WorldWideScience

Sample records for current infirmary environment

  1. CERN Infirmary closed for building work

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Infirmary (Bldg 57, ground floor) will be closed from 11 December 2013 to 19 January 2014 due to building work.   A minimum service will be provided during this period by nurses and doctors, on the first floor of the Medical Service, bldg. 57. For any questions, please contact the nurses (73802) or the secretariat (73186 / 78435). Note: no complementary examination (audio, visiotest, EFR, etc.) will be possible. Thank you for your understanding and seasons greetings! Medical Service Team

  2. CERN Infirmary closed for building work

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Infirmary (Bldg 57, ground floor) will be closed from 11 December 2013 to 19 January 2014 due to building work.   A minimum service will be provided during this period by nurses and doctors, on the first floor of the Medical Service, bldg. 57. For any questions, please contact the nurses (73802) or the secretariat (73186 / 78435). Note: no complementary examination (audio, visiotest, EFR, etc.) will be possible. Thank you for your understanding and seasons greetings! Medical Service Team

  3. Post-campaign information from the Infirmary

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Service’s “TAKE YOUR BLOOD PRESSURE TO HEART” campaign, which ran from 24 to 27 March 2015 (see here), was a resounding success.   In total, 274 people visited the nurses at their pop-up clinics (in Building 40, Restaurants 2 and 3 and the Main Building) or at the Infirmary (Building 57). Each of them had their blood pressure measured and received information and advice about high blood pressure, its contributory factors and ways to control it. They were also offered various leaflets about this public health issue. We would like to draw attention to the fact that 21% of the participants were found to have abnormally high blood-pressure and, crucially, 72% of these had been unaware of the problem. Another point to note is that a significant proportion (16%) of the younger people tested (aged 18 to 30) had abnormal results. The results of this campaign demonstrate the importance of early screening, but also the high level of interest among the pers...

  4. Varsity Hall: The Infirmary at the University of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, William A.; Turner, James C.

    2008-01-01

    In the past 5 years, an important treasure for the field of college health was rediscovered and has been completely renovated. It is the original student infirmary, now called Varsity Hall, at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. Varsity Hall is a significant rediscovery for those who are interested in the history of college health. This…

  5. Environment protection: The current challenge in radioecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchignac, F.

    2012-04-01

    Radioecology, a multifaceted scientific discipline which addresses environmental issues relevant to radioprotection, has for a long time been focused on environmental transfers through the environment to feed the needs of human radioprotection. This quite anthropocentric initial scope is now moving to a more ecocentric view capable of assessing ecological risk mediated by ionising radiation. The central issue consists in reaching an ability to understand the effects of radiation on the environment components, from individual organisms up to populations of species and ecosystems, together with their interaction with the abiotic compartments. Dominated by operational goals, the system of radiological protection of the environment which is under development emphasises a concept based upon reference organisms supported by traditional toxicological data on individual organisms. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota), there are also clear limitations which need to be acknowledged and further considered. The most important probably is to rely on effects data gathered almost exclusively for individual organisms to meet protection goals which are usually set at population and ecosystem levels. Overcoming this limitation leads to scientific and methodological approaches featuring the ecosystem concept.

  6. Environment protection: The current challenge in radioecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bréchignac F.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Radioecology, a multifaceted scientific discipline which addresses environmental issues relevant to radioprotection, has for a long time been focused on environmental transfers through the environment to feed the needs of human radioprotection. This quite anthropocentric initial scope is now moving to a more ecocentric view capable of assessing ecological risk mediated by ionising radiation. The central issue consists in reaching an ability to understand the effects of radiation on the environment components, from individual organisms up to populations of species and ecosystems, together with their interaction with the abiotic compartments. Dominated by operational goals, the system of radiological protection of the environment which is under development emphasises a concept based upon reference organisms supported by traditional toxicological data on individual organisms. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota, there are also clear limitations which need to be acknowledged and further considered. The most important probably is to rely on effects data gathered almost exclusively for individual organisms to meet protection goals which are usually set at population and ecosystem levels. Overcoming this limitation leads to scientific and methodological approaches featuring the ecosystem concept.

  7. [The Sundholm infirmary. Management of disorders in individuals admitted to an institution for homeless persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütten, B T; Brandt, P

    1993-12-13

    The aim of this retrospective study was to describe diseases seen and treated at the infirmary at Sundholm, an institution for homeless people. In 1991 there were 124 admissions to the department. The problems treated were in 47 (37.9%) cases mainly related to alcohol abuse, in 26 (21%) cases medical or surgical diseases, in 12 (9.7%) drug abuse problems, in 10 (8.1%) psychoses and in five (4.0%) problems following crisis or trauma. In 24 (19.4%) admissions the health problems were due to various combinations of physical and psychiatric diseases and could not be classified further. In 96% of the admissions the patient was diagnosed as having one or more diagnosis concerning alcohol or drug abuse or major psychiatric disease. The infirmaries at the welfare homes in Denmark are a specialized alternative to more traditional treatment for the homeless.

  8. [Historic account of infirmary at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología "Ignacio Chávez"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo Díaz, Luz Pérez

    2007-01-01

    The historical process of the infirmary has had great evolution in Mexico its beginnings, in the professional order, have taken to a great height to the National Institute of Cardiology; in the year of 1944, the Dr. Ignacio Chávez had great vision and assertivity when considering to religious nurses to direct different services to it; they have been and are at the moment an essential piece to continue the evolution of infirmary in the National Institute of Cardiology. It is possible to mention that the historical way of the infirmary must to the effort of the group of nuns who have known to guide and to lead to the team of nurses of the Institute, promoting at any moment the quality of attention provided to the patients with cardiovascular affections.

  9. Current and emergent strategies for disinfection of hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Ana C; Tavares, Rafaela R; Borges, Anabela; Mergulhão, Filipe; Simões, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    A significant number of hospital-acquired infections occur due to inefficient disinfection of hospital surfaces, instruments and rooms. The emergence and wide spread of multiresistant forms of several microorganisms has led to a situation where few compounds are able to inhibit or kill the infectious agents. Several strategies to disinfect both clinical equipment and the environment are available, often involving the use of antimicrobial chemicals. More recently, investigations into gas plasma, antimicrobial surfaces and vapour systems have gained interest as promising alternatives to conventional disinfectants. This review provides updated information on the current and emergent disinfection strategies for clinical environments.

