizes current therapeutic issues, i.e., patient and target selection, surgical procedure and programming paradigms. In addition it focuses on neuropsychological effects and side effects of deep brain stimulation.

  19. The treatment of Parkinson′s disease with deep brain stimulation: current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia-Sabine Moldovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation has become a well-established symptomatic treatment for Parkinson′s disease during the last 25 years. Besides improving motor symptoms and long-term motor complications, positive effects on patients′ mobility, activities of daily living, emotional well-being and health-related quality of life have been recognized. Apart from that, numerous clinical trials analyzed effects on non-motor symptoms and side effects of deep brain stimulation. Several technical issues and stimulation paradigms have been and are still being developed to optimize the therapeutic effects, minimize the side effects and facilitate handling. This review summarizes current therapeutic issues, i.e., patient and target selection, surgical procedure and programming paradigms. In addition it focuses on neuropsychological effects and side effects of deep brain stimulation.

  20. Survey on current hydrotherapy use among North American burn centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Peter G; Loiselle, Frederick B; Nickerson, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    The authors have reviewed hydrotherapy practices in North American burn centers and described the epidemiology of hydrotherapy-associated nosocomial infections. A web-based survey was distributed to the directors of all burn care facilities listed by the American Burn Association. Questions addressed aspects of practice, including the method, additives, disposable liners, decontamination practices, nosocomial pathogens, and perceptions regarding the "ideal" method of hydrotherapy. The response rate was 44%, 59 of 142 centers, or 827 of 1900 beds. Hydrotherapy is regularly used by 83% of centers. Among these centers, 10% use exclusively immersion hydrotherapy (IH), 54% use exclusively shower cart hydrotherapy (SCH), and 35% use a combination of IH and SCH. Disposable liners are used at 80% of centers. Tap water alone is used by 51% of centers, 27% add detergent, 16% chlorhexidine, and 7% povidone-iodine. The majority of centers (57%) do not routinely culture their hydrotherapy equipment, 20% culture weekly, 7% monthly, and 17% less than once per month. Directors believe that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus are the most common nosocomial pathogens, followed by Acinetobacter species and Candida albicans. The relative frequency of occurrence of the first three pathogens did not vary with regard to the hydrotherapy method used. Given the opportunity to redesign, 45% of burn unit directors would implement SCH only, 42% a combination of SCH and IH, 2% exclusively IH, and 11% no hydrotherapy or bedside irrigation only. The prevalence of hydrotherapy use at North American burn centers has decreased since 1990 (83% vs 95%), yet continues to be used at the majority of centers. The use of IH has also declined (55% vs 81%). The trend away from the exclusive use of IH will likely continue, because more centers incorporate showering methods.

  1. Urban drinking water quality: A survey of selected literature. Issues in urban sustainability No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pip, E

    1993-01-01

    This literature survey covers a variety of issues relating to the quality of the urban water supply. It begins with a brief historical overview, and goes on to look at the health and politics of water, including issues of contamination. Next, it discusses water quantity including the main uses to which we put our water supply, and means of regulating or charging for usage. The main part of the report deals with water quality, describing how drinking water is assessed in terms of physical, chemical and biological parameters which are deemed to be important because of health or aesthetic reasons. Municipal water treatment and distribution discusses storage and disinfection, followed by a discussion of other treatments such as fluoridation and aeration. Incidental effects of distribution looks at a variety of other related issues such as asbestos fibres or metals in water.

  2. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders' Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z; Haselager, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4 th International BCI conference, which took place in May-June 2010 in Asilomar, California. We assessed respondents' opinions about a number of topics. First, we investigated preferences for terminology and definitions relating to BCIs. Second, we assessed respondents' expectations on the marketability of different BCI applications (BCIs for healthy people, BCIs for assistive technology, BCIs-controlled neuroprostheses and BCIs as therapy tools). Third, we investigated opinions about ethical issues related to BCI research for the development of assistive technology: informed consent process with locked-in patients, risk-benefit analyses, team responsibility, consequences of BCI on patients' and families' lives, liability and personal identity and interaction with the media. Finally, we asked respondents which issues are urgent in BCI research.

  3. Typography and layout of technical reports - Survey of current practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, T. E.; Cordle, V. M.; Mccullough, R.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a review of the NASA Langley Research Center scientific and technical information program, 50 technical reports from industry, research institutions, and government agencies were systematically examined and analyzed to determine current usage and practice in regard to (1) typography, including composition method, type style, type size, and margin treatment; (2) graphic design, including layout and imposition of material on the page; and (3) physical media, including paper, ink, and binding methods. The results indicate that approximately 50 percent of the reports were typeset, 70 percent used Roman (serif) type, 80 percent used 10- or 11-point type for text, 60 percent used a ragged right-hand margin, slightly more than half used paragraph indentation, 75 percent used a single-column layout, 65 percent had one or more figures or tables placed perpendicular to (not aligned with) the text, and perfect binding was the most frequently used binding method.

  4. LMFBR safety. 3. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1972--1974)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-02-24

    The report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1972 through 1974. The bibliography consists of approximately 1380 abstracts covering research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included.

  5. LMFBR safety. 4. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1974--1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1974 through 1975. The bibliography consists of approximately 1554 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  6. Current Issues of Antipyretic Therapy in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Novikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the current issues in the pediatric practice of seasonal incidence of children with acute respiratory infections. The basic etiological aspects of this pathology, specific clinical symptoms typical for different pathogens, causes of bursts of disease in certain periods are described. Special attention is paid to the tactics of antipyretic therapy in different groups of children with fever and acute respiratory diseases, understand the typical errors in its appointment. The author discusses the domestic and foreign results of using ibuprofen to relieve fever in children with this pathology, comparative efficacy and safety data of ibuprofen with other analgesics-antipyretics.

  7. LMFBR safety. 4. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1974--1975)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-03-21

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1974 through 1975. The bibliography consists of approximately 1554 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  8. LMFBR safety. 2. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1970--1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1970 through 1972. The bibliography consists of approximately 1620 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  9. LMFBR safety. 3. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1972--1974)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1972 through 1974. The bibliography consists of approximately 1380 abstracts covering research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included

  10. Special Issue: Current Trends in Research in Accounting Finance and Management Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lassala, Carlos; Ripoll Feliu, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    On January 27, 2016, an agreement was signed with OmniaScience to select articles to be published in the journal Intangible Capital, in a special issue titled "Current Trends in Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Control." The agreement was reached within the framework of three events at the University of Valencia, from June 27 to 30, 2016: XXI Workshop on Accounting and Management Control. “Memorial Raymond Konopka”, X Iberoamerican Congress of Management Accounting, III  Int...

  11. LMFBR safety. 5. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1975--1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA), are discussed. Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the period 1975 through 1976. The bibliography consists of approximately 1618 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  12. LMFBR safety. 2. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1970--1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-11-22

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1970 through 1972. The bibliography consists of approximately 1620 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  13. LMFBR safety. 5. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1975--1976)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-06-08

    The current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA), are discussed. Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the period 1975 through 1976. The bibliography consists of approximately 1618 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  14. LMFBR safety. 1. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1960--1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-08-16

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1960 through 1969. The bibliography consists of 1560 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  15. LMFBR safety. 1. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1960--1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1960 through 1969. The bibliography consists of 1560 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  16. A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE TOURISM SECTOR - CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES IN THE BULGARIAN TOURIST BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadin Valkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thе analysis presented in current article deepens and summarizes the results of an economic study focused on the management of human resources in the sector "Tourism". The expected changes in organizational and technological terms are taken into account. The law on tourism in the Republic of Bulgaria and the types of taxes that directly and indirectly affect those employed in tourism are considered. Leading accents are the current trends and issues that arise from the lack of skilled workers in this sector and their deficit caused by the seasonal nature of employment. Growing gray economy is concerned as a major obstacle to development of the tourism industry and its future.

  17. Current status of international training center for nuclear security and security issues in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-UK; Sin, Byung Woo

    2013-01-01

    During the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) President Lee declared that Korea will establish an international training center (ITC) for nuclear security near the Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC). It will be open to the world in 2014. The government's long term goal is to make the center a hub for education and training in the nuclear field in Asia. The ITC will accomplish this by establishing facilities for practical and realistic exercises through the use of a test bed and various other experiments. The center will also provide comprehensive educational programs for nuclear newcomers. Its main programs include: a well designed educational program, customized training courses, and on-the-job training. This paper will discuss the current status of the ITC and describe practical plans for solving current security issues in Korea. (authors)

  18. Study of Security Attributes of Smart Grid Systems- Current Cyber Security Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Scott A. McBride

    2009-04-01

    This document provides information for a report to congress on Smart Grid security as required by Section 1309 of Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The security of any future Smart Grid is dependent on successfully addressing the cyber security issues associated with the nation’s current power grid. Smart Grid will utilize numerous legacy systems and technologies that are currently installed. Therefore, known vulnerabilities in these legacy systems must be remediated and associated risks mitigated in order to increase the security and success of the Smart Grid. The implementation of Smart Grid will include the deployment of many new technologies and multiple communication infrastructures. This report describes the main technologies that support Smart Grid and summarizes the status of implementation into the existing U.S. electrical infrastructure.

  19. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L J; Hammel, C J

    1997-04-01

    Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

  20. CKM Phenomenology and B-mesons physics-present status and current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.

    2004-01-01

    We review the status of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix elements and the CP-violating phases in the CKM-unitarity triangle. The emphasis in these lecture notes is on B-meson physics, through we also review the current status and issues in the light quark sector of this matrix. Selected applications of theoretical methods in QCD used in the interpretation of data are given and some of the issues restricting the theoretical precision on the CKM matrix elements discussed. The overall consistency of the CKM theory with the available data in flavour physics is impressive and we quantify this consistency. Current data also show some anomalies which, however, are not yet statistically significant. They are discussed briefly. some benchmark measurements that remain to be done in experiments at the B-factories and hadron colliders are listed. Together with the already achieved results, they will provide unprecedented test of the CKM theory and by the same token may lead to the discovery of new physics. (Author) 284 refs

  1. The Crossmatch/Issue Ratio:  Use of a Novel Quality Indicator and Results of an International Survey on RBC Crossmatching and Issuing Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazer, Mark H; Alcantara, Ramir; Beizai, Pouneh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To understand the worldwide scope of RBC crossmatching and issuing practices and measure efficiency using a novel quality indicator, the crossmatch/issue (C/I) ratio. METHODS: An electronic survey was disseminated to hospital transfusion services collecting details about RBC...... crossmatching and issuing practices. Respondents were asked to enumerate the number of RBCs crossmatched and issued at their institutions during the 2014 calendar year to calculate the C/I ratio. RESULTS: Fifty-two survey responses were received, mostly from North American transfusion services (28/52, 54......%). The electronic crossmatch was the most common technique (n = 29), and most respondents performed the crossmatch at the time that an order for RBCs was received in the transfusion service (even if an order to issue the RBCs was not received). Data to calculate the C/I ratio were supplied by 22 respondents...

  2. Current Issues with Environmental Barrier Coatings for Ceramics and Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.

    2004-01-01

    The environmental barrier coating (EBC) for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites and Si3N4 ceramics is an emerging field as the application of silicon-based ceramics in the gas turbine engine hot section is on the horizon, both for aero and industrial gas turbines. EBC is an enabling technology for silicon-based ceramics because these materials without an EBC cannot be used in combustion environments due to rapid surface recession. Significant progress in EBC development has been made during the last decade through various government-sponsored programs. Current EBCs are based on silicon, mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and BSAS (barium strontium aluminum silicate with celsian structure). Volatility of BSAS, BSAS-silica chemical reaction, and low melting point of silicon limit temperature capability of current EBCs to about 1350 C for long-term applications. There is a need for higher temperature EBCs as the temperature capability of silicon-based ceramics continue to increase. Therefore, research is underway to develop EBCs with improved temperature capability compared to current EBCs. The current status and issues with the advanced EBC development efforts will be discussed.

  3. Implications of Current Ecological Thinking for Biodiversity Conservation: a Review of the Salient Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatha J. Wallington

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Given escalating concern worldwide about the loss of biodiversity, and given biodiversity's centrality to quality of life, it is imperative that current ecological knowledge fully informs societal decision making. Over the past two decades, ecological science has undergone many significant shifts in emphasis and perspective, which have important implications for how we manage ecosystems and species. In particular, a shift has occurred from the equilibrium paradigm to one that recognizes the dynamic, non-equilibrium nature of ecosystems. Revised thinking about the spatial and temporal dynamics of ecological systems has important implications for management. Thus, it is of growing concern to ecologists and others that these recent developments have not been translated into information useful to managers and policy makers. Many conservation policies and plans are still based on equilibrium assumptions. A fundamental difficulty with integrating current ecological thinking into biodiversity policy and management planning is that field observations have yet to provide compelling evidence for many of the relationships suggested by non-equilibrium ecology. Yet despite this scientific uncertainty, management and policy decisions must still be made. This paper was motivated by the need for considered scientific debate on the significance of current ideas in theoretical ecology for biodiversity conservation. This paper aims to provide a platform for such discussion by presenting a critical synthesis of recent ecological literature that (1 identifies core issues in ecological theory, and (2 explores the implications of current ecological thinking for biodiversity conservation.

  4. Medicare Part D-a roundtable discussion of current issues and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Donald C; Evans, Steven; Januska, Jeff; Lee, Helen Y; Lewis, Sonya J; Nolan, Steve R; Noga, Mark; Stemple, Charles; Thapar, Kishan

    2009-01-01

    Medicare Part D was introduced with a goal of providing access to prescription drug coverage for all Medicare beneficiaries. Regulatory mandates and the changing landscape of health care require continued evaluation of the state of the Part D benefit. To review the current state of plan offerings and highlight key issues regarding the administration of the Part D benefit. The Part D drug benefit continues to evolve. The benefit value appears to be diluted compared to the benefit value of large employer plans. Regulatory restrictions mandated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) are reported to inhibit the ability of plans to create an effective, competitive drug benefit for Medicare beneficiaries. Management in this restrictive environment impedes competitive price negotiations and formulary coverage issues continue to create confusion especially for patients with chronic diseases. The doughnut hole coverage gap represents a significant cost-shifting issue for beneficiaries that may impact medication adherence and persistence. To address these and other challenges, CMS is working to improve the quality of care for Part D beneficiaries by designing and supporting demonstration projects. Although these projects are in different stages, all stakeholders are hopeful that they will lead to the development of best practices by plans to help manage their beneficiaries more efficiently. A significant number of Medicare beneficiaries are currently receiving prescription drug benefits through Part D. The true value of this benefit has been called into question as a result of plan design parameters that lead to cost-shifting, an increasing burden for enrollees. Concerns regarding the ability to provide a competitive plan given the stringent rules and regulations have been voiced by plan administrators. In an effort to drive toward evidence-based solutions, CMS is working to improve the overall quality of care through numerous demonstration projects.

  5. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Five Important Issues We Aren’t Discussing (But Probably Should Be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Cooney Horvath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS is a neuromodulatory device often publicized for its ability to enhance cognitive and behavioral performance. These enhancement claims, however, are predicated upon electrophysiological evidence and descriptions which are far from conclusive. In fact, a review of the literature reveals a number of important experimental and technical issues inherent with this device that are simply not being discussed in any meaningful manner. In this paper, we will consider five of these topics. The first, inter-subject variability, explores the extensive between- and within-group differences found within the tDCS literature and highlights the need to properly examine stimulatory response at the individual level. The second, intra-subject reliability, reviews the lack of data concerning tDCS response reliability over time and emphasizes the importance of this knowledge for appropriate stimulatory application. The third, sham stimulation and blinding, draws attention to the importance (yet relative lack of proper control and blinding practices in the tDCS literature. The fourth, motor and cognitive interference, highlights the often overlooked body of research that suggests typical behaviors and cognitions undertaken during or following tDCS can impair or abolish the effects of stimulation. Finally, the fifth, electric current influences, underscores several largely ignored variables (such as hair thickness and electrode attachments methods influential to tDCS electric current density and flow.Through this paper, we hope to increase awareness and start an ongoing dialogue of these important issues which speak to the efficacy, reliability, and mechanistic foundations of tDCS.

  6. Current Issues in the Neurology and Genetics of Learning-Related Traits and Disorders: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article briefly describes each of the following eight articles in this special issue on the neurology and genetics of learning related disorders. It notes the greater appreciation of learning disability as a set of complex disorders with broad and intricate neurological bases and of the large individual differences in how these…

  7. GLOBEC NEP Northern California Current Cetacean Survey Data, NH0005, 2000-2000, 0007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) Northern California Current Cetacean Survey Data from R/V New Horizon cruises NH0005 and 0007....

  8. Students and Instant Messaging: Survey on Current Use and Demands for Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bakker, Gijs; Sloep, Peter; Jochems, Wim

    2008-01-01

    De Bakker, G., Sloep, P. B., & Jochems, W. M. G. (2007). Students and instant messaging: survey on current use and demands for higher education. Research in Learning Technology (ALT-J), 15(2), 143-153.

  9. Current Trends in Communication Graduate Degrees: Survey of Communications, Advertising, PR, and IMC Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Keith A.; Coolsen, Michael K.; Wilkerson, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    A survey of 61 master's degree advertising programs reveals significant trends in program titles, curriculum design, course delivery, and students served. The results provide insight for current and planned master's degree programs as research predicts a continued increase in demand for master's education over the next decade. Survey results are…

  10. A Survey of Current and Projected Ethical Dilemmas of Rehabilitation Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Michael T.; Cartwright, Brenda Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study surveyed current and projected ethical dilemmas of rehabilitation counselors. Method: As a mixed-methods approach, the study used both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Results: Of the 211 participants who completed the survey, 116 (55.0%) reported an ethical dilemma. Based on the descriptions, common themes involved roles…

  11. Preclinical QSP Modeling in the Pharmaceutical Industry: An IQ Consortium Survey Examining the Current Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Bansal, Loveleena; Bradshaw‐Pierce, Erica; Chan, Jason R.; Liederer, Bianca M.; Mettetal, Jerome T.; Schroeder, Patricia; Schuck, Edgar; Tsai, Alice; Xu, Christine; Chimalakonda, Anjaneya; Le, Kha; Penney, Mark; Topp, Brian; Yamada, Akihiro

    2018-01-01

    A cross‐industry survey was conducted to assess the landscape of preclinical quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) modeling within pharmaceutical companies. This article presents the survey results, which provide insights on the current state of preclinical QSP modeling in addition to future opportunities. Our results call attention to the need for an aligned definition and consistent terminology around QSP, yet highlight the broad applicability and benefits preclinical QSP modeling is currently delivering. PMID:29349875

  12. A survey of current practices in management of Hirschsprung′s disease in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrasheed A. Nasir; Emmanuel A. Ameh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although there are several modalities of treatment for Hirschsprung′s disease (HD), there are presently no clear guidelines on treatment of the condition by paediatric surgeons in Nigeria. This survey determines the current approach to treatment among Nigerian paediatric surgeons and should help in establishing a consensus and guidelines for care in this and similar setting. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire was designed using survey Monkey ® to determine current clin...

  13. Chinese college students' understanding of Internet ethical issues: A survey of awareness and attitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuelin LI; Ying LI; Ang LI

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This study examines Chinese college students' awareness of ethical issues surrounding the use of information resources and the Internet and their attitude to these issues.Design/methodology/approach:A survey was conducted.Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to students of 9 universities at different levels in Tianjin,China;171 were returned.Descriptive statistics were performed to analyze the data.Findings:The results indicate that Chinese college students usually ignored the negative influence of fake or pornographic or other indecent information,invasion of privacy and theft of confidential information,and violation of intellectual property rights.Although they could distinguish to some extent between ethical and unethical behavior,they were not concerned about others' unethical behavior on the Web.The study also indicates that gender,age,academic major and expertise in using computers were related to the students' awareness of ethical issues relating to the use of the Internet and their attitude to these issues.Research limitations:The sample is limited to the universities in Tianjin.A larger sample,which includes colleges and universities in the western or other developing areas in China,is needed to further validate our findings.Practical implications:The study helps educators and academic librarians better understand Chinese college students' awareness of and attitude to ethical issues surrounding the use of the Internet.It thus could assist them in the improvement of information ethics education for college students.Originality/value:This study was one of the first empirical studies to investigate the factors influencing Chinese college students' awareness of and attitude to Internet ethical issues.

  14. Chinese college students’ understanding of Internet ethical issues: A survey of awareness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuelin; LI; Ying; LI; Ang; LI

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines Chinese college students’ awareness of ethical issues surrounding the use of information resources and the Internet and their attitude to these issues. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to students of 9 universities at different levels in Tianjin, China; 171 were returned. Descriptive statistics were performed to analyze the data. Findings: The results indicate that Chinese college students usually ignored the negative influence of fake or pornographic or other indecent information, invasion of privacy and theft of confidential information, and violation of intellectual property rights. Although they could distinguish to some extent between ethical and unethical behavior, they were not concerned about others’ unethical behavior on the Web. The study also indicates that gender, age, academic major and expertise in using computers were related to the students’ awareness of ethical issues relating to the use of the Internet and their attitude to these issues.Research limitations: The sample is limited to the universities in Tianjin. A larger sample, which includes colleges and universities in the western or other developing areas in China, is needed to further validate our findings.Practical implications: The study helps educators and academic librarians better understand Chinese college students’ awareness of and attitude to ethical issues surrounding the use of the Internet. It thus could assist them in the improvement of information ethics education for college students.Originality/value: This study was one of the first empirical studies to investigate the factors influencing Chinese college students’ awareness of and attitude to Internet ethical issues.

  15. Knowledge based systems: A critical survey of major concepts, issues and techniques. Visuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1984-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled, Knowledge Based Systems: A Critical Survey of Major Concepts, Issues, and Techniques, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-9. The objectives of the report are to: examine various techniques used to build the KBS; to examine at least one KBS in detail, i.e., a case study; to list and identify limitations and problems with the KBS; to suggest future areas of research; and to provide extensive reference materials.

  16. Road safety in a globalised and more sustainable world: current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stijn; Risser, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Although many countries have had considerable success in reducing traffic injuries over recent decades, there are still some fundamental problems in this area. At the same time, there is increasing focus on road safety research and policy development in the context of globalisation, sustainability, liveability and health. This special section presents a selection of papers that were presented at the annual ICTCT workshop held on the 8th and 9th of November 2012 in Hasselt, Belgium, and accepted for publication in Accident Analysis and Prevention following the journal's reviewing procedure. The aim of the ICTCT workshop was to analyse road safety facts, data and visions for the future in the wider context of current issues and future challenges in road safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Domestic violence: a current issue to take into account in diagnostic imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Corraliza, E; Larrañaga Hernando, G; Neve Lete, I; Sánchez García, A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic violence is currently an issue of great political and social importance. The real incidence of domestic violence is difficult to determine due to the environment where it takes place and the reluctance of victims to report abuse. On the other hand, all types of violence represent an important public health problem. We report the case of a young woman who presented with thromboembolic phenomena at different sites due to domestic violence. We emphasize that it is necessary for radiologists and other healthcare professionals to consider the possibility of domestic violence when establishing the diagnosis. This can be important for determining the incidence of abuse, diminishing its sequela, and help increase its reporting. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytosanitary irradiation of fresh tropical commodities in Hawaii: Generic treatments, commercial adoption, and current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follett, Peter A.; Weinert, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    Hawaii is a pioneer in the use of phytosanitary irradiation. The commercial X-ray irradiation facility, Hawaii Pride LLC, has been shipping papaya and other tropical fruits and vegetables to the United States mainland using irradiation for 11 years. Irradiation is an approved treatment to control quarantine pests in 17 fruits and 7 vegetables for export from Hawaii to the US mainland. Hawaiian purple sweet potato is the highest volume product with annual exports of more than 12 million lbs (5500 t). The advent of generic radiation treatments for tephritid fruit flies (150 Gy) and other insects (400 Gy) will accelerate commodity export approvals and facilitate worldwide adoption. Lowering doses for specific pests and commodities can lower treatment costs and increase capacity owing to shorter treatment times, and will minimize any quality problems. Current impediments to wider adoption include the 1 kGy limit for fresh horticultural products, the labeling requirement, and non-acceptance of phytosanitary irradiation in Japan, the European Union, and elsewhere. Irradiation has potential as a treatment for unregulated imports to prevent new pest incursions. - Highlights: ► Irradiation is used to control quarantine insects in exported fresh commodities. ► Hawaii exported 5.7 t of tropical produce using irradiation in 2010. ► Generic radiation treatments will accelerate commodity export approvals. ► Lowering the dose for specific commodities will reduce costs/maintain quality. ► Current issues include the 1 kGy dose limit and labeling requirements.

  19. The importance of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education: current attitudes and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Alexander; Rose, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Health advocacy is currently a key component of medical education in North America. In Canada, Health Advocate is one of the seven roles included in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada's CanMEDS competency framework. A literature search was undertaken to determine the current state of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education and to identify issues facing educators and learners with regards to health advocacy training. The literature revealed that the Health Advocate role is considered among the least relevant to clinical practice by educators and learners and among the most challenging to teach and assess. Furthermore learners feel their educational needs are not being met in this area. A number of key barriers affecting health advocacy education were identified including limited published material on the subject, lack of clarity within the role, insufficient explicit role modeling in practice, and lack of a gold standard for assessment. Health advocacy is defined and its importance to medical practice is highlighted, using pediatric emergency medicine as an example. Increased published literature and awareness of the role, along with integration of the new 2015 CanMEDS framework, are important going forward to address concerns regarding the quality of postgraduate health advocacy education in Canada.

  20. Clinical decision support systems in hospital care using ubiquitous devices: Current issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Moqeem, Aasia A; Mirza, Farhaan; Lindén, Maria

    2017-11-01

    Supporting clinicians in decision making using advanced technologies has been an active research area in biomedical engineering during the past years. Among a wide range of ubiquitous systems, smartphone applications have been increasingly developed in healthcare settings to help clinicians as well as patients. Today, many smartphone applications, from basic data analysis to advanced patient monitoring, are available to clinicians and patients. Such applications are now increasingly integrating into healthcare for clinical decision support, and therefore, concerns around accuracy, stability, and dependency of these applications are rising. In addition, lack of attention to the clinicians' acceptability, as well as the low impact on the medical professionals' decision making, are posing more serious issues on the acceptability of smartphone applications. This article reviews smartphone-based decision support applications, focusing on hospital care settings and their overall impact of these applications on the wider clinical workflow. Additionally, key challenges and barriers of the current ubiquitous device-based healthcare applications are identified. Finally, this article addresses current challenges, future directions, and the adoption of mobile healthcare applications.

  1. The importance of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education: current attitudes and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Poulton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health advocacy is currently a key component of medical education in North America. In Canada, Health Advocate is one of the seven roles included in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada’s CanMEDS competency framework. Method: A literature search was undertaken to determine the current state of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education and to identify issues facing educators and learners with regards to health advocacy training. Results:  The literature revealed that the Health Advocate role is considered among the least relevant to clinical practice by educators and learners and among the most challenging to teach and assess. Furthermore learners feel their educational needs are not being met in this area. A number of key barriers affecting health advocacy education were identified including limited published material on the subject, lack of clarity within the role, insufficient explicit role modeling in practice, and lack of a gold standard for assessment. Health advocacy is defined and its importance to medical practice is highlighted, using pediatric emergency medicine as an example. Conclusions: Increased published literature and awareness of the role, along with integration of the new 2015 CanMEDS framework, are important going forward to address concerns regarding the quality of postgraduate health advocacy education in Canada.

  2. Transfusion medicine and solid organ transplant - Update and review of some current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, R S; Philip, J; Yadav, Pramod

    2013-04-01

    Transfusion medicine holds a place of prime importance in organ transplant surgeries. There is a huge demand of organs worldwide with long waiting periods before the organ is available for transplant. Currently the dependency on ABO and HLA matching has decreased considerably with the use of modern immunosuppressant drugs and transplant techniques. The greatest advance in clinical implementation of ABO-incompatible transplants came about through desensitization and isoagglutinin elimination techniques with immunoadsorption and anti-CD20 antibodies becoming the norm, and spleenectomy fading out. The implications and practices of transfusion medicine in organ transplant are also undergoing drastic changes. The practice of infusion of one unit of donor's blood preoperatively for immunomodulation is no longer practiced. Use of leuco-reduced products has shown decreasing trends of alloimmunization and graft rejection in cases of multiple surgeries related to organ transplants. Worldwide donor and recipient registry programmes are being setup and existing ones are being upgraded. Such a registry system has been opened in India for kidney transplant cases very recently. Due to such registry programmes the dependency on siblings and directed donations have decreased considerably. This review deals with some of the current issues contributing to the successful outcome of mismatched transplants and the changing concepts of transfusion medicine related to it.

  3. QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY ON CRANIOMANDIBULAR DISORDER ISSUES IN STUDENTS' AND POST-GRADUATE TRAINING IN BULGARIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dimova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of craniomandibular disorders (CMD among the Bulgarian population as well as the risk factors for unlocking bruxism and bruxomania mechanisms pose a demand for education on these issues reflecting modern science. The authors' aim is to examine the subjective assessment of participants in “DAYS OF PROSTHETICS, Sofia, 15 -16 March 2014”, regarding: 1.Prevelance of CMD in the country; 2. Education and training of students and post-graduates in the issues related to diagnostics and treatment of craniomandibular disorders; 3. Theoretical background for successful treatment of patients with bruxism and bruxomania. Materials and methods: For the purpose of the present research 192 participants have been surveyed - among them 163 are dentists and 29 are students in the 4th and 5th year of study. The survey feedback has been obtained via an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 8 questions targeted at dentists' assessment of CMD prevalence and distribution, training in CMD issues in Bulgaria and the treatment of patients with bruxism and bruxomania. The results obtained indicate that 84.0% - 93.1% (95% CI of respondents, working as dentists in the country, expressed the view that students' curriculum lacks an overall concept for training them in the diagnostics and treatment of CMD. 79.6% - 90.2% (95% CI of participants, dentists in the country, define post-graduate training in CMD as insufficient or lacking. Conclusion: The development and promotion of a working platform for early screening, diagnostics and treatment of CMD for timely referral to a specialized treatment is necessary and expected by the professional community in our country.

  4. Responses to GM food content in context with food integrity issues: results from Australian population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Philip; Golley, Sinéad

    2016-01-25

    This study examined community responses to use of genetically modified (GM) content in food in the context of responses to familiar food additives by testing an empirically and theoretically derived model of the predictors of responses to both GM content and food integrity issues generally. A nationwide sample of 849 adults, selected at random from the Australian Electoral Roll, responded to a postal Food and Health Survey. Structural equation modelling analyses confirmed that ratings of general concern about food integrity (related to the presence of preservatives and other additives) strongly predicted negativity towards GM content. Concern about food integrity was, in turn, predicted by environmental concern and health engagement. In addition, both concern about food integrity generally and responses to GM content specifically were weakly predicted by attitudes to benefits of science and an intuitive (i.e., emotionally-based) reasoning style. Data from a follow-up survey conducted under the same conditions (N=1184) revealed that ratings of concern were significantly lower for use of genetic engineering in food than for four other common food integrity issues examined. Whereas the question of community responses to GM is often treated as a special issue, these findings support the conclusion that responses to the concept of GM content in food in Australia are substantially a specific instance of a general sensitivity towards the integrity of the food supply. They indicate that the origins of responses to GM content may be largely indistinguishable from those of general responses to preservatives and other common food additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Survey of college students' MP3 listening: Habits, safety issues, attitudes, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Alicia; Krishnamurti, Sridhar

    2010-06-01

    To survey listening habits and attitudes of typical college students who use MP3 players and to investigate possible safety issues related to MP3 player listening. College students who were frequent MP3 player users (N = 428) filled out a 30-item online survey. Specific areas probed by the present survey included frequency and duration of MP3 player use, MP3 player volume levels used, types of earphones used, typical environments in which MP3 player was worn, specific activities related to safety while listening to MP3 players, and attitudes toward MP3 player use. The majority of listeners wore MP3 players for less than 2 hr daily at safe volume levels. About one third of respondents reported being distracted while wearing an MP3 player, and more than one third of listeners experienced soreness in their ears after a listening session. About one third of respondents reported occasionally using their MP3 players at maximum volume levels. Listeners indicated willingness to (a) reduce volume levels, (b) decrease listening duration, and (c) buy specialized earphones to conserve their hearing. The study found concerns regarding the occasional use of MP3 players at full volume and reduced environmental awareness among some college student users.

  6. Current funding and financing issues in the Australian hospice and palliative care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Eagar, Kathy; Currow, David; Green, Janette

    2009-07-01

    This article overviews current funding and financing issues in the Australian hospice and palliative care sector. Within Australia, the major responsibilities for managing the health care system are shared between two levels of government. Funding arrangements vary according to the type of care. The delivery of palliative care services is a State/Territory responsibility. Recently, almost all States/Territories have developed overarching frameworks to guide the development of palliative care policies, including funding and service delivery structures. Palliative care services in Australia comprise a mix of specialist providers, generalist providers, and support services in the public, nongovernment, and private sectors. The National Palliative Care Strategy is a joint strategy of the Commonwealth and States that commenced in 2002 and includes a number of major issues. Following a national study in 1996, the Australian National Subacute and Nonacute Patient (AN-SNAP) system was endorsed as the national casemix classification for subacute and nonacute care. Funding for palliative care services varies depending on the type of service and the setting in which it is provided. There is no national model for funding inpatient or community services, which is a State/Territory responsibility. A summary of funding arrangements is provided in this article. Palliative care continues to evolve at a rapid rate in Australia. Increasingly flexible evidence-based models of care delivery are emerging. This article argues that it will be critical for equally flexible funding and financing models to be developed. Furthermore, it is critical that palliative care patients can be identified, classified, and costed. Casemix classifications such as AN-SNAP represent an important starting point but further work is required.

