WorldWideScience

Sample records for current issue review

  1. A Review of Current Issues Underlying Colon Cleansing before Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C Hookey

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines four current issues related to the efficacy, patient tolerance and safety of the following bowel cleansing agents: oral sodium phosphate (NaP, polyethylene glycol (PEG and magnesium citrate (Pico-Salax, Ferring Pharmaceuticals Inc, Canada, an agent recently made available in Canada. MedLine and PubMed databases were systematically searched to identify studies related to the efficacy of altered PEG solutions combined with adjunct treatments; the efficacy, tolerability and safety of Pico-Salax; the association between nephrocalcinosis, and chronic renal failure and oral NaP use; and the role of diet. Although lower volume PEG solutions combined with adjuvant agents were generally associated with better patient tolerance, their efficacy was varied and interpretation of this end point is complicated by study design issues. There are very few reported studies of Pico-Salax, and as a result, there are insufficient data to draw conclusions about the efficacy of this agent. The available data suggest that Pico-Salax may be better tolerated by patients, than oral NaP and PEG solutions. There is a paucity of hemodynamic monitoring data pre- and postadministration, but the available data suggests that this small-volume osmotic agent could cause subclinical contraction of the intravascular space. Recent case reports suggest an association between nephrocalcinosis and oral NaP ingestion, but to date, these reports have been confined to a single centre. Preliminary studies suggest that this is not a widespread problem, but more studies are needed. There are only a few studies examining diet and patient tolerability, but they do suggest that diet may be liberalized with some cleansing regimens to enhance tolerability without decreasing efficacy. The present review highlights current controversies and advances in colon cleansing before colonoscopy, and also identifies areas for further study.

  2. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  3. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  4. Transdisciplinarity: A Review of Its Origins, Development, and Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Hillel Bernstein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transdisciplinarity originated in a critique of the standard configuration of knowledge in disciplines in the curriculum, including moral and ethical concerns. Pronouncements about it were first voiced between the climax of government-supported science and higher education and the long retrenchment that began in the 1970s. Early work focused on questions of epistemology and the planning of future universities and educational programs. After a lull, transdisciplinarity re-emerged in the 1990s as an urgent issue relating to the solution of new, highly complex, global concerns, beginning with climate change and sustainability and extending into many areas concerning science, technology, social problems and policy, education, and the arts. Transdisciplinarity today is characterized by its focus on “wicked problems” that need creative solutions, its reliance on stakeholder involvement, and engaged, socially responsible science. In simultaneously studying multiple levels of, and angles on, reality, transdisciplinary work provides an intriguing potential to invigorate scholarly and scientific inquiry both in and outside the academy.

  5. [Resource activation in clinical psychology and psychotherapy: review of theoretical issues and current research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, L J; Stemmler, M; de Zwaan, M

    2012-08-01

    This review summarises theoretical issues and current research on working with clients' resources and strengths in clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Resource activation is considered as an important common factor in psychotherapy. In general, resource activation means an explicit focus on resources, strengths and potentials of the clients. After defining the term resources, considerations with regard to therapeutic attitude, principles of resource activation, approaches to resource diagnostics and different research strategies are presented. Current research focuses especially on the relation between resource activation and process variables in out-patient treatment.

  6. A Review of Current Issues in State-of-Art of Wind Farm Overvoltage Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranko Goić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates on several important outstanding issues in the state-of-art of overvoltage protection selection for modern wind farms. The lack of experience with this still-new technology, together with the inherent complexity of wind farm electrical systems, entails several unresolved issues pertinent to the topic of overvoltage protection, particularly in relation to lightning-initiated surges. Firstly, several aspects of the wind turbine lightning incidence, along with the issues related to the selection of lightning current parameters (pertinent to the wind farm overvoltage protection, are addressed in this paper. Secondly, several issues in the state-of-art models of the wind farm electrical systems—for the lightning surge analysis—are addressed and discussed. Here, a well-known ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP software package is often employed, with all of its benefits and some limitations. Thirdly, the metal-oxide surge arrester energy capability and the issues related to the selection of the surge arrester rated energy—in relation to the direct lightning strikes to wind turbines—is addressed. Finally, some general considerations concerning the overvoltage protection selection for wind farm projects, particularly regarding the installation of the metal-oxide surge arresters, are provided as well.

  7. Current Issues in Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, J B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester (United States)

    2007-02-07

    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference

  8. LMFBR safety. 1. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1960--1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-08-16

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1960 through 1969. The bibliography consists of 1560 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  9. LMFBR safety. 5. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1975--1976)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-06-08

    The current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA), are discussed. Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the period 1975 through 1976. The bibliography consists of approximately 1618 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  10. LMFBR safety. 4. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1974--1975)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-03-21

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1974 through 1975. The bibliography consists of approximately 1554 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  11. LMFBR safety. 2. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1970--1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-11-22

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1970 through 1972. The bibliography consists of approximately 1620 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  12. LMFBR safety. 3. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1972--1974)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-02-24

    The report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1972 through 1974. The bibliography consists of approximately 1380 abstracts covering research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included.

  13. Implications of Current Ecological Thinking for Biodiversity Conservation: a Review of the Salient Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Hobbs

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Given escalating concern worldwide about the loss of biodiversity, and given biodiversity's centrality to quality of life, it is imperative that current ecological knowledge fully informs societal decision making. Over the past two decades, ecological science has undergone many significant shifts in emphasis and perspective, which have important implications for how we manage ecosystems and species. In particular, a shift has occurred from the equilibrium paradigm to one that recognizes the dynamic, non-equilibrium nature of ecosystems. Revised thinking about the spatial and temporal dynamics of ecological systems has important implications for management. Thus, it is of growing concern to ecologists and others that these recent developments have not been translated into information useful to managers and policy makers. Many conservation policies and plans are still based on equilibrium assumptions. A fundamental difficulty with integrating current ecological thinking into biodiversity policy and management planning is that field observations have yet to provide compelling evidence for many of the relationships suggested by non-equilibrium ecology. Yet despite this scientific uncertainty, management and policy decisions must still be made. This paper was motivated by the need for considered scientific debate on the significance of current ideas in theoretical ecology for biodiversity conservation. This paper aims to provide a platform for such discussion by presenting a critical synthesis of recent ecological literature that (1 identifies core issues in ecological theory, and (2 explores the implications of current ecological thinking for biodiversity conservation.

  14. Clopidogrel Resistance: Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NS Neki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet agents are mainly used in the prevention and management of atherothrombotic complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy, combining aspirin and clopidogrel, is the standard care for patients having acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention according to the current ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines. But in spite of administration of dual antiplatelet therapy, some patients develop recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events especially stent thrombosis which is a serious clinical problem. Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel varies widely among patients based on ex vivo platelet function measurements. Clopidogrel is an effective inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation due to its selective and irreversible blockade of the P2Y12 receptor. Patients who display little attenuation of platelet reactivity with clopidogrel therapy are labeled as low or nonresponders or clopidogrel resistant. The mechanism of clopidogrel resistance remains incompletely defined but there are certain clinical, cellular and genetic factors including polymorphisms responsible for therapeutic failure. Currently there is no standardized or widely accepted definition of clopidogrel resistance. The future may soon be realised in the routine measurement of platelet activity in the same way that blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar are followed to help guide the therapy, thus improving the care for millions of people. This review focuses on the methods used to identify patients with clopidogrel resistance, the underlying mechanisms, metabolism, clinical significance and current therapeutic strategies to overcome clopidogrel resistance. J Enam Med Col 2016; 6(1: 38-46

  15. Book Review: Siroj Sorajjakool: Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government

    OpenAIRE

    Manassinee Moottatarn

    2014-01-01

    Book Review of the Monograph: Siroj Sorajjakool (2013), Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, ISBN: 978-616-215-060-9, 235 pages. Human trafficking is not widely reported in local Thai news, and news of it is often only picked up by international correspondents. The extent of this problem has only started to reveal itself as a widespread problem in the kingdom.

  16. Book Review: Siroj Sorajjakool: Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manassinee Moottatarn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of the Monograph: Siroj Sorajjakool (2013, Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, ISBN: 978-616-215-060-9, 235 pages. Human trafficking is not widely reported in local Thai news, and news of it is often only picked up by international correspondents. The extent of this problem has only started to reveal itself as a widespread problem in the kingdom.

  17. Book Review: Siroj Sorajjakool: Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government

    OpenAIRE

    Manassinee Moottatarn

    2014-01-01

    Book Review of the Monograph: Siroj Sorajjakool (2013), Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, ISBN: 978-616-215-060-9, 235 pages. Human trafficking is not widely reported in local Thai news, and news of it is often only picked up by international correspondents. The extent of this problem has only started to reveal itself as a widespread problem in the kingdom.

  18. Current issues and actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  19. Integrated primary health care in Greece, a missing issue in the current health policy agenda: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lionis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past years, Greece has undergone several endeavors aimed at modernizing and improving national health care services with a focus on PHC. However, the extent to which integrated primary health care has been achieved is still questioned. Purpose: This paper explores the extent to which integrated primary health care (PHC is an issue in the current agenda of policy makers in Greece, reporting constraints and opportunities and highlighting the need for a policy perspective in developing integrated PHC in this Southern European country. Methods: A systematic review in PubMed/Medline and SCOPUS, along with a hand search in selected Greek biomedical journals was undertaken to identify key papers, reports, editorials or opinion letters relevant to integrated health care. Results: Our systematic review identified 198 papers and 161 out of them were derived from electronic search. Fifty-three papers in total served the scope of this review and are shortly reported. A key finding is that the long-standing dominance of medical perspectives in Greek health policy has been paving the way towards vertical integration, pushing aside any discussions about horizontal or comprehensive integration of care. Conclusion: Establishment of integrated PHC in Greece is still at its infancy, requiring major restructuring of the current national health system, as well as organizational culture changes. Moving towards a new policy-based model would bring this missing issue on the discussion table, facilitating further development.

  20. Algeria: Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    exports and a concomitant drop in revenues. An International Monetary Fund (IMF) evaluation in December 2010 concluded that the government’s expansionary ... Policy , coordinated by John Rollins. President Bouteflika’s tenure has produced an energized foreign policy . Strains in ties with neighboring Morocco...Issues for U.S. Policy ............................................................................................................3 Background

  1. Institutional Review Board approval and innovation in urology: current practice and safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Varun; Vemana, Goutham; Bhayani, Sam B

    2014-02-01

    To retrospectively review recent publications describing novel procedures/techniques, and describe the Institutional Review Board (IRB)/ethics approval process and potential ethical dilemmas in their reporting. We searched PubMed for papers about innovative or novel procedures/techniques between 2011 and August 2012. A query of titles/abstracts in the Journal of Urology, Journal of Endourology, European Urology, BJU International, and Urology identified relevant papers. These results were reviewed for human studies that described an innovative technique, procedure, approach, initial series, and/or used new technology. In all, 91 papers met criteria for inclusion; 25 from the Journal of Endourology, 14 from the Journal of Urology, nine from European Urology, 15 from the BJU International and 28 from Urology. IRB/ethics approval was given for an experimental procedure or database in 24% and 22%, respectively. IRB/ethics approval was not mentioned in 52.7% of studies. Published IRB/ethics approvals for innovative techniques are heterogeneous including database, retrospective, and prospective approvals. Given the concept that innovations are likely not in the legal or ethical standard of care, strong consideration should be given to obtaining IRB/ethics approval before the actual procedure, instead of approval to merely report database outcomes. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  2. LMFBR safety. 6. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1977)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1978-07-13

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development. Selected bibliographic information on LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the year 1977. The bibliography consists of approximately 198 abstracts covering research and development, operating experience, and design practices. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  3. Current issues with research support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W.T.

    1996-03-01

    It would be difficult to condense current issues in nuclear reactor regulation to just a few minutes. So, let me start off by saying that I have not tried to give a comprehensive listing of issues that are currently facing the reactor program, but rather to select those that I thought were relevant as they relate to research activities. Use of probabilistic risk assessment in regulatory decisions; materials aging issues concerning steam generators and reactor vessels; high burnup fuels; accident management; and digital instrumentation and control, are just a sampling of the important issues that I want to talk about.

  4. Cancer screening in the United States, 2016: A review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Andrews, Kimberly; Brooks, Durado; DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Each year the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection, data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, we summarize current ACS cancer screening guidelines, including the update of the breast cancer screening guideline, discuss quality issues in colorectal cancer screening and new developments in lung cancer screening, and provide the latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey.

  5. Review on current advances, future challenges and consideration issues for post-combustion CO2 capture using amine-based absorbents☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwu Liang; Kaiyun Fu; Raphael Idem; Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul

    2016-01-01

    Among the current technologies for post-combustion CO2 capture, amine-based chemical absorption appears to be the most technologically mature and commercial y viable method. This review highlights the opportunities and challenges in post-combustion CO2 capture using amine-based chemical absorption technologies. In addi-tion, this review provides current types and emerging trends for chemical solvents. The issues and performance of amine solvents are reviewed and addressed in terms of thermodynamics, kinetics, mass transfer, regeneration and solvent management. This review also looks at emerging and future trends in post-combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents in the near to mid-term.

  6. Current Issues in Maritime Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagtmann, Maria Anne

    2008-01-01

     In the early part of 2008, Maria Anne Wagtmann had the opportunity to interview the former president of the International Maritime Health Association, Dr. Tim Carter, in London about a number of current maritime health issues. In this interview, Dr. Tim Carter, who is cur­rently employed...

  7. Cancer screening in the United States, 2015: a review of current American cancer society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Brooks, Durado; Doroshenk, Mary; Fedewa, Stacey; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Each year, the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection along with a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, we summarize current ACS cancer screening guidelines. The latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) also is described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Affordable Care Act, including the expansion of the Medicaid program.

  8. Power quality issues current harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkili, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics provides solutions for the mitigation of power quality problems related to harmonics. Focusing on active power filters (APFs) due to their excellent harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three-phase without neutral), and four-wire (three-phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads, the text:Introduces the APF technology, describing various APF configurations and offering guidelines for the selection of APFs for specific application considerationsCompares shunt active filter (SHAF) control strategi

  9. Cancer screening in the United States, 2017: A review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Andrews, Kimberly S; Brooks, Durado; Fedewa, Stacey A; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard C

    2017-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Each year, the American Cancer Society publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection, data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, the authors summarize current American Cancer Society cancer screening guidelines, describe an update of their guideline for using human papillomavirus vaccination for cancer prevention, describe updates in US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for breast and colorectal cancer screening, discuss interim findings from the UK Collaborative Trial on Ovarian Cancer Screening, and provide the latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:100-121. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. TREATMENT OF GASEOUS EFFLUENTS ISSUED FROM RECYCLING – A REVIEW OF THE CURRENT PRACTICES AND PROSPECTIVE IMPROVEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; William Kerlin; Steven Bakhtiar

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of gaseous waste management for the recycling of nuclear used fuel is to reduce by best practical means (ALARA) and below regulatory limits, the quantity of activity discharged to the environment. The industrial PUREX process recovers the fissile material U(VI) and Pu(IV) to re-use them for the fabrication of new fuel elements e.g. recycling plutonium as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel or recycling uranium for new enrichment for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Meanwhile the separation of the waste (activation and fission product) is performed as a function of their pollution in order to store and avoid any potential danger and release towards the biosphere. Raffinate, that remains after the extraction step and which contains mostly all fission products and minor actinides is vitrified, the glass package being stored temporarily at the recycling plant site. Hulls and end pieces coming from PWR recycled fuel are compacted by means of a press leading to a volume reduced to 1/5th of initial volume. An organic waste treatment step will recycle the solvent, mainly tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) and some of its hydrolysis and radiolytic degradation products such as dibutyl phosphate (HDPB) and monobutyl phosphate (H2MBP). Although most scientific and technological development work focused on high level waste streams, a considerable effort is still under way in the area of intermediate and low level waste management. Current industrial practices for the treatment of gaseous effluents focusing essentially on Iodine-129 and Krypton-85 will be reviewed along with the development of novel technologies to extract, condition, and store these fission products. As an example, the current industrial practice is to discharge Kr-85, a radioactive gas, entirely to the atmosphere after dilution, but for the large recycling facilities envisioned in the near future, several techniques such as 1) cryogenic distillation and selective absorption in solvents, 2) adsorption on activated

  11. Current health issues in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ho Hong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During the adolescent period, they experience rapid physical, emotional, cognitive developments while they establish their lifestyle and habitual routines that strongly influence adult health and life. Recent rapid economic growth in Korea, and the earlier onset of physical, sexual, and psychological maturation of adolescents, has resulted in changes in the health status of adolescents from many years ago. Risk-taking behaviors such as drinking alcohol, smoking, and sexual experiences are critical issues that affect the health of, adolescents. Therefore, it is important for pediatricians to note the that risk-taking behaviors of adolescents in Korea that are caused by individual psychosocial factors. This review article illustrates the current health status of Korean adolescents and provides an overview of risktaking behaviors, to inform pediatricians about some of the key issues.

  12. Current Issues in Teacher Autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a review of a selection of the literature in the field of English foreign language teaching related to teacher autonomy. The focus is on the core themes recurring in the literature, which comprise: rationale for teacher autonomy, definitions of the concept, descriptions of an autonomous teacher, recognition of the constraints on autonomy and suggestions for teacher education promoting teacher autonomy.

  13. Current bioethical issues in parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boury, D; Dei-Cas, E

    2008-09-01

    Parasitic diseases constitute the most common infections among the poorest billion people, entailing high mortality rates and leading to long-term infirmities and poverty. Although the setting-up of public health programs implies many ethical consequences, the range of specific questions in parasitology that can be attributed to bioethics remains, to a large extent, unexplored. From the present analysis, it emerged three main issues which characterize ethical stakes in parasitology: accounting the complexity of the field of intervention, putting the principle of justice into practice and managing the changing context of research. From the research angle, medical parasitology-mycology, as other biological disciplines, is undergoing tensions derived from biological reductionism. Thanks to its links with the history and philosophy of the sciences, bioethics can help to clarify them and to explain the growing hold that technologies have over scientific thinking. On the whole, researchers as well as clinicians are called on to assume a specific responsibility, proportional to their competence and their place in the making of scientific, health, economic and social decisions.

  14. Current issues in peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannagan, Thomas H

    2012-05-01

    Twenty million people in the United States are estimated to have peripheral neuropathy. However, many patients are not aware of their diagnosis, are not given the diagnosis or being treated, or the diagnosis is delayed. Currently, the only treatments available for neuropathy are aimed at treating the underlying medical conditions that cause the neuropathy or treating symptoms such as pain. Neither treats the actual nerve fiber dysfunction or fiber loss, or helps nerve fibers regenerate. Idiopathic neuropathy, that is neuropathy for which a cause is not identified, is common, accounting in referral series for 25% in all neuropathy patients and 50% or more of patients with small fiber neuropathy. Currently, there is only one FDA-approved medication for a specific neuropathy (chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy) while there are two FDA approved medications for diabetic neuropathy pain and four that are approved for post-herpetic neuralgia pain. For many patients with painful neuropathy, these medications are ineffective or not tolerated. Continued research into the underlying mechanisms of neuropathy and an increased understanding of nerve regeneration and neuropathic pain are needed to address this unmet medical need among patients with neuropathy.

  15. [Current issues in hereditary neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, A

    2013-12-01

    This short review highlights five studies published in 2012 in the field of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and transthyretin familial amyloid neuropathies (TTR-FAN). Regarding CMT, an Australian pediatric study shows the high prevalence of impaired speech perception and hearing disability in children with CMT1 or CMT2 with normal or near normal audiometry (Rance et al., 2012). In a second study, the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of 14 patients with CMT4C due to mutations in SH3TC2 gene are described (Yger et al., 2012). The 3 clinical hallmarks of CMT4C patients in this French cohort are the high prevalence of scoliosis, the proximal motor weakness and the cranial nerves involvement. Concerning TTR-FAN, the first data from French and international registries are reported (Adams et al., 2012; Coelho et al., 2013) and a phase II trial describes the results of taurourodeoxycholic acid and doxycycline treatment (Obici et al., 2012).

  16. Module Technology: Current Practice and Issues (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2010-10-05

    PV modules must provide mechanical support for the cells, protect the world from the voltages inside, protect the cells, diodes and interconnects from the weather outside, couple as much light as possible into the PV cells and minimize the temperature increase of the cells. The package must continue to serve these functions for at least 25 years as that is the typical module warranty period today. Furthermore the package must do all this for as low a cost as possible since the key to large scale PV growth is a reduction in cost while retaining excellent module reliability and durability. This paper will review current module construction practices for both crystalline silicon and thin film PV with emphasis on explaining why the present designs and materials have been selected. Possible long term issues with today's designs and materials will be discussed. Several proposed solutions to these issues will be presented, highlighting the research efforts that will be necessary in order to verify that they can cost effectively solve the identified issues.

  17. Current ethical issues in animal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul B

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reviews the current status of opinion and debate regarding ethical issues in three broad categories of relevance to animal biotechnology. The first is scientific integrity, where the focus has been on scientific fraud and the integrity of the research process. The second concerns possible harms or risks to parties affected either directly by research (including animals themselves) or through the eventual commercialisation or development of products from animal biotechnology. The final category concerns a responsibility to serve as a guardian of the public interest with respect to application and development of technologies derived from new genetic sciences. It is plausible to see the scientific community as a whole having such a fiduciary obligation to the broader public in virtue of the technical complexity of the issues and owing to the public funding and institutional support for scientific research. The overall conclusion is that in the latter two categories especially, there is an urgent need for new participation in deliberative consideration of ethical issues by working scientists.

  18. PETC review: Issue 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santore, R.R.; Friedman, S.; Reiss, J.; Waehner, M.J. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    Since its beginning, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center`s (PETC) primary function has been to study and conduct research on coal and its uses and applications. PETC has also been investigating ways in which natural gas can be employed to enhance the use of coal and to convert natural gas into liquid products that can be more readily transported and stored. This review contains five articles which reflect PETC`s mission: State-of-the-Art High Performance Power Systems [HIPPS]; Unconventional Fuel Uses of Natural Gas; Micronized Magnetite -- Beneficiation and Benefits; Reburning for NO{sub x} Reduction; and An Update of PETC`s Process Research Facility.

  19. [Current issues in medical liability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatsch, H J

    1987-01-01

    Currently, liability discussions are being dominated by AIDS and the legal problems associated with birth and death. The introduction of routine AIDS tests without the knowledge of those concerned is disputed heatedly and, in fact, may well constitute bodily assault and render those responsible liable to prosecution. In AIDS cases, the apparent breach of the Hippocratic oath of secrecy by Physicians can be justified on the grounds of both the extraordinary circumstances prevailing and conflicting duties. The transmission of AIDS could give rise to prosecution for causing bodily injury or manslaughter. The drawing up of a law to protect embryos is designed to establish legal constraints in the fields of reproduction and gene technology. In reframing section 168 StGB, which provides protection to the dead embryo, legislators assume that the head of a medical clinic is the lawful custodian of the corpse of a person who has died in his institution. This should help to resolve many of the problems arising from post-mortem examinations. The questions of euthanasia and medical assistance in cases of suicide were raised at the 1986 Conference of German Lawyers. Whereas medical treatment that could be considered as interference with the natural process of dying may be withdrawn in the case of irreversible terminal suffering, active euthanasia, i.e. the deliberate killing of a terminal patient, was rejected. With regard to noninterference in a suicide attempt by a third party, the free decision of the person wishing to commit suicide should be respected. In general, however, the maxim in dubio pro vita should be respected and where any doubt exists, an attempt should be made to save the person's life.

  20. Radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in Japan: current issues with historical review and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Tatsuya; Kudo, Takashi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2012-02-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI, (131)I) has been used as a therapeutic agent for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with over 50 years of history. Recently, it is now attracting attention in medical fields as one of the molecular targeting therapies, which is known as targeted radionuclide therapy. Radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) for DTC, however, is now at stake in Japan, because Japan is confronting several problems, including the recent occurrence of the Great East Japan Disaster (GEJD) in March 2011. RIT for DTC is strictly limited in Japan and requires hospitalization. Because of strict regulations, severe lack of medical facilities for RIT has become one of the most important medical problems, which results in prolonged waiting time for Japanese patients with DTC, including those with distant metastasis, who wish to receive RIT immediately. This situation is also due to various other factors, such as prolonged economic recession, super-aging society, and subsequent rapidly changing medical environment. In addition, due to the experience of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese people have strong feeling of "radiophobia". There is fear that GEJD and related radiation contamination may worsen this feeling, which might be reflected in more severe regulation of RIT. To overcome these difficulties, it is essential to collect and disclose all information about the circumstances around this therapy in Japan. In this review, we would like to look at this therapy through several lenses, including historical, cultural, medical, and socio-economic points of view. We believe that clarifying the problems is sure to lead to the resolution of this complicated situation. We have also included several recommendations for future improvements.

  1. Submarine and deep-sea mine tailing placements: A review of current practices, environmental issues, natural analogs and knowledge gaps in Norway and internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Trannum, Hilde C; Evenset, Anita; Levin, Lisa A; Andersson, Malin; Finne, Tor Erik; Hilario, Ana; Flem, Belinda; Christensen, Guttorm; Schaanning, Morten; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-08-15

    The mining sector is growing in parallel with societal demands for minerals. One of the most important environmental issues and economic burdens of industrial mining on land is the safe storage of the vast amounts of waste produced. Traditionally, tailings have been stored in land dams, but the lack of land availability, potential risk of dam failure and topography in coastal areas in certain countries results in increasing disposal of tailings into marine systems. This review describes the different submarine tailing disposal methods used in the world in general and in Norway in particular, their impact on the environment (e.g. hyper-sedimentation, toxicity, processes related to changes in grain shape and size, turbidity), current legislation and need for future research. Understanding these impacts on the habitat and biota is essential to assess potential ecosystem changes and to develop best available techniques and robust management plans.

  2. Electromigration Issues in High Current Horn

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wu; Hseuh, Brigitte; Sandberg, Jon; Simos, Nikolaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Weng, Wu-Tsung

    2005-01-01

    The secondary particle focusing horn for the AGS neutrino experiment proposal is a high current and high current density device. The peak current of horn is 300 kA. At the smallest area of horn, the current density is near 8 kA/mm2. At very high current density, a few kA/mm2, the electromigration phenomena will occur. Momentum transfer between electrons and metal atoms at high current density causes electromigration. The reliability and lifetime of focusing horn can be severely reduced by electromigration. In this paper, we discuss issues such as device reliability model, incubation time of electromigration, and lifetime of horn.

  3. A reassessment of the potential for an alpha-mode containment failure and a review of the current understanding of broader fuel-coolant interaction issues. Second steam explosion review group workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Ginsberg, T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This report summarizes the review and evaluation by experts of the current understanding of the molten fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) issues covering the complete spectrum of interactions, i.e., from mild quenching to very energetic interactions including those that could lead to the alpha-mode containment failure. Of the eleven experts polled, all but two concluded that the alpha-mode failure issue was resolved from a risk perspective, meaning that this mode of failure is of very low probability, that it is of little or no significance to the overall risk from a nuclear power plant, and that any further reduction in residual uncertainties is not likely to change the probability in an appreciable manner. To a lesser degree, discussions also took place on the broader FCI issues such as mild quenching of core melt during non-explosive FCI, and shock loading of lower head and ex-vessel support structures arising from explosive localized FCIs. These latter issues are relevant with regard to determining the efficacy of certain accident management strategies for operating reactors as well as for advanced light water reactors. The experts reviewed the status of understanding of the FCI phenomena in the context of these broader issues, identified residual uncertainties in the understanding, and recommended future research (both experimental and analytical) to reduce the uncertainties.

  4. Internet Addiction: A Current Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bozkurt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction, which has become a global social issue, can be broadly conceptualized as an inability to control ones use of the Internet which leads to negative consequences in daily life. Only Internet Gaming Disorder has been included in the appendix of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition (DSM-5, but it has already been argued that Internet addiction could also comprise problematic use of other Internet applications developing an addictive behavior. This paper aims to give a current review of the gradually evolving body of literature on Internet addiction. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(3.000: 235-247

  5. Canada - gas supply, demand and current issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollman, K.W. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-12-01

    This paper examines the trends in natural gas supply and demand during the decade since deregulation, and provides an assessment of the degree to which the goals of the deregulation agreement have been met. The author then turns to a discussion of current issues in the natural gas industry as seen from a regulator`s perspective. The issues discussed include: excess deliverability and price; pipeline integrity; the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act; new pipeline certification; pipeline jurisdiction; export licensing; financial regulation; and electronic information exchange. (Author)

  6. Reforming health care in Canada: current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Enis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current health care reform issues in Canada. The provincial health insurance plans of the 1960s and 1970s had the untoward effects of limiting the federal government's clout for cost control and of promoting a system centered on inpatient and medical care. Recently, several provincial commissions reported that the current governance structures and management processes are outmoded in light of new knowledge, new fiscal realities and the evolution of power among stake-holders. They recommend decentralized governance and restructuring for better management and more citizen participation. Although Canada's health care system remains committed to safeguarding its guiding principles, the balance of power may be shifting from providers to citizens and "technocrats". Also, all provinces are likely to increase their pressure on physicians by means of salary caps, by exploring payment methods such as capitation, limiting access to costly technology, and by demanding practice changes based on evidence of cost-effectiveness.

  7. Cancer screening in the United States, 2013: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines, current issues in cancer screening, and new guidance on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Brooks, Durado; Cokkinides, Vilma; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W

    2013-01-01

    Each year the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its recommendations for early cancer detection, a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, current ACS cancer screening guidelines are summarized, as are updated guidelines on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening with low-dose helical computed tomography. The latest data on the use of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey also are described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010.

  8. Current Issues in the Classification of Psychotic Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jennifer; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Maj, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide. There are a number of depression subtypes, and there has been much debate about how to most accurately capture and organize the features and subtypes of major depression. We review the current state of categorizing unipolar major depression with psychotic features (psychotic major depression, PMD), including clinical, biological, and treatment aspects of the disorder. We then propose some improvements to the current unipolar major depression categorization system. Finally, we identify important issues in need of further research to help elucidate the subtype of unipolar PMD. PMID:17548842

  9. Sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopy: current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafillidis, John K; Merikas, Emmanuel; Nikolakis, Dimitrios; Papalois, Apostolos E

    2013-01-28

    Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy can successfully be performed by applying moderate (conscious) sedation. Moderate sedation, using midazolam and an opioid, is the standard method of sedation, although propofol is increasingly being used in many countries because the satisfaction of endoscopists with propofol sedation is greater compared with their satisfaction with conventional sedation. Moreover, the use of propofol is currently preferred for the endoscopic sedation of patients with advanced liver disease due to its short biologic half-life and, consequently, its low risk of inducing hepatic encephalopathy. In the future, propofol could become the preferred sedation agent, especially for routine colonoscopy. Midazolam is the benzodiazepine of choice because of its shorter duration of action and better pharmacokinetic profile compared with diazepam. Among opioids, pethidine and fentanyl are the most popular. A number of other substances have been tested in several clinical trials with promising results. Among them, newer opioids, such as remifentanil, enable a faster recovery. The controversy regarding the administration of sedation by an endoscopist or an experienced nurse, as well as the optimal staffing of endoscopy units, continues to be a matter of discussion. Safe sedation in special clinical circumstances, such as in the cases of obese, pregnant, and elderly individuals, as well as patients with chronic lung, renal or liver disease, requires modification of the dose of the drugs used for sedation. In the great majority of patients, sedation under the supervision of a properly trained endoscopist remains the standard practice worldwide. In this review, an overview of the current knowledge concerning sedation during digestive endoscopy will be provided based on the data in the current literature.

  10. Reproductive rights: Current issues of late abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law context and also the matter of the woman's reproductive rights, here observed through legislation and court practice. The gynecologist has an obligation to obtain the informed consent of each patient. Information's should be presented in reasonably understandable terms and include alternative modes of treatment, objectives, risks, benefits, possible complications, and anticipated results of such treatment. Pregnant woman should receive supportive counseling before and particularly after the procedure. The method chosen for all terminations should ensure that the fetus is born dead. This should be undertaken by an appropriately trained practitioner. Reform in abortion law, making it legally accessible to woman, is not necessarily the product of a belief in woman's rights, but can be a means of bringing the practice of abortion back under better control. Counseling and good medical practice in performing late abortion are the instruments to drive this point even further home. It does not undermine the woman who wants to make a positive decision about her life and its purpose is not to produce feelings of insecurity and guilt. It concludes that existing law should not be changed but that clear rules should be devised and board created to review late term abortion. In Serbia, this leads to creation and set up guidelines for reconciling medical justification for late abortion with existing law, especially with solutions which brings comparative law. .

  11. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in behavioral and food addiction: A systematic review of efficacy, technical and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eSauvaget

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives.Behavioral addictions (BA are complex disorders for which pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments have shown their limits. Non-invasive brain stimulation, among which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, has opened up new perspectives in addiction treatment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a critical and systematic review of tDCS efficacy, and of technical and methodological considerations in the field of BA.Methods.A bibliographic search has been conducted on the Medline and ScienceDirect databases until December 2014, based on the following selection criteria: clinical studies on tDCS and BA (namely eating disorders, compulsive buying, Internet addiction, pathological gambling, sexual addiction, sports addiction, video games addiction. Study selection, data analysis and reporting were conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines.Results.Out of 402 potential articles, seven studies were selected. So far focusing essentially on abnormal eating, these studies suggest that tDCS (right prefrontal anode / left prefrontal cathode reduces food craving induced by visual stimuli.ConclusionsDespite methodological and technical differences between studies, the results are promising. So far, only few studies of tDCS in BA have been conducted. New research is recommended on the use of tDCS in BA, other than eating disorders.

  12. Novel foods and food allergies: A review of the issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van M.C.; Frewer, L.J.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Gremmen, B.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Wichers, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    This review identifies and explores the current issues around different types of novel foods and allergy concerns. An important issue relates to the observation that risk estimates associated with novel foods may differ depending on whether more emphasis is placed by the individual on the results of

  13. MEMS Packaging - Current Issues and Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DRESSENDORFER,PAUL V.; PETERSON,DAVID W.; REBER,CATHLEEN ANN

    2000-01-19

    The assembly and packaging of MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) devices raise a number of issues over and above those normally associated with the assembly of standard microelectronic circuits. MEMS components include a variety of sensors, microengines, optical components, and other devices. They often have exposed mechanical structures which during assembly require particulate control, space in the package, non-contact handling procedures, low-stress die attach, precision die placement, unique process schedules, hermetic sealing in controlled environments (including vacuum), and other special constraints. These constraints force changes in the techniques used to separate die on a wafer, in the types of packages which can be used in the assembly processes and materials, and in the sealing environment and process. This paper discusses a number of these issues and provides information on approaches being taken or proposed to address them.

  14. Current safety issues of CANDU licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. [University of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada); Natalizio, A. [ENSAC Associates, Ontario (Canada)

    1994-01-15

    As requested by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety(KINS), the status of five generic licensing issues has been examined and their potential impact on a new plant that would be constructed in Canada has been evaluated. The results and conclusions of this evaluation are summarized as follows: steam explosion in calandria, hydrogen explosion in containment, use of PSA in reactor licensing, human factors, safety critical software.

  15. A review of design issues specific to hypersonic flight vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziroczak, D.; Smith, H.

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current technical issues and challenges associated with the design of hypersonic vehicles. Two distinct classes of vehicles are reviewed; Hypersonic Transports and Space Launchers, their common features and differences are examined. After a brief historical overview, the paper takes a multi-disciplinary approach to these vehicles, discusses various design aspects, and technical challenges. Operational issues are explored, including mission profiles, current and predicted markets, in addition to environmental effects and human factors. Technological issues are also reviewed, focusing on the three major challenge areas associated with these vehicles: aerothermodynamics, propulsion, and structures. In addition, matters of reliability and maintainability are also presented. The paper also reviews the certification and flight testing of these vehicles from a global perspective. Finally the current stakeholders in the field of hypersonic flight are presented, summarizing the active programs and promising concepts.

  16. Urban air quality management - current issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplin, N. [Sheffield City Council, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Environment and Regulatory Services; Virtanen, T. [Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council, Helsinki (Finland); Mladonicky, P. [National Centre of Health Promotion, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2002-07-01

    In 1996 the EC adopted the Ambient Air Quality and Assessment Directive, which is designed to provide a comprehensive strategy for the management of air quality in Member States, linking controls on emissions with the attainment of air quality objectives. The subsequent Daughter Directives provide limit values, based on health effects, for specified pollutants. In essence Member States have to monitor and assess air quality and where necessary draw up air pollution minimisation plans. This paper explores the practical issues facing three European cities, Sheffield, Helsinki and Bratislava as they face the challenge of implementing action necessary to bring about improvements in air quality by 2010. There are very different problems to resolve due to each City's particular characteristics, although they all share the same cause of the problem - road traffic. Although the technical solutions appear to be relatively straight forward each city faces the problems of trying to educate its citizens, to bring about changes in individual behaviour so that everyone can benefit from better air quality. Sheffield now faces an added level of complexity as its economic performance is below the European average and it has attained Objective 1 status which will introduce a huge investment to kick start the economy and make sure it continues to thrive. (orig.)

  17. Dental ceramics: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2014-03-01

    Ceramics are used for many dental applications and are characterized in various ways, including by their hardness, brittleness, thermal and electrical insulation, and biocompatibility. The ceramics most commonly used in dentistry are oxides, particularly silicon dioxide (SiO2), or silica; aluminum oxide (Al2O3), or alumina; and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), or zirconia. This article reviews the microstructure of current dental ceramic materials and how it relates to their mechanical properties, clinical techniques, and optical properties. Typical ceramics currently in use are described, and their clinically relevant properties such as strength, fracture, polishability, and wear are compared. Cementation methods are also discussed.

  18. State of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children: current research issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Desiree; Arentoft, Alyssa; Scheiner, Diane; Westerveld, Michael; Baron, Ida Sue

    2008-09-01

    Scientific attention to cultural considerations in child neuropsychological assessment has not developed parallel to the focus these issues have received in adult and elderly neuropsychological assessment. There are limited data on the presence, magnitude, etiology, and implications of culture-related differences in cognitive test performance among children. This preliminary report reviews the available empirical literature on the current state of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children. The review identified articles by searching PubMed and PsycINFO databases, and the tables of contents of Developmental Neuropsychology and Child Neuropsychology from 2003-2008. Of the 1,834 abstracts reviewed, ten papers met inclusion criteria for the review. Five studies were completed in America; four of these compared performance between ethnic groups while the fifth examined neighborhood level poverty indicators exclusively within African-American children. Of the five international studies, all established local normative data and/or were exploratory investigations of neuropsychological functions in specific cultural groups, including Taiwanese infants, South African youth, and bilingual British children. Taken together, the results yield important clinical and research data that begin to inform many of the complex and fascinating mechanisms by which ethnic identity and culture impact cognitive development and the neuropsychological assessment of children. A critique of the existing literature and directions for future research are provided.

  19. Cooperatives in Serbia: Evolution and current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chroneos-Krasavac Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperatives in Serbia have long history, evolving from big traditional families to the contemporary social networked organizations and even private companies acting like coops. Current legal framework, on one side, enables many possibilities, but on the other side prevents further development of cooperatives. An interview of key players in the coop sector was one of the research methods. Other methods include historical method, comparative analysis method and case study method. In conclusion, the major obstacle for the further coops development in Serbia is legal status of ownership. Other obstacles are: the level of state interference, the loyalty of primary producers and participants, the average land size per households, etc. The paper includes three parts: historical evolution, successful case study and framework for future development.

  20. Hidden Curriculum as One of Current Issue of Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2015-01-01

    There are several issues in the education system, especially in the curriculum field that affect education. Hidden curriculum is one of current controversial curriculum issues. Many hidden curricular issues are the result of assumptions and expectations that are not formally communicated, established, or conveyed within the learning environment.…

  1. Mammary ductoscopy: current issues and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Ken; Fukushima, Hisaki; Toriumi, Yasuo; Kawase, Kazumi; Tabei, Isao; Yamashita, Akinori; Nogi, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, the mammary duct had not been directly observed in vivo. Starting with the success of Teboul et al., studies of mammary ductoscopy (MD) for nipple discharge have been performed in Japan and other East Asian countries. Ductal lavage screening trials for breast cancer started in the 2000s. Concurrently, the number of English-language articles about MD increased. Sixty-nine English-language and 74 Japanese-language papers published in the last 19 years were reviewed. Important reports and studies were analyzed. MD has undergone significant technological development, and studies of MD have taken place in many countries. As a result, endoscopic images of the mammary duct have developed, and the endoscopic diagnosis for nipple discharge has become possible. MD-guided biopsy and surgery have been studied. Findings of MD are useful for diagnosing intraductal lesions with nipple discharge. As a result, MD has reduced the number and extent of microdochectomies. MD is also helpful in guiding breast-conserving surgery. Many pioneers have tried direct biopsy or interventions under MD, but further developments are necessary for its practical use.

  2. Current Water Issues Faced with Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘柳

    2009-01-01

    Tianjin is the third biggest city in China,but currently facing a severe water shortage.Historically,due to Tianjin's geographic location it is a water rich city,but over the past 50 decades has become a water poor area.Over all both quality and quantity of Tianjin's water resource are declining.Recommendations arc made to resolve this water problem in different aspects.%天津作为中国的直辖市之一,目前面临着严重水资源短缺的问题.在历史上,因为它的地理位置,天津是水资源丰富的城市.然而近几十年来天津已经成为水资源极度匮乏地区.天津水资源的数量和质量都在急刷下降.在这篇文章中提出了一些建议来帮助解决这些水问题.

  3. Antibiotic resistance: current issues and future strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Scarafile

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic resistance (antimicrobial resistance – AMR and the particular emergence of multi-resistant bacterial strains, is a problem of clinical relevance involving serious threats to public health worldwide. From early this decade, a lot of studies have demonstrated a significant increase in the rates of antibiotic resistance by bacterial pathogens responsible for nosocomial and community infections all over the world. The AMR leads to a reduced drug efficacy in the treatment options available and therefore, to an increase in mortality rates. The original causes of the phenomenon are: environmental factors which favor a mutation of the genetic bacterial inheritance, thereby inhibiting the active ingredient of the antibiotics; unsuitable administering of antibiotics in veterinary, incorrect taking both in hospitals and at home and, lately, lack of investments in the development of new drugs. The alarming epidemiological data prompted the World Health Organization (WHO in 2011 to coin the slogan "No action today, no cure tomorrow" in order to immediately implement a new strategy to improve the use of available drugs and to accelerate the introduction of new ones through a new phase of research involving private and public institutions. The European Union has stressed that the surveillance is considered an essential factor for an effective response to this problem but it has also highlighted that the results produced have been lower than expectations because of serious shortcomings such as lack of methodological standards, insufficient data sharing and no coordination among European countries. In Italy the situation is much more troubling; in fact, according to the Ministry of Health, 5000-7000 yearly deaths are deemed due to nosocomial infections, with an annual cost of more than 100 million €.These figures explain how the fight against infections is far from being won. The purpose of this review is to analyze the basic causes of the

  4. PETC Review, Issue 5, Spring 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaustein, B.D.; Reiss, J.; Tarquinio, M.A.; Brown, J.; Evans, E. [eds.

    1992-07-01

    This issue of PETC Review contains short discussion on the following topics: advanced coal preparation processes, new scrubbers for flue gas desulfurization, PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility, and PETC`s Science Outreach Program. Supplemental sections on publications, highlights, calendars, etc. are also included. (VC)

  5. PETC Review, Issue 5, Spring 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaustein, B D; Reiss, J; Tarquinio, M A; Brown, J; Evans, E [eds.

    1992-04-01

    This issue of PETC Review contains short discussion on the following topics: advanced coal preparation processes, new scrubbers for flue gas desulfurization, PETC's Coal Preparation Process Research Facility, and PETC's Science Outreach Program. Supplemental sections on publications, highlights, calendars, etc. are also included. (VC)

  6. School Counselors: A Review of Contemporary Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Steve F.

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to review the topic of school counselors and the contemporary issues surrounding this profession. An introduction to the profession and overview of its history provides a comprehensive basis on which to understand today's school counseling profession. An examination of contemporary themes of school counseling will include job…

  7. Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: A Current Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M. Twomley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM is a rare but potentially lethal complication of pregnancy occurring in approximately 1 : 3,000 live births in the United States although some series report a much higher incidence. African-American women are particularly at risk. Diagnosis requires symptoms of heart failure in the last month of pregnancy or within five months of delivery in the absence of recognized cardiac disease prior to pregnancy as well as objective evidence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. This paper provides an updated, comprehensive review of PPCM, including emerging insights into the etiology of this disorder as well as current treatment options.

  8. Cancer screening in the United States, 2013: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines, current issues in cancer screening, and new guidance on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Robert A; Brooks, Durado; Cokkinides, Vilma; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W

    2013-01-01

    Each year the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its recommendations for early cancer detection, a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening...

  9. Security Issues in Cloud Computing - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Hussain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is the most emerging trend in Information Technology now days. It is attracting the organizations due to its advantages of scalability, throughput, easy and cheap access and on demand up and down grading of SaaS, PaaS and IaaS. Besides all the salient features of cloud environment, there are the big challenges of privacy and security. In this paper, a review of different security issues like trust, confidentiality, authenticity, encryption, key management and resource sharing are presented along with the efforts made on how to overcome these issues.

  10. Special issue on exercise immunology: Current perspectives on aging, health and extreme performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, R.J.; Bosch, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this special issue is to highlight outstanding exemplars of empirical research and review papers that reflect the breadth of current developments in exercise immunology. The contributions to this issue are categorized according to four major themes: (1) exercise and immune-aging; (2) the

  11. Communicative Language Testing: Current Issues and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a range of current issues and future research possibilities in Communicative Language Testing (CLT) using, as its departure point, the key questions which emerged during the CLT symposium at the 2010 Language Testing Forum. The article begins with a summary of the 2010 symposium discussion in which three main issues related…

  12. Metabolic syndrome in youth: current issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Terry T-K; Ball, Geoff D C; Franks, Paul W

    2007-02-01

    The current paper reviews the important issues and challenges facing children and adolescents with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Studies suggest that the MetS and its risk components may be on the rise in children along with rising rates of obesity; however, further study remains warranted. The topics reviewed encompass the definition of the syndrome, its prevalence, clustering and tracking of metabolic risk factors, the role of physical activity and diet in the development of the MetS, criticisms and utility of the MetS definition, and special considerations needed in the pediatric population. Physical activity and diet may play important roles in the MetS; however, research with precise measurements of activity, diet, and metabolic outcomes is needed. The paper concludes by emphasizing that regardless of one's position in the ongoing debate about the MetS, the long-term risks attributable to each individual risk component are real. The abnormality of one component should automatically prompt the screening of other components. Among children and adolescents, lifestyle modification should always serve as the frontline strategy. Prevention during childhood is key to the largest possible impact on adult health at the population level.