  10. Current understanding of organically bound tritium (OBT) in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Baglan, N; Davis, P A

    2013-12-01

    It has become increasingly recognized that organically bound tritium (OBT) is the more significant tritium fraction with respect to understanding tritium behaviour in the environment. There are many different terms associated with OBT; such as total OBT, exchangeable OBT, non-exchangeable OBT, soluble OBT, insoluble OBT, tritiated organics, and buried tritium, etc. A simple classification is required to clarify understanding within the tritium research community. Unlike for tritiated water (HTO), the environmental quantification and behaviour of OBT are not well known. Tritiated water cannot bio-accumulate in the environment. However, it is not clear whether or not this is the case for OBT. Even though OBT can be detected in terrestrial biological materials, aquatic biological materials and soil samples, its behaviour is still in question. In order to evaluate the radiation dose from OBT accurately, further study will be required to understand OBT measurements and determine OBT fate in the environment. The relationship between OBT speciation and the OBT/HTO ratio in environmental samples will be useful in this regard, providing information on the previous tritium exposure conditions in the environment and the current tritium dynamics. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Orbital exenteration: The 10-year Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, Sonali T; Lee, N Grace; Fay, Aaron; Lefebvre, Daniel R; Sutula, Francis C; Freitag, Suzanne K

    2016-08-01

    The authors report their experience with orbital exenteration surgery at one academic institution over a 10-year period and review the literature. This retrospective cohort study monitored outcomes of all patients who underwent orbital exenteration surgery at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary between January 2003 and January 2013. Patients with no follow-up data or survival data were excluded from the study. The main outcome measures were surgical complications, disease status of surgical margins, need for adjuvant treatment, local recurrence, metastases and survival. 23 patients with malignancy and 2 with mucormycosis met inclusion criteria for the study. Surgical procedures included non-lid sparing total exenteration (44%), lid-sparing total exenteration (32%), non-lid sparing partial exenteration (8%) and lid-sparing partial exenteration (16%). 44% underwent additional extra-orbital procedures. Survival rates were 72% at 1 year, 48% at 3 years, and 37% at 5 years. Of patients with malignancies, 48% had clear margins after exenteration. There was no statistically significant difference in survival between patients with negative surgical margins compared to positive margins (p = 0.12). Mortality was highest in patients with melanoma (85.7%) and lowest in patients with non-squamous cell lid malignancies (0%). Our study suggests that the type of disease has a much greater impact on the survival of patients undergoing exenteration surgery than the type of exenteration surgery or the disease status of surgical margins. Patients with non-squamous cell lid malignancies and localized orbital disease have the best prognosis for tumor eradication from this radical and highly disfiguring surgery.

  12. Microplastics in the marine environment: Current trends and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Luís Gabriel Antão; Gimenez, Barbara Carolina Garcia

    2015-08-15

    Over the last decade, the presence of microplastics on marine environments has become an important environmental concern and focus of interest of many researches. Thus, to provide a more integrated view of the research trends regarding this topic, we use a scientometric approach to systematically assess and quantify advances in knowledge related to microplastics in the marine environment. The papers that we used for our assessment were obtained from the database Thomson Reuters (ISI Web of Science), between 2004 and 2014. Our results reveal the overall research performance in the study area of microplastics present in the marine environment over the past decade as a newly developed research field. It has been recognized that there are several important issues that should be investigated. Toward that end, based on the suggested directions on all papers reviewed, we point out areas/topics of interest that may guide future work in the coming years.

  13. Gene-environment interactions and alcohol use and dependence: current status and future challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, C.S. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    To discuss the current status of gene-environment interaction research with regard to alcohol use and dependence. Further, we highlight the difficulties concerning gene-environment studies. Overview of the current evidence for gene-environment interactions in alcohol outcomes, and of the associated

  14. Josephson current through a molecular transistor in a dissipative environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novotny, T; Rossini, Gianpaolo; Flensberg, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    We study the Josephson coupling between two superconductors through a single correlated molecular level, including Coulomb interaction on the level and coupling to a bosonic environment. All calculations are done to the lowest, i.e., the fourth, order in the tunneling coupling and we find a suppr...

  15. Current automation environment of PETROBRAS offshore production units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, C.H.W.; Mendes, F.M.R.; Silva Filho, J.A.P.; Loureiro, P. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This paper aims to show the evolution of automation in PETROBRAS` off-shore production units during the last decade. It also displays the currently used standard architecture, describing the main aspects of each sub-system which is part of the entire automation system. The changes in PETROBRAS` purchasing policy, and their consequences, are also discussed. 2 figs.

  16. Radioprotection in the infirmary praxis in service of hemodynamic; Radioprotecao na praxis da enfermagem em servico de hemodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flor, Rita de Cassia, E-mail: flor@ifsc.edu.br; Gelbcke, Francine Lima, E-mail: fgelbcke@ccs.ufsc.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarinha (CCS/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Secretaria do Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Enfermagem

    2011-10-26

    Qualitative study made in a hemodynamic service at Santa Catarina, Brazil, viewing to analyse the attitude of workers in infirmary related to the use of radioprotection measurements in interventionist procedures. A methodology of Labor Psycho dynamics was used through the observations, collective interviews and the document analysis. Totally it was realized 36 encounters, completed a total of 54 observation hours. The results have shown that the workers used defense strategies for justification the not use of some radioprotection measurements. Yet, become evident that the measurements related to the distance from the radiation source and the exposure time have not used sometimes, perhaps due to negligence. Finally, it was concluded that, some attitudes adopted by the workers referred to the lack of a continued educational program

  17. Limitations of eddy current testing in a fast reactor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Bowler, John R.

    2016-02-01

    The feasibility of using eddy current probes for detecting flaws in fast nuclear reactor structures has been investigated with the aim of detecting defects immersed in electrically conductive coolant including under liquid sodium during standby. For the inspections to be viable, there is a need to use an encapsulated sensor system that can be move into position with the aid of visualization tools. The initial objective being to locate the surface to be investigated using, for example, a combination of electromagnetic sensors and sonar. Here we focus on one feature of the task in which eddy current probe impedance variations due to interaction with the external surface of a tube are evaluated in order to monitor the probe location and orientation during inspection.

  18. CURRENT ENVIRONMENT STATE OF COASTAL MARINE WATER OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Guseinova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We analysed current environmental state of the Dagestan coast of the Caspian Sea. Data on the spatial variability of contaminants in the coastal areas of the Dagestan segment of the Caspian Sea from the northern districts (Lopatin to the central (Sulak coastal land and, further, to the southern district (within Russian subsoil management confirm that it is caused by irregular contamination of the sea by above-ground sources. Location. Dagestan coastal area of the Caspian SeaMethods. Concentration analysis of background contamination of chemical agents in the Dagestan coastal water from northern districts (Lopatin to southern (Sulak coastal land during the period between 2004 and 2007.Results. Data on the spatial variability of contaminants in the coastal areas of the Dagestan segment of the Caspian Sea from the northern districts (Lopatin to the central (Sulak coastal land and, further, to the southern district (within Russian subsoil management confirm that it is caused by irregular contamination of the sea by above-ground sources.Main conclusions. The envisaged large-scale hydrocarbon resource development requires regular monitoring of sea currents on Makhachkala, Izberbash and Derbent roads.

  19. IS Audit Considerations in Respect of Current Economic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Svata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accountancy organizations, regulatory bodies, standard setters, and other international organizations have developed guidance, articles, frameworks and resources on issues related to the global financial crisis. Now there is a clear and widely accepted need for more rigorous governance over companies´ systems of internal control. Historically there exist many different activities aiming to support effective enterprise governance (legislative acts, best practices, standards, frameworks. But all these activities may have reinforced the already-existing focus on enterprise governance, but they did not necessarily bring clarity to the topic. Therefore we can currently notice some changes aiming to improve the adoption and adaptation of best practices and standards within the area of enterprise governance. The paper discusses the changes in the Enterprise Governance of IT/IS, audit/assurance evolution, and intended Cobit improvements.

  20. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and..., and other information helpful to assess the current research, policy, and practice environment in... Control and Prevention (CDC) has worked to integrate genomics into public health research, policy,...