  7. Current safety issues in the development of geological disposal of radioactive waste in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, P.

    2002-01-01

    Deep geological disposal of high level and medium level long-lived waste in France is one of the three research paths defined by the law of 30th December 1991 on radioactive waste management. Research should be undertaken on: separation and transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in these waste; reversible or non reversible disposal in deep geological layers supported by investigations in underground laboratories; processes for conditioning and long term surface storage of these waste. In 2006, a global evaluation report on this research should be established by the Government and sent to the French Parliament. On this basis the Parliament should promulgate a law providing new objectives for the research and possibly presenting a framework for a deep disposal process. The French Nuclear Safety Authority has the responsibility to license the underground laboratories foreseen in the second research path and the nuclear facilities involved in the first and third research paths and make sure that existing high level and medium level long-lived waste currently produced are properly managed. It will give its advice on the safety aspects associated to the envisaged future management options. Its main concern is that results obtained in 2006 will be conclusive enough to take decisions for future orientations. Concerning the deep disposal option, under the responsibility of ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets RAdioactifs), the construction of an underground laboratory has been authorized on the Bure site, in eastern France, and the shafts are under construction. The main issue is the level of investigations that may be performed in the host rock in order to support the feasibility study of a disposal concept on this site. Other issues are the elaboration of new safety standards to set a framework for a safety assessment of a disposal concept, the specifications for acceptance of waste packages in a future deep disposal, and relation of safety matters with

  8. Security Issues in Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Jae Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs. Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs.

  9. Security issues in healthcare applications using wireless medical sensor networks: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs). Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs.

  10. Identifying Key Issues and Potential Solutions for Integrated Arrival, Departure, Surface Operations by Surveying Stakeholder Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponso, Bimal; Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon; Quon, Leighton; Lohr, Gary; O’Connor, Neil; Engelland, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) collaborates with the FAA and industry to provide concepts and technologies that enhance the transition to the next-generation air-traffic management system (NextGen). To facilitate this collaboration, ARMD has a series of Airspace Technology Demonstration (ATD) sub-projects that develop, demonstrate, and transitions NASA technologies and concepts for implementation in the National Airspace System (NAS). The second of these sub-projects, ATD-2, is focused on the potential benefits to NAS stakeholders of integrated arrival, departure, surface (IADS) operations. To determine the project objectives and assess the benefits of a potential solution, NASA surveyed NAS stakeholders to understand the existing issues in arrival, departure, and surface operations, and the perceived benefits of better integrating these operations. NASA surveyed a broad cross-section of stakeholders representing the airlines, airports, air-navigation service providers, and industry providers of NAS tools. The survey indicated that improving the predictability of flight times (schedules) could improve efficiency in arrival, departure, and surface operations. Stakeholders also mentioned the need for better strategic and tactical information on traffic constraints as well as better information sharing and a coupled collaborative planning process that allows stakeholders to coordinate IADS operations. To assess the impact of a potential solution, NASA sketched an initial departure scheduling concept and assessed its viability by surveying a select group of stakeholders for a second time. The objective of the departure scheduler was to enable flights to move continuously from gate to cruise with minimal interruption in a busy metroplex airspace environment using strategic and tactical scheduling enhanced by collaborative planning between airlines and service providers. The stakeholders agreed that this departure concept could improve schedule

  11. Biomass Gasification - A synthesis of technical barriers and current research issues for deployment at large scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, Stefan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Liliedahl, Truls [KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Marklund, Magnus [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Thermal gasification at large scale for cogeneration of power and heat and/or production of fuels and materials is a main pathway for a sustainable deployment of biomass resources. However, so far no such full scale production exists and biomass gasification projects remain at the pilot or demonstration scale. This report focuses on the key critical technology challenges for the large-scale deployment of the following biomass-based gasification concepts: Direct Fluidized Bed Gasification (FBG), Entrained Flow Gasification (EFG) and indirect Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification (DFBG). The main content in this report is based on responses from a number of experts in biomass gasification obtained from a questionnaire. The survey was composed of a number of more or less specific questions on technical barriers as to the three gasification concepts considered. For formalising the questionnaire, the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL 1-9) was used for grading the level of technical maturity of the different sub-processes within the three generic biomass gasification technologies. For direct fluidized bed gasification (FBG) it is mentioned that the technology is already available at commercial scale as air-blown technology and thus that air-blown FBG gasification may be reckoned a mature technology. The remaining technical challenge is the conversion to operation on oxygen with the final goal of producing chemicals or transport fuels. Tar reduction, in particular, and gas cleaning and upgrading in general are by far the most frequently named technical issues considered problematic. Other important aspects are problems that may occur when operating on low-grade fuels - i.e. low-cost fuels. These problems include bed agglomeration/ash sintering as well as alkali fouling. Even the preparation and feeding of these low-grade fuels tend to be problematic and require further development to be used on a commercial scale. Furthermore, efficient char conversion is mentioned by

  12. Keeping current, June 1998. Issues 98: Securing the value of the federal Columbia River power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This report focuses on issues which will enhance the value of the Columbia River for the future. Many important decisions must be made about the Bonneville Power Administration in the coming months. These issues include the following: cost management; future fish and wildlife funding; power markets, revenues and subscription; transmission issues; and risk management

  13. Securing the Value of the Federal Columbia River Power System, Keeping Current, June 1998, Issue 98.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-06-01

    This report focuses on issues which will enhance the value of the Columbia River for the future. Many important decisions must be made about the Bonneville Power Administration in the coming months. These issues include the following: cost management; future fish and wildlife funding; power markets, revenues and subscription; transmission issues; and risk management.

  14. Work-related reproductive, musculoskeletal and mental disorders among working women--history, current issues and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Reiko; Kitahara, Teruyo; Masuchi, Ayumi; Kasai, Setsuko

    2002-04-01

    According to the recent changes of working environments and socio-economical conditions, the proportion of working women are increasing in Japan. Characteristics of occupational workload and stress of Japanese working women are consistent with those in many industrialized countries except man-dominant culture. In this review we describe the history, current issues, and future research directions on occupational health of working women, especially focused on reproductive health, work-related musculo-skeletal disorders (WMSDs), and mental disorders. In the reproductive health survey, traditionally main concern was about pregnancy outcomes, then fecundity studies, such as time to pregnancy, became topics recently. Future research will be shifted to outcomes not only during pregnancy but also disorders of hormonal balance and climacterium or health conditions after menopause. WMSDs are reviewed on mainly gender difference and its causative factors. Historically, mental health of working women in Japan has focused on the job stress of nurses. We compare results with a lot of recent researches in Europe and U.S.A., where interaction between occupational stress and family roles were studied. It is not easy to predict the prospective status of female workers in Japan, but social, workplace and familial supports will enhance their health promotion.

  15. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-01-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation – ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and

  16. [Current status and issues in development of occupational physicians in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Training systems for occupational physicians (OPs) have existed since the Industrial Safety and Health Act was enacted in 1972. However, it is necessary to enhance them because of changes in the business environment of Japanese corporations and working patterns have brought about new needs of occupational health (OH) activities. In this paper, OPs were classified into three categories; doctors who spend a part of working time on OH activities, i.e. "non-specialist OPs", doctors who engage in OH activities full-time, i.e. "specialists OPs", and doctors who manage corporate-wide occupational health programs or lead programs at OH service institutes, i.e. "lead OPs", and the status and the issues were reviewed. The major concern identified for each of the three categories in training were found to be quality management for non-specialist OPs, short supply for specialists OPs, and development of competencies such as leadership and management skills for lead OPs, respectively. Current efforts and ideas to improve the training systems were discussed.

  17. Measuring retrograde autobiographical amnesia following electroconvulsive therapy: historical perspective and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkovska, Maria; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2013-06-01

    Retrograde amnesia following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a major concern for both patients and clinicians. In contemporary ECT research, retrograde autobiographical amnesia (RAA) is commonly measured with instruments assessing autobiographical memory (AM) consistency over time. However, normal AM recall loses in consistency with the passage of time, and time has a differential effect on stability of personal memories. In addition, experiencing depression is associated with a decreased ability to recall specific AMs, and this difficulty may persist in the euthymic phase of recurrent depression. Despite these scientific facts, relatively few attempts have been made to accurately measure the specific effect of ECT on AM independent of both normal and mood-associated forgetting over time. This major gap in our knowledge prevents us at present from objectively quantifying the nature and extent of RAA associated with ECT. In turn, this hinders our identifying and implementing strategies for prevention or remediation of AM deficits. The present article aims to provide an up-to-date review and historical perspective of this major methodological conundrum for ECT research, highlight current issues in retrograde amnesia assessment following ECT, and propose directions for future studies. In conclusion, we suggest methods to reliably and specifically measure the extent and progression over time of ECT-associated RAA independently from persistent depressive symptoms' contribution and normal loss in AM consistency over time.

  18. Construct validity-Current issues and recommendations for future hand hygiene research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jun Rong Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    Health care-associated infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene is widely regarded as an effective prevention strategy. Often, hand hygiene research is designed and conducted by health care practitioners who may lack formal training in research methods, particularly in the area of social science. In a research context, a construct is a concept that can be measured or observed in some way. A construct can be directly or indirectly measured. For example, height can be directly measured by centimeters, whereas depression can be indirectly measured by a scale of 20 items. Every construct needs to be operationalized by measure(s) to make it a variable. Hence, construct validity refers to the degree of fit between the construct of interest and its operational measure. However, issues with construct validity often weaken the translation from construct to measure(s). This article will (1) describe the common threats to construct validity pertaining to hand hygiene research, (2) identify practical limitations in current research design, and (3) provide recommendations to improve construct validity in future hand hygiene research. By understanding how construct validity may affect hand hygiene research design, there is great potential to improve the validity of future hand hygiene research findings. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [SWOT Analysis of the National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, Hui-hui; ZHOU, Chang-hai; CHEN, Ying-dan; ZANG, Wei; XIAO, Ning; ZHOU, Xiao-nong

    2015-10-01

    The National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China has been carried out since 2014 under the organization of the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China. The National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NIPD, China CDC) provided technical support and was responsible for quality control in this survey. This study used SWOT method to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that were encountered by he NIPD, China CDC during the completion of the survey. Accordingly, working strategies were proposed to facilitate the future field work.

  20. A technical survey on issues of the PSA of digital I and C system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. G.; Sung, T. Y.; Eom, H. S.; Jeong, H. S.; Park, J. H.; Park, J. K.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K

    2000-02-01

    This report describes the review results of the safety assessment and reliability analysis techniques of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems. The techniques are far from that of analog I and C systems because of the characteristics of digital systems. This report categorizes the current issues related to the safety assessment of digital I and C systems into three groups as follows: 1. The methodologies which could integrate the characteristics of hardware and that of software. 2. The methodologies which effectively represent safety improvement due to the fault-tolerant mechanisms embedded in digital I and C systems. 3. The methodologies which could effectively represent the phased-mission systems. (author)

  1. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo J; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2014-08-01

    How has the interface between genetics and assisted reproduction technology (ART) evolved since 2005? The interface between ART and genetics has become more entwined as we increase our understanding about the genetics of infertility and we are able to perform more comprehensive genetic testing. In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and ART and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. An interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies and experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. In March 2012, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the EuroGentest2 Coordination Action Project met to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ART. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognized and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome prior to conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and PGD may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from RCTs to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving, but still remains very

  2. Cultural differences in survey responding: Issues and insights in the study of response biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2016-12-01

    This paper introduces the special section "Cultural differences in questionnaire responding" and discusses central topics in the research on response biases in cross-cultural survey research. Based on current conceptions of acquiescent, extreme, and socially desirable responding, the author considers current data on the correlated nature of response biases and the conditions under which different response styles they emerge. Based on evidence relating different response styles to the cultural dimension of individualism-collectivism, the paper explores how research presented as part of this special section might help resolves some tensions in this literature. The paper concludes by arguing that response styles should not be treated merely as measurement error, but as cultural behaviors in themselves. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. Climate policies in China, India and Brazil: current issues and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellevrat, Elie

    2012-07-01

    Emerging countries will have to tackle different social and economic development challenges in the future, which translate nationally into the concepts of 'harmonious society' in China and 'inclusive growth' in India, and into the Brazilian slogan 'a wealthy country is a country without poverty'. Per capita (current US$), Brazil is more than two times richer than China, which in turn is three times richer than India. This graduation explains the variety of priorities of those countries: reducing inequalities and achieving the development processes in China and Brazil, alleviating poverty and enhancing energy access in India. Furthermore, these countries are increasingly linked internationally, along with the globalization process. Energy security is a key issue for China and India, while Brazil aims at playing a key role on future international energy markets. Emerging economies are progressively laying the foundations for low-carbon development strategies that will depend on their national contexts and priorities. Investments in building and transport infrastructures are increasingly important in all those countries, creating the conditions today for tomorrow's low-carbon economic development. China recently made important resolutions in the framework of its 12. Five-Year Plan, decoupling economic growth from GHG emissions. India has developed eight 'National Missions' on climate change and is now exploring future low-carbon strategies. And Brazil is affirming its position internationally, pushing for innovative 'green growth' concepts, within the framework of the Rio+20 Conference. All countries have already implemented several energy and climate policies and plan to develop them further, through innovative policy institutions and instruments. They are switching progressively from command- and-control to economic instruments. In particular, market-based mechanisms are increasingly used in all countries: mandatory pilot Emission Trading Systems (ETS) in China

  4. Survey on Security Issues in Cloud Computing and Associated Mitigation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, Rohit; Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-06-01

    Cloud Computing holds the potential to eliminate the requirements for setting up of high-cost computing infrastructure for IT-based solutions and services that the industry uses. It promises to provide a flexible IT architecture, accessible through internet for lightweight portable devices. This would allow multi-fold increase in the capacity or capabilities of the existing and new software. In a cloud computing environment, the entire data reside over a set of networked resources, enabling the data to be accessed through virtual machines. Since these data-centers may lie in any corner of the world beyond the reach and control of users, there are multifarious security and privacy challenges that need to be understood and taken care of. Also, one can never deny the possibility of a server breakdown that has been witnessed, rather quite often in the recent times. There are various issues that need to be dealt with respect to security and privacy in a cloud computing scenario. This extensive survey paper aims to elaborate and analyze the numerous unresolved issues threatening the cloud computing adoption and diffusion affecting the various stake-holders linked to it.

  5. Statistical survey of day-side magnetospheric current flow using Cluster observations: magnetopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Liebert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a statistical survey of current structures observed by the Cluster spacecraft at high-latitude day-side magnetopause encounters in the close vicinity of the polar cusps. Making use of the curlometer technique and the fluxgate magnetometer data, we calculate the 3-D current densities and investigate the magnetopause current direction, location, and magnitude during varying solar wind conditions. We find that the orientation of the day-side current structures is in accordance with existing magnetopause current models. Based on the ambient plasma properties, we distinguish five different transition regions at the magnetopause surface and observe distinctive current properties for each region. Additionally, we find that the location of currents varies with respect to the onset of the changes in the plasma environment during magnetopause crossings.

  6. MIGRATION, A CURRENT ISSUE: THE CRISIS OF TODAY, THE CHALLENGE OF TOMORROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu PĂTRAŞCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to portray a clear perspective of the problem of immigrants, who are arriving in Europe from the Middle East conflict zones (particularly Syria and Iraq and from North Africa (mainly Libya. The causes that conducted to the development of such a phenomenon represent the motivation for choosing this theme, as well as its effects on the functionality of the EU at an institutional level and finally yet importantly the “trenchant” visions of the European public opinion, amplified by the mass media: the pros and cons of accepting the wave of refugees. The author's approach aims to put in balance both the positive effects of the phenomenon on the European continent, as well as the negative ones. Positive effects might consist in obtaining additional work force, as Europe is currently facing a demographic aging phenomenon. Furthermore, from the perspective of EU citizens, who believe in the cohesion of the European institutions, the acceptance of refugees represents a basic value for unity and further on stands for the formation of a homogenous European Union, therefore emphasising the importance of each individual. On the other hand, analysing the matter in the most realistic possible way, the risk of potential terrorist penetration in Europe is quite high and unmanageable. As a research method, we will use document analysis, referring to media articles and official documents. This phenomenon is particularly complex and the crisis result will depend on the effectiveness of the manner in which each national authority as well as the European ones will handle the issue.

  7. A discussion of current issues and concepts in the practice of skull-photo/craniofacial superimposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, G M; Steyn, M

    2016-05-01

    A recent review paper on cranio-facial superimposition (CFS) stated that "there have been specific conceptual variances" from the original methods used in the practice of skull-photo superimposition, leading to poor results as far as accuracy is concerned. It was argued that the deviations in the practice of the technique have resulted in the reduced accuracies (for both failure to include and failure to exclude) that are noted in several recent studies. This paper aims to present the results from recent research to highlight the advancement of skull-photo/cranio-facial superimposition, and to discuss some of the issues raised regarding deviations from original techniques. The evolving methodology of CFS is clarified in context with the advancement of technology, forensic science and specifically within the field of forensic anthropology. Developments in the skull-photo/cranio-facial superimposition techniques have largely focused on testing reliability and accuracy objectively. Techniques now being employed by forensic anthropologists must conform to rigorous scientific testing and methodologies. Skull-photo/cranio-facial superimposition is constantly undergoing accuracy and repeatability testing which is in line with the principles of the scientific method and additionally allows for advancement in the field. Much of the research has indicated that CFS is useful in exclusion which is consistent with the concept of Popperian falsifiability - a hypothesis and experimental design which is falsifiable. As the hypothesis is disproved or falsified, another evolves to replace it and explain the new observations. Current and future studies employing different methods to test the accuracy and reliability of skull-photo/cranio-facial superimposition will enable researchers to establish the contribution the technique can have for identification purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Current Issues in the Presentation of Asymptomatic Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Bart L.; Peacock, Munro; Bandeira, Francisco; Boutroy, Stephanie; Cusano, Natalie E.; Dempster, David; Lewiecki, E. Michael; Liu, Jian-Min; Minisola, Salvatore; Rejnmark, Lars; Silva, Barbara C.; Walker, Marcella D.; Bilezikian, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This report summarizes data on traditional and nontraditional manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) that have been published since the last International Workshop on PHPT. Participants: This subgroup was constituted by the Steering Committee to address key questions related to the presentation of PHPT. Consensus was established at a closed meeting of the Expert Panel that followed. Evidence: Data from the 5-year period between 2008 and 2013 were presented and discussed to determine whether they support changes in recommendations for surgery or nonsurgical follow-up. Consensus Process: Questions were developed by the International Task Force on PHPT. A comprehensive literature search for relevant studies was undertaken. After extensive review and discussion, the subgroup came to agreement on what changes in the recommendations for surgery or nonsurgical follow-up of asymptomatic PHPT should be made to the Expert Panel. Conclusions: 1) There are limited new data available on the natural history of asymptomatic PHPT. Although recognition of normocalcemic PHPT (normal serum calcium with elevated PTH concentrations; no secondary cause for hyperparathyroidism) is increasing, data on the clinical presentation and natural history of this phenotype are limited. 2) Although there are geographic differences in the predominant phenotypes of PHPT (symptomatic, asymptomatic, normocalcemic), they do not justify geography-specific management guidelines. 3) Recent data using newer, higher resolution imaging and analytic methods have revealed that in asymptomatic PHPT, both trabecular bone and cortical bone are affected. 4) Clinically silent nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis can be detected by renal imaging and should be listed as a new criterion for surgery. 5) Current data do not support a cardiovascular evaluation or surgery for the purpose of improving cardiovascular markers, anatomical or functional abnormalities. 6) Some patients with mild PHPT

  9. Special Education for Children with Attention Deficit Disorder: Current Issues. CRS Report for Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This paper examines issues concerning the eligibility of children with attention deficit disorder (ADD) for special education and related services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). A policy memorandum was issued by the Department of Education in September 1991, identifying those circumstances under which such children…

  10. 77 FR 58510 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS), Annual Social...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... various population groups. A prime statistic of interest is the classification of people in poverty and... Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS), Annual Social and Economic... conducted this supplement annually for over 50 years. The Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics...

  11. Income Inequality and Health Status in the United States: Evidence from the Current Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jennifer M.; Milyo, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Current Population Survey data on self-reported health status and income for the general population and those in poverty were analyzed. No consistent association was found between income inequality and individual health status. Previous findings of such an association were attributed to ecological fallacy or failure to control for individual…

  12. Students and recorded lectures: survey on current use and demands for higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Pierre; Van Bruggen, Jan; Jochems, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Gorissen, P., Van Bruggen, J., & Jochems, W. M. G. (2012). Students and recorded lectures: survey on current use and demands for higher education. Research In Learning Technology, 20(3). doi:10.3402/rlt.v20i0.17299

  13. 78 FR 54622 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey, Annual Social and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau, Commerce. ACTION: Notice... designed to create a marketplace of private health insurance options for individuals and small businesses...

  14. Cardioversion for atrial fibrillation in current European practice : results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Madrid, Antonio; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Dobreanu, Dan; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina

    This survey was conducted to provide an insight into the current clinical practice regarding the use of cardioversion for atrial fibrillation (AF) in Europe. Responses were received from 57 centres across Europe, 71.9 of which were university hospitals. For electrical cardioversion, general

  15. Survey Exploring Views of Scientists on Current Trends in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvakeros, Xenofon; Pavlatou, Evangelia A.; Spyrellis, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    A survey exploring the views of scientists, chemists and chemical engineers, on current trends in Chemistry Education was conducted in Greece. Their opinions were investigated using a questionnaire focusing on curricula (the content and process of chemistry teaching and learning), as well as on the respondents' general educational beliefs and…

  16. Ensonifying Change: Repeat Ultra-High-Resolution Surveys in Monterey Canyon before and after Passage of a Turbidity Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Carvajal, C.; Thomas, H. J.; Maier, K. L.; Parsons, D. R.; Simmons, S.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents are one of the primary means of global sediment transport, yet our understanding of how they interact with the seafloor is hindered by the limited number of direct measurements. The Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE; October 2015 - April 2017) has made great strides in addressing this issue by providing direct measurements of turbidity currents and detailed observations of the resulting seafloor change in Monterey Canyon, offshore California. Here we focus on a section of the canyon at 1850-m water depth, where a Seafloor Instrument Node (SIN) recorded passage of three turbidity currents using a range of sensors, including three upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profilers. The fastest event at this site had a maximum velocity of 2.8 m/s, and dragged the 430-Kg SIN 26 m down-canyon. Repeat mapping surveys were conducted four times during the CCE, utilizing a prototype ultra-high-resolution mapping system mounted on the ROV Doc Ricketts. The survey platform hosts a 400-kHz Reson 7125 multibeam sonar, a 3DatDepth SL1 subsea LiDAR, two stereo color cameras, and a Kearfott SeaDevil INS. At a survey altitude of 2.5 m above the bed, the system provides remarkable 5-cm resolution multibeam bathymetry, 1-cm resolution LiDAR bathymetry, and 2-mm resolution photomosaics, and can cover a 100-m2 survey area. Surveys of the SIN site prior to and after the fastest event show areas of net deposition/erosion of 60 cm and 20 cm, respectively. Net deposition occurred in the topographic lows between bedforms, while erosion was focused on the bedform crests. At the end of the experiment, transects of sediment cores were taken by ROV within areas of net deposition. The cores show a variety of sedimentary facies, including muds, sands, gravel, and organic rich layers. Gravel layers have sharp erosive bases. The repeat surveys document the dynamic nature of flute-like scours as the flow events erode and deposit material along the canyon floor, as well as the

  17. Lot quality assurance sampling techniques in health surveys in developing countries: advantages and current constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, C F; Black, R E

    1991-01-01

    Traditional survey methods, which are generally costly and time-consuming, usually provide information at the regional or national level only. The utilization of lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methodology, developed in industry for quality control, makes it possible to use small sample sizes when conducting surveys in small geographical or population-based areas (lots). This article describes the practical use of LQAS for conducting health surveys to monitor health programmes in developing countries. Following a brief description of the method, the article explains how to build a sample frame and conduct the sampling to apply LQAS under field conditions. A detailed description of the procedure for selecting a sampling unit to monitor the health programme and a sample size is given. The sampling schemes utilizing LQAS applicable to health surveys, such as simple- and double-sampling schemes, are discussed. The interpretation of the survey results and the planning of subsequent rounds of LQAS surveys are also discussed. When describing the applicability of LQAS in health surveys in developing countries, the article considers current limitations for its use by health planners in charge of health programmes, and suggests ways to overcome these limitations through future research. It is hoped that with increasing attention being given to industrial sampling plans in general, and LQAS in particular, their utilization to monitor health programmes will provide health planners in developing countries with powerful techniques to help them achieve their health programme targets.

  18. Survey of current lead use, handling, hygiene, and contaminant controls among New Jersey industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, James D; Lefkowitz, Daniel K; Valiante, David; Gerwel, Barbara; Bresnitz, Eddy

    2007-08-01

    In 2003, a chemical handling and use survey was mailed to New Jersey employers identified as currently using lead in their industrial processes. This survey was used to ascertain characteristics about lead use, handling, and protection of employees during manufacturing operations. The survey included a diverse group of current lead users with a total lead use range from less than 1 pound to more than 63 million pounds of lead per year. The survey allowed for a comprehensive characterization of hazards and protective measures associated with this metal, still commonly used in many products and industrial processes. Forty-five surveys were returned by companies that are listed in the New Jersey Adult Blood Lead Registry, which is part of the New Jersey Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program. This program records and investigates cases of adults with greater than 25 mu g/dL of lead in their blood; most cases are related to occupational exposures. This survey found that greater than 25% of these surveyed companies with significant potential for lead exposure did not employ commonly used and basic industrial hygiene practices. In addition, the survey found that 24% of these companies had not conducted air sampling within the last 3 years. Air sampling is the primary trigger for compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) general industry lead standard. Only 17% of the companies have ever been cited for a violation of the OSHA lead standard, and only 46% of these companies have ever had an OSHA inspection. State-based surveillance can be a useful tool for OSHA enforcement activities. Elevated blood lead values in adults should be considered as a trigger for required compliance with an OSHA general industry lead standard.

  19. Current issues in dental practice management. Part 1. The importance of shared values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Philip R H

    2003-04-01

    There can be few who would argue with the notion that the nature of dental practice in the United Kingdom has changed dramatically over the last couple of decades. A variety of factors, including new clinical techniques, growing consumerism, a much greater awareness of health-related and well-being issues in the public at large, as well as a marked deregulation within the dental profession, the development of vocational training and recently mandatory lifelong learning, the growing number of females working in the profession, and an increasing reluctance of young dentists to finance dental practices have all combined to create an environment which has enabled and encouraged a move away from traditional forms of dental care delivery. Instead, there has been considerable growth in independently-funded practice and a commensurate growth in the number of practices operating under a corporate body umbrella of one form or another. Currently there are 27 corporate bodies registered with the General Dental Council (GDC) with the likelihood of more in the future given the proposed GDC review. This will no doubt take into consideration European law, under which the restriction within the Dentist's Act on the number of corporate bodies is likely to be untenable. Although they still have only a small share of the dental market--with 4% of all dentists in the UK in 1999--they have expanded rapidly from a small base. The data available at the time the paper was written indicate that the global total of fees earned from dentistry in the UK in the financial year 2001/2002 was almost 3 billion Pounds, of which 1.9 billion Pounds (64%) came from NHS fees and 1.1 billion Pounds (36%) from private fees. Of this 1.9 billion Pounds received in NHS fees in 2001/2002, 0.55 billion Pounds were paid by patients who were not exempt from charges, bringing the total amount actually paid out of patients' pockets for dental treatment to 1.65 billion Pounds. Compare these figures with 1996

  20. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Trickett

    1998-01-01

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH ampersand S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design com- pels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective

  1. Data Security, Privacy, Availability and Integrity in Cloud Computing: Issues and Current Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan Aldossary; William Allen

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing changed the world around us. Now people are moving their data to the cloud since data is getting bigger and needs to be accessible from many devices. Therefore, storing the data on the cloud becomes a norm. However, there are many issues that counter data stored in the cloud starting from virtual machine which is the mean to share resources in cloud and ending on cloud storage itself issues. In this paper, we present those issues that are preventing people from adopting the cl...

  2. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  3. CURRENT ISSUES ON JOB STRESS IN JAPAN AND WORKSITE MENTAL HEALTH APPLICATION AMONG JAPANESE COMPANY A Case Study Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    S Purnawati

    2013-01-01

    Background: Issues about job stress is more popular in the world currently. Not just for Japan, Korea and Taiwan, but also an important issue in EU countries, especially the UK and Finland Increase of awareness about job stress effects on work performance, productivity and mental health is as onereason of the phenomenon.Objective: The present study aimed to explore the issue of job stress in Japan for the reference of good practices to Indonesia.Methods: This study, based on observationalstud...

  4. Gender in medicine – an issue for women only? A survey of physician teachers' gender attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westman Göran

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decades research has disclosed gender differences and gender bias in different fields of academic and clinical medicine. Consequently, a gender perspective has been asked for in medical curricula and medical education. However, in reports about implementation attempts, difficulties and reluctance have been described. Since teachers are key persons when introducing new issues we surveyed physician teachers' attitudes towards the importance of gender in professional relations. We also analyzed if gender of the physician is related to these attitudes. Method Questionnaires were sent to all 468 senior physicians (29 % women, at the clinical departments and in family medicine, engaged in educating medical students at a Swedish university. They were asked to rate, on five visual analogue scales, the importance of physician and patient gender in consultation, of physician and student gender in clinical tutoring, and of physician gender in other professional encounters. Differences between women and men were estimated by chi-2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The response rate was 65 %. The physicians rated gender more important in consultation than in clinical tutoring. There were significant differences between women and men in all investigated areas also when adjusting for speciality, age, academic degree and years in the profession. A higher proportion of women than men assessed gender as important in professional relationships. Those who assessed very low were all men while both men and women were represented among those with high ratings. Conclusions To implement a gender perspective in medical education it is necessary that both male and female teachers participate and embrace gender aspects as important. To facilitate implementation and to convince those who are indifferent, this study indicates that special efforts are needed to motivate men. We suggest that men with an interest in

  5. Radiographers' professional knowledge regarding parameters and safety issues in plain radiography: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajollahi, A R; Fouladi, D F; Ghojazadeh, M; Movafaghi, A

    2014-08-01

    To review the knowledge of radiographers and examine the possible sociodemographic and situational contributors to this knowledge. A questionnaire survey was devised and distributed to a cohort of 120 radiographers. Each questionnaire contained two sections. In the first section, background data, including sex, age, highest academic level, grade point average (GPA), length of time from graduation, work experience as a radiographer and the status of previous refresher course(s), were collected. The second section contained 17 multiple-choice questions concerning radiographic imaging parameters and safety issues. The response rate was 63.8%. In univariate analytic model, higher academic degree (p workplace (p = 0.04) and taking previous refresher course(s) (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with higher knowledge score. In multivariate analytic model, however, higher academic degree (B = 1.62; p = 0.01), higher GPA (B = 0.50; p = 0.01) and taking previous refresher course(s) (B = -1.26; p = 0.03) were independently associated with higher level of knowledge. Age, sex, length of time from graduation and work experience were not associated with the respondents' knowledge score. Academic background is a robust indicator of a radiographer's professional knowledge. Refresher courses and regular knowledge assessments are highly recommended. This is the first study in the literature that examines professional knowledge of radiographers in terms of technical and safety issues in plain radiography. Academic degree, GPA and refresher courses are independent predictors of this knowledge. Regular radiographer professional knowledge checks may be recommended.

  6. A Survey of the Current Situation of Clinical Biobanks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Ni, Mingyu; Wang, Peng; Wang, Xiaomin

    2017-06-01

    The development of biomedical research urgently needs the support of a large number of high-quality clinical biospecimens. Therefore, human biobanks at different levels have been established successively in China and other countries at a significantly increasing pace in recent years. To better understand the general current state of clinical biobanks in China, we surveyed 42 clinical biobanks based in hospitals and collected information involving their management systems, sharing mechanisms, quality control systems, and informational management systems using closed questionnaire methods. Based on our current information, there has not been such a large-scale survey in China. An understanding of the status and challenges current clinical biobanks face will provide valuable insights for the construction and sustainable development of higher quality clinical biobanks.

  7. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    .... policy makers have adopted tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, concerned about the impact of the PRC's strong economic growth and a more assertive international diplomacy...

  8. Conference communication. Managing change in tourism destinations: Key issues and current trends.

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, M.M.; Buhalis, Dimitrios; Longhi, C.; Vitouladiti, O.

    2013-01-01

    This conference communication illustrates the major outcomes emerging from the EIASM Conference on Tourism Management and Tourism Related Issues held in Nice (France), September 20-21, 2012. While a number of managerial issues pertaining to the tourism field were dealt with, this communication covers three specific areas of interest for destination management and marketing: (1) the increasing competition among tourism destinations and the rise and consolidation of BRIC countries as outbound t...