  13. Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Current Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokben Hizli Sayar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the electroconvulsive therapy guidelines state that severe major depression with psychotic features, manic delirium, or catatonia are conditions where there is a clear consensus favoring early electroconvulsive therapy. The decision to administer electroconvulsive therapy is based on an evaluation of the risks and benefits for the individual patient and involves a combination of factors, including psychiatric diagnosis, type and severity of symptoms, prior treatment history and response, identification of possible alternative treatment options, and consumer preference. In this review history, mechanisms of action, side effects that have been referenced in the literature and clinical experience are discussed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 107-125

  14. PETC Review, Issue 3, March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaustein, B.; Reiss, J.; Robotti, S.; Brown, J.; Carter, C.; Evans, E.; Hammer, D. [eds.

    1991-03-01

    This issue of PETC Review presents brief discussion of the status of two DOE research program: (1)Coal Liquefaction and (2)Low-Cost Retrofit Technologies for Reducing SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and Particulates as part of the Clean Coal Technology Program. Air Toxics and the 1990 Clean Air Act are also discussed with respect to Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Supplemental sections on events, special focuses, publication listing, etc. are also included.

  15. Logistics Performance Measurements - Issues and Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Azlan; Jaafar, Harlina Suzana; Faisol, Nasruddin; Muhammad, Azlina

    2014-01-01

    Logistics is a backbone for the global supply chains. In Malaysia, logistics are now recognized as strategic industry that positively contribute to gross domestic product (GDP) and performance of logistics is foremost significant. Whereas most of the logistics performance has focused on investigating operational and trade facilitation contexts. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the issues and reviews by practitioners and found 7 key components that translated it into operations pe...

  16. Current Issues in LPP Research and Their Impact on Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquennes, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    After a very broad description of what language policy and planning is about this paper presents an overview of some of the current preoccupations of researchers focusing on language policy and planning as one of the blooming fields of applied linguistics. The current issues in language policy and planning research that are dealt with include…

  17. Review of Current Nuclear Vacuum System Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, M.; McCracken, J.; Shope, T.

    2003-02-25

    Nearly all industrial operations generate unwanted dust, particulate matter, and/or liquid wastes. Waste dust and particulates can be readily tracked to other work locations, and airborne particulates can be spread through ventilation systems to all locations within a building, and even vented outside the building - a serious concern for processes involving hazardous, radioactive, or nuclear materials. Several varieties of vacuum systems have been proposed and/or are commercially available for clean up of both solid and liquid hazardous and nuclear materials. A review of current technologies highlights both the advantages and disadvantages of the various systems, and demonstrates the need for a system designed to address issues specific to hazardous and nuclear material cleanup. A review of previous and current hazardous/nuclear material cleanup technologies is presented. From simple conventional vacuums modified for use in industrial operations, to systems specifically engineered for such purposes, the advantages and disadvantages are examined in light of the following criteria: minimal worker exposure; minimal secondary waste generation;reduced equipment maintenance and consumable parts; simplicity of design, yet fully compatible with all waste types; and ease of use. The work effort reviews past, existing and proposed technologies in light of such considerations. Accomplishments of selected systems are presented, including identified areas where technological improvements could be suggested.

  18. PETC Review, Issue 4, Fall 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaustein, B.D.; Reiss, J.; Tarquinio, M.A.; Brown, J.; Evans, E. [eds.

    1991-12-31

    In this issue of PETC Review, short discussion is given on the following topics: (1) ``Combustion 2000``--a low-emission boiler system coupled to a high-performance power system; (2) ``Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal, Part 2: Indirect Liquefaction``--outline research program; (3) ``A Computer Expert System to Reduce Power Plant Emissions``--a system being developed to predict the economic, operational, and environmental benefits of using commercially achievable cleaned coals; (4) ``PETC`s Flow Analysis Laboratory Assists Artificial Heart Research``--PETC equipment used to study the flow of blood in artificial hearts. Supplemental sections on events, special focuses, calendars, publication lists, etc. are also included.

  19. Access to Government-Generated Information: Current Issues and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Linda E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews both historical and current policies for access to government information, and discusses such current trends in government information as paperwork reduction, commercialization, privatization, and electronic publishing. The possible impact of these trends on the library's ability to provide access to information is briefly considered. (CLB)

  20. Lubbock Gin Lab - Current Research and Leaf Grade Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation was given to a group of cotton gin managers and allied industry reps. Approximately 100 attendees were in the audience. A discussion of the current research conducted at the USDA ARS CPPRU Ginning Laboratory in Lubbock, TX was given along with a discussion of leaf grade issues and ...

  1. Exploring Current Issues through the Hot Topics Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbett, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a research paper and poster assignment used in an undergraduate leisure and human behavior course. The intent of this learning activity is to increase student knowledge of current issues within the industry as well as to enhance students' professional communication skills. A description of the assignment is shared along with…

  2. Current Issues for Higher Education Information Resources Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Current issues that are important for the future of information resources management in higher education are presented. They include: integrating planning for information resources within institution-wide strategic planning; reengineering fundamental services; change management; distributed computing support; networking; the changing communication…

  3. Internet governance origins, current issues, and future possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Balleste, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Internet Governance: Origins, Current Issues, and Future Possibilities provides an introductory, multidisciplinary account of the forces at work in the evolving concept of internet governance and includes computer history, Internet beginnings, institutions and stakeholders, proposed models of governance, and human rights.

  4. 31 CFR 317.4 - Issuing agents currently qualified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuing agents currently qualified. 317.4 Section 317.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING AGENCIES...

  5. Processing Instruction: A review of issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlisin Rasuki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI. This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2 learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help learners develop grammatical competence in a target language in ways that foster their comprehension and production skills. The paper starts with outlining main characteristics of PI which distinguish it from other types of L2 grammar instruction. Then, a large body of research attempting to investigate the relative efficacy of PI is scrutinized. The paper concludes with a number of important issues that future studies on PI need to address.

  6. PETC Review, Issue 4, Fall 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaustein, B D; Reiss, J; Tarquinio, M A; Brown, J; Evans, E [eds.

    1991-10-01

    In this issue of PETC Review, short discussion is given on the following topics: (1) Combustion 2000''--a low-emission boiler system coupled to a high-performance power system; (2) Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal, Part 2: Indirect Liquefaction''--outline research program; (3) A Computer Expert System to Reduce Power Plant Emissions''--a system being developed to predict the economic, operational, and environmental benefits of using commercially achievable cleaned coals; (4) PETC's Flow Analysis Laboratory Assists Artificial Heart Research''--PETC equipment used to study the flow of blood in artificial hearts. Supplemental sections on events, special focuses, calendars, publication lists, etc. are also included.

  7. BOOK REVIEW: The Current Comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersons, Oskars

    1989-01-01

    This 120-page book is a concise, yet comprehensive, clearly-written and well-illustrated monograph that covers the subject matter from basic principles through design, construction and calibration details to the principal applications. The book will be useful, as a primer, to the uninitiated and, as a reference book to the practitioner involved with transformer-type ratio devices. The length of the book and the style of presentation will not overburden any informed reader. The described techniques and the cited references are primarily from the work at the National Research Council, Canada (NRC). Any omissions, however, are not serious with respect to coverage of the subject matter, since most of the development work has been done at NRC. The role of transformers and transformer-like devices for establishing accurate voltage and current ratios has been recognized for over half a century. Transformer techniques were much explored and developed in the fifties and sixties for accuracy levels suitable for standards laboratories. Three-winding voltage transformers were developed for scaling of impedances in connection with the calculable Thompson Lampard capacitor; three-winding current transformers or current comparators were initially explored for the calibration of current transformers and later for specialized impedance measurements. Extensive development of the current comparator and its applications has been and is still being conducted at the NRC by a team that was started and, until his retirement, led by N L Kusters. The team is now led by W J M Moore. He and P N Miljanic, the authors of this book, have had the principal roles in the development of the current comparator. It is fortunate for the field of metrology that considerabe resources and a talented group of researchers were available to do this development along with mechanisms that were available to transfer this technology to a private sector instrument manufacturer and, thus, disseminate it world wide

  8. Interpersonal Relationships, Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement: Yields for Theory, Current Issues, and Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Dowson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we scope the role of interpersonal relationships in students' academic motivation, engagement, and achievement. We argue that achievement motivation theory, current issues, and educational practice can be conceptualized in relational terms. Influential theorizing, including attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, goal theory,…

  9. Interpersonal Relationships, Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement: Yields for Theory, Current Issues, and Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Dowson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we scope the role of interpersonal relationships in students' academic motivation, engagement, and achievement. We argue that achievement motivation theory, current issues, and educational practice can be conceptualized in relational terms. Influential theorizing, including attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, goal theory,…

  10. Current issues in the analysis of consumer food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    The Total Food Quality Model is used as a framework for highlighting a number of issues of current concern in understanding consumer food choice, and where promising avenues for research are seen. Consumer food choice is seen as a process where consumers form expectations about product quality be...... a stronger role. In addition, everyday routines in information processing and decision-making may change under situations of crisis.......The Total Food Quality Model is used as a framework for highlighting a number of issues of current concern in understanding consumer food choice, and where promising avenues for research are seen. Consumer food choice is seen as a process where consumers form expectations about product quality...... before or during purchase, and then have a quality experience after the purchase. However, an increasing role of credence characteristics in food choice assigns communication a stronger role in understanding food choice, and consumer concern for food production technologies gives prior attitudes...

  11. Current Issues of Engineering Education under Globalized Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Sun

    A global world has recently expedited the international collaboration and network among engineering education societies including their scholars. The current issues of engineering education societies have been raised and discussed and those are various topics such as accreditation issues, current trends in engineering and technology education, government policies, innovations, program and project based learning, social sciences in engineering and technology education, university-industry joint programs, human resource development and engineering education, university linkage with K-12, role of engineering education in sustainable development, and the others. Among the variety of issues and topics, the hottest topic is relating to “innovations” of engineering education system. The innovative direction of engineering education in Korea has been reported along with that of USA, whose role has been one of major parts in innovation for the global engineering education system. The recent survey by IFEES (International Federation of Engineering Education Societies) has also been analyzed to consider the current three biggest challenges of global engineering education societies.

  12. Urban Science Education: Examining Current Issues through a Historical Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions.…

  13. Urban Science Education: Examining Current Issues through a Historical Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions.…

  14. PETC Review, Issue 6, Summer 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santore, R.R.; Blaustein, B.D.; Reiss, J.; Brown, J. [eds.

    1992-10-01

    This issue of the PETC Review focuses on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Several projects were completed recently and many more are beginning to generate data from operations, making this an ideal time to highlight this program. The program, which was initiated in 1986, now has 42 projects that represent a remarkable scope of activities ranging from the demonstration of improved retrofit components to the repowering of coal-fired electrical power plants with advanced systems. In 1986, when Congress committed the nation to this multi-billion dollar, multi-year demonstration program, the policy goals were clearly set forth and the funding was completely committed. I believe that defining and sticking to these goals and commitments has been critical to establishing substantial industry interest and investment, thereby enhancing the prospects for success. Both the public and private sectors were better able to establish priorities and to allocate resources to projects that best meet our nation`s energy and environmental needs. I believe that the Clean Coal Technology program will help fulfill the goals for coal that were recently reaffirmed in the National Energy Strategy: One Year Later-to maintain coal`s competitiveness and to create a favorable export market for US coal and coal technology.

  15. PETC Review, Issue 6, Summer 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santore, R.R.; Blaustein, B.D.; Reiss, J.; Brown, J. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the PETC Review focuses on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Several projects were completed recently and many more are beginning to generate data from operations, making this an ideal time to highlight this program. The program, which was initiated in 1986, now has 42 projects that represent a remarkable scope of activities ranging from the demonstration of improved retrofit components to the repowering of coal-fired electrical power plants with advanced systems. In 1986, when Congress committed the nation to this multi-billion dollar, multi-year demonstration program, the policy goals were clearly set forth and the funding was completely committed. I believe that defining and sticking to these goals and commitments has been critical to establishing substantial industry interest and investment, thereby enhancing the prospects for success. Both the public and private sectors were better able to establish priorities and to allocate resources to projects that best meet our nation's energy and environmental needs. I believe that the Clean Coal Technology program will help fulfill the goals for coal that were recently reaffirmed in the National Energy Strategy: One Year Later-to maintain coal's competitiveness and to create a favorable export market for US coal and coal technology.

  16. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration.

  17. Food and Health Some Current Issues and Future Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan)

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with some of the many current issues and future trends in the area of food, diet and health in Europe. A complete coverage would be impossible in a short article in view of the extent and complexity of the food system and its major interaction with health. It is also important to stress at the outset that food/diet is only one component of health and other factors such as environment, overall lifestyle and genetics also play a major role. The genetic dimension is of particula...

  18. Current issues in the analysis of consumer food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    The Total Food Quality Model is used as a framework for highlighting a number of issues of current concern in understanding consumer food choice, and where promising avenues for research are seen. Consumer food choice is seen as a process where consumers form expectations about product quality...... before or during purchase, and then have a quality experience after the purchase. However, an increasing role of credence characteristics in food choice assigns communication a stronger role in understanding food choice, and consumer concern for food production technologies gives prior attitudes...

  19. Electronic Health Record (EHR and Cloud Security: The Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Kusi Achampong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of the cloud computing and its associated challenges, building a secured electronic health record (EHR in a cloud computing environment has attracted a lot of attention in both healthcare industry and academic community. Cloud computing concept is becoming a popular information technology (IT infrastructure for facilitating EHR sharing and integration. In this study we discuss security concepts related to EHR sharing and integration in healthcare clouds and analyse the arising security and privacy issues in access and management of EHRs. This paper focus on the current challenges that comes with the use of the cloud computing for EHR purposes.

  20. Review: Colchicine, current advances and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ade R, Rai MK. 2010. Colchicine, current advances and future prospects. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 90-96. Colchicine is a toxic natural compound and secondary metabolite commonly produced by plants like Colchicum autumnale and Gloriosa superba. It is originally used to treat rheumatic complaints, especially gout, and still finds its uses for these purposes today despite dosing issues concerning its toxicity. It is also prescribed for its cathartic and emetic effects. Initially oral colchicine has not been approved as a drug by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA. But now FDA approved colchicine as a drug for some disorders. Colchicine's present medicinal use is in the treatment of gout and familial mediterranean fever. It is also being investigated for its use as an anticancer drug. In neurons, axoplasmic transport is disrupted by colchicine. Due to all the pharmacological application of colchicine, there is urgent need to enhance the properties and increase the production of colchicine with the help of in vitro technologies. The present review is mainly focused on the chemistry of colchicine, its medicinal uses and toxicity.

  1. Current issues and future directions in pyrolysis of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preto, F. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2005-02-01

    Biomass is a diverse grouping of low energy content, low density and high moisture heterogenous materials. An overview of pyrolysis processes and procedures was presented with a list of potential applications for industrial processes and power generation. The chemical energy content of various fuels was presented and with the advantages of pyrolysis with reference to improved transport, handling and storage. Details of technical requirements were outlined along with some of the undesirable characteristics of biofuel including the highly corrosive nature of the fuel, pungency, high solids content, immiscibility with hydrocarbon fuels and the fact that over time, chemical composition shifts, resulting in increased viscosity and decreased volatility. Various issues concerning pyrolysis regarding current technologies, composition and standards, applications and biorefinery feedstock were summarized. A flow chart presenting the conversion of biomass to biofuel was provided. Various reactor types were also overviewed and included such as fluidized beds, transport, heated augers, vacuum pyrolysis and ablative and rotating cones. Details of pilot plants in Erie and Renfrew, Ontario were provided along with details of a plant in Alabama operating entirely on chicken litter. Various specifications for pyrolysis oils were presented. A chart of biofuel composition in mass fractions was provided, with an accompanying list of commonly quoted pyrolysis oil properties. A series of biofuel combustion tests conducted at CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC) in Ottawa were described. Photographs of the pre-test refractory were exhibited. Details of current research on drying kiln applications were outlined. The suitability of pyrolytic biofuel for producing microemulsion fuels was discussed. A biorefinery model was included. Challenges to biomass pyrolysis include feed preparation, scale-up issues, heat transfer to reactor rates, char separation, liquid collection, liquid quality

  2. Cost-utility analysis: Current methodological issues and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J C Nuijten

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of cost-effectiveness as final criterion in the reimbursement process for listing of new pharmaceuticals can be questioned from a scientific and policy point of view. There is a lack of consensus on main methodological issues and consequently we may question the appropriateness of the use of cost-effectiveness data in health care decision-making. Another concern is the appropriateness of the selection and use of an incremental cost-effectiveness threshold (Cost/QALY. In this review, we focus mainly on only some key methodological concerns relating to discounting, the utility concept, cost assessment and modelling methodologies. Finally we will consider the relevance of some other important decision criteria, like social values and equity.

  3. Dietary copper and human health: Current evidence and unresolved issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Muriel; Houdart, Sabine; Oberli, Marion; Kalonji, Esther; Huneau, Jean-François; Margaritis, Irène

    2016-05-01

    Although copper (Cu) is recognized as an essential trace element, uncertainties remain regarding Cu reference values for humans, as illustrated by discrepancies between recommendations issued by different national authorities. This review examines human studies published since 1990 on relationships between Cu intake, Cu balance, biomarkers of Cu status, and health. It points out several gaps and unresolved issues which make it difficult to assess Cu requirements. Results from balance studies suggest that daily intakes below 0.8 mg/day lead to net Cu losses, while net gains are consistently observed above 2.4 mg/day. However, because of an incomplete collection of losses in all studies, a precise estimation of Cu requirements cannot be derived from available data. Data regarding the relationship between Cu intake and potential biomarkers are either too preliminary or inconclusive because of low specificity or low sensitivity to change in dietary Cu over a wide range of intakes. Results from observation and intervention studies do not support a link between Cu and a risk of cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline, arthritis or cancer for intakes ranging from 0.6 to 3mg/day, and limited evidence exists for impaired immune function in healthy subjects with a very low (0.38 mg/day) Cu intake. However, data from observation studies should be regarded with caution because of uncertainties regarding Cu concentration in various foods and water. Further studies that accurately evaluate Cu exposure based on reliable biomarkers of Cu status are needed.

  4. Current Issues in Kaon Photoelectro-Production off the Nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The electromagnetic kaon production amplitudes associated to Lambda/Sigma hyperons can be described by phenomenological models, most notably by isobar approaches. Experimental data on kaon production have been collected at ELSA, SPring8, GRAAL, LNS Tohoku, and Jefferson Lab in the past, the measurements at Jefferson Lab providing the largest kinematic coverage and statistical significance. However, ambiguities inherent in the models, some data inconsistency in the cross-sections taken at different laboratories, and the problem of missing acceptance in forward direction of the experimental set-ups hinders a reliable extraction of resonance parameters. Predictions for the hypernuclear photo-production cross-section rely on a consistent and comprehensive description of the elementary process at forward kaon angles, where the current strong variation of the models is very unsatisfactory. A number of new experiments are now addressing these issues, among them the charged kaon electro-production programme with the ...

  5. Botnet detection techniques:review, future trends, and issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad KARIM; Rosli Bin SALLEH; Muhammad SHIRAZ; Syed Adeel Ali SHAH; Irfan AWAN; Nor Badrul ANUAR

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the Internet has enabled access to widespread remote services in the distributed computing envi-ronment; however, integrity of data transmission in the distributed computing platform is hindered by a number of security issues. For instance, the botnet phenomenon is a prominent threat to Internet security, including the threat of malicious codes. The botnet phenomenon supports a wide range of criminal activities, including distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, click fraud, phishing, malware distribution, spam emails, and building machines for illegitimate exchange of information/materials. Therefore, it is imperative to design and develop a robust mechanism for improving the botnet detection, analysis, and removal process. Currently, botnet detection techniques have been reviewed in different ways; however, such studies are limited in scope and lack discussions on the latest botnet detection techniques. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the latest state-of-the-art techniques for botnet detection and figures out the trends of previous and current research. It provides a thematic taxonomy for the classification of botnet detection techniques and highlights the implications and critical aspects by qualitatively analyzing such techniques. Related to our comprehensive review, we highlight future directions for improving the schemes that broadly span the entire botnet detection research field and identify the persistent and prominent research challenges that remain open.

  6. Current surgery of retinal detachment recurrence. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zakharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available this review presents a detailed analysis and an experience of surgical treatment of retinal detachment recurrence associated with light silicone oil tamponade of vitreous cavity. Approaches and variants of treatment were described in the historical aspect and till now. there are considered general and particular issues in case of retinal detachment recurrence appearance, expediency and volume of intraoperative manipulations, time of operation and choice of temporary substitute of vitreous body for a purpose of postoperative tamponade of vitreous cavity.

  7. Current surgery of retinal detachment recurrence. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zakharov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available this review presents a detailed analysis and an experience of surgical treatment of retinal detachment recurrence associated with light silicone oil tamponade of vitreous cavity. Approaches and variants of treatment were described in the historical aspect and till now. there are considered general and particular issues in case of retinal detachment recurrence appearance, expediency and volume of intraoperative manipulations, time of operation and choice of temporary substitute of vitreous body for a purpose of postoperative tamponade of vitreous cavity.

  8. Ethical Issues in Radiology Journalism, Peer Review, and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Douglas S; Gardner, James B; Hoffmann, Jason C; Patlas, Michael N; Bhargava, Puneet; Moshiri, Mariam; Remer, Erick M; Gould, Elaine S; Smith, Stacy

    2016-08-17

    Although some research and publication practices are clearly unethical, including fraud and plagiarism, other areas of research and publication, such as informed consent and conflicts of interest, fall into grayer areas. The purposes of this article are, therefore, to review a variety of relevant ethical issues in radiology-related journalism, peer review, and research; to review the radiology literature to date that has addressed these issues; and to present position statements and potential solutions to these problems.

  9. Science and technology review, September 1998 issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, J

    1998-09-01

    This issue focuses on monitoring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. A feature article on the history of the Laboratory is also included. Other articles highlight X-ray laser technology and the ground testing of microsatellites that emulates the free-floating environment of actual space flight

  10. Research Review: Issues in Magazine Journalism Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elliot

    1994-01-01

    Argues that, hobbled by an impoverished underlying model and a lack of resources, very little empirical research has explored magazine journalism education. Investigates the underlying model, reviews existing research, and offers an optimistic assessment about future research possibilities. (SR)

  11. Starting Over: Current Issues in Online Catalog User Interface Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Walt

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of online catalogs focuses on issues in interface design. Issues addressed include understanding the user base; common user access (CUA) with personal computers; common command language (CCL); hyperlinks; screen design issues; differences from card catalogs; indexes; graphic user interfaces (GUIs); color; online help; and remote users.…

  12. HVDC power transmission environmental issues review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.H.; Weil, D.E. [Bailey Research Associates, Inc., New York, NY (United States); Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This report strives to define the various environmental effects associated with HVDC lines, discusses the current knowledge of their potential effects on biological and non-biological systems, and compares these effects associated with ac lines where appropriate.

  13. STR allele sequence variation: Current knowledge and future issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettings, Katherine Butler; Aponte, Rachel A; Vallone, Peter M; Butler, John M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews what is currently known about short tandem repeat (STR) allelic sequence variation in and around the twenty-four loci most commonly used throughout the world to perform forensic DNA investigations. These STR loci include D1S1656, TPOX, D2S441, D2S1338, D3S1358, FGA, CSF1PO, D5S818, SE33, D6S1043, D7S820, D8S1179, D10S1248, TH01, vWA, D12S391, D13S317, Penta E, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, Penta D, and D22S1045. All known reported variant alleles are compiled along with genomic information available from GenBank, dbSNP, and the 1000 Genomes Project. Supplementary files are included which provide annotated reference sequences for each STR locus, characterize genomic variation around the STR repeat region, and compare alleles present in currently available STR kit allelic ladders. Looking to the future, STR allele nomenclature options are discussed as they relate to next generation sequencing efforts underway.

  14. Review of the studies on fundamental issues in LBE corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jinsuo [International Nuclear System Engineering Group, Decision Application Division, MS K-575, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Material Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States)], E-mail: jszhang@lanl.gov; Li Ning [International Nuclear System Engineering Group, Decision Application Division, MS K-575, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Material Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) technology is being developed for applications in advanced nuclear systems and high-power spallation neutron targets. In this paper, the current understanding of corrosion and the fundamental issues relevant to corrosion when using LBE as a heavy liquid metal nuclear coolant are reviewed. Corrosion mechanisms and processes in LBE are examined. Prospective methods to mitigate corrosion are briefly surveyed. We then discuss the oxygen control technique for corrosion mitigation in detail, including the range of oxygen concentrations in LBE, oxygen sensors, and the surface oxidation kinetics. Existing experimental results are summarized and reviewed. Theoretical corrosion models for non-isothermal liquid metal loops are refined and compared each other. The applications of these models to a few practical lead-alloy systems are used to illustrate the corrosion mechanisms and the parameter dependency, and to benchmark. Based on the current state of knowledge, a number of R and D tasks are proposed to fill the gaps and firmly establish the scientific underpinning before LBE nuclear coolant technology is ready for programmatic and industrial applications.

  15. Gender issues in reproductive health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinma, Echendu D; Adinma, Brian-D J I

    2011-01-01

    Gender, for its impact on virtually every contemporary life issue, can rightly be regarded as a foremost component of reproductive health. Reproductive health basically emphasises on people and their rights to sexuality, reproduction, and family planning, and the information to actualize these right, which has been inextricably linked to development at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. Women's sexual and reproductive rights became recognised as universal human right, violations of which occur in some reproductive health areas including gender concerns. Gender inequality and inequity encompass gender based violence as well as gender discrimination which cuts across the life cycle of the woman; attitudes, religious and cultural practices of various nations; and issues related to employment, economy, politics, and development. The redress of gender inequality is a collective responsibility of nations and supranational agencies. Nations should adopt a framework hinged on three pedestals--legal, institutional and policy, employing the three recommended approaches of equal treatment, positive action, and gender mainstreaming.

  16. Women's Sexual Issues After Myocardial Infarction: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami Zeydi, Amir; Sharafkhani, Mohammad; Armat, Mohammad Reza; Gould, Kathleen Ahern; Soleimani, Aria; Hosseini, Seyed Javad

    2016-01-01

    Sexual activity after myocardial infarction (MI) is a concern for patients and often a challenge for health care professionals to address. It is widely recognized that most patients, of both sexes, report sexual problems or concerns after MI. However, there are reported differences between men and women. Women with sexual concerns may seek less help from health care providers and are more inclined to conceal them because of cultural barriers. The aim of the current study is to present a comprehensive review of the literature describing women's sexual issues after MI. A systematic search of the relevant literature was performed within international databases, including PubMed/Medline, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and ProQuest, as well as Google Scholar using relevant keywords. Also, Persian electronic databases such as Magiran, Scientific Information Databases, and Iran Medex were searched from the inception to October 2014. Articles focusing on the sexual issues after MI only in women, as well as articles on both sexes where women's results could be separated, were included in this review. A total of 8 articles were included in the final dataset. The main themes of women's sexual concerns after MI were "loss or decrease of sexual activity," "dissatisfaction of sexual relationship," "doubt about resumption time of sexual activity," "fear of reinfarction or sudden death during sexual activity after MI," "knowledge deficit regarding sexual activity after MI," and "poor performance of health care providers in sexual counseling." The results of this review demonstrate that women's post-MI sexual activity is affected by many concerns. The concerns may be a knowledge deficit related to not receiving necessary consultation on this topic. Nurses, as first-line care givers, can provide appropriate consultation and education for patients post-MI. As a result, breaking taboo imposed by cultural barriers, personal assumptions, or lack of confidence on giving sexual consultation may

  17. Homosexuality and Education: A Review of the Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, David E.; Risch, Stephen J.

    1981-01-01

    In this three-part article, the authors outline some reasons that homosexuality is an issue which should concern educators, describe some pertinent facts about the origins and correlates of homosexual behavior, and review some specific issues about the presence of openly gay teachers in the public schools. (Author/SJL)

  18. Keeping It Current: Using Technology to Teach about Social Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardone, Nancy B.; Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    In thinking about teaching nonfiction, the authors acknowledge that many contemporary and important nonfiction texts that students should be encouraged to read take up social issues that are not easy to talk about or even to think about. They discovered that combining well-chosen nonfiction on social issues with specialized digital games and other…

  19. Automatic object recognition: critical issues and current approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A.

    1991-08-01

    Automatic object recognition, with its diverse applications in numerous fields of science and technology, is permeating many aspects of military and civilian industries. This paper gives an overview of the issues confronting the automatic object recognition field and the approaches being used to address these issues.

  20. Mobile healthcare applications: system design review, critical issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Connolly, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    Mobile phones are becoming increasingly important in monitoring and delivery of healthcare interventions. They are often considered as pocket computers, due to their advanced computing features, enhanced preferences and diverse capabilities. Their sophisticated sensors and complex software applications make the mobile healthcare (m-health) based applications more feasible and innovative. In a number of scenarios user-friendliness, convenience and effectiveness of these systems have been acknowledged by both patients as well as healthcare providers. M-health technology employs advanced concepts and techniques from multidisciplinary fields of electrical engineering, computer science, biomedical engineering and medicine which benefit the innovations of these fields towards healthcare systems. This paper deals with two important aspects of current mobile phone based sensor applications in healthcare. Firstly, critical review of advanced applications such as; vital sign monitoring, blood glucose monitoring and in-built camera based smartphone sensor applications. Secondly, investigating challenges and critical issues related to the use of smartphones in healthcare including; reliability, efficiency, mobile phone platform variability, cost effectiveness, energy usage, user interface, quality of medical data, and security and privacy. It was found that the mobile based applications have been widely developed in recent years with fast growing deployment by healthcare professionals and patients. However, despite the advantages of smartphones in patient monitoring, education, and management there are some critical issues and challenges related to security and privacy of data, acceptability, reliability and cost that need to be addressed.

  1. Alzheimer’s Dementia: Current Data Review

    OpenAIRE

    Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver; Folnegović-Šmalc, Vera

    2011-01-01

    The review focuses on current data on Alzhemier’s dementia, a clinical syndrom characterised with acquired deterioration of cognitive functioning and emotional capacities, which impaires everyday activity and quality of life. Alzheimer’s dementia is the most common type of dementia in clinical surveys. The diagnosis of Alzheimer’s dementia is primarily based on symptoms and signs and memory impairment is clinically most signifficant. Cholinesterase inhibitors – donepezil, rivastig...

  2. After Action Reviews: Current Observations and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    without a verbatim quotation from the first paragraph of the 1993 Training Circular (TC 25-20), A Leader’s Guide to After-Action Reviews. It states...Viet Nam Wars. Marshall spoke with Soldiers in theatre , immediately after combat actions, and although sometimes disparaged because of limited numbers...1). The current EXROE has expanded from 15 to 22 chapters to reflect changes in training offered, but the AAR bottom line is repeated 8 verbatim in

  3. Attachment among older adults: current issues and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J M; Cafferty, T P

    2001-09-01

    Although John Bowlby conceptualized attachment theory as applicable across the life span, researchers have been relatively slow to examine attachment phenomena specifically among older adults. The present article reviews the extant research applying attachment theory to older populations; preliminary findings suggest that attachment issues hold particular relevance for older adults, given the increased potential for separation, loss and vulnerability associated with aging. Although many of the studies reviewed are somewhat limited methodologically, the overall pattern of results suggests that attachment patterns are associated with a variety of outcomes in later life (such as adaptation to chronic illness and caregiver burden among family members, reactions to the death of a loved one, and general well-being) in a theoretically consistent manner. The implications of and questions raised by current findings are reviewed, and directions for future research are discussed.

  4. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issue in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirement for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration Botanical Guidance. The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical can...

  5. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanica...

  6. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain. PMID:27683558

  7. The Research on School Marketing: Current Issues and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar; Hemsley-Brown, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of educational marketing practice in schools. The following research questions guided this review. What are the common themes and characteristics that emerge from research about marketing in schools? What remains underdeveloped in the characterization…

  8. Thoracic sympathectomy: a review of current indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmonai, Moshe; Cameron, Alan E P; Licht, Peter B; Hensman, Chris; Schick, Christoph H

    2016-04-01

    Thoracic sympathetic ablation was introduced over a century ago. While some of the early indications have become obsolete, new ones have emerged. Sympathetic ablation is being still performed for some odd indications thus prompting the present study, which reviews the evidence base for current practice. The literature was reviewed using the PubMed/Medline Database, and pertinent articles regarding the indications for thoracic sympathectomy were retrieved and evaluated. Old, historical articles were also reviewed as required. Currently, thoracic sympathetic ablation is indicated mainly for primary hyperhidrosis, especially affecting the palm, and to a lesser degree, axilla and face, and for facial blushing. Despite modern pharmaceutical, endovascular and surgical treatments, sympathetic ablation has still a place in the treatment of very selected cases of angina, arrhythmias and cardiomyopathy. Thoracic sympathetic ablation is indicated in several painful conditions: the early stages of complex regional pain syndrome, erythromelalgia, and some pancreatic and other painful abdominal pathologies. Although ischaemia was historically the major indication for sympathetic ablation, its use has declined to a few selected cases of thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease), microemboli, primary Raynaud's phenomenon and Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to collagen diseases, paraneoplastic syndrome, frostbite and vibration syndrome. Thoracic sympathetic ablation for hypertension is obsolete, and direct endovascular renal sympathectomy still requires adequate clinical trials. There are rare publications of sympathetic ablation for primary phobias, but there is no scientific basis to support sympathetic surgery for any psychiatric indication.

  9. Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Wilma; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

  10. Current issues in libraries, information science and related fields

    CERN Document Server

    Woodsworth, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This volume is unusual in that the theme is quite broad in scope yet focused on a specific topic; innovations and boundary-pushing studies in areas not usually found in library literature. It examines the periphery of the field surveyed in previous volumes. The chapters are grouped in two categories: professional issues and transforming services.

  11. Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: An SLA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2006-01-01

    The study of how learners acquire a second language (SLA) has helped to shape thinking about how to teach the grammar of a second language. There remain, however, a number of controversial issues. This paper considers eight key questions relating to grammar pedagogy in the light of findings from SLA. As such, this article complements…

  12. Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Wilma; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

  13. Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: An SLA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2006-01-01

    The study of how learners acquire a second language (SLA) has helped to shape thinking about how to teach the grammar of a second language. There remain, however, a number of controversial issues. This paper considers eight key questions relating to grammar pedagogy in the light of findings from SLA. As such, this article complements…

  14. Dialysis facility joint ventures--current structures and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, James B; Pristave, Robert

    2005-07-01

    With the ongoing consolidation of the health care industry, including renal care, providers and physicians alike are using joint ventures as a means to partner on business transactions. This article discusses the expanding use of joint ventures in health care, including the dialysis industry, and looks at the types of structures being utilized and key legal concerns relating to such structures and issues.

  15. Current issues of space law before the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1974-01-01

    The United Nations' activities in the area of space law and the accomplishments of the Outer Space Committee are discussed. Two draft conventions, the draft treaty on the moon and the draft treaty on the registration of space objects are considered. Other issues covered include the direct broadcast by satellite, the boundary between air space and outer space, and remote sensing from space.

  16. Family Counseling in Malaysia: Current Issues and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Norhayati Mohd.

    2014-01-01

    The study is carried out to explore the issues and practices in family counselling among the family counsellors at few counseling centres in Malaysia. Qualitative approach of single case embedded units was used for the study. Data collection was done using in-depth interview, observation and document analysis with 12 family counsellors. The data…

  17. The treatment of Parkinson’s disease with deep brain stimulation:current issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexia-Sabine Moldovan; Stefan Jun Groiss; Saskia Elben; Martin Südmeyer; Alfons Schnitzler; Lars Wojtecki

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation has become a well-established symptomatic treatment for Parkinson’s disease during the last 25 years. Besides improving motor symptoms and long-term motor com-plications, positive effects on patients’ mobility, activities of daily living, emotional well-being and health-related quality of life have been recognized. Apart from that, numerous clinical trials analyzed effects on non-motor symptoms and side effects of deep brain stimulation. Several technical issues and stimulation paradigms have been and are still being developed to optimize the therapeutic effects, minimize the side effects and facilitate handling. This review summarizes current therapeutic issues,i.e., patient and target selection, surgical procedure and programming paradigms. In addition it focuses on neuropsychological effects and side effects of deep brain stimulation.

  18. Current issues in the treatment of specific phobia: recommendations for innovative applications of hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Sharon B

    2014-04-01

    Specific phobia is the most common and treatable of the anxiety disorders. Exposure-based therapies are the treatment of choice and empirically validated protocols are available that promise rapid and effective results. In many cases, however, patients are reluctant to comply with demanding schedules of exposure, increasing the risk of treatment failure. Furthermore, in clinical practice, patients often present with multiple phobias and other Axis I and Axis II disorders that can further complicate therapy. This article covers four important issues that have been addressed in the literature: (a) managing resistance to treatment, (b) reducing length of treatment, (c) clarifying the optimal application of relaxation training, and (d) applying advances in cognitive neuroscience. These issues are reviewed and recommendations proposed for ways in which to modify current treatments. Specific suggestions are provided for implementing these recommendations including examples of innovative applications of standard hypnotic techniques.

  19. The NRC's SPAR Models: Current Status, Future Development, and Modeling Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Buell

    2008-09-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) play an increasingly important role in the regulatory framework of the U.S. nuclear power industry. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) relies on a set of plant-specific Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models to provide critical risk-based input to the regulatory process. The Significance Determination Process (SDP), Management Directive 8.3 - NRC Incident Investigation Program, Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) and Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) programs are among the regulatory initiatives that receive significant input from the SPAR models. Other uses of the SPAR models include: Screening & Resolution of Generic Safety Issues, License Amendment reviews and Notice of Enforcement Discretion (NOEDs). This paper presents the current status of SPAR model development activities, future development objectives, and issues related to the development, verification and maintenance of the SPAR models.

  20. Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada: Current Trends and Issues. Purich's Aboriginal Issues Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, John H., Ed.

    This book contains 13 chapters analyzing important practical issues that must be addressed as Aboriginal self-government becomes fully operational in Canada. These issues are related to social problems and policies, criminal justice, community services, education, employment and job training, finance, the land base of government, women's rights…

  1. Joint Custody: Current Issues and Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Carol A.; Goldenberg, Irene

    1985-01-01

    Describes what joint physical custody involves, the kinds of families who currently have this type of custody arrangement, and the effects on parents and children. Current research supporting two perspectives on joint custody, one emphasizing the continuity of psychological care from one parent, the other emphasizing the importance of the father's…

  2. Homosexuals and the U.S. Military: Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-22

    David F., “An Overview of the Debate on Homosexuals in the U.S. Military,” in Gays and Lesbians in the Military, Issues, Concerns, and Contrasts...policy not to accept gay or lesbian students into its programs and to require avowed homosexuals to disenroll and pay back their scholarship funds...a lesbian ” at a January 1993 rally. Her attorneys argued that she was not broadcasting her intentions to practice homosexuality but merely

  3. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-26

    overwhelming majority of Ukrainians grew disgusted with the Ukrainian political class, according to opinion polls. What little remained of the ideals of...Maidan on December 10, Secretary of State John Kerry issued a statement expressing the United States’ “ disgust ” with the Ukrainian government’s...assistance to organizations in Ukraine engaged in repression . The resolution says the Department of State should “immediately consider” sanctions

  4. Physical punishment, culture, and rights: current issues for professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Joan E

    2008-02-01

    Once considered a legitimate parenting tool, physical punishment is increasingly being redefined as a developmental risk factor by health professionals. Three forces that have contributed to this significant social change are the evolution of pediatric psychology, increasing understanding of the dynamics of parental violence, and growing recognition of children as rights bearers. However, despite the consistency of research findings demonstrating the risks of physical punishment, some practitioners still struggle with the question of whether physical punishment is an appropriate practice among some cultural or ethnic groups. This issue is explored through an analysis of studies examining cultural differences and similarities in physical punishment's effects, as well as legal decisions made throughout the world. Despite practitioners' awareness of the prevalence and impact of parental violence, some still struggle with deciding where to "draw the line" in advising parents about spanking. This issue is addressed through an examination of the role that physical punishment plays in child maltreatment. Finally, the human rights perspective on physical punishment is offered as a new lens through which practitioners may view physical punishment to clarify the fuzzy issues of cultural relativity and the punishment-abuse dichotomy.

  5. Current applications of nanotechnology in dentistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavikatti, Shaeesta Khaleelahmed; Bhardwaj, Smiti; Prabhuji, M L V

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing demand for advances in diagnosis and treatment modalities, nanotechnology is being considered as a groundbreaking and viable research subject. This technology, which deals with matter in nanodimensions, has widened our views of poorly understood health issues and provided novel means of diagnosis and treatment. Researchers in the field of dentistry have explored the potential of nanoparticles in existing therapeutic modalities with moderate success. The key implementations in the field of dentistry include local drug delivery agents, restorative materials, bone graft materials, and implant surface modifications. This review provides detailed insights about current developments in the field of dentistry, and discusses potential future uses of nanotechnology.

  6. Current issues in nursing Perle Slavik Cowen and Sue Moorhead Eighth edition Current issues in nursing Elsevier £40.99 859pp 9780323065719 0323065716 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    THIS MUCH-LOVED book has, for the past 30 years, attempted to describe and discuss current issues facing nurses. new topics have been added for this, the eighth edition, with 85 chapters written by 129 different authors.

  7. Current-free double layers: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nagendra

    2011-12-01

    During the last decade, there has been an upsurge in the research on current-free DLs (CFDLs). Research includes theory, laboratory measurements, and various applications of CFDLs ranging from plasma thrusters to acceleration of charged particles in space and astrophysical plasmas. The purpose of this review is to present a unified understanding of the basic plasma processes, which lead to the formation of CFDLs. The review starts with the discussion on early research on electric fields and double layers (DLs) and ion acceleration in planar plasma expansion. The review continues with the formation of DLs and rarefaction shocks (RFS) in expanding plasma with two electron populations with different temperatures. The basic theory mitigating the formation of a CFDL by two-electron temperature population is reviewed; we refer to such CFDLs as double layers structures formation by two-temperature electron populations (TET-CFDLs). Application of TET-CFDLS to ion acceleration in laboratory and space plasmas was discussed including the formation of stationary steady-state DLs. A quite different type of CFDLs forms in a helicon plasma device (HPD), in which plasma abruptly expands from a narrow plasma source tube into a wide diffusion tube with abruptly diverging magnetic fields. The formation mechanism of the CFDL in HPD, referred here as current free double layer structure in helicon plasma device (HPD-CFDL), and its applications are reviewed. The formation of a TET-CFDL is due to the self-consistent separation of the two electron populations parallel to the ambient magnetic field. In contrast, a HPD-CFDL forms due to self-consistent separation of electrons and ion perpendicular to the abruptly diverging magnetic field in conjunction with the conducting wall of the expansion chamber in the HPD. One-dimensional theoretical models of CFDLs based on steady-state solution of Vlasov-Poisson system of equations are briefly discussed. Applications of CFDLs ranging from helicon

  8. Lactose crystallization: current issues and promising Engineering solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rjabova, A.; Kirsanov, V.; Strizhko, M.; Bredikhin, A.; Semipyatnyi, V.; Chervetsov, V.; Galstyan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Current technological aspects of lactose crystallization are considered. A promising lactose crystallization method involving simulation seed crystals is reported. Advanced engineering solutions for continuous crystallization using spraying in vacuo and scraped-surface heat exchangers are presented.

  9. Cloud portability and interoperability issues and current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Di Martino, Beniamino; Esposito, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a quick, comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the most important methodologies, technologies, APIs and standards related to the portability and interoperability of cloud applications and services, illustrated by a number of use cases representing a variety of interoperability and portability scenarios. The lack of portability and interoperability between cloud platforms at different service levels is the main issue affecting cloud-based services today. The brokering, negotiation, management, monitoring and reconfiguration of cloud resources are challenging tasks

  10. Review of a challenging clinical issue: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Sebiha; Ceylan, Yasin; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Yildirim, Sule

    2015-06-21

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a reversible pregnancy-specific cholestatic condition characterized by pruritus, elevated liver enzymes, and increased serum bile acids. It commences usually in the late second or third trimester, and quickly resolves after delivery. The incidence is higher in South American and Scandinavian countries (9.2%-15.6% and 1.5%, respectively) than in Europe (0.1%-0.2%). The etiology is multifactorial where genetic, endocrine, and environmental factors interact. Maternal outcome is usually benign, whereas fetal complications such as preterm labor, meconium staining, fetal distress, and sudden intrauterine fetal demise not infrequently lead to considerable perinatal morbidity and mortality. Ursodeoxycholic acid is shown to be the most efficient therapeutic agent with proven safety and efficacy. Management of ICP consists of careful monitoring of maternal hepatic function tests and serum bile acid levels in addition to the assessment of fetal well-being and timely delivery after completion of fetal pulmonary maturity. This review focuses on the current concepts about ICP based on recent literature data and presents an update regarding the diagnosis and management of this challenging issue.

  11. Electrophysiology and Biopotential Issues on Human Electrocardiogram-A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A.S. Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The heart is the first organ and most importantly to form in the body, where is found the most powerful generator of electromagnetic energy in the human body. Electrophysiology is the best method used to diagnose human heart problem. Knowledge of the electrical potentials in human heart is a quantum leap in the science of the human heart. Recently, there has been a growing interest in studying the human ECG. However, is unfortunately a very complicated issue which requires a relatively good understanding of everything that has been said about the heart. Focus on the review of physical, electromagnetic basis of human heart's biopotentials and understanding the basic equations of cardiac electrophysiology that represents the basis to all clinicians whether in postnatal (pediatric or adult or prenatal (foetal Medicine. Approach: Mathematical method used for derivation of the essential equations of human heart electrical potentials, this equation will develop the principle sciences of human heart, the equation also outlier finding of the electromagnetic base of human electrophysiology. Results: Heart is important electrical generator in human body. The voltage and current which was generated in human heart represent the basis of heart biosciences. The electromagnetic energy of the heart not only envelops every cell of the human body, but also extends out in all directions in the space around human body. Conclusion: The proposed technique for electrophysiology and potentials on human ECG was useful and the results may contribute to the references for later studies.

  12. Current Situation and Issue of Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inah; Rhie, Jeongbae; Yoon, Jo-Duk; Kim, Jinsoo

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI) has a history of about 50 yr, and is the oldest social insurance system in Korea. After more than 20 times of revision improvements in benefits, its contents and claim systems have been upgraded. It became the protector of injured workers and their families, and at the same time became the system which could cope with both financial burden of employers and their responsibilities. However, there are some issues to be reformed to upgrade the IACI: 1) the problems in the approval system of occupational diseases, 2) quality improvement of workers' compensation medical care, 3) vocational rehabilitation and return to work, 4) workers' compensation premiums and out-of-pocket money of injured workers, 5) issues in application of IACI. Growth of IACI cannot be achieved by an effort of an individual. Efforts by workers, owners, and government, in addition to physicians and welfare professionals toward the same goal are required for the next level improvement of IACI. PMID:22661871

  13. The current issues of internal control and internal audit harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Синюгіна, Наталія Вікторівна

    2013-01-01

    The relevance of topics related to a harmonization of internal control and internal audit system of internal financial control is being proved. It is high lightened the essence of harmonization period by reviewing existing thoughts on this object, a concept of 'harmonization of internal control and internal audit", and provided reasonably practical recommendations to ensure such harmonization in the modern world. The scientific impact of this research is to clarify the concept of "harmonizati...