  1. The current situation of impact of coal mine developing on environment in China and government proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yang [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Ministry of Land and Resources

    2005-07-01

    Current environmental problems caused by coal mining in China, the importance of management of the environment, impact of coal mining on land and water resources, and upcoming coal development are discussed. It is suggested that the government should act in two ways: take responsibility for management of reclamation of mines existing before 1986, and set up mechanisms to protect the environment, starting with the publishing of relevant laws and regulations. Methods for solving environmental issues include: prepare a practical plan, establish an environmental control fund, establish a special fund to protect the environment, and develop new ways to combine protection of the biological environment and land reclamation. 5 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Offshore produced water management: A review of current practice and challenges in harsh/Arctic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jisi; Chen, Bing; Thanyamanta, Worakanok; Hawboldt, Kelly; Zhang, Baiyu; Liu, Bo

    2016-03-15

    Increasing offshore oil and gas exploration and development in harsh/Arctic environments require more effective offshore produced water management, as these environments are much more sensitive to changes in water quality than more temperate climates. However, the number and scope of studies of offshore produced water management in harsh/Arctic environments are limited. This paper reviews the current state of offshore produced water management, impacts, and policies, as well as the vulnerability, implications and operational challenges in harsh/Arctic environments. The findings show that the primary contaminant(s) of concern are contained in both the dissolved oil and the dispersed oil. The application of emerging technologies that can tackle this issue is significantly limited by the challenges of offshore operations in harsh/Arctic environments. Therefore, there is a need to develop more efficient and suitable management systems since more stringent policies are being implemented due to the increased vulnerability of harsh/Arctic environments.

  3. A history of haemovigilance South Infirmary Victoria University Hospital 2000 - Present

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The Haemovigilance speciality defines itself as nursing and subscribes to the overall purpose, functions and ethical standards of nursing. The clinical practice role may be divided into direct and indirect care. Direct care comprises the assessment, planning, delivery and evaluation of care to patients. Indirect care relates to activities that influence others in their provision of direct care. The Haemovigilance Officer as a clinical professional in the Irish healthcare environment is required to maintain professional competency and this is achieved through continuous ongoing education and training, attending in-service study days, conferences locally and nationally. While attending various conferences numerous posters have been presented which have showcased the hospital’s work. Evidence of continuous professional development is contained in Appendix 1.\\r\

  4. Clinical compliance of viewing conditions in radiology reporting environments against current guidelines and standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, S.; Rainford, L.; Butler, M. L.

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the importance of environmental conditions in the radiology reporting environment, with many indicating that incorrect parameters could lead to error and misinterpretation. Literature is available with recommendations as to the levels that should be achieved in clinical practice, but evidence of adherence to these guidelines in radiology reporting environments is absent. This study audited the reporting environments of four teleradiologist and eight hospital based radiology reporting areas. This audit aimed to quantify adherence to guidelines and identify differences in the locations with respect to layout and design, monitor distance and angle as well as the ambient factors of the reporting environments. In line with international recommendations, an audit tool was designed to enquire in relation to the layout and design of reporting environments, monitor angle and distances used by radiologists when reporting, as well as the ambient factors such as noise, light and temperature. The review of conditions were carried out by the same independent auditor for consistency. The results obtained were compared against international standards and current research. Each radiology environment was given an overall compliance score to establish whether or not their environments were in line with recommended guidelines. Poor compliance to international recommendations and standards among radiology reporting environments was identified. Teleradiology reporting environments demonstrated greater compliance than hospital environments. The findings of this study identified a need for greater awareness of environmental and perceptual issues in the clinical setting. Further work involving a larger number of clinical centres is recommended.

  5. Effect of the electromagnetic environment on current fluctuations in driven tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Moritz; Grabert, Hermann

    2016-07-01

    We examine current fluctuations in tunnel junctions driven by a superposition of a constant and a sinusoidal voltage source. In standard setups, the external voltage is applied to the tunneling element via an impedance providing an electromagnetic environment of the junction. The modes of this environment are excited by the time-dependent voltage and are the source of Johnson-Nyquist noise. We determine the autocorrelation function of the current flowing in the leads of the junction in the weak tunneling limit up to terms of second order in the tunneling Hamiltonian. The driven modes of the electromagnetic environment are treated exactly by means of a unitary transformation introduced recently. Particular emphasis is placed on the spectral function of the current fluctuations. The spectrum is found to comprise three contributions: a term arising from the Johnson-Nyquist noise of the environmental impedance, a part due to the shot noise of the tunneling element, and a third contribution which comes from the cross correlation between fluctuations caused by the electromagnetic environment and fluctuations of the tunneling current. All three parts of the spectral function occur already for devices under dc bias. The spectral function of ac driven tunneling elements can be determined from the result for a dc bias by means of a photoassisted tunneling relation of the Tien-Gordon type. Specific results are given for an Ohmic environment and for a junction driven through a resonator.

  6. Estado nutricional de pacientes internados em enfermaria de gastroenterologia Nutritional status of patients undergoing treatment in gastroenterology infirmary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fany Govetri Sena

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a presença de desnutrição protéico-energética em pacientes hospitalizados, realizou-se um estudo com 57 doentes admitidos consecutivamente para internação na enfermaria de Gastroenterologia Clínica no período de dezembro de 1996 a junho de 1997. A maioria dos pacientes estudados era do sexo feminino (63,2% e as hepatopatias caracterizavam-se como doença predominante (77,2%, seguidas de enteropatias (10,5%, pancreatopatias (5,3%, gastropatias (3,5% e outras (3,5%. O estado nutricional foi avaliado objetivamente por meio de medidas antropométricas e bioquímicas e, subjetivamente, por meio de um questionário sistematizado por Detsky. Ambos os métodos foram realizados pelo mesmo observador. Verificou-se que 68,5% dos pacientes apresentavam estado nutricional aceitável, 21,0% desnutrição moderada e 10,5% desnutrição grave. Em vista dos resultados, pode-se concluir que é freqüente a ocorrência de desnutrição ou risco nutricional em doentes hospitalizados com doenças gastrintestinais, sendo que a detecção prévia da desnutrição protéico-energética é de grande importância para que uma terapia nutricional adequada seja oferecida ao paciente.The aim of this study was to diagnose Protein-Energy Malnutrition among 57 hospitalized patients admitted to a Gastroenterology infirmary for treatment from 12/96 to 6/97. The majority of these patients were women (63.2% and had hepatic diseases (77.2%. The rest of them had intestinal diseases (10.5%, pancreatic diseases (5.3%, stomach diseases (3.5% and others (3.5%. Nutritional status was objectively evaluated through anthropometry and laboratorial data and subjectively through the Detsky questionnaire. Both methods were done by the same observer. It was noticed that 68.5% of the patients had acceptable nutritional status, 21.0% moderate malnutrition and 10.5% severe malnutrition. By the results, it can be concluded that the occurrence of malnutrition or

  7. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF COSTS - THE MAIN TOOL OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORINA MICULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Both global and national hipercompetiţia and globalization are two phenomena that generate complexity and instability in the business. Therefore, the economic context in which organizations operate has changed a lot, the current environment characterized by globalization, increased competition, rapidly changing, market segmentation, changes in technology, demand volatility, the importance of information. These phenomena not only create a state of turmoil and turbulence in the competitive environment and generate changes in market conditions, but require changes and development in organizations. In these circumstances organizations worldwide are forced to adapt constantly, products and services to market needs to turn its attention to customer satisfaction, they need sophisticated production processes, internal processes flexible to respond quickly to changes environment.Therefore to achieve any competitive advantage, organizations must take the current economic environment strategies that integrate environmental opportunities, market and technology advantages in the most efficient way. In this context the question of modernization, the transformation cost information system, an adaptation to the realities and requirements of this, to change tools, processes and methods to meet current scientific and technical progress.