  9. Geriatric oncology in Spain: survey results and analysis of the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés, R; Morilla, I; Guillen-Ponce, C; Torregrosa, M D; Paredero, I; Bustamante, E; Del Barco, S; Soler, G; Losada, B; Visa, L; Llabrés, E; Fox, B; Firvida, J L; Blanco, R; Antonio, M; Aparisi, F; Pi-Figueras, M; Gonzalez-Flores, E; Molina-Garrido, M J; Saldaña, J

    2017-12-11

    Geriatric oncology (GO) is a discipline that focuses on the management of elderly patients with cancer. The Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) created a Working group dedicated to geriatric oncology in February 2016. The main goal of this study was to describe the current situation in Spain regarding the management of elderly cancer patients through an online survey of medical oncologists. A descriptive survey was sent to several hospitals by means of the SEOM website. A personal e-mail was also sent to SEOM members. Between March 2016 and April 2017, 154 answers were collected. Only 74 centers (48%) had a geriatrics department and a mere 21 (14%) medical oncology departments had a person dedicated to GO. The vast majority (n = 135; 88%) had the perception that the number of elderly patients with cancer seen in clinical practice had increased. Eighteen (12%) oncologists had specific protocols and geriatric scales were used at 55 (31%) centers. Almost all (92%) claimed to apply special management practices using specific tools. There was agreement that GO afforded certain potential advantages. Finally, 99% of the oncologists surveyed believed it and that training in GO had to be improved. From the nationwide survey promoted by the Spanish Geriatric Oncology Working Group on behalf of SEOM, we conclude that there is currently no defined care structure for elderly cancer patients. There is an increasing perception of the need for training in GO. This survey reflects a reality in which specific needs are perceived.

  10. A survey of current practices in management of Hirschsprung′s disease in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasheed A. Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are several modalities of treatment for Hirschsprung′s disease (HD, there are presently no clear guidelines on treatment of the condition by paediatric surgeons in Nigeria. This survey determines the current approach to treatment among Nigerian paediatric surgeons and should help in establishing a consensus and guidelines for care in this and similar setting. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire was designed using survey Monkey ® to determine current clinical and operative management of patients with HD by consultant paediatric surgeons practicing in the Nigeria. The paediatric surgeons were notified by E-mail, which included a link to the survey on survey Monkey ® . The survey was also administered at the 12 th annual meeting of Association of Paediatric Surgeons of Nigeria in September, 2013, to capture those who did not complete the online survey. Thirty-one paediatric surgeons from 21 different tertiary paediatric surgery centres completed the survey. Results: Sixteen (52% respondents see up to 20% of their patients with HD in the neonatal period. Twenty-six (84% respondents do routine barium enema. Twenty six (84% respondents do full thickness rectal biopsy under general anaesthesia (GA. There was no consistency in operative techniques, with transabominal Swenson′s operation being practiced by 17 (57% respondents and 11 (37% transanal endorectal pull through. 14 (45% do pull through at any age. 12 (39% respondents do more than half of their patient as primary pull through. Conclusion: Full thickness rectal biopsy under GA is still the vogue with variations in the surgical technique for management of Hirshsprung′s disease in Nigeria. Primary pull through procedures is becoming increasingly popular. There′s a need for Paediatric Surgeons in Nigeria to come up with a guideline on management of HD, to guide trainees and other surgeons in the care of these patients.

  11. Pediatric endocrine society survey of diabetes practices in the United States: What is the current state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Bauman, I; Thornton, P; Adhikari, S; Reifschneider, K; Wood, M A; Hamby, T; Rubin, K

    2018-03-26

    The Practice Management Committee (PMC) of the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) conducted a survey of its membership in February/March, 2016 to assess the current state of pediatric diabetes care delivery across multiple practice types in the United States. The PES distributed an anonymous electronic survey (Survey Monkey) via email to its membership and requested that only one survey be completed for each practice. Ninety-three unique entries from the US were entered into analysis. Care is predominantly delivered by multidisciplinary teams, based at academic institutions (65.6%), with >85% of the provider types being physicians. Each 1.0 full time equivalent certified diabetes educators serves on average 367 diabetic youth. Fee-for-service remains the standard method of reimbursement with 57% of practices reporting financial loss. Survey respondents identified under-reimbursement as a major barrier to improving patient outcomes and lack of behavioral health (BH) providers as a key gap in services provided. Our survey reveals wide variation in all aspects of pediatric diabetes care delivery in the United States. Pediatric Endocrinologists responding to the survey identified a lack of resources and the current fee for service payment model as a major impediment to practice and the lack of integrated BH staff as a key gap in service. The respondents strongly support its organizations' involvement in the dissemination of standards for care delivery and advocacy for a national payment model aligned with chronic diabetes care in the context of our emerging value-based healthcare system. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A survey of current clinical practice in permanent and temporary prostate brachytherapy: 2010 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyyounouski, Mark K; Davis, Brian J; Prestidge, Bradley R; Shanahan, Thomas G; Stock, Richard G; Grimm, Peter D; Demanes, D Jeffrey; Zaider, Marco; Horwitz, Eric M

    2012-01-01

    To help establish patterns of care and standards of care of interstitial permanent low-dose-rate (LDR) and temporary high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer and to compare the results with a similar 1998 American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) survey. A comprehensive questionnaire intended to survey specific details of current clinical brachytherapy practice was provided to the participants of the seventh ABS Prostate Brachytherapy School. Responses were tabulated and descriptive statistics are reported. Sixty-five brachytherapy practitioners responded to the survey. Eighty-nine percent (89%) of respondents performed LDR and 49% perform high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The median number of years of experience for LDR brachytherapists increased from 5 to 10 years over the course of the 12 years since the preceding survey. Compared with the first ABS, a smaller proportion of respondents received formal brachytherapy residency training (43% vs. 56%) or formal "hands-on" brachytherapy training (15% vs. 63%). There has been a marked decline in the utilization of the Mick applicator (Mick Radio-Nuclear Instruments, Inc., Mount Vernon, NY, USA) (60% vs. 28%) and an increase in the use of stranded seeds (40% vs. 11%). Compliance with postimplant dosimetry was higher in the 2010 survey. This survey does suggest an evolution in the practice of LDR brachytherapy since 1998 and aids in identifying aspects that require further progress or investigation. ABS guidelines and other practice recommendations appear to impact the practice of brachytherapy. Copyright © 2012 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Survey of Routing Issues and Associated Protocols in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater wireless sensor networks are a newly emerging wireless technology in which small size sensors with limited energy and limited memory and bandwidth are deployed in deep sea water and various monitoring operations like tactical surveillance, environmental monitoring, and data collection are performed through these tiny sensors. Underwater wireless sensor networks are used for the exploration of underwater resources, oceanographic data collection, flood or disaster prevention, tactical surveillance systems, and unmanned underwater vehicles. Sensor nodes consist of a small memory, a central processing unit, and an antenna. Underwater networks are much different from terrestrial sensor networks as radio waves cannot be used in underwater wireless sensor networks. Acoustic channels are used for communication in deep sea water. Acoustic signals have many limitations, such as limited bandwidth, higher end-to-end delay, network path loss, higher propagation delay, and dynamic topology. Usually, these limitations result in higher energy consumption with a smaller number of packets delivered. The main aim nowadays is to operate sensor nodes having a smaller battery for a longer time in the network. This survey has discussed the state-of-the-art localization based and localization-free routing protocols. Routing associated issues in the area of underwater wireless sensor networks have also been discussed.

  14. GROUP FINDING IN THE STELLAR HALO USING PHOTOMETRIC SURVEYS: CURRENT SENSITIVITY AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sanjib; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Majewski, Steven R.; Bullock, James; Munoz, Ricardo R.

    2011-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) provided the first deep and global photometric catalogs of stars in our halo and not only clearly mapped its structure but also demonstrated the ubiquity of substructure within it. Future surveys promise to push such catalogs to ever increasing depths and larger numbers of stars. This paper examines what can be learned from current and future photometric databases using group-finding techniques. We compare groups recovered from a sample of M-giants from 2MASS with those found in synthetic surveys of simulated ΛCDM stellar halos that were built entirely from satellite accretion events and demonstrate broad consistency between the properties of the two sets. We also find that these recovered groups are likely to represent the majority of high-luminosity (L > 5 x 10 6 L sun ) satellites accreted within the last 10 Gyr and on orbits with apocenters within 100 kpc. However, the sensitivity of the M-giant survey to accretion events that were either ancient from low-luminosity objects or those on radial orbits is limited because of the low number of stars, bias toward high-metallicity stars, and the shallow depth (distance explored only out to 100 kpc from the Sun). We examine the extent to which these limitations are addressed by current and future surveys, in particular catalogs of main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) stars from SDSS and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and of RR Lyrae stars from LSST or PanSTARRS. The MSTO and RR Lyrae surveys are more sensitive to low-luminosity events (L ∼ 10 5 L sun or less) than the 2MASS M-giant sample. Additionally, RR Lyrae surveys, with superior depth, are also good at detecting events on highly eccentric orbits whose debris tends to lie beyond 100 kpc. When combined we expect these photometric surveys to provide a comprehensive picture of the last 10 Gyr of Galactic accretion. Events older than this are too phase mixed to be discovered. Pushing

  15. General practitioner views about discussing sexual issues with patients with coronary heart disease: a national survey in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Molly

    2010-05-25

    Abstract Background Sexual problems are common among people with coronary heart disease and can adversely affect patients\\' quality of life. GPs are ideally placed to deal with these problems. Research suggests that GPs are reluctant to address sexual problems but little is known about what currently takes place in practice. The aim of this study was to examine GPs\\' self-reported behaviour and attitudes to discussing sexual problems with people with coronary heart disease. Method Design: A cross-sectional survey which administered 230 postal questionnaires to a nationally representative, stratified random sample of GPs in the Republic of Ireland. GPs were asked about current practice, knowledge, awareness and confidence in dealing with sexual problems, barriers to addressing sexual problems, and about improving services in this area. Results Responses were available for 61 GPs (27% response rate). Seventy percent of GPs reported that they rarely or never discussed sexual problems with coronary patients. While all GPs believed addressing sexual problems was important, many GPs reported lacking awareness, knowledge and confidence in addressing sexual problems. The main barriers were lack of time, feeling the patient wasn\\'t ready and lack of training in the area. GPs wanted more training and guidelines for practice. Conclusions There is currently no standardised protocol for GPs for dealing with sexual problems among coronary patients. Awareness of these issues appears to be low among GPs. Services could be improved by developing practice guidelines for brief, effective actions or assessments, providing training in the area and improving information resources and support services for referral.

  16. Development of a Reference Dose for Perchlorate: Current Issues and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleus, R. C.; Goodman, G.; Mattie, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    incomplete data from the other two, US EPA/NCEA issued a document in December 1998 stating that the critical effects were hormone and histology data from the neurodevelopmental/behavioral toxicity study that had been performed in rats; an RfD was proposed based upon the observation of thyroid-follicular-cell hypertrophy in the 5-day-old pups (PND) of dams given perchlorate in drinking water at 0.1 mg/kg-day (the lowest dose tested) in this study. US EPA/NCEA also focused attention on a nonsignificant increase in motor activity observed in 14-day-old male pups in the same study at the same dose. In February 1999, a public workshop was convened at which an external peer-review panel determined that there was still insufficient data to support the development of a RfD. Additional studies were recommended. Since that time a clinical study revealed significant depression of thyroidal uptake of iodide in volunteers receiving potassium perchlorate at 10 mg/day for 14 days. Follow-up studies currently underway include a pathology working-group review of histology slides from the all of the previous studies, a motor activity study similar to the first behavioral study, an additional immunotoxicity study, male and female rat kinetic studies, a hormone interlaboratory study, and an effects study for thyroid and brain in developing rats. These studies are expected to be complete by mid-2000. A clinical study is planned to determine inhibition of iodide uptake and kinetic parameters in humans following 14-day perchlorate ingestion. The kinetics studies will provide data for developing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for rats and humans needed to establish the RfD.

  17. Survey on utility technology of a tidal and ocean current energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Manabu; Kadoyu, Masataka; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi

    1987-06-01

    A study is made to show the current technological levels in Japan and other nations regarding the conversion of tidal current or ocean current energy to electric power and to determine the latent energy quantities and energy-related characteristics of tidal and ocean currents. In Japan, relatively large-scale experiments made so far mostly used one of the following three types of devices: Savonius-wheel type, Darrieus-wheel type, and cross-flow-wheel type. Field experiments of tidal energy conversion have been performed at the Naruto and Kurushima Straits. The energy in the Kuroshio current is estimated at about 170 billion kWh per year. Ocean current energy does not undergo large seasonal variations. The total energy in major straits and channels in the Inland Sea and other sea areas to the west is estimated at about 124 billion kWh per year. Tidal current energy shows large seasonal variations, but it is possible to predict the changes. A survey is made to determine energy-related characteristics of a tidal current at Chichino-seto, Kagoshima Prefecture. At Chichino-seto, the flow velocity ranges from 0 to 2.2m/s, with a latent tidal current energy of about 70 kW, of which about 20 kW can actually be utilized.

  18. A comprehensive survey of current and former college students with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbar, Nicholas W; Shefyck, Allison; Reichow, Brian

    2015-03-01

    There is a paucity of research concerning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) pursuing higher education. This study sought to augment this gap in the literature by surveying individuals with ASD who are currently college students or who have previously attended college. Thirty-five individuals completed an online survey. These individuals reported receiving extensive academic supports that enabled their academic success. Their reported difficulties in the social and emotional domains received less support. In addition, not all areas of campus life were supportive, as study abroad and career service offices were reported to not understand individuals with ASD. Overall, the results of this survey indicate the importance of self-advocacy and the need for institutions of higher education to provide comprehensive supports for individuals with ASD in the academic, social, and emotional domains in order to effectively integrate this group into the campus environment.

  19. A Survey of Privacy Awareness and Current Online Practices of Indian Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhotre, Prashant Shantaram; Olesen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Today, users with their smart devices can communicate and access a wide range of services via the Internet to make their life easier. However, loss of privacy is becoming a major issue for architects or policy makers, accelerated by the rapid development of mobile and wireless technologies...... that eases the collection, storage, sharing, analysis, and manipulation of the individual’s information. The main objective of this paper is to study the privacy perception and awareness of Internet users in an Indian context. Results of comprehensive survey with 297 users are presented, focusing...... on their perception and awareness towards personal information privacy (PIP). The survey responses show that the user’s perception is noticeably low considering PIP and that the privacy awareness is not the same as their understanding. The results indicate the need for a solution for PIP protection where the users...

  20. Current and emerging occupational safety and health (OSH) issues in the healthcare sector, including home and community care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, T. de; Bos, E.; Pawlowska-Cyprysiak, K.; Hildt-Ciupinska, K.; Malinska, M.; Nicolescu, G.; Trifu, A.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the current and emerging OSH issues for health- and social care workers and how these affect their safety and health at work and influence the quality of care they provide. It combines a literature review and the responses received to a questionnaire sent to OSH

  1. Emerging roles for biomedical librarians: a survey of current practice, challenges, and changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Janet A; Cooper, I Diane

    2013-10-01

    This study is intended to (1) identify emerging roles for biomedical librarians and determine how common these roles are in a variety of library settings, (2) identify barriers to taking on new roles, and (3) determine how librarians are developing the capacity to take on new roles. A survey was conducted of librarians in biomedical settings. Most biomedical librarians are taking on new roles. The most common roles selected by survey respondents include analysis and enhancement of user experiences, support for social media, support for systematic reviews, clinical informationist, help for faculty or staff with authorship issues, and implementation of researcher profiling and collaboration tools. Respondents in academic settings are more likely to report new roles than hospital librarians are, but some new roles are common in both settings. Respondents use a variety of methods to free up time for new roles, but predominant methods vary between directors and librarians and between academic and hospital respondents. Lack of time is the biggest barrier that librarians face when trying to adopt new roles. New roles are associated with increased collaboration with individuals and/or groups outside the library. This survey documents the widespread incorporation of new roles in biomedical libraries in the United States, as well as the barriers to adopting these roles and the means by which librarians are making time for them. The results of the survey can be used to inform strategic planning, succession planning, library education, and career development for biomedical librarians.

  2. A survey of current and anticipated use of standard and specialist equipment by UK optometrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabasia, Priya L; Edgar, David F; Garway-Heath, David F; Lawrenson, John G

    2014-09-01

    To investigate current and anticipated use of equipment and information technology (IT) in community optometric practice in the UK, and to elicit optometrists' views on adoption of specialist equipment and IT. An anonymous online questionnaire was developed, covering use of standard and specialist diagnostic equipment, and IT. The survey was distributed to a random sample of 1300 UK College of Optometrists members. Four hundred and thirty-two responses were received (response rate = 35%). Enhanced (locally commissioned) or additional/separately contracted services were provided by 73% of respondents. Services included glaucoma repeat measures (30% of respondents), glaucoma referral refinement (22%), fast-track referral for wet age-related macular degeneration (48%), and direct cataract referral (40%). Most respondents (88%) reported using non-contact/pneumo tonometry for intra-ocular pressure measurement, with 81% using Goldmann or Perkins tonometry. The most widely used item of specialist equipment was the fundus camera (74% of respondents). Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was used by 15% of respondents, up from 2% in 2007. Notably, 43% of those anticipating purchasing specialist equipment in the next 12 months planned to buy an OCT. 'Paperless' records were used by 39% of respondents, and almost 80% of practices used an electronic patient record/practice management system. Variations in responses between parts of the UK reflect differences in the provision of the General Ophthalmic Services contract or community enhanced services. There was general agreement that specialised equipment enhances clinical care, permits increased involvement in enhanced services, promotes the practice and can be used as a defence in clinico-legal cases, but initial costs and ongoing maintenance can be a financial burden. Respondents generally agreed that IT facilitates administrative flow and secure exchange of health information, and promotes a state-of-the-art practice image

  3. Management of municipal, hazardous and radioactive wastes: An environmental overview. Current issue paper 109

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeager, K L

    1990-10-01

    This paper attempts to provide the reader with essential information on the quantity and types of solid, hazardous and radioactive wastes being generated in the province and to introduce some of the existing and future management options being considered. As well, a number of possible issues are identified which may stimulate further interest in the future paths of waste management in Ontario. (author).

  4. Management of municipal, hazardous and radioactive wastes: An environmental overview. Current issue paper 109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeager, K.L.

    1990-10-01

    This paper attempts to provide the reader with essential information on the quantity and types of solid, hazardous and radioactive wastes being generated in the province and to introduce some of the existing and future management options being considered. As well, a number of possible issues are identified which may stimulate further interest in the future paths of waste management in Ontario. (author)

  5. The relevancy of current environmental issues to solder joints in microelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walitsky, P.J.; Yost, F.G.

    1991-01-01

    The technical issues brought about by recent federal mandates are reviewed and discussed. Progress made in the elimination of CFCs is briefly reviewed. The problems, implications, and status of pending anti-lead legislation and taxation are discussed at length. Recommendations are made for the enactment of rational, fair, and orderly legislation and taxation

  6. Current concepts and issues in the management of regurgitation of infants : A reappraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenplas, Y; Belli, D; Benhamou, PH; Cadranel, S; Cezard, JP; Cucchiara, S; Dupont, C; Faure, C; Gottrand, F; Hassall, E; Heymans, HSA; Kneepkens, CMF; Sandhu, BK

    Regurgitation in infants is a common problem. Recent issues, such as the increased risk of sudden infant death in the prone sleeping position, the finding of persisting occult gastro-oesophageal reflux with feed thickeners, and the increasing awareness of the cost-benefit ratio of medications may

  7. Current issues and related activities in seismic hazard analysis in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong-Moon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Rim; Chang, Chun-Joong

    1997-03-01

    This paper discusses some technical issues identified from the seismic hazard analyses for probabilistic safety assessment on the operating Korean nuclear power plants and the related activities to resolve the issues. Since there are no strong instrumental earthquake records in Korea, the seismic hazard analysis is mainly dependent on the historical earthquake records. Results of the past seismic hazard analyses show that there are many uncertainties in attenuation function and intensity level and that there is a need to improve statistical method. The identification of the activity of the Yangsan Fault, which is close to nuclear power plant sites, has been an important issue. But the issue has not been resolved yet in spite of much research works done. Recently, some capable faults were found in the offshore area of Gulupdo Island in the Yellow Sea. It is anticipated that the results of research on both the Yangsan Fault and reduction of uncertainty in seismic hazard analysis will have an significant influence on seismic design and safety assessment of nuclear power plants in the future. (author)

  8. Theory and History, Questions and Methodology: Current and Future Issues in Research into ICT in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Anne; Jones, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Serious criticisms of research in information and communications technology (ICT) in education have been published recently in both the UK and the USA. This paper addresses several issues raised in these commentaries: a lack of sound theoretical underpinnings to our research, persistent neglect of the history of our sub-discipline, the choice of…

  9. Current issues and related activities in seismic hazard analysis in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong-Moon; Lee, Jong-Rim; Chang, Chun-Joong.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses some technical issues identified from the seismic hazard analyses for probabilistic safety assessment on the operating Korean nuclear power plants and the related activities to resolve the issues. Since there are no strong instrumental earthquake records in Korea, the seismic hazard analysis is mainly dependent on the historical earthquake records. Results of the past seismic hazard analyses show that there are many uncertainties in attenuation function and intensity level and that there is a need to improve statistical method. The identification of the activity of the Yangsan Fault, which is close to nuclear power plant sites, has been an important issue. But the issue has not been resolved yet in spite of much research works done. Recently, some capable faults were found in the offshore area of Gulupdo Island in the Yellow Sea. It is anticipated that the results of research on both the Yangsan Fault and reduction of uncertainty in seismic hazard analysis will have an significant influence on seismic design and safety assessment of nuclear power plants in the future. (author)

  10. Emission of biocides from hospitals: comparing current survey results with European Union default values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tluczkiewicz, Inga; Bitsch, Annette; Hahn, Stefan; Hahn, Torsten

    2010-04-01

    Under the European Union (EU) Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC, comprehensive evaluations on substances of the Third Priority List were conducted until 31 July 2007. This list includes, among other categories, disinfectants for human hygiene (e.g., skin and surface disinfection). For environmental exposure assessment of biocides, the EU emission scenarios apply. Currently available default values for disinfectants are based on consumption data from not more than 8 hospitals and were originally assembled for other purposes. To revalidate these default values, a survey on annual consumption data was performed in 27 German hospitals. These data were analyzed to provide consumption data per bed and day and per nurse and day for particular categories of active ingredients and were compared with default values from the EU emission scenario documents. Although several deviations were detected, an overall acceptable correspondence between Emission Scenario Documents default values and the current survey data was found. (c) 2009 SETAC

  11. Management of Pediatric Delirium in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Patients: An International Survey of Current Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveski, Sandra L; Pickler, Rita H; Lin, Li; Shaw, Richard J; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Redington, Andrew; Curley, Martha A Q

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians assess and manage delirium in patients following cardiac surgery. Descriptive self-report survey. A web-based survey of pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians who are members of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society. Pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians (physicians and nurses). None. One-hundred seventy-three clinicians practicing in 71 different institutions located in 13 countries completed the survey. Respondents described their clinical impression of the occurrence of delirium to be approximately 25%. Most respondents (75%) reported that their ICU does not routinely screen for delirium. Over half of the respondents (61%) have never attended a lecture on delirium. The majority of respondents (86%) were not satisfied with current delirium screening, diagnosis, and management practices. Promotion of day/night cycle, exposure to natural light, deintensification of care, sleep hygiene, and reorientation to prevent or manage delirium were among nonpharmacologic interventions reported along with the use of anxiolytic, antipsychotic, and medications for insomnia. Clinicians responding to the survey reported a range of delirium assessment and management practices in postoperative pediatric cardiac surgery patients. Study results highlight the need for improvement in delirium education for pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians as well as the need for systematic evaluation of current delirium assessment and management practices.

  12. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Alam Syed Shah; Nor Nor Fariza Mohd; Ahmad Maisarah; Hashim Nik Hazrul Nik

    2016-01-01

    Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to gener...

  13. A Survey of the Institution of Zakah: Issues, Theories and Administration (Research Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeq, Abu al Hasan

    1994-01-01

    The paper focuses on the theoretical and administrative aspects of Zakah and examines its major Fiqhi issues. The paper further more reviews the administrative issues related to Contemporary Application of Zakah.

  14. The Context of Current Content Analysis of Gender Roles: An Introduction to a Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Linz, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide context for the quantitative content analyses of gender roles that are to be included in both parts of this special issue. First, a timeline of historical uses of the content analysis methodology is presented. Second, research objectives that frequently drive content analysis of gender roles are described; these include: to support feminist claims, to compare media with real life, to predict effects on audiences, and to detect effects of media producers on content. Third, previous content analyses published in Sex Roles and other gender-focused journals are reviewed and categorized in terms of medium, genre, time span, gender, and nationality. Finally, contributions of each of the articles in this special issue are outlined. PMID:20694031

  15. Basic environmental bookshelf: An annotated bibliography. Current issue paper No. 116

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeager, L.

    1995-11-01

    This bibliography is intended to provide objective basic information on science and the environment, and includes books and journal articles that should be understandable to the nonspecialist. The bibliographic entries are arranged alphabetically by author within broad categories such as acid precipitation, air quality, climate change, ecology and ecosystems, energy, environmental assessment, hazardous wastes, law, natural history, ozone depletion, parks and urban issues, public policy, toxic chemicals, and water resources. Most entries have brief annotations.

  16. Thermal hydraulic issues and challenges for current and new generation FBRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellapandi, P.; Velusamy, K., E-mail: kvelu@igcar.gov.in

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • We present challenges in thermal hydraulic design of sodium cooled fast reactors. • We present roadmap of Indian fast reactor program and innovative design concepts. • Analysis methodology for thermal striping and thermal stratification are highlighted. • Design solutions for gas entrainment are presented. • Experimental approaches for normal and post accident decay heat removal are highlighted. - Abstract: Pool type sodium cooled fast reactors pose several design challenges and among them, certain thermal hydraulics and structural mechanics issues are special. High frequency temperature fluctuations due to thermal striping, thermal stratifications and sodium free level fluctuations at the liquid–cover gas interfaces are to be investigated carefully to eliminate high cycle thermal fatigue of structures. Solutions to address the core thermal hydraulics call for high power computing. Innovative concepts and methods are developed to carry out plant dynamics and safety studies. Particularly, extensive numerical and experimental simulation techniques are needed for understanding and solving the gas entrainment mechanisms and its effects on core safety. Though decay heat removal through natural convection is achievable in a pool type SFR, demonstration of design solutions conceived in the reactor and performance of diverse systems under all operating conditions, especially over prolonged station blackout situations needs advanced CFD computations and should be validated by relatively large scale simulated experiments. These issues are addressed in this paper under five broad topics: special thermal hydraulic issues to be addressed in SFR, thermal hydraulic design and analysis, plant dynamics studies, safety studies and evolving thermal hydraulic studies for the future FBRs. The 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is taken as the reference design for addressing the issues. Indian fast reactor programme is highlighted in the introduction

  17. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2011: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    a policy of neutrality on the claims by the parties, which also include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines, and Taiwan. Throughout 2009...territorial disputes. Roughly one and a half times the size of the Mediterranean Sea, it is ringed by China, Vietnam, Malaysia , Indonesia, Brunei...government to monitor data processed by these companies and/or more susceptible to government pressure on issues such as censorship .36 Many of the

  18. Current issues relating to psychosocial job strain and cardiovascular disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, T; Karasek, R A

    1996-01-01

    The authors comment on recent reviews of cardiovascular job strain research by P. L. Schnall and P. A. Landsbergis (1994), and by T. S. Kristensen (1995), which conclude that job strain as defined by the demand-control model (the combination of contributions of low job decision latitudes and high psychological job demands) is confirmed as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in a large majority of studies. Lack of social support at work appears to further increase risk. Several still-unresolved research questions are examined in light of recent studies: (a) methodological issues related to use of occupational aggregate estimations and occupational career aggregate assessments, use of standard scales for job analysis and recall bias issues in self-reporting; (b) confounding factors and differential strengths of association by subgroups in job strain-cardiovascular disease analyses with respect to social class, gender, and working hours; and (c) review of results of monitoring job strain-blood pressure associations and associated methodological issues.

  19. A Survey on HTTPS Implementation by Android Apps: Issues and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuetao Wei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As more and more sensitive data is transferred from mobile applications across unsecured channels, it seems imperative that transport layer encryption should be used in any non-trivial instance. Yet, research indicates that many Android developers do not use HTTPS or violate rules which protect user data from man-in-the-middle attacks. This paper seeks to find a root cause of the disparities between theoretical HTTPS usage and in-the-wild implementation of the protocol by looking into Android applications, online resources, and papers published by HTTPS and Android security researchers. From these resources, we extract a set of barrier categories that exist in the path of proper TLS use. These barriers not only include improper developer practices, but also server misconfiguration, lacking documentation, flaws in libraries, the fundamentally complex TLS PKI system, and a lack of consumer understanding of the importance of HTTPS. Following this discussion, we compile a set of potential solutions and patches to better secure Android HTTPS and the TLS/SSL protocol in general. We conclude our survey with gaps in current understanding of the environment and suggestions for further research.

  20. Current status of in-hospital donation coordinators in Japan: nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaka, S; Shimizu, S; Iizawa, M; Ohkawara, H; Kato, O; Ashikari, J; Fukushima, N

    2013-05-01

    When the Japanese Organ Transplantation Act was issued, the Japanese Organ Transplantation Network (JOT) was established in 1997. JOT lists recipients, assesses and manages organ donors, and educates publics and headquarters for organ donations. JOT procurement transplant coordinators (PTC) play roles in obtaining consent from relatives for organ donation, donor evaluation and management, organ recovery management, organ transport, and care of donor families during and after donation. Every prefecture has at least one PTC who is mainly working in public education and hospital development. They also help the JOT PTC at the time of organ procurement. Most prefectures commission hospital staff in the procurement hospital to be an in-hospital PTC (In-Hp PTC), who make their hospital staff aware of organ donation and support organ procurement. Although the Act was revised in 2010 with brain-dead organ donation increased from 13 to 44 cases yearly, the number was still extremely smaller than other developed countries. In these circumstances, In-Hp PTC may play greater roles to increase donation and smooth procurement procedures Our primary aim was to describe the current status of In-Hp PTC in Japan. Between December 15, 2011, and January 31, 2012, we invited 1889 In-Hp PTC to complete a letter survey using a self-designed questionnaire. In all, 56 In-Hp PTC (40%) completed and returned it. The occupation of the respondents was nurse (66%), physician (18%), or other (16%). Although 52% of respondents belonged to the hospital, which was designated for brain-death organ donation by the government, only 46% had any experience with a cadaveric donor. Only 2% were full-time In-Hp PTC. They mainly played a role in preparing their own manual for organ procurement (57%), providing in-hospital lectures (44%) or their own simulation exercise (29%), as well as coordinating donation cases. Although 77% had attended seminar about organ donation provided by JOT or the prefecture PTC

  1. Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Cannon, Susan H.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Research into post-wildfire effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-wildfire responses are typically transient, episodic, variable in space and time, dependent on thresholds, and involve multiple processes measured by different methods. These characteristics tend to hinder research progress, but the large empirical knowledge base amassed in different regions of the world suggests that it should now be possible to synthesize the data and make a substantial improvement in the understanding of post-wildfire runoff and erosion response. Thus, it is important to identify and prioritize the research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion. Priority research issues are the need to: (1) organize and synthesize similarities and differences in post-wildfire responses between different fire-prone regions of the world in order to determine common patterns and generalities that can explain cause and effect relations; (2) identify and quantify functional relations between metrics of fire effects and soil hydraulic properties that will better represent the dynamic and transient conditions after a wildfire; (3) determine the interaction between burned landscapes and temporally and spatially variable meso-scale precipitation, which is often the primary driver of post-wildfire runoff and erosion responses; (4) determine functional relations between precipitation, basin morphology, runoff connectivity, contributing area, surface roughness, depression storage, and soil characteristics required to predict the timing, magnitudes, and duration of floods and debris flows from ungaged burned basins; and (5) develop standard measurement methods that will ensure the collection of uniform and comparable runoff and erosion data. Resolution of these issues will help to improve conceptual and computer models of post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes.

  2. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  3. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea’s medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464

  4. Rip current evidence by hydrodynamic simulations, bathymetric surveys and UAV observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Benassai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of the formation, spacing and location of rip currents is a scientific challenge that can be achieved by means of different complementary methods. In this paper the analysis of numerical and experimental data, including RPAS (remotely piloted aircraft systems observations, allowed us to detect the presence of rip currents and rip channels at the mouth of Sele River, in the Gulf of Salerno, southern Italy. The dataset used to analyze these phenomena consisted of two different bathymetric surveys, a detailed sediment analysis and a set of high-resolution wave numerical simulations, completed with Google EarthTM images and RPAS observations. The grain size trend analysis and the numerical simulations allowed us to identify the rip current occurrence, forced by topographically constrained channels incised on the seabed, which were compared with observations.