  14. Temporal issues in e-learning research: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbera, Elena; Gros, Begona; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Barbera, E., Gros, B., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012). Temporal issues in e-learning research: A literature review. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(2), E53-E55. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2011.01255.x.

  15. Current methodological issues in the economic assessment of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annemans, Lieven; Redekop, Ken; Payne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for methodological scrutiny in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. In this article, we present a list of 10 specific issues that we argue pose specific methodological challenges that require careful consideration when designing and conducting robust model-based economic evaluations in the context of personalized medicine. Key issues are related to the correct framing of the research question, interpretation of test results, data collection of medical management options after obtaining test results, and expressing the value of tests. The need to formulate the research question clearly and be explicit and specific about the technology being evaluated is essential because various test kits can have the same purpose and yet differ in predictive value, costs, and relevance to practice and patient populations. The correct reporting of sensitivity/specificity, and especially the false negatives and false positives (which are population dependent), of the investigated tests is also considered as a key element. This requires additional structural complexity to establish the relationship between the test result and the consecutive treatment changes and outcomes. This process involves translating the test characteristics into clinical utility, and therefore outlining the clinical and economic consequences of true and false positives and true and false negatives. Information on treatment patterns and on their costs and outcomes, however, is often lacking, especially for false-positive and false-negative test results. The analysis can even become very complex if different tests are combined or sequentially used. This potential complexity can be handled by explicitly showing how these tests are going to be used in practice and then working with the combined sensitivities and specificities of the tests. Each of these issues leads to a higher degree of uncertainty in economic models designed to assess the added value of personalized medicine compared

  16. Book Review: Online Privacy: Issues in the Digital Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene M Tester

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Currie, Stephen (2012: Online Privacy: Issues in the Digital Age, San Diego, CA, Reference Point Press, Inc. 96 pages, ISBN: 13-978-1-60152-194-1, US $27.95.Reviewed by Darlene M Tester, CISSP, CISM, ITIL, CHSS, JD, Metropolitan State University, Minnesota (nonsequitr60@gmail.comThis book is one of a series of books Currie has written about online areas of concern. This is the sixth book in the series. The purpose of the book is to act as a primer for people in the IT field who may need a point of reference for Internet issues such as gaming, security and privacy. The book takes a high level look at the complexities of privacy online from social networking to hackers and provides insight into what the most pressing issues of privacy are online today.(see PDF for full review

  17. Medical photography: current technology, evolving issues and legal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, M T; DeWees, J M; Vela, K M; Khirallah, R T

    2015-04-01

    Medical photographic image capture and data management has undergone a rapid and compelling change in complexity over the last 20 years. This is because of multiple factors, including significant advances in ease of photograph capture, alongside an evolution of mechanisms of data portability/dissemination, combined with governmental focus on health information privacy. Literature to guide medical, legal, governmental and business professionals when dealing with issues related to medical photography is virtually nonexistent. Herein, we will address the breadth of uses of medical photography, device properties/specific devices utilised for image capture, methods of data transfer and dissemination and patient perceptions and attitudes regarding photography in a medical setting. In addition, we will address the legal implications, including legal precedent, copyright and privacy law, informed consent, protected health information and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), as they pertain to medical photography.

  18. Current issues in occupational health nursing. A Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C

    1991-07-01

    The National Association of Occupational Health Nurses is still in its infancy and is striving to become an interest group under the umbrella of the Canadian Nurses Association. This will bring together the provincial associations in a common goal of promoting worker health and safety. The diversity of the country and the sheer magnitude of the various occupations of Canadians reflect the need for the occupational health nurse to be well educated and kept abreast of new developments. Changes in the worksite echo changes in health and safety legislation that will help to improve conditions in the workplace. Future challenges arise from changes in the work force and the nature of work and include: ergonomic issues, job stress, older workers, EAPs, and increased competition.

  19. Introduction: Current educational issues: some profiles and settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar Teruel Melero

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Revista Electrónica Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado (REIFOP offers a range of articles focused on the profiles and settings of education today. It also includes the full text of the Pedagogical Manifesto “It is not true”, promoted by RedIres (School updating and research network, to which the journal adheres, taking it as its own. Finally, REIFOP makes available to all its readers a wide database of over 1,700 resources on Education and Psychology, retrievable online through the Internet.The authors of the articles are university lecturers and professors in the field of Education who carry out their academic research at ten Spanish universities: Barcelona, Extremadura, Granada, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Murcia, Oviedo, Santiago de Compostela, Sevilla, Valladolid and Zaragoza. We believe that this is a further way of reaching the whole university community.

  20. Provision of genetic services in Europe: current practices and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, Béatrice; Kääriäinen, Helena; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Tranebjaerg, Lisbeth; Coviello, Domenico; Aymé, Ségolène

    2003-12-01

    This paper examines the professional and scientific views on the social, ethical and legal issues that impact on the provision of genetic services in Europe. Many aspects have been considered, such as the definition and the aims of genetic services, their organization, the quality assessment, public education, as well as the partnership with patients support groups and the multicultural aspects. The methods was primarily the analysis of professional guidelines, legal frameworks and other documents related to the organization of genetic services, mainly from Europe, but also from USA and international organizations. Then, the method was to examine the background data emerging from an updated report produced by the Concerted Action on Genetic Services in Europe, as well as the issues debated by 43 experts from 17 European countries invited to an international workshop organized by the European Society of Human Genetics Public and Professional Policy Committee in Helsinki, Finland, 8 and 9 September 2000. Some conclusions were identified from the ESHG workshop to arrive at outlines for optimal genetic services. Participants were concerned about equal accessibility and effectiveness of clinical genetic services, quality assessment of services, professional education, multidisciplinarity and division of tasks as well as networking. Within European countries, adherence to the organizational principles of prioritization, regionalization and integration into related health services would maximize equal accessibility and effectiveness of genetic actions. There is a need for harmonization of the rules involved in financial coverage of DNA tests in order to make these available to all Europeans. Clear guidelines for the best practice will ensure that the provision of genetic services develops in a way that is beneficial to its customers, be they health professionals or the public, especially since the coordination of clinical, laboratory and research perspectives within a

  1. Twin screw granulation - review of current progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M R

    2015-01-01

    Twin screw granulation (TSG) is a new process of interest to the pharmaceutical community that can continuously wet granulate powders, doing so at lower liquid concentrations and with better product consistency than found by a high shear batch mixer. A considerable body of research has evolved over the short time since this process was introduced but generally with little comparison of results. A certain degree of confidence has been developed through these studies related to how process variables and many attributes of machinery configuration will affect granulation but some major challenges still lay ahead related to scalability, variations in the processing regimes related to degree of channel fill and the impact of wetting and granulation of complex powder formulations. This review examines the current literature for wet granulation processes studied in twin screw extrusion machinery, summarizing the influences of operational and system parameters affecting granule properties as well as strives to provide some practical observations to newly interested users of the technique.

  2. Martial arts sports medicine: current issues and competition event coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishime, Robert S

    2007-06-01

    More sports medicine professionals are becoming actively involved in the care of the martial arts athlete. Although there are many different forms of martial arts practiced worldwide, certain styles have shown a potential for increased participation in competitive-type events. Further research is needed to better understand the prevalence and profiles of injuries sustained in martial arts full-contact competitive events. Breaking down the martial art techniques into basic concepts of striking, grappling, and submission maneuvers, including choking and joint locking, may facilitate better understanding and management of injuries. This article outlines this approach and reviews the commonly encountered injuries and problems during martial arts full-contact competitions.

  3. Idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis: A current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowilaty Sawsan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis (IJFT, also known as parafoveal telangiectasis or idiopathic macular telangiectasia, refers to a heterogeneous group of well-recognized clinical entities characterized by telangiectatic alterations of the juxtafoveolar capillary network of one or both eyes, but which differ in appearance, presumed pathogenesis, and management strategies. Classically, three groups of IJFT are identified. Group I is unilateral easily visible telangiectasis occurring predominantly in males, and causing visual loss as a result of macular edema. Group II, the most common, is bilateral occurring in both middle-aged men and women, and presenting with telangiectasis that is more difficult to detect on biomicroscopy, but with characteristic and diagnostic angiographic and optical coherence tomography features. Vision loss is due to retinal atrophy, not exudation, and subretinal neovascularization is common. Group III is very rare characterized predominantly by progressive obliteration of the perifoveal capillary network, occurring usually in association with a medical or neurologic disease. This paper presents a current review of juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis, reviewing the classification of these entities and focusing primarily on the two most common types encountered in clinical practice, i.e., groups I and II, describing their clinical features, histopathology, natural history, complications, latest results from imaging modalities and functional studies, differential diagnosis, and treatment modalities.

  4. The Economic Component of National Security – Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Constantinescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to underline the main current approaches regarding the economic component of national security, with conclusions focused on the globalization effects on the national economies and the national security of the states. The dynamics of the unfolding political and economic events determines the need for the analysis – further developed in the paper - of the relevant variables and of the way these are involved in the intricate equations describing the current political, economic and social environment. One of the main results of the analysis is that national security represents a goal for any country wishing to provide sustainable welfare for its citizens, and this sustainable welfare cannot be achieved without sustainable economic security and development

  5. The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Terry E.; Berridge, Kent C

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the incentive sensitization theory of addiction. This posits that addiction is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems that attribute incentive salience to reward-associated stimuli. If rendered hypersensitive, these systems cause pathological incentive motivation (‘wanting’) for drugs. We address some current questions including: what is the role of learning in incentive sensitization and addiction? Does incentive s...

  6. Issues in the transition from post-16 to higher education: A review of recent literature

    OpenAIRE

    Green, A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review a range of recently published literature on the subject of post-16 to university transition and the study of English. The literature is divided into four categories, addressing the following key issues: student and teacher expectations; curriculum and assessment; student study skills; student ‘location’ and pedagogy. The review explores current thinking and also identifies some key areas for further investigation.

  7. Oxidative stress and life histories: unresolved issues and current needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, John R; Blount, Jonathan D; Bronikowski, Anne M; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Isaksson, Caroline; Kirkwood, Tom B L; Monaghan, Pat; Ozanne, Susan E; Beaulieu, Michaël; Briga, Michael; Carr, Sarah K; Christensen, Louise L; Cochemé, Helena M; Cram, Dominic L; Dantzer, Ben; Harper, Jim M; Jurk, Diana; King, Annette; Noguera, Jose C; Salin, Karine; Sild, Elin; Simons, Mirre J P; Smith, Shona; Stier, Antoine; Tobler, Michael; Vitikainen, Emma; Peaker, Malcolm; Selman, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Life-history theory concerns the trade-offs that mold the patterns of investment by animals between reproduction, growth, and survival. It is widely recognized that physiology plays a role in the mediation of life-history trade-offs, but the details remain obscure. As life-history theory concerns aspects of investment in the soma that influence survival, understanding the physiological basis of life histories is related, but not identical, to understanding the process of aging. One idea from the field of aging that has gained considerable traction in the area of life histories is that life-history trade-offs may be mediated by free radical production and oxidative stress. We outline here developments in this field and summarize a number of important unresolved issues that may guide future research efforts. The issues are as follows. First, different tissues and macromolecular targets of oxidative stress respond differently during reproduction. The functional significance of these changes, however, remains uncertain. Consequently there is a need for studies that link oxidative stress measurements to functional outcomes, such as survival. Second, measurements of oxidative stress are often highly invasive or terminal. Terminal studies of oxidative stress in wild animals, where detailed life-history information is available, cannot generally be performed without compromising the aims of the studies that generated the life-history data. There is a need therefore for novel non-invasive measurements of multi-tissue oxidative stress. Third, laboratory studies provide unrivaled opportunities for experimental manipulation but may fail to expose the physiology underpinning life-history effects, because of the benign laboratory environment. Fourth, the idea that oxidative stress might underlie life-history trade-offs does not make specific enough predictions that are amenable to testing. Moreover, there is a paucity of good alternative theoretical models on which contrasting

  8. Predicting Adolescent Drug Abuse: A Review of Issues, Methods and Correlates. Research Issues 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.

    Presented are 18 papers on predicting adolescent drug abuse. The papers have the following titles: "Current Issues in the Epidemiology of Drug Abuse as Related to Psychosocial Studies of Adolescent Drug Use"; "The Quest for Interpersonal Predictors of Marihuana Abuse in Adolescents"; "Assessing the Interpersonal Determinants of Adolescent Drug…

  9. PALLIATIVE CARE IN GERIATRICS: CURRENT ISSUES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Рonomareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the main problems and prospects of development of palliative care in geriatrics at the present stage. Method of research was to analyze the printed and electronic databases that meet the stated issues. The results of the study highlight the problems of the development of palliative care in geriatric practice: the lack of a developed procedure of rendering palliative care and adequate elderly patient selection criteria, the lack of trained professional staff. The main prospects-association of palliative practices and concepts of modern geriatrics required specialized geriatric assessment and the provision of clinical, medical, social and socio-psychological geriatric syndromes. While promising option for the development of palliative care geriatrics is the integration into the existing health care system, acceptance of the fact that it is a part of the specialized geriatric care. This requires the involvement and training of not only specialists with medical education, but also persons without medical training from among social workers and volunteers working in palliative care. Therefore, the obtained data allowed to conclude that topical is the development of palliative care in geriatrics, taking into account not only clinical but medico-social, socio-psychological features.

  10. Biology of cancer: current issues and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J

    1992-02-01

    The future of cancer treatment is limited only by the rate of progress made in understanding the biology of cancer. The future will present a considerable challenge to health care professionals to learn new theories, understand new terms, and expect different toxicities. The explosion of information and technology is exciting, yet frightening. The willingness of scientists, health care professionals, and consumers to deal with the ethical, financial, and political issues generated by this progress is gratifying. Because science has created such advances, the effort to deal with the outcomes is worthwhile but still difficult. The challenge to rapidly facilitate the sharing of the scientific and clinical advances has been recognized by the nation. A legislative mandate to create a way to store and analyze the vast data related to molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics resulted in the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The development of automated systems to analyze genetic, environmental, biological, and chemistry information can only enhance future progress in the management of cancer.

  11. Raptor electrocution on power lines: Current issues and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Robert N.

    2001-01-01

    Electrocution on power lines is one of many human-caused mortality factors that affect raptors. Cost-effective and relatively simple raptor-safe standards for power line modification and construction have been available for over 25 years. During the 1970s and early 1980s, electric industry efforts to reduce raptor electrocutions were very coordinated and proactive, but predictions about resolving the problem were overly optimistic. Today, raptors continue to be electrocuted, possibly in large numbers. The electrocution problem has not been resolved, partly because of the sheer number of potentially lethal power poles in use and partly because electrocution risks may be more pervasive and sometimes less conspicuous than once believed. Also, responses to the problem by individual utilities have not been uniform, and deregulation of the electric industry during the 1990s may have deflected attention from electrocution issues. To control raptor electrocutions in the future, the industry must increase information sharing and technology transfer, increase efforts to retrofit lethal power poles, and above all ensure that every new and replacement line constructed incorporates raptor-safe standards at all phases of development. Finally, responsibility for the electrocution problem must be shared. Federal, state, and local governments, academic institutions, the conservation community, and the consumer all can play critical roles in an effort that will, by necessity, extend well into the new century.

  12. Reprocessing semicritical items: Current issues and new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-05-02

    Semicritical medical devices are defined as items that come into contact with mucous membranes or nonintact skin (eg, gastrointestinal endoscopes, endocavitary probes). Such medical devices minimally require high-level disinfection. Because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods are usually used rather than steam sterilization. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because more outbreaks have been linked to inadequately cleaned or disinfected endoscopes and other semicritical items undergoing high-level disinfection than any other reusable medical device.

  13. PATHOGENETIC THERAPY FOR ATOPIC DERMATITIS IN CHILDREN: CURRENT ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.I. Smirnova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture presents current opinions on the problem of topical treatment of atopic dermatitis in children discussing different topical antiainflamatory drugs with and without corticosteroids. pimecrolimus 1% cream (elidel, novartis pharma, Germany is specially emphasized among the latter. Pimecrolimus is shown to provide symptom relief and control in mild and moderate cases of atopic dermatitis, so it could become essential in preventing exacerbations and elongation of remission periods of the disease.Key words: atopic dermatitis, topical treatment, pimecrolimus 1% cream.

  14. Surveying clinicians by web: current issues in design and administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykema, Jennifer; Jones, Nathan R; Piché, Tara; Stevenson, John

    2013-09-01

    The versatility, speed, and reduced costs with which web surveys can be conducted with clinicians are often offset by low response rates. Drawing on best practices and general recommendations in the literature, we provide an evidence-based overview of methods for conducting online surveys with providers. We highlight important advantages and disadvantages of conducting provider surveys online and include a review of differences in response rates between web and mail surveys of clinicians. When administered online, design-based features affect rates of survey participation and data quality. We examine features likely to have an impact including sample frames, incentives, contacts (type, timing, and content), mixed-mode approaches, and questionnaire length. We make several recommendations regarding optimal web-based designs, but more empirical research is needed, particularly with regard to identifying which combinations of incentive and contact approaches yield the highest response rates and are the most cost-effective.

  15. [Management of stroke in sub-Saharan Africa: current issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoukonou, T A; Vallat, J-M; Joubert, J; Macian, F; Kabore, R; Magy, L; Houinato, D; Preux, P-M

    2010-11-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, stroke is likely to present an increasingly important public health problem with a larger relative share of overall morbidity and mortality. Overall, sub-Saharan Health Care is characterized by a lack of human resources, lack of facilities for special investigations, and especially an absence of specific programs addressing the prevention of cardiovascular conditions. Current data on the epidemiology of stroke in sub-Saharan Africa, although sparse and fragmentary, indicate a comparatively high incidence of cerebral hemorrhage associated with high blood pressure, while ischemic stroke in black Africans still appears to be related primarily to small artery disease, HIV infection, and sickle cell disease. With urbanization, the role of large-vessel atherosclerosis is increasing. It is thus essential to coordinate government funding, health care professionals and development agencies to address this rising health problem. Access to health care needs to be better structured, and screening programs should be developed in order to identify and treat vascular risk factors. Improved training of health care professionals is also required in the areas of prevention, diagnosis and management of stroke. Implementation of best-practice recommendations for the management of stroke adapted to the specificities and resources of African countries would help rationalize the scarce resources currently available. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Mining Health-Related Issues in Consumer Product Reviews by Using Scalable Text Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Manabu; Tilak, Sameer S; Doan, Son; Zisook, Daniel S; Fan, Jung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In an era when most of our life activities are digitized and recorded, opportunities abound to gain insights about population health. Online product reviews present a unique data source that is currently underexplored. Health-related information, although scarce, can be systematically mined in online product reviews. Leveraging natural language processing and machine learning tools, we were able to mine 1.3 million grocery product reviews for health-related information. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis on the types of health issues found in consumer product reviews; (2) develop a machine learning classifier to detect reviews that contain health-related issues; and (3) gain insights about the task characteristics and challenges for text analytics to guide future research.

  17. Data Analysis and Data Mining: Current Issues in Biomedical Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Diomidous, Marianna; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Takabayashi, Katsuhiko; Ziegler, Andreas; McCray, Alexa T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Medicine and biomedical sciences have become data-intensive fields, which, at the same time, enable the application of data-driven approaches and require sophisticated data analysis and data mining methods. Biomedical informatics provides a proper interdisciplinary context to integrate data and knowledge when processing available information, with the aim of giving effective decision-making support in clinics and translational research. Objectives To reflect on different perspectives related to the role of data analysis and data mining in biomedical informatics. Methods On the occasion of the 50th year of Methods of Information in Medicine a symposium was organized, that reflected on opportunities, challenges and priorities of organizing, representing and analysing data, information and knowledge in biomedicine and health care. The contributions of experts with a variety of backgrounds in the area of biomedical data analysis have been collected as one outcome of this symposium, in order to provide a broad, though coherent, overview of some of the most interesting aspects of the field. Results The paper presents sections on data accumulation and data-driven approaches in medical informatics, data and knowledge integration, statistical issues for the evaluation of data mining models, translational bioinformatics and bioinformatics aspects of genetic epidemiology. Conclusions Biomedical informatics represents a natural framework to properly and effectively apply data analysis and data mining methods in a decision-making context. In the future, it will be necessary to preserve the inclusive nature of the field and to foster an increasing sharing of data and methods between researchers. PMID:22146916

  18. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Five Important Issues We Aren’t Discussing (But Probably Should Be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Cooney Horvath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS is a neuromodulatory device often publicized for its ability to enhance cognitive and behavioral performance. These enhancement claims, however, are predicated upon electrophysiological evidence and descriptions which are far from conclusive. In fact, a review of the literature reveals a number of important experimental and technical issues inherent with this device that are simply not being discussed in any meaningful manner. In this paper, we will consider five of these topics. The first, inter-subject variability, explores the extensive between- and within-group differences found within the tDCS literature and highlights the need to properly examine stimulatory response at the individual level. The second, intra-subject reliability, reviews the lack of data concerning tDCS response reliability over time and emphasizes the importance of this knowledge for appropriate stimulatory application. The third, sham stimulation and blinding, draws attention to the importance (yet relative lack of proper control and blinding practices in the tDCS literature. The fourth, motor and cognitive interference, highlights the often overlooked body of research that suggests typical behaviors and cognitions undertaken during or following tDCS can impair or abolish the effects of stimulation. Finally, the fifth, electric current influences, underscores several largely ignored variables (such as hair thickness and electrode attachments methods influential to tDCS electric current density and flow.Through this paper, we hope to increase awareness and start an ongoing dialogue of these important issues which speak to the efficacy, reliability, and mechanistic foundations of tDCS.

  19. Strengthening Teaching in New York State. A Review of Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This document focuses on critical areas that affect teachers as the direct providers of educational service to students. It summarizes critical issues in teaching, raises key questions to be resolved, describes the current system of teacher certification and provides a bibliography for further reading. Brief discussions are presented on: (1) the…

  20. Current issues in child psychiatry: a dialogue with John Bowlby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warme, G E; Bowlby, J; Crowcroft, A; Rae-Grant, Q

    1980-08-01

    A condensed account of Bowlby's work, particularly his advocacy of an ethological approach and of attachment theory, is followed by comments by three child psychiatrists. His work is critically discussed and ranges from questions concerning the theoretical status of Bowlby's work, to concerns about the de-emphasis of constitutional and temperamental factors, and to concerns that current realities render impractical (and perhaps unnecessary) the traditional models of child rearing. Dr. Bowlby responds to each discussant. In this three days at Lake Couchiching, John Bowlby was the most available and charming of guests. He welcomed discussion with delegates in his every free moment, including mealtimes. It was a privilege to have him in dialogue with us.

  1. NON-TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION: CURRENT ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Saraiva Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTInnovationcan be considered to be a complex phenomenon including technical andnon-technical aspects. A remarkable increase in the interdisciplinary attention devoted to innovation has been noticed over the recent decades but the formal technological and economic aspects of innovation have received much more attention and have been taken into account in a far greater number of analyses, despite the great importance of the non-technological dimension of innovation.This paper attempts a review on the important subject of non-technological innovation. The main ideas on the non-technological dimension of innovation research will be highlighted, followed by an attempt to integrate diverse and disparate perspectives on the subject, to present evidence on possible generalizations and to discuss eventual research gaps and opportunities for further studies. The relationship between technological and non-technological innovation is complex and not fully understood. Among several aspects that will be covered in this paper, two specific ones will receive special attention in this brief analysis: the evidence on the impacts of non-technological innovation, and the measurements efforts that have been made concerning this phenomenon.

  2. Current issues and future perspectives of gastric cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About half of the incidence of gastric cancer is observed in East Asian countries, which show a higher mortality than other countries. The effectiveness of 3 new gastric cancer screening techniques, namely, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, serological testing, and “screen and treat” method were extensively reviewed. Moreover, the phases of development for cancer screening were analyzed on the basis of the biomarker development road map. Several observational studies have reported the effectiveness of endoscopic screening in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. On the other hand, serologic testing has mainly been used for targeting the high-risk group for gastric cancer. To date, the effectiveness of new techniques for gastric cancer screening has remained limited. However, endoscopic screening is presently in the last trial phase of development before their introduction to population-based screening. To effectively introduce new techniques for gastric cancer screening in a community, incidence and mortality reduction from gastric cancer must be initially and thoroughly evaluated by conducting reliable studies. In addition to effectiveness evaluation, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully assessed before introducing these new techniques for population-based screening. PMID:25320514

  3. Childhood obesity and parks and playgrounds: A review of issues of equality, gender and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Hammad Ali

    2011-04-01

    The childhood obesity has been a growing concern over the last decade all over the world. Built environmental characteristics such as parks and playgrounds serves as a reference point for physical activity in children. The equality issues related to ethnicity, Social Economic Status (SES), gender and social support have been related with both physical activity and presence and quality of parks and playgrounds. However, only limited studies have addressed these issues in children. The current paper is a general enumerative review that would discusses the above issues with respect to obesity in all age groups, giving particular emphasis to childhood obesity. The importance of this review is to further explore the importance and highlight the findings related to these issues, so that future original studies could be planned keeping these associations in mind.

  4. Childhood obesity and parks and playgrounds: A review of issues of equality, gender and social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Ali Qazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The childhood obesity has been a growing concern over the last decade all over the world. Built environmental characteristics such as parks and playgrounds serves as a reference point for physical activity in children. The equality issues related to ethnicity, Social Economic Status (SES, gender and social support have been related with both physical activity and presence and quality of parks and playgrounds. However, only limited studies have addressed these issues in children. The current paper is a general enumerative review that would discusses the above issues with respect to obesity in all age groups, giving particular emphasis to childhood obesity. The importance of this review is to further explore the importance and highlight the findings related to these issues, so that future original studies could be planned keeping these associations in mind.

  5. [Non-suicidal self-injury in adolescents: current issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Olga Lili; Mészáros, Gergely; Balázs, Judit

    2015-03-01

    Although non-suicidal self-injury (NNSI), a behavior with a typical onset during adolescence, is a well-researched topic in the international literature and affects numerous adolescents both in clinical and non-clinical populations, it is rarely studied in Hungary. The aim of our paper is to review the historical and cultural background, terms and definitions used in the international and Hungarian literature, the epidemiology, the psychosocial correlates and the theories for possible predictors and functions of NSSI. Terms and definitions for NSSI evolved in international but not in Hungarian literature. Most frequently found functions for NSSI were affect regulation, self-punishment, anti-suicide, anti-dissociation. NSSI is also used to affirm interpersonal boundaries, for sensation seeking and to influence others. Prevalence of NSSI is 15-46% in community and 40-80% in clinical sample in adolescents. Hungarian results on prevalence of NSSI are relatively low in comparison with international data (7-17% in adolescent community sample). NSSI is often associated with psychiatric disorders: DSM-IV Axis I disorders are present in 88% and Axis II disorders are present in 67% of adolescent self-injurer samples. NSSI and suicidal behavior are two different but not independent phenomena: correlation is approximately 50% in community and 70% in clinical population. In conclusion we would like to highlight that NSSI affects numerous adolescents and it is often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, thus developing adequate Hungarian terminology, increasing the amount of Hungarian studies and the up-to-date knowledge of the clinicians are necessary.

  6. Current Issues in Histology, Biology and Prognosis of Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Goran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High risk Hodgkin lymphoma patients may occasionally have borderline characteristics similar to gray zone lymphomas and T-cell/histiocyte rich B cell lymphomas. These entities require different and more aggressive treatment modalities. Aggressive behavior is often associated with disturbances caused by Epstein Barr virus, or immune evasion caused by overexpression of check point inhibitors PDL-1 and PDL-2 coupled with the lack of expression of Class I and II MHC molecules. Galectin-1, TARC, sCD163 and other surrogate markers of immunosuppression in Hodgkin lymphoma may be useful for the assessment of treatment response. The improvements in lymphoma management diminished the importance of prognostic factors unified in the International Prognostic Scoring system, reducing them from 7 to 3 factors that remained relevant. Interim PET analysis is the only method able to identify resistant patients while chemotherapy is ongoing, thus enabling adjustment of treatment according to the treatment response. Efforts for stratification of patients according to disease histology, biology, microenvironment, clinical scoring systems and PET scan are ongoing. Current breakthroughs have set strong background for novel therapies with monoclonal antibodies and check point inhibitors that will result in improvement of management of high risk patients.

  7. Sleep disturbance due to noise: Current issues and future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Hume

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in carrying out further research to understand and reduce the impact of aircraft noise on airport neighborhood in anticipation of the projected substantial increase in global aviation. Soundscapes provide new analytical methods and a broader, more comprehensive appreciation of the aural environment, which may have a useful role in understanding noise-induced sleep disturbance and annoyance. Current noise metrics like Leq do not provide a common language to report noise environment to residents, which is a key obstacle to effective noise management and acceptance. Non-auditory effects complicate the production of consistent dose-response functions for aircraft noise affecting sleep and annoyance. There are various end-points that can be chosen to assess the degree of sleep disturbance, which has detracted from the clarity of results that has been communicated to wider audiences. The World Health Organization (WHO-Europe has produced Night Noise Guidelines for Europe, which act as a clear guide for airports and planners to work towards. Methodological inadequacies and the need for simpler techniques to record sleep will be considered with the exciting potential to greatly increase cost-effective field data acquisition, which is needed for large scale epidemiological studies

  8. Current Situation in Vocational Schools: Issues and Some Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reha Metin ALKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vocational Schools which have undertaken various missions throughout history were established in order to train intermediate staff s with suff icient knowledge and skills in their fields, in accordance with the requirements of trade, industry and services sectors and they are the most important components of ‘vocational and technical education system' today. Analyzing the education given in the vocational schools in accordance with the national and international requirements, developing technologies and the needs of business world and making the necessary arrangements in line with these will contribute to the employability and preferability of graduates of these schools in an eff icient way. Many industrialists/businessmen in our country stated that they experienced serious problems in the supply of qualified staff with suff icient knowledge and skills needed in sectors. Although much progress has been achieved in this subject, it is a fact that there are still a lot of work to be done. In this study, current situation and main troubles in vocational schools are discussed in the light of the experiences gained at Hitit University Vocational School which was established about 40 years ago in Çorum and which is one of the first high schools in Turkey and some solutions are suggested in accordance with the problems mentioned.

  9. Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and previously marginalised communities, with potential to aid with the poverty reduction targets. This research note reviews the existing...

  10. Road safety in a globalised and more sustainable world: current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stijn; Risser, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Although many countries have had considerable success in reducing traffic injuries over recent decades, there are still some fundamental problems in this area. At the same time, there is increasing focus on road safety research and policy development in the context of globalisation, sustainability, liveability and health. This special section presents a selection of papers that were presented at the annual ICTCT workshop held on the 8th and 9th of November 2012 in Hasselt, Belgium, and accepted for publication in Accident Analysis and Prevention following the journal's reviewing procedure. The aim of the ICTCT workshop was to analyse road safety facts, data and visions for the future in the wider context of current issues and future challenges in road safety.

  11. Ongoing ethical issues concerning authorship in biomedical journals: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; McLean, Loyola M; Baber, Rodney J

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals publishing within the field of health sciences continue to experience issues concerning appropriate authorship, which have clinical, ethical, and academic implications. This integrative review sought to explore the key issues concerning authorship from a bioethical standpoint, aiming to explore the key features of the authorship debate. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Scopus databases of peer-reviewed research, published between 2009 and 2014, limited to English language research, with search terms developed to reflect the current issues of authorship. From among the 279 papers identified, 20 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Findings were compiled and then arranged to identify themes and relationships. The review incorporated a wide range of authorship issues encompassing equal-credited authors, honorary (guest/gift) and ghost authorship, perception/experiences of authorship, and guidelines/policies. This review suggests that the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' (ICMJE) recommended guidelines for authorship are not reflected in current authorship practices within the domain of health sciences in both low-and high-impact-factor journals. This devaluing of the true importance of authorship has the potential to affect the validity of authorship, diminish the real contributions of the true authors, and negatively affect patient care.

  12. Current Issues Related to Associate Degree Nursing: Their Impact on Directors, Faculty, and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavenar, Mary G.

    Perceptions of students, faculty members, and associate degree nursing (ADN) program directors/coordinators concerning seven issues affecting ADN programs were obtained in 1982. The issues, which were identified through a review of the literature, were: entry into practice, professional and technical nurses, developing competency statements,…

  13. Patellofemoral pain syndrome: a review of current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeé, R; Augustsson, J; Karlsson, J

    1999-10-01

    There is no clear consensus in the literature concerning the terminology, aetiology and treatment for pain in the anterior part of the knee. The term 'anterior knee pain' is suggested to encompass all pain-related problems. By excluding anterior knee pain due to intra-articular pathology, peripatellar tendinitis or bursitis, plica syndromes, Sinding Larsen's disease, Osgood Schlatter's disease, neuromas and other rarely occurring pathologies, it is suggested that remaining patients with a clinical presentation of anterior knee pain could be diagnosed with patello-femoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Three major contributing factors of PFPS are discussed: (i) malalignment of the lower extremity and/or the patella; (ii) muscular imbalance of the lower extremity; and (iii) overactivity. The significance of lower extremity alignment factors and pathological limits needs further investigation. It is possible that the definitions used for malalignment should be re-evaluated, as the scientific support is very weak for determining when alignment is normal and when there is malalignment. Consequently, pathological limits must be clarified, along with evaluation of risk factors for acquiring PFPS. Muscle tightness and muscular imbalance of the lower extremity muscles with decreased strength due to hypotrophy or inhibition have been suggested, but remain unclear as potential causes of PFPS. Decreased knee extensor strength is a common finding in patients with PFPS. Various patterns of weaknesses have been reported, with selective weakness in eccentric muscle strength, within the quadriceps muscle and in terminal knee extension. The significance of muscle function in a closed versus open kinetic chain has been discussed, but is far from well investigated. It is clear that further studies are necessary in order to establish the significance of various strength deficits and muscular imbalances, and to clarify whether a specific disturbance in muscular activation is a cause or an effect (or both) of PFPS. The most common symptoms in patients with PFPS are pain during and after physical activity, during bodyweight loading of the lower extremities in walking up/down stairs and squatting, and in sitting with the knees flexed. However, the source of patellofemoral pain in patients with PFPS cannot be sufficiently explained. There are several types of clinical manifestation of pain, and therefore a differentiated documentation of the patient's pain symptoms is necessary. The connection between strength, pain and inhibition, as well as between personality and pain, needs further investigation. Many different treatment protocols are described in the literature and recent studies advocate a comprehensive treatment approach allowing for an individual and specifically designed treatment. Surgical treatment is rarely indicated. It is strongly suggested that, when presenting studies on PFPS, a detailed description should be provided of the diagnosis, inclusion and exclusion criteria of the patients should be specified along with a detailed methodology, and the conclusions drawn should be compared with those of other studies in the published literature. As this is not the case in most studies on PFPS found in the literature, it is only possible to make general comparisons. In order to further develop treatment models for PFPS we advocate prospective, randomised, controlled, long term studies using validated outcome measures. However, there is a strong need for basic research on the nature and aetiology of PFPS in order to better understand this mysterious syndrome.

  14. Key management issue in SCADA networks: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalhossein Rezai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA networks have a vital role in Critical Infrastructures (CIs such as public transports, power generation systems, gas, water and oil industries, so that there are concerns on security issues in these networks. The utilized Remote Terminal Units (RTUs and Intelligence Electronic Devices (IEDs in these networks have resource limitations, which make security applications a challenging issue. Efficient key management schemes are required besides lightweight ciphers for securing the SCADA communications. Many key management schemes have been developed to address the tradeoff between SCADA constrain and security, but which scheme is the most effective is still debatable. This paper presents a review of the existing key management schemes in SCADA networks, which provides directions for further researches in this field.

  15. Psychosocial issues in palliative care: A review of five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia C Onyeka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Palliative care is not just vital in controlling symptoms of the patient′s disease condition, but also aims to extend the patient′s life, giving it a better quality. However, several times in the course of management, the psychosocial impact of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and other life-limiting disease conditions may not be noticed and dealt with during the admission period, thereby giving rise to a more complex situation than the disease condition itself. This article aims to review some psychosocial issues and measures that can be taken to address them. It highlights the various roles and the importance of the clinician, nurse, social worker, and other members of the multidisciplinary team in tackling these issues and will help healthcare professionals in this field achieve better practice in the future.

  16. Current and Future Issues in the Development of Spinal Agents for the Management of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaksh, Tony L; Fisher, Casey J; Hockman, Tyler M; Wiese, Ashley J

    2017-01-01

    Targeting analgesic drugs for spinal delivery reflects the fact that while the conscious experience of pain is mediated supraspinally, input initiated by high intensity stimuli, tissue injury and/or nerve injury is encoded at the level of the spinal dorsal horn and this output informs the brain as to the peripheral environment. This encoding process is subject to strong upregulation resulting in hyperesthetic states and downregulation reducing the ongoing processing of nociceptive stimuli reversing the hyperesthesia and pain processing. The present review addresses the biology of spinal nociceptive processing as relevant to the effects of intrathecally-delivered drugs in altering pain processing following acute stimulation, tissue inflammation/injury and nerve injury. The review covers i) the major classes of spinal agents currently employed as intrathecal analgesics (opioid agonists, alpha 2 agonists; sodium channel blockers; calcium channel blockers; NMDA blockers; GABA A/B agonists; COX inhibitors; ii) ongoing developments in the pharmacology of spinal therapeutics focusing on less studied agents/targets (cholinesterase inhibition; Adenosine agonists; iii) novel intrathecal targeting methodologies including gene-based approaches (viral vectors, plasmids, interfering RNAs); antisense, and toxins (botulinum toxins; resniferatoxin, substance P Saporin); and iv) issues relevant to intrathecal drug delivery (neuraxial drug distribution), infusate delivery profile, drug dosing, formulation and principals involved in the preclinical evaluation of intrathecal drug safety.

  17. Measuring persistence: A literature review focusing on methodological issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Brown, M.A.; Trumble, D.

    1995-03-01

    This literature review was conducted as part of a larger project to produce a handbook on the measurement of persistence. The past decade has marked the development of the concept of persistence and a growing recognition that the long-term impacts of demand-side management (DSM) programs warrant careful assessment. Although Increasing attention has been paid to the topic of persistence, no clear consensus has emerged either about its definition or about the methods most appropriate for its measurement and analysis. This project strives to fill that gap by reviewing the goals, terminology, and methods of past persistence studies. It was conducted from the perspective of a utility that seeks to acquire demand-side resources and is interested in their long-term durability; it was not conducted from the perspective of the individual consumer. Over 30 persistence studies, articles, and protocols were examined for this report. The review begins by discussing the underpinnings of persistence studies: namely, the definitions of persistence and the purposes of persistence studies. Then. it describes issues relevant to both the collection and analysis of data on the persistence of energy and demand savings. Findings from persistence studies also are summarized. Throughout the review, four studies are used repeatedly to illustrate different methodological and analytical approaches to persistence so that readers can track the data collection. data analysis, and findings of a set of comprehensive studies that represent alternative approaches.

  18. A Review of Bring Your Own Device on Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olalere

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile computing has supplanted internet computing because of the proliferation of cloud-based applications and mobile devices (such as smartphones, palmtops, and tablets. As a result of this, workers bring their mobile devices to the workplace and use them for enterprise work. The policy of allowing the employees to work with their own personal mobile devices is called Bring Your Own Devices (BYOD. In this article, we discuss BYOD’s background, prevalence, benefits, challenges, and possible security attacks. We then review contributions of academic researchers on BYOD. The Universiti Putra Malaysia online databases (such as IEEE Xplore digital library, Elsevier, Springer, ACM digital library were used to search for peer-reviewed academic publications and other relevant publications on BYOD. The Google Scholar search engine was also used. Our thorough review shows that security issues comprise the most significant challenge confronting BYOD policy and that very little has been done to tackle this security challenge. It is our hope that this review will provide a theoretical background for future research and enable researchers to identify researchable areas of BYOD.

  19. Laser Therapy For Arteriosclerosis: Current Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dries, David J.; Pollock, Marc E.; Eugene, John

    1987-03-01

    Shortly after the ruby laser was introduced, in 1959, a study for the use of this ruby laser for the in-vitro dissolution of arteriosclerotic plaque was performed.' With subsequent advances in laser technology and with refined delivery techniques, laser applications to the treatment of arteriosclerosis in the coronary arteries and peripheral vascular system is a reality. This report reviews the disease process, arteriosclerosis, and the ef-forts towards laser treatment of this disease. We conclude with a review of the technical barriers to the routine application of laser energy in arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease and the progress being made to overcome these obstacles.

  20. 42 CFR 423.2102 - Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or dismissal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or... Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2102 Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or dismissal. (a)(1) An enrollee to the ALJ hearing may request a MAC review if the enrollee files...

  1. Review of Requirements Management Issues in Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naeem Ahmed Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A requirement is a capability to which a product or service should conform to. A meticulous consideration to requirements engineering acts as a backbone of software projects. Ambiguous and unrealistic requirements are major source of failure in the software-intensive systems. Requirements engineering processes are complex as most of the requirements engineering documentation is written in natural languages which are less formal and often distract the designers and developers. Requirements management is a continuous process throughout the project lifecycle and relates to documenting, analyzing, tracing and prioritizing requirements and then finally controlling changes. The main issues related to requirements management are usually social, political and cultural. Software requirement engineers who gather the requirements generally consider that such issues are beyond the scope of their profession as they deem them within the project management ambit. In this study, we highlight the management issues that arise in the requirements engineering process and explore the possibilities to tackle them amicably. The study is supplemented with a critical review of the existing methodologies for resolving and managing software requirements.

  2. Rett Syndrome: A Review of Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Rick

    1991-01-01

    This review describes Rett syndrome as a disorder afflicting females and characterized by a progressive loss of cognitive and motor skills and development of stereotypic hand movements. The paper discusses its clinical manifestations, etiology, diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis, prevalence, pathogenesis, treatment, and educational…

  3. Non-medical prescribing by physiotherapists: issues reported in the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joanne H; Grimmer, Karen

    2014-02-01

    Physiotherapists should be proactive in preparing themselves to participate in innovative models of health care, which are emerging from the healthcare workforce reforms in Australia. One challenging outcome of workforce change is physiotherapy (non-medical) prescribing (NMP), which is part of the extension of scope of physiotherapy practice. This paper summarises the current evidence base for Australian physiotherapists seeking to obtain prescribing rights. A targeted literature review was undertaken through EBSCO Host, Cochrane, Medline, SportsDiscus, Cinahl, Healthsource and Google.com using broad search terms to identify peer-reviewed and grey literature pertaining to NMP by physiotherapists, nationally and internationally. No critical appraisal was undertaken however literature was structured into the NHMRC hierarchy of evidence. Themes raised in the included literature were reported descriptively. There were six relevant peer-reviewed articles, of hierarchy levels III_3 and IV. There was however, comprehensive and recent grey literature to inform Australian physiotherapy NMP initiatives. Themes included the need for standard National action in relation to legislative and regulatory/registration issues, appropriate education, credentialing and supervisory requirements for physiotherapy prescribing. Many lessons can be learnt from the literature, including the importance of planned, uniform National action (rather than piecemeal state-by-state initiatives). Essential elements include appropriate training and skills-based recognition within the discipline and the broader health team, and the need to overtly demonstrate effectiveness and safety. Regularly-evaluated service-delivery models which support NMP by physiotherapists are further required, to demonstrate efficiency, timeliness, patient centredness and equity. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Narcissistic personality disorder: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2010-02-01

    The diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder in the DSM-IV has been criticized foremost for its limitations in capturing the range and complexity of narcissistic pathology. The attention to the narcissistic individual's external, symptomatic, or social interpersonal patterns--at the expense of his or her internal complexity and individual suffering--has also added to the diagnosis' low clinical utility and limited guidance for treatment. Recent studies and reviews have pointed to the need for change in the diagnostic approach to and formulation of narcissism. This review focuses specifically on studies of features that add to the identification, understanding, and treatment of patients with pathological narcissistic functioning and narcissistic personality disorder. They have been integrated into a regulatory model that includes the functions and fluctuations of internal control, self-esteem, perfectionism with accompanying self-criticism, shame, and empathic ability and functioning.

  5. Current Concepts of ARDS: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Umbrello; Paolo Formenti; Luca Bolgiaghi; Davide Chiumello

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema of non-cardiogenic origin, along with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and reduction in respiratory system compliance. The hallmark of the syndrome is refractory hypoxemia. Despite its first description dates back in the late 1970s, a new definition has recently been proposed. However, the definition remains based on clinical characteristic. In the present review, the diagnostic workup and the pat...

  6. Schizotypal personality disorder: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Daniel R; Futterman, Shira E; McMaster, Antonia; Siever, Larry J

    2014-07-01

    The study of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is important clinically, as it is understudied, challenging to treat, often under-recognized or misdiagnosed, and associated with significant functional impairment. SPD also represents an intermediate schizophrenia-spectrum phenotype, and therefore, can provide a better understanding of the genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment of related psychotic illnesses. In this review we discuss recent findings of SPD related to epidemiology and functional impairment, heritability and genetics, working memory and cognitive impairments, social-affective disturbances, and neurobiology. Additionally, we examine the challenges associated with treating patients with SPD, as well as clinical recommendations. Finally, we address future directions and areas in need of further exploration.

  7. Radiodermatitis: A Review of Our Current Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manni; Alavi, Afsaneh; Wong, Rebecca; Akita, Sadanori

    2016-06-01

    Radiodermatitis (radiation dermatitis, radiation-induced skin reactions, or radiation injury) is a significant side effect of ionizing radiation delivered to the skin during cancer treatment as well as a result of nuclear attacks and disasters, such as that which occurred in Fukushima in 2011. More specifically, 95 % of cancer patients receiving radiation therapy will develop some form of radiodermatitis, including erythema, dry desquamation, and moist desquamation. These radiation skin reactions result in a myriad of complications, including delays in treatment, diminished aesthetic appeal, and reduced quality of life. Recent technological advancements and novel treatment regimens have only been successful in partly ameliorating these adverse side effects. This article examines the current knowledge surrounding the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, differential diagnoses, prevention, and management of radiodermatitis. Future research should examine therapies that incorporate the current understanding of the pathophysiology of radiodermatitis while measuring effectiveness using objective and universal outcome measures.

  8. Microbial Fuel Cells, A Current Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly P. Nevin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are devices that can use bacterial metabolism to produce an electrical current from a wide range organic substrates. Due to the promise of sustainable energy production from organic wastes, research has intensified in this field in the last few years. While holding great promise only a few marine sediment MFCs have been used practically, providing current for low power devices. To further improve MFC technology an understanding of the limitations and microbiology of these systems is required. Some researchers are uncovering that the greatest value of MFC technology may not be the production of electricity but the ability of electrode associated microbes to degrade wastes and toxic chemicals. We conclude that for further development of MFC applications, a greater focus on understanding the microbial processes in MFC systems is required.