  8. Conductor of high electrical current at high temperature in oxygen and liquid metal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, IV, Adam Clayton; Pati, Soobhankar; Derezinski, Stephen Joseph; Lau, Garrett; Pal, Uday B.; Guan, Xiaofei; Gopalan, Srikanth

    2016-01-12

    In one aspect, the present invention is directed to apparatuses for and methods of conducting electrical current in an oxygen and liquid metal environment. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for production of metals from their oxides comprising providing a cathode in electrical contact with a molten electrolyte, providing a liquid metal anode separated from the cathode and the molten electrolyte by a solid oxygen ion conducting membrane, providing a current collector at the anode, and establishing a potential between the cathode and the anode.

  9. The average direct current offset values for small digital audio recorders in an acoustically consistent environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Bruce E; Lacey, Douglas S

    2014-07-01

    In this research project, nine small digital audio recorders were tested using five sets of 30-min recordings at all available recording modes, with consistent audio material, identical source and microphone locations, and identical acoustic environments. The averaged direct current (DC) offset values and standard deviations were measured for 30-sec and 1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, 10-, 15-, and 30-min segments. The research found an inverse association between segment lengths and the standard deviation values and that lengths beyond 30 min may not meaningfully reduce the standard deviation values. This research supports previous studies indicating that measured averaged DC offsets should only be used for exclusionary purposes in authenticity analyses and exhibit consistent values when the general acoustic environment and microphone/recorder configurations were held constant. Measured average DC offset values from exemplar recorders may not be directly comparable to those of submitted digital audio recordings without exactly duplicating the acoustic environment and microphone/recorder configurations.

  10. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Richard C. Thompson; Moore, Charles J.; Frederick S Vom Saal; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However...

  11. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However...

  12. North Atlantic Current and European environments during the declining stage of the last interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ulrich C.; Kukla, George J.

    2004-12-01

    This paper provides a tentative reconstruction of environmental shifts in Europe associated with changes of the North Atlantic Current and related meridional sea-surface temperature (SST) gradients. During most of the Eemian interglacial (ca. 126 115 ka), the North Atlantic Current extended far north into the Nordic Seas and European environments were comparable to those of the Holocene. However, ca. 115 ka an SST drop in the Nordic Seas marked a southward displacement of the North Atlantic Current. This hydrographic shift was associated with substantial cooling in northern Europe and drier conditions in the Mediterranean region. The polar timberline retreated southward from 69°N in northernmost Scandinavia to 52°N in central Europe, and thermophilous deciduous trees became extinct north of the 48th parallel. Woodlands persisted in southern Europe for another 5 k.y. well into marine isotope substage 5d. These conditions indicate steep vegetation and climate gradients at the inception of the last glacial.

  13. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements in coastal and estuarine environments: examples from the Tay Estuary, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewetzer, Silke F. K.; Duck, Robert W.; Anderson, James M.

    1999-08-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) provide a means to measure the components of water current velocities in three dimensions. Such instruments have been used widely by the oil industry in deep offshore waters but their application to nearshore coastal and estuarine environments has been principally confined to the USA. Using examples of ADCP datasets acquired from the macrotidal Tay Estuary, eastern Scotland, the principles of field deployment, data acquisition and forms of output are critically summarised. It is shown, for the first time in the Tay Estuary, that vertical current velocities are significant and are particularly so in downwelling zones associated with the development and passage of axially convergent tidal fronts. The improved understanding of three-dimensional water and suspended sediment dynamics in coastal and estuarine waters is crucial to, inter alia, the sustainable management of effluent discharges and, in more general terms, it is predicted on the basis of the Tay case study, that ADCP measurements afford significant opportunities to refine understanding of geomorphological processes in a variety of aquatic environments worldwide.

  14. Review of current activities to model and measure the orbital debris environment in low-earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R. C.

    A very active orbital debris program is currently being pursued at the NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC), with projects designed to better define the current environment, to project future environments, to model the processes contributing to or constraining the growth of debris in the environment, and to gather supporting data needed to improve the understanding of the orbital debris problem and the hazard it presents to spacecraft. This paper is a review of the activity being conducted at JSC, by NASA, Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Company, and other support contractors, and presents a review of current activity, results of current research, and a discussion of directions for future development.

  15. HIGH-RESOLUTION MONITORING OF CURRENT RAPID TRANSFORMATIONS ON GLACIAL AND PERIGLACIAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Carturan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glacial and periglacial environments are highly sensitive to climatic changes. Processes of cryosphere degradation may strongly impact human activities and infrastructures, and need to be monitored for improved understanding and for mitigation/adaptation. Studying glacial and periglacial environments using traditional techniques may be difficult or not feasible, but new remote sensing techniques like terrestrial and aerial laser scanner opened new possibilities for cryospheric studies. This work presents an application of the terrestrial laser scanner (TLS for monitoring the current rapid changes occurring on the Montasio Occidentale glacier (Eastern Italian alps, which is representative of low-altitude, avalanche-fed and debris-cover glaciers. These glaciers are quite common in the Alps but their reaction to climate changes is still poorly known. The mass balance, surface velocity fields, debris cover dynamics and effects of meteorological extremes were investigated by repeat high-resolution TLS scanning from September 2010 to October 2012. The results were encouraging and shed light on the peculiar response of this glacier to climatic changes, on its current dynamics and on the feedback played by the debris cover, which is critical for its preservation. The rapid transformations in act, combined with the unstable ice mass, large amount of loose debris and channeled runoff during intense rainfalls, constitute a potential area for the formation of large debris flows, as shown by field evidences and documented by the recent literature.

  16. The significance of personal learning environments (PLEs) in nursing education: Extending current conceptualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Christopher; Stephens, Moira; Chiang, Vico; Price, Ann M; Work, Fiona; Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna

    2017-01-01

    Personal learning environments (PLEs) have been shown to be a critical part of how students negotiate and manage their own learning. Understandings of PLEs appear to be constrained by narrow definitions that focus primarily on technological engagement with a range of web tools and associated applications. This paper addresses a gap in the literature around PLEs for students currently enrolled in undergraduate nursing degrees. To provide in-depth insights into how undergraduate students of nursing manage and experience their learning. This was an international multi-site qualitative study, utilizing focus groups. A schedule of 10 questions and nominal group techniques were used. Whilst the focus groups took place in very different geographical locations, there were strong similarities in student understandings of effective PLEs. These went well beyond current technological definitions. Findings were organized into three major themes; technologies, learning modalities and influencing factors. We propose a broader understanding of PLEs that acknowledges individual personal and cultural contexts which we call the personally significant learning environment (PSLE). There is a need for greater investigation of how students understand and systematize their PSLE. This paper and our findings will be of interest to educators, researchers and institutions for developing appropriate frameworks that may maximize learning outcomes, encourage cultural sensitivities and facilitate greater understandings of how to support students to create appropriate PSLEs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S; Swan, Shanna H