  5. Surveys of Current Teaching and Practice for Impressions for Complete Dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, N; Jabbar, H; Hayati, M; Wu, J; Hyde, T P

    2018-03-08

    The 3 objectives are to assess current preferences for impressions for complete dentures, audit practice and compare practice to current UK teaching. Three surveys where undertaken; a survey of GDPs preferences, an audit of practice and a survey of teaching in UK dental schools. UK Universities advocate border moulded custom trays. In stated preferences, 99% of practitioners used custom trays for private practice; 67% for NHS work. In actual use, the audit found 91% practitioners in private practice used custom trays; in NHS practice 78% did so. The most widely taught materials were silicone (43%), alginate (29%), & zinc oxide eugenol paste (19%). In practitioners stated preferences, 97% of NHS and 53% of private dentists listed alginate as an option; however the audit showed only 74% (NHS) and 52% (private) actually used alginate, with 20% (NHS) and 48% (private) using silicone. Definitive impressions in custom trays are used by GDPs for both private and NHS work; they are universally taught at UK dental schools. Alginate is popular in NHS practice; however, silicone is more widely taught in UK Universities. The use of silicone materials for definitive impressions has increased since 1999. In UK private practice silicone usage is aligned in popularity with alginate. Copyright© 2018 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  6. Survey of Current Status of Quality Control of Gamma Cameras in Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Jae Gol; Joh, Cheol Woo

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that good quality control (QC) program is essential for adequate imaging diagnosis using gamma camera. The purpose of this study is to survey the current status of QC of gamma cameras in Republic of Korea for implementing appropriate nationwide quality control guidelines and programs. A collection of data is done for personnel, equipment and appropriateness of each nuclear medicine imaging laboratory's' quality control practice. This survey is done by collection of formatted questionnaire by mails, e mails or interviews. We also reviewed the current recommendations concerning quality assurance by international societies. This survey revealed that practice of quality control is irregular and not satisfactory. The irregularity of the QC practice seems due partly to the lack of trained personnel, equipment, budget, time and hand-on guidelines. The implementation of QC program may cause additional burden to the hospitals, patients and nuclear medicine laboratories. However, the benefit of a good QC program is obvious that the hospitals can provide good quality nuclear medicine imaging studies to the patients. It is important to use least cumbersome QC protocol, to educate the nuclear medicine and hospital administrative personnel concerning QC, and to establish national QC guidelines to help each individual nuclear medicine laboratory

  7. Scope of current abandonment issues in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, I.F.H.

    1997-01-01

    Abandonment issues in the oil and gas industry, such as well sites, batteries, gas plants, compressor stations, and pipelines, were discussed. Responsibilities of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) for informing the Canadian public about energy and environmental issues on behalf of the upstream petroleum industry were reviewed. Industry regulators and those who have jurisdiction over the abandonment of facilities were identified. In Alberta, the main agencies are the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Alberta Environmental Protection, and Alberta Food and Rural Development in addition to the National Energy Board and Indian Oil and Gas Canada. At the end of 1995, 160,000 wells had been drilled in Alberta of which 60,000 are still active, 35,000 are suspended and 70,000 wells have been abandoned. The industry-financed Orphan Well Program was established to provide funds for facility abandonment, decontamination and surface reclamation costs associated with orphaned facilities. CAPP agrees that operators of oil and gas facilities must be held responsible and accountable for the abandonment of their facilities. CAPP is looking for support from government to ensure that enforcement actions limit the number of orphan facilities. tabs., figs

  8. Current status and issues of external event PSA for extreme natural hazards after Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In-Kil; Hahm, Daegi; Kim, Min Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Extreme external events is emerged as significant risk contributor to the nuclear power plants after Fukushima Daiichi accident due to the catastrophic earthquake followed by great tsunami greater than a design basis. This accident shows that the extreme external events have the potential to simultaneously affect redundant and diverse safety systems and thereby induce common cause failure or common cause initiators. The probabilistic risk assessment methodology has been used for the risk assessment and safety improvement against the extreme natural hazards. The earthquake and tsunami hazard is an important issue for the nuclear industry in Korea. In this paper, the role and application of probabilistic safety assessment for the post Fukushima action will be introduced. For the evaluation of the extreme natural hazard, probabilistic seismic and tsunami hazard analysis is being performed for the safety enhancement. The research activity on the external event PSA and its interim results will be introduced with the issues to be solved in the future for the reliability enhancement of the risk analysis results. (authors)

  9. A review on the current issues and barriers of Industrialised Building System (IBS) adoption in Malaysia’s construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M. A. Mohd; Abas, N. H.; Shahidan, S.; Rahmat, M. H.; Suhaini, N. A.; Nagapan, S.; Rahim, R. Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Malaysia considers the construction industry as one of the main contributors to its Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, there are some unresolved issues arising from the ongoing and widespread adoption of the conventional method of construction such as the resultant fragmentation of the industry itself; delays in production and delivery time of unnecessary wastages and lack of sustainability practice. Malaysian Government has been continuously encouraging the industry to use, partly or if not wholly, the Industrialized Building System (IBS), which is considered to be an important part of sustainable construction initiative. IBS was introduced to Malaysia as the solution to issues related to dependencies of foreign workers, raising demand for affordable accommodations and improving image, quality and productivity of construction industry. However, the IBS adoption in Malaysia remains low. This paper presents the review of the current issues and barriers of IBS adoption in Malaysian construction industry.

  10. Report of the survey on current opinions and practice of German Society for Gynecologic Endoscopy (AGE) members regarding the laparoscopic treatment of ovarian malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosa, Julia Caroline; Radosa, Marc Philipp; Schweitzer, Pascal Albert; Juhasz-Boess, Ingolf; Rimbach, Stefan; Solomayer, Erich-Franz

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this survey was to assess the opinions of members of the German Society of Gynecologic Endoscopy (AGE) regarding the laparoscopic treatment of ovarian malignancies and current practice at their institutions. Between February and October 2015, the AGE sent an anonymous online survey via mail to its members. The questionnaire solicited participants' opinions about the laparoscopic treatment of ovarian cancers according to T stage and borderline tumors, and information about current practice at their institutions. Participants were also asked their opinions on currently available data on this issue. Of 228 AGE members who completed the survey, 132 (58%) were fellows or attending physicians and 156 (68%) worked at university hospitals or tertiary referral centers. Most [212 (93%)] respondents stated that < 10% of all ovarian cancer cases were currently treated laparoscopically at their institutions. Most participants indicated that T1 (a, b, c) tumors [145 (64%)] and ovarian borderline tumors [206 (90%)], but not T2 [48 (21%)] or T3/4 [9 (4%) ovarian tumors] should or could be treated laparoscopically. One hundred seventy-two (75%) participants considered currently available data on this topic to be insufficient and 152 (66%) stated that they would take part in a clinical trial assessing a laparoscopic approach to T1/2 ovarian cancer. According to this survey, to the opinion of the majority of AGE members, laparoscopy might be a considerable option for the treatment of early ovarian malignancies and borderline tumors and should be evaluated further in future studies.

  11. Mindfulness for Children in Public Schools: Current Research and Developmental Issues to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Jeanne; Gelbar, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have increased in popularity over the past decade and interest continues to increase in the potential to use mindfulness-based interventions in schools. The current research concerning school-based mindfulness-based interventions is reviewed in this article. This research base is fragmented, as most of the studies…

  12. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in South Korea: Current Status and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joungmin; Kim, Kyeong-hwa

    2016-01-01

    In South Korea, there is no consensus on the definition of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). This column focuses on how the definition has affected the prevalence rates and services available for students with EBDs. Of the legal, clinical, and educational definitions, the legal definition of EBDs is currently in common use, which raises…

  13. Land use and land tenure in Mongolia: A brief history and current issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria E. Fernandez-Gimenez

    2006-01-01

    This essay argues that an awareness of the historical relationships among land use, land tenure, and the political economy of Mongolia is essential to understanding current pastoral land use patterns and policies in Mongolia. Although pastoral land use patterns have altered over time in response to the changing political economy, mobility and flexibility remain...

  14. Critical Ethical Issues in Online Counseling: Assessing Current Practices with an Ethical Intent Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Holly E.; Shaw, Sarah F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors used a 16-item Ethical Intent Checklist, developed from the American Counseling Association's (1999) Ethical Standards for Internet Online Counseling, to assess the current practices of 88 online counseling Web sites. Results showed fewer than half of online counselors were following the accepted practice on 8 of the 16 items. Online…

  15. Current Technology Trends and Issues among Health and Physical Education Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jennifer M.; Franks, Hillary; Lynch, Brandy

    2017-01-01

    Health and physical education professionals who implement technology appropriately can contribute to helping students become physically educated individuals (NASPE, 2009). It is imperative that professionals be knowledgeable and resourceful in how to integrate technology effectively, but it is unclear what current challenges professionals face in…

  16. Current issues in late Middle Palaeolithic chronology : New assessments from Northern Iberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroto, Julia; Vaquero, Manuel; Arrizabalaga, Alvaro; Baena, Javier; Baquedano, Enrique; Jorda, Jesus; Julia, Ramon; Montes, Ramon; Van Der Plicht, Johannes; Rasines, Pedro; Wood, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The Iberian Peninsula plays a central role in the current debates on the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition and the Neanderthal extinction. This is largely due to the chronological data which some authors have suggested show a clear divide between Northern Iberia, where the Upper Palaeolithic

  17. LMFBR safety. 6. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1977)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1978-01-01

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development. Selected bibliographic information on LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the year 1977. The bibliography consists of approximately 198 abstracts covering research and development, operating experience, and design practices. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  18. Skills Training for School Leavers: Some Alternative Approaches. Current Issues Brief No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Doug

    In the face of escalating youth unemployment, some new approaches are needed for training out-of-school youth in Australia. The current system of apprenticeship has become outmoded because many of the skilled trades that the system prepares young people for will soon be non-existent. One approach to this problem has been implementation of…

  19. A Synthesis of Language Learning Strategies: Current Issues, Problems and Claims Made in Learner Strategy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjesteh, Hamed; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Vaseghi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presented theoretical assumptions behind language learning strategies (LLS) and an overview of methods used to identify learners' strategies, first, and then summarized what have been reported from large number of descriptive studies of strategies by language learners. Moreover, the paper tried to present the variety of…

  20. Controversies in the Hydrosphere: an iBook exploring current global water issues for middle school classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoe, A.; Guertin, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    This project looks to help teachers utilize iPad technology in their classrooms as an instructional tool for Earth system science and connections to the Big Ideas in Earth Science. The project is part of Penn State University's National Science Foundation (NSF) Targeted Math Science Partnership grant, with one goal of the grant to help current middle school teachers across Pennsylvania engage students with significant and complex questions of Earth science. The free Apple software iBooks Author was used to create an electronic book for the iPad, focusing on a variety of controversial issues impacting the hydrosphere. The iBook includes image slideshows, embedded videos, interactive images and quizzes, and critical thinking questions along Bloom's Taxonomic Scale of Learning Objectives. Outlined in the introductory iBook chapters are the Big Ideas of Earth System Science and an overview of Earth's spheres. Since the book targets the hydrosphere, each subsequent chapter focuses on specific water issues, including glacial melts, aquifer depletion, coastal oil pollution, marine debris, and fresh-water chemical contamination. Each chapter is presented in a case study format that highlights the history of the issue, the development and current status of the issue, and some solutions that have been generated. The next section includes critical thinking questions in an open-ended discussion format that focus on the Big Ideas, proposing solutions for rectifying the situation, and/or assignments specifically targeting an idea presented in the case study chapter. Short, comprehensive multiple-choice quizzes are also in each chapter. Throughout the iBook, students are free to watch videos, explore the content and form their own opinions. As a result, this iBook fulfills the grant objective by engaging teachers and students with an innovative technological presentation that incorporates Earth system science with current case studies regarding global water issues.

  1. The analysis of the survey results for the current 'business agent'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I. H.; Shim, H. S.; Jeon, I. Y.; Kang, W. S.; Yun, K. H.; Na, S. H.; Park, T. J.; Kim, I. S.

    2004-01-01

    Our survey is conducted about the current systems in the 'Business Agents' regulations which prescribes running business such as the safe control of radiation on behalf of any permitted users. The radiation safety staffs who are engaged in the handling of radioisotope respond our quaternaries. They are as follows: 1. the radiation safety staffs' attitude to the need of 'Business Agent' regulations, 2. the satisfaction level of 'Business Agent' service, 3. the propriety of the manpower. The survey results are that the 68.4% of the respondents are in favor of the need of 'Business Agent' regulations and the 63.6% of the respondents expressed satisfactions for the service of 'Business Agent'. For the one manpower managing 'Business Agent', 32.3% of the respondents expressed as 'overburdened' and 37.5% as 'appropriate.' Our results give the feedback to develop the system of 'Business Agent' regulations as making feedback effect

  2. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frinchaboy, Peter; O'Connell, Julia; Donor, John; Cunha, Katia; Thompson, Benjamin; Melendez, Matthew; Shetrone, Matthew; Zasowski, Gail; Majewski, Steven R.; APOGEE TEAM

    2018-01-01

    The Open Cluster Chemical Analysis and Mapping (OCCAM) survey aims to produce a comprehensive, uniform, infrared-based data set forhundreds of open clusters, and constrain key Galactic dynamical and chemical parameters using the SDSS/APOGEE survey and follow-up from the McDonald Observatory Otto Struve 2.1-m telescope and Sandiford Cass Echelle Spectrograph (R ~ 60,000). We report on multi-element radial abundance gradients obtained from a sample of over 30 disk open clusters. The APOGEE chemical abundances were derived automatically by the ASPCAP pipeline and these are part of the SDSS IV Data Release 14, optical follow-up were analyzed using equivalent width analysis and spectral synthesis. We present the current open cluster sample that spans a significant range in age allowing exploration of the evolution of the Galactic abundance gradients. This work is supported by an NSF AAG grants AST-1311835 & AST-1715662.

  3. [Current teaching, learning and examination methods in medical education and potential applications in rehabilitative issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, S R; Morfeld, M; Gülich, M; Lay, W; Horn, K; Mau, W

    2007-04-01

    With introduction of the new Federal Medical Licensing Regulations (Approbationsordnung) in Germany, integrated teaching in "Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine, Naturopathic Treatment" (Querschnittsbereich Q12) has become obligatory for the first time. Furthermore, the new Regulations require the medical faculties in Germany to realize an innovative didactic orientation in teaching. This paper provides an overview of recent applications of teaching techniques and examination methods in medical education with special consideration of the new integrated course Q12 and further teaching methods related to rehabilitative issues. Problem-oriented learning (POL), problem-based learning (PBL), bedside teaching, eLearning, and the examination methods Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and Triple Jump are in the focus. This overview is intended as the basis for subsequent publications of the Commission for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Training of the German Society of Rehabilitation Science (DGRW), which will present examples of innovative teaching material.

  4. Return of the "intimate outsider": current trends and issues in family nursing research revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    This article reviews family nursing research published from 1996 to 2011. This is a follow-up to a review published in the Journal of Family Nursing in 1995. Findings from the first review are compared with this one, trends in family nursing scholarship are identified, and predictions and suggestions for future directions are offered. The latest generation of family nursing scholarship is conceptually and methodologically sound, and there is evidence of more multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research conducted by family nursing researchers. Scholars are paying more attention to issues of diversity and family context at present than in the past, although there are still aspects of diversity that need more attention. Strong research programs in family nursing exist worldwide; an international synergism has helped promote rapid expansion of family nursing research and theory development. A vigorous movement to promote research to practice initiatives and greater attention to family interventions are exciting developments.

  5. Noninvasive Prenatal Genetic Testing: Current and Emerging Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minear, Mollie A; Alessi, Stephanie; Allyse, Megan; Michie, Marsha; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal genetic testing (NIPT) for chromosomal aneuploidy involving the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA became commercially available in 2011. The low false-positive rate of NIPT, which reduces unnecessary prenatal invasive diagnostic procedures, has led to broad clinician and patient adoption. We discuss the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by rapid and global dissemination of NIPT. The number of women using NIPT is anticipated to expand, and the number of conditions being tested for will continue to increase as well, raising concerns about the routinization of testing and negative impacts on informed decision making. Ensuring that accurate and balanced information is available to all pregnant women and that access to NIPT is equitable will require policy guidance from regulators, professional societies, and payers. Empirical evidence about stakeholders' perspectives and experiences will continue to be essential in guiding policy development so that advances in NIPT can be used effectively and appropriately to improve prenatal care.

  6. Current issues in the design of academic health sciences libraries: findings from three recent facility projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Patricia P

    2003-07-01

    Planning a new health sciences library at the beginning of the twenty-first century is a tremendous challenge. Technology has radically changed the way libraries function in an academic environment and the services they provide. Some individuals question whether the library as place will continue to exist as information becomes increasingly available electronically. To understand how libraries resolve programming and building design issues, visits were made to three academic health sciences libraries that have had significant renovation or completed new construction. The information gathered will be valuable for planning a new library for the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and may assist other health sciences librarians as they plan future library buildings.

  7. PHARMACOTHERAPY OF THE DIGESTIVE DISEASES AMONG TEENAGERS. CURRENT STATE OF THE ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration of the children's health, especially as long as they study in school is one of the key issues today. The article highlights the results of the «Healthy school» program implementation, which was developed by the «Quality of life» charity fund involving Solvay Pharma. Much attention was paid to the pharmacoepidemiological study of the digestive diseases among teenagers — conformance evaluation of the given nosology pharmacotherapy at the outpatient stage to the existing standards of the evidence based medicine. The researcher described in detail nonconformances to the generally accepted recommendations identified during the study — nonprescription and/or unjustified application of the medications. They also provided the structure of the enzymatic drugs application.Key words: pharmacoepidemiology, gastrointestinal disturbances, pharmacotherapy, children.

  8. Current issues connected with usage of genetically modified crops in production of feed and livestock feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, K; Mazur, M; Sieradzki, Z

    2008-01-01

    Progress, which is brought by new advances in modern molecular biology, allowed interference in the genome of live organisms and gene manipulation. Introducing new genes to the recipient organism enables to give them new features, absent before. Continuous increase in the area of the biotech crops triggers continuous discussion about safety of genetically modified (GM) crops, including food and feed derived from them. Important issue connected with cultivation of genetically modified crops is a horizontal gene transfer and a bacterial antibiotic resistance. Discussion about safety of GM crops concerns also food allergies caused by eating genetically modified food. The problem of genetic modifications of GM crops used for livestock feeding is widely discussed, taking into account Polish feed law.

  9. Women's occupational health: a critical review and discussion of current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, K

    1997-01-01

    Action to improve women's occupational health has been slowed by a notion that women's jobs are safe and that any health problems identified among women workers can be attributed to unfitness for the job or unnecessary complaining. With increasing numbers of women in the labor force, the effects of work on women's health have recently started to interest health care providers, health and safety representatives and researchers. We begin our summary of their discoveries with a discussion of women's place in the workplace and its implications for occupational health, followed by a brief review of some gender-insensitive data-gathering techniques. We have then chosen to concentrate on the following four areas: methods and data collection; directing attention to women's occupational health problems; musculoskeletal disease; mental and emotional stress. We conclude by pointing out some neglected occupational groups and health issues.

  10. Quantum Dots for Cancer Research: Current Status, Remaining Issues, and Future Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Min; Peng, Chun-wei; Pang, Dai-Wen; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to public health in the 21st century because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion, and metastasis remain unclear. Thus, the development of a novel approach for cancer detection is urgent, and real-time monitoring is crucial in revealing its underlying biological mechanisms. With the optical and chemical advantages of quantum dots (QDs), QD-based nanotechnology is helpful in constructing a biomedical imaging platform for cancer behavior study. This review mainly focuses on the application of QD-based nanotechnology in cancer cell imaging and tumor microenvironment studies both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the remaining issues and future perspectives

  11. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D; Hammel, C J

    1995-02-01

    Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

  12. Racial disparities in smoking knowledge among current smokers: data from the health information national trends surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Rachel Ann; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-10-01

    Although African-Americans (Blacks) smoke fewer cigarettes per day than European-Americans (Whites), there is ample evidence that Blacks are more susceptible to smoking-related health consequences. A variety of behavioural, social and biological factors have been linked to this increased risk. There has been little research, however, on racial differences in smoking-related knowledge and perceived risk of lung cancer. The primary goal of the current study was to evaluate beliefs and knowledge that contribute to race disparities in lung cancer risk among current smokers. Data from two separate nationally representative surveys (the Health Information National Trends surveys 2003 and 2005) were analysed. Logistic and hierarchical regressions were conducted; gender, age, education level, annual household income and amount of smoking were included as covariates. In both studies, Black smokers were significantly more likely to endorse inaccurate statements than were White smokers, and did not estimate their lung cancer risk to be significantly higher than Whites. Results highlight an important racial disparity in public health knowledge among current smokers.

  13. Fundamental Issues in Manufacturing Photovoltaic Modules Beyond the Current Generation of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Alapatt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many methods to improve the solar cell’s efficiency beyond current generation of bulk and thin film of photovoltaic (PV devices have been reported during the last five decades. Concepts such as multiple exciton generations (MEG, carrier multiplication (CM, hot carrier extraction, and intermediate band solar cells have fundamental flaws, and there is no experimental evidence of fabricating practical higher efficiency solar cells based on the proposed concepts. To take advantages of quantum features of nanostructures for higher performance PV devices, self-assembly-based bottom-up processing techniques are not suitable for manufacturing due to inherent problems of variability, defects, reliability, and yield. For processing nanostructures, new techniques need to be invented with the features of critical dimensional control, structural homogeneity, and lower cost of ownership as compared to the processing tools used in current generations of bulk and thin-film solar cells.

  14. PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY: CURRENT LOOK AT THE ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Lashkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current data on the metabolism of vitamin D and its role in the development of bone tissue in children and the further condition thereof. Natural vitamin D sources, as well as the current routine practice of preventing deficiency of this organic substance are unable to fully satisfy a child's demand for this vitamin, which is why recommendations on vitamin D intake ought to be revised. The article details schedules for prescription of vitamin D for preventing and treating the body deficiency thereof based on results of the studies completed in the recent years. The role of the main marker enabling assessing vitamin D concentration in the body — 25(OHD — the reference values whereof are yet to be commonly established has been analyzed. The article lists recommendations on rickets prevention and treatment in children. The article presents data on the possible mechanisms of development of toxic effects in the setting of vitamin D intake.

  15. Recent developments and current policy issues in road pricing in the US and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey, Robin

    2005-01-01

    The United States and Canada lag Europe and Singapore in implementing road pricing on a large scale. But the two countries have shown interest in tolling roads as a way to curb congestion and to generate revenues. The US is funding congestion pricing demonstration projects through its Value Pricing Pilot Program, and Canada has examined new ways to charge for road use and to finance road construction and maintenance. This paper reviews the current state of road pricing and funding...

  16. Transfusion medicine and solid organ transplant – Update and review of some current issues

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, R.S.; Philip, J.; Yadav, Pramod

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion medicine holds a place of prime importance in organ transplant surgeries. There is a huge demand of organs worldwide with long waiting periods before the organ is available for transplant. Currently the dependency on ABO and HLA matching has decreased considerably with the use of modern immunosuppressant drugs and transplant techniques. The greatest advance in clinical implementation of ABO-incompatible transplants came about through desensitization and isoagglutinin elimination t...

  17. Current status of brachytherapy in Korea: a national survey of radiation oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Joo Young; Kim, Juree; Park, Won; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Yong Bae

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to acquire information on brachytherapy resources in Korea through a national survey of radiation oncologists. Between October 2014 and January 2015, a questionnaire on the current status of brachytherapy was distributed to all 86 radiation oncology departments in Korea. The questionnaire was divided into sections querying general information on human resources, brachytherapy equipment, and suggestions for future directions of brachytherapy policy in Korea. The response rate of the survey was 88.3%. The average number of radiation oncologists per center was 2.3. At the time of survey, 28 centers (36.8%) provided brachytherapy to patients. Among the 28 brachytherapy centers, 15 (53.5%) were located in in the capital Seoul and its surrounding metropolitan areas. All brachytherapy centers had a high-dose rate system using (192)Ir (26 centers) or (60)Co (two centers). Among the 26 centers using (192)Ir sources, 11 treated fewer than 40 patients per year. In the two centers using (60)Co sources, the number of patients per year was 16 and 120, respectively. The most frequently cited difficulties in performing brachytherapy were cost related. A total of 21 centers had a plan to sustain the current brachytherapy system, and four centers noted plans to upgrade their brachytherapy system. Two centers stated that they were considering discontinuation of brachytherapy due to cost burdens of radioisotope source replacement. The present study illustrated the current status of brachytherapy in Korea. Financial difficulties were the major barriers to the practice of brachytherapy.

  18. Politics and Education in Puerto Rico: A Documentary Survey of the Language Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Erwin H., Comp.

    This compilation, which is divided into three parts, brings together essays and documents representing a wide variety of views of the language question, especially as that issue relates to prospects for statehood and independence. Part 1 provides a general overview of the school language issue and evaluates the role that North American leaders…

  19. Human resources issues and Australian Disaster Medical Assistance Teams: results of a national survey of team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Peter; Leggat, Peter; Harley, Hazel; Speare, Richard; Leclercq, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Calls for disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs) are likely to continue in response to international disasters. As part of a national survey, this study was designed to evaluate Australian DMAT experience in relation to the human resources issues associated with deployment. Data was collected via an anonymous mailed survey distributed via State and Territory representatives on the Australian Health Protection Committee, who identified team members associated with Australian DMAT deployments from the 2004 South East Asian Tsunami disaster. The response rate for this survey was 50% (59/118). Most personnel had deployed to the Asian Tsunami affected areas with DMAT members having significant clinical and international experience. While all except one respondent stated they received a full orientation prior to deployment, only 34% of respondents (20/59) felt their role was clearly defined pre deployment. Approximately 56% (33/59) felt their actual role matched their intended role and that their clinical background was well suited to their tasks. Most respondents were prepared to be available for deployment for 1 month (34%, 20/59). The most common period of notice needed to deploy was 6-12 hours for 29% (17/59) followed by 12-24 hours for 24% (14/59). The preferred period of overseas deployment was 14-21 days (46%, 27/59) followed by 1 month (25%, 15/59) and the optimum shift period was felt to be 12 hours by 66% (39/59). The majority felt that there was both adequate pay (71%, 42/59) and adequate indemnity (66%, 39/59). Almost half (49%, 29/59) stated it was better to work with people from the same hospital and, while most felt their deployment could be easily covered by staff from their workplace (56%, 33/59) and caused an inconvenience to their colleagues (51%, 30/59), it was less likely to interrupt service delivery in their workplace (10%, 6/59) or cause an inconvenience to patients (9%, 5/59). Deployment was felt to benefit the affected community by nearly all

  20. Leading article: Use of smartphones to pass on information about patients - what are the current issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokadiya, S; McCaul, J A; Mitchell, D A; Brennan, P A

    2016-07-01

    Many doctors now use mobile devices such as smartphones to communicate with one another about their patients, and sometimes this is without the knowledge and approval of their employer. We know of little information about the use of texting and other web-based messaging services by doctors in hospitals, so we reviewed relevant published studies to assess the safety and usefulness of current methods of digital communication. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The United States Navy and Israeli Navy: Background, Current Issues, Scenarios, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    second missile flew a sea- skimming profile, and hit the ship’s crane on the stern, near the ship’s helicopter pad.67 Hanit is a stealthy design, with a...IN had a long-standing mission of protecting the sea lines of communication to Israel, as well as preventing terrorists from penetrating its...economic conditions—there is currently a glut of gas on the world market —Israel could become a net exporter of gas.75 The prospect of offshore gas

  2. Thermal management issues in a PEMFC stack - A brief review of current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandlikar, Satish G.; Lu Zijie

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the thermal effects is critical in optimizing the performance and durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). A PEMFC produces a similar amount of waste heat to its electric power output and tolerates only a small deviation in temperature from its design point. The balance between the heat production and its removal determines the operating temperature of a PEMFC. These stringent thermal requirements present a significant heat transfer challenge. In this work, the fundamental heat transfer mechanisms at PEMFC component level (including polymer electrolyte, catalyst layers, gas diffusion media and bipolar plates) are briefly reviewed. The current status of PEMFC cooling technology is also reviewed and research needs are identified

  3. Tooth bleaching using peroxide-containing agents: current status of safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y

    1998-08-01

    During the last 10 years, at-home tooth bleaching using peroxide-containing agents has quickly become well accepted. It is one of the most popular cosmetic dental procedures for whitening teeth. Although there are few disputes regarding their efficacy, concerns and debates have continued regarding the safety of peroxide-containing tooth bleaching agents. Potential carcinogenicity and genotoxicity of the peroxides used in bleaching agents are the two most persistent and controversial issues. This article reviews and discusses available information on carcinogenicity and genotoxicity of hydrogen peroxide and the potential risks associated with the use of peroxide-containing bleaching agents. Clinical studies reported after the 1996 international symposium on responses of oral tissues to peroxide-containing bleaching agents are also reviewed. Overall evidence supports the conclusion that the proper use of peroxide-containing at-home tooth bleaching agents is safe. However, potential adverse effects may occur in inappropriate applications, abuses, or the use of inappropriate products. At-home tooth bleaching should be monitored by dental professionals to maximize the benefits while minimizing potential risks.

  4. Development of a universally applicable household food insecurity measurement tool: process, current status, and outstanding issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindale, Anne; Bilinsky, Paula

    2006-05-01

    The United States Public Law 480 Title II food aid program is the largest U.S. government program directed at reducing hunger, malnutrition, and food insecurity in the developing world. USAID and Title II implementing partners face challenges in measuring the success of Title II programs in reducing household food insecurity because of the technical difficulty and cost of collecting and analyzing data on traditional food security indicators, such as per capita income and caloric adequacy. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) holds promise as an easier and more user-friendly approach for measuring the access component of household food security. To support the consistent and comparable collection of the HFIAS, efforts are under way to develop a guide with a standardized questionnaire and data collection and analysis instructions. A set of domains have been identified that is deemed to capture the universal experience of the access component of household food insecurity across countries and cultures. Based on these domains, a set of questions has been developed with wording that is deemed to be universally appropriate, with minor adaptation to local contexts. These underlying suppositions, based on research in multiple countries, are being verified by potential users of the guide. The key remaining issue relates to the process for creating a categorical indicator of food insecurity status from the HFIAS.

  5. Crime Prevention and Criminological Theories: Three Issues for the Current Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Jorge Ayos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Any crime prevention strategy implies, explicitly or implicitly, the question about what crime is, the causes of it and how to avert it. In this paper we will focus on set, thru criminological theories, the “concepts” that have been renewal to build different answers to such questions, particularly on crime prevention’s policies in contemporary Argentina. We suggest three axes: first, the criminal positivist sociology of Enrico Ferri, particularly his idea of “ penalties equivalent,”; second, the discussion about crime prevention in the “Chicago School”, specially on Thrasher Frederich’s work; and finally, “multi-agency intervention” idea of the left realist criminology, especially Jock Young, Roger Matthews and John Lea. Such productions have in common the fact that the three have specifically discussed the issue of “crime prevention” on their work. The selection criteria and comparison axis emerges from a broader investigation, which aimed to analyze the modes of way that the association between crime and living conditions is addressed on the social crime prevention policies in Argentina, during the first decade of the new century. Three comparatives dimensions were analyzed: the way social policies appears on crime prevention strategies; the ways the target populations are delimited; and last, the ways the intervention territories are defined, building an specific idea of territory.

  6. [Current issues, problems and prospects of tension-free hernioplasty (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the present study there are discussed modern methods of the tension free hernioplastics, the complications associated with them and technical difficulties, up-to-date views and the perspectives of the issue development in terms of avoiding infectious complications, positioning of implants and their fixation. Hernia is one of the widespread surgical pathologies as it is found in 4% of the population and its share among the inpatient surgical diseases is about 18-30%. Consequently annually up to 20-21 mln hernioplasties are carried out worldwide. Despite of many years of experience in the field of hernia surgical treatment there still exist many unsolved problems such as safe closure of defects of abdominal cavity wall. Up to 200 methods of hernioplastics, various implantations and application of synthetic materials refer to lack of the optimal surgical strategy. In modern herniology priorities are given to tension free plastics. The merge of the synthetic implants and "tension free hernioplastics" concepts enabled sharp reduction of the side effects list, making it possible to perform successful surgeries in that contingent whose treatment by the method of tissue-plasty was related with high risk of lethality. Large scale introduction of tension free hernioplastics caused intensification of the associated problems such as migration, dissection and shortening of the net.

  7. Current issues in developing safety culture while establishing wind energy power plants in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowda, M.C.M.; Repaka, B.; Gowda, P. [MSRIT Research Centre, Bangalore (India); Chandrashekar, R. [SaIT, Bangalore (India)

    2012-07-01

    Safety is important to every one working in the various organizations. They want to be safe when coming to work, at the time of work and going back to home. The ultimate aim of every worker is to work for the needs/money and or satisfaction where these would get prioritized according to the individuals. People don't want accidents to happen. People don't want to get themselves injured nor their colleagues. People would like and love to work in a company which cares for them and keeps them safe. Having said this then what makes them meet with or see an accident in the wind farm? Yes it is the unsafe act and unsafe condition which causes an accident in the wind farm. The present study put forward the factors /issues that influence people behaviors as part of weakening the safety culture to perform an unsafe act or to ignore and work in an unsafe condition. (Author)

  8. Indoor environmental quality and ventilation in U.S. office buildings: A view of current issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    Much of the current focus on indoor environmental quality and ventilation in US office buildings is a response to sick building syndrome and occupant complaints about building-related health symptoms, poor indoor air quality, and thermal discomfort. The authors know that serious ``sick-building`` problems occur in a significant number of US office buildings and that a significant proportion of the occupants in many normal (non-sick) buildings report building-related health symptoms. Concerns about the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke have also focused attention on the indoor environment. The major responses of industry and governments, underway at the present time, are to restrict smoking in offices, to attempt to reduce the emissions of indoor pollutants, and to improve the operation of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Better air filtration, improved HVAC commissioning and maintenance, and increased provisions for individual control of HVAC are some of the improvements in HVAC that are currently being, evaluated. In the future, the potential for improved productivity and reduced airborne transmission of infectious disease may become the major driving force for improved indoor environments.