  9. The Influence of Neurolinguistic Applications on Second Language Research: Reviewing the Issues and Refocusing the Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mahmoodzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of neurolinguistic applications on second language pedagogy has often been a controversial subject of dispute. As such, researchers in this field have faced with some blurred and conflicting views in terms of the pedagogical applicability of neurological discoveries for second language instruction. In light of this research-based concern, the current short paper attempts to review the related issues and refocus the current direction of the neurolinguistic-second language pedagogy debate. The paper also concludes with some suggestions made in favor of an alternative neurolinguistic outlook for L2 researchers.

  10. Current Concepts of ARDS: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbrello, Michele; Formenti, Paolo; Bolgiaghi, Luca; Chiumello, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema of non-cardiogenic origin, along with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and reduction in respiratory system compliance. The hallmark of the syndrome is refractory hypoxemia. Despite its first description dates back in the late 1970s, a new definition has recently been proposed. However, the definition remains based on clinical characteristic. In the present review, the diagnostic workup and the pathophysiology of the syndrome will be presented. Therapeutic approaches to ARDS, including lung protective ventilation, prone positioning, neuromuscular blockade, inhaled vasodilators, corticosteroids and recruitment manoeuvres will be reviewed. We will underline how a holistic framework of respiratory and hemodynamic support should be provided to patients with ARDS, aiming to ensure adequate gas exchange by promoting lung recruitment while minimizing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury. To do so, lung recruitability should be considered, as well as the avoidance of lung overstress by monitoring transpulmonary pressure or airway driving pressure. In the most severe cases, neuromuscular blockade, prone positioning, and extra-corporeal life support (alone or in combination) should be taken into account. PMID:28036088

  11. Current Concepts of ARDS: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Umbrello

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema of non-cardiogenic origin, along with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and reduction in respiratory system compliance. The hallmark of the syndrome is refractory hypoxemia. Despite its first description dates back in the late 1970s, a new definition has recently been proposed. However, the definition remains based on clinical characteristic. In the present review, the diagnostic workup and the pathophysiology of the syndrome will be presented. Therapeutic approaches to ARDS, including lung protective ventilation, prone positioning, neuromuscular blockade, inhaled vasodilators, corticosteroids and recruitment manoeuvres will be reviewed. We will underline how a holistic framework of respiratory and hemodynamic support should be provided to patients with ARDS, aiming to ensure adequate gas exchange by promoting lung recruitment while minimizing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury. To do so, lung recruitability should be considered, as well as the avoidance of lung overstress by monitoring transpulmonary pressure or airway driving pressure. In the most severe cases, neuromuscular blockade, prone positioning, and extra-corporeal life support (alone or in combination should be taken into account.

  12. Current Concepts of ARDS: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbrello, Michele; Formenti, Paolo; Bolgiaghi, Luca; Chiumello, Davide

    2016-12-29

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema of non-cardiogenic origin, along with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and reduction in respiratory system compliance. The hallmark of the syndrome is refractory hypoxemia. Despite its first description dates back in the late 1970s, a new definition has recently been proposed. However, the definition remains based on clinical characteristic. In the present review, the diagnostic workup and the pathophysiology of the syndrome will be presented. Therapeutic approaches to ARDS, including lung protective ventilation, prone positioning, neuromuscular blockade, inhaled vasodilators, corticosteroids and recruitment manoeuvres will be reviewed. We will underline how a holistic framework of respiratory and hemodynamic support should be provided to patients with ARDS, aiming to ensure adequate gas exchange by promoting lung recruitment while minimizing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury. To do so, lung recruitability should be considered, as well as the avoidance of lung overstress by monitoring transpulmonary pressure or airway driving pressure. In the most severe cases, neuromuscular blockade, prone positioning, and extra-corporeal life support (alone or in combination) should be taken into account.

  13. Droplet lasers: a review of current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGloin, D.

    2017-05-01

    It is perhaps surprising that something as fragile as a microscopic droplet could possibly form a laser. In this article we will review some of the underpinning physics as to how this might be possible, and then examine the state of the art in the field. The technology to create and manipulate droplets will be examined, as will the different classes of droplet lasers. We discuss the rapidly developing fields of droplet biolasers, liquid crystal laser droplets and explore how droplet lasers could give rise to new bio and chemical sensing and analysis. The challenges that droplet lasers face in becoming robust devices, either as sensors or as photonic components in the lab on chip devices, is assessed.

  14. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods : a literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lois, Erasmia (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission); Forester, John Alan; Tran, Tuan Q. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Boring, Ronald L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-04-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study is currently underway that compares HRA methods with each other and against operator performance in simulator studies. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  15. [Current status and issues in development of occupational physicians in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Training systems for occupational physicians (OPs) have existed since the Industrial Safety and Health Act was enacted in 1972. However, it is necessary to enhance them because of changes in the business environment of Japanese corporations and working patterns have brought about new needs of occupational health (OH) activities. In this paper, OPs were classified into three categories; doctors who spend a part of working time on OH activities, i.e. "non-specialist OPs", doctors who engage in OH activities full-time, i.e. "specialists OPs", and doctors who manage corporate-wide occupational health programs or lead programs at OH service institutes, i.e. "lead OPs", and the status and the issues were reviewed. The major concern identified for each of the three categories in training were found to be quality management for non-specialist OPs, short supply for specialists OPs, and development of competencies such as leadership and management skills for lead OPs, respectively. Current efforts and ideas to improve the training systems were discussed.

  16. Overcoming the current issues surrounding device leads: reducing the complications during extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Segreti, Luca; Di Cori, Andrea; Zucchelli, Giulio; Paperini, Luca; Viani, Stefano; Soldati, Ezio

    2017-06-01

    The implantation rate of cardiac implantable electronic devices has consistently increased in the last 20 years, as have the related complication rates. The most relevant issue is the removal of pacing and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) leads, which a few months after implantation tend to develop intravascular fibrosis, often making extraction a challenging and risky procedure. Areas covered: The transvenous lead extraction (TLE) scenario is constantly evolving. TLE is a key procedure in lead management strategies. Many efforts have been made to develop new TLE approaches and techniques allowing a safe and effective procedure for patients. The increasing rate of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantations and of CIED related complications highlight the importance of TLE. Lead related- and patient-related factors may change the future of extractions. We review the current status of TLE, focusing on the strategies available to perform the optimal procedure in the right patient and reducing procedure related complications. Expert commentary: Understanding the importance of an accurate TLE risk stratification is mandatory to optimize the procedural risk-to-benefits ratio. The use of adequate tools, techniques and approaches, and appropriate training are cornerstones for the achievement of safer procedures.

  17. The formation, properties and impact of secondary organic aerosol: current and emerging issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hallquist

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA accounts for a significant fraction of ambient tropospheric aerosol and a detailed knowledge of the formation, properties and transformation of SOA is therefore required to evaluate its impact on atmospheric processes, climate and human health. The chemical and physical processes associated with SOA formation are complex and varied, and, despite considerable progress in recent years, a quantitative and predictive understanding of SOA formation does not exist and therefore represents a major research challenge in atmospheric science. This review begins with a description of the current state of knowledge on the global SOA budget and the atmospheric degradation mechanisms for SOA precursors. The topic of gas-particle partitioning theory is followed by an account of the analytical techniques used to determine the chemical composition of SOA. A survey of recent laboratory, field and modeling studies is also presented. The following topical and emerging issues are highlighted and discussed in detail; molecular characterization of biogenic SOA constituents, condensed phase reactions and oligomerization, the interaction of atmospheric organic components with sulfuric acid, the chemical and photochemical processing of organics in the atmospheric aqueous phase, aerosol formation from real plant emissions, interaction of atmospheric organic components with water, thermodynamics and mixtures in atmospheric models. Finally, the major challenges ahead in laboratory, field and modeling studies of SOA are discussed and recommendations for future research directions are proposed.

  18. The formation, properties and impact of secondary organic aerosol: current and emerging issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wildt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA accounts for a significant fraction of ambient tropospheric aerosol and a detailed knowledge of the formation, properties and transformation of SOA is therefore required to evaluate its impact on atmospheric processes, climate and human health. The chemical and physical processes associated with SOA formation are complex and varied, and, despite considerable progress in recent years, a quantitative and predictive understanding of SOA formation does not exist and therefore represents a major research challenge in atmospheric science. This review begins with an update on the current state of knowledge on the global SOA budget and is followed by an overview of the atmospheric degradation mechanisms for SOA precursors, gas-particle partitioning theory and the analytical techniques used to determine the chemical composition of SOA. A survey of recent laboratory, field and modeling studies is also presented. The following topical and emerging issues are highlighted and discussed in detail: molecular characterization of biogenic SOA constituents, condensed phase reactions and oligomerization, the interaction of atmospheric organic components with sulfuric acid, the chemical and photochemical processing of organics in the atmospheric aqueous phase, aerosol formation from real plant emissions, interaction of atmospheric organic components with water, thermodynamics and mixtures in atmospheric models. Finally, the major challenges ahead in laboratory, field and modeling studies of SOA are discussed and recommendations for future research directions are proposed.

  19. 42 CFR 405.1102 - Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or dismissal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or...) Medicare Appeals Council Review § 405.1102 Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or dismissal. (a)(1) A party to the ALJ hearing may request a MAC review if the party files a written request for...

  20. Teaching hydrogeology: a review of current practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gleeson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogeology is now taught in a broad spectrum of departments and institutions to students with diverse backgrounds. Successful instruction in hydrogeology thus requires a variety of pedagogical approaches depending on desired learning outcomes and the background of students. We review the pedagogical literature in hydrogeology to highlight recent advances and analyze a 2005 survey among 68 hydrogeology instructors. The literature and survey results suggest there are only ~ 15 topics that are considered crucial by most hydrogeologists and > 100 other topics that are considered crucial by some hydrogeologists. The crucial topics focus on properties of aquifers and fundamentals of groundwater flow, and should likely be part of all undergraduate hydrogeology courses. Other topics can supplement and support these crucial topics, depending on desired learning outcomes. Classroom settings continue to provide a venue for emphasizing fundamental knowledge. However, recent pedagogical advances are biased towards field and laboratory instruction with a goal of bolstering experiential learning. Field methods build on the fundamentals taught in the classroom and emphasize the collection of data, data uncertainty, and the development of vocational skills. Laboratory and computer-based exercises similarly build on theory, and offer an opportunity for data analysis and integration. The literature suggests curricula at all levels should ideally balance field, laboratory, and classroom pedagogy into an iterative and integrative whole. An integrated, iterative and balanced approach leads to greater student motivation and advancement of theoretical and vocational knowledge.

  1. Current pharmacotherapy for acromegaly: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermasz, Nienke R; Romijn, Johannes A; Pereira, Alberto M; Roelfsema, Ferdinand

    2005-11-01

    Acromegaly is associated with considerable morbidity and excess mortality; however, after effective treatment, both morbidity and mortality risks improve. Growth hormone excess in acromegaly can be controlled in many patients by pharmacotherapy alone, and with a combination of transsphenoidal surgery and pharmacotherapy in almost all patients. Since the clinical introduction of pegvisomant, a growth hormone-receptor antagonist, the role of radiotherapy is restricted. This review focuses on the treatment options for acromegaly (e.g., surgery, radiotherapy and pharmacotherapy with the depot preparations of the somatostatin analogues octreotide long-acting release formulation, lanreotide slow-release formulation and lanreotide Autogel, the growth hormone antagonist pegvisomant and the dopamine agonist cabergoline). Pharmacological characteristics of these drugs and the clinical and adverse effects are discussed individually and in relation to the other treatment modalities. The evidence for biochemical goals aimed at during medical treatment and the costs of pharmacotherapy are discussed. A new treatment algorithm is proposed, in which the choice between primary medical treatment and primary surgery is individualised, dependent on adenoma size and extension, patient factors (age, preference for therapy, contraindication for surgery), surgical experience of the centre and octreotide sensitivity of the adenoma. The high cost of lifelong medical treatment, especially of pegvisomant, must be weighed against the cost of a single surgical procedure.

  2. Teaching hydrogeology: a review of current practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, T.; Allen, D. M.; Ferguson, G.

    2012-07-01

    Hydrogeology is now taught in a broad spectrum of departments and institutions to students with diverse backgrounds. Successful instruction in hydrogeology thus requires a variety of pedagogical approaches depending on desired learning outcomes and the background of students. We review the pedagogical literature in hydrogeology to highlight recent advances and analyze a 2005 survey among 68 hydrogeology instructors. The literature and survey results suggest there are only ~ 15 topics that are considered crucial by most hydrogeologists and > 100 other topics that are considered crucial by some hydrogeologists. The crucial topics focus on properties of aquifers and fundamentals of groundwater flow, and should likely be part of all undergraduate hydrogeology courses. Other topics can supplement and support these crucial topics, depending on desired learning outcomes. Classroom settings continue to provide a venue for emphasizing fundamental knowledge. However, recent pedagogical advances are biased towards field and laboratory instruction with a goal of bolstering experiential learning. Field methods build on the fundamentals taught in the classroom and emphasize the collection of data, data uncertainty, and the development of vocational skills. Laboratory and computer-based exercises similarly build on theory, and offer an opportunity for data analysis and integration. The literature suggests curricula at all levels should ideally balance field, laboratory, and classroom pedagogy into an iterative and integrative whole. An integrated, iterative and balanced approach leads to greater student motivation and advancement of theoretical and vocational knowledge.

  3. Isoflavones and Prostate Cancer: A Review of Some Critical Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Yi Zhang; Jie Cui; Ye Zhang; Zhen-Long Wang; Tie Chong; Zi-Ming Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this review is to discuss some critical issues of isoflavones protective against the development of prostate cancer (PCa).Data Sources: Data cited in this review were obtained primarily from PubMed and Embase from 1975 to 2015.Study Selection: Articles were selected with the search terms "isoflavone", "Phytoestrogen", "soy", "genistin", and "PCa".Results: Isoflavones do not play an important role on prostate-specific antigen levels reduction in PCa patients or healthy men.The effect ofisoflavones on sex hormone levels and PCa risk may be determined by equol converting bacteria in the intestine, specific polymorphic variation and concentrations of isoflavones.The intake of various types of phytoestrogens with lower concentrations in the daily diet may produce synergistic effects against PCa.Moreover, prostate tissue may concentrate isoflavones to potentially anti-carcinogenic levels.In addition, it is noteworthy that isoflavones may act as an agonist in PCa.Conclusions: Isoflavones play a protective role against the development of PCa.However, careful consideration should be given when isoflavones are used in the prevention and treatment of PCa.

  4. Current legal and institutional issues in the commercialization of phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmons, J. T.; Sheehy, K. D.; Singer, J. R.; Gardner, T. C.

    1982-01-01

    Legal and institutional factors affecting the development and commercial diffusion of phosphoric acid fuel cells are assessed. Issues for future research and action are suggested. Perceived barriers and potential opportunities for fuel cells in central and dispersed utility operations and on-site applications are reviewed, as well as the general concept of commercialization as applied to emerging energy technologies.

  5. An assessment of the current and potential future natural and anthropogenic issues facing migratory shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutherland, W.J.; Alves, J.A.; Chang, C.H.; Davidson, D.C.; Finlayson, C.M.; Gill, J.A.; Gill, R.E.; González, P.M.; Gunnarsson, T.G.; Kleijn, D.; Spray, C.J.; Szekely, T.; Thompson, D.B.A.

    2012-01-01

    We review the conservation issues facing migratory shorebird populations that breed in temperate regions and use wetlands in the non-breeding season. Shorebirds are excellent model organisms for understanding ecological, behavioural and evolutionary processes and are often used as indicators of wetl

  6. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekas, Jean; Langlois, Sylvie; Ravitsky, Vardit; Audibert, François; van den Berg, David Gradus; Haidar, Hazar; Rousseau, François

    2016-01-01

    Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening) was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women.

  7. Current issues of international law on offshore abandonment, with special reference to the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiguo [Univ. of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1997-11-01

    This article attempts to provide an up-to-date overview of the recent developments of international law on offshore abandonment. It scrutinizes the current issues and debates on the subject at both international and national levels, with special reference to the legislation and practice in the United Kingdom. Through a study of the current issues and trends in international law and policy developments, the articles undertakes to provide, where possible, practical considerations as to the possible resolution of some of the prominent problems faced by the international community in general, and some member states in particular. The future direction of international abandonment law also is briefly outlined.

  8. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a as emergent findings; and b as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health.

  9. 22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reviews of environmental issues. 216.9 Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... environmental issues. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in these procedures, the Administrator may... United States is a member or participant; or (b) Concise reviews of the environmental issues...

  10. Assessment of BSBA Students' Conversancy in Current Business Issues: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Eileen A.; Maskulka, Therese A.; Kaminski, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the faculty of the College of Business at Kutztown University developed a set of five learning goals for its BSBA program. In fall, 2011, the college's Assurance of Learning Committee began to pursue the assessment of the last of these goals: "BSBA graduates will be conversant in current business issues, including ethics, social…

  11. Implementation issues on the design of current loops based on resonant regulators for isolated microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Pastorelli, Michele; Antonio DeSouza Ribeiro, Luiz;

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of state feedback coupling between the capacitor voltage and inductor current in voltage source inverters (VSI) operating in stand-alone microgrids. A decoupling technique is proposed as an effective measure to enhance the dynamics. Further implementation issues ...

  12. A Study of Current Trends and Issues Related to Technical/Engineering Design Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales Alice

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of engineering design graphics educators who responded to questions related to current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education. Concludes that there is a clear trend in institutions towards the teaching of constraint-based modeling and computer-aided manufacturing. (Author/YDS)

  13. Understandings of Current Environmental Issues: Turkish Case Study in Six Teacher Education Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Mustafa; Irez, Serhat; Dogan, Ozgur Kivilcan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to profile future science teachers' understandings of current environmental issues in the context of an education reform in Turkey. Knowledge base and understandings of elementary and secondary prospective science teachers about biodiversity, carbon cycle, global warming and ozone layer depletion were targeted in the…

  14. Wolves in the Wild: Using Current Issues to Make Science Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Jennie; Sadler, Troy D.

    2010-01-01

    As teachers, one of our most important responsibilities is to help students develop dynamic and useful views of science. Using current issues to create learning experiences can help generate student interest in science and help students appreciate its significance in both personal and societal contexts. This article presents a lesson based on news…

  15. Current Issues in the Teaching of English: Report on a Questionnaire Study; English Curricula in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The first two papers in this volume discusses the results of questionnaires intended for primary and secondary teachers to elicit information on current issues in the teaching of English in Australia. It was learned that secondary teachers reached consensus only on the very broadest levels. They all agreed that literature, communication, and…

  16. Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Kavita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and previously marginalised communities, with potential to aid with the poverty reduction targets. This research note reviews the existing policy and planning frameworks in relation to tourism and rural development in Namibia. Especially the policy aims towards rural community development are overviewed with focus on Community-Based Tourism (CBT initiatives. The research note involves a retrospective review of tourism policies and rural local development initiatives in Namibia where the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET initiated a community-based tourism policy. The policy emphasises structures and processes helping local communities to benefit from the tourism sector, and the active and coordinating involvement of communities, especially, is expected to ensure that the benefits of tourism trickle down to the local level where tourist activities take place. However, it is noted that in addition to public policy-makers also other tourism developers and private business environment in Namibia need to recognize the full potential of rural tourism development in order to meet the created politically driven promises at the policy level. In this respect, a national tourism policy could provide an enabling framework, integrating the tourism sector’s development aims to rural and community development needs in future. In addition, there is a need to coordinate a comprehensive vision of what type of rural tourism development or tourism in rural environments holds the most potential to benefit both local communities and the mainstream sector.

  17. Virtual reality at nuclear issues : a review study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcio Henrique da; Legey, Ana Paula; Mol, Antonio Carlos de A., E-mail: marciohenrique@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: ana.legey@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Recently, several applications using concepts related to virtual reality has been proposed to help on solving issues of great interest in Nuclear Engineering. Among them are power plant's control rooms simulators; measurement of the estimated radiation dose in a nuclear power plant; use of game engines to create virtual environments to support evacuation planning of buildings and circulation in areas subjected to radiation; development of a man - machine interface based on speech recognition; virtual control tables for simulation of nuclear power plants; evacuation plans support; security teams training and evaluation of physical protection barriers; ergonomic evaluation of control rooms, and other ones. Many of these applications are developed at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), having their results published in form of articles in periodicals and conferences. This article presents a review of some of these studies showing the evolution in the use of these concepts, describing some of its results and showing prospects for future applications that can make use of virtual reality technology. (author)

  18. Management and health issues in women with epilepsy - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salawu, F K; Moruppa, J Y; Danburam, A; Olokoba, A B

    2011-12-01

    Although epilepsy affects men and women equally, there are special implications for women, especially during their childbearing years, and particularly when pregnancy is contemplated. This review summarisesthe complexity and multifaceted nature of health issues affecting women with epilepsy (WWE) in general and epilepsy in women beyond childbearing age. The female sex hormones and their cyclic as well as age-related variations certainly influence seizure activity and epilepsy in women. Catamenial epilepsy is a multifaceted neuroendocrine condition in which seizures are clustered around specific points in the menstrual cycle, most often around perimenstrual or periovulatory period. There are special concerns for women of child bearing years with regard to contraception, pregnancy and teratogenicity that should be considered during counseling and selection of appropriate treatment.Although the majority of pregnant WWE experience normal pregnancies and deliveries, their children have a higher risk of birth defects. Individualised treatment coupling antiepileptic drug use (AED) and the specific phase of impact of the reproductive cycle must be considered in treatment selection. As the number of available treatment options for epilepsy increases, the optimal goal for the general practitioner is to work as a team with obstetricians and gynaecologists, and neurologists in an effort to ensure the best treatment of WWE

  19. Quality assurance and control issues for HF radar wave and current measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Lucy

    2015-04-01

    HF radars are now widely used to provide surface current measurements over wide areas of the coastal ocean for scientific and operational applications. In general data quality is acceptable for these applications but there remain issues that impact on the quantity and quality of the data. These include problems with calibration and interference which impact on both phased array (e.g. WERA, Pisces) and direction-finding (e.g. SeaSonde) radars. These same issues and others (e.g. signal-to-noise, in-cell current variability, antenna sidelobes) also impact on the quality and quantity of wave data that can be obtained. These issues will be discussed in this paper, illustrated with examples from deployments of WERA, Pisces and SeaSonde radars in the UK, Europe, USA and Australia. These issues involve both quality assurance (making sure the radars perform to spec and the software is fully operational) and in quality control (identifying problems with the data due to radar hardware or software performance issues and flagging these in the provided data streams). Recommendations for the former, and current practice (of the author and within the Australian Coastal Ocean Radar Network, ACORN*) for the latter, will be discussed. The quality control processes for wave measurement are not yet as well developed as those for currents and data from some deployments can be rather noisy. Some new methods, currently under development by SeaView Sensing Ltd and being tested with ACORN data, will be described and results presented. *ACORN is a facility of the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System, IMOS. IMOS is a national collaborative research infrastructure, supported by Australian Government. It is led by University of Tasmania in partnership with the Australian marine and climate science community.

  20. Superconductor digital electronics: Scalability and energy efficiency issues (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolpygo, Sergey K.

    2016-05-01

    Superconductor digital electronics using Josephson junctions as ultrafast switches and magnetic-flux encoding of information was proposed over 30 years ago as a sub-terahertz clock frequency alternative to semiconductor electronics based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors. Recently, interest in developing superconductor electronics has been renewed due to a search for energy saving solutions in applications related to high-performance computing. The current state of superconductor electronics and fabrication processes are reviewed in order to evaluate whether this electronics is scalable to a very large scale integration (VLSI) required to achieve computation complexities comparable to CMOS processors. A fully planarized process at MIT Lincoln Laboratory, perhaps the most advanced process developed so far for superconductor electronics, is used as an example. The process has nine superconducting layers: eight Nb wiring layers with the minimum feature size of 350 nm, and a thin superconducting layer for making compact high-kinetic-inductance bias inductors. All circuit layers are fully planarized using chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) of SiO2 interlayer dielectric. The physical limitations imposed on the circuit density by Josephson junctions, circuit inductors, shunt and bias resistors, etc., are discussed. Energy dissipation in superconducting circuits is also reviewed in order to estimate whether this technology, which requires cryogenic refrigeration, can be energy efficient. Fabrication process development required for increasing the density of superconductor digital circuits by a factor of ten and achieving densities above 107 Josephson junctions per cm2 is described.

  1. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review...... aimed at making the processes and practices of grant review more consistent, transparent, and user friendly....

  2. PETC Review. Issue 7, Winter 1992--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santore, R.R.; Blaustein, B.D.; Friedman, S.; Reiss, J.; Brown, J.; Price, M.M. [eds.

    1993-02-01

    This issue of the PETC Review is devoted to explaining how the private sector can do business with DOE-and with PETC in particular-and how DOE works with academia, industry, and state and local groups to accomplish objectives of mutual interest. Over the past several years, the notion of ``cost-sharing`` has been receiving increased attention. Indeed, cost-shared RD&D is becoming the norm, not only within DOE but also among other government agencies, including the Department of Defense. It may surprise some of our readership to learn that RD&D cost-sharing is not a new government policy. In fact, it has been part of the DOE Acquisition Regulations from their inception in 1977. In lay terms, cost participation, a general kind of cost-sharing, is required for RD&D efforts in which the non-Federal participant`s goal is commercialization or in situations for which it is reasonable to expect that economic benefits will accrue to the participant as a result of the work. The policy is quite flexible and states that the degree of non-DOEcost participation depends on a number of factors, including the nature of the work performed and the extent of the project risk. As competition for RD&D funds increases, it is to be expected that cost-sharing requirements for development, and even for basic research, will increase. Nevertheless, we think that Federal support of RD&D will continue to be necessary to maintain this country`s leadership in science, technology, industry, and living standards.

  3. Issues deserve attention in encapsulating probiotics: Critical review of existing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Qi; Liu, Cheng-Mei; Gong, Joshua

    2017-04-13

    Probiotic bacteria are being increasingly added to food for developing products with health-promoting properties. However, the efficacy of probiotics in commercial products is often questioned due to the loss of their viability during shelf storage and in human gastrointestinal tracts. Encapsulation of probiotics has been expected to provide protection to probiotics, but not many commercial products contain encapsulated and viable probiotic cells owing to various reasons. To promote the development and application of encapsulation technologies, this paper has critically reviewed previous publications with a focus on the areas where studies have fallen short, including insufficient consideration of structural effects of encapsulating material, general defects in encapsulating methods and issues in evaluation methodologies and risk assessments for application. Corresponding key issues that require further studies are highlighted. Some emerging trends in the field, such as current treads in encapsulating material and recently advanced encapsulation techniques, have also been discussed.

  4. Return of the "intimate outsider": current trends and issues in family nursing research revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    This article reviews family nursing research published from 1996 to 2011. This is a follow-up to a review published in the Journal of Family Nursing in 1995. Findings from the first review are compared with this one, trends in family nursing scholarship are identified, and predictions and suggestions for future directions are offered. The latest generation of family nursing scholarship is conceptually and methodologically sound, and there is evidence of more multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research conducted by family nursing researchers. Scholars are paying more attention to issues of diversity and family context at present than in the past, although there are still aspects of diversity that need more attention. Strong research programs in family nursing exist worldwide; an international synergism has helped promote rapid expansion of family nursing research and theory development. A vigorous movement to promote research to practice initiatives and greater attention to family interventions are exciting developments.

  5. Current trends in research and clinical issues in the study of personality and its disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Sørensen, Per; Pedersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    lecture (Simonsen), a young researchers' symposium (Hopwood, Sharp, and Kaess), and special lectures on the Danish philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Hans Christian Andersen. In this article we will survey the presentations and highlight the important issues in order to underline the current......The International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders (ISSPD) celebrated its 25th anniversary in September 2013 in Copenhagen and commemorated the First International Congress at the same site. The overall theme of the congress was "Bridging Personality and Psychopathology: The Person...... Behind the Illness." More than 400 abstracts were submitted, and the program included 8 keynote presentations, 18 invited symposia, a debate on current controversial issues in the classification of personality disorders (Fossati, Tyrer, Livesley, and Krueger), an ISSPD award lecture (Silk), a jubilee...

  6. Current issues around the pharmacotherapy of ADHD in children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, W.M.; Faber, A.; Ban, van den, A.W.; Tobi, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background New drugs and new formulations enter the growing market for ADHD medication. The growing awareness of possible persistence of ADHD impairment beyond childhood and adolescence resulting in increased pharmacotherapy of ADHD in adults, is also a good reason for making an inventory of the what is generally known about pharmacotherapy in ADHD. Aim To discuss current issues in the possible pharmacotherapy treatment of ADHD in children, adolescents and adults with respect to the position ...

  7. A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Issues and Current Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-21

    A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Issues and Current Proposals Matthew C. Weed Specialist in Foreign...Policy Legislation February 21, 2017 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R43760 A New Authorization for Use of Military Force...Against the Islamic State Congressional Research Service Summary Since the United States embarked on a strategy to counter the Islamic State (also

  8. Current State and Issues of Logistics Cost Accounting and Management in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zakariah, Sahidah; Pyeman, Jaafar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Logistics cost is an important factor affecting the competitiveness on both macro (national) and micro level (firms). Logistics cost indicates the performance of logistics industry, efficiency level and its competitiveness. Research Problem: Despite of its significance, current state of logistics cost accounting and management in Malaysia has not properly addressed and the issues surround logistics cost measurement remains incoherent. Aim of research: The purpose o...

  9. Concussions in the National Football League: A Current Concepts Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Johnson, Daniel J; Zuckerman, Scott L; Solomon, Gary S

    2016-03-01

    Significant attention has been directed toward the immediate and long-term effects of sport-related concussions on athletes participating in contact sports, particularly football. The highest level of football, the National Football League (NFL), has received significant attention and criticism regarding player management and safety after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Several review articles have reported data related to concussion in the NFL, but a succinct review and synthesis of data regarding NFL concussions is currently lacking. To (1) review systematically the published data regarding concussion in the NFL and assess limitations of the studies, (2) elucidate areas where further research is needed, and (3) identify methods to improve future investigations of concussion in the NFL. Systematic review of literature. English-language titles and abstracts published between 1900 and September 2014 were searched systematically across electronic databases, and a review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Peer-reviewed journal articles were included if they contained NFL concussion data with or without additional associated long-term effects. Reviews, editorials, letters to the editor, and comments were not included. Of the 344 records screened for review, 88 articles were assessed for eligibility. There were 31 studies that met the inclusion criteria and formed the basis of the evidence synthesis. Included in the current review were 8 case-control studies (Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine evidence level 3b), 6 descriptive epidemiological studies (level 4), 6 cross-sectional studies (level 4), 6 cohort studies (level 2b), and 5 case series (level 4). The study of concussions in the NFL has been limited by lack of recent empirical data, reliance on self-reported concussion history, and ascertainment bias of brains donated for autopsy studies. The scientific community

  10. Mindfulness for Children in Public Schools: Current Research and Developmental Issues to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Jeanne; Gelbar, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have increased in popularity over the past decade and interest continues to increase in the potential to use mindfulness-based interventions in schools. The current research concerning school-based mindfulness-based interventions is reviewed in this article. This research base is fragmented, as most of the studies…

  11. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: Further Issues in Current Evidence and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. Mark G.; Russell, Ian; Russell, Daphne

    2008-01-01

    The authors respond to the article by H. F. Coelho, P. H. Canter, and E. Ernst (2007), which reviewed the current status of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). First, they clarify the randomization procedures in the 2 main MBCT trials. Second, they report posttreatment and follow-up data to show that trial participants allocated to…

  12. Mental health issues among migrant workers in Gulf Cooperation Council countries: literature review and case illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfol, Ziad; Saleh, Marwa; Al-Ghafry, Maha

    2014-08-01

    More than 15 million non-nationals are currently living and working in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states. The majority are blue-collar or domestic workers coming from the Indian Subcontinent or South East Asia. They often work under very harsh conditions. There are reports of a high rate of psychosis and suicide among these people but no reliable data are available. To address this issue we conducted a literature search both in English and in Arabic to review the available articles on the psychological well-being of this population. Very few articles were found. We hereby review the available literature and contribute by presenting several brief vignettes to illustrate the various clinical aspects of this at risk population. We also discuss possible reasons for underreporting and underscore the need for more research in this area.

  13. Current issues relating to psychosocial job strain and cardiovascular disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, T; Karasek, R A

    1996-01-01

    The authors comment on recent reviews of cardiovascular job strain research by P. L. Schnall and P. A. Landsbergis (1994), and by T. S. Kristensen (1995), which conclude that job strain as defined by the demand-control model (the combination of contributions of low job decision latitudes and high psychological job demands) is confirmed as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in a large majority of studies. Lack of social support at work appears to further increase risk. Several still-unresolved research questions are examined in light of recent studies: (a) methodological issues related to use of occupational aggregate estimations and occupational career aggregate assessments, use of standard scales for job analysis and recall bias issues in self-reporting; (b) confounding factors and differential strengths of association by subgroups in job strain-cardiovascular disease analyses with respect to social class, gender, and working hours; and (c) review of results of monitoring job strain-blood pressure associations and associated methodological issues.

  14. Open-system dynamics of entanglement: a key issues review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aolita, Leandro; de Melo, Fernando; Davidovich, Luiz

    2015-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges in the fields of quantum information processing and quantum technologies is the detailed coherent control over each and every constituent of quantum systems with an ever increasing number of particles. Within this endeavor, harnessing of many-body entanglement against the detrimental effects of the environment is a major pressing issue. Besides being an important concept from a fundamental standpoint, entanglement has been recognized as a crucial resource for quantum speed-ups or performance enhancements over classical methods. Understanding and controlling many-body entanglement in open systems may have strong implications in quantum computing, quantum simulations of many-body systems, secure quantum communication or cryptography, quantum metrology, our understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition, and other important questions of quantum foundations.In this paper we present an overview of recent theoretical and experimental efforts to underpin the dynamics of entanglement under the influence of noise. Entanglement is thus taken as a dynamic quantity on its own, and we survey how it evolves due to the unavoidable interaction of the entangled system with its surroundings. We analyze several scenarios, corresponding to different families of states and environments, which render a very rich diversity of dynamical behaviors.In contrast to single-particle quantities, like populations and coherences, which typically vanish only asymptotically in time, entanglement may disappear at a finite time. In addition, important classes of entanglement display an exponential decay with the number of particles when subject to local noise, which poses yet another threat to the already-challenging scaling of quantum technologies. Other classes, however, turn out to be extremely robust against local noise. Theoretical results and recent experiments regarding the difference between local and global decoherence are summarized. Control and

  15. The Context of Current Content Analysis of Gender Roles: An Introduction to a Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Rena M; Popova, Lucy; Linz, Daniel G

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide context for the quantitative content analyses of gender roles that are to be included in both parts of this special issue. First, a timeline of historical uses of the content analysis methodology is presented. Second, research objectives that frequently drive content analysis of gender roles are described; these include: to support feminist claims, to compare media with real life, to predict effects on audiences, and to detect effects of media producers on content. Third, previous content analyses published in Sex Roles and other gender-focused journals are reviewed and categorized in terms of medium, genre, time span, gender, and nationality. Finally, contributions of each of the articles in this special issue are outlined.

  16. The Context of Current Content Analysis of Gender Roles: An Introduction to a Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Linz, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide context for the quantitative content analyses of gender roles that are to be included in both parts of this special issue. First, a timeline of historical uses of the content analysis methodology is presented. Second, research objectives that frequently drive content analysis of gender roles are described; these include: to support feminist claims, to compare media with real life, to predict effects on audiences, and to detect effects of media producers on content. Third, previous content analyses published in Sex Roles and other gender-focused journals are reviewed and categorized in terms of medium, genre, time span, gender, and nationality. Finally, contributions of each of the articles in this special issue are outlined. PMID:20694031

  17. Predicting the behavioural impact of transcranial direct current stimulation: issues and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archy Otto De Berker

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The transcranial application of weak currents to the human brain has enjoyed a decade of success, providing a simple and powerful tool for non-invasively altering human brain function. However, our understanding of current delivery and its impact upon neural circuitry leaves much to be desired. We argue that the credibility of conclusions drawn with tDCS is contingent upon realistic explanations of how tDCS works, and that our present understanding of tDCS limits the technique’s use to localize function in the human brain. We outline two central issues where progress is required: the localization of currents, and predicting their functional consequence. We encourage experimenters to eschew simplistic explanations of mechanisms of transcranial current stimulation. We suggest the use of individualized current modelling, together with computational neurostimulation to inform mechanistic frameworks in which to interpret the physiological impact of tDCS. We hope that through mechanistically richer descriptions of current flow and action, insight into the biological processes by which transcranial currents influence behaviour can be gained, leading to more effective stimulation protocols and empowering conclusions drawn with tDCS.

  18. Ethical and professional conduct of medical students: review of current assessment measures and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, K; Turner, J

    2004-01-01

    As medical education increasingly acknowledges the importance of the ethical and professional conduct of practitioners, and moves towards more formal assessment of these issues, it is important to consider the evidence base which exists in this area. This article discusses literature about the health needs and problems experienced by medical practitioners as a background to a review of the current efforts in medical education to promote ethical conduct and develop mechanisms for the detection and remediation of problems. PMID:15082823

  19. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review...

  20. Current issues in dental practice management. Part 1. The importance of shared values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Philip R H

    2003-04-01

    There can be few who would argue with the notion that the nature of dental practice in the United Kingdom has changed dramatically over the last couple of decades. A variety of factors, including new clinical techniques, growing consumerism, a much greater awareness of health-related and well-being issues in the public at large, as well as a marked deregulation within the dental profession, the development of vocational training and recently mandatory lifelong learning, the growing number of females working in the profession, and an increasing reluctance of young dentists to finance dental practices have all combined to create an environment which has enabled and encouraged a move away from traditional forms of dental care delivery. Instead, there has been considerable growth in independently-funded practice and a commensurate growth in the number of practices operating under a corporate body umbrella of one form or another. Currently there are 27 corporate bodies registered with the General Dental Council (GDC) with the likelihood of more in the future given the proposed GDC review. This will no doubt take into consideration European law, under which the restriction within the Dentist's Act on the number of corporate bodies is likely to be untenable. Although they still have only a small share of the dental market--with 4% of all dentists in the UK in 1999--they have expanded rapidly from a small base. The data available at the time the paper was written indicate that the global total of fees earned from dentistry in the UK in the financial year 2001/2002 was almost 3 billion Pounds, of which 1.9 billion Pounds (64%) came from NHS fees and 1.1 billion Pounds (36%) from private fees. Of this 1.9 billion Pounds received in NHS fees in 2001/2002, 0.55 billion Pounds were paid by patients who were not exempt from charges, bringing the total amount actually paid out of patients' pockets for dental treatment to 1.65 billion Pounds. Compare these figures with 1996

  1. Research of Current Issues and Preliminary Sensitivity Analysis of Level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, So Eun; Lee, Yong Suk [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Thus, in this study, key current issues came from research on previous studies related to L3 PSA. L3 PSA has been carried out by using MACCS code in Korea on a trial basis. The technique of assessing an off-site radiation effect quantitatively is required because the interest in off-site consequence analysis has been increased after the Fukushima accident. Therefore, in order to use Level 3 PSA(L3 PSA) in Korea, methods of calculating MACCS(MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) code to be adequate for domestic circumstances in Korea were investigated. If L3 PSA is performed in Korea, it will be possible to raise many issues. Since MACCS code is based on the U.S., input parameters and the scope of analysis were set by considering circumstances of the U.S. For this reason, by focusing on solutions to current issues, the method for reflecting circumstances of Korea in L3 PSA was investigated. It is also required to find out methods for decreasing uncertainty of L3 PSA in Korea.

  2. SYRUPS: COMPOSITION, TECHNOLOGY, CURRENT STATE OF RESEARCH (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overview data for the syrups formulation, including syrups for children, with synthetic substances were represented: assortment, composition, technological approach. The advantages and disadvantages of this dosage form were described. Details considered flavoring agents and other auxiliaries (stabilizers, preservatives, thickeners comprising syrups were closely examined. The issues of current research state of syrups for children were described.

  3. Marine aerosol production: a review of the current knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dowd, C.D.; Leeuw, G. de

    2007-01-01

    The current knowledge in primary and secondary marine aerosol formation is reviewed. For primary marine aerosol source functions, recent source functions have demonstrated a significant flux of submicrometre particles down to radii of 20 nm. Moreover, the source functions derived from different tech

  4. Current view of mesenchymal stem cells biology (brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslova O. A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are in a focus of attention, some aspects of their biology are still unclear. This paper is a review of current research on MSC biology. The use of MSC in regenerative medicine is also briefly discussed.

  5. Review of coastal currents in Southern African waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harris, TFW

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available A review has been made of existing knowledge of the coastal currents in Southern African waters between Pretoria to Oudtshoorn on the northeast border, and the Orange River on the west coast. These waters have been divided into five sectors...

  6. They did not start the fire: reviewing and resolving the issue of physician stress and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyar, Julie Christine

    2017-06-19

    Purpose Physician stress and burnout is a serious and common concern in healthcare, with over half of physicians in the USA meeting at least one criterion for burnout. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach A review on current state of physician stress and burnout research, from 2008 to 2016, was undertaken. A subsequent perspective paper was shaped around these reviews. Findings Findings reveal research strength in prevalence and incidence with opportunities for stronger intervention studies. While descriptive studies on causes and consequences of physician burnout are available, studies on interventions and prevention of physician burnout are lacking. Future research on physician stress and burnout should incorporate intervention studies and take care to avoid limitations found in current research. Accountability and prevention of physician burnout is the responsibility of the healthcare industry as a whole, and organizational strategies must be emphasized in future research. Originality/value The value of this research comes in the original comprehensive review, international inclusion and succinct summary of physician burnout research and strategies.

  7. Attention should be given to multiplicity issues in systematic reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, R.; Bunce, C.; Clarke, M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe the problem of multiple comparisons in systematic reviews and to provide some guidelines on how to deal with it in practice. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We describe common reasons for multiplicity in systematic reviews, and present some examples....... We provide guidance on how to deal with multiplicity when it is unavoidable. RESULTS: We identified six common reasons for multiplicity in systematic reviews: multiple outcomes, multiple groups, multiple time points, multiple effect measures, subgroup analyses, and multiple looks at accumulating data....... The existing methods to deal with multiplicity in single trials can not always be applied in systematic reviews. CONCLUSION: There is no simple and completely satisfactory solution to the problem of multiple comparisons in systematic reviews. More research is required to develop multiple comparison procedures...

  8. CRITICAL REVIEW OF OPENSTACK SECURITY: ISSUES AND WEAKNESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Albaroodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the state of both cloud computing security in general and OpenStack in particular. Conducting a reassessment of cloud computing security can provide a greater understanding of how cloud computing functions and what types of security issues arise therein. This study is divided into two parts; in the first part, the background of cloud computing and its different deployment models are discussed. This section also describes various security challenges that affect organizations’ decisions to adopt cloud computing. In the second part, an overview of the security issues in OpenStack is presented.

  9. Science and technology review, July-August 1998 issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, J

    1998-07-01

    On the occasion of Edward Teller's 90th birthday, S&TR has the pleasure of honoring Lawrence Livermore's co-founder and most influential scientist. Teller is known for his inventive work in physics, his concepts leading to thermonuclear explosions, and his strong stands on such issues as science education, the nation's strategic defense, the needs for science in the future, and sharing scientific information. The articles in this issue also show him, as always, tirelessly moving forward with his new and changing interests.

  10. Slurry pipelines: economic and political issues. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    In the controversy surrounding the proposal to grant Federal eminent domain to coal-slurry pipelines, the fundamental issue is whether, on balance, such a grant is in the national interest. The principal subissues (peripheral issues) of economics, water supply and disposal, energy consumption and conservation, employment, safety, and environmental impact are analyzed. It is found that, as compared with unit trains, which are the only immediate alternative for movement of large quantities of Western coal, the pipelines are not against the national interest, except in the case of employment. It is concluded that, on balance, the pipelines are in the national interest and should be granted the power of Federal eminent domain.

  11. Current Situation and Issues in Career Support for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    石井, 正博; 篠田, 晴男

    2014-01-01

    We briefly reviewed the current problems in career support for students with developmental disorders. Specifically, wefocused on studies concerning autism spectrum disorder because of the difficulty students with these disorders often face in finding jobs. The majority of studies suggested that the acquisition of basic life skills is essential for a successful transition from the educational setting to the workplace. We also discussed carrier decision-making as it relates to the accuracyof th...

  12. An overview of current issues in the uptake of atmospheric trace gases by aerosols and clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Kolb

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A workshop was held in the framework of the ACCENT (Atmospheric Composition Change – a European Network Joint Research Programme on "Aerosols" and the Programme on "Access to Laboratory Data". The aim of the workshop was to hold "Gordon Conference" type discussion covering accommodation and reactive uptake of water vapour and trace pollutant gases on condensed phase atmospheric materials. The scope was to review and define the current state of knowledge of accommodation coefficients for water vapour on water droplet and ice surfaces, and uptake of trace gas species on a variety of different surfaces characteristic of the atmospheric condensed phase particulate matter and cloud droplets. Twenty-six scientists participated in this meeting through presentations, discussions and the development of a consensus review.

    In this review we present an analysis of the state of knowledge on the thermal and mass accommodation coefficient for water vapour on aqueous droplets and ice and a survey of current state-of the-art of reactive uptake of trace gases on a range of liquid and solid atmospheric droplets and particles. The review recommends consistent definitions of the various parameters that are needed for quantitative representation of the range of gas/condensed surface kinetic processes important for the atmosphere and identifies topics that require additional research.

  13. An overview of current issues in the uptake of atmospheric trace gases by aerosols and clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Kolb

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A workshop was held in the framework of the ACCENT (Atmospheric Composition Change – a European Network Joint Research Programme on "Aerosols" and the Programme on "Access to Laboratory Data". The aim of the workshop was to hold "Gordon Conference" type discussion covering accommodation and reactive uptake of water vapour and trace pollutant gases on condensed phase atmospheric materials. The scope was to review and define the current state of knowledge of accommodation coefficients for water vapour on water droplet and ice surfaces, and uptake of trace gas species on a variety of different surfaces characteristic of the atmospheric condensed phase particulate matter and cloud droplets. Twenty-six scientists participated in this meeting through presentations, discussions and the development of a consensus review.

    In this review we present an analysis of the state of knowledge on the thermal and mass accommodation coefficient for water vapour on aqueous droplets and ice and a survey of current state-of the-art of reactive uptake of trace gases on a range of liquid and solid atmospheric droplets and particles. The review recommends consistent definitions of the various parameters that are needed for quantitative representation of the range of gas/condensed surface kinetic processes important for the atmosphere and identifies topics that require additional research.