    2009-07-27

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  18. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  19. Extreme Environment Simulation - Current and New Capabilities to Simulate Venus and Other Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremic, Tibor; Vento, Dan; Lalli, Nick; Palinski, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Science, technology, and planetary mission communities have a growing interest in components and systems that are capable of working in extreme (high) temperature and pressure conditions. Terrestrial applications range from scientific research, aerospace, defense, automotive systems, energy storage and power distribution, deep mining and others. As the target environments get increasingly extreme, capabilities to develop and test the sensors and systems designed to operate in such environments will be required. An application of particular importance to the planetary science community is the ability for a robotic lander to survive on the Venus surface where pressures are nearly 100 times that of Earth and temperatures approach 500C. The scientific importance and relevance of Venus missions are stated in the current Planetary Decadal Survey. Further, several missions to Venus were proposed in the most recent Discovery call. Despite this interest, the ability to accurately simulate Venus conditions at a scale that can test and validate instruments and spacecraft systems and accurately simulate the Venus atmosphere has been lacking. This paper discusses and compares the capabilities that are known to exist within and outside the United States to simulate the extreme environmental conditions found in terrestrial or planetary surfaces including the Venus atmosphere and surface. The paper then focuses on discussing the recent additional capability found in the NASA Glenn Extreme Environment Rig (GEER). The GEER, located at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, is designed to simulate not only the temperature and pressure extremes described, but can also accurately reproduce the atmospheric compositions of bodies in the solar system including those with acidic and hazardous elements. GEER capabilities and characteristics are described along with operational considerations relevant to potential users. The paper presents initial operating results and concludes

  20. Optical Estimation of Depth and Current in a Ebb Tidal Delta Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, R. A.; Stanley, J.

    2012-12-01

    A key limitation to our ability to make nearshore environmental predictions is the difficulty of obtaining up-to-date bathymetry measurements at a reasonable cost and frequency. Due to the high cost and complex logistics of in-situ methods, research into remote sensing approaches has been steady and has finally yielded fairly robust methods like the cBathy algorithm for optical Argus data that show good performance on simple barred beach profiles and near immunity to noise and signal problems. In May, 2012, data were collected in a more complex ebb tidal delta environment during the RIVET field experiment at New River Inlet, NC. The presence of strong reversing tidal currents led to significant errors in cBathy depths that were phase-locked to the tide. In this paper we will test methods for the robust estimation of both depths and vector currents in a tidal delta domain. In contrast to previous Fourier methods, wavenumber estimation in cBathy can be done on small enough scales to resolve interesting nearshore features.

  1. Evolutionary Psychology: How Psychological Mechanisms Shaped by Natural Selection for Ancestral Environments Produce Current Behaviours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles Crawford

    2009-01-01

    The central purpose of this paper is to explain how Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection can be used in understanding current human behaviour. First, Darwin's logic is briefly described. Development is an important issue when applying evolutionary theory to human behaviour. The notion of innate developmental orga-nization of psychological mechanisms is introduced. The possible social and political outcomes produced when differ-ent levels of innate developmental organization are paired with different beliefs about it are considered. The notion of psychological mechanisms as evolved adaptations is considered in some detail. Then I discuss different ways evo-htionists think about how genes are involved in the development of adaptations. The paper concludes with a frame-work for considering how ancestral adaptations function in current environments and outlines some ways of studying them. In China and many other parts of the world people desire a more harmonious society. Ⅰ hope that this paper will be of some small help in achieving this great task.

  2. The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current activities and future key tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylich, A. A.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Decaulne, A.

    2012-04-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G./A.I.G.)SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme was formed in 2005 to address this existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD currently has about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from eight different countries: Achim A. Beylich (Chair) (Norway), Armelle Decaulne (Secretary) (France), John C. Dixon (USA), Scott F. Lamoureux (Vice-Chair) (Canada), John F. Orwin (Canada), Jan-Christoph Otto (Austria), Irina Overeem (USA), Thorsteinn Saemundsson (Iceland), Jeff Warburton (UK), Zbigniew Zwolinski (Poland). The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Initially formed as European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (2004-2006), SEDIBUD has further expanded to a global group of researchers with field research sites located in polar and alpine regions in the northern and southern hemisphere. Research carried out at each of the close to 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by programme, logistics and available resources, but typically represent interdisciplinary collaborations of

  3. On-line monitoring of base current and forward emitter current gain of the voltage regulator's serial pnp transistor in a radiation environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of on-line monitoring of the low-dropout voltage regulator's operation in a radiation environment is developed in this paper. The method had to enable detection of the circuit's degradation during exploitation, without terminating its operation in an ionizing radiation field. Moreover, it had to enable automatic measurement and data collection, as well as the detection of any considerable degradation, well before the monitored voltage regulator's malfunction. The principal parameters of the voltage regulator's operation that were monitored were the serial pnp transistor's base current and the forward emitter current gain. These parameters were procured indirectly, from the data on the voltage regulator's load and quiescent currents. Since the internal consumption current in moderately and heavily loaded devices was used, the quiescent current of a negligibly loaded voltage regulator of the same type served as a reference. Results acquired by on-line monitoring demonstrated marked agreement with the results acquired from examinations of the voltage regulator's maximum output current and minimum dropout voltage in a radiation environment. The results were particularly consistent in tests with heavily loaded devices. Results obtained for moderately loaded voltage regulators and the risks accompanying the application of the presented method, were also analyzed.

  4. Are current atomistic force fields accurate enough to study proteins in crowded environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drazen Petrov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of macromolecules in the crowded cellular interior influences different thermodynamic and kinetic properties of proteins, including their structural stabilities, intermolecular binding affinities and enzymatic rates. Moreover, various structural biology methods, such as NMR or different spectroscopies, typically involve samples with relatively high protein concentration. Due to large sampling requirements, however, the accuracy of classical molecular dynamics (MD simulations in capturing protein behavior at high concentration still remains largely untested. Here, we use explicit-solvent MD simulations and a total of 6.4 µs of simulated time to study wild-type (folded and oxidatively damaged (unfolded forms of villin headpiece at 6 mM and 9.2 mM protein concentration. We first perform an exhaustive set of simulations with multiple protein molecules in the simulation box using GROMOS 45a3 and 54a7 force fields together with different types of electrostatics treatment and solution ionic strengths. Surprisingly, the two villin headpiece variants exhibit similar aggregation behavior, despite the fact that their estimated aggregation propensities markedly differ. Importantly, regardless of the simulation protocol applied, wild-type villin headpiece consistently aggregates even under conditions at which it is experimentally known to be soluble. We demonstrate that aggregation is accompanied by a large decrease in the total potential energy, with not only hydrophobic, but also polar residues and backbone contributing substantially. The same effect is directly observed for two other major atomistic force fields (AMBER99SB-ILDN and CHARMM22-CMAP as well as indirectly shown for additional two (AMBER94, OPLS-AAL, and is possibly due to a general overestimation of the potential energy of protein-protein interactions at the expense of water-water and water-protein interactions. Overall, our results suggest that current MD force fields

  5. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  6. Current understanding of microplastics in the environment: Occurrence, fate, risks, and what we should do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinping; Wang, Jundong; Cai, Liqi

    2017-05-01

    Microplastics pollution has been documented in the global environment, including at sea, in freshwater and in atmospheric fallout. Ingestion of microplastics by multiple kinds of organisms has been reported and has received increasing attention, because microplastics not only act as a source of toxic chemicals but also a sink for toxic chemicals. To better understand the great concerns about microplastics and associated toxic chemicals potential exposed to the organisms ingesting the debris, we should know more about the occurrence, fate, and risks of microplastics in the environment. What we should do depends on this better understanding. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:476-482. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  7. Survival in extreme environments – on the current knowledge of adaptations in tardigrades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Jørgensen, Aslak

    2011-01-01

    of the tardigrades and highlight species that are currently used as models for physiological and molecular investigations. Tardigrades are uniquely adapted to a range of environmental extremes. Cryptobiosis, currently referred to as a reversible ametabolic state induced by e.g. desiccation, is common especially...... to below )20 C, presumably relying on efficient DNA repair mechanisms and osmoregulation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on adaptations found among tardigrades, and presents new data on tardigrade cell numbers and osmoregulation....