  9. Current practices in vestibular schwannoma management: a survey of American and Canadian neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Matthew R; Fisher, Winfield S; McGrew, Benjamin M; Walters, Beverly C

    2014-12-01

    Comprehensive therapy for vestibular schwannomas has changed dramatically over the past fifty years. Previously, neurosurgeons were most likely to treat these tumors via an independent surgical approach. Currently, many neurosurgeons treat vestibular schwannomas employing an interdisciplinary team approach with neuro-otologists and radiation oncologists. This survey aims to determine the current treatment paradigm for vestibular schwannomas among American and Canadian neurosurgeons, with particular attention to the utilization of a team approach to the surgical resection of these lesions. A seventeen part survey questionnaire was sent by electronic mail to residency trained members of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons currently practicing in Canada or the United States. Questions were divided into groups regarding physician background, overall practice history, recent practice history, opinions on treatment paradigms, and experience with an interdisciplinary team approach. Seven hundred and six responses were received. The vast majority of neurosurgeons surgically resect vestibular schwannomas as part of an interdisciplinary team (85.7%). Regional variations were observed in the use of an interdisciplinary team: 52.3% of responding neurosurgeons who surgically treat vestibular schwannomas without neuro-otologists currently practice in the South (no other region represented more than 15.4% of this group, p=0.02). Surgeons who have treated >50 vestibular schwannomas show a trend towards more frequent utilization of an interdisciplinary approach than less experienced surgeons, but this did not reach statistical significance. The majority of neurosurgeons in the United States and Canada surgically resect vestibular schwannomas via an interdisciplinary approach with the participation of a neuro-otologist. Neurosurgeons in the South appear more likely to surgically treat these tumors alone than neurosurgeons in other regions of the U.S. and Canada

  10. The Search for Life on Mars - Current Knowledge, Earth Analogues, and Principal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    results. Finally, I will touch upon unresolved questions and issues posed by the methane detections.

  11. Collection development and outsourcing in academic health sciences libraries: a survey of current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, D D; Hollander, S; Lanier, D

    1999-04-01

    Academic health sciences libraries in the United States and Canada were surveyed regarding collection development trends, including their effect on approval plan and blanket order use, and use of outsourcing over the past four years. Results of the survey indicate that serials market forces, budgetary constraints, and growth in electronic resources purchasing have resulted in a decline in the acquisition of print items. As a result, approval plan use is being curtailed in many academic health sciences libraries. Although use of blanket orders is more stable, fewer than one-third of academic health sciences libraries report using them currently. The decline of print collections suggests that libraries should explore cooperative collection development of print materials to ensure access and preservation. The decline of approval plan use and the need for cooperative collection development may require additional effort for sound collection development. Libraries were also surveyed about their use of outsourcing. Some libraries reported outsourcing cataloging and shelf preparation of books, but none reported using outsourcing for resource selection. The reason given most often for outsourcing was that it resulted in cost savings. As expected, economic factors are driving both collection development and outsourcing practices.

  12. The adequacy of measures of gender roles attitudes: a review of current measures in omnibus surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jessica Gabriele

    2018-01-01

    The measures of attitudes toward gender roles included in many representative international and national omnibus surveys were developed mostly in the 1970s and 1980s with a focus on the male breadwinner model. This article deals with the issue of whether the measures provided in these omnibus surveys need to be adjusted to specific social changes. A review of these measures has found that adjustments have occurred in a limited way that focused on the role of women and disregarded the role of men. Furthermore, most of these measures only examined the traditional roles of men and women. More egalitarian role models have not been considered sufficiently. In addition, most items that have been measured are phrased in a general form and, for example, do not specify parents' employment or the ages of children. A specification of these aspects of measurement would help to clarify the conceptual meaning of the results and increase the possibility of more accurately analyzing gender role attitudes over time.

  13. Current issues in dietary acrylamide:formation,mitigation and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Salome Mariotti, M.; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    content of browned food, while still maintaining its attractive organoleptic properties. Reducing sugars such as glucose and fructose are the major contributors to AA in potato-based products. On the other hand, the limiting substrate of AA formation in cereals and coffee is the free amino acid asparagine....... For some products the addition of glycine or asparaginase reduces AA formation during baking. Since, for potatoes, the limiting substrate is reducing sugars, increases in sugar content in potatoes during storage then introduce some difficulties and potentially quite large variations in the AA content...... of the final product. Sugars in potatoes may be reduced by blanching. Levels of AA in different foods show large variations and no general upper limit is easily applicable, since some formation will always occur. Current policy is that practical measures should be taken voluntarily to reduce AA formation...

  14. PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES: ISSUE, ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT LEGISLATION AND ITS APPROPRIATENESS TO THE REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Jacinto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of psychoactive substances has followed Humanity since the primordial of the civilization, not only by their medicinal proprieties as well as for religious and recreational purposes, however, its usage creates dependence and, subsequently, illicit traffic. Since the beginning of the previous century, many nations and international organisms have worked, without success, in the development of elimination strategies to this problem. Part of this failure is due to the current legal forms, because, when a new psychoactive substance is created, it occupies a legal void, in which its’ distribution and consumption are free, being recurrent updates to the legislation needed. An example of this situation was the one verified in the establishments commonly called smartshops. We purpose to compile the psychoactive substances’ legislation, analyse its’, advantages and disadvantages and to suggest a new legal form, based in new scientific facts, that allows to contour this situation.

  15. Internet use, misuse, and addiction in adolescents: current issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, Donald E; Greydanus, Megan M

    2012-01-01

    The Internet has revolutionized education and social communication in the 21st century. This article reviews the growing literature identifying a number of adolescents and young adults with a pathologically excessive Internet use leading to many potential consequences. Current research dilemmas in this area include that Internet addiction is a broad topic with no standard definition and no standard measurement tools. Management of youth with identified problematic Internet use or misuse centers on behavioral therapy and treatment of comorbidities. Pharmacologic approaches are limited at this time but are undergoing research, such as use of opioid antagonists and antidepressants in adults with pathological gambling. Efforts should be expanded on not only the education of all adolescents regarding the benefits but also the potential negative consequences of Internet use. It is vital that we do this for Generation Z, whereas Generation ALPHA will soon benefit or suffer from our efforts in this regard today.

  16. On-going activities of the EC project ''Benipa'' current status, key issues and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.

    2003-01-01

    BENIPA (Bentonite Barriers in Integrated Performance Assessment) is a research project, within the Fifth Framework Programme of the European Union, which was started on September 2000 and is has a duration of 36 months. The overall objective of BENIPA is to assess the state of the art in the treatment of bentonite barriers in Integrated Performance Assessment, evaluating the capacity and consistency of methods and data available to convincingly justify the capacity of bentonite to perform their assigned safety functions. During the first part of the project different bentonite barrier concepts have been reviewed and four reference cases have been defined for the modelling work in the project. FEP's Databases have been created and the scientific and technical bases for the analysis of bentonite barriers have been reviewed. In the second part of the project. as a step previous to modelling, an analysis of models for the mechanical, hydrological, thermal and chemical conditions is carried out, along with a review of the needs in input data. In BENIPA, calculations at process and integrated level are currently being performed among different codes to check consistency and sufficiency or complementarity for fulfilling the needs of performance assessment. However, since it is too early to present some of the results or even the individual contributions of the partners, the modelling and calculations being currently carried out by ENRESA will be advanced, just as a representative example of the work going on. This paper summarises the work already done in BENIPA and provides with illustrations of the modelling work consisting of the approach followed by ENRESA in applying three codes: CODE-BRIGHT, CORE 2D and GOLDSIM. The processes considered, simplifications adopted, limitations imposed and preliminary findings of the work are mentioned along. (author)

  17. Current Tobacco Use Among Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Adult Tobacco Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R.; Tynan, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of tobacco use among US adults. Methods. We used data from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a national landline and cell phone survey of adults aged 18 years and older, to estimate current use of any tobacco; cigarettes; cigars, cigarillos, or small cigars; chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip; water pipes; snus; and pipes. We stratified estimates by gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, sexual orientation, and US state. Results. National prevalence of current use was 25.2% for any tobacco; 19.5% for cigarettes; 6.6% for cigars, cigarillos, or small cigars; 3.4% for chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip; 1.5% for water pipes; 1.4% for snus; and 1.1% for pipes. Tobacco use was greatest among respondents who were male, younger, of non-Hispanic “other” race/ethnicity, less educated, less wealthy, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. Prevalence ranged from 14.1% (Utah) to 37.4% (Kentucky). Conclusions. Tobacco use varies by geography and sociodemographic factors, but remains prevalent among US adults. Evidence-based prevention strategies are needed to decrease tobacco use and the health and economic burden of tobacco-related diseases. PMID:22994278

  18. Financial Issues of Reserve Service: A Report from the 1992 Reserve Components Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miskura, Susan

    1997-01-01

    .... The questionnaire was mailed to 76,783 members with responses received from 47%. The objective of this report was to analyze issues relating to individual and unit readiness focusing on financial aspects...

  19. Current Allergic Rhinitis Experiences Survey (CARES): Health-care practitioners' awareness, attitudes and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiss, Michael S; Fromer, Leonard M; Jacob-Nara, Juby A; Long, Randall M; Mannion, Karen M; Lauersen, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common health problem in the United States, with significant comorbidities and impairment of quality of life despite the availability of many prescription (Rx) and over-the-counter (OTC) medications. The health-care practitioners (HCPs) arm of the Current Allergic Rhinitis Experiences Survey (CARES) assessed HCPs' perceptions about the current management of AR. This U.S.-based national survey included 375 primary care physicians and 375 nurse practitioners/physician assistants. Participants were screened to ensure that they treat ≥15 AR sufferers per month during allergy season. The majority of HCPs (86%) agreed that AR patients can easily recognize allergy symptoms after diagnosis and that 57% of their patients come to them self-recognizing their symptoms. A total of 82% strongly agreed that AR sufferers are primarily diagnosed via history and physical and do not typically undergo diagnostic testing until after pharmacologic intervention. HCPs reported that 63-77% of AR sufferers can easily manage AR once treatment is established. According to surveyed HCPs, OTC medication should precede an Rx medication for AR management. A total of 82% HCPs considered intranasal steroids (INSs) to be the gold standard AR treatment and have minimal safety concerns about INS use. HCPs perceive that patients can easily recognize and self-manage their AR symptoms. Patient history/symptoms and physical examination are the primary methods of AR diagnosis. INSs are considered the gold standard for treatment of AR. However, most HCPs feel OTC medication should be tried before Rx medication for AR management.

  20. Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey, 1975. Part IV. Practical issues of implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The objective of Part IV is to assemble, organize, and present facts, analyses, and responsible viewpoints with respect to issues going beyond technical and technical-economic tradeoff considerations that bear on NECs; to identify options; and to analyze and comment on merits of alternative options. Five broad groups of issues addressed include jurisdictional and institutional; economic; social and political; accident risk; national security; and nuclear material safeguards

  1. Current issues in the transport of radioactive waste and spent fuel: work by the World Nuclear Transport Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neau, H-J.; Bonnardel-Azzarelli, B. [World Nuclear Transport Inst., London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Various kinds of radioactive waste are generated from nuclear power and fuel cycle facilities. These materials have to be treated, stored and eventually sent to a repository site. Transport of wastes between these various stages is crucial for the sustainable utilization of nuclear energy. The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SSR-6) have, for many decades, provided a safe and efficient framework for radioactive materials transport and continue to do so. However, some shippers have experienced that in the transport of certain specific radioactive wastes, difficulties can be encountered. For example, some materials produced in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are unique in terms of composition or size and can be difficult to characterize as surface contaminated objects (SCO) or homogeneous. One way WNTI (World Nuclear Transport Institute) helps develop transport methodologies is through the use of Industry Working Groups, bringing together WNTI members with common interests, issues and experiences. The Back-End Transport Industry Working Group focuses on the following issues currently. - Characterization of Waste: techniques and methods to classify wastes - Large Objects: slightly contaminated large objects (ex. spent steam generators) transport - Dual Use Casks: transportable storage casks for spent nuclear fuels, including the very long term storage of spent fuel - Fissile Exceptions: new fissile exceptions provisions of revised TS-R-1 (SSR-6) The paper gives a broad overview of current issues for the packaging and transport of radioactive wastes and the associated work of the WNTI. (author)

  2. Łagodne zaburzenia poznawcze – aktualny problem geriatryczny = Mild cognitive impairment – current geriatric issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliwia Beck

    2016-04-01

      Streszczenie Artykuł przedstawia aktualny stan wiedzy dotyczący łagodnych zaburzeń poznawczych (Mild Cognitive Impairment, MCI. Termin ten, początkowo uważany za stan przejściowy pomiędzy prawidłowym funkcjonowaniem poznawczym a objawami choroby Alzheimera (Alzheimer’s disease, AD, obecnie oznacza heterogenną grupę widocznych i obiektywnych deficytów kognitywnych u pacjentów bez rozpoznanego otępienia. Deficyty te, choć zauważalne zarówno dla osób nimi dotkniętych, jak i ich otoczenia, są na tyle nieznaczne, że nie wpływają na podstawowe czynności życia codziennego i zdolność do samodzielnej egzystencji. Rozpowszechnienie MCI szacuje się na 15 – 30% wśród osób powyżej 60 roku życia; rośnie ono wraz z wiekiem. Łagodnym zaburzeniom poznawczym – zwłaszcza ich postaci amnestycznej - przypisuje się podwyższone ryzyko rozwinięcia się otępienia, wynoszące 10 – 15% rocznie (przy 1 – 2% dla populacji ogólnej. Z tego powodu identyfikacja osób z MCI jest obecnie najważniejszą strategią opóźniania postępu otępień i zapobiegania im.   Słowa kluczowe: łagodne zaburzenia poznawcze, funkcjonowanie poznawcze, wiek podeszły, otępienie       Summary The article describes current state of knowledge on Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. The term, initially considered a transitional state between normal cognitive aging and mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD, currently covers heterogenous group of noticeable and objective cognitive deficits in patients without the diagnosis of dementia. These deficits, although apparent for both afflicted persons and their environment, do not interfere substantially with basic activities of daily living nor result in inability to live independently. The prevalence of MCI is estimated between 15 and 30% in individuals over 60 years old. Subjects with MCI constitute a high risk group because they develop dementia at a rate of 10% to 15% per year compared with 1% to 2% per year in the general

  3. Phytosanitary irradiation for export of fresh produce. Commercial adoption in Hawaii and current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follett, P.A.; Wall, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Hawaii is a pioneer in the use of phytosanitary irradiation. Irradiation is an approved treatment to control quarantine insect pests in 17 fruits and 7 vegetables for export from Hawaii to the US mainland. The commercial X-ray irradiation facility, Hawaii Pride LLC, has been shipping tropical fruits and vegetables to the US mainland using irradiation since 2000. Hawaiian purple sweet potato is the highest volume product with annual exports of more than 12 million lbs (5,500 tonnes). The advent of generic radiation treatments for tephritid fruit flies (150 Gy) and other insects (400 Gy) has accelerated commodity export approvals and facilitated adoption by foreign trading partners. Current impediments to wider adoption include the labeling requirement, the 1 kGy limit for fresh horticultural products, and non-acceptance of phytosanitary irradiation in Japan and the European Union. USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has restricted the use of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for irradiated fresh fruits exported to the US due to possible increased radio-tolerance in the target insects. Data are presented for response of melon fly in papaya to several types of MAP with radiation treatment at 45-65 Gy. Low oxygen atmospheres can increase insect radio-tolerance, but the effect is dependent on oxygen concentration and radiation dose. (author)

  4. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the last century, mites moved into the focus of attention as pests relevantto agriculture, forestry and landscape horticulture, presumably in direct reactionto the “green revolution” that involved plant cultivation in large-plot monocropping systems,improved methods of cultivation, selection of high-yielding cultivars and intensifieduse of pesticides and mineral fertilizers. Agroecosystems in which phytophagous miteshave become harmful organisms are primarily orchards, vineyards, greenhouses, urbangreeneries, plant nurseries and stored plant products, as well as annual field crops to asomewhat lesser degree. Phytophagous mite species belong to a variety of spider mites(Tetranychidae, false spider mites (Tenuipalpidae, gall and rust mites (Eriophyoidae, tarsonemidmites (Tarsonemidae and acarid mites (Acaridae. Most of these harmful speciesare widespread, some of them having more economic impact than others and being moredetrimental as depending on various specificities of each outdoor agroecosystem in anyparticular climatic region.The first segment of this overview focuses on the most significant mite pests ofagroecosystemsand urban horticultural areas in European countries, our own region andin Serbia today, primarily on species that have caused problems in recent years regardingplant production, and it also discusses various molecular methods available for investigatingdifferent aspects of the biology of phytophagous mites. Also, acaricides are discussedas a method of controlling mite pests in the light of the current situation and trends on pesticidemarkets in Serbia and the European Union member-countries

  5. Currents issues in cardiorespiratory care of patients with post-polio syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Orsini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Post-polio syndrome (PPS is a condition that affects polio survivors years after recovery from an initial acute attack of the poliomyelitis virus. Most often, polio survivors experience a gradual new weakening in muscles that were previously affected by the polio infection. The actual incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs in individuals suffering from PPS is not known. However, there is a reason to suspect that individuals with PPS might be at increased risk. Method A search for papers was made in the databases Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed with the following keywords: post polio syndrome, cardiorespiratory and rehabilitation in English, French and Spanish languages. Although we targeted only seek current studies on the topic in question, only the relevant (double-blind, randomized-controlled and consensus articles were considered. Results and Discussion Certain features of PPS such as generalized fatigue, generalized and specific muscle weakness, joint and/or muscle pain may result in physical inactivity deconditioning obesity and dyslipidemia. Respiratory difficulties are common and may result in hypoxemia. Conclusion Only when evaluated and treated promptly, somE patients can obtain the full benefits of the use of respiratory muscles aids as far as quality of life is concerned.

  6. Magnesium batteries: Current state of the art, issues and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Mohtadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available “...each metal has a certain power, which is different from metal to metal, of setting the electric fluid in motion...” Count Alessandro Volta. Inspired by the first rechargeable magnesium battery prototype at the dawn of the 21st century, several research groups have embarked on a quest to realize its full potential. Despite the technical accomplishments made thus far, challenges, on the material level, hamper the realization of a practical rechargeable magnesium battery. These are marked by the absence of practical cathodes, appropriate electrolytes and extremely sluggish reaction kinetics. Over the past few years, an increased interest in this technology has resulted in new promising materials and innovative approaches aiming to overcome the existing hurdles. Nonetheless, the current challenges call for further dedicated research efforts encompassing fundamental understanding of the core components and how they interact with each other to offering new innovative solutions. In this review, we seek to highlight the most recent developments made and offer our perspectives on how to overcome some of the remaining challenges.

  7. Magnesium batteries: Current state of the art, issues and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana; Mizuno, Fuminori

    2014-01-01

    "...each metal has a certain power, which is different from metal to metal, of setting the electric fluid in motion..." Count Alessandro Volta. Inspired by the first rechargeable magnesium battery prototype at the dawn of the 21st century, several research groups have embarked on a quest to realize its full potential. Despite the technical accomplishments made thus far, challenges, on the material level, hamper the realization of a practical rechargeable magnesium battery. These are marked by the absence of practical cathodes, appropriate electrolytes and extremely sluggish reaction kinetics. Over the past few years, an increased interest in this technology has resulted in new promising materials and innovative approaches aiming to overcome the existing hurdles. Nonetheless, the current challenges call for further dedicated research efforts encompassing fundamental understanding of the core components and how they interact with each other to offering new innovative solutions. In this review, we seek to highlight the most recent developments made and offer our perspectives on how to overcome some of the remaining challenges.

  8. Exploring the Benefits of Respite Services to Family Caregivers: Methodological Issues and Current Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarit, Steven H.; Liu, Yin; Bangerter, Lauren R.; Rovine, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives There is growing emphasis on empirical validation of the efficacy of community-based services for older people and their families, but research on services such as respite care faces methodological challenges that have limited the growth of outcome studies. We identify problems associated with the usual research approaches for studying respite care, with the goal of stimulating use of novel and more appropriate research designs that can lead to improved studies of community-based services. Method Using the concept of research validity, we evaluate the methodological approaches in the current literature on respite services, including adult day services, in-home respite and overnight respite. Results Although randomized control trials (RCTs) are possible in community settings, validity is compromised by practical limitations of randomization and other problems. Quasi-experimental and interrupted time series designs offer comparable validity to RCTs and can be implemented effectively in community settings. Conclusion An emphasis on RCTs by funders and researchers is not supported by scientific evidence. Alternative designs can lead to development of a valid body of research on community services such as respite. PMID:26729467

  9. The territorial approach to EU cohesion policy: Current issues and evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoidou Elisavet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance attributed to the territorial dimension of the European Union cohesion policy steadily influences its successive reforms and adaptations, while in recent years there has been an evolution in the way this particular dimension of cohesion policy is perceived. Important evidence for this is the way in which the Community Strategic Guidelines on cohesion 2007-13 take account of the territorial dimension of cohesion policy. This paper discusses the territorial approach to cohesion policy in relation to both policy and practice. Specifically, it examines the territorial dimension of regional development planning in Greece as it has emerged in the relevant official documents, namely the successive three Community Support Frameworks since 1989 and the National Strategic Reference Framework for the current 2007-13 period. The territorial dimension of the organization of the planning system is also considered in an effort to understand limitations and prospects, in light of the importance of the territorial approach to cohesion policy post-2013.

  10. Volunteering and overseas placements in the NHS: a survey of current activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwin, John; Ackers, Louise

    2016-10-19

    The study aimed to establish current levels of overseas volunteering and placement activity across all staff grades within the National Health Service (NHS) in the North West of England. Cross-sectional survey. Descriptive statistics. 4 main regional hospitals in the North West of England, and additional NHS staff training events. Convenience sample of NHS staff (n=911). 911 NHS staff took part in the survey. The medical and dental staff group returned the highest number of responses (32.1%). 42% of staff reported some form of overseas volunteering or placement experience. Most staff took an international placement as students (33.6% men; 40.6% women). Medium-term placements were undertaken by 46.7% of men, and 52.5% of women. Settlement stays (ie, over 1 year) were reported by 7.6% men, and 8.3% women). The majority of respondents engaged in international placement were from the age groups incorporating 'below 25' to '41-50' (74%). Multiple placement experiences were uncommon: 2.5% of respondents reported three periods of overseas activity, and 1.5% reported four. All those with multiple placement experience came from the staff groups incorporating midwife/nurse/health visitor, and medical and dental. This survey captured a snapshot of current levels of volunteering and overseas placement activity across NHS staff grades in the North West. Owing to relatively homogenous organisational structures, findings are likely to broadly represent the position across the organisation as a whole. Although some degree of overseas placement activity is undertaken by a relatively high proportion of NHS staff, such activity is currently heavily skewed towards higher clinical staff grades. Significant numbers of allied health professionals and equivalent non-clinical cadres also report overseas experience, and we anticipate that the numbers will continue to rise if current policy initiatives gain momentum. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  11. Clostridium difficile Diarrhea in the Elderly: Current Issues and Management Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizusawa, Masako; Doron, Shira; Gorbach, Sherwood

    2015-08-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in healthcare settings. Along with antimicrobial exposure, advanced age has been shown to be a significant risk factor for the development and recurrence of, and mortality from, CDI. The substantial burden of CDI in the elderly may be related to frequent healthcare exposure, the necessity for more medications, altered intestinal microbiota, and complicated comorbidities. A diagnosis of CDI is based on evidence of toxin, or the C. difficile organism itself, in a stool sample in the presence of clinical signs and symptoms. Only symptomatic patients should be tested for CDI, and routine surveillance or repeat testing on asymptomatic patients as a test of cure is discouraged. Antibiotic discontinuation alone can improve or resolve CDI in some patients, and concomitant use of antibiotics is associated with decreased response to CDI treatment. Metronidazole, vancomycin, and fidaxomicin are the therapeutic agents currently available for CDI, with the selection of these agents being based on disease severity, history of recurrence, and cost. The recurrence rate after initial treatment is 20-30%. The first recurrence can be treated with the same therapeutic agent and, for subsequent recurrences, vancomycin in a tapered and/or pulsed regimen is recommended. Fecal microbiota transplantation has shown remarkable effectiveness for recurrent anti-refractory CDI, although caution is advised in treating immunocompromised hosts and those with toxic megacolon. C. difficile can be transmitted directly and indirectly via contact with patients or their environment; therefore, isolation precautions should be initiated at the first suspicion of CDI. C. difficile spores can survive for a long time on environmental surfaces, and the patient's room and all equipment used in the room should be disinfected. In order to manage CDI in the elderly, timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment based on severity of

  12. Current status of paediatric post-mortem imaging: an ESPR questionnaire-based survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Pathology, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    The use of post-mortem imaging, including skeletal radiography, CT and MRI, is increasing, providing a minimally invasive alternative to conventional autopsy techniques. The development of clinical guidelines and national standards is being encouraged, particularly for cross-sectional techniques. To outline the current practice of post-mortem imaging amongst members of the European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR). We e-mailed an online questionnaire of current post-mortem service provisions to members of the ESPR in January 2013. The survey included direct questions about what services were offered, the population imaged, current techniques used, imaging protocols, reporting experience and intended future involvement. Seventy-one percent (47/66) of centres from which surveys were returned reported performing some form of post-mortem imaging in children, of which 81 % perform radiographs, 51% CT and 38% MRI. Eighty-seven percent of the imaging is performed within the radiology or imaging departments, usually by radiographers (75%), and 89% is reported by radiologists, of which 64% is reported by paediatric radiologists. Overall, 72% of positive respondents have a standardised protocol for radiographs, but only 32% have such a protocol for CT and 27% for MRI. Sixty-one percent of respondents wrote that this is an important area that needs to be developed. Overall, the majority of centres provide some post-mortem imaging service, most of which is performed within an imaging department and reported by a paediatric radiologist. However, the populations imaged as well as the details of the services offered are highly variable among institutions and lack standardisation. We have identified people who would be interested in taking this work forwards. (orig.)

  13. Current Issues in Finite-T Density-Functional Theory and Warm-Correlated Matter †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. C. Dharma-wardana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Finite-temperature density functional theory (DFT has become of topical interest, partly due to the increasing ability to create novel states of warm-correlated matter (WCM.Warm-dense matter (WDM, ultra-fast matter (UFM, and high-energy density matter (HEDM may all be regarded as subclasses of WCM. Strong electron-electron, ion-ion and electron-ion correlation effects and partial degeneracies are found in these systems where the electron temperature Te is comparable to the electron Fermi energy EF. Thus, many electrons are in continuum states which are partially occupied. The ion subsystem may be solid, liquid or plasma, with many states of ionization with ionic charge Zj. Quasi-equilibria with the ion temperature Ti ≠ Te are common. The ion subsystem in WCM can no longer be treated as a passive “external potential”, as is customary in T = 0 DFT dominated by solid-state theory or quantum chemistry. Many basic questions arise in trying to implement DFT for WCM. Hohenberg-Kohn-Mermin theory can be adapted for treating these systems if suitable finite-T exchange-correlation (XC functionals can be constructed. They are functionals of both the one-body electron density ne and the one-body ion densities ρj. Here, j counts many species of nuclei or charge states. A method of approximately but accurately mapping the quantum electrons to a classical Coulomb gas enables one to treat electron-ion systems entirely classically at any temperature and arbitrary spin polarization, using exchange-correlation effects calculated in situ, directly from the pair-distribution functions. This eliminates the need for any XC-functionals. This classical map has been used to calculate the equation of state of WDM systems, and construct a finite-T XC functional that is found to be in close agreement with recent quantum path-integral simulation data. In this review, current developments and concerns in finite-T DFT, especially in the context of non-relativistic warm

  14. A survey of current practice of vascular surgeons in venous disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Ruth L; Gloviczki, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Acute venous thromboembolism and chronic venous diseases are common conditions that affect a large proportion of the United States population. The diagnosis of venous disease has improved, and the treatment options have rapidly evolved over the past decade. To date, it is unclear to what extent vascular surgeons have become involved in the modern management of venous disorders. This survey was undertaken to explore the current interest and practice of vascular surgeons in the contemporary care of venous disease. A survey was administered via a web-based platform to active and candidate members of the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS). The survey included 30 questions investigating the characteristics of venous surgeons and scope of venous practice. Open-ended questions were also included for commentary. A total of 1879 surveys were sent to SVS members nationwide, and 385 members participated (response rate of 20.5%). The participants were mostly men (89.6%) with 37.7% practicing in an academic setting and 59.2% in private practice. The respondents treated superficial veins (92.9%) and deep veins (85.8%) in clinical practice, with 89.9% having their own vascular laboratory. A wide spectrum of interventions for superficial (91.9%), deep (85.8%), and perforator veins (52.7% endovenous, 19.4% subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery) are being performed by respondents. Only 26.2% had learned endovenous thermal ablation in their training program; however, over 96% of those performing venous interventions utilized this technique. Overall, the majority (85.5%) devoted 50% or less of practice to venous disorders. Respondents indicated that limitations to expansion of vein practices mainly involved challenges with third party payers, local competition, and existing large volumes of arterial interventions needing to be performed. Despite the widespread incorporation of venous disease into current vascular practices, 66.1% are not members of the American Venous Forum (AVF

  15. Cancer pain management in China: current status and practice implications based on the ACHEON survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Z

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhongjun Xia Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong, ChinaPurpose: Cancer pain can seriously impact the quality of life (QoL of patients, and optimal management practices are therefore of paramount importance. The ACHEON survey queried physicians and patients from 10 Asian countries/regions to assess current clinical practices in cancer pain management in Asia. This study presents the data obtained for cancer pain management in mainland China, with an emphasis on practices related to opioid drugs.Materials and methods: In several tertiary hospitals across China, 250 patients experiencing cancer pain and 100 physicians were surveyed on questions designed to assess current cancer pain management practices and cancer pain impact on QoL.Results: The patient survey showed that 88% of patients reported moderate-to-severe cancer pain, with a median duration of 6 months. The physician survey showed that medical school/residency training with regard to cancer pain management was inadequate in ~80% of physicians. A total of 80% of physicians and 67.2% of patients reported that pain scale was used during pain assessment; 84% of physicians expressed that physician-perceived pain severity was not completely consistent with actual pain the patient experienced. Of the 147 patients who recalled the medication received, 83.7% were administered opioid prescriptions. Of the 240 patients who received treatment, 43.8% perceived the inadequacy of controlling pain. The primary barriers from physicians perceived to optimal pain management included patients’ fear of side effects (58%, patients’ fear of addiction (53%, patients’ reluctance to report pain (43%, physicians’ reluctance to prescribe (29%, physicians’ inadequacy of pain assessment (27% and excessive regulation of opioid analgesics (47%.Conclusion: Knowledge of cancer pain management should be strengthened among physicians. Quantitative pain assessment and principle-based pain

  16. North America Wound, Ostomy, and Continence and Enterostomal Therapy Nurses Current Ostomy Care Practice Related to Peristomal Skin Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Janice C; McNichol, Laurie; Boarini, Joy

    The purpose of this study was to describe the practice of 796 ostomy nurses in North America in 2014 related to peristomal skin issues. Descriptive study. Participants were 796 wound, ostomy, and continence (WOC) and enterostomal therapy (ET) nurses currently practicing in the United States or Canada and caring for patients with ostomies. The collection of data occurred in conjunction with an educational program on peristomal skin complications and practice issues and solicited the participant's perception on the incidence and frequency of peristomal skin issues as well as on practice patterns. Participants attended an educational program. They were also asked to anonymously respond to multiple-choice questions on ostomy care management via an audience response system followed by discussion of each item and their responses. This descriptive study reports on the answers to the questions as well as the pertinent discussion points. Participants estimated that approximately 77.70% of their patients developed peristomal skin issues. The most commonly encountered problem was irritant contact dermatitis (peristomal moisture-associated skin damage). Contributing factors were inappropriate use of a pouching system owing to lack of follow-up after hospital discharge. Reported interventions for the prevention and management of peristomal skin issues included preoperative stoma site marking, use of a convex pouching system, and barrier rings. However, subsequent discussion revealed that the frequency of use of these products varied considerably. Participants identified shortened hospital stays, absence of preoperative stoma marking, and limited outpatient follow-up as contributing to development of peristomal skin problems. WOC and ET nurses estimate that more than three-quarters of persons living with an ostomy develop peristomal skin problems. Multiple interventions for managing these problems were identified, but some variability in management approaches emerged.

  17. Seismic Hazard Assessment and Uncertainties Treatment: Discussion on the current French regulation, practices and open issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge-Thierry, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Safety Authority. These studies performed by nuclear operators, leading to propose a 'Hard Core' of materials and organizational arrangements to ensure the control of crucial safety functions in extreme situations. The difficulties inherent in the definition of 'extreme situation' in a moderate seismically country as the French metropolitan area will be illustrated and discussed. This presentation gives the current practice of seismic risk management in France for nuclear safety. The regulation is composed by two coherent and complementary references the RFS 2001-01 and the Guide ASN/2/01. We point out the key steps of the seismic hazard assessment following the RFS 2001-01 methodology which is scenario based. We particularly highlight the sensitivity and the influences of seismic parameters choices in their uncertainty domains and their impact on the final hazard. The Tohoku 2011 mega-quake and the Fukushima associated accident resulted in the Complementary Safety Studies in the Nuclear field. The review of the French complementary studies by the ENSREG made the recommendation to complete the scenario based approach by a probabilistic hazard assessment. The presentation then exhibits the specificities and common aspects of a PSHA and DSHA. We underline that these two approaches are strictly founded on common databases and knowledge level: The epistemic uncertainties can be accounted by both PSHA and DSHA through logic trees (see [37] for DSHA). However they clearly differ by two points: - the PSHA accounts for the whole seismic catalogue with its occurrence rate, where the DSHA selects specific scenarios with consideration of occurrence level, - the aleatory variability is differently treated in scenario approach and in probabilistic approach. Finally, performing probabilistic seismic hazard assessment requires defining crucial parameters (i) the safety level target which corresponds a return period value of the hazard curve and (ii) its confidence level. In

  18. A Survey of Control Issues in PMSG-Based Small Wind-Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Natalia Angela; Liserre, Marco; Mastromauro, Rosa Anna

    2013-01-01

    /position estimation, pitch control, braking chopper control, dc/dc converter control, and grid converter control. Specific issues for small wind-turbines arise in the wind energy extraction optimization and limitation and in the innovative concept of “universal” wind-turbine operation, that leads these system...... generators directly connected to the grid, while recently permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) with power converter, either partially or fully controlled, became popular. This paper reviews the control issues related to these small wind-turbine systems: generator torque control, speed...