  14. An overview of current issues in the uptake of atmospheric trace gases by aerosols and clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, C. E.; Cox, R. A.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Ammann, M.; Davis, E. J.; Donaldson, D. J.; Garrett, B. C.; George, C.; Griffiths, P. T.; Hanson, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; McFiggans, G.; Pöschl, U.; Riipinen, I.; Rossi, M. J.; Rudich, Y.; Wagner, P. E.; Winkler, P. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2010-11-01

    A workshop was held in the framework of the ACCENT (Atmospheric Composition Change - a European Network) Joint Research Programme on "Aerosols" and the Programme on "Access to Laboratory Data". The aim of the workshop was to hold "Gordon Conference" type discussion covering accommodation and reactive uptake of water vapour and trace pollutant gases on condensed phase atmospheric materials. The scope was to review and define the current state of knowledge of accommodation coefficients for water vapour on water droplet and ice surfaces, and uptake of trace gas species on a variety of different surfaces characteristic of the atmospheric condensed phase particulate matter and cloud droplets. Twenty-six scientists participated in this meeting through presentations, discussions and the development of a consensus review. In this review we present an analysis of the state of knowledge on the thermal and mass accommodation coefficient for water vapour on aqueous droplets and ice and a survey of current state-of the-art of reactive uptake of trace gases on a range of liquid and solid atmospheric droplets and particles. The review recommends consistent definitions of the various parameters that are needed for quantitative representation of the range of gas/condensed surface kinetic processes important for the atmosphere and identifies topics that require additional research.

  15. Meaningful Peer Review in Radiology: A Review of Current Practices and Potential Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarity, Andrew K; Hawkins, C Matthew; Geis, J Raymond; Dreyer, Keith J; Kamer, Aaron P; Khandheria, Paras; Morey, Jose; Whitfill, James; Wiggins, Richard H; Itri, Jason N

    2016-12-01

    The current practice of peer review within radiology is well developed and widely implemented compared with other medical specialties. However, there are many factors that limit current peer review practices from reducing diagnostic errors and improving patient care. The development of "meaningful peer review" requires a transition away from compliance toward quality improvement, whereby the information and insights gained facilitate education and drive systematic improvements that reduce the frequency and impact of diagnostic error. The next generation of peer review requires significant improvements in IT functionality and integration, enabling features such as anonymization, adjudication by multiple specialists, categorization and analysis of errors, tracking, feedback, and easy export into teaching files and other media that require strong partnerships with vendors. In this article, the authors assess various peer review practices, with focused discussion on current limitations and future needs for meaningful peer review in radiology.

  16. Review of Congressional Issues. News from Capitol Hill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Ann Simeo

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on U.S. congressional issues in two categories: (1) enacted legislation, and (2) proposed legislation. Addresses topics such as the resolution related to Iraq, the Department of Homeland Security, Pledge of Allegiance, social security protection, elder justice, and women's rights. Includes learning activities. (CMK)

  17. REVIEW: Trends And Issues In Instructional Design And Technology

    OpenAIRE

    AKBULUT, Reviewed By Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    “Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology” is a reader friendly reference source on instructional design and technology (IDT) helping both professionals in the field and novice practitioners trying to get used to the trends and concepts of the field.

  18. Human Resource Management in Sports: A Critical Review of its Importance and Pertaining Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerakoon Ranjan Kumara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper will illustrate the meaning and importance of human resource management (HRM, human resource planning, and strategic human resource management, which are critically important for an organization’s effectiveness and must be effectively managed (Doherty, 1998. This study used the literature review method to acquire its final results. The relevant HRM literature review was done according to the purpose of the study. It used the purposive random sample method for selecting relevant literature. This study shows the current economic environment in the sports industry; the second part of the study critically analyzes the value of the strategic management of employees for the effective and efficient operation of sports organizations. It also critically evaluates human resource planning and other pertinent issues in terms of legislation, recruitment, selection, training, induction, and reward management from different international examples in sports management. Over the past few decades, increasing competition, globalization, and continuous changes in the market and in technology have emphasized the need to rethink the management of the organization and of human resources for the sake of overcoming significant challenges (Taylor et al., 2006. Therefore, managers should use strategic human resource management to overcome significant issues and to form well-planned strategies so that the organization may succeed.

  19. A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE TOURISM SECTOR - CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES IN THE BULGARIAN TOURIST BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadin Valkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thе analysis presented in current article deepens and summarizes the results of an economic study focused on the management of human resources in the sector "Tourism". The expected changes in organizational and technological terms are taken into account. The law on tourism in the Republic of Bulgaria and the types of taxes that directly and indirectly affect those employed in tourism are considered. Leading accents are the current trends and issues that arise from the lack of skilled workers in this sector and their deficit caused by the seasonal nature of employment. Growing gray economy is concerned as a major obstacle to development of the tourism industry and its future.

  20. Issues in current User Equilibrium models and introduction of the Restricted Stochastic User Equilibrium conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Watling, David P.; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    -off is strictly enforced: in a time-only model, if the current equilibrium travel time is 15.3 minutes, then adding a route with travel time of 15.4 minutes will have no impact on routing behaviour, whereas in practice (because of uncertainty, variability and unobserved attributes) the new route is likely....... This issue is further complicated by the fact that typically only a sub-set of possible routes will be identified in numerical algorithms solving for SUE. In the current study, we present new alternative forms of SUE conditions that permit unused alternatives, accommodate behaviour on used alternatives...... algorithms to the behaviourally sound SUE and the efficiency of solution algorithms to the DUE, we introduce a transformation of the cost function. This transformation function opens up a larger array of possible solution algorithms to the SUE, as it allows us to apply any path-based DUE solution algorithm...

  1. Study of Security Attributes of Smart Grid Systems- Current Cyber Security Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Scott A. McBride

    2009-04-01

    This document provides information for a report to congress on Smart Grid security as required by Section 1309 of Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The security of any future Smart Grid is dependent on successfully addressing the cyber security issues associated with the nation’s current power grid. Smart Grid will utilize numerous legacy systems and technologies that are currently installed. Therefore, known vulnerabilities in these legacy systems must be remediated and associated risks mitigated in order to increase the security and success of the Smart Grid. The implementation of Smart Grid will include the deployment of many new technologies and multiple communication infrastructures. This report describes the main technologies that support Smart Grid and summarizes the status of implementation into the existing U.S. electrical infrastructure.

  2. TheReview of“The Monographic Studies on the Current Hot Issues of Educatio:Issues of Educational Sociology”%一部驱动我国人力资源由大臻强的教育社会学力作--《当代教育热点问题专题研究:教育社会问题研究卷》意蕴钩玄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴生岐; 刘宁

    2015-01-01

    《当代教育热点问题专题研究———教育社会问题研究卷》饱含对中国教育全息性问题系统性忧思:在思维方法上豁显着天地互文、内外联通的“实语”理路;在研究立场上显示出找回社会、倚重社会的场域归属;在研究导向上突出了殷忧淑世、兴教强国的问题意识;在研究心态上揭橥了“能近取譬”“得大自在”的文化自觉意识。%“The Monographic Studies on the Current Hot Issues of Education :Issues of Educational Sociology” is a monograph about educational sociology that is customized for solving the problems of Chi‐nese education .it contains the authors’ systematic anxieties about the overall issues of Chinese education . Concretely ,its thinking method clearly reveals the truthfully presentation orderliness that Heaven and Earth are correlated and the inside and the outside are united .The standpoint of the researches shows the field belongings to retrieve the society and relies on it .Its research guidance highlights the consciousness of problems that to care about the world as well as to promote education and make the country rich and strong .

  3. Current nutritional approaches in managing autism spectrum disorder: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekici, Hande; Sanlier, Nevin

    2017-08-01

    The link between nutrition and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is a complex developmental disorder manifesting itself in significant delays or deviation in interaction and communication, has provided a fresh point of view and signals that nutrition may have a role in the aetiology of ASD, as well as play an active role in treatment by alleviating symptoms. In this review study aimed at evaluating, with scientific and concrete proof, the current medical nutrition implementations on ASD, existing medical nutrition therapies have been addressed and their effects on ASD symptoms have been discussed in light of current research. We reviewed articles regarding the medical nutritional therapy of autism on current nutritional approaches selected from PubMed, Science Direct, EBSCO, and databases about autism and nutrition. The research put forward that in individuals with ASD, while gluten-free/casein-free and ketogenic diets, camel milk, curcumin, probiotics, and fermentable foods can play a role in alleviating ASD symptoms, consumption of sugar, additives, pesticides, genetically modified organisms, inorganic processed foods, and hard-to-digest starches may aggravate symptoms. Further prospective controlled trials with large sample sizes are needed before recommendations can be made regarding the ideal ASD diet. This review emphasizes the value of identifying current nutritional approaches specific to individuals with ASD and integrating their effects on symptoms to the conversation and presents suggestions for future research designed to identify medical nutrition therapies targeting this population to better understand the link between ASD and nutrition.

  4. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L J; Hammel, C J

    1997-04-01

    Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

  5. [Central blockades in Pediatrics: A review of current literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizaga Rebollar, R; García Palacios, M V; Morales Guerrero, J; Torres Morera, L M

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric neuraxial anesthesia is an effective tool that can be used as a supplement or alternative to general anesthesia. However, there have always been doubts about its usefulness and risk-benefit ratio. The purpose of this review is to describe the current role of central blockades in pediatric patients, upgrade practical and safety aspects, and review the latest technological advances applied to this procedure. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Current Issues and Challenges in the Use of Aerosolized Surfactant for Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dion Darius Samsudin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surfactant replacement therapy is a recognized treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS in the newborns. Over the past 30 years, human and animal trials have been performed regarding administration of aerosolized surfactant to the injured lung, however the result has been unsatisfactory when compared with instilled surfactant delivery via endotracheal tube (ETT. This review aims to investigate the current issues, challenges and future recommendation of aerosolized surfactant therapy. CONTENT: Five randomized clinical trials in humans and 13 animal trials met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Most animal trials agree that this method of treatment is feasible. However, human trials presented conflicting results, and generally showed it to be ineffective. When compared with surfactant delivery via ETT, aerosolized surfactant is less effective in improving respiratory function. SUMMARY: The current data from human trials does not support the implementation of aerosolized surfactant therapy to treat newborns with RDS. Further research is necessary to improve nebulization, delivery, distribution and deposition in the lung, to investigate aerosolized surfactant delivery via ETT and to determine the appropriate dose. KEYWORDS: surfactant, aerosol, prematurity, respiratory distress syndrome.

  7. Measuring child exposure to violence and mental health reactions in epidemiological studies: challenges and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiane Seixas; Bordin, Isabel Altenfelder Santos; Green, Genevieve Rachel; Hoven, Christina W

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines challenges and current issues involved in measuring exposure to different types of violence which are associated mental health problems in children and adolescents. Standardized measures suitable for epidemiological studies, selected based on their relevance in the current literature, are briefly described and commented. The assessment of child's exposure to violence may focus on a specific event (e.g., kidnapping), a specific context (e.g., war) or even of a certain type of exposure (e.g., intrafamilial physical violence). The assessment of child mental health after exposure to violence has traditionally focused on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - most frequently measured through non-diagnostic scales. However, other mental health reactions may be present and screening as well as diagnostic instruments which may be used to assess these reactions are also described. Two issues of emerging importance - the assessment of impairment and of traumatic grief in children - are also presented. Availability of culturally appropriate instruments is a crucial step towards proper identification of child mental health problems after exposure to violence.

  8. Reviews on Security Issues and Challenges in Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Y. Z.; Zaaba, Z. F.; Samsudin, N. F.

    2016-11-01

    Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing service provided by the third party allowing share of resources and data among devices. It is widely used in many organizations nowadays and becoming more popular because it changes the way of how the Information Technology (IT) of an organization is organized and managed. It provides lots of benefits such as simplicity and lower costs, almost unlimited storage, least maintenance, easy utilization, backup and recovery, continuous availability, quality of service, automated software integration, scalability, flexibility and reliability, easy access to information, elasticity, quick deployment and lower barrier to entry. While there is increasing use of cloud computing service in this new era, the security issues of the cloud computing become a challenges. Cloud computing must be safe and secure enough to ensure the privacy of the users. This paper firstly lists out the architecture of the cloud computing, then discuss the most common security issues of using cloud and some solutions to the security issues since security is one of the most critical aspect in cloud computing due to the sensitivity of user's data.

  9. Current Issues with Environmental Barrier Coatings for Ceramics and Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.

    2004-01-01

    The environmental barrier coating (EBC) for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites and Si3N4 ceramics is an emerging field as the application of silicon-based ceramics in the gas turbine engine hot section is on the horizon, both for aero and industrial gas turbines. EBC is an enabling technology for silicon-based ceramics because these materials without an EBC cannot be used in combustion environments due to rapid surface recession. Significant progress in EBC development has been made during the last decade through various government-sponsored programs. Current EBCs are based on silicon, mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and BSAS (barium strontium aluminum silicate with celsian structure). Volatility of BSAS, BSAS-silica chemical reaction, and low melting point of silicon limit temperature capability of current EBCs to about 1350 C for long-term applications. There is a need for higher temperature EBCs as the temperature capability of silicon-based ceramics continue to increase. Therefore, research is underway to develop EBCs with improved temperature capability compared to current EBCs. The current status and issues with the advanced EBC development efforts will be discussed.

  10. Current Issues with Environmental Barrier Coatings for Ceramics and Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.

    2004-01-01

    The environmental barrier coating (EBC) for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites and Si3N4 ceramics is an emerging field as the application of silicon-based ceramics in the gas turbine engine hot section is on the horizon, both for aero and industrial gas turbines. EBC is an enabling technology for silicon-based ceramics because these materials without an EBC cannot be used in combustion environments due to rapid surface recession. Significant progress in EBC development has been made during the last decade through various government-sponsored programs. Current EBCs are based on silicon, mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and BSAS (barium strontium aluminum silicate with celsian structure). Volatility of BSAS, BSAS-silica chemical reaction, and low melting point of silicon limit temperature capability of current EBCs to about 1350 C for long-term applications. There is a need for higher temperature EBCs as the temperature capability of silicon-based ceramics continue to increase. Therefore, research is underway to develop EBCs with improved temperature capability compared to current EBCs. The current status and issues with the advanced EBC development efforts will be discussed.

  11. Review of current and emerging treatment options in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A; van der Lely, A J; Neggers, S J C M M

    2015-10-01

    In almost every patient, acromegaly is caused by a growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma. Clinical features are the result of excessive growth hormone secretion and the consecutive excess in insulin-like growth factor I levels. This results in somatic overgrowth and metabolic disturbances with a higher morbidity and mortality than in the general population. With optimal disease management, mortality can be reduced to that seen in the general population. The current treatment of acromegaly is based on a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and medical therapy. This review provides an overview of the current and upcoming therapies with a focus on medical therapy.

  12. The current state of epilepsy guidelines: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Khara M; Wiebe, Samuel; Dunkley, Colin; Janszky, Jozsef; Kumlien, Eva; Moshé, Solomon; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Pedley, Timothy A; Perucca, Emilio; Senties, Horacio; Thomas, Sanjeev V; Wang, Yuping; Wilmshurst, Jo; Jetté, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Epilepsy Guidelines Task Force, composed of 14 international members, was established in 2011 to identify, using systematic review methodology, international epilepsy clinical care guidelines, assess their quality, and determine gaps in areas of need of development. A systematic review of the literature (1985-2014) was performed in six electronic databases (e.g. Medline, Embase) using a broad search strategy without initial limits to language or study design. Six gray literature databases (e.g., American Academy of Neurology [AAN], ILAE) were also searched to minimize publication bias. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts, reviewed full text articles, and performed data abstraction. Descriptive statistics and a meta-analysis were generated. The search identified 10,926 abstracts. Of the 410 articles selected for full text review, 63 met our eligibility criteria for a guideline. Of those included, 54 were in English and 9 were in other languages (French, Spanish, and Italian). Of all guidelines, 29% did not specify the target age groups, 27% were focused on adults, 22% included only children, and 6% specifically addressed issues related to women with epilepsy. Guidelines included in the review were most often aimed at guiding clinical practice for status epilepticus (n = 7), first seizure (n = 6), drug-resistant epilepsy (n = 5), and febrile seizures (n = 4), among others. Most of the guidelines were therapeutic (n = 35) or diagnostic (n = 16) in nature. The quality of the guidelines using a 1-7 point scale (7 = highest) varied and was moderate overall (mean = 4.99 ± 1.05 [SD]). We identified substantial gaps in topics (e.g., epilepsy in the elderly) and there was considerable heterogeneity in methodologic quality. The findings should offer a valuable resource for health professionals caring for people with epilepsy, since they will help guide the prioritization, development, and dissemination of future

  13. Current Prevalence Pattern of Hypertension in Nigeria: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    James Tosin Akinlua; Richard Meakin; Aminu Mahmoud Umar; Nick Freemantle

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The global burden of hypertension and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rapidly increasing, and the African continent seems to be the most affected region in the world. The prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria forms a substantial portion of the total burden in Africa because of the large population of the country currently estimated to be over 170 million. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to summarise up to date data on the prevalence and distribution o...

  14. Creating Value through Virtual Teams: A Current Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Takeoka Chatfield

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, virtual teams (VT as ICT-enabled emergent network organisation forms have gained international validity by innovative organisations, with a corresponding surge of interest in understanding how organisations can leverage VT to create business value. Despite growing deliberations in VT literature on managing VT, tasks and outcomes, however, creating business value through VT remains an unresolved theoretical and pragmatic conundrum. A review of prior relevant literature is essential to advancing knowledge. The paucity of published review articles seems to have impeded the field’s accumulation of VT knowledge. This research, therefore, reviews the current literature on case studies of VT to address the question: What are organisational challenges in creating business value through VT in the organisation? The key challenges found in the literature are effective communication, knowledge sharing, trust, and interpersonal skills in the new virtual boundary-less environment. Drawing on the IT business value model, we also discuss their resource-based implications.

  15. Current Issues in the Neurology and Genetics of Learning-Related Traits and Disorders: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article briefly describes each of the following eight articles in this special issue on the neurology and genetics of learning related disorders. It notes the greater appreciation of learning disability as a set of complex disorders with broad and intricate neurological bases and of the large individual differences in how these…

  16. Current Issues in the Neurology and Genetics of Learning-Related Traits and Disorders: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article briefly describes each of the following eight articles in this special issue on the neurology and genetics of learning related disorders. It notes the greater appreciation of learning disability as a set of complex disorders with broad and intricate neurological bases and of the large individual differences in how these…

  17. Theological education, considered from South Africa: Current issues for cross-contextual comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Lombaard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Taking into review the newly published series of substantial multi-authored volumes on ecumenical theological education internationally, this article identifies, from the author’s own experience in ecumenical theological education and from his publications in this field, the central issue of specificity, locality and context in theological education. This takes place within two broadly developing new and relevant trends: post-secularism and inclusive liberalism, briefly described and then related to theological education. In the light of these trends, some questions are asked on theological education, and a plea for greater interdisciplinarity is made. The article thus contains a considerable part of self-reflective material, based on substantial professional experience in theological education, which enables engagement with the new publications and newly developing international contextual features that will shape theological education for the foreseeable future.

  18. Current ethical issues in synthetic biology: where should we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Ainsley J

    2011-05-01

    Synthetic biology (SynBio) is an emerging scientific field which has quickly established momentum and visibility. Although no single definition of SynBio prevails, the field broadly encompasses the application of engineering principles to biology, redesigning biological materials and using them as new substrates to create products and entities not otherwise found in nature. This article first reviews SynBio, highlighting the novel aspects of this technology. It then synthesizes ethical issues highlighted in the literature to date and makes some initial claims that research on the ethical aspects of SynBio should: avoid creating a new subtype of bioethics, concentrate on novel concepts and problems, and be situated within a context of cooperative interdisciplinary investigation.

  19. Commercialization and stem cell research: a review of emerging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burningham, Sarah; Ollenberger, Adam; Caulfield, Timothy

    2013-12-01

    Stem cell researchers face pressure to develop therapies that will reach the clinic within a short period of time. Yet, this pressure may be unrealistic, as bringing stem cell innovations to the clinic will likely require significant time and financial investment. In a variety of biomedical fields, some evidence suggests that commercialization pressures and strategies may negatively impact research. These negative impacts may also be felt in the field of stem cell research, unless the challenges and issues are addressed in the design and implementation of commercialization policies. Further inquiry into the impact of commercialization on the field of stem cell research is required.

  20. A Review of Solutions for SDN-Exclusive Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Spooner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Software Defined Networking is a paradigm still in its emergent stages in the realm of production-scale networks. Centralisation of network control introduces a new level of flexibility for network administrators and programmers. Security is a huge factor contributing to consumer resistance to implementation of SDN architecture. Without addressing the issues inherent from SDNs centralised nature, the benefits in performance and network configurative flexibility cannot be harnessed. This paper explores key threats posed to SDN environments and comparatively analyses some of the mechanisms proposed as mitigations against these threats – it also provides some insight into the future works which would enable a securer SDN architecture.

  1. High-power FEL design issues - a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.; O`Shea, P.G. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The high-average power capability of FELs has been much advertised but little realized. In this paper we provide a critical analysis of the technological and economic issues associated with high-average power FEL operation from the UV to near IR. The project of IR FEL for the Siberian Center of photochemical researches is described. The distinguished features of this project are the use of the race-track microtron-recuperator and the {open_quotes}electron output of radiation{close_quotes}. The building for the machine is under reconstruction now. About half of hardware has been manufactured. The assembly of installation began.

  2. Microalgae biofuels: A critical review of issues, problems and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong

    2012-01-01

    Culturing of microalgae as an alternative feedstock for biofuel production has received a lot of attention in recent years due to their fast growth rate and ability to accumulate high quantity of lipid and carbohydrate inside their cells for biodiesel and bioethanol production, respectively. In addition, this superior feedstock offers several environmental benefits, such as effective land utilization, CO(2) sequestration, self-purification if coupled with wastewater treatment and does not trigger food versus fuel feud. Despite having all these 'theoretical' advantages, review on problems and issues related to energy balance in microalgae biofuel are not clearly addressed until now. Base on the maturity of current technology, the true potential of microalgae biofuel towards energy security and its feasibility for commercialization are still questionable. Thus, this review is aimed to depict the practical problems that are facing the microalgae biofuel industry, covering upstream to downstream activities by accessing the latest research reports and critical data analysis. Apart from that, several interlink solutions to the problems will be suggested with the purpose to bring current microalgae biofuel research into a new dimension and consequently, to revolutionize the entire microalgae biofuel industry towards long-term sustainability.

  3. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  4. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  5. Mental health issues amongst medical students in Asia: a systematic review [2000–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayampanathan, Andrew Arjun; Ho, Roger Chun-Man

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that the stress experienced by medical students is far greater than that experienced by other university students. In this study, we aim to understand the consequent mental health issues that are experienced by medical students, particularly in Asia, via a systematic review of the current literature. Methods Initial searches on MEDLINE, Embase and SpringerLink came up with a total of 1,033 unique articles. Studies not focusing on medical students alone, not mentioning mental health issues or not containing prevalence values were excluded. Results We included 14 articles in our analysis. ADs had a prevalence of 7.04% (100/1,420). Depression was prevalent in 11.0% (1,115/10,147) of students. A total of 12.9% (54/420) and 12.9% (41/319) of male and female medical students respectively were screened for depression. Preclinical students were also 1.63 times more likely to be depressed compared to clinical students, with 98.0% (48/49) pre-clinical students having screened for depression, compared to 60% (27/45) clinical students. Home staying medical students are 1.33 times more likely to be depressed compared to hostel-stayers, with 12.1% (29/239) of home stayers being depressed compared to 9.2% (37/402) of hostel stayers. Conclusions We found that mental health issues affect a significant proportion of medical students and they are more prevalent in certain subpopulations of medical students. Our data revealed that preclinical and home staying students can be more susceptible to depression. More research should be done regarding this issue. With such information, it is hoped that appropriate interventions can be designed to improve the mental health of medical students. PMID:27004219

  6. Mental health issues amongst medical students in Asia: a systematic review [2000-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttilan, Amit Nirmal; Sayampanathan, Andrew Arjun; Ho, Roger Chun-Man

    2016-02-01

    Studies have shown that the stress experienced by medical students is far greater than that experienced by other university students. In this study, we aim to understand the consequent mental health issues that are experienced by medical students, particularly in Asia, via a systematic review of the current literature. Initial searches on MEDLINE, Embase and SpringerLink came up with a total of 1,033 unique articles. Studies not focusing on medical students alone, not mentioning mental health issues or not containing prevalence values were excluded. We included 14 articles in our analysis. ADs had a prevalence of 7.04% (100/1,420). Depression was prevalent in 11.0% (1,115/10,147) of students. A total of 12.9% (54/420) and 12.9% (41/319) of male and female medical students respectively were screened for depression. Preclinical students were also 1.63 times more likely to be depressed compared to clinical students, with 98.0% (48/49) pre-clinical students having screened for depression, compared to 60% (27/45) clinical students. Home staying medical students are 1.33 times more likely to be depressed compared to hostel-stayers, with 12.1% (29/239) of home stayers being depressed compared to 9.2% (37/402) of hostel stayers. We found that mental health issues affect a significant proportion of medical students and they are more prevalent in certain subpopulations of medical students. Our data revealed that preclinical and home staying students can be more susceptible to depression. More research should be done regarding this issue. With such information, it is hoped that appropriate interventions can be designed to improve the mental health of medical students.

  7. Managing reservoir sedimentation by venting turbidity currents:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabine Chamoun; Giovanni De Cesare; Anton J. Schleiss

    2016-01-01

    Reservoir sedimentation is an issue that dam operators are increasingly facing as dams are aging. Not only does it reduce a reservoir's capacity but it also affects its outlet structures such as bottom outlets and powerhouse intakes. Sedimentation may also impoverish downstream ecosystems. For these reasons, several strategies for sediment management are being investigated and applied worldwide. Among these methods, venting of turbidity currents reaching the dam can be very beneficial and economical. This measure helps in preserving a certain continuity of sediment transport in rivers obstructed by dams. However, several practical but also theoretical challenges hamper this technique, rendering its use less common and its aspects rela-tively unknown. The present paper aims to gather the actual state-of-the-art concerning turbidity currents venting and to present an outlook for future development and research in this field.

  8. Ethical Issues Surrounding Personalized Medicine: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Pooneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2017-03-01

    More than a decade ago, personalized medicine was presented in modern medicine. Personalized medicine means that the right drug should be prescribed for the right patient based on genetic data. No doubt is developing medical sciences, and its shift into personalized medicine complicates ethical challenges more than before. In this review, we categorized all probable ethical considerations of personalized medicine in research and development and service provision. Based on our review, extensive changes in healthcare system including ethical changes are needed to overcome the ethical obstacles including knowledge gap and informed consent, privacy and confidentiality and availability of healthcare services. Furthermore social benefit versus science development and individual benefit should be balanced. Therefore guidelines and regulations should be compiled to represent the ethical framework; also ethical decision making should be day-to-day and individualized.

  9. Current Warm-Up Practices and Contemporary Issues Faced by Elite Swimming Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Courtney J; Pyne, David B; Raglin, John S; Thompson, Kevin G; Rattray, Ben

    2016-12-01

    McGowan, CJ, Pyne, DB, Raglin, JS, Thompson, KG, and Rattray, B. Current warm-up practices and contemporary issues faced by elite swimming coaches. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3471-3480, 2016-A better understanding of current swimming warm-up strategies is needed to improve their effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to describe current precompetition warm-up practices and identify contemporary issues faced by elite swimming coaches during competition. Forty-six state-international level swimming coaches provided information through a questionnaire on their prescription of volume, intensity, and recovery within their pool and dryland-based competition warm-ups, and challenges faced during the final stages of event preparation. Coaches identified four key objectives of the precompetition warm-up: physiological (elevate body temperature and increase muscle activation), kinesthetic (tactile preparation, increase "feel" of the water), tactical (race-pace rehearsal), and mental (improve focus, reduce anxiety). Pool warm-up volume ranged from ∼1300 to 2100 m, beginning with 400-1000 m of continuous, low-intensity (∼50-70% of perceived maximal exertion) swimming, followed by 200-600 m of stroke drills and 1-2 sets (100-400 m in length) of increasing intensity (∼60-90%) swimming, concluding with 3-4 race or near race-pace efforts (25-100 m; ∼90-100%) and 100-400 m easy swimming. Dryland-based warm-up exercises, involving stretch cords and skipping, were also commonly prescribed. Coaches preferred swimmers complete their warm-up 20-30 minutes before race start. Lengthy marshalling periods (15-20+ minutes) and the time required to don racing suits (>10 minutes) were identified as complicating issues. Coaches believed that the pool warm-up affords athletes the opportunity to gain a tactile feel for the water and surrounding pool environment. The combination of dryland-based activation exercises followed by pool-based warm-up routines seems to be the preferred

  10. Current issues in dietary acrylamide:formation,mitigation and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Salome Mariotti, M.; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is known as a neurotoxin in humans and it is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency of Research on Cancer. AA is produced as by-product of the Maillard reaction in starchy foods processed at high temperatures (>120 °C). This review includes...... of the final product. Sugars in potatoes may be reduced by blanching. Levels of AA in different foods show large variations and no general upper limit is easily applicable, since some formation will always occur. Current policy is that practical measures should be taken voluntarily to reduce AA formation...

  11. A Review of Prefab Home and Relevant Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad PANJEHPOUR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Having an easily built house has been always one of human wishes. Prefabricated home makes this wish come true because of its affordability and fast completion. This paper gives an overview of different types of prefab home and its terminology. This review sheds light on the characterisation of prefab home, which takes the aspects of off-site technology, mass customisation, and sustainability into consideration. This paper is confined to general review of prefab home without going through different systems utilised in off-site technology. In spite of the fact that prefab home has many advantages, which are discussed in this review, it suffers from a few drawbacks which should be considered by designers. Various exploitations in this field may merit further research in future, including finding the optimum prefabricated systems among the existing systems such as roof, wall, and floor systems for different applications of prefab homes. Nevertheless, there is still a universal design and practice code for prefab homes that emphasize on green technology and sustainability yet to be discovered.

  12. [Biological Advisory Subcommittee : Review and Recommendations of Dioxin/Furan Issue on RMA : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The first three pages of this document consist of the Biological Advisory Subcommittee's review and recommendations of the dioxin and furan issue on Rocky Mountain...

  13. Defense Acquisition Review Journal. Volume 16, Number 3, Issue 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    individual ships, or within flights, of the same class. And even one-of-a-kind, nearly immutable projects like skyscrapers and bridges can be later...standardized interfaces that enable exchange of energy (e.g., electrical current via a wall plug); material (e.g., replacement of components/parts

  14. Hydrology of and Current Monitoring Issues for the Chicago Area Waterway System, Northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, James J.; Johnson, Kevin K.

    2015-10-28

    The Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) consists of a combination of natural and manmade channels that form an interconnected navigable waterway of approximately 90-plus miles in the metropolitan Chicago area of northeastern Illinois. The CAWS serves the area as the primary drainage feature, a waterway transportation corridor, and recreational waterbody. The CAWS was constructed by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC). Completion of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (initial portion of the CAWS) in 1900 breached a low drainage divide and resulted in a diversion of water from the Lake Michigan Basin. A U.S. Supreme Court decree (Consent Decree 388 U.S. 426 [1967] Modified 449 U.S. 48 [1980]) limits the annual diversion from Lake Michigan. While the State of Illinois is responsible for the diversion, the MWRDGC regulates and maintains water level and water quality within the CAWS by using several waterway control structures. The operation and control of water levels in the CAWS results in a very complex hydraulic setting characterized by highly unsteady flows. The complexity leads to unique gaging requirements and monitoring issues. This report provides a general discussion of the complex hydraulic setting within the CAWS and quantifies this information with examples of data collected at a range of flow conditions from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gaging stations and other locations within the CAWS. Monitoring to address longstanding issues of waterway operation, as well as current (2014) emerging issues such as wastewater disinfection and the threat from aquatic invasive species, is included in the discussion.

  15. The current state of knowledge about shatter cones: Introduction to the special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratoux, David; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    2016-08-01

    Shatter cones are a fracture phenomenon that is exclusively associated with shock metamorphism and has also been produced in the laboratory in several shock experiments. The occurrence of shatter cones is the only accepted meso- to macroscopic recognition criterion for impact structures. Shatter cones exhibit a number of geometric characteristics (orientation, apical angles, striation angles, sizes) that can be best described as varied, from case to case. Possible links between geometric properties with impact or crater parameters have remained controversial and the lack of understanding of the mechanism of formation of shatter cones does not offer a physical framework to discuss or understand them. A database of shatter cone occurrences has been produced for this introduction paper to the special issue of Meteoritics and Planetary Science on shatter cones. Distribution of shatter cones with respect to crater size and lithology suggests that shatter cones do not occur in impact craters less than a few kilometers in diameter, with a few, currently questionable exceptions. All pertinent hypotheses of formation are presented and discussed. Several may be discarded in light of the most recent observations. The branching fracture mechanism and the interference models proposed, respectively, by Sagy et al. (2002) and Baratoux and Melosh (2003) require further evaluation. New observations, experiments, or theoretical considerations presented in this special issue promise an important step forward, based on a renewed effort to resolve the enigmatic origin of these important features.

  16. [Domestic violence: a current issue to take into account in diagnostic imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Corraliza, E; Larrañaga Hernando, G; Neve Lete, I; Sánchez García, A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic violence is currently an issue of great political and social importance. The real incidence of domestic violence is difficult to determine due to the environment where it takes place and the reluctance of victims to report abuse. On the other hand, all types of violence represent an important public health problem. We report the case of a young woman who presented with thromboembolic phenomena at different sites due to domestic violence. We emphasize that it is necessary for radiologists and other healthcare professionals to consider the possibility of domestic violence when establishing the diagnosis. This can be important for determining the incidence of abuse, diminishing its sequela, and help increase its reporting. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Review Article: Ethical Issues in the Study of Second Language Acquisition--Resources for Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Two recent books provide varied resources for exploring ethical issues in the social sciences. Reflection on ethical issues aims to sensitize scholars to a range of consequences of their research, and to scholars' responsibilities to their discipline, their colleagues, and the public. This review article assesses the utility of these texts (and of…

  18. Controversial Issues in the Diagnosis of Narcissistic Personality Disorder: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Luis A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the literature on some of the issues that have been proposed as controversial with the diagnosis of Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Discusses the issues of comorbidity that questions the validity of the diagnosis; dimensional models of classification and what constitutes a narcissistic personality disorder; and the role that culture…

  19. Checklists of Methodological Issues for Review Authors to Consider When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, George A.; Shea, Beverley; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Sterne, Jonathan; Tugwell, Peter; Reeves, Barnaby C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest from review authors about including non-randomized studies (NRS) in their systematic reviews of health care interventions. This series from the Ottawa Non-Randomized Studies Workshop consists of six papers identifying methodological issues when doing this. Aim: To format the guidance from the preceding…

  20. The HELLP syndrome: Clinical issues and management. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svendsen Einar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HELLP syndrome is a serious complication in pregnancy characterized by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count occurring in 0.5 to 0.9% of all pregnancies and in 10–20% of cases with severe preeclampsia. The present review highlights occurrence, diagnosis, complications, surveillance, corticosteroid treatment, mode of delivery and risk of recurrence. Methods Clinical reports and reviews published between 2000 and 2008 were screened using Pub Med and Cochrane databases. Results and conclusion About 70% of the cases develop before delivery, the majority between the 27th and 37th gestational weeks; the remainder within 48 hours after delivery. The HELLP syndrome may be complete or incomplete. In the Tennessee Classification System diagnostic criteria for HELLP are haemolysis with increased LDH (> 600 U/L, AST (≥ 70 U/L, and platelets 9/L. The Mississippi Triple-class HELLP System further classifies the disorder by the nadir platelet counts. The syndrome is a progressive condition and serious complications are frequent. Conservative treatment (≥ 48 hours is controversial but may be considered in selected cases

  1. Iron status of the Pakistani population-current issues and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed; Ahmed, Anwaar; Ahmad, Asif; Ali, Zulfiqar; Riaz, Muhammad; Ismail, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    The present review aims to highlight the magnitude of iron status of Pakistani population and possible remedies to address iron deficiency among vulnerable groups. A computer-based search was carried out on "PubMed", "Google Search" and "Sciencedirect.com" to retrieve relevant scientific literature published in the last two decades. The search yielded 193 articles, of which 64 were culled and further screening was performed based on the type of vulnerable population groups, age, sex and pregnancy. A thorough review of current literature reveals that iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) widely persist in Pakistan and necessitate immediate remedial actions. Females of reproductive age and children under 5 years have been shown to be the most IDA affected population segment. Fortification of wheat flour has been suggested as the most viable approach aptly matching Pakistan's needs for combating IDA. The present review further stresses the need for global involvement to scale up efforts for mitigating ID and IDA to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that are fundamentally based upon improving nutritional wellbeing of populations in developing economies by 2015.

  2. DWPF CATALYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION PROGRAM - REVIEW OF CURRENT STATUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.

    2009-07-10

    Significant progress has been made in the past two years in improving the understanding of acid consumption and catalytic hydrogen generation during the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processing of waste sludges in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). This report reviews issues listed in prior internal reviews, describes progress with respect to the recommendations made by the December 2006 external review panel, and presents a summary of the current understanding of catalytic hydrogen generation in the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, are historically known catalysts for the conversion of formic acid into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Rh, Ru, and Pd are present in the DWPF SRAT feed as by-products of thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U in the original waste. Rhodium appears to become most active for hydrogen as the nitrite ion concentration becomes low (within a factor of ten of the Rh concentration). Prior to hydrogen generation, Rh is definitely active for nitrite destruction to N{sub 2}O and potentially active for nitrite to NO formation. These reactions are all consistent with the presence of a nitro-Rh complex catalyst, although definite proof for the existence of this complex during Savannah River Site (SRS) waste processing does not exist. Ruthenium does not appear to become active for hydrogen generation until nitrite destruction is nearly complete (perhaps less nitrite than Ru in the system). Catalytic activity of Ru during nitrite destruction is significantly lower than that of either Rh or Pd. Ru appears to start activating as Rh is deactivating from its maximum catalytic activity for hydrogen generation. The slow activation of the Ru, as inferred from the slow rate of increase in hydrogen generation that occurs after initiation, may imply that some species (perhaps Ru itself) has some bound nitrite on it. Ru, rather than Rh, is primarily responsible for the

  3. Noise limits of CMOS current interfaces for biosensors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Marco; Bennati, Marco; Carminati, Marco; Tartagni, Marco

    2014-04-01

    Current sensing readout is one of the most frequent techniques used in biosensing due to the charge-transfer phenomena occurring at solid-liquid interfaces. The development of novel nanodevices for biosensing determines new challenges for electronic interface design based on current sensing, especially when compact and efficient arrays need to be organized, such as in recent trends of rapid label-free electronic detection of DNA synthesis. This paper will review the basic noise limitations of current sensing interfaces with particular emphasis on integrated CMOS technology. Starting from the basic theory, the paper presents, investigates and compares charge-sensitive amplifier architectures used in both continuous-time and discrete-time approaches, along with their design trade-offs involving noise floor, sensitivity to stray capacitance and bandwidth. The ultimate goal of this review is providing analog designers with helpful design rules and analytical tools. Also, in order to present a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art, the most relevant papers recently appeared in the literature about this topic are discussed and compared.

  4. An integrative review of global nursing workforce issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Barbara L; Davis, Catherine R; Richardson, Donna R

    2010-01-01

    Migration has been a way of life since the beginning of time, with migrants seeking other lands for personal and professional betterment. Today, in an era of globalization, trade agreements and technological advances, an increase in migration is inevitable. All professions have been affected, but the migration of health professionals, particularly nurses, has been the most dramatic. However, the migration of nurses across national and international borders comes with many challenges: systematic tracking of migration flows, harmonization of standards, recognition of professional credentials, fair and equitable distribution of the global health care workforce, and the effect of migration on the health care infrastructure of both source and destination countries. The international migration of nurses to address shortages in developed countries has, in some instances, left source countries with insufficient resources to address their own health care needs. The increasing complexity of health care delivery, aging of the population and the nursing workforce, and the escalating global demand for nurses create on-going challenges for policy makers. Strategically addressing global nursing workforce issues is paramount to sustaining the health of nations.

  5. EE technical review. Special issue: flash x-ray accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-01

    Improvements to the pulsed power system of FXR made during the past year have resulted in much better reliability and repeatability. At a current level of 2.2 kA on target, the machine produces a radiation dose of 480 R at 1 m, with a spot size of 3 to 5 mm and with the dose repeatable within +- 10%. With this new capability, researchers have already begun to improve their understanding of material behavior at high pressure and densities, working in a heretofore inaccesible regime of radiographic penetration and resolution.

  6. Data center network architecture in cloud computing:review, taxonomy, and open research issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han QI; Muhammad SHIRAZ; Jie-yao LIU; Abdullah GANI; Zulkanain ABDUL RAHMAN; Torki AALTAMEEM

    2014-01-01

    The data center network (DCN), which is an important component of data centers, consists of a large number of hosted servers and switches connected with high speed communication links. A DCN enables the deployment of resources centralization and on-demand access of the information and services of data centers to users. In recent years, the scale of the DCN has constantly increased with the widespread use of cloud-based services and the unprecedented amount of data delivery in/between data centers, whereas the traditional DCN architecture lacks aggregate bandwidth, scalability, and cost effectiveness for coping with the increasing demands of tenants in accessing the services of cloud data centers. Therefore, the design of a novel DCN architecture with the features of scalability, low cost, robustness, and energy conservation is required. This paper reviews the recent research fi ndings and technologies of DCN architectures to identify the issues in the existing DCN architectures for cloud computing. We develop a taxonomy for the classifi cation of the current DCN architectures, and also qualitatively analyze the traditional and contemporary DCN architectures. Moreover, the DCN architectures are compared on the basis of the signifi cant characteristics, such as bandwidth, fault tolerance, scalability, overhead, and deployment cost. Finally, we put forward open research issues in the deployment of scalable, low-cost, robust, and energy-efficient DCN architecture, for data centers in computational clouds.

  7. Caffeine and cardiovascular diseases: critical review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulli, Anthony; Smith, Renee M; Kubatka, Peter; Novak, Jan; Uehara, Yoshio; Loftus, Hayley; Qaradakhi, Tawar; Pohanka, Miroslav; Kobyliak, Nazarii; Zagatina, Angela; Klimas, Jan; Hayes, Alan; La Rocca, Giampiero; Soucek, Miroslav; Kruzliak, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Caffeine is a most widely consumed physiological stimulant worldwide, which is consumed via natural sources, such as coffee and tea, and now marketed sources such as energy drinks and other dietary supplements. This wide use has led to concerns regarding the safety of caffeine and its proposed beneficial role in alertness, performance and energy expenditure and side effects in the cardiovascular system. The question remains "Which dose is safe?", as the population does not appear to adhere to the strict guidelines listed on caffeine consumption. Studies in humans and animal models yield controversial results, which can be explained by population, type and dose of caffeine and low statistical power. This review will focus on comprehensive and critical review of the current literature and provide an avenue for further study.

  8. Depression and pain: some issues of comorbidity and treatment (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamchur V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the current understanding of the mechanisms of pain and depression comorbidity, especially - functioning of neurochemical systems in the brain and the anatomical and functional relationships of structures in the CNS of these pathological conditions. It shows the current classification of antidepressants, analyze the neurochemical aspects of their actions, effects on cognitive brain function and behavioral reactions to the formation of the sensations of pain, generalize mechanisms of action in the treatment of chronic pain. In the analysis of the literature it is concluded that depres-sion and pain therapy impede each other, having common mechanisms of development, the leading points of contact they are changing the functioning of catecholaminergic neurotransmitter systems of the brain, the levels of certain cytokines, as well as the state of NMDA-dependent mechanisms of the brain. The question of their use for treatment of acute pain, includ-ing differentiated into non-opioid analgesics combined with, is not sufficiently understood.

  9. The importance of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education: current attitudes and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Poulton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health advocacy is currently a key component of medical education in North America. In Canada, Health Advocate is one of the seven roles included in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada’s CanMEDS competency framework. Method: A literature search was undertaken to determine the current state of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education and to identify issues facing educators and learners with regards to health advocacy training. Results:  The literature revealed that the Health Advocate role is considered among the least relevant to clinical practice by educators and learners and among the most challenging to teach and assess. Furthermore learners feel their educational needs are not being met in this area. A number of key barriers affecting health advocacy education were identified including limited published material on the subject, lack of clarity within the role, insufficient explicit role modeling in practice, and lack of a gold standard for assessment. Health advocacy is defined and its importance to medical practice is highlighted, using pediatric emergency medicine as an example. Conclusions: Increased published literature and awareness of the role, along with integration of the new 2015 CanMEDS framework, are important going forward to address concerns regarding the quality of postgraduate health advocacy education in Canada.

  10. Medical Big Data for Research Use: Current Status and Related Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Koichi Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Advances in the computerization of information and development of technology have mitigated restrictions on handling of a large amount of information. This has resulted in growth of expectations for the use of large-scale databases, or so-called "big data." This is also the case in the field of healthcare. Projects that involve building of the national receipt database (NDB) of medical fee bill (receipt) information and special health check-up information based on the Act on Assurance of Medical Care for Elderly People and the development of medical information databases have been pursued by the national government, and considerable attention has also been focused on researches conducted through the secondary uses of publicly collected data. Aside from these trends, there are numerous projects which collect diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) data to build large-scale databases for research purposes. Following to the ethics guidelines for epidemiologic studies, they collect and analyze anonymized DPC data from cooperating institutions. This communication concentrates on the use of DPC data, and outlines the scale of data currently available for research use. Examples on the use of DPC data will be shown for analysis on the current status of clinical practice from the microscopic perspective and macroscopic analysis of community medical care provision. Additionally, potential for extending studies to long-term outcomes research, limitations and issues related to the use of medical big data will also be discussed.

  11. Key science issues after MESSENGER and current observation plans of BepiColombo MMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Go; Hayakawa, Hajime; Fujimoto, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Little had been known about the Hermean magnetosphere until MESSENGER explored the region. The region is formed as the weak planetary magnetic field stands against the intense solar wind in the close proximity of the Sun. Various prediction had been given by noting the difference in the parameters from the well-studied terrestiral magnetosphere of a similar setting and scaling the well-knowns to the Hermean environment. MESSENGER results, however, show a wide varieity of phenomena that are out of the scope of what one could have reasonably argued. The micro-magnetosphere of Mercury is much more dynamic than one had predicted. BepiColombo MMO, the JAXA spacecraft of the BepiColombo Mercury exploration mission which will be launched in 2018 and will arrive at Mercury in 2025, is equipped to study the space environment of the planet Mercury. BepiColombo MMO is mainly designed for plasma observations and is expected to extract essential elements of space plasma physics that become visible in the Hermean environment. MMO has large constraints on science operations, such as thermal issue and limited telemetry rate. Due to the thermal issue each science instrument cannot always be turned on. In addition, due to the low telemetry rate in average, only a part ( 20-30%) of science mission data with high resolution can be downlinked. Therefore, in order to maximize the scientific results and outcomes to be achieved by MMO, we are now working to optimize the science observation and downlink plans in detail. Here we review MESSENGER results and how MMO will contribute to deepen our understanding of space plasmas by addressing the puzzles raised by MESSEGNER.