  8. An Assessment of the Current LEO Debris Environment and the Need for Active Debris Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2010-01-01

    The anti-satellite test on the Fengun-1 C weather satellite in early 2007 and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009 dramatically altered the landscape of the human-made orbital debris environment in the low Earth orbit (LEO). The two events generated approximately 5500 fragments large enough to be tracked by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network. Those fragments account for more than 60% increase to the debris population in LEO. However, even before the ASAT test, model analyses already indicated that the debris population (for those larger than 10 cm) in LEO had reached a point where the population would continue to increase, due to collisions among existing objects, even without any future launches. The conclusion implies that as satellites continue to be launched and unexpected breakup events continue to occur, commonly-adopted mitigation measures will not be able to stop the collision-driven population growth. To remediate the debris environment in LEO, active debris removal must be considered. This presentation will provide an updated assessment of the debris environment after the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 collision, an analysis of several future environment projections based on different scenarios, and a projection of collision activities in LEO in the near future. The need to use active debris removal to stabilize future debris environment will be demonstrated and the effectiveness of various active debris removal strategies will be quantified.

  9. Microplastics in freshwater and terrestrial environments: Evaluating the current understanding to identify the knowledge gaps and future research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Alice A; Walton, Alexander; Spurgeon, David J; Lahive, Elma; Svendsen, Claus

    2017-05-15

    Plastic debris is an environmentally persistent and complex contaminant of increasing concern. Understanding the sources, abundance and composition of microplastics present in the environment is a huge challenge due to the fact that hundreds of millions of tonnes of plastic material is manufactured for societal use annually, some of which is released to the environment. The majority of microplastics research to date has focussed on the marine environment. Although freshwater and terrestrial environments are recognised as origins and transport pathways of plastics to the oceans, there is still a comparative lack of knowledge about these environmental compartments. It is highly likely that microplastics will accumulate within continental environments, especially in areas of high anthropogenic influence such as agricultural or urban areas. This review critically evaluates the current literature on the presence, behaviour and fate of microplastics in freshwater and terrestrial environments and, where appropriate, also draws on relevant studies from other fields including nanotechnology, agriculture and waste management. Furthermore, we evaluate the relevant biological and chemical information from the substantial body of marine microplastic literature, determining the applicability and comparability of this data to freshwater and terrestrial systems. With the evidence presented, the authors have set out the current state of the knowledge, and identified the key gaps. These include the volume and composition of microplastics entering the environment, behaviour and fate of microplastics under a variety of environmental conditions and how characteristics of microplastics influence their toxicity. Given the technical challenges surrounding microplastics research, it is especially important that future studies develop standardised techniques to allow for comparability of data. The identification of these research needs will help inform the design of future studies, to

  10. The SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) - An Overview of its Architecture and Current Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Minster, B.; Moore, R.; Kesselman, C.; SCEC ITR Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), in collaboration with the San Diego Supercomputer Center, the USC Information Sciences Institute, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, and the U.S. Geological Survey, is developing the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Modeling Environment (CME) under a five-year grant from the National Science Foundation's Information Technology Research (ITR) Program jointly funded by the Geosciences and Computer and Information Science & Engineering Directorates. The CME system is an integrated geophysical simulation modeling framework that automates the process of selecting, configuring, and executing models of earthquake systems. During the Project's first three years, we have performed fundamental geophysical and information technology research and have also developed substantial system capabilities, software tools, and data collections that can help scientist perform systems-level earthquake science. The CME system provides collaborative tools to facilitate distributed research and development. These collaborative tools are primarily communication tools, providing researchers with access to information in ways that are convenient and useful. The CME system provides collaborators with access to significant computing and storage resources. The computing resources of the Project include in-house servers, Project allocations on USC High Performance Computing Linux Cluster, as well as allocations on NPACI Supercomputers and the TeraGrid. The CME system provides access to SCEC community geophysical models such as the Community Velocity Model, Community Fault Model, Community Crustal Motion Model, and the Community Block Model. The organizations that develop these models often provide access to them so it is not necessary to use the CME system to access these models. However, in some cases, the CME system supplements the SCEC community models with utility codes that make it easier to use or access

  11. Vulnerability of the Barents Sea environment to climate changes: a review of the current assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfan, A.; Danilov-Danilyan, V.

    2009-07-15

    Authors' conclusion: Climate change is not considered to be just 'one more stress' on the ecosystem, but rather it will create complex and dynamic changes in the environment that may alter the level of its vulnerability. Cumulative effects can be defined as changes to the environment that are caused by an action in combination with other past, present and future human actions (Environment Canada 2003). The magnitude and effects of multiple stresses can be equal to the sum of the individual effects (additive effects) or they may strengthen or weaken each other (positive or negative feedbacks). To understand complex interactions within the system atmosphere-land surface-ocean at regional scales and to assess influence of the environmental changes on the ecological conditions, sophisticated models should be developed allowing to account for regional peculiarities of these systems. Development of such models is considered as one of the main challenge of the Earth system science. (author)

  12. Current views of health care design and construction: practical implications for safer, cleaner environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Judene M; Olmsted, Russell N; Haas, Janet

    2010-06-01

    Infection preventionists (IP) play an increasingly important role in preventing health care-associated infection in the physical environment associated with new construction or renovation of health care facilities. The Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospital and Healthcare Facilities, 2010, formerly known as "AIA Guidelines" was the origin of the "infection control risk assessment" now required by multiple agencies. These Guidelines represent minimum US health care standards and provide guidance on best practices. They recognize that the built environment has a profound affect on health and the natural environment and require that health care facilities be designed to "first, do no harm." This review uses the Guidelines as a blueprint for IPs' role in design and construction, updating familiar concepts to the 2010 edition with special emphasis on IP input into design given its longer range impact on health care-associated infection prevention while linking to safety and sustainability. Section I provides an overview of disease transmission risks from the built environment and related costs, section II presents a broad view of design and master planning, and section III addresses the detailed design strategies for infection prevention specifically addressed in the 2010 Facility Guidelines Institute edition.