  19. Familial determinants of current smoking among adolescents of Lithuania: a cross-sectional survey 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sirvyte, Dainora

    2015-09-14

    Understanding the role of the family in shaping adolescent health risk behaviours has recently been given increased attention. This study investigated association between current smoking and a range of familial factors in a representative sample of Lithuanian adolescents. Study subjects (N = 3696) were adolescents aged 13- and 15-years from the schools in Lithuania who were surveyed in Spring 2014 according to the methodology of the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). A standard HBSC international questionnaire was translated into Lithuanian and used anonymously to obtain information about current smoking patterns and family life (family structure, quality of communication in family, parental monitoring, bonding, parenting style, family time, etc.). Logistic regression was used to assess association between smoking and familial variables. The prevalence of current smoking was 16.5 % (20.8 % in boys and 11.9 % in girls; P parental support (OR = 1.40; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.95), easy communication with the father (OR = 0.56; 95 % CI: 0.38-0.80) and often use of electronic media for communication with parents (OR = 0.66; 95 % CI: 0.50-0.88). The last two determinants showed an inverse effect than it was hypothesized. Higher prevalence of smoking among adolescents of Lithuania is associated with a non- intact family structure as well as weaker parental support and bonding. Family life practices are critical components to be incorporated in prevention and intervention programs for adolescent smoking in Lithuania.

  20. Investigations of Beam Dynamics Issues at Current and Future Hadron Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lau, Stephen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heinemann, Klaus [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bizzozero, David [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-12

    Final Report Abstract for DE-FG02-99ER4110, May 15, 2011- October 15, 2014 There is a synergy between the fields of Beam Dynamics (BD) in modern particle accelerators and Applied Mathematics (AMa). We have formulated significant problems in BD and have developed and applied tools within the contexts of dynamical systems, topological methods, numerical analysis and scientific computing, probability and stochastic processes, and mathematical statistics. We summarize the three main areas of our AMa work since 2011. First, we continued our study of Vlasov-Maxwell systems. Previously, we developed a state of the art algorithm and code (VM3@A) to calculate coherent synchrotron radiation in single pass systems. In this cycle we carefully analyzed the major expense, namely the integral-over-history (IOH), and developed two approaches to speed up integration. The first strategy uses a representation of the Bessel function J0 in terms of exponentials. The second relies on “local sequences” developed recently for radiation boundary conditions, which are used to reduce computational domains. Although motivated by practicality, both strategies involve interesting and rather deep analysis and approximation theory. As an alternative to VM3@A, we are integrating Maxwell’s equations by a time-stepping method, bypass- ing the IOH, using a Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method. DG is a generalization of Finite Element and Finite Volume methods. It is spectrally convergent, unlike the commonly used Finite Difference methods, and can handle complicated vacuum chamber geometries. We have applied this in several contexts and have obtained very nice results including an explanation of an experiment at the Canadian Light Source, where the geometry is quite complex. Second, we continued our study of spin dynamics in storage rings. There is much current and proposed activity where spin polarized beams are being used in testing the Standard Model and its modifications. Our work has focused

  1. Teaching Intercultural Communication in a Basic Technical Writing Course: A Survey of Our Current Practices and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    This research article reports the results of an online survey distributed among technical writing instructors in 2006. The survey aimed to examine how we teach intercultural communication in basic technical writing courses: our current practices and methods. The article discusses three major challenges that instructors may face when teaching about…

  2. Continuous improvement in the Netherlands: A survey-based study into the current practices of continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middel, H.G.A.; op de Weegh, S.; Gieskes, J.F.B.; Schuring, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Continuous Improvement is a well-known and consolidated concept in literature and practice and is considered vital in today¿s business environment. In 2003 a survey, as part of the international CINet survey, has been performed in the Netherlands in order to gain insight into the current practices

  3. Current integrated cardiothoracic surgery residents: a Thoracic Surgery Residents Association survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; LaPar, Damien J; Stephens, Elizabeth H; Berfield, Kathleen S; Odell, David D; DeNino, Walter F

    2015-03-01

    After approval by the Thoracic Surgery Residency Review Committee in 2007, 6-year integrated cardiothoracic surgery (I-6) residency programs have gained in popularity. We sought to assess and objectively quantify the level of satisfaction I-6 residents have with their training and to identify areas of improvement for future curriculum development. A completely anonymous, electronic survey was created by the Thoracic Surgery Residents Association that asked the responders to provide demographic information, specialty interest, and lifestyle priorities, and to rate their experience and satisfaction with I-6 residency. The survey was distributed nationwide to all residents in I-6 programs approved by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Of a total of 88 eligible I-6 residents, 49 completed the survey (55.7%). Career choice satisfaction was high (75.5%), as was overall satisfaction with integrated training (83.7%). The majority (77.6%) were interested in cardiac surgery. Overall, the responders reported sufficient time for life outside of the hospital (57.1%), but experienced conflicts between work obligations and personal life at least sometimes (75.5%). Early exposure to cardiothoracic surgery was reported as the dominant advantage of the I-6 model, whereas variable curriculum structure and unclear expectations along with poor integration with general surgery training ranked highest among perceived disadvantages. Current I-6 residents are largely satisfied with the integrated training model and report a reasonable work/life balance. The focused nature of training is the primary perceived advantage of the integrated pathway. Curriculum variability and poor integration with general surgery training are identified by residents as primary areas of concern. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physiotherapy for plantar fasciitis: a UK-wide survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Rob; Palmer, Shea

    2017-06-01

    To identify how United Kingdom (UK) physiotherapists currently diagnose, assess and manage plantar fasciitis in routine practice. Online questionnaire survey. Practising physiotherapists across the UK who treat patients with plantar fasciitis. Physiotherapists were approached via 'interactive Chartered Society of Physiotherapy (CSP)' online networks and an email database of clinical educators in South West England. An online questionnaire was developed by reviewing similar existing physiotherapy surveys and consultation with experienced musculoskeletal researchers/clinicians. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. 285 physiotherapists responded, with 257 complete survey responses. Pain on palpation and early morning pain were the most common diagnostic criteria, with some physiotherapists using no formal test criteria. Advice (237/257, 92%), plantar fasciitis pathology education (207/257, 81%) and general stretching exercises (189/257, 74%) were most routinely used. Prefabricated orthotics, custom made orthotics and night splints were seldom always used. For the manual therapy approach, the most frequently used modalities were massage, myofascial release, specific soft tissue mobilisations and myofascial trigger point therapy. Commonly used outcome measures were pain assessment, functional tests and range of movement. Physiotherapists appeared to follow most of the established diagnostic criteria for PF, but have not followed established outcome measure guidelines. Advice as well as education with an emphasis on self-management including calf/hamstring stretching was the most commonly reported treatment approach. There was uncertainty whether this approach accurately reflected clinical practice used throughout the UK, owing to potential response bias/unknown response rate and the low number of patients with PF treated by the respondents. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Current Ketamine Practice: Results of the 2016 American Society of Pain Management Nursing Survey on Ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaess, Cynthia C; Jungquist, Carla R

    2018-06-01

    Ketamine is increasingly utilized for a variety of pain management challenges. Audience comments from a ketamine presentation at the 2015 American Society of Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN) Conference reflected wide variation in ketamine practices as well as barriers to use. The goal was to gain a greater understanding of ASPMN member practice patterns and barriers related to ketamine as adjunctive therapy for pain management. A questionnaire survey design was used. Respondents represented 35 states and 2 countries. The participants were 146 respondents from ASPMN membership (1,485 members). The survey was distributed by ASPMN on SurveyMonkey. Practice setting and ketamine administration practices were assessed with areas for comments. Results were reviewed using frequencies to describe responses and formatted into tables. Comments were individually reviewed and grouped into common themes. Administration of ketamine as an analgesic was reported by 63% of respondents. Continuous intravenous ketamine infusions were the most common route of administration (65%); however, wide variability in dosing and length of therapy was reported. A wide variety of practices and challenges related to ketamine utilization were noted. Numerous studies have indicated the analgesic benefits of ketamine in pain management. The lack of practice standardization has created challenges to its consistent use and outcome measurement. Additionally, the off-label use of ketamine for pain management creates its own unique challenges. However, given the current national climate with intense focus on pain management, interdisciplinary practitioners have an ideal opportunity to evaluate ketamine's use in a comprehensive approach to pain management. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prospect and current situation survey of nuclear agricultural research in china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Lihong; Ye Qingfu; Hua Yuejin

    2008-01-01

    Based on the survey result, which investigated 22 related institutes and universities in the field of nuclear agricultural sciences in China in Sep. 2007, this paper introduces the current status of research conditions, existing facilities and research progress on isotope tracing technology, new biological resources creation, research of nuclear irradiation and irradiation processing technology form 1996 to 2006. Due to not enough financial supports on this field, the development of nuclear agricultural sciences was slow down. However, the solid basis set up during last several decades, and the great efforts made by all the researchers, significant social and economic achievements were gained. Some of the researches have already taken the leading position in the world. (authors)

  7. Recessions and seniors' health, health behaviors, and healthcare use: analysis of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M

    2012-09-01

    A number of studies report that U.S. state mortality rates, particularly for the elderly, decline during economic downturns. Further, several prior studies use microdata to show that as state unemployment rates rise, physical health improves, unhealthy behaviors decrease, and medical care use declines. We use data on elderly mortality rates and data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey from a time period that encompasses the start of the Great Recession. We find that elderly mortality is countercyclical during most of the 1994-2008 period. Further, as unemployment rates rise, seniors report worse mental health and are no more likely to engage in healthier behaviors. We find suggestive evidence that inpatient utilization increases perhaps because of an increased physician willingness to accept Medicare patients. Our findings suggest that either elderly individuals respond differently to recessions than do working age adults, or that the relationship between unemployment and health has changed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Speech pathologists' current practice with cognitive-communication assessment during post-traumatic amnesia: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Joanne; Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth; Togher, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    To investigate speech pathologists' current practice with adults who are in post-traumatic amnesia (PTA). Speech pathologists with experience of adults in PTA were invited to take part in an online survey through Australian professional email/internet-based interest groups. Forty-five speech pathologists responded to the online survey. The majority of respondents (78%) reported using informal, observational assessment methods commencing at initial contact with people in PTA or when patients' level of alertness allowed and initiating formal assessment on emergence from PTA. Seven respondents (19%) reported undertaking no assessment during PTA. Clinicians described using a range of techniques to monitor cognitive-communication during PTA, including static, dynamic, functional and impairment-based methods. The study confirmed that speech pathologists have a key role in the multidisciplinary team caring for the person in PTA, especially with family education and facilitating interactions with the rehabilitation team and family. Decision-making around timing and means of assessment of cognitive-communication during PTA appeared primarily reliant on speech pathologists' professional experience and the culture of their workplace. The findings support the need for further research into the nature of cognitive-communication disorder and resolution over this period.

  9. A survey on the current status of rehabilitation services and burnout of rehabilitation professionals in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenliang; Zhou, Ping; Zheng, Songbai; Xue, Di

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies have discussed burnout in clinical physicians, the evidence literature about physical rehabilitation professionals is still limited in China. To understand the current status of rehabilitation services and burnout of rehabilitation professionals in Shanghai. Twenty-four hospitals located in three districts of Shanghai were selected for this study. The questionnaire surveys of 24 hospitals and their 221 rehabilitation professionals and 235 other medical professionals were conducted. The percentages of the hospitals that had rehabilitation departments in three districts of Shanghai ranged from 25.0% to 88.9%, suggesting a great variation in distribution of rehabilitation resources. Only one tertiary general hospital had 12 beds for inpatient rehabilitation. The surveyed rehabilitation professionals who had graduate or undergraduate education accounted for 64.90% as a whole, but 49.32% in community health centers, 66.67% in secondary general hospitals, and 77.78% in tertiary general hospitals. The average scores for emotional exhaustion, cynicism and low professional efficacy were 11.66, 7.48, and 10.36 respectively. This study reveals that the resources in the field of rehabilitation in Shanghai need to be enhanced to meet its future demands. It is also recommended that the managers in secondary general hospitals and the local government pay more attention to the rehabilitation professionals in the secondary general hospitals because they are reporting higher emotional exhaustion. Finally, the value of rehabilitation services to help persons with disabilities need to be better conveyed to all interested parties.

  10. Aspirin desensitization in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Andrew R; Rushworth, Gordon F; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin remains the mainstay of anti-platelet therapy in cardiac patients. However, if a patient is allergic to aspirin and dual anti-platelet therapy is indicated - such as with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), then there is no clear guidance. One possibility is aspirin desensitization. A variety of protocols exist for the rapid desensitization of patients with aspirin allergy. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge and practice regarding aspirin desensitization in the UK. We conducted a UK wide survey of all UK 116 PCI centers and obtained complete responses from 40 (35.4%) centers. Of these, just 7 (17.5%) centers had previously desensitised patients; 29 (87.9%) centers suggested a lack of a local protocol prevented them from desensitizing, with 10 (30.3%) unsure of how to conduct desensitization. Only 5 (12.5%) centers had a local policy for aspirin desensitization although 25 (64.1%) units had a clinical strategy for dealing with aspirin allergy; the majority (72%) giving higher doses of thienopyridine class drugs. In the UK, there appears to be no consistent approach to patients with aspirin allergy. Patients undergoing PCI benefit from dual anti-platelet therapy (including aspirin), and aspirin desensitization in those with known allergy may facilitate this. Sustained effort should be placed on encouraging UK centers to use desensitization as a treatment modality prior to PCI rather than avoiding aspirin altogether.

  11. The architecture of smart surveys: core issues in why and how to collect patient and referring physician satisfaction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexa, Frank J; Berlin, Jonathan W

    2009-02-01

    Radiology practices are facing challenges on many fronts. As the field becomes more competitive, leaders must pay more attention to the quality of the service that groups provide to their customers. This need is also being driven by higher expectations from customers, particularly patients, who will likely act much more like consumers in the 21st century. For practices to succeed in providing exemplary service, they must pay attention to the voices of their key customer groups. It is dismaying to see practices that are struggling or even dissolving over issues created by poor service. As much as we are experts in imaging, we are unlikely to be able to provide superlative service by reading books, talking among ourselves, or hiring consultants. Rather, we must do what should be obvious, which is to actually ask our customers how we are doing. Surveys are one of the important tools that can be brought to bear on this issue. For many groups, surveying is the starting point for understanding what their patients, referring physicians, and other key stakeholders want. Groups can also find out what customers like and dislike about their experiences, and how groups compare with their competitors. This article provides a guide on how to get off to a good start in designing and deploying surveys that can help optimize the way groups take care of their patients and help their referring physicians.

  12. The current state of radiation education in schools and results of the opinion survey on radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, a new guideline about radioactivity was added to the government guidelines for teaching junior high school science. Since then people involved with school education have been trying to spread correct information about radioactivity. On the other hand, people's confusion in the aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident has clearly shown that people do not know much about radioactivity. Considering the situation, the author conducted an investigation about the current state of radiation education and carried out an opinion survey about radioactivity among adults. The investigation about education showed the following: (1) the nature of radiation, such as its permeability, and its uses were described in the government-approved textbooks; (2) basic knowledge, such as what are radiation effects, were described comprehensively in the supplementary reading recommendations made by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology; and (3) locale education committees created teaching materials such as guidance to present topics. The opinion survey had questions to judge: (1) current public understanding of radioactivity; (2) the degree of general information that people collected for themselves; (3) the degree of specific knowledge about radioactivity that people had; and (4) people's attitudes toward various problems with radioactivity in the environment. The results suggested that for radiation education the following items are important: (1) to learn that radioactivity exists in people's daily lives and is used safely in various field; (2) to get basic knowledge and better quantitative understanding of such things as radioactivity units, radiation dose and radiation effects; and (3) to acquire practical experience to use the information effectively. (author)

  13. Current Cytology Practices in Korea: A Nationwide Survey by the Korean Society for Cytopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ji Oh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Limited data are available on the current status of cytology practices in Korea. This nationwide study presents Korean cytology statistics from 2015. Methods A nationwide survey was conducted in 2016 as a part of the mandatory quality-control program by the Korean Society for Cytopathology. The questionnaire was sent to 208 medical institutions performing cytopathologic examinations in Korea. Individual institutions were asked to submit their annual cytology statistical reports and gynecologic cytology-histology correlation data for 2015. Results Responses were obtained from 206 medical institutions including 83 university hospitals, 87 general hospitals, and 36 commercial laboratories. A total of 8,284,952 cytologic examinations were performed in 2015, primarily in commercial laboratories (74.9%. The most common cytology specimens were gynecologic samples (81.3%. Conventional smears and liquid-based cytology were performed in 6,190,526 (74.7% and 2,094,426 (25.3% cases, respectively. The overall diagnostic concordance rate between cytologic and histologic diagnoses of uterine cervical samples was 70.5%. Discordant cases were classified into three categories: category A (minimal clinical impact, 17.4%, category B (moderate clinical impact, 10.2%, and category C (major clinical impact, 1.9%. The ratio of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to squamous intraepithelial lesion was 1.6 in university hospitals, 2.9 in general hospitals, and 4.9 in commercial laboratories. Conclusions This survey reveals the current status and trend of cytology practices in Korea. The results of this study can serve as basic data for the establishment of nationwide cytopathology policies and quality improvement guidelines in Korean medical institutions.

  14. CURRENT ISSUES ON JOB STRESS IN JAPAN AND WORKSITE MENTAL HEALTH APPLICATION AMONG JAPANESE COMPANY A Case Study Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Purnawati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Issues about job stress is more popular in the world currently. Not just for Japan, Korea and Taiwan, but also an important issue in EU countries, especially the UK and Finland Increase of awareness about job stress effects on work performance, productivity and mental health is as onereason of the phenomenon.Objective: The present study aimed to explore the issue of job stress in Japan for the reference of good practices to Indonesia.Methods: This study, based on observationalstudies in the period of September-December in year 2010 in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Kitakyushu Japan. Observations on Japanese Company and discussions with experts, such as: occupational physician of Riken Company, experts from: Tokyo University and Tokyo University’s occupational physician, Department of ergonomics, the Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences UOEH (University ofOccupational and Environmental Health, Institute for Science of Labor, and researcher of Japan NIOSH. Two stress management training and occupational mental health’ application program were observed in the period of October-December.Result: The trend of current occupational mental health research in Japan has being moved from job stress to more advanced issues of work engagement andwork-life balance. There are three approaches to prevention of job stress. Considering the three approach could improve of worker productivity and well-being. The training for Tokyo University’s staffs was as one session of individual-oriented stress prevention approach. It was conducted in very interactive class lecture. During 2 hours session, the participants learned some knowledge about job stress and its risk factors, exercised to construct better cognitive for stress prevention and productivity, practiced of progressive muscle relaxation technique, group work, did some home works and filled an evaluation sheet after the session was finish. We also observed the occupational mental

  15. Integrated primary health care in Greece, a missing issue in the current health policy agenda: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lionis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past years, Greece has undergone several endeavors aimed at modernizing and improving national health care services with a focus on PHC. However, the extent to which integrated primary health care has been achieved is still questioned. Purpose: This paper explores the extent to which integrated primary health care (PHC is an issue in the current agenda of policy makers in Greece, reporting constraints and opportunities and highlighting the need for a policy perspective in developing integrated PHC in this Southern European country. Methods: A systematic review in PubMed/Medline and SCOPUS, along with a hand search in selected Greek biomedical journals was undertaken to identify key papers, reports, editorials or opinion letters relevant to integrated health care. Results: Our systematic review identified 198 papers and 161 out of them were derived from electronic search. Fifty-three papers in total served the scope of this review and are shortly reported. A key finding is that the long-standing dominance of medical perspectives in Greek health policy has been paving the way towards vertical integration, pushing aside any discussions about horizontal or comprehensive integration of care. Conclusion: Establishment of integrated PHC in Greece is still at its infancy, requiring major restructuring of the current national health system, as well as organizational culture changes. Moving towards a new policy-based model would bring this missing issue on the discussion table, facilitating further development.

  16. Arctic development and historical analysis: the use of historical methodology in addressing current issues in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Vasiliki Kravariotis

    2008-06-01

    To demonstrate the applicability of historical methodology to current issues in the Canadian Arctic. This is a literature-based analytical historical study, which draws on material from database searches of MEDLINE, Anthropology Plus, POLARInfo, the Arctic Blue Books and Historical Abstracts. Material was also obtained from physical searches of the University of Alberta Libraries and Library and Archives Canada collections, as well as from field research in the records of the Inuulitsivik Maternities. The historical technique of tracing epistemological change over time, pioneered by Michel Foucault and further developed by Ian Hacking, was applied to the history of Canadian authority in the Arctic. This was linked with epistemological changes occurring throughout Western/Southern culture in this period. The applicability of this historical analysis for current issues in the region was then evaluated. An epistemological shift in Western society has moved authority from traditional human actors in government, medicine and, increasingly, science to statistics, which is seen as both impartial and accurate. Human authorities now routinely appeal to statistical authority to validate policy decisions. This change is as apparent in the Arctic as elsewhere, but it has also opened a space for Inuit practices, rooted in traditional Inuit epistemology, to reassert themselves, provided they can satisfy demands for statistical validity. Historical analysis provides a means to identify the spaces which epistemological change and historical contingency have opened in which social and cultural change can occur.

  17. The Impact of Survey and Response Modes on Current Smoking Prevalence Estimates Using TUS-CPS: 1992-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Soulakova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study identified whether survey administration mode (telephone or in-person and respondent type (self or proxy result in discrepant prevalence of current smoking in the adult U.S. population, while controlling for key sociodemographic characteristics and longitudinal changes of smoking prevalence over the 11-year period from 1992-2003. We used a multiple logistic regression analysis with replicate weights to model the current smoking status logit as a function of a number of covariates. The final model included individual- and family-level sociodemographic characteristics, survey attributes, and multiple two-way interactions of survey mode and respondent type with other covariates. The respondent type is a significant predictor of current smoking prevalence and the magnitude of the difference depends on the age, sex, and education of the person whose smoking status is being reported. Furthermore, the survey mode has significant interactions with survey year, sex, and age. We conclude that using an overall unadjusted estimate of the current smoking prevalence may result in underestimating the current smoking rate when conducting proxy or telephone interviews especially for some sub-populations, such as young adults. We propose that estimates could be improved if more detailed information regarding the respondent type and survey administration mode characteristics were considered in addition to commonly used survey year and sociodemographic characteristics. This information is critical given that future surveillance is moving toward more complex designs. Thus, adjustment of estimates should be contemplated when comparing current smoking prevalence results within a given survey series with major changes in methodology over time and between different surveys using various modes and respondent types.

  18. Occupational safety issues in residential construction surveyed in Wisconsin, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang D; Carlson, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Residential construction is a high-risk industry in the U.S. due to the exposure to work-related safety hazards and fall injuries. This study aimed to examine the safety training and safe work practices of construction workers within the small residential construction industry. In order to achieve the study objectives, a survey was designed and sent to approximately 200 Wisconsin based residential construction contractors. About one third of the respondents stated that they did not have any form of safety programs. The study indicated that the most common types of work-related injuries in residential construction were slips/trips/falls and cuts/lacerations. The survey findings also suggested that the residential construction contractors needed to increase the utilization of fall protection safety equipment. Further education and subject matter expert training could provide benefits to improve occupational safety and health of the small business workforce in the residential construction industry.

  19. The strange case of online surveys: response issues and respondent characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Jannie Mia; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Mehnert, Christina

    This research contributes to existing knowledge about collecting data online by analysing multiple data sets on key criteria including overall representativeness of the samples, response and break-off rates, timeliness of response and reminder effects. Across eight online surveys that initially......-30 years of age), single or in ‘other’ types of family relationships, and belong to a low-income bracket (annual household income ... a reminder 48-72 hours after the initial invitation and closing the survey one to two days later; based on our results this time-wise approach still captures 90% of respondents. This study must be viewed in light of some key limitations. Firstly, we have not considered whether there are differences...

  20. Survey of Indian issues in the state of New Mexico relating to uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevender, S.G.; Barsumian, L.; Gurbaxani, S.H.

    1979-11-01

    Estimates of Indian uranium resources range from 11 to 50% of the US total resources. About 17% of New Mexico's reserves are known to be on Indian lands. New Mexico has produced almost half of the nation's uranium supply; over half of the known reserves are located within the state. However, the state has virtually no jurisdiction over development of Indian uranium. As a result, economic and environmental impacts on the state are beyond its control. The lack of state and federal control over these impacts is influencing how the Indians allow development to proceed. The impacts of Indian uranium development also influence state control of non-Indian. To the extent that these controls affect the availability of uranium concentrate, DOE needs to understand the issues involved. This issue paper identifies some of the related problems for both the Indians and the state and explores the reasons behind them

  1. A survey on the public opinion regarding nuclear power and energy issues in Fukui prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugi, Motoko; Tsuchiya, Tomoko

    2007-01-01

    To 2000 people who were randomly sampled from the basic register of residents in Fukui prefecture, we conducted a questionnaire survey asking their interest in, knowledge of and attitude toward nuclear power, to analyze which perceptions and opinions they had and factors influencing them. The ratios of respondents in Fukui prefecture who think nuclear power is safe, necessary, and should be developed more, are higher than those of surveyed residents who live in other regions where nuclear power plants had been in operation. Differences in gender and age are nearly the same as those found in the nation-wide surveys has shown. The respondents in 'Tsuruga' region, one of the centers of nuclear power research and development, are more acceptive and affirmative to the nuclear power than those in other regions, although they have less knowledge and credibility for nuclear power safety measures, such as regulation and monitoring by government, countermeasure of earthquake, training of workers and so on. We analyzed the perception of risk and the sense of security for nuclear power, and the opinions for necessity and development of nuclear power, using a regression model. According to the estimated 'Tsuruga' model, risk perception of Tsuruga respondents does not affect their opinion if nuclear power should be developed. No influence of the risk perception on their opinion for nuclear power suggest a possibility that residents have strong trust in nuclear power technology and electric power companies based on their long term experience. (author)

  2. Environmental issues and financial reporting trends: A survey in the chemical and oil & gas industries

    OpenAIRE

    Salomone, Roberta; Galluccio, Giulia

    2001-01-01

    As environmental performance is increasingly seen to have an influence over financial performance and financial risk assessment, disclosure of environmental issues in the Annual Reports is a fundamental requirement for a company in order to satisfy the information needs of its stakeholders. Given this pressure there is a definite trend among leading companies to report their environmental performances within the financial statements, but the way companies disclose environmental-related inform...

  3. Current Uses (and Potential Misuses) of Facebook: An Online Survey in Physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, Maude; Beaulieu-Poulin, Camille; Campeau Larrivée, Alexandre; Charbonneau, Maude; Samson, Émilie; Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the use of social media such as Facebook has become extremely popular and widespread in our society. Among users are health care professionals, who must develop ways to extend their professionalism online. Before issuing formal guidelines, policies, or recommendations to guide online behaviours, there is a need to know to what extent Facebook influences the professional life of physiotherapy professionals. Our goal was to explore knowledge and behaviour that physiotherapists and physical rehabilitation therapists practicing in Quebec have of Facebook. We used an empirical cross-sectional online survey design (n=322, response rate 4.5%). The results showed that 84.3% of physiotherapy professionals had a Facebook account. Almost all had colleagues or former colleagues as Facebook friends, 21% had patients as friends, and 27% had employers as friends. More than a third of workplaces had clinic pages with information intended for the public. Regarding workplace Facebook policies, 37.3% said that there was no policy and another 41.6% were not aware whether there was one or not. There appears to be a need to establish guidelines regarding the use of social media for physiotherapy professionals to ensure maintenance of professionalism and ethical conduct.

  4. Tobacco point-of-sale displays in England: a snapshot survey of current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, Catriona; Cheeseman, Hazel; Dockrell, Martin; Millward, Deborah; Sandford, Amanda

    2010-08-01

    Tobacco displays at the point of sale (PoS) are an important means for the tobacco industry to communicate with consumers. With regulations prohibiting PoS displays recently having come into force in Ireland, passed into law in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and some Australian states, and being considered in New Zealand, Finland and Brazil, this is an increasingly important issue. This study explores the nature of displays, the extent to which they are tobacco industry funded, and the relation between the tobacco companies and retailers. Three areas were chosen to gain a snapshot of PoS displays in England. Over 100 retailers were visited, with interviews taking place on site. Information was gathered on the type and size of tobacco display, who was paying for the display, requirements and incentives, and visits by industry representatives. The majority of retailers had gantries provided by tobacco companies. A minority of these were fitted with automated dispensers called retail vending machines. Attractive lighting and colour were often used to highlight particular products. Most retailers were being visited by industry representatives who checked displays. Some retailers also reported incentives offered to them for displaying products. The results suggest that the tobacco industry presence and control in the retail environment is significant. Tobacco companies overwhelmingly provided tobacco gantries in the shops surveyed and influenced displays through a combination of requirements and incentives. The extensive involvement of tobacco companies in providing and monitoring retail displays suggests the importance of implementing policies to end this form of advertising.

  5. Current Practice Patterns Surrounding Fertility Concerns in Stage I Seminoma Patients: Survey of United States Radiation Oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Carl M; Jain, Aditya; Degnin, Catherine; Chen, Yiyi; Craycraft, Mike; Hung, Arthur Y; Jaboin, Jerry J; Thomas, Charles R; Mitin, Timur

    2018-01-16

    Patients with testicular seminoma may face fertility issues because of their underlying disease as well as treatments they undergo. The current patterns of practice among U.S. radiation oncologists aimed at assessing and preserving fertility in patients with Stage I seminoma are unknown. We surveyed practicing U.S. radiation oncologists via an Institutional Review Board-approved online questionnaire. Respondents' characteristics and perceived patient infertility rates were analyzed for association with treatment recommendations. We received 353 responses, of whom one quarter (23%) consider themselves experts. A vast majority (84%) recommend observation as a default strategy. Fifty-two percent routinely advise fertility assessment for patients before observation or chemotherapy, and 74% routinely do so before adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). Forty-one percent and 43% believe that 10% and 30% of patients are infertile following orchiectomy, respectively. Thirty-seven percent and 22% believe infertility rates following para-aortic RT to be 30% and 50%, respectively. Eighty percent routinely use clamshell scrotal shielding. Responders with higher perceived infertility rates are more likely to recommend fertility assessment/sperm banking (Fisher's exact p < 0.0001). Responders who routinely advised fertility assessment were more likely to use clamshell shielding (Cochran-Armitage trend test p = 0.0007). Clamshell use was positively correlated with higher perceived infertility rates following para-aortic RT (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.006). Despite a clear knowledge of fertility issues in men diagnosed with seminoma, there is no universal adoption of fertility assessment among U.S. radiation oncologists.

  6. Algeria: Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    people reportedly distrust them. At the same time, there are many potential vectors for instability. This is in part due to Algeria’s turbulent history of... Tamazight , a Berber language, as a national language, but not an official language. Berber activists want official language status, but President

  7. Nigeria: Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ploch, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    ... a significant degree of national pride and belief in Nigeria as a state. After 16 years of military rule, Nigeria made a transition to civilian governance in 1999, when Olusegun Obasanjo, a former general, was elected president...

  8. Glass ... current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.F.; Dupuy, J.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the School were twofold. Firstly to inform participants of actual and developing technological applications of glassy materials in which fundamental science makes a strong contribution, and secondly to bring together scientists from the widely different backgrounds of glass science and technology to promote mutual understanding and collaboration. (orig.)

  9. Nigeria: Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ploch, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    .... Nigerian political life has been scarred by conflict along both ethnic and geographic lines and misrule has undermined the authority and legitimacy of the state apparatus, but many Nigerians feel...