  12. Academic plastic surgery: a study of current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetrenne, Eleonore; Kosins, Aaron M; Wirth, Garrett A; Bui, Albert; Evans, Gregory R D; Wells, James H

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the role of a full-time academic plastic surgeon, (2) to define the indicators predictive of a successful career in academic plastic surgery, and (3) to understand the current issues that will affect future trends in the practice of academic plastic surgery. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the role of current full-time academic plastic surgeons and to understand the current issues and future challenges facing academic plastic surgery. Each plastic surgery program director in the United States was sent the survey for distribution among all full-time academic plastic surgeons. Over a 6-week period, responses from 143 full-time academic plastic surgeons (approximately 31%) were returned. Fifty-three percent of respondents had been academic plastic surgeons for longer than 10 years. Seventy-three percent of respondents defined academic plastic surgeons as clinicians who are teachers and researchers. However, 53% of respondents believed that academic plastic surgeons were not required to teach or practice within university hospitals/academic centers. The 3 factors reported most frequently as indicative of a successful career in academic plastic surgery were peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation. Dedication and motivation were the personal characteristics rated most likely to contribute to academic success. Forty-four percent of respondents were unable to identify future academic plastic surgeons from plastic surgery residency applicants, and 27% were not sure. Most (93%) of the respondents believed that academic surgery as practiced today will change. The overall job description of a full-time academic plastic surgeon remains unchanged (teacher and researcher). Whereas peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation were most frequently cited as indicative of a successful plastic surgery career, financial success was rated the least indicative. Similarly, whereas the

  13. Disadvantaged Rural Health – Issues and Challenges: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Chillimuntha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Disadvantaged rural health reflected by significantly higher mortality rates in rural areas which indicate less attention paid by the government. The issue of health disadvantage to the rural area in the country is far from settled. The public expenditure on health in India is far too inadequate, less than 10% of the total health budget is allocated to rural area where 75% people live. In spite of rising budgetary provision, many of the rural populace dies without any medical attention. Access to high quality health care services plays an important part in the health of rural communities and individuals. Resolving the health problems of rural communities will require more than simply increasing the quality and accessibility of health services. Until governments begin to take an ‘upside-down’ perspective, focusing on building healthy communities rather than simply on building hospitals to make communities healthy, the disadvantages faced by rural people will continue to be exacerbated. Underutilization of existing rural hospitals and health care facilities can be addressed by a market-centered approach, and more effective government intervention for horizontal and vertical hospital integration. Tele-healthcare, Mobile Health Units and Community-based health insurance are proven helpful in rural areas. Autonomy enjoyed by women and exposure to media also has a significant impact on maternal health care utilization. Accessibility to health facilities is a critical factor in effective health treatment for people in rural areas. Location–allocation models prescribe optimal configurations of health facilities in order to maximize accessibility. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 80-82

  14. A review on Bacopa monniera: Current research and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gohil Kashmira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, the use of herbal products has increased tremendously in the western world as well as in developed countries. Lately, one of the outstandingly important medicinal plants, widely used therapeutically in the orient and becoming increasingly popular in the west is Bacopa monniera, a well-known nootropic. The present review summarizes our current knowledge of pharmacological actions, preclinical and clinical studies, major bioactives, reported mechanisms of actions, clinical efficacy, safety and the possibility of interactions of the herb with the conventional drugs. Simultaneously, research updates as well as avenues for further research are also mentioned concerning the plant.

  15. Review: New Vaccine Against Tuberculosis: Current Developments and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun

    2009-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a global health threat. BCG was developed as an attenuated live vaccine for tuberculosis control nearly a century ago. Despite being the most widely used vaccine in human history, BCG is not an ideal vaccine and has two major limitations: its poor efficacy against adult pulmonary TB and its disconcerting safety in immunocompromised individuals. A safer and more effective TB vaccine is urgently needed. This review article discusses current strategies to develop the next generation of TB vaccines to replace BCG. While some progresses have been made in the past decade, significant challenges lie ahead.

  16. Computational chemistry reviews of current trends v.4

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This volume presents a balanced blend of methodological and applied contributions. It supplements well the first three volumes of the series, revealing results of current research in computational chemistry. It also reviews the topographical features of several molecular scalar fields. A brief discussion of topographical concepts is followed by examples of their application to several branches of chemistry.The size of a basis set applied in a calculation determines the amount of computer resources necessary for a particular task. The details of a common strategy - the ab initio model potential

  17. Individual Performance Management: A Review of Current Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian O’ Boyle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of current practice in relation to individual performance management systems and process within the traditional business environment. There is a consensus that the role of the individual is central to the overall performance of any organization and how individual performances are managed and evaluated can have significant impacts on overall organizational success. Many organizations employ the traditional performance appraisal in order to monitor and assess individual employee performances. However, new approaches, such as 360-degree feedback have also become commonplace within the business environment. An analysis of each approach including benefits and challenges associated with each process is presented within this paper.

  18. A Content and Methodological Review of Articles Concerning Multiracial Issues in Six Major Counseling Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa M.; Pedrotti, Jennifer Teramoto

    2008-01-01

    This study describes a comprehensive content and methodological review of articles about multiracial issues in 6 journals related to counseling up to the year 2006. The authors summarize findings about the 18 articles that emerged from this review of the "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of Counseling & Development," "The Counseling…

  19. Robotic bariatric surgery: A general review of the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minoa K; Hagen, Monika E; Buchs, Nicolas C; Buehler, Leo H; Morel, Philippe

    2017-05-23

    While conventional laparoscopy is the gold standard for almost all bariatric procedures, robotic assistance holds promise for facilitating complex surgeries and improving clinical outcomes. Since the report of the first robotic-assisted bariatric procedure in 1999, numerous publications, including those reporting comparative trials and meta-analyses across bariatric procedures with a focus on robotic assistance, can be found. This article reviews the current literature and portrays the perspectives of robotic bariatric surgery. While there are substantial reports on robotic bariatric surgery currently in publication, most studies suffer from low levels of evidence. As such, although robotics technology is without a doubt superior to conventional laparoscopy, the precise role of robotics in bariatric surgery is not yet clear. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. PNL technical review of pressurized thermal-shock issues. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, L.T.; Apley, W.J.; Bian, S.H.; Defferding, L.J.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Pelto, P.J.; Simonen, E.P.; Simonen, F.A.; Stevens, D.L.; Taylor, T.T.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to develop and recommend a regulatory position that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should adopt regarding the ability of reactor pressure vessels to withstand the effects of pressurized thermal shock (PTS). Licensees of eight pressurized water reactors provided NRC with estimates of remaining effective full power years before corrective actions would be required to prevent an unsafe operating condition. PNL reviewed these responses and the results of supporting research and concluded that none of the eight reactors would undergo vessel failure from a PTS event before several more years of operation. Operator actions, however, were often required to terminate a PTS event before it deteriorated to the point where failure could occur. Therefore, the near-term (less than one year) recommendation is to upgrade, on a site-specific basis, operational procedures, training, and control room instrumentation. Also, uniform criteria should be developed by NRC for use during future licensee analyses. Finally, it was recommended that NRC upgrade nondestructive inspection techniques used during vessel examinations and become more involved in the evaluation of annealing requirements.

  1. Review of Technical Issues Related to Predicting Isotopic Compositions and Source Terms for High-Burnup LWR Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauld, I. C.; Parks, C. V.

    2000-12-11

    This report has been prepared to review the technical issues important to the prediction of isotopic compositions and source terms for high-burnup, light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel as utilized in the licensing of spent fuel transport and storage systems. The current trend towards higher initial 235U enrichments, more complex assembly designs, and more efficient fuel management schemes has resulted in higher spent fuel burnups than seen in the past. This trend has led to a situation where high-burnup assemblies from operating LWRs now extend beyond the area where available experimental data can be used to validate the computational methods employed to calculate spent fuel inventories and source terms. This report provides a brief review of currently available validation data, including isotopic assays, decay heat measurements, and shielded dose-rate measurements. Potential new sources of experimental data available in the near term are identified. A review of the background issues important to isotopic predictions and some of the perceived technical challenges that high-burnup fuel presents to the current computational methods are discussed. Based on the review, the phenomena that need to be investigated further and the technical issues that require resolution are presented. The methods and data development that may be required to address the possible shortcomings of physics and depletion methods in the high-burnup and high-enrichment regime are also discussed. Finally, a sensitivity analysis methodology is presented. This methodology is currently being investigated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a computational tool to better understand the changing relative significance of the underlying nuclear data in the different enrichment and burnup regimes and to identify the processes that are dominant in the high-burnup regime. The potential application of the sensitivity analysis methodology to help establish a range of applicability for experimental

  2. Current issues in GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Blonde, Lawrence; Garber, Alan J; Wysham, Carol H

    2012-01-01

    The clinical management of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is guided not only by published treatment algorithms, but also by consideration of recent evidence and through consultation with colleagues and experts. Recent studies have dramatically increased the amount of information regarding the use of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs). Topics that may be of particular interest to clinicians who treat T2DM patients include relative glycemic control efficacy of GLP-1 RAs, use of GLP-1 RAs across T2DM progression and in combination with insulin, recent data regarding GLP-1 RA safety, nonglycemic actions of GLP-1 RAs, including weight effects, and impact of GLP-1 RAs on patient quality of life and treatment satisfaction. The following review includes expert consideration of these topics with emphasis on recent, relevant reports to illustrate current perspectives.

  3. Hepatitis C virus whole genome sequencing: Current methods/issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémeaux, Pauline; Caporossi, Alban; Thélu, Marie-Ange; Blum, Michael; Leroy, Vincent; Morand, Patrice; Larrat, Sylvie

    2016-10-01

    Therapy for hepatitis C is currently undergoing a revolution. The arrival of new antiviral agents targeting viral proteins reinforces the need for a better knowledge of the viral strains infecting each patient. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) whole genome sequencing provides essential information for precise typing, study of the viral natural history or identification of resistance-associated variants. First performed with Sanger sequencing, the arrival of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has simplified the technical process and provided more detailed data on the nature and evolution of viral quasi-species. We will review the different techniques used for HCV complete genome sequencing and their applications, both before and after the apparition of NGS. The progress brought by new and future technologies will also be discussed, as well as the remaining difficulties, largely due to the genomic variability.

  4. Internet use, misuse, and addiction in adolescents: current issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, Donald E; Greydanus, Megan M

    2012-01-01

    The Internet has revolutionized education and social communication in the 21st century. This article reviews the growing literature identifying a number of adolescents and young adults with a pathologically excessive Internet use leading to many potential consequences. Current research dilemmas in this area include that Internet addiction is a broad topic with no standard definition and no standard measurement tools. Management of youth with identified problematic Internet use or misuse centers on behavioral therapy and treatment of comorbidities. Pharmacologic approaches are limited at this time but are undergoing research, such as use of opioid antagonists and antidepressants in adults with pathological gambling. Efforts should be expanded on not only the education of all adolescents regarding the benefits but also the potential negative consequences of Internet use. It is vital that we do this for Generation Z, whereas Generation ALPHA will soon benefit or suffer from our efforts in this regard today.

  5. Multimodal neuroimaging as a window into the pathological physiology of schizophrenia: Current trends and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Masanori; Miyata, Jun; Hazama, Masaaki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2016-01-01

    Visualizing the detailed brain anatomy of individuals with schizophrenia has been made possible by recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although structural MRI cannot be currently used to diagnose schizophrenia, multimodal MRI can reveal insightful information on key clinical aspects of the pathological physiology of schizophrenia. However, in this regard, the number of multimodal MRI studies is still limited and definitely required. In this review, we discuss how classical and popular theories on the pathological physiology of schizophrenia can be re-examined using neuroimaging studies, and also discuss how multimodal MRI studies may provide additional findings. The pathological hypotheses examined include the "progressive brain disease hypothesis" and "disconnection hypothesis". This article is discussed mainly based on recent findings published by our research group.

  6. Birds of the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel: their current status and key environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, N H K; Musgrove, A J; Rehfisch, M M; Clark, N A

    2010-01-01

    The Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel encompass a number of designated sites supporting populations of waterbirds and seabirds that are of national or international importance, including the Severn Estuary and Burry Inlet Special Protection Areas (SPAs)/Ramsar Sites and Carmarthen Bay, the UK's first marine SPA. Here, we provide an overview of the present numbers and trends of the waterbirds and seabirds using these sites, updating previous reviews undertaken prior to these designations. We further provide a summary of the main issues that have affected the status of the area's bird populations. Declines in the numbers of waders on the Severn Estuary and the southwest over the last two decades have been linked to climate change. The Sea Empress oil-spill impacted both breeding seabirds and the wintering Common Scoters in Carmarthen Bay, though numbers of the latter recovered 3years after the spill. At the Burry Inlet, Oystercatcher numbers have fallen over the last 25years and considerable research has been undertaken into the conflict with cockle and mussel fisheries. A long-term study at Cardiff Bay, at the mouth of the Severn, revealed a significant impact on the survival of Redshanks following its impoundment and has helped to further understanding of responses of waterbirds to estuarine habitat loss. The potential impacts of the construction of a tidal power scheme on the Severn Estuary are also discussed. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biopsy of parotid masses:Review of current techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sananda Haldar; Joseph D Sinnott; Kemal M Tekeli; Samuel S Turner; David C Howlett

    2016-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of parotid gland masses is required optimal management planning and for prognosis. There is controversy over whether fine needle aspiration cytology(FNAC) or ultrasound guided core biopsy(USCB) should be the standard for obtaining a biopsy. The aim of this review is to assess the current evidence available to assess the benefits of each technique and also to assess the use of intra-operative frozen section(IOFS). Literature searches were performed using pubmed and google scholar. The literature has been reviewed and the evidence is presented. FNAC is an accepted and widely used technique. It has been shown to have variable diagnostic capabilities depending on centres and experience of staff. USCB has a highly consistent diagnostic accuracy and can help with tumour grading and staging. However, the technique is more invasive and there is a question regarding potential for seeding. Furthermore, USCB is less likely to be offered as part of a one-stop clinic. IOFS has no role as a first line diagnostic technique but may be reserved as an adjunct or for lesions not amenable to percutaneous biopsy. On balance, USCB seems to be the method of choice. The current evidence suggests it has superior diagnostic potential and is safe. With time, USCB is likely to supplant FNAC as the biopsy technique of choice, replicating that which has occurred already in other areas of medicine such a breast practice.

  8. Current Levels of Salt Knowledge: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Sarmugam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High salt intake increases the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the role of knowledge as a determinant of food intake, this paper aims to review the current levels of salt knowledge and the association between salt knowledge and dietary salt intake and salt-related dietary practices in the general population. Twenty two studies were included in the review. In general, the studies showed consumers were able to identify the health risks associated with high salt intake. However, knowledge of recommended daily intakes, understanding of the relationships between salt and sodium and foods that contribute most salt to the diet were poor. Four of the five studies which examined the relationships between salt knowledge and salt-related dietary practices reported significant associations. Two important gaps in the current literature were identified. First, there is a need for a robustly validated tool to examine salt knowledge and its impact on salt intake. Second, a comprehensive salt knowledge assessment should include assessment of procedural, as well as declarative, knowledge.

  9. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gekas J

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Jean Gekas,1,2 Sylvie Langlois,3 Vardit Ravitsky,4 François Audibert,5 David Gradus van den Berg,6 Hazar Haidar,4 François Rousseau2,7 1Prenatal Diagnosis Unit, Department of Medical Genetics and Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada; 2Department of Medical Biology, CHU de Québec, Québec City, QC, Canada; 3Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Bioethics Program, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Sainte-Justine, Montreal, QC, Canada; 6Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada; 7Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada Abstract: Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women. Keywords: prenatal diagnosis, Down syndrome, non-invasive prenatal testing, cell-free fetal DNA, informed consent, reproductive autonomy

  10. Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors: A Review on Structures and Non-Destructive Eddy Current Testing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Damhuji; Abdalla, Ahmed N; Ali, Kharudin; Razali, Ramdan

    2016-02-26

    Non-destructive eddy current testing (ECT) is widely used to examine structural defects in ferromagnetic pipe in the oil and gas industry. Implementation of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors as magnetic field sensors to detect the changes of magnetic field continuity have increased the sensitivity of eddy current techniques in detecting the material defect profile. However, not many researchers have described in detail the structure and issues of GMR sensors and their application in eddy current techniques for nondestructive testing. This paper will describe the implementation of GMR sensors in non-destructive testing eddy current testing. The first part of this paper will describe the structure and principles of GMR sensors. The second part outlines the principles and types of eddy current testing probe that have been studied and developed by previous researchers. The influence of various parameters on the GMR measurement and a factor affecting in eddy current testing will be described in detail in the third part of this paper. Finally, this paper will discuss the limitations of coil probe and compensation techniques that researchers have applied in eddy current testing probes. A comprehensive review of previous studies on the application of GMR sensors in non-destructive eddy current testing also be given at the end of this paper.

  11. Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors: A Review on Structures and Non-Destructive Eddy Current Testing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damhuji Rifai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive eddy current testing (ECT is widely used to examine structural defects in ferromagnetic pipe in the oil and gas industry. Implementation of giant magnetoresistance (GMR sensors as magnetic field sensors to detect the changes of magnetic field continuity have increased the sensitivity of eddy current techniques in detecting the material defect profile. However, not many researchers have described in detail the structure and issues of GMR sensors and their application in eddy current techniques for nondestructive testing. This paper will describe the implementation of GMR sensors in non-destructive testing eddy current testing. The first part of this paper will describe the structure and principles of GMR sensors. The second part outlines the principles and types of eddy current testing probe that have been studied and developed by previous researchers. The influence of various parameters on the GMR measurement and a factor affecting in eddy current testing will be described in detail in the third part of this paper. Finally, this paper will discuss the limitations of coil probe and compensation techniques that researchers have applied in eddy current testing probes. A comprehensive review of previous studies on the application of GMR sensors in non-destructive eddy current testing also be given at the end of this paper.

  12. Cost-of-illness studies : a review of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akobundu, Ebere; Ju, Jing; Blatt, Lisa; Mullins, C Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The number of cost-of-illness (COI) studies has expanded considerably over time. One outcome of this growth is that the reported COI estimates are inconsistent across studies, thereby raising concerns over the validity of the estimates and methods. Several factors have been identified in the literature as reasons for the observed variation in COI estimates. To date, the variation in the methods used to calculate costs has not been examined in great detail even though the variations in methods are a major driver of variation in COI estimates. The objective of this review was to document the variation in the methodologies employed in COI studies and to highlight the benefits and limitations of these methods. The review of COI studies was implemented following a four-step procedure: (i) a structured literature search of MEDLINE, JSTOR and EconLit; (ii) a review of abstracts using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; (iii) a full-text review using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; and (iv) classification of articles according to the methods used to calculate costs. This review identified four COI estimation methods (Sum_All Medical, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, Matched Control and Regression) that were used in categorising articles. Also, six components of direct medical costs and five components of indirect/non-medical costs were identified and used in categorising articles.365 full-length articles were reflected in the current review following the structured literature search. The top five cost components were emergency room/inpatient hospital costs, outpatient physician costs, drug costs, productivity losses and laboratory costs. The dominant method, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, was a total costing approach that restricted the summation of medical expenditures to those related to a diagnosis of the disease of interest. There was considerable variation in the methods used within disease subcategories. In several disease subcategories (e.g. asthma, dementia

  13. [Security Management in Clinical Laboratory Departments and Facilities: Current Status and Issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Haku; Nakamura, Junji; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Koike, Masaru; Inoue, Yuji

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey regarding the current activities for protecting patients' privacy and the security of information systems (IS) related to the clinical laboratory departments of university hospitals, certified training facilities for clinical laboratories, and general hospitals in Yamaguchi Prefecture. The response rate was 47% from 215 medical institutions, including three commercial clinical laboratory centers. The results showed that there were some differences in management activities among facilities with respect to continuing education, the documentation or regulation of operational management for paper records, electronic information, remaining samples, genetic testing, and laboratory information for secondary use. They were suggested to be caused by differences in functions between university and general hospitals, differences in the scale of hospitals, or whether or not hospitals have received accreditation or ISO 15189. Regarding the IS, although the majority of facilities had sufficiently employed the access control to IS, there was some room for improvement in the management of special cases such as VIPs and patients with HIV infection. Furthermore, there were issues regarding the login method for computers shared by multiple staff, the showing of the names of personnel in charge of reports, and the risks associated with direct connections to systems and the Internet and the use of portable media such as USB memory sticks. These results indicated that further efforts are necessary for each facility to continue self-assessment and make improvements.

  14. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Part one discusses some principal mite pests in agroecosystems and urban horticulturein European countries, Serbia and its neighbouring countries focusing primarily on issueswith regard to plant production, novel methods and approaches in applied acaralogy. Parttwo displays some major properties of acaricides inhibiting respiration, growth and developmentand other synthetic substances with acaricide action on the market in the last decadeof the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century. Also some products of naturalorigin (azadirachtin, oils, micoacaricides are said to be gaining in importance. Issues withregard to the fact that mites can readily develop resistance to acardicides are discussed anda survey on the results of biochemical, physiological and genetical causes of resistance areanalyzed. Some basic principles of biological control of phytophagous mites and modernadvances and approaches are discussed as well as current knowledge on host plant resistanceto mites. Eventually, the possibility of using a combination of selective acaricides andbiological control agents is discussed but also the inclusion of other modes of control (agriculturalpractices and physical measures expected to contribute to an integrated managementof pest populations.

  15. A Theoretical Review on Organizational Information Systems for Analysing Spatial Issues: A Perspective of Modern Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manaf Bohari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational Information Systems (OIS is established purposely to support an organization in managerial and routine works, as well as important to decision making process. Theoretically, there are sixth types of OIS, common identified as Executive Information System (EIS, Management Information System (MIS, Decision Support System (DSS, Knowledge Information System (KWS, Office Automation System (OAS and Transaction Information System (TPS. Some of organization has developed OIS for achieved their strategic advantages where final aimed to sustain the performance of organisation. However, there are questions arises about OIS uses in analyzing a spatial issue which is refers to geographical locations. The objective of this paper is to overview the fundamental concept, capability and constrains of every types of OIS with specific reference to spatial issues. Spatial issues is refers to concurrent and real-time based issues that arisen from external environment where can affect directly on organization performance. This literature review is driven from business perspective where OIS capability and ability of handle spatial issues will discuss. In general, this study found that all most OIS have limited capability to handle and manage spatial issues. Although DSS can support decision making for execute specific decision related to spatial issues, however DSS still lacks  on visualized spatial issues geographically, as well as spatial issues tied to geographical location. This paper is suggest to developed Geographical Information System (GIS as one of OIS for discover all kind of spatial issues.

  16. Is Empirical Research on Periodization Trustworthy? A Comprehensive Review of Conceptual and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, José; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Sousa, Patrícia; Mesquita, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Periodization is a core concept in training. Recently, systematic reviews and meta-analyses have attempted to provide a comprehensive overview of the topic, but theoretical criticisms have arisen with regard to how such research has been conducted. The purpose of the study was to review comprehensively the conceptual and methodological issues surrounding empirical research on periodization in training with human subjects. A search was conducted late in February 2016 on Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Plus, MedicLatina, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scielo, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science. Forty-two randomized or randomized controlled trials were retrieved. Problems emerged in three domains: (a) Conceptually, periodization and variation were applied differently in research, while no empirical research tested predictions concerning direction, timing or magnitude of the adaptations; (b) Study design: More than 95% of papers investigated the ‘physical’ factor (mainly strength). Research on long-term effects was absent (no study lasted more than nine months). Controlling for confounding factors such as nutrition, supplementation and medication was largely ignored; (c) Data analysis was biased as dispersion in responsiveness was ignored when discussing the findings. Overall, research on periodization fails to analyze the conceptual premises proposed by these approaches. Key points Periodization is considered a core concept of training. However, conceptual and methodological critiques have arisen. We therefore comprehensively reviewed randomized and randomized trials applying periodized protocols to human subjects. Overall, the concepts of periodization and variation are being used interchangeably, which represents an intellectual mistake with implications for how we interpret the results of the studies. Additional methodological shortcomings make current research on periodization largely unreliable. PMID:28344448

  17. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

    2012-09-01

    Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing

  18. Mechanisms and Kinetics of Environmentally Assisted Cracking: Current Status, Issues, and Suggestions for Further Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, S. P.

    2013-03-01

    Mechanisms and kinetics of metal-induced embrittlement, hydrogen-embrittlement, and stress-corrosion cracking are discussed, and long-standing controversies are addressed by reviewing critical observations. Recommendations are also made regarding further work (including repetition of previous work using more advanced measurement and characterisation techniques) that should be carried out in order to resolve some of the contentious issues. The evidence to date suggests that adsorption-based mechanisms, involving weakening of substrate interatomic bonds so that dislocation emission or decohesion is facilitated, accounts for embrittlement in many systems. Embrittling adsorbed species include some metal atoms, hydrogen, and complex ions produced by de-alloying. Other viable mechanisms of embrittlement include those based on (1) dissolution of anodic grain-boundary regions, and (2) decohesion at grain boundaries owing to segregated hydrogen and impurities. The hydrogen-enhanced localised-plasticity mechanism, based on solute hydrogen facilitating dislocation activity in the plastic zone ahead of cracks, makes a contribution in some cases, but is relatively unimportant compared with these other mechanisms for most fracture modes. The film-induced cleavage mechanism, proposed especially for stress-corrosion cracking in systems involving de-alloying at crack tips, is questionable on numerous grounds, and is probably not viable. Rate-controlling processes for environmentally assisted cracking are not well established, except for solid-metal induced embrittlement where surface self-diffusion of embrittling atoms to crack tips controls cracking kinetics. In some systems, adsorption kinetics are probably rate-controlling for liquid-metal embrittlement, hydrogen-environment embrittlement, and stress-corrosion cracking. In other cases, rate-controlling processes could include the rate of anodic or cathodic reactions at and behind crack tips (responsible for producing embrittling

  19. Current Cloud Computing Review and Cost Optimization by DERSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gomathy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing promises to deliver cost saving through the “pay as you use” paradigm. The focus is on adding computing resources when needed and releasing them when the need is serviced. Since cloud computing relies on providing computing power through multiple interconnected computers, there is a paradigm shift from one large machine to a combination of multiple smaller machine instances. In this paper, we review the current cloud computing scenario and provide a set of recommendations that can be used for designing custom applications suited for cloud deployment. We also present a comparative study on the change in cost incurred while using different combinations of machine instances for running an application on cloud; and derive the case for optimal cost

  20. Current management of bronchiectasis: review and 3 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Enid; Ebright, Linda; Kwiatkowski, Marianne; Cullina, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is the abnormal, irreversible dilatation of diseased bronchi. Permanently dilated airways, usually in the medium-sized bronchi, are inflamed and often obstructed with thick, purulent secretions. Known causative factors include postinfection bronchial damage, postinhalation injury, hypersensitivity reactions, and congenital airway obstructive disorders. Typical symptoms include sputum overproduction, fever, pleurisy, dyspnea, and chronic cough. Diagnosis involves radiographic studies and pulmonary function testing. Treatment includes oral, aerosolized, or intravenous antibiotic therapy according to the severity of the exacerbation, and mucus clearance by means of bronchial hygiene assistive devices, chest physiotherapy, postural drainage, and high-frequency chest compression. We present a review of bronchiectasis and offer 3 case studies illustrating current management of different presentations, including use of aerosolized antibiotics for patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although an adjunctive program of pulmonary rehabilitation may be useful for patients with bronchiectasis, no confirming studies have been performed to date, and additional research in this area is warranted.

  1. From Current Algae Products to Future Biorefinery Practices: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppink, Michel H M; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Reith, Hans; van den Berg, Corjan; Barbosa, Maria J; Wijffels, Rene H

    2017-03-07

    Microalgae are considered to be one of the most promising next generation bio-based/food feedstocks with a unique lipid composition, high protein content, and an almost unlimited amount of other bio-active molecules. High-value components such as the soluble proteins, (poly) unsaturated fatty acids, pigments, and carbohydrates can be used as an important ingredient for several markets, such as the food/feed/chemical/cosmetics and health industries. Although cultivation costs have decreased significantly in the last few decades, large microalgae production processes become economically viable if all complex compounds are optimally valorized in their functional state. To isolate these functional compounds from the biomass, cost-effective, mild, and energy-efficient biorefinery techniques need to be developed and applied. In this review we describe current microalgae biorefinery strategies and the derived products, followed by new technological developments and an outlook toward future products and the biorefinery philosophy.

  2. Current trends in separation of plasmid DNA vaccines: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Ashraf; Healey, Robert; Adly, Frady G

    2013-01-14

    Plasmid DNA (pDNA)-based vaccines offer more rapid avenues for development and production if compared to those of conventional virus-based vaccines. They do not rely on time- or labour-intensive cell culture processes and allow greater flexibility in shipping and storage. Stimulating antibodies and cell-mediated components of the immune system are considered as some of the major advantages associated with the use of pDNA vaccines. This review summarizes the current trends in the purification of pDNA vaccines for practical and analytical applications. Special attention is paid to chromatographic techniques aimed at reducing the steps of final purification, post primary isolation and intermediate recovery, in order to reduce the number of steps necessary to reach a purified end product from the crude plasmid.

  3. Current management options for latent tuberculosis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton BL

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Brianna L Norton, David P HollandDepartment of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Tuberculosis remains the world’s second leading infectious cause of death, with nearly one-third of the global population latently infected. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is a mainstay of tuberculosis-control efforts in low-to medium-incidence countries. Isoniazid monotherapy has been the standard of care for decades, but its utility is impaired by poor completion rates. However, new, shorter-course regimens using rifamycins improve completion rates and are cost-saving compared with standard isoniazid monotherapy. We review the currently available therapies for latent tuberculosis infection and their toxicities and include a brief economic comparison of the different regimens.Keywords: isoniazid, rifampin, rifapentine, tuberculin skin test, interferon-gamma release assay

  4. Immunotherapy in prostate cancer: review of the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, E M; Vera-Badillo, F E; Perez-Valderrama, B; Matos-Pita, A S; Duran, I

    2015-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common male malignancy in the Western world. Once it metastasizes, it is incurable. The current gold standard for metastatic disease is the combined docetaxel/prednisone regimen. Prostate cancer shows several characteristics that make it a suitable candidate for immunotherapy, as recently exemplified by the approval of sipuleucel-T, the first vaccine to treat any malignancy. Here, we review different tumor-associated antigen immunotherapy strategies currently being investigated, from a humanized radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (J-591) that targets radiation into tumor cells, moving on to vaccines and through to immunomodulator agents such as anti-CPLA-4 and anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies that activate T-cell responses via immune checkpoint inhibition. We explore different opinions on the best approach to integrate immunotherapy into existing standard therapies, such as androgen-deprivation therapy, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and review different combination sequences, patient types and time points during the course of the disease to achieve a lasting immune response. We present data from recent phase III clinical trials that call for a change in trial endpoint design with immunotherapy agents, from the traditional tumor progression to overall survival and how such trials should include immune response measurements as secondary or intermediate endpoints to help identify patient clinical benefit in the earlier phases of treatment. Finally, we join in the recent questioning on the validity of RECIST criteria to measure response to immunotherapeutic agents, as initial increases in the size of tumors/lymph nodes, which are part of a normal immune response, could be categorized as disease progression under RECIST.

  5. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulfatai B. Olokoba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disorder in which prevalence has been increasing steadily all over the world. As a result of this trend, it is fast becoming an epidemic in some countries of the world with the number of people affected expected to double in the next decade due to increase in ageing population, thereby adding to the already existing burden for healthcare providers, especially in poorly developed countries. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include type 2 diabetes mellitus, prevalence, current diagnosis, and current treatment. Only articles in English were included. Screening and diagnosis is still based on World Health Organization (WHO and American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria which include both clinical and laboratory parameters. No cure has yet been found for the disease; however, treatment modalities include lifestyle modifications, treatment of obesity, oral hypoglycemic agents, and insulin sensitizers like metformin, a biguanide that reduces insulin resistance, is still the recommended first line medication especially for obese patients. Other effective medications include non-sulfonylurea secretagogues, thiazolidinediones, alpha glucosidase inhibitors, and insulin. Recent research into the pathophysiology of type 2 DM has led to the introduction of new medications like glucagon-like peptide 1 analogoues: dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 and 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, insulin-releasing glucokinase activators and pancreatic-G-protein-coupled fatty-acid-receptor agonists, glucagon-receptor antagonists, metabolic inhibitors of hepatic glucose output and quick-release bromocriptine. Inhaled insulin was licensed for use in 2006 but has been withdrawn from the market because of low patronage.

  6. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olokoba, A B; Obateru, O A; Bojuwoye, M O

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.

  7. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Olokoba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.

  8. A Review & Assessment of Current Operating Conditions Allowable Stresses in ASME Section III Subsection NH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. W. Swindeman

    2009-12-14

    The current operating condition allowable stresses provided in ASME Section III, Subsection NH were reviewed for consistency with the criteria used to establish the stress allowables and with the allowable stresses provided in ASME Section II, Part D. It was found that the S{sub o} values in ASME III-NH were consistent with the S values in ASME IID for the five materials of interest. However, it was found that 0.80 S{sub r} was less than S{sub o} for some temperatures for four of the materials. Only values for alloy 800H appeared to be consistent with the criteria on which S{sub o} values are established. With the intent of undertaking a more detailed evaluation of issues related to the allowable stresses in ASME III-NH, the availabilities of databases for the five materials were reviewed and augmented databases were assembled.

  9. Energy and materials conservation: applying pioneering research and techniques to current non-energy materials conservation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Bruce

    2013-03-13

    The research of the Energy Research Group (ERG) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign through the 1970s and early 1980s has recurring bouts of popularity. That research traced the flow of various energy types from nature to the final product or service, using modified economic input-output analysis. That information allowed for a comparison of alternative uses of products and services that delivered the same demand. The goal of the study was to identify the energy-conserving potential of the alternatives. Interest in that research has risen and fallen with the price of energy through three cycles now, with the current interest also encompassing materials conservation. Although the specific numerical results of this work are dated, the process by which the analysis was conducted creates, at least, a suggestion for future analysis in the arena of materials research. A review of the ERG history, including techniques pioneered for investigating the potential for energy conservation and some of the ancillary lessons learned along the way, may be of some use to those working on issues of materials conservation today. In the coming years, the most relevant research will include assessment of the socio-economic-ecological impact of technological materials conservation policies.

  10. Neurobiological effects of transcranial direct current stimulation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Souza, Izabel Cristina Custodio; Vidor, Liliane Pinto; de Souza, Andressa; Deitos, Alícia; Volz, Magdalena Sarah; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that is affordable and easy to operate compared to other neuromodulation techniques. Anodal stimulation increases cortical excitability, while the cathodal stimulation decreases it. Although tDCS is a promising treatment approach for chronic pain as well as for neuropsychiatric diseases and other neurological disorders, several complex neurobiological mechanisms that are not well understood are involved in its effect. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the neurobiological mechanisms involved in the effects of tDCS. The initial search resulted in 171 articles. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, we screened 32 full-text articles to extract findings about the neurobiology of tDCS effects including investigation of cortical excitability parameters. Overall, these findings show that tDCS involves a cascade of events at the cellular and molecular levels. Moreover, tDCS is associated with glutamatergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic activity modulation. Though these studies provide important advancements toward the understanding of mechanisms underlying tDCS effects, further studies are needed to integrate these mechanisms as to optimize clinical development of tDCS.

  11. Breast cancer pain management - A review of current & novel therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aanchal Satija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers amongst women in the world. Unfortunately, even after adequate treatment, some patients experience severe pain either due to disease progression or due to treatment related side effects. The persistent pain causes a negative physical and psychosocial impact on patients′ lives. Current rational pain management is patient-centred and requires a thorough psychological assessment. Usually adequate analgesia is achieved by adopting the WHO′s three step analgesic ladder. As the disease progresses, the pain experienced by the patient also increases. This necessitates the administration of opioids and adjuvant analgesics to the breast cancer patients experiencing severe pain. However, opioid use is associated with intolerable side effects like constipation, nausea, vomiting, fear of dependence, and tolerance. Concomitant medications are required to combat these unacceptable side effects. Adjuvant analgesics need to be added to provide adequate and satisfactory analgesia. These factors worsen the psychological state of patients and deteriorate their quality of life. Hence, there is a need to develop therapeutic modalities to provide adequate analgesia with minimum side effects. This review article focuses on the current treatments available for cancer pain management, their limitations, and novel targets and non-pharmacological measures under investigation which have the potential to produce a radical change in pain management measures for the breast cancer patients.

  12. Leishmaniases in Ecuador: Comprehensive review and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Kato, Hirotomo

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL). Eight Leishmania species, L. (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (Leishmania) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) major-like, L. (V.) naiffiand L. (V.) lainsoni were characterized. The last two species were most recently reported from the Ecuadorian Amazon regions. Of the 73 Ecuadorian Lutzomyia species (43 man-biting species) recorded, only four, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ayacuchensis, and Lu. tortura were incriminated as vectors of the Leishmania parasites. Current knowledge on the reservoir hosts of Leishmania in Ecuador is extremely poor. Recently, in Ecuador different kinds of molecular techniques were developed for diagnosis and mass screening of the disease, employing various materials derived from patients and sand fly vectors. These are PCR-RFLP, colorimetric FTA-LAMP etc. Brief comments and recommendations were also given, for future research and control of leishmaniases in Ecuador.

  13. MIGRATION, A CURRENT ISSUE: THE CRISIS OF TODAY, THE CHALLENGE OF TOMORROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu PĂTRAŞCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to portray a clear perspective of the problem of immigrants, who are arriving in Europe from the Middle East conflict zones (particularly Syria and Iraq and from North Africa (mainly Libya. The causes that conducted to the development of such a phenomenon represent the motivation for choosing this theme, as well as its effects on the functionality of the EU at an institutional level and finally yet importantly the “trenchant” visions of the European public opinion, amplified by the mass media: the pros and cons of accepting the wave of refugees. The author's approach aims to put in balance both the positive effects of the phenomenon on the European continent, as well as the negative ones. Positive effects might consist in obtaining additional work force, as Europe is currently facing a demographic aging phenomenon. Furthermore, from the perspective of EU citizens, who believe in the cohesion of the European institutions, the acceptance of refugees represents a basic value for unity and further on stands for the formation of a homogenous European Union, therefore emphasising the importance of each individual. On the other hand, analysing the matter in the most realistic possible way, the risk of potential terrorist penetration in Europe is quite high and unmanageable. As a research method, we will use document analysis, referring to media articles and official documents. This phenomenon is particularly complex and the crisis result will depend on the effectiveness of the manner in which each national authority as well as the European ones will handle the issue.

  14. Integration of woodland caribou habitat management and forest management in northern Ontario - current status and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted (E.R Armstrong

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou {Rangifer tarandus caribou range across northern Ontario, occurring in both the Hudson Bay Lowlands and the Boreal Forest. Woodland caribou extend south well into the merchantable forest, occurring in licensed and/or actively managed Forest Management Units (FMU's across the province. Caribou range has gradually but continuously receded northward over the past century. Since the early 1990's, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR has been developing and implementing a woodland caribou habitat management strategy in northwestern Ontario. The purpose of the caribou habitat strategy is to maintain woodland caribou occupancy of currently occupied range in northwestern Ontario. Long-term caribou habitat needs and predator-prey dynamics form the basis of this strategy, which requires the development of a landscape-level caribou habitat mosaic across the region within caribou range. This represents a significant change from traditional forest management approaches, which were based partially upon moose (Alces alces habitat management principles. A number of issues and concerns regarding implications of caribou management to the forest industry are being addressed, including short-term and long-term reductions in wood supply and wood quality, and increased access costs. Other related concerns include the ability to regenerate forests to pre-harvest stand conditions, remote tourism concerns, implications for moose populations, and required information on caribou biology and habitat. The forest industry and other stakeholders have been actively involved with the OMNR in attempting to address these concerns, so that caribou habitat requirements are met while ensuring the maintenance of a viable timber industry, other forest uses and the forest ecosystem.

  15. Mental Health Issues of Women After Release From Jail and Prison: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Ann E; Kako, Peninnah; Sawin, Kathleen J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review article is to gain an understanding of the mental health issues of women released from jail or prison. Thirty-six studies were synthesized using the biopsychosocial model. Results indicate that released women's mental health issues include psychiatric diagnoses, psychological trauma, substance use disorders; access to psychological medications and services; and motherhood challenges, support, access to basic needs, and criminalized behaviors. Nurses can promote released women's mental health through pre-release assessment and treatment of mental health issues and ensuring access to post-release resources.  Future research should examine released women's mental health experiences.

  16. Special Education for Children with Attention Deficit Disorder: Current Issues. CRS Report for Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This paper examines issues concerning the eligibility of children with attention deficit disorder (ADD) for special education and related services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). A policy memorandum was issued by the Department of Education in September 1991, identifying those circumstances under which such children…

  17. A Review on Key Issues and Challenges in Devices Level MEMS Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review provides information relevant to issues and challenges in MEMS testing techniques that are implemented to analyze the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS behavior for specific application and operating conditions. MEMS devices are more complex and extremely diverse due to the immersion of multidomains. Their failure modes are distinctive under different circumstances. Therefore, testing of these systems at device level as well as at mass production level, that is, parallel testing, is becoming very challenging as compared to the IC test, because MEMS respond to electrical, physical, chemical, and optical stimuli. Currently, test systems developed for MEMS devices have to be customized due to their nondeterministic behavior and complexity. The accurate measurement of test systems for MEMS is difficult to quantify in the production phase. The complexity of the device to be tested required maturity in the test technique which increases the cost of test development; this practice is directly imposed on the device cost. This factor causes a delay in time-to-market.

  18. Data Security, Privacy, Availability and Integrity in Cloud Computing: Issues and Current Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Aldossary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing changed the world around us. Now people are moving their data to the cloud since data is getting bigger and needs to be accessible from many devices. Therefore, storing the data on the cloud becomes a norm. However, there are many issues that counter data stored in the cloud starting from virtual machine which is the mean to share resources in cloud and ending on cloud storage itself issues. In this paper, we present those issues that are preventing people from adopting the cloud and give a survey on solutions that have been done to minimize risks of these issues. For example, the data stored in the cloud needs to be confidential, preserving integrity and available. Moreover, sharing the data stored in the cloud among many users is still an issue since the cloud service provider is untrustworthy to manage authentication and authorization. In this paper, we list issues related to data stored in cloud storage and solutions to those issues which differ from other papers which focus on cloud as general.

  19. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  20. Postoperative Issues of Sacral Nerve Stimulation for Fecal Incontinence and Constipation: A Systematic Literature Review and Treatment Guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Yasuko; Matzel, Klaus; Lundby, Lilli;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of knowledge on the incidence and management of suboptimal therapeutic effect and the complications associated with sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence and constipation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to review current literature on postoperative issues...... and to propose a treatment algorithm. DATA SOURCE: PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched using the keywords “sacral nerve stimulation,” “sacral neuromodulation,” “fecal incontinence,” and “constipation” for English-language articles published from January 1980 to August 2010. A further search was conducted...

  1. Focus Issue: Organic light-emitting diodes-status quo and current developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Emil J W; Koch, Norbert

    2011-11-01

    The guest editors introduce the Optics Express Energy Express supplement Focus Issue, "Organic Light-Emitting Diodes," which includes six invited articles addressing the challenges of light outcoupling and light management in OLEDs.

  2. What's up prof? Current issues in the visual effects & post-production industry

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We interviewed creative professionals at a number of London visual effects and post-production houses. We report on the key issues raised in those interviews: desirable new technologies, infrastructure challenges, personnel and process management.

  3. Current perspectives on post systems: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goracci, C; Ferrari, M

    2011-06-01

    This literature review summarizes the most recent and reliable evidence on post systems. A search was limited to review articles published over the last 10 years in dental journals with an impact factor. Papers cited in the initially retrieved review articles were also included if significant. Preservation of tooth tissue, presence of a ferrule effect, and adhesion are regarded as the most effective conditions for long-term success of post-endodontic restorations. Adhesively luted fibre-reinforced composite post restorations have demonstrated satisfactory survival rates over relatively long follow-up periods. The clinical effectiveness of such restorations has been mainly ascribed to the more biomimetic behaviour of fibre-reinforced composite posts that reduces the risk of vertical root fractures. The most common type of failure when using fibre posts is post debonding and it is generally agreed that achieving stable adhesion to intraradicular dentine is more challenging than to coronal dentine. Several factors related to endodontic treatment, root canal shape, post space preparation, post translucency, adhesive cement handling and curing may have an influence on the outcome of the luting procedure. The most reliable results in fibre post cementation are obtained by etch-and-rinse adhesives in combination with dual-cure resin cements. The use of self-adhesive resin cements has also been proposed. Simplification is an obvious advantage of these new materials. However, the durability of their bond still needs to be verified with long-term clinical studies. Several techniques for pre-treating the fibre-reinforced composite post surface have been tested with the aim of improving the bond strength at the post-core and post-cement interfaces. Silicoating followed by silanization currently appears to be the most effective and convenient method for this purpose. In conclusion, the available evidence validates the use of fibre posts as an alternative to metal posts and

  4. Short Review: Mitigation of Current Environmental Concerns from Methanol Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Young

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanol has become a widely used and globally distributed product. Methanol is very important due to the current depletion of fossil fuels. Industrially, methanol produced from the catalytic reaction of synthetic gas composed of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Methanol production has brought great attention due to carbon dioxide as the main source of greenhouse gas emissions. Combined of reducing CO2 emissions and supplying an alternative fuel source has created the idea of a carbon neutral cycle called “the methanol economy”. The best catalyst for the methanol economy would show a high CO2 conversion and high selectivity for methanol production. This paper investigates research focused on catalyst development for efficient methanol synthesis from hydrogenation of carbon dioxide through added various supports and additives such as silica, zirconium, and palladium. Catalysts that displayed the highest activity included a zirconia and silicon-titanium oxide promoted Cu/Zn/Al2O3 catalyst. Alternative method of catalyst preparation, include the oxalate-gel, solid-state reaction, co-precipitation and combustion method also investigated.  © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 10th October 2012; Revised: 7th February 2012; Accepted: 10th February 2013[How to Cite: Young, A., Lesmana, D., Dai, D.J., Wu, H.S. (2013. Short Review: Mitigation of Current En-vironmental Concerns from Methanol Synthesis. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 1-13. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4055.1-13][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4055.1-13] | View in  |

  5. Conference communication. Managing change in tourism destinations: Key issues and current trends.

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, M.M.; Buhalis, Dimitrios; Longhi, C.; Vitouladiti, O.

    2013-01-01

    This conference communication illustrates the major outcomes emerging from the EIASM Conference on Tourism Management and Tourism Related Issues held in Nice (France), September 20-21, 2012. While a number of managerial issues pertaining to the tourism field were dealt with, this communication covers three specific areas of interest for destination management and marketing: (1) the increasing competition among tourism destinations and the rise and consolidation of BRIC countries as outbound t...

  6. Conference communication. Managing change in tourism destinations: Key issues and current trends.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This conference communication illustrates the major outcomes emerging from the EIASM Conference on Tourism Management and Tourism Related Issues held in Nice (France), September 20-21, 2012. While a number of managerial issues pertaining to the tourism field were dealt with, this communication covers three specific areas of interest for destination management and marketing: (1) the increasing competition among tourism destinations and the rise and consolidation of BRIC countries as outbound t...