  13. Implications of Current Reference Structures for Authority Work in Online Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark R.; Taylor, Arlene G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a study which examined (1) the percentage of personal and corporate name authority records in the Library of Congress authority file that do not contain any references, and (2) the percentage of references present on existing authority records that are not needed in an automatic right hand truncation, keyword searching environment. (CLB)

  14. Gene-Environment Interactions in Genome-Wide Association Studies: Current Approaches and New Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Stacey J.; Biernacka, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Complex psychiatric traits have long been thought to be the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and gene-environment interactions are thought to play a crucial role in behavioral phenotypes and the susceptibility and progression of psychiatric disorders. Candidate gene studies to investigate hypothesized…

  15. Plasma environment during hot cathode direct current discharge plasma chemical vapor deposition of diamond films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓东; 詹如娟; 周海洋; 胡敏; 温晓辉; 周贵恩; 李凡庆

    1999-01-01

    The plasma characteristics have been investigated in situ by using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and the Langmuir probe during hot cathode direct current discharge plasma chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The changes of atomic H and CH radical in the ground state have been calculated quantitatively according to the results of OES and the Langmuir probe measurement as discharge current density varied. It is shown that atomic H and CH radicals both in the ground state and in the excited state increase with the enhancement of the discharge current density in the plasma. The electron density and CH emission intensity increase linearly with the enhancement of discharge current densities. The generation of different carbon-containing radicals is related to the elevation of electron temperature. Combining the growth process of diamond films and the diagnostic results, it is shown that atomic H in the excited state may improve the diamond growth efficiently, and the increase of electron temperat

  16. Analysis of the PPBE Process in the Current Dynamic Political Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Complicated/ expensive systems - Business practices Legal - USA Patriot Act - Military prison scandals - CIA leak probe (Plume Affair) - Enron , Tyco...54 such as Enron , Tyco and WorldCom were prosecuted and received prison sentences for the roles they played in these scandals .114 These...of the author aided in shaping the environment. DoD Political -Vietnam War -Kennedy Assassination -Great Society Initiatives -Watergate Scandal

  17. Design Rework Prediction in Concurrent Design Environment: Current Trends and Future Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Arundachawat, Panumas; Roy, Rajkumar; Al-Ashaab, Ahmed; Shehab, Essam

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to present state-of-the-art and formulate future research areas on design rework in concurrent design environment. Related literatures are analysed to extract the key factors which impact design rework. Design rework occurs due to changes from upstream design activities and/or by feedbacks from downstream design activities. Design rework is considered as negative iteration; therefore, value in design activities will be increased if design rework is reduced. Set-bas...

  18. Do biological medicinal products pose a risk to the environment?: a current view on ecopharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühler, Thomas C; Andersson, Mikael; Carlin, Gunnar; Johnsson, Ann; Akerblom, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of active pharmaceutical substances in the environment is of growing concern. The vast majority of the compounds in question are of low molecular weight, intended for oral use and designed to tolerate, for example, the digestive enzymes in the upper alimentary tract, the harsh milieus found in the acidic stomach, or the microbe rich intestine. Accordingly, these xenobiotic compounds may, due to their inherent biological activity, constitute a risk to the environment. Biological medicinal products, for example recombinant human insulin or monoclonal antibodies, however, are different. They are primarily made up of oligomers or polymers of amino acids, sugars or nucleotides and are thus readily metabolized. They are therefore generally not considered to pose any risk to the environment. Certain classes of biological medicinal products, however, are associated with specific safety issues. Genetically modified organisms as vectors in vaccines or in gene therapy products have attracted much attention in this regard. Issues include the degree of attenuation of the live recombinant vaccine, replication restrictions of the vaccine vector, alteration of the host and tissue tropism of the vector, the possibility of reversion to virulence, and risk to the ecosystem. In this review we discuss the fate and the potential environmental impact of biological medicinal products following clinical use from an ecopharmacovigilance point of view, and review relevant policy documents and regulatory statements.

  19. Responding to biological incidents--what are the current issues in remediation of the contaminated environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottage, T; Goode, E; Wyke, S; Bennett, A M

    2014-11-01

    Since 2000 there have been a number of biological incidents resulting in environmental contamination with Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. These incidents include the US anthrax attacks in 2001, the US and UK drumming incidents in 2006-2008 and more recently, anthrax contamination of heroin in 2009/2010 and 2012/2013. Remediation techniques used to return environments to normal have varied between incidents, with different decontamination technologies being employed. Many factors need to be considered before a remediation strategy or recovery option can be implemented, including; cost, time (length of application), public perception of risk, and sampling strategies (and results) to name a few. These incidents have demonstrated that consolidated guidance for remediating biologically contaminated environments in the aftermath of a biological incident was required. The UK Recovery Handbook for Biological Incidents (UKRHBI) is a project led by Public Health England (PHE), formerly the Health Protection Agency (HPA) to provide guidance and advice on how to remediate the environment following a biological incident or outbreak of infection, and is expected to be published in 2015. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Leakage Current Phenomenon on Ceramics and Epoxy Resin as 20 kV Outdoor Insulator at Tropical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdi Rizki Yandri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the research results of  leakage current, hydrophobicity and flashover voltage comparison on ceramics and epoxy  resin 20 kV outdoor insulator in a  chamber at tropical climate conditions. The waveform of leakage current (LC was measured using a digital oscilloscope. The digital data was transferred to a personal computer using a RS-232 cable. The digital data was analyzed using Fast Fourier Transform. The result showed that LC was affected by various environment conditions like temperature, humidity and pollution. LC of ceramics insulator was higher than epoxy resin insulator in low temperature, high humidity and high pollution condition.

  1. Monitoring DC stray current interference of steel sheet pile structures in railway environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Steel structures near DC powered railways are expected to be affected by stray current interference. This causes accelerated corrosion rates. Therefore steel is often not used as a building material in these cases, although certain advantages over the alternative material concrete exist. These

  2. Evaluation of current state of agricultural land using problem-oriented fuzzy indicators in GIS environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current state of agricultural lands is defined under influence of processes in soil, plants and atmosphere and is described by observation data, complicated models and subjective opinion of experts. Problem-oriented indicators summarize this information in useful form for decision of the same specif...

  3. Monitoring DC stray current interference of steel sheet pile structures in railway environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Steel structures near DC powered railways are expected to be affected by stray current interference. This causes accelerated corrosion rates. Therefore steel is often not used as a building material in these cases, although certain advantages over the alternative material concrete exist. These advan

  4. Shifting Currents: Science Technology Society and Environment in Northern Ontario Schools

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The focus is on the practices of secondary science teachers in rural, resource-extraction-based communities in the boreal region of northern Ontario, Canada. In 2008 the Ontario Ministry of Education mandated that science teaching and learning should bring to the forefront consideration of the impacts of science on society and environment, and include environmental education; topics that are particularly pertinent given the location(s) of the study in logging and mining towns. Three years aft...

  5. Biotemplated materials for sustainable energy and environment: current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2011-10-17

    Materials science will play a key role in the further development of emerging solutions for the increasing problems of energy and environment. Materials found in nature have many inspiring structures, such as hierarchical organizations, periodic architectures, or nanostructures, that endow them with amazing functions, such as energy harvesting and conversion, antireflection, structural coloration, superhydrophobicity, and biological self-assembly. Biotemplating is an effective strategy to obtain morphology-controllable materials with structural specificity, complexity, and related unique functions. Herein, we highlight the synthesis and application of biotemplated materials for six key areas of energy and environment technologies, namely, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution, CO(2) reduction, solar cells, lithium-ion batteries, photocatalytic degradation, and gas/vapor sensing. Although the applications differ from each other, a common fundamental challenge is to realize optimum structures for improved performances. We highlight the role of four typical structures derived from biological systems exploited to optimize properties: hierarchical (porous) structures, periodic (porous) structures, hollow structures, and nanostructures. We also provide examples of using biogenic elements (e.g., C, Si, N, I, P, S) for the creation of active materials. Finally, we disscuss the challenges of achieving the desired performance for large-scale commercial applications and provide some useful prototypes from nature for the biomimetic design of new materials or systems. The emphasis is mainly focused on the structural effects and compositional utilization of biotemplated materials. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Geared induction motor fault diagnosis by current, noise and vibration considering measurement environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Seok Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lots of motors have been being used in industry. Therefore many studies have been carried out about the failure diagnosis of motors. In this paper, a diagnosis of gear fault connected to a motor shaft is studied. The fault diagnosis is executed through the comparison of normal gear and abnormal gear. In the abnormal gearbox, a tooth of the intermediate gear is damaged. The measured FFT data are compared with the normal data and analyzed for q-axis current, noise and vibration. Fault gear was found by comparing the FFT with normal FFT. From these, the difference between the normal and abnormal states can be seen by the frequency characteristic analysis for the current as well as noise and vibration.