  10. Current Issues and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal K.

    2004-01-01

    Mr. Makoto Satake, Director of the Board and Deputy Executive General Manager, Nuclear Power Division, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), was interviewed regarding his views on a series of questions related to the future of nuclear power plant construction and operation in Japan. Regarding nuclear power plant economics, he discusses what improvements should be made in the construction cost reduction area and in operation and maintenance costs to make costs more viable. Regarding public relations, he stated that regaining public trust is the most important today. Information disclosure to the public and two-way communication activities (direct discussions, public hearings, etc.) are being expanded. To improve economic competitiveness, two points are important: electric power generating cost reduction through stable operation and a legal framework that eliminates uncertainty by collecting funds to promote plutonium recycling and back-end costs. In the construction of a new plant, the coexistence of quality assurance and a shortened construction period are essential. It is necessary to decide on the design and on the construction process as early as possible. In Japan, 3D-computer aided design is used as the key technology for efficient construction. Moreover, in order to improve project management abilities, computer software aimed at process control and design information management has been developed using past construction experiences. The software will be applied to the next construction project. He cited the reasons why government support is essential for new plant construction, and in what ways existing nuclear power plants in Japan have improved in the last five years. As far as the best available technology for constructing plants, he recommended the large-block construction method and the all-weather construction method as effective construction technologies. The advanced boiling water reactor is best suited for plant construction in the future. Regarding human resources for the future, he noted the use of digital databases with several components, a Systematic Approach to Training method for reactor operators and other plant personnel, and the use of retired professionals to enhance technical skills and troubleshoot problems in advance

  11. [A national survey on current status of the important parasitic diseases in human population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-30

    In order to understand the current status and trends of the important parasitic diseases in human population, to evaluate the effect of control activities in the past decade and provide scientific base for further developing control strategies, a national survey was carried out in the country (Taiwan, Hongkong and Macau not included) from June, 2001 to 2004 under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Health. The sample sizes of the nationwide survey and of the survey in each province (autonomous region and municipality, P/A/M) were determined following a calculating formula based on an estimation of the sample size of random sampling to the rate of population. A procedure of stratified cluster random sampling was conducted in each province based on geographical location and economical condition with three strata: county/city, township/town, and spot, each spot covered a sample of 500 people. Parasitological examinations were conducted for the infections of soil-transmitted nematodes, Taenia spp, and Clonorchis sinensis, including Kato-Katz thick smear method, scotch cellulose adhesive tape technique and test tube-filter paper culture (for larvae). At the same time, another sampled investigation for Clonorchis sinensis infection was carried out in the known endemic areas in 27 provinces. Serological tests combined with questionnaire and/or clinical diagnosis were applied for hydatid disease, cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, trichinosis, and toxoplasmosis. A total sampled population of 356 629 from the 31 P/A/M was examined by parasitological methods and 26 species of helminth were recorded. Among these helminth, human infections of Metorchis orientalis and Echinostoma aegypti were detected in Fujian Province which seemed to be the first report in the world, and Haplorchis taichui infection in Guangxi Region was the first human infection record in the country. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 21.74%. The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes was 19

  12. Interventions to improve recruitment and retention in clinical trials: a survey and workshop to assess current practice and future priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Peter; Brueton, Valerie; Gamble, Carrol; Treweek, Shaun; Smith, Catrin Tudur; Young, Bridget; Williamson, Paula

    2014-10-16

    Despite significant investment in infrastructure many trials continue to face challenges in recruitment and retention. We argue that insufficient focus has been placed on the development and testing of recruitment and retention interventions. In this current paper, we summarize existing reviews about interventions to improve recruitment and retention. We report survey data from Clinical Trials Units in the United Kingdom to indicate the range of interventions used by these units to encourage recruitment and retention. We present the views of participants in a recent workshop and a priority list of recruitment interventions for evaluation (determined by voting among workshop participants). We also discuss wider issues concerning the testing of recruitment interventions. Methods used to encourage recruitment and retention were categorized as: patient contact, patient convenience, support for recruiters, monitoring and systems, incentives, design, resources, and human factors. Interventions felt to merit investigation by respondents fell into three categories: training site staff, communication with patients, and incentives. Significant resources continue to be invested into clinical trials and other high quality studies, but recruitment remains a significant challenge. Adoption of innovative methods to develop, test, and implement recruitment interventions are required.

  13. Using Surveys to Track Student Sexual Behavior and Attitudes in the Public Schools: Current Case Law and Future Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Ronald K.

    2008-01-01

    Two recent federal court cases have addressed the constitutionality of using sexual surveys in public schools. This article compares these cases with an earlier case dealing with the same issue but reaching different results. This article also describes the constitutional rights of parents to educate their children and the school's rights to…

  14. Survey of large-amplitude flapping motions in the midtail current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sergeev

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed fast current sheet crossings (flapping motions over the distance range 10–30 RE in the magnetotail covered by the Geotail spacecraft. Since the local tilts of these dynamic sheets are large and variable in these events, we compare three different methods of evaluating current sheet normals using 4-s/c Cluster data and define the success criteria for the single-spacecraft-based method (MVA to obtain the reliable results. Then, after identifying more than ~1100 fast CS crossings over a 3-year period of Geotail observations in 1997–1999, we address their parameters, spatial distribution and activity dependence. We confirm that over the entire distance covered and LT bins, fast crossings have considerable tilts in the YZ plane (from estimated MVA normals which show a preferential appearance of one (YZ kink-like mode that is responsible for these severe current sheet perturbations. Their occurrence is highly inhomogeneous; it sharply increases with radial distance and has a peak in the tail center (with some duskward shift, resembling the occurrence of the BBFs, although there is no one-to-one local correspondence between these two phenomena. The crossing durations typically spread around 1 min and decrease significantly where the high-speed flows are registered. Based on an AE index superposed epoch study, the flapping motions prefer to appear during the substorm expansion phase, although a considerable number of events without any electrojet and auroral activity were also observed. We also present statistical distributions of other parameters and briefly discuss what could be possible mechanisms to generate the flapping motions.

  15. A Survey and Analysis of Frameworks and Framework Issues for Information Fusion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, James

    This paper was stimulated by the proposed project for the Santander Bank-sponsored "Chairs of Excellence" program in Spain, of which the author is a recipient. That project involves research on characterizing a robust, problem-domain-agnostic framework in which Information Fusion (IF) processes of all description, to include artificial intelligence processes and techniques could be developed. The paper describes the IF process and its requirements, a literature survey on IF frameworks, and a new proposed framework that will be implemented and evaluated at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Colmenarejo Campus.

  16. Current use and acceptability of novel diagnostic tests for active tuberculosis: a worldwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Amicosante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the current use and potential acceptance (by tuberculosis experts worldwide of novel rapid tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis that are in line with World Health Organization target product profiles. Methods: A multilingual survey was disseminated online between July and November of 2016. Results: A total of 723 individuals from 114 countries responded to the survey. Smear microscopy was the most commonly used rapid tuberculosis test (available to 90.9% of the respondents, followed by molecular assays (available to 70.7%. Only a small proportion of the respondents in middle- and low-income countries had access to interferon-gamma-release assays. Serological and lateral flow immunoassays were used by more than a quarter (25.4% of the respondents. Among the respondents who had access to molecular tests, 46.7% were using the Xpert assay overall, that proportion being higher in lower middle-income countries (55.6% and low-income countries (76.6%. The data also suggest that there was some alignment of pricing for molecular assays. Respondents stated they would accept novel rapid tuberculosis tests if available, including molecular assays (acceptable to 86.0% or biomarker-based serological assays (acceptable to 81.7%. Simple biomarker-based assays were more commonly deemed acceptable in middle- and low-income countries. Conclusions: Second-generation molecular assays have become more widely available in high- and low-resource settings. However, the development of novel rapid tuberculosis tests continues to be considered important by tuberculosis experts. Our data also underscore the need for additional training and education of end users.

  17. Current status and perceived needs of information technology in Critical Access Hospitals: a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Demiris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The US Congress established the designation of Critical Access Hospitals in 1997, recognising rural hospitals as vital links to health for rural and underserved populations. The intent of the reimbursement system is to improve financial performance, thereby reducing hospital closures. Informatics applications are thought to be tools that can enable the sustainability of such facilities. The aim of this study is to identify the current use of information and communication technology in Critical Access Hospitals, and to assess their readiness and receptiveness for the use of new software and hardware applications and their perceived information technology (IT needs. A survey was mailed to the administrators of all Critical Access Hospitals in one US state (Missouri and a reminder was mailed a few weeks later. Twenty-seven out of 33 surveys were filled out and returned (response rate 82%. While most respondents (66.7% stated that their employees have been somewhat comfortable in using new technology, almost 15% stated that their employees have been somewhat uncomfortable. Similarly, almost 12% of the respondents stated that they themselves felt somewhat uncomfortable introducing new technology. While all facilities have computers, only half of them have a specific IT plan. Findings indicate that Critical Access Hospitals are often struggling with lack of resources and specific applications that address their needs. However, it is widely recognised that IT plays an essential role in the sustainability of their organisations. The study demonstrates that IT applications have to be customised to address the needs and infrastructure of the rural settings in order to be accepted and properly utilised.

  18. Current practice in abdominoperineal resection: an email survey of the membership of the Association of Coloproctology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbas, N; Adams, K; Chave, H; Branagan, G

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to gain insight into current preferences for type of surgical approach and patient positioning in abdominoperineal excision of the rectum (APER), to identify whether these factors affect self-reported oncological outcomes and complication rates, and to assess the opinions of members of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI) with regards to the benefit of a national training programme for APER surgery. METHODS Members of the ACPGBI were surveyed using a questionnaire designed to examine surgeon/departmental demographics, type of APER practised, audit of results and complications, opinions regarding extralevator APER (ELAPER) and opinions regarding the potential benefit of a national training programme. RESULTS According to the survey, 62% of surgeons perform perineal dissection in the supine position and 57% perform a standard APER technique. Surgeons who only practise colorectal surgery (p=0.002) and surgeons performing prone dissection (/xO.0001) are more likely to perform ELAPER. Three-quarters (76%) audit their results for perineal wound complication rates. Over 80% audit their oncological outcomes. The vast majority (94.6%) of those who perform ELAPER believe there is a benefit to this method while 59.6% of those who do not perform ELAPER still believe there is a benefit to ELAPER. Only 50% feel that there should be a national training programme. CONCLUSIONS There is a distinct discordance with regards to the APER technique. Among UK colorectal surgeons, although a significant proportion favours ELAPER, there remains a larger proportion still performing standard APER techniques. PMID:22507721

  19. A survey of current clinical practice of permanent prostate brachytherapy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestidge, Bradley R.; Prete, James J.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Friedland, Jay L.; Stock, Richard G.; Grimm, Peter D.; Bice, William S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To help establish standards of care for transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy (TIPPB) by obtaining data regarding current clinical practice among the most experienced TIPPB brachytherapists in the United States. Methods and Materials: The 70 brachytherapists who performed the greatest number of TIPPB cases in 1995 in the U.S. were surveyed. Each received a comprehensive four page questionnaire that included sections on training and experience, patient and isotope selection criteria, manpower, technique, and follow-up. Thirty-five (50%) surveys were ultimately returned after three mailings and follow-up phone calls. The cumulative experience of the 35 respondents represented approximately 45% of the total TIPPB volume in the U.S. for 1995. Respondents included 29 from the private sector and six from academic programs. Results: The median physician experience with TIPPB was reported as 4.9 years. Each performed an average of 73 TIPPB procedures in 1995 (range 40-300). This represented an increase in volume for most (74%) of the respondents. Sixty-three percent of the respondents attended a formal training course, 54% had TIPPB-specific residency training, and 31% had been proctored (16 had received two or more types of training experience). The most commonly reported selection criteria for implant alone was on Gleason score ≤7, PSA 125 I prescribed to 120 Gy (75%) or 103 Pd to 90 Gy (50%). Sixty percent reported using a Mick applicator, 46% prefer using preloaded needles, and (11%) use both techniques. Real-time imaging was usually performed with ultrasound (94%); most included fluoroscopy (60%). Definitions of PSA control varied widely. Conclusions: TIPPB clinical practice in the U.S. demonstrates similarities in technique, but differences in patient selection and definitions of biochemical control. It is, therefore, incumbent on those beginning TIPPB programs to carefully review the specific practice details of those institutions

  20. Current use of pharmacogenetic testing: a national survey of thiopurine methyltransferase testing prior to azathioprine prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargher, E A; Tricker, K; Newman, W; Elliott, R; Roberts, S A; Shaffer, J L; Bruce, I; Payne, K

    2007-04-01

    Azathioprine is an immunosuppressant prescribed for the treatment of inflammatory conditions and after organ transplantation. Risk of neutropaenia has limited the effective use of azathioprine (AZA) and driven requirements for careful monitoring and blood tests. Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is a genetically moderated key enzyme involved in the metabolism of AZA that can be used to stratify individuals into different levels of risk of developing neutropaenia. Two techniques can be used to measure TPMT status: enzyme-level testing (phenotype testing) and DNA based testing (genotype testing). To identify the current uptake of TPMT enzyme-level testing, TPMT genotype testing, and, the role of guidelines; to inform the prescribing and monitoring of AZA. A survey was mailed to a consultant dermatologist, gastroenterologist, and rheumatologist at every NHS Hospital Trust in England. The survey comprised mainly closed questions exploring: use of AZA and monitoring; use of TPMT enzyme-level testing and genotype testing; and, the role of guidelines to guide prescribing practice. A 70% (n=287) response rate was obtained. The majority of respondents reported prescribing AZA (99%, n=283). Prescribing and monitoring patterns differed between individual respondents and between the three disciplines. TPMT enzyme-level testing was reportedly used by 67% (n=189) of respondents, but this differed by discipline (dermatologists 94%, gastroenterologists 60%, rheumatologists 47%). In 91% of cases enzyme-level testing was carried out prior to prescribing AZA. Genotype testing is not typically available to NHS clinicians but 15 clinicians (six dermatologists, six gastroenterologists, three rheumatologists) reported using it. Most consultants (82%) reported using guidelines to inform their AZA prescribing and monitoring (dermatologists 81%, gastroenterologists 75%, rheumatologists 94%). Two-thirds of the consultants surveyed in England are using TPMT enzyme-level testing, prior to

  1. Current status and issues of nuclear human resource development/General activities of Japan nuclear human resource development network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki; Hino, Sadami; Tsuru, Hisanori

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Human Resource Development Network (JN-HRD Net) was established in November 2010 with the aim of developing a framework for mutual cooperation and information sharing among nuclear-related organizations. Although the tasks and goals of developing human resources in the nuclear field have been shifted since the accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the necessity of fostering capable personnel in this field stays unchanged and the importance of our network activities has further emphasized. The meeting of JN-HRD Net was held on the 5th of February 2013, where its activities by each field were reported and views and opinions were actively exchanged between more than 90 participants. This paper briefly describes current status and issues of JN-HRD Net and its general activities conducted by the JN-HRD Net secretariat. (J.P.N.)

  2. Energy policy alliances and cooperative games: a survey of issues and solution concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This paper reviews obstacles to international agreement and of analytical approaches to describing foreign alliance formation and conflict resolution relative to energy security policies and preparedness. While these models provide useful intuitive insight on the nature of interactions among oil importing countries they have limited practical applicability in formulating testable hypotheses about international behavior. Thus to more fully understand international institutions created by sovereign nations to achieve greater energy security, different strands of the theory must be combined with factual knowledge and preceptions of different countries' incentives and objectives. The paper also reviews the public good nature of international agreements and the resulting obstacles to creating viable alliances. Subsequent sections provide a critical survey of various theoretical approaches to describing cooperative agreements. The concluding section summarizes deficiencies in existing theory and discusses the practical information required to better understand international institutions and behavior.

  3. Survey on Security Issues in File Management in Cloud Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Udit

    2015-06-01

    Cloud computing has pervaded through every aspect of Information technology in past decade. It has become easier to process plethora of data, generated by various devices in real time, with the advent of cloud networks. The privacy of users data is maintained by data centers around the world and hence it has become feasible to operate on that data from lightweight portable devices. But with ease of processing comes the security aspect of the data. One such security aspect is secure file transfer either internally within cloud or externally from one cloud network to another. File management is central to cloud computing and it is paramount to address the security concerns which arise out of it. This survey paper aims to elucidate the various protocols which can be used for secure file transfer and analyze the ramifications of using each protocol.

  4. Security and privacy issues in implantable medical devices: A comprehensive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Carmen; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, Juan E

    2015-06-01

    Bioengineering is a field in expansion. New technologies are appearing to provide a more efficient treatment of diseases or human deficiencies. Implantable Medical Devices (IMDs) constitute one example, these being devices with more computing, decision making and communication capabilities. Several research works in the computer security field have identified serious security and privacy risks in IMDs that could compromise the implant and even the health of the patient who carries it. This article surveys the main security goals for the next generation of IMDs and analyzes the most relevant protection mechanisms proposed so far. On the one hand, the security proposals must have into consideration the inherent constraints of these small and implanted devices: energy, storage and computing power. On the other hand, proposed solutions must achieve an adequate balance between the safety of the patient and the security level offered, with the battery lifetime being another critical parameter in the design phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Seaglider surveys at Ocean Station Papa: Circulation and water mass properties in a meander of the North Pacific Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelland, Noel A.; Eriksen, Charles C.; Cronin, Meghan F.

    2016-09-01

    A Seaglider autonomous underwater vehicle augmented the Ocean Station Papa (OSP; 50°N, 145°W) surface mooring, measuring spatial structure on scales relevant to the monthly evolution of the moored time series. During each of three missions from June 2008 to January 2010, a Seaglider made biweekly 50 km × 50 km surveys in a bowtie-shaped survey track. Horizontal temperature and salinity gradients measured by these surveys were an order of magnitude stronger than climatological values and sometimes of opposite sign. Geostrophically inferred circulation was corroborated by moored acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements and AVISO satellite altimetry estimates of surface currents, confirming that glider surveys accurately resolved monthly scale mesoscale spatial structure. In contrast to climatological North Pacific Current circulation, upper-ocean flow was modestly northward during the first half of the 18 month survey period, and weakly westward during its latter half, with Rossby number O>(0.01>). This change in circulation coincided with a shift from cool and fresh to warm, saline, oxygen-rich water in the upper-ocean halocline, and an increase in vertical fine structure there and in the lower pycnocline. The anomalous flow and abrupt water mass transition were due to the slow growth of an anticyclonic meander within the North Pacific Current with radius comparable to the scale of the survey pattern, originating to the southeast of OSP.

  6. Current status and future expectation concerning probabilistic risk assessment of NPPs. 1. Features and issues of probabilistic risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) could play an important role in assuring safety of NPPs. However PRA had not always effectively used, which was indicated in Japanese government's report on Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. At the Risk Technical Committee (RTC) of Standards Committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan, preparation of standards (implementing criteria) focusing on PRA methodology and investigation on basic philosophy for use of PRA had been in progress. Based on activities of RTC, a serial in three articles including this described current status and future expectation concerning probabilistic risk assessment of NPPs. This article introduced features and issues of PRA methodology related to the use of PRA. Features of PRA methodology could be shown as (1) systematic and comprehensive understanding of risk, (2) support of grading approach, (3) identification of effective safety upgrade measures and (4) quantitative understanding of effects of uncertainty. Issues of PRA methodology were (1) extension of PRA application area, (2) upgrade of PRA methodology, (3) quality assurance of PRA, (4) treatment of uncertainty and (5) quantitative evaluation criteria. (T. Tanaka)

  7. 76 FR 39260 - Direct Investment Surveys: Alignment of Regulations With Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... are eliminated from the regulations are: A survey of foreign direct investment in the U.S. seafood... requirements for two surveys of new foreign direct investment in the United States. BEA suspended collection of... Enters into a Joint Venture With, a Foreign Person BE-21, Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in U.S...

  8. 76 FR 19282 - Direct Investment Surveys: Alignment of Regulations With Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... surveys that would be eliminated from the regulations are: a survey of foreign direct investment in the U... foreign direct investment in the United States (BE-13 and BE-14). BEA suspended collection of these... a Joint Venture With, a Foreign Person BE-21, Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Business...

  9. Tabulations of Responses from the 1999 Survey of Active Duty Personnel: Volume 2 Programs, Services, Family and Individual Information, and Economic Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deak, Mary

    2000-01-01

    The 1999 Active Duty Surveys (ADS) gather information on military assignments, retention issues, personal and military background, preparedness, mobilizations and deployments, family composition, use of military programs and services...

  10. Security Issues in Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hoon-Jae Lee; Pardeep Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs). Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are ...

  11. Current State of Laparoscopic Colonic Surgery in Austria: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugsberger, Bettina; Haas, Dietmar; Oppelt, Peter; Neuner, Ludwig; Shamiyeh, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that laparoscopic colonic resection has significant benefits in comparison with open approaches in patients with benign and malignant disease. The proportion of colonic and rectal resections conducted laparoscopically in Austria is not currently known; the aim of this study was to evaluate the current status of laparoscopic colonic surgery in Austria. A questionnaire was distributed to all general surgical departments in Austria. In collaboration with IMAS, an Austrian market research institute, an online survey was used to identify laparoscopic and open colorectal resections performed in 2013. The results were compared with data from the National Hospital Morbidity Database (NHMD), in which administrative in-patient data were also collected from all general surgical departments in Austria in 2013. Fifty-three of 99 surgical departments in Austria responded (53.5%); 4335 colonic and rectal resections were carried out in the participating departments, representing 50.5% of all NHMD-recorded colorectal resections (n = 8576) in Austria in 2013. Of these 4335 colonic and rectal resections, 2597 (59.9%) were carried out using an open approach, 1674 (38.6%) were laparoscopic, and an exact classification was not available for 64 (1.5%). Among the NHMD-recorded colonic and rectal resections, 6342 (73.9%) were carried out with an open approach, and 2234 (26.1%) were laparoscopic. The proportion of colorectal resections that are carried out laparoscopically is low (26.1%). Technical challenges and a learning curve with a significant number of cases may be reasons for the slow adoption of laparoscopic colonic surgery.

  12. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Syed Shah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to generate electricity. Although some respondents reported using solar energy, there is lack of retail availability for solar energy. The findings show that limited information on renewable energy technologies, lack of awareness, and limited private sector engagement emerged as major barriers to sustainable renewable energy development. In addition, the respondents suggest for increasing policy support from the government to make information more accessible to mass users, provide economic incentives to investors and users, and promote small-community based renewable energy projects. The study suggests that the government begin small scale projects to build awareness on renewable energy, while academically, higher learning institutions include renewable energy syllabus in their academic curriculum. The study concluded that to have sustainable renewable energy development, government’s initiative, private sector engagement and users awareness must be given priority.

  13. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Syed Shah; Nor, Nor Fariza Mohd; Ahmad, Maisarah; Hashim, Nik Hazrul Nik

    2016-05-01

    Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to generate electricity. Although some respondents reported using solar energy, there is lack of retail availability for solar energy. The findings show that limited information on renewable energy technologies, lack of awareness, and limited private sector engagement emerged as major barriers to sustainable renewable energy development. In addition, the respondents suggest for increasing policy support from the government to make information more accessible to mass users, provide economic incentives to investors and users, and promote small-community based renewable energy projects. The study suggests that the government begin small scale projects to build awareness on renewable energy, while academically, higher learning institutions include renewable energy syllabus in their academic curriculum. The study concluded that to have sustainable renewable energy development, government's initiative, private sector engagement and users awareness must be given priority.

  14. Current and future delivery of diagnostic electron microscopy in the UK: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Tracey; Furness, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) remains essential to delivering several specialist areas of diagnosis, especially the interpretation of native renal biopsies. However, there is anecdotal evidence of EM units struggling to survive, for a variety of reasons. The authors sought to obtain objective evidence of the extent and the causes of this problem. An online survey was undertaken of Fellows of the Royal College of Pathologists who use EM in diagnosis. A significant number of EM units anticipate having to close and hence outsource their EM work in the coming years. Yet most existing units are working to full capacity and would be unable to take on the substantial amounts of extra work implied by other units outsourcing their needs. Equipment and staffing are identified by most EM units as the major barriers to growth and are also the main reasons cited for units facing potential closure. In the current financial climate it seems unlikely that units will be willing to make the large investment in equipment and staff needed to take on extra work, unless they can be reasonably confident of an acceptable financial return as a result of increased external referral rates. The case is thus made for a degree of national coordination of the future provision of this specialist service, possibly through the National Commissioning Group or the new National Commissioning Board. Without this, the future of diagnostic EM services in the UK is uncertain. Its failure would pose a threat to good patient care.

  15. Laparoscopic simulation training in gynaecology: Current provision and staff attitudes - a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Christy; Fox, Robert; Hinshaw, Kim; Draycott, Timothy J; James, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore current provision of laparoscopic simulation training, and to determine attitudes of trainers and trainees to the role of simulators in surgical training across the UK. An anonymous cross-sectional survey with cluster sampling was developed and circulated. All Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) Training Programme Directors (TPD), College Tutors (RCT) and Trainee representatives (TR) across the UK were invited to participate. One hundred and ninety-six obstetricians and gynaecologists participated. Sixty-three percent of hospitals had at least one box trainer, and 14.6% had least one virtual-reality simulator. Only 9.3% and 3.6% stated that trainees used a structured curriculum on box and virtual-reality simulators, respectively. Respondents working in a Large/Teaching hospital (p = 0.008) were more likely to agree that simulators enhance surgical training. Eighty-nine percent agreed that simulators improve the quality of training, and should be mandatory or desirable for junior trainees. Consultants (p = 0.003) and respondents over 40 years (p = 0.011) were more likely to hold that a simulation test should be undertaken before live operation. Our data demonstrated, therefore, that availability of laparoscopic simulators is inconsistent, with limited use of mandatory structured curricula. In contrast, both trainers and trainees recognise a need for greater use of laparoscopic simulation for surgical training.

  16. Econometric modeling of health care costs and expenditures: a survey of analytical issues and related policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullahy, John

    2009-07-01

    Econometric modeling of healthcare costs and expenditures has become an important component of decision-making across a wide array of real-world settings. The objective of this article is to provide a brief summary of important conceptual and analytical issues involved in econometric healthcare cost modeling. To this end, the article explores: outcome measures typically analyzed in such work; the decision maker's perspective in econometric cost modeling exercises; specific analytical issues in econometric model specification; statistical goodness-of-fit testing; empirical implications of "upper tail" (or "high cost") phenomena; and issues relating to the reporting of findings. Some of the concepts explored here are illustrated in light of samples drawn from the 2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Analysts of healthcare cost data have at their disposal an increasingly sophisticated tool kit for analyzing such data that can in principle and in fact yield increasingly interesting insights into data structures. Yet for such analyses to usefully inform policy decisions, the manner in which such studies are designed, undertaken, and reported must accommodate considerations relevant to the decision-making community. The article concludes with some preliminary thoughts on how such bridges might be constructed.

  17. Regulatory aspects of oncology drug safety evaluation: Past practice, current issues, and the challenge of new drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeldt, Hans; Kropp, Timothy; Benson, Kimberly; Ricci, M. Stacey; McGuinn, W. David; Verbois, S. Leigh

    2010-01-01

    The drug development of new anti-cancer agents is streamlined in response to the urgency of bringing effective drugs to market for patients with limited life expectancy. FDA's regulation of oncology drugs has evolved from the practices set forth in Arnold Lehman's seminal work published in the 1950s through the current drafting of a new International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) safety guidance for anti-cancer drug nonclinical evaluations. The ICH combines the efforts of the regulatory authorities of Europe, Japan, and the United States and the pharmaceutical industry from these three regions to streamline the scientific and technical aspects of drug development. The recent development of new oncology drug classes with novel mechanisms of action has improved survival rates for some cancers but also brings new challenges for safety evaluation. Here we present the legacy of Lehman and colleagues in the context of past and present oncology drug development practices and focus on some of the current issues at the center of an evolving harmonization process that will generate a new safety guidance for oncology drugs, ICH S9. The purpose of this new guidance will be to facilitate oncology drug development on a global scale by standardizing regional safety requirements.

  18. Current Issues and Challenges in the Use of Aerosolized Surfactant for Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dion Darius Samsudin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surfactant replacement therapy is a recognized treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS in the newborns. Over the past 30 years, human and animal trials have been performed regarding administration of aerosolized surfactant to the injured lung, however the result has been unsatisfactory when compared with instilled surfactant delivery via endotracheal tube (ETT. This review aims to investigate the current issues, challenges and future recommendation of aerosolized surfactant therapy. CONTENT: Five randomized clinical trials in humans and 13 animal trials met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Most animal trials agree that this method of treatment is feasible. However, human trials presented conflicting results, and generally showed it to be ineffective. When compared with surfactant delivery via ETT, aerosolized surfactant is less effective in improving respiratory function. SUMMARY: The current data from human trials does not support the implementation of aerosolized surfactant therapy to treat newborns with RDS. Further research is necessary to improve nebulization, delivery, distribution and deposition in the lung, to investigate aerosolized surfactant delivery via ETT and to determine the appropriate dose. KEYWORDS: surfactant, aerosol, prematurity, respiratory distress syndrome.

  19. Current issues surrounding the definition of trans-fatty acids: implications for health, industry and food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Proctor, Spencer D

    2013-10-01

    The definition of trans-fatty acids (TFA) was established by the Codex Alimentarius to guide nutritional and legislative regulations to reduce TFA consumption. Currently, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is excluded from the TFA definition based on evidence (primarily preclinical studies) implying health benefits on weight management and cancer prevention. While the efficacy of CLA supplements remains inconsistent in randomised clinical trials, evidence has emerged to associate supplemental CLA with negative health outcomes, including increased subclinical inflammation and oxidative stress (particularly at high doses). This has resulted in concerns regarding the correctness of excluding CLA from the TFA definition. Here we review recent clinical and preclinical literature on health implications of CLA and ruminant TFA, and highlight several issues surrounding the current Codex definition of TFA and how it may influence interpretation for public health. We find that CLA derived from ruminant foods differ from commercial CLA supplements in their isomer composition/distribution, consumption level and bioactivity. We conclude that health concerns associated with the use of supplemental CLA do not repudiate the exclusion of all forms of CLA from the Codex TFA definition, particularly when using the definition for food-related purposes. Given the emerging differential bioactivity of TFA from industrial v. ruminant sources, we advocate that regional nutrition guidelines/policies should focus on eliminating industrial forms of trans-fat from processed foods as opposed to all TFA per se.

  20. Issues related to diagnosing oral lichen planus among oral pathologists in South India: A pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanketh, D Sharathkumar; Srinivasan, Samuel Raj; Patil, Shankargouda; Ranganathan, Kannan

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, we simulated clinical scenarios by explicitly describing the history and clinical and histological features of hypothetical patients presenting with oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesion, and epithelial dysplasia in a self-designed questionnaire. By doing so, we aimed to elicit a diagnosis from oral pathologists and trainees, analyze their responses, appraise issues, and propose solutions regarding the diagnosis of OLP. The questionnaire was distributed to 100 oral pathologists and trainees in South India. Six questions were designed to assess awareness of the diagnostic aspects of OLP. Ten questions were hypothetical clinical scenarios (HCS) devised to evaluate respondents' knowledge of diagnostic guidelines and the criteria used by the respondents to render a diagnosis. There were 60 of 100 responses to the questionnaire. More than half the respondents were aware of the World Health Organization and modified guidelines of OLP. We observed considerable variations in diagnoses for the HCS. Our study illustrates the ambiguity in rendering an accurate diagnosis, despite adequate guidelines. Based on the responses for the HCS, we hypothesized that changes in the distribution (unilateral or bilateral) and clinical characteristic of OLP, and habits of patients, have a significant bearing on the clinical and final diagnoses of the lesion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Fundamental Lifetime Mechanisms in Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslaminejad, Mohammadreza; Razak, Shukor Abd

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks basically consist of low cost sensor nodes which collect data from environment and relay them to a sink, where they will be subsequently processed. Since wireless nodes are severely power-constrained, the major concern is how to conserve the nodes' energy so that network lifetime can be extended significantly. Employing one static sink can rapidly exhaust the energy of sink neighbors. Furthermore, using a non-optimal single path together with a maximum transmission power level may quickly deplete the energy of individual nodes on the route. This all results in unbalanced energy consumption through the sensor field, and hence a negative effect on the network lifetime. In this paper, we present a comprehensive taxonomy of the various mechanisms applied for increasing the network lifetime. These techniques, whether in the routing or cross-layer area, fall within the following types: multi-sink, mobile sink, multi-path, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, depending on the protocol operation. In this taxonomy, special attention has been devoted to the multi-sink, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, which have not yet received much consideration in the literature. Moreover, each class covers a variety of the state-of-the-art protocols, which should provide ideas for potential future works. Finally, we compare these mechanisms and discuss open research issues. PMID:23202008

  2. A survey of safety issues in tree-climbing applications for forestry management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Longo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Topping, trimming, consolidation, securing and felling are very common operations in arboriculture, in city park as well as in forests. In case of very large trees, these operations are often not possible from ground level using ladders or Mobile Elevating Work Platforms (MEWPs because of excessive height or uneven/inaccessible terrain. In past years, different people start applying techniques, materials and procedures normally used in mountaineering and caving, to climb trees and these techniques start to be applied to forestry management operations; these techniques are now worldwide used. Work activities at height, as tree-climbing for forestry management purpose, are regulated in Italy by Legislative Decree 81/08 about safety in the workplace, as this activity expose operators to fall from height and many other risks. Moreover, as this activity involves the use of specific tools, operators must be trained (with periodic refreshment and tools must been periodically checked by authorised operators. The objective of this work is to present and synthesise regulations and some technical aspects in order to allow operators to better understand different issues and general principles related to this activity.

  3. Rethinking the costs related to global warming. A survey of the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekins, P.