  7. Book review: Neurofeminism: issues at the intersection of feminist theory and cognitive science

    OpenAIRE

    Muntanyola-Saura, Dafne

    2013-01-01

    Neurofeminism is the first interdisciplinary collection of essays to address how recent neuroscience affects traditional feminist issues. Philosophers, psychologists, sociomedical scientists, and feminist scholars explore questions of ‘feminine’ ethics, feminist neuroscience, and overcoming unhelpful pop science books. Reviewed by Dafne Muntanyola-Saura.

  8. Book review: Neurofeminism: issues at the intersection of\\ud feminist theory and cognitive science

    OpenAIRE

    Muntanyola-Saura, Dafne

    2013-01-01

    Neurofeminism is the first interdisciplinary collection of essays to address how recent neuroscience affects traditional feminist issues. Philosophers, psychologists, sociomedical scientists, and feminist scholars explore questions of ‘feminine’ ethics, feminist neuroscience, and overcoming unhelpful pop science books. Reviewed by Dafne Muntanyola-Saura.

  9. "Adoption Wisdom: A Guide to the Issues and Feelings of Adoption" by Marlou Russell. Book Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews "Adoption Wisdom: A Guide to the Issues and Feelings of Adoption" by Marlou Russell. Maintains that its narrative/comment format and accounts of those involved in adoption validate the feelings of the adoption-triad members. Suggests that the book lacks information on individuals who contributed comments and contains few narratives from…

  10. Ethical issues in obesity prevention for school children: a systematic qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrass, Hannes; Strech, Daniel; Mertz, Marcel

    2017-08-11

    Planning and conducting preventive measures against obesity for school children is beset with ethical issues which should be known to make well-informed decisions. The goal of this study was to provide a comprehensive spectrum of these ethical issues by means of a systematic review. In this context, the study also assesses the value of different search strategies for ethical literature in public health. Literature was searched in Medline, EBSCO and others. Three different search strategies with varied scopes were applied and their output was compared. Qualitative content analysis was used for extracting and categorizing ethical issues. 109 publications (published from 1995 to 2015) were finally included. The qualitative analysis resulted in 60 potentially relevant ethical issues. The three search strategies showed substantial differences regarding their search results. The presented spectrum provides an initial evidence base for dealing with ethical issues adequately. The findings of the study further suggest that a broader scope is more fruitful for systematic reviews on ethical issues in the field of public health.

  11. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Disorders of Consciousness: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Song, Weiqun

    2017-09-18

    It is a challenge to evaluate and treat the patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) in the clinic. Due to the huge costs of prolonged intensive care, the management of these patients raises great financial strain on families and important ethical questions. To date, several studies have attempted to specifically detect pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic effectiveness, until now there were no evidence-based guidelines about the treatment of patients with DOC. Recently, because of ethical and procedural limitations on the use of invasive stimulation techniques, non-invasive brain stimulation, such as the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has been investigated for improving the level of consciousness in patients with DOC. This paper briefly reviewed the key clinical investigations using tDCS with the aim of better understanding the pathophysiological mechanism of DOC or improving the level of consciousness in patients with DOC. In conclusion, some beneficial results of tDCS protocols have been shown in patients with DOC, especially targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in minimally conscious state (MCS). However, these investigations must be continued in larger controlled, randomized, blinded and prospective studies in order to transpose these preliminary data to clinical effects. Furthermore, an encouraging perspective for the future is the combination of neurophysiological or functional neuroimaging techniques with non-invasive brain stimulation to evaluate neuro-modulatory effects of stimulation in patients with DOC.

  12. Diabetes and Hypertension: A Comparative Review of Current Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryer, Michael J; Horani, Tariq; DiPette, Donald J

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease plays a major role in the morbidity and mortality of patients with diabetes mellitus. In turn, hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and its prevalence is increased in diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the detection and management of elevated blood pressure (BP) is a critical component of the comprehensive clinical management of diabetics. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of hypertension, there continues to be debate regarding the pharmacologic treatment of hypertension, especially in high-risk groups such as in patients with diabetes mellitus with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD). This debate largely involves at what BP (ie, treatment threshold BP) to initiate pharmacologic antihypertensive therapy and subsequently what treatment target BP should be achieved (ie, goal BP). Presently, there are several guidelines that address hypertension in diabetes mellitus, including the recently released guideline from the Eighth Report of the Joint National Committee (JNC 8). Therefore, this review will compare and contrast these current guidelines, as they relate to the management and treatment of hypertension in diabetes mellitus. Since diabetes mellitus and CKD are significantly inter-related, the presence of CKD as it relates to patients with diabetes mellitus will also be addressed. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sacral neuromodulation in overactive bladder: a review and current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhu T

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Troy Sukhu,1 Michael J Kennelly,2 Raj Kurpad1 1Department of Urology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2Department of Urology, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA Abstract: Overactive bladder (OAB symptoms of urgency, frequency, and urge incontinence currently affect a substantial portion of the population, especially as age increases. Sacral neuromodulation has become a popular option for refractory OAB symptoms over the past 2 decades. Studies have demonstrated that it is an effective treatment for OAB and urge incontinence as indicated by decreased number of voids, increased bladder capacity, and fewer leakage events. In addition, the effects have proved to be durable to multiple years following implantation. These benefits come at the expense of a high rate of adverse events, although with comparable long-term cost-effectiveness to botulinum toxin A. We aimed to review the literature that demonstrates that sacral neuromodulation continues to be an efficacious treatment for refractory OAB wet and dry patients, with continuously expanding indications. Keywords: urge incontinence, sacral neuromodulation, overactive bladder, refractory, voiding dysfunction

  14. Current Treatment of Toxoplasma Retinochoroiditis: An Evidence-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Harrell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To perform an evidence-based review of treatments for Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis (TRC. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed database and the key phrase “ocular toxoplasmosis treatment” and the filter for “controlled clinical trial” and “randomized clinical trial” as well as OVID medline (1946 to May week 2 2014 using the keyword ‘‘ocular toxoplasmosis’’. The included studies were used to evaluate the various treatment modalities of TRC. Results. The electronic search yielded a total of 974 publications of which 44 reported on the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. There were 9 randomized controlled studies and an additional 3 comparative studies on the treatment of acute TRC with systemic or intravitreous antibiotics or on reducing the recurrences of TRC. Endpoints of studies included visual acuity improvement, inflammatory response, lesion size changes, recurrences of lesions, and adverse effects of medications. Conclusions. There was conflicting evidence as to the effectiveness of systemic antibiotics for TRC. There is no evidence to support that one antibiotic regimen is superior to another so choice needs to be informed by the safety profile. Intravitreous clindamycin with dexamethasone seems to be as effective as systemic treatments. There is currently level I evidence that intermittent trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prevents recurrence of the disease.

  15. Migraine and Risk of Stroke: Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Migraine is a kind of primary headache that affects 10% to 20% of people worldwide. Recent studies have shown that migraines can be involved in strokes incidences, especially ischemic strokes.Hence, the current study aimed to review evidence in relation to migraine and risk of stroke. Evidence Acquisition A literature search was done for related articles dated between 1993 and 2013 on PubMed, Science Direct, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus for both English and non-English language articles by entering “migraine”, “migraine with aura”, “headache” and “ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke” as keywords. Results In most evaluated studies, there was a positive association between migraine with aura (MA and strokes incidences, especially ischemic strokes. Moreover, patients with high frequency of migraine attacks had greater odds of having a stroke compared with those who had low frequency of migraine attacks. Also, the association between migraine and stroke was more significant in subjects under 45 years old. Some migraine symptoms such as vomiting and nausea had a protective role in the development of ischemic strokes. Conclusions Migraine, especially MA, is a risk factor for incidences of strokes, especially ischemic strokes. However, due to conflicting results on the association between different types of migraine and stroke, more studies are needed in this field.

  16. Review on the current trends in tongue diagnosis systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jin Jung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongue diagnosis is an essential process to noninvasively assess the condition of a patient's internal organs in traditional medicine. To obtain quantitative and objective diagnostic results, image acquisition and analysis devices called tongue diagnosis systems (TDSs are required. These systems consist of hardware including cameras, light sources, and a ColorChecker, and software for color correction, segmentation of tongue region, and tongue classification. To improve the performance of TDSs, various types TDSs have been developed. Hyperspectral imaging TDSs have been suggested to acquire more information than a two-dimensional (2D image with visible light waves, as it allows collection of data from multiple bands. Three-dimensional (3D imaging TDSs have been suggested to provide 3D geometry. In the near future, mobile devices like the smart phone will offer applications for assessment of health condition using tongue images. Various technologies for the TDS have respective unique advantages and specificities according to the application and diagnostic environment, but this variation may cause inconsistent diagnoses in practical clinical applications. In this manuscript, we reviewed the current trends in TDSs for the standardization of systems. In conclusion, the standardization of TDSs can supply the general public and oriental medical doctors with convenient, prompt, and accurate information with diagnostic results for assessing the health condition.

  17. Review of Current Immunologic Therapies for Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria K. Shanmugam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory disease of apocrine gland-bearing skin which affects approximately 1–4% of the population. The disease is more common in women and patients of African American descent and approximately one-third of patients report a family history. Obesity and smoking are known risk factors, but associations with other immune disorders, especially inflammatory bowel disease, are also recognized. The pathogenesis of HS is poorly understood and host innate or adaptive immune response, defective keratinocyte function, and the microbial environment in the hair follicle and apocrine gland have all been postulated to play a role in disease activity. While surgical interventions can be helpful to reduce disease burden, there is a high recurrence rate. Increasingly, data supports targeted immune therapy for HS, and longitudinal studies suggest benefit from these agents, both when used alone and as an adjunct to surgical treatments. The purpose of this review is to outline the current data supporting use of targeted immune therapy in HS management.

  18. Current indication of plasma exchanges in nephrology: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidy M Seck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE has been firstly performed with centrifugation devices used in blood banking procedures. Nowadays, TPE is increasingly performed in intensive care units using hemodiafiltration generators that ensure better efficiency and simplicity. However, prescription for the different medical pathologies depends on weak evidence-based recommen-dations, and is often guided by the clinician′s own experience. In this review, we briefly recall the rationale of TPE prescription before discussing the evidence level of common indications of TPE in nephrology. Currently, strong evidence-based data for the benefit of TPE is clearly demonstrated in renal diseases such as hemolytic uremic syndrome, anti-glomerular basement membrane vasculitis, and recurrent glomerulonephritis after kidney transplantation and management of humoral renal allograft rejection in high-risk recipients. However, the other indications of TPE, such as renal vasculitis associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, mixed cryoglobulinemia, periarte-ritis nodosa, and acute renal failure in myeloma are still controversial. Finally, TPE have been found to be clearly inefficient in lupus nephritis, except for patients with associated thrombotic mic-roangiopathy or catastrophic antiphospholipid antibodies syndrome. More randomized clinical trials are required to precisely place TPE in the management of renal diseases. Meanwhile, the decision to use this burdensome and costly therapy should be individualized according to its proven benefits and potential complications.

  19. Using text mining for study identification in systematic reviews: a systematic review of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-14

    The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic review fills that research gap. Focusing mainly on non-technical issues, the review aims to increase awareness of the potential of these technologies and promote further collaborative research between the computer science and systematic review communities. Five research questions led our review: what is the state of the evidence base; how has workload reduction been evaluated; what are the purposes of semi-automation and how effective are they; how have key contextual problems of applying text mining to the systematic review field been addressed; and what challenges to implementation have emerged? We answered these questions using standard systematic review methods: systematic and exhaustive searching, quality-assured data extraction and a narrative synthesis to synthesise findings. The evidence base is active and diverse; there is almost no replication between studies or collaboration between research teams and, whilst it is difficult to establish any overall conclusions about best approaches, it is clear that efficiencies and reductions in workload are potentially achievable. On the whole, most suggested that a saving in workload of between 30% and 70% might be possible, though sometimes the saving in workload is accompanied by the loss of 5% of relevant studies (i.e. a 95% recall). Using text mining to prioritise the order in which items are screened should be considered safe and ready for use in 'live' reviews. The use of text mining as a 'second screener' may also be used cautiously

  20. Preliminary Review of Safety Assessment Issues at Savannah River Site, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bixler, Nathan E.

    2011-09-19

    At the request of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) management, a review team composed of experts in atmospheric transport modeling for environmental radiation dose assessment convened at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on August 29-30, 2011. Several issues were presented at the meeting for discussion. This is a short summary that is organized in accordance with the primary issues discussed, which is not necessarily a chronological record. Issues include: SRS Meteorological Data and its Use in MACCS2; Deposition Velocities for Particles; Deposition Velocities for Tritium; MACCS2 Dispersion Coefficients; Use of Low Surface Roughness in Open Areas; Adequacy of Meteorological Tower and Instrumentation; Displacement Height; and Validity of MACCS2 Calculations at Close-in Distances. A longer report will be issued at a later date that expands upon these topics and recommendations.

  1. Preliminary Review of Safety Assessment Issues at Savannah River Site, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bixler, Nathan E.

    2011-09-19

    At the request of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) management, a review team composed of experts in atmospheric transport modeling for environmental radiation dose assessment convened at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on August 29-30, 2011. Several issues were presented at the meeting for discussion. This is a short summary that is organized in accordance with the primary issues discussed, which is not necessarily a chronological record. Issues include: SRS Meteorological Data and its Use in MACCS2; Deposition Velocities for Particles; Deposition Velocities for Tritium; MACCS2 Dispersion Coefficients; Use of Low Surface Roughness in Open Areas; Adequacy of Meteorological Tower and Instrumentation; Displacement Height; and Validity of MACCS2 Calculations at Close-in Distances. A longer report will be issued at a later date that expands upon these topics and recommendations.

  2. A Study of Current Trends and Issues for Graphics Education: Results from a Five-Year Follow-Up Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales, Alice Y.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1998-1999 academic year, a survey was conducted to look at current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education (Clark & Scales, 1999). The survey solicited information from the membership of the Engineering Design Graphics Division of the American Society for Engineering Education related to their view of future areas of…

  3. Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

  4. Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

  5. Specific psychosocial issues of individuals undergoing genetic counseling for cancer - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijzenga, Willem; Hahn, Daniela E E; Aaronson, Neil K; Kluijt, Irma; Bleiker, Eveline M A

    2014-04-01

    Approximately 25% of individuals undergoing genetic counseling for cancer experiences clinically relevant levels of distress, anxiety and/or depression. However, these general psychological outcomes that are used in many studies do not provide detailed information on the specific psychosocial problems experienced by counselees. The aim of this review was to investigate the specific psychosocial issues encountered by individuals undergoing genetic counseling for cancer, and to identify overarching themes across these issues. A literature search was performed, using four electronic databases (PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL and Embase). Papers published between January 2000 and January 2013 were selected using combinations, and related indexing terms of the keywords: 'genetic counseling', 'psychology' and 'cancer'. In total, 25 articles met our inclusion criteria. We identified the specific issues addressed by these papers, and used meta-ethnography to identify the following six overarching themes: coping with cancer risk, practical issues, family issues, children-related issues, living with cancer, and emotions. A large overlap in the specific issues and themes was found between these studies, suggesting that research on specific psychosocial problems within genetic counseling has reached a point of saturation. As a next step, efforts should be made to detect and monitor these problems of counselees at an early stage within the genetic counseling process.

  6. Current Issues in Finite-T Density-Functional Theory and Warm-Correlated Matter †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. C. Dharma-wardana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Finite-temperature density functional theory (DFT has become of topical interest, partly due to the increasing ability to create novel states of warm-correlated matter (WCM.Warm-dense matter (WDM, ultra-fast matter (UFM, and high-energy density matter (HEDM may all be regarded as subclasses of WCM. Strong electron-electron, ion-ion and electron-ion correlation effects and partial degeneracies are found in these systems where the electron temperature Te is comparable to the electron Fermi energy EF. Thus, many electrons are in continuum states which are partially occupied. The ion subsystem may be solid, liquid or plasma, with many states of ionization with ionic charge Zj. Quasi-equilibria with the ion temperature Ti ≠ Te are common. The ion subsystem in WCM can no longer be treated as a passive “external potential”, as is customary in T = 0 DFT dominated by solid-state theory or quantum chemistry. Many basic questions arise in trying to implement DFT for WCM. Hohenberg-Kohn-Mermin theory can be adapted for treating these systems if suitable finite-T exchange-correlation (XC functionals can be constructed. They are functionals of both the one-body electron density ne and the one-body ion densities ρj. Here, j counts many species of nuclei or charge states. A method of approximately but accurately mapping the quantum electrons to a classical Coulomb gas enables one to treat electron-ion systems entirely classically at any temperature and arbitrary spin polarization, using exchange-correlation effects calculated in situ, directly from the pair-distribution functions. This eliminates the need for any XC-functionals. This classical map has been used to calculate the equation of state of WDM systems, and construct a finite-T XC functional that is found to be in close agreement with recent quantum path-integral simulation data. In this review, current developments and concerns in finite-T DFT, especially in the context of non-relativistic warm

  7. Current Prevalence Pattern of Hypertension in Nigeria: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Tosin Akinlua

    Full Text Available The global burden of hypertension and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs is rapidly increasing, and the African continent seems to be the most affected region in the world. The prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria forms a substantial portion of the total burden in Africa because of the large population of the country currently estimated to be over 170 million.The purpose of this systematic review is to summarise up to date data on the prevalence and distribution of hypertension in Nigeria from prevalence studies.A search of the following databases: PubMed, EMBase and WHO cardiovascular InfoBase from 1968 till date was conducted to identify studies which provide estimates of prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria.The search yielded a total of 1748 hits from which 45 relevant studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The overall crude prevalence of hypertension ranged from 0.1% (95%CI:-0.1 to 0.3 to 17.5% (95% CI: 13.6 to 21.4 in children and 2.1% (95%CI: 1.4 to 2.8 to 47.2% (95%CI: 43.6 to 50.8 in adults depending on the benchmark used for diagnosis of hypertension, the setting in which the study was conducted, sex and ethnic group. The crude prevalence of hypertension ranged from 6.2% (95%CI: 4.0 to 8.4 to 48.9% (95%CI: 42.3 to 55.5 for men and 10% (95%CI: 8.1 to 12 to 47.3% (95%CI: 43 to 51.6% for women. In most studies, prevalence of hypertension was higher in males than females. In addition, prevalence across urban and rural ranged from 9.5% (95%CI: 13.6 to 21.4 to 51.6% (95%CI: 49.8 to 53.4 and 4.8% (95%CI: 2.9 to 6.7 to 43% (95%CI: 42.1 to 43.9 respectively.The prevalence of hypertension is high among the Nigerian population. Appropriate interventions need to be developed and implemented to reduce the preventable burden of hypertension especially at Primary Health Care Centres which is the first point of call for over 55% of the Nigerian population.

  8. Current Prevalence Pattern of Hypertension in Nigeria: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlua, James Tosin; Meakin, Richard; Umar, Aminu Mahmoud; Freemantle, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of hypertension and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rapidly increasing, and the African continent seems to be the most affected region in the world. The prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria forms a substantial portion of the total burden in Africa because of the large population of the country currently estimated to be over 170 million. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarise up to date data on the prevalence and distribution of hypertension in Nigeria from prevalence studies. A search of the following databases: PubMed, EMBase and WHO cardiovascular InfoBase from 1968 till date was conducted to identify studies which provide estimates of prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria. The search yielded a total of 1748 hits from which 45 relevant studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The overall crude prevalence of hypertension ranged from 0.1% (95%CI:-0.1 to 0.3) to 17.5% (95% CI: 13.6 to 21.4) in children and 2.1% (95%CI: 1.4 to 2.8) to 47.2% (95%CI: 43.6 to 50.8) in adults depending on the benchmark used for diagnosis of hypertension, the setting in which the study was conducted, sex and ethnic group. The crude prevalence of hypertension ranged from 6.2% (95%CI: 4.0 to 8.4) to 48.9% (95%CI: 42.3 to 55.5) for men and 10% (95%CI: 8.1 to 12) to 47.3% (95%CI: 43 to 51.6%) for women. In most studies, prevalence of hypertension was higher in males than females. In addition, prevalence across urban and rural ranged from 9.5% (95%CI: 13.6 to 21.4) to 51.6% (95%CI: 49.8 to 53.4) and 4.8% (95%CI: 2.9 to 6.7) to 43% (95%CI: 42.1 to 43.9) respectively. The prevalence of hypertension is high among the Nigerian population. Appropriate interventions need to be developed and implemented to reduce the preventable burden of hypertension especially at Primary Health Care Centres which is the first point of call for over 55% of the Nigerian population.

  9. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien Minh Do, E-mail: tmdo@eng.uts.edu.au [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1 Dai Co Viet Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sharma, Deepak [University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: > Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. > Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. > Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  10. Current energy usage and sustainable energy in Kazakhstan: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatayev, Marat; Islam, Tofazzal; Salnikov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    Kazakhstan has abundant natural resources. The country has enough coal to supply its energy needs for the next 150 years, and has the world's largest deposits of uranium, substantial quantities of natural gas and petroleum deposits. However, despite such energy riches, due to the size of the territory, its geography, and the country's economic structure, distribution of electricity in Kazakhstan is not uniform. As a result, Kazakhstani rural and remote areas suffer from serious electricity deficits. According to the latest estimates from the Ministry of Industry and New Technologies, about 25-30% of the Kazakhstani population lives in rural communities, where access to affordable energy (for heating, cooling, cooking, refrigeration, lighting, household as well as IT use) is limited. Furthermore, with the main electricity production infrastructure concentrated in the main urban areas, a high amount of electricity is therefore lost during transmission. Moreover, the consumption of poor quality coal as the main source of power generation creates a significant amount of environmental pollution. To illustrate this development, fuel combustion from coal has produced around 75% of carbon dioxide emissions in Kazakhstan. Thus, in order to address the country's electricity and environmental challenges, the Kazakhstani government is taking initiatives to promote renewable energy resources. However, so far, the outcome of these initiatives remains negligible. The current contribution of renewable energy to the total energy consumption is less than 1% (with 90% provided by hydropower) despite the significant potential for renewable energy in the country. As yet, no comprehensive study has been published on the energy scenario and on the potential for renewable energy resources in Kazakhstan. This comprehensive review aims to present an overview of the country's energy resources, supply and demand as the current energy scenario, while discussing the potential for renewable

  11. Current and Under Development Treatment Modalities of Psoriasis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaghdadi, Abdul

    2017-08-04

    Psoriasis is a chronic and complex autoimmune inflammatory skin disease that affects over 125 million people worldwide. It can exhibit at any age, in spite of the fact that children are less normally influenced than adults. It is characterized by distinct erythematous plaques shielded with conspicuous silvery scales that shows up in different areas of the skin. Knowledge of pathophysiology, especially the pathogenesis of psoriasis, has significantly progressed in the recent decade. Advancement in molecular knowledge leads to better understanding of the disease, thus influencing the development of efficient treatment modalities. However, even with the availability of various options of treatment most of the efficient treatment modalities are costly. Expenses of health care bring about major financial weight to the patients as well as to health care systems. Thus, it was important to review the available current treatment options and those which are under development, in terms of efficacy, safety and cost to assist in selecting the most appropriate treatment for psoriasis patients. Literatures were searched by using key words psoriasis, topical treatment, systemic treatment, biologics and phototherapies, on Embase, Medline, Jstor, Cochrane and Merck Index databases. Life-style choices such as smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and stress are recognised as risk factors and triggers associated with psoriasis. Psoriasis poses psycho-social and economic burden on affected patients that sometimes leads to depression, reduced social interaction and suicidal tendencies in patients. Depending on the type, severity and extent of the disease, comorbidities, patient preference, efficacy and safety profile, numerous treatment modalities and therapeutic agents are available such as topical, systemic, biologic and phototherapeutic treatments. However, it was found that among all the current available treatments for psoriasis, biologic agents and phototherapeutic modalities are

  12. A Review of Currently Available Fenofibrate and Fenofibric Acid Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hua; Luoma, John T; Hilleman, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Fenofibrate is a third-generation fibric acid derivative indicated as a monotherapy to reduce elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B; to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with primary hyperlipidemia or mixed dyslipidemia; and to reduce triglycerides in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. In this review, the key characteristics of available fenofibrate formulations are examined. A literature search was conducted, focusing on comparative studies examining bioavailability, food effects, absorption, and lipid efficacy. Fenofibrate is highly lipophilic, virtually insoluble in water, and poorly absorbed. Coadministration with meals was necessary to maximize bioavailability of early formulations. Micronized and nanoparticle formulations of fenofibrate with reduced particle sizes were developed, resulting in greater solubility, improved bioavailability, and in some cases, the ability to be given irrespective of food. A recently introduced hydrophilic choline salt of fenofibric acid also can be taken without regard to meals, is absorbed throughout the gastrointestinal tract, has the highest bioavailability among marketed formulations, and is approved for coadministration with a statin. Differences in bioavailability of fenofibrate formulations have resulted in low-dose (40 - 67) mg and standard-dose (120 - 200 mg) formulations. Different formulations are not equivalent on a milligram-to-milligram basis. In order to prevent medication errors, resulting in underdosing or overdosing with attendant consequences, it is important for healthcare providers to recognize that the formulations of fenofibrate and fenofibric acid that are currently available vary substantially in relation to food effect, equivalency on a milligram-to-milligram basis, and indication to be coadministered with a statin.

  13. Current status of genome editing in vector mosquitoes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Ceasar, Stanislaus Antony; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2017-01-16

    Mosquitoes pose a major threat to human health as they spread many deadly diseases like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and Zika. Identification and use of novel molecular tools are essential to combat the spread of vector borne diseases. Genome editing tools have been used for the precise alterations of the gene of interest for producing the desirable trait in mosquitoes. Deletion of functional genes or insertion of toxic genes in vector mosquitoes will produce either knock-out or knock-in mutants that will check the spread of vector-borne diseases. Presently, three types of genome editing tools viz., zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) are widely used for the editing of the genomes of diverse organisms. These tools are also applied in vector mosquitoes to control the spread of vector-borne diseases. A few studies have been carried out on genome editing to control the diseases spread by vector mosquitoes and more studies need to be performed with the utilization of more recently invented tools like CRISPR/Cas9 to combat the spread of deadly diseases by vector mosquitoes. The high specificity and flexibility of CRISPR/Cas9 system may offer possibilities for novel genome editing for the control of important diseases spread by vector mosquitoes. In this review, we present the current status of genome editing research on vector mosquitoes and also discuss the future applications of vector mosquito genome editing to control the spread of vectorborne diseases.

  14. Current issues and related activities in seismic hazard analysis in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong-Moon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Rim; Chang, Chun-Joong

    1997-03-01

    This paper discusses some technical issues identified from the seismic hazard analyses for probabilistic safety assessment on the operating Korean nuclear power plants and the related activities to resolve the issues. Since there are no strong instrumental earthquake records in Korea, the seismic hazard analysis is mainly dependent on the historical earthquake records. Results of the past seismic hazard analyses show that there are many uncertainties in attenuation function and intensity level and that there is a need to improve statistical method. The identification of the activity of the Yangsan Fault, which is close to nuclear power plant sites, has been an important issue. But the issue has not been resolved yet in spite of much research works done. Recently, some capable faults were found in the offshore area of Gulupdo Island in the Yellow Sea. It is anticipated that the results of research on both the Yangsan Fault and reduction of uncertainty in seismic hazard analysis will have an significant influence on seismic design and safety assessment of nuclear power plants in the future. (author)

  15. Issues Affecting Crime Victims: Background, Current Status, and Implications for Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This packet contains summaries of issues concerning provisions of law affecting victims and their involvement in the criminal justice system. The packet opens by stating that unless victims and witnesses come forward and report criminal activity to law enforcement authorities and are subsequently willing to testify and endure cross-examination in…

  16. Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario. Background Papers on Current Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, Willowdale.

    Background information is provided on a number of conditions affecting Ontario's community colleges. The first section, dealing with financial issues, considers the college environment in the 1980s; examines the provincial government's perspective on priorities, the allocation process, government funding, and budgetary expenditures and trends; and…

  17. The American Trial Jury: Current Issues and Controversies. Looking at the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John Paul

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the controversial issues involved in the jury systems, such as jury selection, jury service, civic participation, and the role of the mass media. Stresses the importance of maintaining the public courtroom as a means for encouraging fair trials and not allowing closed courtrooms. Provides an accompanying article, "The Citizen's Jury," by…

  18. Classroom Currents: Interrupting the Single Story: LGBT Issues in the Language Arts Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann-Wilmarth, Jill; Ryan, Caitlin L.

    2013-01-01

    Two literacy leaders acknowledge the challenges of teaching LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) issues in the classroom. While children come from a variety of family structures, it is necessary to acknowledge that a gay individual was once a child sitting in a classroom. An argument against marginalization and an advocacy for inclusion of…

  19. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2010: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    U.S.-Vietnam Economic and Trade Relations: Issues for the 111th Congress, by Michael F. Martin. 18 Peru and Australia are the other two countries...plan emphasized lighter industries such as foodstuffs, textiles , and electronics. According to some sources, many if not most of Vietnam’s SOEs are

  20. Current concepts and issues in the management of regurgitation of infants : A reappraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenplas, Y; Belli, D; Benhamou, PH; Cadranel, S; Cezard, JP; Cucchiara, S; Dupont, C; Faure, C; Gottrand, F; Hassall, E; Heymans, HSA; Kneepkens, CMF; Sandhu, BK

    1996-01-01

    Regurgitation in infants is a common problem. Recent issues, such as the increased risk of sudden infant death in the prone sleeping position, the finding of persisting occult gastro-oesophageal reflux with feed thickeners, and the increasing awareness of the cost-benefit ratio of medications may ch

  1. Classroom Currents: Interrupting the Single Story: LGBT Issues in the Language Arts Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann-Wilmarth, Jill; Ryan, Caitlin L.

    2013-01-01

    Two literacy leaders acknowledge the challenges of teaching LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) issues in the classroom. While children come from a variety of family structures, it is necessary to acknowledge that a gay individual was once a child sitting in a classroom. An argument against marginalization and an advocacy for inclusion of…

  2. Ben Johnson and Social Studies Teaching--Classroom Use of Current Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Suggests steps for approaching discussion of controversial issues in the classroom, using the scandal of Canadian Olympian sprinter Ben Johnson as an example. Recommends the reflective inquiry approach, which necessitates framing the problem in relationship to student age, and with attention to the information available about the problem. (LS)

  3. Introduction to the Issue on Current Trends in Terahertz Photonics and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    on research and recent developments on THz photonics and applications. This issue contains 28 papers including 12 invited and 16 contributed papers authored by both well-established research groups and emerging stars pioneering in the THz field all over the world. While the invited papers include extended...

  4. 42 CFR 405.1104 - Request for MAC review when an ALJ does not issue a decision timely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for MAC review when an ALJ does not issue a...) Medicare Appeals Council Review § 405.1104 Request for MAC review when an ALJ does not issue a decision... under § 405.1016 may request MAC review if— (1) The appellant files a written request with the ALJ to...

  5. Review of the current state of whole slide imaging in pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liron Pantanowitz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole slide imaging (WSI, or "virtual" microscopy, involves the scanning (digitization of glass slides to produce "digital slides". WSI has been advocated for diagnostic, educational and research purposes. When used for remote frozen section diagnosis, WSI requires a thorough implementation period coupled with trained support personnel. Adoption of WSI for rendering pathologic diagnoses on a routine basis has been shown to be successful in only a few "niche" applications. Wider adoption will most likely require full integration with the laboratory information system, continuous automated scanning, high-bandwidth connectivity, massive storage capacity, and more intuitive user interfaces. Nevertheless, WSI has been reported to enhance specific pathology practices, such as scanning slides received in consultation or of legal cases, of slides to be used for patient care conferences, for quality assurance purposes, to retain records of slides to be sent out or destroyed by ancillary testing, and for performing digital image analysis. In addition to technical issues, regulatory and validation requirements related to WSI have yet to be adequately addressed. Although limited validation studies have been published using WSI there are currently no standard guidelines for validating WSI for diagnostic use in the clinical laboratory. This review addresses the current status of WSI in pathology related to regulation and validation, the provision of remote and routine pathologic diagnoses, educational uses, implementation issues, and the cost-benefit analysis of adopting WSI in routine clinical practice.

  6. Review of the current state of whole slide imaging in pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Valenstein, Paul N; Evans, Andrew J; Kaplan, Keith J; Pfeifer, John D; Wilbur, David C; Collins, Laura C; Colgan, Terence J

    2011-01-01

    Whole slide imaging (WSI), or "virtual" microscopy, involves the scanning (digitization) of glass slides to produce "digital slides". WSI has been advocated for diagnostic, educational and research purposes. When used for remote frozen section diagnosis, WSI requires a thorough implementation period coupled with trained support personnel. Adoption of WSI for rendering pathologic diagnoses on a routine basis has been shown to be successful in only a few "niche" applications. Wider adoption will most likely require full integration with the laboratory information system, continuous automated scanning, high-bandwidth connectivity, massive storage capacity, and more intuitive user interfaces. Nevertheless, WSI has been reported to enhance specific pathology practices, such as scanning slides received in consultation or of legal cases, of slides to be used for patient care conferences, for quality assurance purposes, to retain records of slides to be sent out or destroyed by ancillary testing, and for performing digital image analysis. In addition to technical issues, regulatory and validation requirements related to WSI have yet to be adequately addressed. Although limited validation studies have been published using WSI there are currently no standard guidelines for validating WSI for diagnostic use in the clinical laboratory. This review addresses the current status of WSI in pathology related to regulation and validation, the provision of remote and routine pathologic diagnoses, educational uses, implementation issues, and the cost-benefit analysis of adopting WSI in routine clinical practice.

  7. Intercultural Communicative Competence: A Brief Review of Current Thinking and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Kermani Kojour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to review current thinking and understanding of the issue of Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC especially in foreign language education contexts. There are serious stances on the part of scholars in foreign language contexts, which must be given some serious thinking and consideration in order to uncover the hidden agendas regarding ICC. After all, it seems still unclear in English as a Foreign Language (EFL contexts whether to try to improve the way of thinking regarding the perspective of current intercultural communicative competence, whether there should be a separation of the cultural values from the target language and only integrate language learners’ native culture with the target language. Given the development of technology and globalization, what is the right thing to do? This is a serious issue which needs much attention and contemplation by the interested scholars. By presenting the existing gaps in the literature, the paper maneuvers on the challenging notes on benefiting from culture in English Language Teaching (ELT and, on the other hand, dividing language and culture by merely elaborating on the communicative aspect of language learning and teaching. The study puts the audience into question that although recent views are focusing on taking English as an international means of communication, there exist serious beliefs regarding the separation of language and culture, which demands more thinking and probably serious revisions.

  8. Current issues in endoscope reprocessing and infection control during gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douglas B Nelson; Lawrence F Muscarella

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the evidence regarding transmission of infection during gastrointestinal endoscopy, factors important in endoscope reprocessing and infection control, areas to focus on to improve compliance, and recent developments and advances in the field.

  9. Detecting and monitoring of water inrush in tunnels and coal mines using direct current resistivity method: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Shucai Li; Bin Liu; Lichao Nie; Zhengyu Liu; Mingzhen Tian; Shirui Wang; Maoxin Su; Qian Guo

    2015-01-01

    Detecting, real-time monitoring and early warning of underground water-bearing structures are critically important issues in prevention and mitigation of water inrush hazards in underground engineering. Direct current (DC) resistivity method is a widely used method for routine detection, advanced detection and real-time monitoring of water-bearing structures, due to its high sensitivity to groundwater. In this study, the DC resistivity method applied to underground engineering is reviewed and...

  10. E-waste: a problem or an opportunity? Review of issues, challenges and solutions in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herat, Sunil; Agamuthu, P

    2012-11-01

    Safe management of electronic and electrical waste (e-waste/WEEE) is becoming a major problem for many countries around the world. In particular, developing countries face a number of issues with the generation, transboundary movement and management of e-waste. It is estimated that the world generates around 20-50 million tonnes of e-waste annually, most of it from Asian countries. Improper handling of e-waste can cause harm to the environment and human health because of its toxic components. Several countries around the world are now struggling to deal with this emerging threat. Although the current emphasis is on end-of-life management of e-waste activities, such as reuse, servicing, remanufacturing, recycling and disposal, upstream reduction of e-waste generation through green design and cleaner production is gaining much attention. Environmentally sound management (ESM) of e-waste in developing countries is absent or very limited. Transboundary movement of e-waste is a major issue throughout the region. Dealing with the informal recycling sector is a complex social and environmental issue. There are significant numbers of such challenges faced by these countries in achieving ESM of e-waste. This article aims to present a review of challenges and issues faced by Asian countries in managing their e-waste in a sustainable way.

  11. Security Issues and Challenges in Internet of Things – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilima Jain

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT alludes to the continually developing system of physical articles that component an IP address for web availability, and the correspondence that happens between these items and other Web empowered gadgets and frameworks. The security issues of the Internet of Things (IoT are straight forwardly identified with the wide utilization of its framework. IoT securities and enhancing the design and several elements of this work showcases various security issues with respect to IoT and thinks of solutions for the issues under the advancements included. Here we are going to do a study of all the security issues existing in the Internet of Things (IoT alongside an examination of the protection issues that an end-client might confront as an outcome of the spread of IoT. Most of the overview is centred around the security emerging out of the data trade innovations utilized as a part of Internet of Things. As a piece of IoTs, genuine concerns are raised over access of individual data relating to gadget and individual protection. This review tells about the security and protection issues of IoT

  12. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2011: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    a policy of neutrality on the claims by the parties, which also include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines, and Taiwan. Throughout 2009...territorial disputes. Roughly one and a half times the size of the Mediterranean Sea, it is ringed by China, Vietnam, Malaysia , Indonesia, Brunei...government to monitor data processed by these companies and/or more susceptible to government pressure on issues such as censorship .36 Many of the

  13. International human rights law aspects of forced migrations, evictions and displacement: current issues and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is an analysis of the categories of evictions, forced migrations and internal displacement in the context of international human rights law. Forced migrations and selected categories of internal displacement are important issues of international human rights law and international humanitarian law for more than forty years. The UDHR, adopted in 1948, does not contain any provisions related to forced human mobility and internal displacement. Despite this fact ...

  14. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-17

    part of multilateral meetings. The visit to China of Japan’s new Prime Minister, Shinzo Abe , on October 8, 2006, signaled a thaw in Sino-Japanese...diplomatic achievements. China routinely protested former Japanese Prime Minister Koizumi’s annual visits to the Yasukuni Shrine , where war criminals are...also enshrined. After Koizumi first visited the shrine in 2001, China used the issue to justify its refusal to engage in bilateral summitry, except as

  15. Offshore produced water management: A review of current practice and challenges in harsh/Arctic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jisi; Chen, Bing; Thanyamanta, Worakanok; Hawboldt, Kelly; Zhang, Baiyu; Liu, Bo

    2016-03-15

    Increasing offshore oil and gas exploration and development in harsh/Arctic environments require more effective offshore produced water management, as these environments are much more sensitive to changes in water quality than more temperate climates. However, the number and scope of studies of offshore produced water management in harsh/Arctic environments are limited. This paper reviews the current state of offshore produced water management, impacts, and policies, as well as the vulnerability, implications and operational challenges in harsh/Arctic environments. The findings show that the primary contaminant(s) of concern are contained in both the dissolved oil and the dispersed oil. The application of emerging technologies that can tackle this issue is significantly limited by the challenges of offshore operations in harsh/Arctic environments. Therefore, there is a need to develop more efficient and suitable management systems since more stringent policies are being implemented due to the increased vulnerability of harsh/Arctic environments.

  16. Current Advancements and Strategies in Tissue Engineering for Wound Healing: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jasmine; Walsh, Claire; Yue, Dominic; Dardik, Alan; Cheema, Umber

    2017-01-01

    Significance: With an aging population leading to an increase in diabetes and associated cutaneous wounds, there is a pressing clinical need to improve wound-healing therapies. Recent Advances: Tissue engineering approaches for wound healing and skin regeneration have been developed over the past few decades. A review of current literature has identified common themes and strategies that are proving successful within the field: The delivery of cells, mainly mesenchymal stem cells, within scaffolds of the native matrix is one such strategy. We overview these approaches and give insights into mechanisms that aid wound healing in different clinical scenarios. Critical Issues: We discuss the importance of the biomimetic niche, and how recapitulating elements of the native microenvironment of cells can help direct cell behavior and fate. Future Directions: It is crucial that during the continued development of tissue engineering in wound repair, there is close collaboration between tissue engineers and clinicians to maintain the translational efficacy of this approach. PMID:28616360

  17. Issues for the selection of wheelchair-specific activity and participation outcome measures: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, William B; Miller, William C; Auger, Claudine

    2008-06-01

    To use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a framework to identify and to evaluate wheelchair-specific outcome instruments that are useful for measuring activity and participation. CINHAL, PsychInfo, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Dissertation Abstracts Medline databases, and conference proceedings. Activity and participation measures that were specifically intended for adults who use wheelchairs and that were published in English in a peer-reviewed journal were included in this review. Based on electronic database searches using a variety of search terms, articles were identified by title, and appropriate abstracts were retrieved. Articles were obtained for all relevant abstracts. For peer-reviewed measures included in the review, we obtained any instruction manuals and related publications, frequently published in conference proceedings and theses or available electronically, on the development and testing of the measure. Tools included in the review were evaluated based on their conceptual coverage, reliability, validity, responsiveness, usefulness, and wheelchair contribution, which indicated how well the tool isolated the effect of the wheelchair on activity and participation outcomes. A number of conceptual, psychometric, and applicability issues were identified with the 11 wheelchair-specific measures included in the review. A majority of the measures were mobility focused. No single tool received excellent ratings in all areas of the review. Some of the most frequent issues identified included a failure to account for differences attributable to different wheelchairs and wheelchair seating, limited psychometric testing, and high administrative and respondent burden. Good reliability evidence was reported for most of the measures, but validity information was only available for 6 of the 11 measures, and responsiveness information for 3. This review suggests that these measures could be improved with

  18. Risk factors associated with mental health issues in adolescents: a integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Caroline Souza Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the risk factors associated with mental health issues in adolescents. Method: An integrative review was conducted in four databases with publications from 2007 to 2013. The terms Adolescent and Mental Health were used to search adequate articles as DeCs/MeSH bases. Results: Publications were found in different journals in different fields of knowledge and the quantitative research was the most frequent. The mental health issues were categorized as individual factors; drug related factors, school factors, family factors, social factors and STDs/Aids related factors. The most addressed category was individual factors, with 23 publications. Conclusion: The integrative review allowed to point important questions to be addressed in preventive actions by the health professional, including the nurse, to create a space that works with risk conditioning factors in adolescents for mental health aggravation.

  19. A review of water flooding issues in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Tang, Yanghua; Wang, Zhenwei; Shi, Zheng; Wu, Shaohong; Song, Datong; Zhang, Jianlu; Fatih, Khalid; Zhang, Jiujun; Wang, Haijiang; Liu, Zhongsheng; Abouatallah, Rami; Mazza, Antonio

    We have reviewed more than 100 references that are related to water management in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, with a particular focus on the issue of water flooding, its diagnosis and mitigation. It was found that extensive work has been carried out on the issues of flooding during the last two decades, including prediction through numerical modeling, detection by experimental measurements, and mitigation through the design of cell components and manipulating the operating conditions. Two classes of strategies to mitigate flooding have been developed. The first is based on system design and engineering, which is often accompanied by significant parasitic power loss. The second class is based on membrane electrode assembly (MEA) design and engineering, and involves modifying the material and structural properties of the gas diffusion layer (GDL), cathode catalyst layer (CCL) and membrane to function in the presence of liquid water. In this review, several insightful directions are also suggested for future investigation.

  20. Psycho-Socio-Economic Issues Challenging Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Patients: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Elizabeth Thomas

    Full Text Available Limited treatment options, long duration of treatment and associated toxicity adversely impact the physical and mental well-being of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patients. Despite research advances in the microbiological and clinical aspects of MDR-TB, research on the psychosocial context of MDR-TB is limited and less understood.We searched the databases of PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase and Google Scholar to retrieve all published articles. The final manuscripts included in the review were those with a primary focus on psychosocial issues of MDR-TB patients. These were assessed and the information was thematically extracted on the study objective, methodology used, key findings, and their implications. Intervention studies were evaluated using components of the methodological and quality rating scale. Due to the limited number of studies and the multiple methodologies employed in the observational studies, we summarized these studies using a narrative approach, rather than conducting a formal meta-analysis. We used 'thematic synthesis' method for extracting qualitative evidences and systematically organised to broader descriptive themes.A total of 282 published articles were retrieved, of which 15 articles were chosen for full text review based on the inclusion criteria. Six were qualitative studies; one was a mixed methods study; and eight were quantitative studies. The included studies were divided into the following issues affecting MDR-TB patients: a psychological issues b social issues and economic issues c psychosocial interventions. It was found that all studies have documented range of psychosocial and economic challenges experienced by MDR-TB patients. Depression, stigma, discrimination, side effects of the drugs causing psychological distress, and the financial constraints due to MDR-TB were some of the common issues reported in the studies. There were few intervention studies which addressed these psychosocial issues most of

  1. What are we assessing when we measure food security? A compendium and review of current metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Ngure, Francis M; Pelto, Gretel; Young, Sera L

    2013-09-01

    The appropriate measurement of food security is critical for targeting food and economic aid; supporting early famine warning and global monitoring systems; evaluating nutrition, health, and development programs; and informing government policy across many sectors. This important work is complicated by the multiple approaches and tools for assessing food security. In response, we have prepared a compendium and review of food security assessment tools in which we review issues of terminology, measurement, and validation. We begin by describing the evolving definition of food security and use this discussion to frame a review of the current landscape of measurement tools available for assessing food security. We critically assess the purpose/s of these tools, the domains of food security assessed by each, the conceptualizations of food security that underpin each metric, as well as the approaches that have been used to validate these metrics. Specifically, we describe measurement tools that 1) provide national-level estimates of food security, 2) inform global monitoring and early warning systems, 3) assess household food access and acquisition, and 4) measure food consumption and utilization. After describing a number of outstanding measurement challenges that might be addressed in future research, we conclude by offering suggestions to guide the selection of appropriate food security metrics.

  2. A historical review on the roles of science and politics in addressing global environmental issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter USHER; Qian YE

    2009-01-01

    Based on a historical review of the so-called Ozone crisis in the late 1970s and global climate changes since the 1980s, this paper examines the role of sciences and policies in the international community in dealing with the global environmental issues. Lessons show that a multi-discipline, multi-organizational and multi-national UN agency which remains relevant, assisting rather than guiding the process of climate negotiations is important.

  3. TRENDS AND ISSUES: A REVIEW OF STUDIES RELATED TO TECHNOLOGY USAGE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Elif ÖZTÜRK YILMAZTEKİN; OLGAN, Refika

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes types of technology studies that have been conducted related to young children’s early education. A systematic review of studies was undertaken using EBSCOhost, Blackwell Synergy, and ScienceDirect databases, to identify all studies published between 2003 and 2009 according to specific criteria. The studies were selected on the basis of the following three issues: (1) the role of technology in children’s development, (2) the role of technology in teachers’ teaching pract...