    1995-01-01

    One approach to the economic analysis of global warming seeks to balance the costs of damage from or adaptation to it with the costs of mitigating it. The costs of adaptation and damage have been estimated using techniques of environmental evaluation, but are subject to a wide margin of uncertainty. The costs of mitigation, principally by reducing the emissions of CO 2 , have been estimated using different kinds of economic models, some of the results of which have suggested that very little abatement of carbon emissions is justified before the costs of abatement exceed the benefits of it in terms of foregone damage and adaptation costs. The paper analyses the extent to which this conclusion is a function of the modelling assumptions and techniques used, rather than likely practical outcomes, with regard to the models' treatment of unemployed resources, revenue recycling, prior distortions in the economy due to the tax system and possible dynamic effects from the introduction of a carbon-energy tax. It concludes that, with different and arguably more appropriate treatment of the above issues, especially when the secondary benefits of reducing CO 2 emissions are also taken into account, it is not clear that even substantial reductions in the use of fossil fuels will incur net costs, especially if there is the prospect of even moderate costs from global warming. 4 figs., 8 tabs., 95 refs

  4. Random sampling of quantum states: a survey of methods and some issues regarding the Overparametrized Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziero, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The numerical generation of random quantum states (RQS) is an important procedure for investigations in quantum information science. Here, we review some methods that may be used for performing that task. We start by presenting a simple procedure for generating random state vectors, for which the main tool is the random sampling of unbiased discrete probability distributions (DPD). Afterwards, the creation of random density matrices is addressed. In this context, we first present the standard method, which consists in using the spectral decomposition of a quantum state for getting RQS from random DPDs and random unitary matrices. In the sequence, the Bloch vector parametrization method is described. This approach, despite being useful in several instances, is not in general convenient for RQS generation. In the last part of the article, we regard the overparametrized method (OPM) and the related Ginibre and Bures techniques. The OPM can be used to create random positive semidefinite matrices with unit trace from randomly produced general complex matrices in a simple way that is friendly for numerical implementations. We consider a physically relevant issue related to the possible domains that may be used for the real and imaginary parts of the elements of such general complex matrices. Subsequently, a too fast concentration of measure in the quantum state space that appears in this parametrization is noticed. (author)

  5. Attitude-independent magnetometer calibration for marine magnetic surveys: regularization issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zhitian; Hu, Xiaoping; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an attitude-independent calibration method for a shipboard magnetometer to estimate the absolute strength of the geomagnetic field from a marine vessel. The three-axis magnetometer to be calibrated is fixed on a rigid aluminium boom ahead of the vessel to reduce the magnetic effect of the vessel. Due to the constrained manoeuvres of the vessel, a linear observational equation system for calibration parameter estimation is severely ill-posed. Consequently, if the issue is not mitigated, traditional calibration methods may result in unreliable or unsuccessful solutions. In this paper, the ill-posed problem is solved by using the truncated total least squares (TTLS) technique. This method takes advantage of simultaneously considering errors on both sides of the observation equation. Furthermore, the TTLS method suits strongly ill-posed problems. Simulations and experiments have been performed to assess the performance of the TTLS method and to compare it with the performance of conventional regularization approaches such as the Tikhonov method and truncated single value decomposition. The results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively mitigate the ill-posed problem and is more stable than the compared regularization methods for magnetometer calibration applications. (paper)

  6. Advancements of Data Anomaly Detection Research in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Aizaini Maarof

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are important and necessary platforms for the future as the concept “Internet of Things” has emerged lately. They are used for monitoring, tracking, or controlling of many applications in industry, health care, habitat, and military. However, the quality of data collected by sensor nodes is affected by anomalies that occur due to various reasons, such as node failures, reading errors, unusual events, and malicious attacks. Therefore, anomaly detection is a necessary process to ensure the quality of sensor data before it is utilized for making decisions. In this review, we present the challenges of anomaly detection in WSNs and state the requirements to design efficient and effective anomaly detection models. We then review the latest advancements of data anomaly detection research in WSNs and classify current detection approaches in five main classes based on the detection methods used to design these approaches. Varieties of the state-of-the-art models for each class are covered and their limitations are highlighted to provide ideas for potential future works. Furthermore, the reviewed approaches are compared and evaluated based on how well they meet the stated requirements. Finally, the general limitations of current approaches are mentioned and further research opportunities are suggested and discussed.

  7. Advancements of Data Anomaly Detection Research in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassam, Murad A.; Zainal, Anazida; Maarof, Mohd Aizaini

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are important and necessary platforms for the future as the concept “Internet of Things” has emerged lately. They are used for monitoring, tracking, or controlling of many applications in industry, health care, habitat, and military. However, the quality of data collected by sensor nodes is affected by anomalies that occur due to various reasons, such as node failures, reading errors, unusual events, and malicious attacks. Therefore, anomaly detection is a necessary process to ensure the quality of sensor data before it is utilized for making decisions. In this review, we present the challenges of anomaly detection in WSNs and state the requirements to design efficient and effective anomaly detection models. We then review the latest advancements of data anomaly detection research in WSNs and classify current detection approaches in five main classes based on the detection methods used to design these approaches. Varieties of the state-of-the-art models for each class are covered and their limitations are highlighted to provide ideas for potential future works. Furthermore, the reviewed approaches are compared and evaluated based on how well they meet the stated requirements. Finally, the general limitations of current approaches are mentioned and further research opportunities are suggested and discussed. PMID:23966182

  8. Methodological issues in the design of online surveys for measuring unethical work behavior: Recommendations on the basis of a split-ballot experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, K.; Maesschalck, J.B.; Peeters, C.F.W.; Rosen, M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in unethical work behavior. Several types of survey instruments to collect information about unethical work behavior are available. Nevertheless, to date little attention has been paid to design issues of those surveys. There are, however,

  9. Ethical issues associated with in-hospital emergency from the Medical Emergency Team's perspective: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrini, Luca; Giannini, Alberto; Pintaudi, Margherita; Semeraro, Federico; Radeschi, Giulio; Borga, Sara; Landoni, Giovanni; Troiano, Herbert; Luchetti, Marco; Pellis, Thomas; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Minoja, Giulio; Mazzon, Davide; Alampi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Medical Emergency Teams (METs) are frequently involved in ethical issues associated to in-hospital emergencies, like decisions about end-of-life care and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. MET involvement offers both advantages and disadvantages, especially when an immediate decision must be made. We performed a survey among Italian intensivists/anesthesiologists evaluating MET's perspective on the most relevant ethical aspects faced in daily practice. A questionnaire was developed on behalf of the Italian scientific society of anesthesia and intensive care (SIAARTI) and administered to its members. Decision making criteria applied by respondents when dealing with ethical aspects, the estimated incidence of conflicts due to ethical issues and the impact on the respondents' emotional and moral distress were explored. The questionnaire was completed by 327 intensivists/anesthesiologists. Patient life-expectancy, wishes, and the quality of life were the factors most considered for decisions. Conflicts with ward physicians were reported by most respondents; disagreement on appropriateness of ICU admission and family unpreparedness to the imminent patient death were the most frequent reasons. Half of respondents considered that in case of conflicts the final decision should be made by the MET. Conflicts were generally recognized as causing increased and moral distress within the MET members. Few respondents reported that dedicated protocols or training were locally available. Italian intensivists/anesthesiologists reported that ethical issues associated with in-hospital emergencies are occurring commonly and are having a significant negative impact on MET well-being. Conflicts with ward physicians happen frequently. They also conveyed that hospitals don't offer ethics training and have no protocols in place to address ethical issues.

  10. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 14, March 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    The current issue presents information about the following topics: Highlights of the 2nd International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems, Cape Town, 14 December 2009. Denial of Shipment of Radioactive Material. Emergency Preparedness Review (EPREV)

  11. Current situation and issues using maternal and child health-related information in the "Healthy parents and children 21" campaign across municipalities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Ritei; Shinohara, Ryoji; Akiyama, Yuka; Ichikawa, Kaori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Matsuura, Kencho; Yamazaki, Yoshihisa; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The use of maternal and child health-related information is an issue faced by the "Healthy parents and children 21" campaign, a national campaign to improve the health standards of mothers and children in Japan. This study described the current situation and issues faced by municipalities across Japan that use this information.Methods Data across municipalities selected for the current survey of promoting the "Healthy parents and children 21" campaign in 2013 were analyzed in this study. First, we chose prefectures where collected and analyzed maternal and child health-related information was provided by the municipalities. Then, we divided the municipalities according to those prefectures where the municipalities regularly reported the maternal and child health-related information and those that did not report it regularly. Finally, the characteristics about maternal and child health in those municipalities were investigated.Results Of the 47 prefectures analyzed, 35 prefectures (74.5%) collected and analyzed maternal and child health-related information provided by the municipalities. The 35 prefectures included 1,242 municipalities, of which 700 (56.4%) regularly reported maternal and child health-related information, and 542 (43.6%) did not report it regularly. The proportion of municipalities, where information about smoking during pregnancy, immunization, or low birth weight in infants was positively used, was significantly lower among municipalities that did not regularly report maternal and child health-related information than among those that regularly reported it (P<0.001). The proportion of municipalities that coordinated projects on prevention of child abuse or low birth weight in infants with the prefectures was significantly lower among municipalities that did not regularly report maternal and child health-related information than among those that regularly reported it.Conclusion Among municipalities that did not regularly report

  12. The current status of pediatric radiology in India: A conference-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Therakathu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Like most other developing countries, India has a large proportion of children among its population. However, the facilities for adequate treatment of this large population is inadequate. The development of pediatric radiology as a subspecialty is still at an infant stage in India. The goal of our study was to assess the awareness about the current status of pediatric radiology in India. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was handed over to all attendees of a pediatric radiology conference to assess their opinion regarding the adequacy of pediatric training and practice in India. The questionnaire consisted of 10 multiple-choice and two descriptive questions. Descriptive statistical methods were used for analyzing the results. Results: Eighty-one out of 400 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Among these 81 respondents, 50 (61.7% felt that exposure to pediatric cases during postgraduate course was inadequate. Sixty-three out of 81 (77.7% respondents thought that specialized training is required for practicing pediatric radiology, and 79 respondents (97% felt that the number of such training programmes should increase. Forty-five out of 81 respondents (55.5% were interested in pursuing pediatric radiology as a career. Conclusion: According to the opinion of the respondents of our survey, pediatric radiology remains an underdeveloped speciality in India. Considering the proportion of the population in the pediatric age and the poor health indicators in this age group, elaborate measures, as suggested, need to be implemented to improve pediatric radiology training and the care of sick children in India.

  13. Test result communication in primary care: a survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Ian; Bentham, Louise; Lilford, Richard; McManus, Richard J; Hill, Ann; Greenfield, Sheila

    2015-11-01

    The number of blood tests ordered in primary care continues to increase and the timely and appropriate communication of results remains essential. However, the testing and result communication process includes a number of participants in a variety of settings and is both complicated to manage and vulnerable to human error. In the UK, guidelines for the process are absent and research in this area is surprisingly scarce; so before we can begin to address potential areas of weakness there is a need to more precisely understand the strengths and weaknesses of current systems used by general practices and testing facilities. We conducted a telephone survey of practices across England to determine the methods of managing the testing and result communication process. In order to gain insight into the perspectives from staff at a large hospital laboratory we conducted paired interviews with senior managers, which we used to inform a service blueprint demonstrating the interaction between practices and laboratories and identifying potential sources of delay and failure. Staff at 80% of practices reported that the default method for communicating normal results required patients to telephone the practice and 40% of practices required that patients also call for abnormal results. Over 80% had no fail-safe system for ensuring that results had been returned to the practice from laboratories; practices would otherwise only be aware that results were missing or delayed when patients requested results. Persistent sources of missing results were identified by laboratory staff and included sample handling, misidentification of samples and the inefficient system for collating and resending misdirected results. The success of the current system relies on patients both to retrieve results and in so doing alert staff to missing and delayed results. Practices appear slow to adopt available technological solutions despite their potential for reducing the impact of recurring errors in the

  14. Current status of iodine intake in Croatia--the results of 2009 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusić, Zvonko; Jukić, Tomislav; Rogan, Suncica Andreja; Juresa, Vesna; Dabelić, Nina; Stanicić, Josip; Borić, Marta; Lukinac, Ljerka; Mihaljević, Ivan; Punda, Ante; Smokvina, Aleksandar; Topalović, Zlatko; Katalenić, Marijan

    2012-03-01

    In 1996, due to persistence of mild to moderate iodine deficiency, new law on obligatory salt iodination with 25 mg of potassium iodide (KI) per kg of salt was implemented in Croatia. Along with a new law, a new program for monitoring of iodine prophylaxis was implemented. Investigations of goiter and iodine intake performed in 2002, demonstrated sufficient iodine intake in Croatia with overall median of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) for schoolchildren in Croatia of 140 microg/L. In 2002, thyroid volumes (TV) measured by ultrasound in schoolchildren from all four geographic regions of Croatia were for the first time within the normal range according to ICCIDD reference values. Nowadays, Croatia is internationally recognized as iodine sufficient country. The aim of the present study was to assess current status of iodine intake in Croatia. The investigation was carried out in 2009. A total of 386 schoolchildren aged 7-10 years from all four major geographic regions of Croatia, 103 euthyroid pregnant women and 36 women of child-bearing age from Zagreb, the capital, were included in the survey. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in all participants. Thyroid volumes were measured by ultrasound in schoolchildren from the capital of Zagreb (N = 101) and the village of Rude (N = 56). In the time period 2002-2009, the content of KI was analyzed in 384 salt samples from Croatian salt plants and samples of imported salt. An overall median UIC for schoolchildren in Croatia was 248 microg/L. Median UIC in pregnant women was 159 microg/L, with 50% of samples below and under 150 microg/L. Median UIC in women of child-bearing age was 136 microg/L. Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren were within the normal range according to the new reference values. Mean value of KI/kg of salt in samples from Croatian salt plants was 25.5 mg/kg and 24.9 mg/kg in samples of imported salt. A total of 72/384 (18.8%) of salt samples didn't corresponded to the Croatian law on

  15. Educational priorities and current involvement in genetic practice: a survey of midwives in the Netherlands, UK and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Caroline M; Anionwu, Elizabeth N; Kristoffersson, Ulf; ten Kate, Leo P; Plass, Anne Marie C; Nippert, Irmgard; Julian-Reynier, Claire; Harris, Hilary J; Schmidtke, Joerg; Challen, Kirsty; Calefato, Jean Marc; Waterman, Christine; Powell, Eileen; Harris, Rodney

    2009-10-01

    to investigate whether practising midwives are adequately prepared to integrate genetic information into their practice. a cross-sectional, postal, structured questionnaire survey was sent to practising midwives. practising midwives from the Netherlands (NL), Sweden (SE) and the United Kingdom (UK). 1021 replies were received, achieving a response rate of 62%. 79% (799/1015) of midwives reported attending courses with some 'genetic content' during their initial training. Sixty-eight per cent (533/784) judged this to have been useful for clinical practice. Variation was seen between countries in the amount of genetic content in post-registration training (SE 87%, NL 44%, UK 17%) and most was considered useful. Questions assessing clinical activity identified a current need for genetic knowledge. Midwives described low levels of self-reported confidence both in overtly genetic procedures and in everyday tasks that were underpinned by genetic knowledge. For eight of the 12 procedures, fewer than 20% of midwives considered themselves to be confident. Differences were apparent between countries. Midwives identified psychosocial, screening and risk assessment aspects of genetic education as being important to them, rather than technical aspects or genetic science. given the low reported confidence with genetic issues in clinical practice, it is essential that this is addressed in terms of the amount, content and targeting of genetic education. This is especially important to ensure the success of national antenatal and baby screening programmes. The results of this study suggest that midwives would welcome further training in genetics, addressing genetic topics most relevant to their clinical practice.

  16. Cross-cultural issues in space operations: A survey study among ground personnel of the European Space Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, Gro Mjeldheim; Manzey, Dietrich

    2009-12-01

    Today's space operations involve co-working of people with different ethnical, professional and organisational backgrounds. The aim of this study was to examine the implications of cultural diversity for efficient collaboration within the European Space Agency (ESA), and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. ESA employees from European countries ( N=576) answered to the CULT Ground Survey. The results showed that differences in relation to leadership and decision making were the most important issues thought to interfere with efficient co-working within ESA, and between ESA employees and colleagues from other agencies. Employees who collaborated with more than three nationalities within ESA indicated most challenges in co-working due to differences in compliance, behavioural norms and competitiveness. Challenges in co-working differed between agencies, and these differences were consistent with value differences in the national populations. The results may have applied value for training of European employees working in international space program teams.

  17. Current State of Climate Education in the United States: Are Graduate Students being Adequately Prepared to Address Climate Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, E.; Fox, G.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is happening; scientists have already observed changes in sea level, increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, and declining polar ice. The students of today are the leaders of tomorrow, and it is our duty to make sure they are well equipped and they understand the implications of climate change as part of their research and professional careers. Graduate students, in particular, are gaining valuable and necessary research, leadership, and critical thinking skills, but we need to ensure that they are receiving the appropriate climate education in their graduate training. Previous studies have primarily focused on capturing the K-12, college level, and general publics' knowledge of the climate system, concluding with recommendations on how to improve climate literacy in the classroom. While this is extremely important to study, very few studies have captured the current perception that graduate students hold regarding the amount of climate education being offered to them. This information is important to capture, as it can inform future curriculum development. We developed and distributed a nationwide survey (495 respondents) for graduate students to capture their perception on the level of climate system education being offered and their view on the importance of having climate education. We also investigated differences in the responses based on either geographic area or discipline. We compared how important graduate students felt it was to include climate education in their own discipline versus outside disciplines. The authors will discuss key findings from this ongoing research.

  18. Current issues in the management of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Ontario Hydro's CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasznai, J.P.; Vaughan, B.R.; Williamson, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear generating stations (NGSs) in Canada are operated by utilities in Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick. Ontario Hydro, with a committed nuclear program of 13,600 MW(electric) is the major producer of CANDU pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR) low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. All radioactive wastes with the exception of irradiated fuel are processed and retrievably stored at a centralized facility at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site. Solid-waste classifications and annual production levels are given. Solid-waste management practices at the site as well as the physical, chemical, and radiochemical characteristics of the wastes are well documented. The paper summarizes types, current inventory, and estimated annual production rate of liquid waste. Operation of the tritium recovery facility at Darlington NGS, which removes tritium from heavy water and produces tritium gas in the process, gives rise to secondary streams of tritiated solid and liquid wastes, which will receive special treatment and packaging. In addition to the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes, there are a number of other important issues in low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste management that Ontario Hydro will be addressing over the next few years. The most pressing of these is the reduction of radioactive wastes through in-station material control, employee awareness, and improved waste characterization and segregation programs. Since Ontario Hydro intends to store retrievable wastes for > 50 yr, it is necessary to determine the behavior of wastes under long-term storage conditions

  19. Current issues in ALS epidemiology: Variation of ALS occurrence between populations and physical activity as a risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, J; Logroscino, G; Couratier, P; Marin, B

    2017-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare neurodegenerative disease with a fatal outcome. This review aims to report key epidemiological features of ALS in relation to the hypothesis of variation between populations, to summarize environmental hypothesis and to highlight current issues that deserve much considerations. Epidemiological ALS studies have shown a variation of incidence, mortality and prevalence between geographical areas and different populations. These data could support the notion that genetic factors, especially populations' ancestries, along with environmental and lifestyle factors, play a significant role in the occurrence of the disease. To date, there is no strong evidence to confirm an association between a particular environmental factor and ALS. Physical activity (PA) has been extensively evaluated. Recent studies support with the best evidence level that PA in general population is not a risk factor for ALS. However, further research is needed to clarify the association of PA in some occupations and some athletic activities. Epidemiological research based on multicenter international collaboration is essential to provide new data on ALS especially in some regions of the world that are to date poorly represented in the ALS literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Lifting the veil: a typological survey of the methodological features of Islamic ethical reasoning on biomedical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdur-Rashid, Khalil; Furber, Steven Woodward; Abdul-Basser, Taha

    2013-04-01

    We survey the meta-ethical tools and institutional processes that traditional Islamic ethicists apply when deliberating on bioethical issues. We present a typology of these methodological elements, giving particular attention to the meta-ethical techniques and devices that traditional Islamic ethicists employ in the absence of decisive or univocal authoritative texts or in the absence of established transmitted cases. In describing how traditional Islamic ethicists work, we demonstrate that these experts possess a variety of discursive tools. We find that the ethical responsa-i.e., the products of the application of the tools that we describe-are generally characterized by internal consistency. We also conclude that Islamic ethical reasoning on bioethical issues, while clearly scripture-based, is also characterized by strong consequentialist elements and possesses clear principles-based characteristics. The paper contributes to the study of bioethics by familiarizing non-specialists in Islamic ethics with the role, scope, and applicability of key Islamic ethical concepts, such as "aims" (maqāṣid), "universals" (kulliyyāt), "interest" (maṣlaḥa), "maxims" (qawā`id), "controls" (ḍawābit), "differentiators" (furūq), "preponderization" (tarjīḥ), and "extension" (tafrī`).

  1. Current technological clinical practice in breast radiotherapy; results of a survey in EORTC-Radiation Oncology Group affiliated institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Hans Paul; Hurkmans, Coen W; Kuten, Abraham; Westenberg, Helen A

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the current technological clinical practice of radiation therapy of the breast in institutions participating in the EORTC-Radiation Oncology Group (EORTC-ROG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was conducted between August 2008 and January 2009 on behalf of the Breast Working

  2. Studies in Income Distribution. Estimation of Social Security Taxes on the March Current Population Survey. No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Benjamin, Jr.; Johnston, Mary P.

    The impact of the tax-transfer system on the distribution of income among economic units is the subject of a number of studies by the Office of Research and Statistics of the Social Security Administration. One of the most important data sources for the work is the Census Bureau's March Current Population Survey (CPS). To conduct such studies, the…

  3. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 13, December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    The current issue presents information about the following activities: Highlights of the 53rd IAEA General Conference, 14-18 September 2009. Current status of the Building, Testing and Using the Response Assistance Network (RANET). 10th Meeting of the ANSN Steering Committee. The document also gives an overview on International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS)

  4. Exploring Ivorian perspectives on the effectiveness of the current Ivorian science curriculum in addressing issues related to HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the skills, knowledge, and the training in the delivery of effective school HIV/AIDS education. Since science is where biological events take place, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS science merits being taught in the science education classroom. This study took place in nine public middle schools within two school districts in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, one major urban city in the southern region. The study utilized triangulation of multiple data sources---both qualitative and quantitative. To substantiate the claims made in this study, a range of qualitative methods such as field notes and individual interviews with 39 teachers, 63 sixth grade students, 8 school administrators, and 20 community elders were used. For the quantitative portion 140 teachers and 3510 sixth grade students were surveyed. The findings from the study prioritize science education that includes HIV/AIDS science education for all, with emphasis on HIV/AIDS prevention in Ivory Coast. The factors that influence the implementation of HIV/AIDS curricula within the Ivorian sixth grade classrooms are discussed. Interview and survey data from students, teachers, school administrators, and community elders indicate that in the Ivorian school setting, "gerontocratic" cultural influences, religious beliefs, personal cultural beliefs, and time spent toward the discourse on HIV/AIDS have led to HIV/AIDS education that is often insufficient to change either misconceptions about HIV/AIDS or risky practices. It was also found that approaches to teaching HIV/AIDS does not connect with youth cultures. By reframing and integrating current HIV/AIDS curricula into the science

  5. Current practice of transradial approach for coronary procedures: A survey by the Italian Society of Interventional Cardiology (SICI-GISE) and the Italian Radial Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigattieri, Stefano; Valsecchi, Orazio; Sciahbasi, Alessandro; Tomassini, Francesco; Limbruno, Ugo; Marchese, Alfredo; La Manna, Alessio; Mauro, Ciro; Varbella, Ferdinando; Berti, Segio; Tarantino, Fabio F.; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Background: Transradial approach (TRA) for percutaneous coronary procedures is associated with improved patient outcome and is being increasingly adopted worldwide. We surveyed Italian interventional cardiologists in order to take a snapshot of the current practice of TRA. Methods: A web-based questionnaire was emailed to all members of the Italian Society of Interventional Cardiology. Results: The survey was taken by 508 respondents. Cardiogenic shock and chronic total occlusions represented the principal limitations to TRA. Right TRA was the default approach for 81% of respondents. Both diagnostic and interventional procedures were routinely performed through 6 Fr sheaths (83% and 93%, respectively); dedicated TRA curves were used in 11% of diagnostic and in about 3% of interventional procedures. Almost 70% of the operators did not assess dual hand circulation. In case of crossover, the contralateral radial artery was the preferred site (57%). Radial artery hemostasis was mostly achieved by pneumatic bracelet (64%) and patency of the radial artery during hemostasis was ensured in 60% of cases. Pre-discharge patency of the radial artery was routinely assessed by almost 60% of respondents. For diagnostic procedures, adequate heparin anticoagulation (5000 IU) was only given by 45% of operators. Most respondents believed that TRA is associated with greater radiation exposure for both the patient (82%) and the operator (98%) as compared to transfemoral approach. Conclusions: This survey provides contemporary data about the adoption of TRA in Italy and gives interesting insights about several technical and clinical issues related to the practice of this vascular approach for coronary procedures. - Highlights: • Transradial approach for coronary procedures is becoming increasingly popular. • We conducted a survey on the contemporary practice of transradial approach in Italy. • We appraised several clinical and technical issues related to transradial approach.

  6. Current practice of transradial approach for coronary procedures: A survey by the Italian Society of Interventional Cardiology (SICI-GISE) and the Italian Radial Club

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigattieri, Stefano, E-mail: stefanorigattieri@yahoo.it [Interventional Cardiology Unit, Sandro Pertini Hospital, Roma (Italy); Valsecchi, Orazio [Cardiovascular Department, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo (Italy); Sciahbasi, Alessandro [Interventional Cardiology Unit, Sandro Pertini Hospital, Roma (Italy); Tomassini, Francesco [Cardiology Department, Ospedale degli Infermi, Rivoli (Italy); Limbruno, Ugo [Cardiology Unit, Azienda USL Toscana Sudest, Grosseto (Italy); Marchese, Alfredo [Interventional Cardiology Unit, Anthea Hospital, GVM Care & Research, Bari (Italy); La Manna, Alessio [Cardiovascular Department, Ferrarotto Hospital, University of Catania (Italy); Mauro, Ciro [Cardiovascular Department, Cardarelli Hospital, Napoli (Italy); Varbella, Ferdinando [Cardiology Department, Ospedale degli Infermi, Rivoli (Italy); Berti, Segio [Department of Cardiology, Fondazione Toscana “Gabriele Monasterio”, Ospedale del Cuore, Massa (Italy); Tarantino, Fabio F. [Cardiology Unit, Ospedale G.B. Morgagni-L. Pierantoni, Forlì (Italy); Musumeci, Giuseppe [Cardiovascular Department, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Transradial approach (TRA) for percutaneous coronary procedures is associated with improved patient outcome and is being increasingly adopted worldwide. We surveyed Italian interventional cardiologists in order to take a snapshot of the current practice of TRA. Methods: A web-based questionnaire was emailed to all members of the Italian Society of Interventional Cardiology. Results: The survey was taken by 508 respondents. Cardiogenic shock and chronic total occlusions represented the principal limitations to TRA. Right TRA was the default approach for 81% of respondents. Both diagnostic and interventional procedures were routinely performed through 6 Fr sheaths (83% and 93%, respectively); dedicated TRA curves were used in 11% of diagnostic and in about 3% of interventional procedures. Almost 70% of the operators did not assess dual hand circulation. In case of crossover, the contralateral radial artery was the preferred site (57%). Radial artery hemostasis was mostly achieved by pneumatic bracelet (64%) and patency of the radial artery during hemostasis was ensured in 60% of cases. Pre-discharge patency of the radial artery was routinely assessed by almost 60% of respondents. For diagnostic procedures, adequate heparin anticoagulation (5000 IU) was only given by 45% of operators. Most respondents believed that TRA is associated with greater radiation exposure for both the patient (82%) and the operator (98%) as compared to transfemoral approach. Conclusions: This survey provides contemporary data about the adoption of TRA in Italy and gives interesting insights about several technical and clinical issues related to the practice of this vascular approach for coronary procedures. - Highlights: • Transradial approach for coronary procedures is becoming increasingly popular. • We conducted a survey on the contemporary practice of transradial approach in Italy. • We appraised several clinical and technical issues related to transradial approach.

  7. Advanced practice registered nurses and physician assistants in sleep centers and clinics: a survey of current roles and educational background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Loretta; Cartwright, Ann; Collop, Nancy; Freedman, Neil; McLeod, Don; Weaver, Terri E; Rogers, Ann E

    2014-05-15

    To survey Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) and Physician Assistant (PA) utilization, roles and educational background within the field of sleep medicine. Electronic surveys distributed to American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) member centers and APRNs and PAs working within sleep centers and clinics. Approximately 40% of responding AASM sleep centers reported utilizing APRNs or PAs in predominantly clinical roles. Of the APRNs and PAs surveyed, 95% reported responsibilities in sleep disordered breathing and more than 50% in insomnia and movement disorders. Most APRNs and PAs were prepared at the graduate level (89%), with sleep-specific education primarily through "on the job" training (86%). All APRNs surveyed were Nurse Practitioners (NPs), with approximately double the number of NPs compared to PAs. APRNs and PAs were reported in sleep centers at proportions similar to national estimates of NPs and PAs in physicians' offices. They report predominantly clinical roles, involving common sleep disorders. Given current predictions that the outpatient healthcare structure will change and the number of APRNs and PAs will increase, understanding the role and utilization of these professionals is necessary to plan for the future care of patients with sleep disorders. Surveyed APRNs and PAs reported a significant deficiency in formal and standardized sleep-specific education. Efforts to provide formal and standardized educational opportunities for APRNs and PAs that focus on their clinical roles within sleep centers could help fill a current educational gap.

  8. Top-Ten IT Issues: 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Anne Scrivener; Yang, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the top-ten IT-related issues in terms of strategic importance to the institution, as revealed by the tenth annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. These IT-related issues include: (1) Funding IT; (2) Administrative/ERP Information Systems; (3) Security; (4) Infrastructure/Cyberinfrastructure; (5) Teaching and Learning with…

  9. A survey of previous and current industry-wide efforts regarding burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Sandia has examined the matter of burnup credit from the perspective of physics, logistics, risk, and economics. A limited survey of the nuclear industry has been conducted to get a feeling for the actual application of burnup credit. Based on this survey, it can be concluded that the suppliers of spent fuel storage and transport casks are in general agreement that burnup credit offers the potential for improvements in cask efficiency without increasing the risk of accidental criticality. The actual improvement is design-specific but limited applications have demonstrated that capacity increases in the neighborhood of 20 percent are not unrealistic. A number of these vendors acknowledge that burnup credit has not been reduced to practice in cask applications and suggest that operational considerations may be more important to regulatory acceptance than to the physics. Nevertheless, the importance of burnup credit to the nuclear industry as a cask design and analysis tool has been confirmed by this survey

  10. Farmers' willingness to pay for power in India. Conceptual issues, survey results and implications for pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossani, Rafiq [Senior Research Scholar, Asia-Pacific Research Center, Stanford University, 616 Serra Street, Stanford, CA 94305-6055 (United States); Ranganathan, V. [Professor of Economics and Energy, Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore 560076 (India)

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop strategies useful for raising prices of rural power in India. Such power is currently subsidized and policymakers are eager to make the transition to more efficient prices. The traditionally used measure, willingness to pay (WTP), is shown to have no useful policy implications due to the rationing of power. Using survey data from rural Andhra Pradesh, we show that the utility's cost of power exceeds the income generated by the power. This suggests a political problem - the possibility that low power prices have led to large-scale farming of unproductive land - that will be hard to resolve. Our survey also shows that subsidies are regressive with income. We use measured WTP for higher income groups to propose a discriminatory pricing regime that will raise total revenue by 20%. When combined with removing the causes of motor burnout, such as voltage fluctuations, and eliminating rostering, subsidies can be reduced substantially but probably remain too high to be resolved without political action.

  11. Farmers' willingness to pay for power in India: conceptual issues, survey results and implications for pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossani, Rafiq [Stanford Univ., Asia-Pacific Research Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Ranganathan, V. [Indian Inst. of Management, Bangalore (India)

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop strategies useful for raising prices of rural power in India. Such power is currently subsidized and policymakers are eager to make the transition to more efficient prices. The traditionally used measure, willingness to pay (WTP), is shown to have no useful policy implications due to the rationing of power. Using survey data from rural Andhra Pradesh, we show that the utility's cost of power exceeds the income generated by the power. This suggests a political problem - the possibility that low power prices have led to large-scale farming of unproductive land - that will be hard to resolve. Our survey also shows that subsidies are regressive with income. We use measured WTP for higher income groups to propose a discriminatory pricing regime that will raise total revenue by 20%. When combined with removing the causes of motor burnout, such as voltage fluctuations, and eliminating rostering, subsidies can be reduced substantially but probably remain too high to be resolved without political action. (Author)

  12. The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) : Design, Current Status, and Selected Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Verhulst, Frank C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on

  13. Current and Developing Conceptions of Use: Evaluation Use TIG Survey Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preskill, Hallie; Caracelli, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    A survey was sent to members of the Evaluation Use Topical Interest Group (TIG) to determine their perceptions about and experiences with evaluation use. Responses from 282 members show agreement on the major purposes of evaluation and an increased use of performance-results oriented and formative evaluations. (SLD)

  14. 78 FR 77646 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS) Basic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... age, marital status, gender, Armed Forces status, education, race, origin, and family income. We use... sponsor the basic monthly survey. The Census Bureau also prepares and conducts all the field work. At the.... Some of the information within that portion includes employment status, number of hours worked, job...

  15. 75 FR 78676 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS) Basic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... age, marital status, gender, Armed Forces status, education, race, origin, and family income. We use... sponsor the basic monthly survey. The Census Bureau also prepares and conducts all the field work. At the.... Some of the information within that portion includes employment status, number of hours worked, job...

  16. 78 FR 45910 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS) Email Address...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... Population Survey (CPS) Email Address Collection Test Supplement AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau, Commerce. ACTION... request clearance for the collection of data concerning the November 2013 Email Address Collection Test... tool to help increase response rates. We foresee that in the future, we could collect email addresses...

  17. 77 FR 27020 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS) Voting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... distinct from independent surveys, media polls, or other outside agencies. Federal, state, and local election officials use these data to formulate policies relating to the voting and registration process. College institutions, political party committees, research groups, and other private organizations also...

  18. The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): Design, Current Status, and Selected Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on continuity, discontinuity, risk, and protective…

  19. Outpatient Art Therapy with Multiple Personality Disorder: A Survey of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Anne

    1995-01-01

    Reports findings of a 1993 questionnaire completed by 46 North American art therapists that focuses on the outpatient treatment of multiple personality disorder. Includes information on role in diagnosing, fees and third-party payment, and therapeutic activities. Treatment issues include pacing and containment, and managing the client's chronic…

  20. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of nickel metal-hydride batteries for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D; Hammel, C J; Mark, J

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies important environment, health, and safety issues associated with nickel metal-hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and assesses the need for further testing and analysis. Among the issues discussed are cell and battery safety, workplace health and safety, shipping requirements, and in-vehicle safety. The manufacture and recycling of Ni-MH batteries are also examined. This report also overviews the ``FH&S`` issues associated with other nickel-based electric vehicle batteries; it examines venting characteristics, toxicity of battery materials, and the status of spent batteries as a hazardous waste.