  4. Review of Current Experience on Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) and A Recommended Code Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane Spencer; Kevin McCoy

    2010-02-02

    The purpose of the ASME/DOE Gen IV Task 7 Part I is to review the current experience on various high temperature reactor intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts. There are several different IHX concepts that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850C to 950C. The concepts that will be primarily discussed herein are: (1) Tubular Helical Coil Heat Exchanger (THCHE); (2) Plate-Stamped Heat Exchanger (PSHE); (3) Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger (PFHE); and (4) Plate-Machined Heat Exchanger (PMHE). The primary coolant of the NGNP is potentially subject to radioactive contamination by the core as well as contamination from the secondary loop fluid. To isolate the radioactivity to minimize radiation doses to personnel, and protect the primary circuit from contamination, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) have been proposed as a means for separating the primary circuit of the NGNP (Next Generation Nuclear Plant) or other process heat application from the remainder of the plant. This task will first review the different concepts of IHX that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850 to 950 C. This will cover shell-and-tube and compact designs (including the platefin concept). The review will then discuss the maturity of the concepts in terms of design, fabricability and component testing (or feedback from experience when applicable). Particular attention will be paid to the feasibility of developing the IHX concepts for the NGNP with operation expected in 2018-2021. This report will also discuss material candidates for IHX applications and will discuss specific issues that will have to be addressed in the context of the HTR design (thermal aging, corrosion, creep, creep-fatigue, etc). Particular attention will be paid to specific issues associated with operation at the upper end of the creep regime.

  5. Occupational therapy research on assistive technology and physical environmental issues: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Synneve Dahlin; Iwarsson, Susanne; Sonn, Ulla

    2006-04-01

    To determine future directions for research in the area of assistive technology and physical environmental issues, it is important to have an understanding of prior research. This literature review examined how assistive technology and physical environmental issues have been studied in the research published in international peer-reviewed occupational therapy journals. Five recent volumes of nine journals were manually searched utilizing specific criteria. The publications were classified according to their perspective, application of the Person-Environment-Occupation (PEO) model, and the research design. Both research fields demonstrated use of different research methods and they displayed equal needs with regard to improved research methodologies. There are a lack of studies involving all three PEO components indicating a lack of research in occupational performance issues. Further research on occupational performance is important for developing occupational therapy practice in the area of assistive technology and physical environmental issues. Furthermore, study designs reflecting the societal level in all three PEO components are required. Finally, there is a strong need for conceptual and theoretical development in both fields.

  6. Emerging issue of e-waste in Pakistan: A review of status, research needs and data gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mehreen; Breivik, Knut; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2015-12-01

    This review article focuses on the current situation of e-waste in Pakistan with the emphasis on defining the major e-waste recycling sites, current and future domestic generation of e-waste, hidden flows or import of e-waste and discusses various challenges for e-waste management. Needed policy interventions and possible measures to be taken at governmental level are discussed to avoid the increasing problem of e-waste in the country. Our findings highlight that there is still a general lack of reliable data, inventories and research studies addressing e-waste related issues in the context of environmental and human health in Pakistan. There is therefore a critical need to improve the current knowledge base, which should build upon the research experience from other countries which have experienced similar situations in the past. Further research into these issues in Pakistan is considered vital to help inform future policies/control strategies as already successfully implemented in other countries.

  7. Controversies in the Hydrosphere: an iBook exploring current global water issues for middle school classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoe, A.; Guertin, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    This project looks to help teachers utilize iPad technology in their classrooms as an instructional tool for Earth system science and connections to the Big Ideas in Earth Science. The project is part of Penn State University's National Science Foundation (NSF) Targeted Math Science Partnership grant, with one goal of the grant to help current middle school teachers across Pennsylvania engage students with significant and complex questions of Earth science. The free Apple software iBooks Author was used to create an electronic book for the iPad, focusing on a variety of controversial issues impacting the hydrosphere. The iBook includes image slideshows, embedded videos, interactive images and quizzes, and critical thinking questions along Bloom's Taxonomic Scale of Learning Objectives. Outlined in the introductory iBook chapters are the Big Ideas of Earth System Science and an overview of Earth's spheres. Since the book targets the hydrosphere, each subsequent chapter focuses on specific water issues, including glacial melts, aquifer depletion, coastal oil pollution, marine debris, and fresh-water chemical contamination. Each chapter is presented in a case study format that highlights the history of the issue, the development and current status of the issue, and some solutions that have been generated. The next section includes critical thinking questions in an open-ended discussion format that focus on the Big Ideas, proposing solutions for rectifying the situation, and/or assignments specifically targeting an idea presented in the case study chapter. Short, comprehensive multiple-choice quizzes are also in each chapter. Throughout the iBook, students are free to watch videos, explore the content and form their own opinions. As a result, this iBook fulfills the grant objective by engaging teachers and students with an innovative technological presentation that incorporates Earth system science with current case studies regarding global water issues.

  8. Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Cannon, Susan H.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Research into post-wildfire effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-wildfire responses are typically transient, episodic, variable in space and time, dependent on thresholds, and involve multiple processes measured by different methods. These characteristics tend to hinder research progress, but the large empirical knowledge base amassed in different regions of the world suggests that it should now be possible to synthesize the data and make a substantial improvement in the understanding of post-wildfire runoff and erosion response. Thus, it is important to identify and prioritize the research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion. Priority research issues are the need to: (1) organize and synthesize similarities and differences in post-wildfire responses between different fire-prone regions of the world in order to determine common patterns and generalities that can explain cause and effect relations; (2) identify and quantify functional relations between metrics of fire effects and soil hydraulic properties that will better represent the dynamic and transient conditions after a wildfire; (3) determine the interaction between burned landscapes and temporally and spatially variable meso-scale precipitation, which is often the primary driver of post-wildfire runoff and erosion responses; (4) determine functional relations between precipitation, basin morphology, runoff connectivity, contributing area, surface roughness, depression storage, and soil characteristics required to predict the timing, magnitudes, and duration of floods and debris flows from ungaged burned basins; and (5) develop standard measurement methods that will ensure the collection of uniform and comparable runoff and erosion data. Resolution of these issues will help to improve conceptual and computer models of post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes.

  9. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea's medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols.

  10. Equity issues were not fully addressed in Cochrane human immunodeficiency virus systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aves, Theresa; Kredo, Tamara; Welch, Vivian; Mursleen, Sara; Ross, Stephanie; Zani, Babalwa; Motaze, Nkengafac Villyen; Quinlan, Leah; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    To describe and summarize equity reporting in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) systematic reviews and explore the extent to which equity issues are addressed and reported in HIV reviews using the PROGRESS Plus framework. Application of the PROGRESS Plus framework to a bibliometric analysis of HIV reviews in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The analysis included 103 reviews published as of March 2014, with a median of five studies per review (first quartile; Q1 = 2; third quartile; Q3 = 11). Reporting of PROGRESS Plus factors was as follows: Place of residence (low, middle, and high income; 55.3%), place of residence (urban or rural; 24.3%), race or ethnicity (20.4%), occupation (10.7%), gender (65.0%), religion (1.9%), education (7.8%), socioeconomic position (10.7%), social networks and capital (1.0%), age (1.9%), and sexual orientation (3.8%). Gaps in the reporting of relevant equity indicators were identified within Cochrane HIV systematic review indicating that research is not consistently conducted through an equity lens. There is a need to incorporate PROGRESS Plus factors into both primary and secondary studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Review of Seismic Hazard Issues Associated with Auburn Dam Project, Sierra Nevada Foothills, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D.P.; Joyner, W.B.; Stein, R.S.; Brown, R.D.; McGarr, A.F.; Hickman, S.H.; Bakun, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    Summary -- The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the U.S. Department of the Interior to review the design values and the issue of reservoir-induced seismicity for a concrete gravity dam near the site of the previously-proposed Auburn Dam in the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada, central California. The dam is being planned as a flood-control-only dam with the possibility of conversion to a permanent water-storage facility. As a basis for planning studies the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is using the same design values approved by the Secretary of the Interior in 1979 for the original Auburn Dam. These values were a maximum displacement of 9 inches on a fault intersecting the dam foundation, a maximum earthquake at the site of magnitude 6.5, a peak horizontal acceleration of 0.64 g, and a peak vertical acceleration of 0.39 g. In light of geological and seismological investigations conducted in the western Sierran foothills since 1979 and advances in the understanding of how earthquakes are caused and how faults behave, we have developed the following conclusions and recommendations: Maximum Displacement. Neither the pre-1979 nor the recent observations of faults in the Sierran foothills precisely define the maximum displacement per event on a fault intersecting the dam foundation. Available field data and our current understanding of surface faulting indicate a range of values for the maximum displacement. This may require the consideration of a design value larger than 9 inches. We recommend reevaluation of the design displacement using current seismic hazard methods that incorporate uncertainty into the estimate of this design value. Maximum Earthquake Magnitude. There are no data to indicate that a significant change is necessary in the use of an M 6.5 maximum earthquake to estimate design ground motions at the dam site. However, there is a basis for estimating a range of maximum magnitudes using recent field information and new statistical fault

  12. Review of the current wind energy technologies and global market

    OpenAIRE

    Komarov, Dragan; Stupar, Slobodan; Posteljnik, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    The modern wind energy technologies and recent global wind energy market trends are reviewed in the paper. Basic principles of conversion of wind energy to electricity are described with brief overview of the state-of-the-art technologies for subassemblies such as wind turbine blades and drive trains. Global wind energy market was reviewed in order to attain notion of wind power market developments in the future. The most developed countries in terms of wind energy utilization such as Denmark...

  13. [Masculinity and Meat Consumption--Historical Approchaes to a Current Health Issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ole

    2015-01-01

    In current health debates meat is often discussed as a health risk. Statistically, men consume more meat than women. Therefore they often appear as an especially vulnerable risk group. Based on current discussions about an increased health risk for men because of an above-average consumption of meat, this paper outlines aspects of the historical development of the relationship between masculinity and meat consumption from the 19th to the 21st century and emphasizes the importance of cultural constructed gender expectations for the eating habits of many men.

  14. Primary yield and multitranche structure in securitization issues: Explicative factors. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Á. Peña-Cerezo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The reasons for the strong rise in the securitization phenomenon up until the start of the “subprime crisis” need to be analysed. According to many authors, they mainly stem from its offering the possibility of generating fixed yield securities with the highest rating and a low risk premium, thanks to the issues being structured in differentiated bond series, so that certain series absorb most of the risk, thus facilitating the safer or “senior” tranches having a higher rating. Accordingly, this paper reviews the literature on the factors underlying the generation of differentiated tranches in this type of issues and regarding the determining factors of the yield offered by securitization issues. It concludes that the search for more complete markets, along with the reducing of problems associated to the moral hazard, are the main reasons for the multi-tranche structuring. And given the strong influence of the number of tranches on the yield offered by the issues, the paper likewise concludes that the multitranche structures has been an efficient tool to place securitization issues with more competitive yields.

  15. PRIMARY YIELD AND MULTITRANCHE STRUCTURE IN SECURITIZATION ISSUES:EXPLICATIVE FACTORS. A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña-Cerezo, Miguel A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The reasons for the strong rise in the securitization phenomenon up until the start of the subprime crisis need to be analysed. According to many authors, they mainly stem from its offering the possibility of generating fixed yield securities with the highest rating and a low risk premium, thanks to the issues being structured in differentiated bond series, so that certain series absorb most of the risk, thus facilitating the safer or senior tranches having a higher rating. Accordingly, this paper reviews the literature on the factors underlying the generation of differentiated tranches in this type of issues and regarding the determining factors ofthe yield offered by securitization issues. It concludes thatthe search for more complete markets, along with the reducing of problems associated to the moral hazard, are the main reasons for the multi-tranche structuring. And given the strong influence of the number of tranches on the yield offered by the issues, the paper likewise concludes that the multitranche structures has been an efficient tool to place securitization issues with more competitive yields.

  16. The current landscape for direct-to-consumer genetic testing: legal, ethical, and policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Stuart; Javitt, Gail; Melzer, David

    2008-01-01

    This review surveys the developing market for direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests and examines the range of companies and tests available, the regulatory landscape, the concerns raised about DTC testing, and the calls for enhanced oversight. We provide a comparative overview of the situation, particularly in the United States and Europe, by exploring the regulatory frameworks for medical devices and clinical laboratories. We also discuss a variety of other mechanisms such as general controls on advertising and consumer law mechanisms.

  17. Review of current typhoid fever vaccines, cross-protection against paratyphoid fever, and the European guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Jane N; Hatz, Christoph; Kantele, Anu

    2017-10-01

    Typhoid and paratyphoid fever remain a global health problem, which - in non-endemic countries - are mainly seen in travelers, particularly in VFRs (visiting friends and relatives), with occasional local outbreaks occurring. A rise in anti-microbial resistance emphasizes the role of preventive measures, especially vaccinations against typhoid and paratyphoid fever for travelers visiting endemic countries. Areas covered: This state-of-the-art review recapitulates the epidemiology and mechanisms of disease of typhoid and paratyphoid fever, depicts the perspective of non-endemic countries and travelers (VFRs), and collectively presents current European recommendations for typhoid fever vaccination. We provide a brief overview of available (and developmental) vaccines in Europe, present current data on cross-protection to S. Paratyphi, and aim to provide a background for typhoid vaccine decision-making in travelers. Expert commentary: European recommendations are not harmonized. Experts must assess vaccination of travelers based on current country-specific recommendations. Travel health practitioners should be aware of the issues surrounding vaccination of travelers and be motivated to increase awareness of typhoid and paratyphoid fever risks.

  18. Current issues in late Middle Palaeolithic chronology : New assessments from Northern Iberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroto, Julia; Vaquero, Manuel; Arrizabalaga, Alvaro; Baena, Javier; Baquedano, Enrique; Jorda, Jesus; Julia, Ramon; Montes, Ramon; Van Der Plicht, Johannes; Rasines, Pedro; Wood, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The Iberian Peninsula plays a central role in the current debates on the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition and the Neanderthal extinction. This is largely due to the chronological data which some authors have suggested show a clear divide between Northern Iberia, where the Upper Palaeolithic appe

  19. Library and Information Science Education in Greece: Institutional Changes and Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniarou-Papaconstantinou, Valentini; Tsatsaroni, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the historical development of Library and Information Science (LIS) Education in Greece, in order to understand its current position within the field of higher education, and to assess its future prospects. In particular, in tracing changes that LIS Education as an institution has undergone, it argues that institutional…

  20. Ten-dimensional Maxwell-Einstein supergravity, its currents, and the issue of its auxiliary fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Roo, M. de; Wit, B. de

    1982-01-01

    The d = 10, N = 1 Yang-Mills system is coupled to d = 10, N = 1 supergravity in a locally scale-invariant way. An analysis of the currents agrees with the Noether coupling results and reveals the existence of two ordinary axial and more low-dimension auxiliary fields. The coupling of the photon Aµ

  1. Current Technology Trends and Issues among Health and Physical Education Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jennifer M.; Franks, Hillary; Lynch, Brandy

    2017-01-01

    Health and physical education professionals who implement technology appropriately can contribute to helping students become physically educated individuals (NASPE, 2009). It is imperative that professionals be knowledgeable and resourceful in how to integrate technology effectively, but it is unclear what current challenges professionals face in…

  2. A Synthesis of Language Learning Strategies: Current Issues, Problems and Claims Made in Learner Strategy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjesteh, Hamed; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Vaseghi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presented theoretical assumptions behind language learning strategies (LLS) and an overview of methods used to identify learners' strategies, first, and then summarized what have been reported from large number of descriptive studies of strategies by language learners. Moreover, the paper tried to present the variety of…

  3. Current issues in the design of academic health sciences libraries: findings from three recent facility projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Patricia P

    2003-07-01

    Planning a new health sciences library at the beginning of the twenty-first century is a tremendous challenge. Technology has radically changed the way libraries function in an academic environment and the services they provide. Some individuals question whether the library as place will continue to exist as information becomes increasingly available electronically. To understand how libraries resolve programming and building design issues, visits were made to three academic health sciences libraries that have had significant renovation or completed new construction. The information gathered will be valuable for planning a new library for the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and may assist other health sciences librarians as they plan future library buildings.

  4. Noninvasive Prenatal Genetic Testing: Current and Emerging Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minear, Mollie A; Alessi, Stephanie; Allyse, Megan; Michie, Marsha; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal genetic testing (NIPT) for chromosomal aneuploidy involving the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA became commercially available in 2011. The low false-positive rate of NIPT, which reduces unnecessary prenatal invasive diagnostic procedures, has led to broad clinician and patient adoption. We discuss the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by rapid and global dissemination of NIPT. The number of women using NIPT is anticipated to expand, and the number of conditions being tested for will continue to increase as well, raising concerns about the routinization of testing and negative impacts on informed decision making. Ensuring that accurate and balanced information is available to all pregnant women and that access to NIPT is equitable will require policy guidance from regulators, professional societies, and payers. Empirical evidence about stakeholders' perspectives and experiences will continue to be essential in guiding policy development so that advances in NIPT can be used effectively and appropriately to improve prenatal care.

  5. PHARMACOTHERAPY OF THE DIGESTIVE DISEASES AMONG TEENAGERS. CURRENT STATE OF THE ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration of the children's health, especially as long as they study in school is one of the key issues today. The article highlights the results of the «Healthy school» program implementation, which was developed by the «Quality of life» charity fund involving Solvay Pharma. Much attention was paid to the pharmacoepidemiological study of the digestive diseases among teenagers — conformance evaluation of the given nosology pharmacotherapy at the outpatient stage to the existing standards of the evidence based medicine. The researcher described in detail nonconformances to the generally accepted recommendations identified during the study — nonprescription and/or unjustified application of the medications. They also provided the structure of the enzymatic drugs application.Key words: pharmacoepidemiology, gastrointestinal disturbances, pharmacotherapy, children.

  6. Current issues connected with usage of genetically modified crops in production of feed and livestock feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, K; Mazur, M; Sieradzki, Z

    2008-01-01

    Progress, which is brought by new advances in modern molecular biology, allowed interference in the genome of live organisms and gene manipulation. Introducing new genes to the recipient organism enables to give them new features, absent before. Continuous increase in the area of the biotech crops triggers continuous discussion about safety of genetically modified (GM) crops, including food and feed derived from them. Important issue connected with cultivation of genetically modified crops is a horizontal gene transfer and a bacterial antibiotic resistance. Discussion about safety of GM crops concerns also food allergies caused by eating genetically modified food. The problem of genetic modifications of GM crops used for livestock feeding is widely discussed, taking into account Polish feed law.

  7. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D; Hammel, C J

    1995-02-01

    Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

  8. Fundamental Issues in Manufacturing Photovoltaic Modules Beyond the Current Generation of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Alapatt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many methods to improve the solar cell’s efficiency beyond current generation of bulk and thin film of photovoltaic (PV devices have been reported during the last five decades. Concepts such as multiple exciton generations (MEG, carrier multiplication (CM, hot carrier extraction, and intermediate band solar cells have fundamental flaws, and there is no experimental evidence of fabricating practical higher efficiency solar cells based on the proposed concepts. To take advantages of quantum features of nanostructures for higher performance PV devices, self-assembly-based bottom-up processing techniques are not suitable for manufacturing due to inherent problems of variability, defects, reliability, and yield. For processing nanostructures, new techniques need to be invented with the features of critical dimensional control, structural homogeneity, and lower cost of ownership as compared to the processing tools used in current generations of bulk and thin-film solar cells.

  9. Issues Regarding the Current and Future Use of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    that currently rely on DoD for a large share of their business if those carriers could not recoup that loss by serving more commercial customers ...Reports. 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 ASTAR Air Cargo/ DHL Atlas Air/Polar Air Evergreen International...CRAF Carriers’ Revenues from Commercial Customers (Percentage of revenues) Source: Congressional Budget Office based on 2007 data from the United

  10. Review of the current state of UAV regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stöcker, Elvira Claudia; Bennett, Rohan; Nex, Francesco; Gerke, Markus; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    UAVs-unmanned aerial vehicles-facilitate data acquisition at temporal and spatial scales that still remain unachievable for traditional remote sensing platforms. However, current legal frameworks that regulate UAVs present significant barriers to research and development. To highlight the

  11. Review: Current writing: Text and reception in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Combrink

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available Current writing: Text and reception in Southern Africa. (Published by the University of Natal under the joint editorship of Margaret Lenta, Michael Chapman, Margaret Daymond and Johan U. Jacobs. Volume 1, 1989 - editor: Margaret Lenta

  12. A review of the current literature on management of halitosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.M. van den; Feenstra, L.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    Halitosis is an unpleasant or offensive odour, emanating from the oral cavity. In approximately 80% of all cases, halitosis is caused by microbial degradation of oral organic substrates. Major degradation products are volatile sulphur-containing compounds. In this review, the available management me

  13. A review of the current literature on management of halitosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.M. van den; Feenstra, L.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    Halitosis is an unpleasant or offensive odour, emanating from the oral cavity. In approximately 80% of all cases, halitosis is caused by microbial degradation of oral organic substrates. Major degradation products are volatile sulphur-containing compounds. In this review, the available management

  14. Current Status of Acanthamoeba in Iran: A Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Niyyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba have an environmental distribution. Amoebic keratitis due to these protozoan parasites continue to rise in Iran and worldwide. In Iran, there are various researches regarding both morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. in environmental and clinical samples. However, there is no thorough review about Acanthamoeba genotypes and their distribution in environmental sources such as water, dust and biofilm in Iran. Besides, according to increasing cases of Amoebic keratitis in the region awareness regarding the pathogenic potential of these sight-threatening amoebae is of utmost importance.We conducted a thorough review based on the database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Google scholar. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. We searched all valuable and relevant information considering the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples.According to our thorough review Acanthamoeba belonging to T4 genotype is the most prevalent type strain in environmental and clinical samples in several regions in Iran and worldwide, however, there are reports regarding Acanthamoeba belonging to other genotypes such as T2, T3, T5, T6 and T11 and the mentioned point could leads us to more researches with the goal of presenting the real genotype dominance of Acanthamoeba and related disease in the country.Overall, the present review will focus on present status of genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran during recent years.

  15. Postgraduate Research Supervision: A Critical Review of Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallin, Antoinette; Nayar, Shoba

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the funding and delivery of research programmes at the university level have, in recent years, resulted in significant changes to research supervision. This paper critically reviews key influences effecting postgraduate supervision. Analysis draws on literature spanning 2000-2010 to determine the appropriateness of traditional models of…

  16. Film and Cognition: A Critical Review of Current Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaner, Dan

    1984-01-01

    Three conceptual frameworks for examining the cognitive response to film are reviewed. It is suggested that a phenomenological rather than atomistic conception of the film-viewer interaction will be most useful for the generation of further studies in this area. (Author/RM)

  17. A Review: Passive System Reliability Analysis – Accomplishments and Unresolved Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARUN KUMAR NAYAK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliability assessment of passive safety systems is one of the important issues, since safety of advanced nuclear reactors rely on several passive features. In this context, a few methodologies such as Reliability Evaluation of Passive Safety System (REPAS, Reliability Methods for Passive Safety Functions (RMPS and Analysis of Passive Systems ReliAbility (APSRA have been developed in the past. These methodologies have been used to assess reliability of various passive safety systems. While these methodologies have certain features in common, but they differ in considering certain issues; for example, treatment of model uncertainties, deviation of geometric and process parameters from their nominal values, etc. This paper presents the state of the art on passive system reliability assessment methodologies, the accomplishments and remaining issues. In this review three critical issues pertaining to passive systems performance and reliability have been identified. The first issue is, applicability of best estimate codes and model uncertainty. The best estimate codes based phenomenological simulations of natural convection passive systems could have significant amount of uncertainties, these uncertainties must be incorporated in appropriate manner in the performance and reliability analysis of such systems. The second issue is the treatment of dynamic failure characteristics of components of passive systems. REPAS, RMPS and APSRA methodologies do not consider dynamic failures of components or process, which may have strong influence on the failure of passive systems. The influence of dynamic failure characteristics of components on system failure probability is presented with the help of a dynamic reliability methodology based on Monte Carlo simulation. The analysis of a benchmark problem of Hold-up tank shows the error in failure probability estimation by not considering the dynamism of components. It is thus suggested that dynamic reliability

  18. A public-policy practicum to address current issues in human, animal, and ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, John A; Johnson, Yvette J; Troutt, H Fred; Prudhomme, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    There are recognized needs for cross-training health professionals in human, animal, and ecosystem health and for public health policy to be informed by experts from medical, science, and social science disciplines. Faculty members of the Community Health and Preventive Medicine Section at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have offered a public-policy course designed to meet those needs. The course was designed as a practicum to teach students the policy-making process through the development of policy proposals and to instruct students on how to effectively present accurate scientific, demographic, and statistical information to policy makers and to the public. All students substantially met the learning objectives of the course. This course represents another model that can be implemented to help students learn about complex, multifactorial issues that affect the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems, while promoting participation in public health policy development.

  19. Asbestos: current issues related to cancer and to uses in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Algranti

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos is one of the main occupational carcinogens recognized and studied in the literature. Its uses have undergone major changes in recent decades, with severe restrictions on commercial amphiboles according to different patterns: in developed countries asbestos is strictly controlled or banned, except in Japan, while in developing countries consumption has leveled off or increased. As an example, Brazil is one the seven world leaders in asbestos production and consumption. Although there is a clear excess of mesotheliomas linked to amphibole exposure, mainly to crocidolite, there is no evidences that chrysotile is harmless to the pleura. Also, the relationship between fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis is not sufficiently understood to defend the concept that there are protective exposure limits to both diseases. "Controlled use" policy may be effective at the occupational level in a select group of companies, representing only a fraction of the exposed population. In developing countries subject to economic pressures, these issues merit proper discussion to avoid unnecessary disease and death.

  20. Current global and Korean issues in radiation safety of nuclear medicine procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H C

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the management of patient doses in medical imaging has evolved as concern about radiation exposure has increased. Efforts and techniques to reduce radiation doses are focussed not only on the basis of patient safety, but also on the fundamentals of justification and optimisation in cooperation with international organisations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the World Health Organization. The Image Gently campaign in children and Image Wisely campaign in adults to lower radiation doses have been initiated in the USA. The European Association of Nuclear Medicine paediatric dosage card, North American consensus guidelines, and Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative have recommended the activities of radiopharmaceuticals that should be administered in children. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), developed predominantly in Europe, may be an important tool to manage patient doses. In Korea, overexposure to radiation, even from the use of medical imaging, has become a public issue, particularly since the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. As a result, the Korean Nuclear Safety and Security Commission revised the technical standards for radiation safety management in medical fields. In parallel, DRLs for nuclear medicine procedures have been collected on a nationwide scale. Notice of total effective dose from positron emission tomography-computed tomography for cancer screening has been mandatory since mid-November 2014.

  1. Crime Prevention and Criminological Theories: Three Issues for the Current Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Jorge Ayos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Any crime prevention strategy implies, explicitly or implicitly, the question about what crime is, the causes of it and how to avert it. In this paper we will focus on set, thru criminological theories, the “concepts” that have been renewal to build different answers to such questions, particularly on crime prevention’s policies in contemporary Argentina. We suggest three axes: first, the criminal positivist sociology of Enrico Ferri, particularly his idea of “ penalties equivalent,”; second, the discussion about crime prevention in the “Chicago School”, specially on Thrasher Frederich’s work; and finally, “multi-agency intervention” idea of the left realist criminology, especially Jock Young, Roger Matthews and John Lea. Such productions have in common the fact that the three have specifically discussed the issue of “crime prevention” on their work. The selection criteria and comparison axis emerges from a broader investigation, which aimed to analyze the modes of way that the association between crime and living conditions is addressed on the social crime prevention policies in Argentina, during the first decade of the new century. Three comparatives dimensions were analyzed: the way social policies appears on crime prevention strategies; the ways the target populations are delimited; and last, the ways the intervention territories are defined, building an specific idea of territory.

  2. Current issues in developing safety culture while establishing wind energy power plants in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowda, M.C.M.; Repaka, B.; Gowda, P. [MSRIT Research Centre, Bangalore (India); Chandrashekar, R. [SaIT, Bangalore (India)

    2012-07-01

    Safety is important to every one working in the various organizations. They want to be safe when coming to work, at the time of work and going back to home. The ultimate aim of every worker is to work for the needs/money and or satisfaction where these would get prioritized according to the individuals. People don't want accidents to happen. People don't want to get themselves injured nor their colleagues. People would like and love to work in a company which cares for them and keeps them safe. Having said this then what makes them meet with or see an accident in the wind farm? Yes it is the unsafe act and unsafe condition which causes an accident in the wind farm. The present study put forward the factors /issues that influence people behaviors as part of weakening the safety culture to perform an unsafe act or to ignore and work in an unsafe condition. (Author)

  3. Current issues relating to the transfusion of stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimrin, A B; Hess, J R

    2009-02-01

    The development of blood storage systems allowed donation and transfusion to be separated in time and space. This separation has permitted the regionalization of donor services with subsequent economies of scale and improvements in the quality and availability of blood products. However, the availability of storage raises the question of how long blood products can and should be stored and how long they are safe and effective. The efficacy of red blood cells was originally measured as the increment in haematocrit and safety began with typing and the effort to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination. Appreciation of a growing list of storage lesions of red blood cells has developed with our increasing understanding of red blood cell physiology and our experience with red blood cell transfusion. However, other than frank haemolysis, rare episodes of bacterial contamination and overgrowth, the reduction of oxygen-carrying capacity associated with the failure of some transfused cells to circulate, and the toxicity of lysophospholipids released from membrane breakdown, storage-induced lesions have not had obvious correlations with safety or efficacy. The safety of red blood cell storage has also been approached in retrospective epidemiologic studies of transfused patients, but the results are frequently biased by the fact that sicker patients are transfused more often and blood banks do not issue blood products in a random order. Several large prospective studies of the safety of stored red blood cells are planned.

  4. CURRENT CRIMINAL-LEGAL ISSUES OF QUALIFICATION OF A CHILD SUBSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishchenko E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the chosen topic is caused by existence of disputable issues in qualification of the crime established in article 153 of the Criminal code of Russian Federation. Objective and subjective elements of corpus delicti of substitution of a child are analyzed in the article. The special attention is paid to the object of the crime, and also consideration of the concept «victim». In this article «mercenary and low motives» as a constructive feature of the subjective element of substitution of a child are considered, the most significant gaps in norms of the criminal legislation are analyzed and ways of their elimination are offered. Having investigated normative legal acts, court practice, foreign legislation and the existing theoretical developments, authors give their interpretation of article 153 of the Criminal code of Russian Federation. The authors express opinion about strengthening of the punishment for this crime. We consider important inclusion in corpus delicti of this crime such aggravating features as the act: «against two or more persons», «a group of persons by previous agreement or organized group», «a person using his official position», «a person who has a previous conviction for crime against a family and minors»

  5. Disinfection and Sterilization in Health Care Facilities: An Overview and Current Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-09-01

    When properly used, disinfection and sterilization can ensure the safe use of invasive and noninvasive medical devices. The method of disinfection and sterilization depends on the intended use of the medical device: critical items (contact sterile tissue) must be sterilized before use; semicritical items (contact mucous membranes or nonintact skin) must be high-level disinfected; and noncritical items (contact intact skin) should receive low-level disinfection. Cleaning should always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization. Current disinfection and sterilization guidelines must be strictly followed.

  6. Fiscal Reform in the People's Republic of China: Current Issues and Future Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Kanamori, Toshiki

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, economists and policymakers have given much greater attention to fiscal reform in the PRC. This reflects the fact that after the Asian financial crisis the fiscal balance of the PRC government rapidly worsened. Second, the PRC economy as a whole has been moving in a more market-oriented direction since its accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). The current agenda for fiscal reform includes the low level of fiscal revenue relative to GDP, the tax-sharing scheme betwe...

  7. [Current situation and ethical-social issues of pediatric genetic testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Many pediatric neurological disorders are caused by genetic factors. Therefore, genetic testing is often required for final diagnosis, prognosis prediction, and genetic counseling. Prior to performing genetic research, pediatric neurologists must obtain the approval of the Institutional Review Board. Moreover, according to the "Ethical Guidelines for Human Genome/Gene Analysis Research," anonymity of patient samples must be maintained. Although the guideline for genetic research are not generally applied for genetic testing in routine bedside medical care, the guideline adopted by the Japan Medical Association must be followed, because genetic information from a personal genome is patient-specific. Pediatric neurologists must also be aware of the policies adopted to obtain informed consent from children and patients who are incapable of making their own decisions. They should develop a strategy for collaboration with clinical geneticists and for making a prenatal diagnosis.

  8. Current issues in clinical research and the development of new pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhammer, A

    2001-01-01

    As a normal part of the drug development process, U.S. pharmaceutical companies conduct many thousands of clinical trials each year. Only after a reasonable assurance of safety is made can the drug be given to patients who have the underlying medical condition that the drug is designed to treat. Patient welfare is assured by adhering to the Food and Drug Administration's interpretation of the "common rule" if the data will be used to support a licensing application. 21 CFR Part 50 sets forth the regulations along with the principles of informed consent and the use of institutional review boards (IRBs) that assure patients' rights are protected. Any potential conflict of interest on the part of a clinical investigator must be reported to the FDA. Pharmaceutical companies extensively monitor ongoing clinical trials for compliance with appropriate regulations. The recent revision of the Declaration of Helsinki governing placebo-controlled clinical trials may adversely impact drug development.

  9. Issues in the management of acute agitation: how much current guidelines consider safety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno ePacciardi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Agitated behavior constitutes up to 10% of emergency psychiatric interventions. Pharmacological tranquilization is often used as a valid treatment for agitation but a strong evidence base does not underpin it. Available literature shows different recommendations, supported by research data, theoretical considerations or clinical experience. Rapid tranquilization is mainly based on parenteral drug treatment and the few existing guidelines on this topic, when suggesting the use of first generation antipsychotics and benzodiazepines, include drugs with questionable tolerability profile such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, midazolam and lorazepam. In order to systematically evaluate safety concerns related to the adoption of such guidelines, we reviewed them independently from principal diagnosis while examining tolerability data for suggested treatments. There is a growing evidence about safety profile of second generation antipsychotics for rapid tranquilization but further controlled studies providing definitive data in this area are urgently needed.

  10. Ethical issues in the translation of social neuroscience: a policy analysis of current guidelines for public dialogue in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Emma; Racine, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Social neuroscience and its potential implications create an interesting case study for examining human research ethics policies on the topic of public communication of research. We reviewed mainstream national and international human research ethics guidelines and policies on issues of public communication of research. Our analysis relied on five thematic nets to capture the interactions between research and the public: public understanding, knowledge translation, public participation, social outcomes, and dual use. Coverage of these topics is sparse and inconsistent in mainstream policies and guidelines. We identify three options to address these gaps and analyze their strengths and weaknesses.

  11. https://cross-currents.berkeley.edu/e-journal/issue-11/glosser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Glosser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Back in the early 1980s, when I had the good luck to discover Chinese history, it was possible to read and keep up with everything published in English on the topic of women, family, gender, and sexuality in China. It has been a long time since anyone I know of could make that claim. In the late 1980s the field picked up momentum, and in the 1990s it seemed to expand exponentially. Gail Hershatter’s authoritative 2007 review of the post-1970 Anglophone literature on women in Chinese history, anthropology, politics, and sociology cited approximately 650 books and articles. A rough-and-ready search using those same parameters suggests that, since 2007, the reading list has grown by at least another 50 percent. A better sense of the overall size of Western scholarship on the field can be found in Robin Yates’s 2009 bibliography; it lists 2,500 books, articles, or chapters, and over one hundred dissertations. The range of topics and approaches runs the gamut. Angelina Chin’s and Margaret Kuo’s recently published histories are part of this fabulous profusion and could be connected in any number of ways to the genealogy of scholarship. Given the size of the field, this review will focus on one way in which American and European historiography on women, gender, and the family in the West has shaped our expectations of scholarship on these topics in China... Angelina Chin, Bound to Emancipate: Working Women and Urban Citizenship in Early Twentieth-Century China and Hong Kong. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2012. 302 pp. $85 (cloth/e-book. Margaret Kuo, Intolerable Cruelty: Marriage, Law, and Society in Early Twentieth-Century China. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2012. 252 pp. $75 (cloth/e-book.

  12. Current trends, innovations and issues in nursing education to cater for the bottom billion nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pek-Hong Lim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nurse education is undergoing a processof transition. Nurses worldwide are working towardsachievement of higher levels of education and trainingthrough an improved education system. Current trendsand innovations in nursing education are emerging toprepare more nurses and to deliver education to studentsacross geographical boundaries while taking intoconsideration their work and family responsibilities. Thecurrent trends and innovations in nursing educationrange from full time face-to-face interactions to distanceeducation programmes. Teaching approaches such asblended learning, online or e-Learning have providednurses with an avenue for continuing education fordevelopment and progression in their career pathways.Every nurse aspires to reach her highest potential. Whilethe current trends and innovations in nursing educationprovides the flexibility for nurses to continue learningand upgrade their professional qualifications, there areissues to be considered in catering to the needs of thebottom billion nurses. An exploration of related issueswill include views from different perspectives, such asthat of the institution/provider, instructor/facilitatorand student/learner involved in the development andimplementation of the related education programmes.

  13. Review of legal and institutional issues in the use of decentralized solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M.

    1980-04-01

    The legal and institutional issues involved in the use of decentralized solar energy systems are examined for the purpose of advising government planners and policymakers, the solar industry, solar researchers, and prospective solar users of present and potential impediments and incentives to solar commercialization. This information was gathered primarily through a comprehensive literature review, with supplementary data provided through interviews with representatives of organizations active in the solar field. Five major issue areas were identified in the course of this study: (1) prohibitions on the use of solar equipment, (2) regulation of the production and placement of solar systems, (3) access to sunlight, (4) financial incentives and impediments to the use of solar technologies, and (5) the public utility-solar user interface. Each can be important in its impacts on the incidence of solar usage. The major actors involved with the issues identified above represent both the private and public sectors. Important private sector participants include solar manufacturers and installers, labor unions, lending institutions, utility companies, solar users themselves, and other community property owners. In the public sector, local, state, and federal governments are all capable of acting in ways that can influence the solar commercialization effort. Implementation options are available for all levels of government seeking to take an active role in addressing the previously mentioned legal and institutional issues. The appropriate actions will vary from federal to state to local governments, but each level can be important in removing existing barriers and creating new incentives for solar use.

  14. Direct Current and Pulsed Direct Current Plasma Nitriding of Ferrous Materials a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łępicka Magdalena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the improvement of ferrous materials performance is a problem of high interest. One of well-known wear- and corrosion properties improving technique is plasma nitriding, in which elemental nitrogen is introduced to the surface of a metal part for subsequent diffusion into the material. As a result, a compound, “white” layer and a diffusion zone are formed at the detail’s surface. Most of the authors positively describe the effects of surface ion nitiding. On the other hand, there are also reports on adverse effects of direct current and pulsed direct current plasma nitriding on ferrous materials performance. Therefore, an attempt to provide comprehensive summary on direct current and pulsed direct current ion nitriding and its influence on ferrous materials’ mechanical and corrosion properties has been made. According to the results, some of the technique drawbacks are hard to avoid in mass production.

  15. TOPICAL REVIEW: Spin current, spin accumulation and spin Hall effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saburo Takahashi and Sadamichi Maekawa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlocal spin transport in nanostructured devices with ferromagnetic injector (F1 and detector (F2 electrodes connected to a normal conductor (N is studied. We reveal how the spin transport depends on interface resistance, electrode resistance, spin polarization and spin diffusion length, and obtain the conditions for efficient spin injection, spin accumulation and spin current in the device. It is demonstrated that the spin Hall effect is caused by spin–orbit scattering in nonmagnetic conductors and gives rise to the conversion between spin and charge currents in a nonlocal device. A method of evaluating spin–orbit coupling in nonmagnetic metals is proposed.

  16. Biomass Gasification - A synthesis of technical barriers and current research issues for deployment at large scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, Stefan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Liliedahl, Truls [KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Marklund, Magnus [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Thermal gasification at large scale for cogeneration of power and heat and/or production of fuels and materials is a main pathway for a sustainable deployment of biomass resources. However, so far no such full scale production exists and biomass gasification projects remain at the pilot or demonstration scale. This report focuses on the key critical technology challenges for the large-scale deployment of the following biomass-based gasification concepts: Direct Fluidized Bed Gasification (FBG), Entrained Flow Gasification (EFG) and indirect Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification (DFBG). The main content in this report is based on responses from a number of experts in biomass gasification obtained from a questionnaire. The survey was composed of a number of more or less specific questions on technical barriers as to the three gasification concepts considered. For formalising the questionnaire, the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL 1-9) was used for grading the level of technical maturity of the different sub-processes within the three generic biomass gasification technologies. For direct fluidized bed gasification (FBG) it is mentioned that the technology is already available at commercial scale as air-blown technology and thus that air-blown FBG gasification may be reckoned a mature technology. The remaining technical challenge is the conversion to operation on oxygen with the final goal of producing chemicals or transport fuels. Tar reduction, in particular, and gas cleaning and upgrading in general are by far the most frequently named technical issues considered problematic. Other important aspects are problems that may occur when operating on low-grade fuels - i.e. low-cost fuels. These problems include bed agglomeration/ash sintering as well as alkali fouling. Even the preparation and feeding of these low-grade fuels tend to be problematic and require further development to be used on a commercial scale. Furthermore, efficient char conversion is mentioned by

  17. Is freezing in the vaccine cold chain an ongoing issue? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Celina M; George, Anupa M; Sawadogo, Adama; Schreiber, Benjamin

    2017-04-19

    Vaccine exposure to temperatures below recommended ranges in the cold chain may decrease vaccine potency of freeze-sensitive vaccines leading to a loss of vaccine investments and potentially places children at risk of contracting vaccine preventable illnesses. This literature review is an update to one previously published in 2007 (Matthias et al., 2007), analyzing the prevalence of vaccine exposure to temperatures below recommendations throughout various segments of the cold chain. Overall, 45 studies included in this review assess temperature monitoring, of which 29 specifically assess 'too cold' temperatures. The storage segments alone were evaluated in 41 articles, 15 articles examined the transport segment and 4 studied outreach sessions. The sample size of the studies varied, ranging from one to 103 shipments and from three to 440 storage units. Among reviewed articles, the percentage of vaccine exposure to temperatures below recommended ranges during storage was 33% in wealthier countries and 37.1% in lower income countries. Vaccine exposure to temperatures below recommended ranges occurred during shipments in 38% of studies from higher income countries and 19.3% in lower income countries. This review highlights continuing issues of vaccine exposure to temperatures below recommended ranges during various segments of the cold chain. Studies monitoring the number of events vaccines are exposed to 'too cold' temperatures as well as the duration of these events are needed. Many reviewed studies emphasize the lack of knowledge of health workers regarding freeze damage of vaccines and how this has an effect on temperature monitoring. It is important to address this issue by educating vaccinators and cold chain staff to improve temperature maintenance and supply chain management, which will facilitate the distribution of potent vaccines to children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The issues of current rainfall estimation techniques in mountain natural multi-hazard investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei; Chen, Ningsheng; Wang, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Mountain hazards (e.g., landslides, debris flows, and floods) induced by rainfall are complex phenomena that require good knowledge of rainfall representation at different spatiotemporal scales. This study reveals rainfall estimation from gauges is rather unrepresentative over a large spatial area in mountain regions. As a result, the conventional practice of adopting the triggering threshold for hazard early warning purposes is insufficient. The main reason is because of the huge orographic influence on rainfall distribution. Modern rainfall estimation methods such as numerical weather prediction modelling and remote sensing utilising radar from the space or on land are able to provide spatially more representative rainfall information in mountain areas. But unlike rain gauges, they only indirectly provide rainfall measurements. Remote sensing suffers from many sources of errors such as weather conditions, attenuation and sampling methods, while numerical weather prediction models suffer from spatiotemporal and amplitude errors depending on the model physics, dynamics, and model configuration. A case study based on Sichuan, China is used to illustrate the significant difference among the three aforementioned rainfall estimation methods. We argue none of those methods can be relied on individually, and the challenge is on how to make the full utilisation of the three methods conjunctively because each of them only provides partial information. We propose that a data fusion approach should be adopted based on the Bayesian inference method. However such an approach requires the uncertainty information from all those estimation techniques which still need extensive research. We hope this study will raise the awareness of this important issue and highlight the knowledge gap that should be filled in so that such a challenging problem could be tackled collectively by the community.

  19. Non-inferiority clinical trials: Practical issues and current regulatory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep K Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-inferiority clinical trials are being performed with an increasing frequency now-a-days, because it helps in finding a new treatment that have approximately the same efficacy, but may offer other benefits such as better safety profile. Non-inferiority clinical trials aim to demonstrate that the test product is no worse than the comparator by more than a pre-specified small amount. There are several fundamental differences between non-inferiority and superiority trials. Some practical issues concerning the non-inferiority trials are assay sensitivity, choice of the non-inferiority margin, sample size estimation, choice of active-control, and analysis of non-inferiority clinical trials. For serious infections such as hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia, community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA has recently recommended that it is possible to define a reliable and consistent estimate of the efficacy of active treatment relative to placebo from available data, which can serve as the basis for defining a new inferiority margin for an active-controlled, non-inferiority trial. But for some indications with a high rate of resolution without antibacterial drug therapy such as acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (ABECB, and acute bacterial otitis media (ABOM, the US FDA has recommended that the available data will not support the use of a non-inferiority design and other trial designs (i.e., superiority designs should be used to provide the evidence of effectiveness in these three indications.

  20. European Cities Dealing with Climate Issues: Ideas and Tools for a Better Framing of Current Practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary cities have to deal with numerous challenges, from the growth and aging of urban populations to the scarcity of resources; from environmental degradation to climate change. The latter, also due to the increasing severity of climate-related impacts on urban areas, is widely considered one of the most urgent challenges for urban development in the near future: cities are the main contributors to energy consumption and GHG emissions, paying, at the same time, the highest price for the climate impacts. Thus, climate issues have gained increasing importance in the last decades, both in terms of the metaphors coined by scholars relative to urban future (low-carbon cities, transition cities, smart cities, resilient cities, etc. and in terms of the initiatives undertaken on different institutional levels. Unfortunately, mitigation and adaptation are generally regarded as two different approaches, neglecting the potential synergies and trade-offs between the related strategies. Hence, based on the growing awareness of the need for mainstreaming mitigation and adaptation policies at city level, this study will provide an overview of the state of the art of the mitigation and adaptation initiatives in Italian metropolitan cities. Then, focusing on the concepts of the “smart” and the “resilient” city – recognized as key concepts for reducing CO2 emissions and improving the ability of cities to respond to climate impacts – and with reference to a conceptual framework for building up a smart and resilient urban system carried out in previous research works (Papa et al., 2015, the study will examine case studies of the cities of Rotterdam and Barcelona, highlighting how this framework may improve our understanding and, above all, contribute to better integration of the fragmented on-going strategies and initiatives.