  7. Survival in extreme environments - on the current knowledge of adaptations in tardigrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møbjerg, N; Halberg, K A; Jørgensen, A; Persson, D; Bjørn, M; Ramløv, H; Kristensen, R M

    2011-07-01

    Tardigrades are microscopic animals found worldwide in aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystems. They belong to the invertebrate superclade Ecdysozoa, as do the two major invertebrate model organisms: Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. We present a brief description of the tardigrades and highlight species that are currently used as models for physiological and molecular investigations. Tardigrades are uniquely adapted to a range of environmental extremes. Cryptobiosis, currently referred to as a reversible ametabolic state induced by e.g. desiccation, is common especially among limno-terrestrial species. It has been shown that the entry and exit of cryptobiosis may involve synthesis of bioprotectants in the form of selective carbohydrates and proteins as well as high levels of antioxidant enzymes and other free radical scavengers. However, at present a general scheme of mechanisms explaining this phenomenon is lacking. Importantly, recent research has shown that tardigrades even in their active states may be extremely tolerant to environmental stress, handling extreme levels of ionizing radiation, large fluctuation in external salinity and avoiding freezing by supercooling to below -20 °C, presumably relying on efficient DNA repair mechanisms and osmoregulation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on adaptations found among tardigrades, and presents new data on tardigrade cell numbers and osmoregulation.

  8. Gravity Currents: In the Environment and the Laboratory, Ellis Horwood Series in Environmental Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csanady, G. T.

    There are books and courses on experimental physics, thorough and rigorous, which contain only simple formulae and use only elementary algebra. The subject is explained in lucid and precise language, with the help of many sketches, photos, and diagrams. The book under review belongs to this genre and is in fact one of its most successful members.About half of the book is devoted to the description of a variety of natural phenomena in which gravity currents play an important role. The class of gravity currents is taken to be quite broad, to include almost any kind of quasi-horizontal motion caused by density differences. The range of natural phenomena surveyed is correspondingly great, from tidal bores through thunderstorms to the eruption of Mount St. Helens. The atmospheric examples are especially thorough and interesting. The broad panorama certainly brings home to the reader the many ways in which fluids (including fluidized rock) can move under the influence of gravity. However, not all of the examples show typical gravity behavior, nor are they all treated with equal thoroughness. The Gulf Stream is mentioned, and the variability of its position is shown in an illustration, but this is not connected with anything typical of gravity currents, nor is the important interplay between Earth rotation and such large-scale “gravity currents” (if one insists on calling them that) at all adequately explained.

  9. Staying Relevant and Current with Online Learning in an Increasingly Global and Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Lynch

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the success of online learning in the workplace with corporate partners through Open Universities Australia (OUA. OUA is recognized as the national leader in online higher education in Australia with over 200,000 students studying with OUA since 1993. The corporate program helps employees formalize or extend their current skills, reach the next level in their organization or pursue relevant interests through tertiary studies. The business sector sees OUA as a highly attractive solution to fostering a culture of professional development, engagement and inclusiveness.

  10. Method for transferring data between at least one lagrangian buoy for measuring currents for ocean and costal environments and a base station, and lagrangian buoy for measuring currents for ocean and costal environments

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Ledesma, Miquel; Álvarez, Alberto; Vizoso, Guillermo; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    [EN] Method for transferring data between at least one lagrangian buoy for measuring currents for ocean and coastal environments and a base station, which comprises capturing data by the buoy by means of the parameter-measuring sensors and the GPS receiver and storing said data in a first file which is segmented into packets of a maximum length defined by the SBD Iridium protocol for the subsequent sending thereof to the base station. The invention also relates to the lagrangian buoy for meas...

  11. The Impact of Neighborhood Social and Built Environment Factors across the Cancer Continuum: Current Research, Methodologic Considerations, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Shariff-Marco, Salma; De Rouen, Mindy; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Yen, Irene H.; Mujahid, Mahasin; Satariano, William A.; Glaser, Sally L.

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhood social and built environments have been recognized as important contexts in which health is shaped. We review the extent to which these neighborhood factors have been addressed in population-level cancer research, with a scan of the literature for research that focuses on specific social and/or built environment characteristics and association with outcomes across the cancer continuum, including incidence, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, and survival. We discuss commonalities and differences in methodologies across studies, current challenges in research methodology, and future directions in this research area. The assessment of social and built environment factors in relation to cancer is a relatively new field, with 82% of 34 reviewed papers published since 2010. Across the wide range of social and built environment exposures and cancer outcomes considered by the studies, numerous associations were reported. However, the directions and magnitudes of association varied, due in large part to the variation in cancer sites and outcomes being studied, but also likely due to differences in study populations, geographical region, and, importantly, choice of neighborhood measure and geographic scale. We recommend that future studies consider the life course implications of cancer incidence and survival, integrate secondary and self-report data, consider work neighborhood environments, and further develop analytical and statistical approaches appropriate to the geospatial and multilevel nature of the data. Incorporating social and built environment factors into research on cancer etiology and outcomes can provide insights into disease processes, identify vulnerable populations, and generate results with translational impact of relevance for interventionists and policy makers. PMID:25847484

  12. The current state of workers' pneumoconiosis in relationship to dusty working environments in Okayama Prefecture, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takigawa T

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study involved the examination of 1,006 chest x-ray films of workers from the industries devoted to shipyard welding, stone grinding, and refractory crushing in southern Okayama prefecture. Of the reviewed films, analysis was focused on subjects with a profusion rate of 0/1 as well as pneumoconiotic subjects (exhibiting profusion rates of 1/0 or greater in order to discover cases in the beginning stages. One-hundred-and-seventy-four films illustrated a profusion rate of 0/1 or greater, and the proportion of this profusion rate was revealed to be highest in shipyard welders. Even some workers under 40 years of age were found to have already developed pneumoconiosis. Of these 1,006 subjects, 30 volunteers permitted us to measure their personal dust exposure concentrations. The measured concentration of the shipyard welders' dust exposure (respirable dust; 3.3 86.3 mg/m3, total dust; 7.5-117.0 mg/m3 was higher than those of the other 2 industries. Statistical differences among the industries were observed in the respirable dust concentrations. A statistically significant positive correlation was demonstrated between the working duration in dusty environments and the rate of profusion. The present findings suggest the need for taking adequate measures in Okayama in order to prevent workers from developing, or to help retard the progression of, pneumoconiosis.

  13. Educating Medical Laboratory Technologists: Revisiting Our Assumptions in the Current Economic and Health-Care Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Linder

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Health care occupies a distinct niche in an economy struggling to recover from recession. Professions related to the care of patients are thought to be relatively resistant to downturns, and thus become attractive to students typically drawn to more lucrative pursuits. Currently, a higher profile for clinical laboratory technology among college students and those considering career change results in larger and better prepared applicant pools. However, after decades of contraction marked by closing of programs, prospective students encounter an educational system without the capacity or vigor to meet their needs. Here discussed are some principles and proposals to allow universities, partnering with health-care providers, government agencies, and other stakeholders to develop new programs, or reenergize existing ones to serve our students and patients. Principles include academic rigor in biomedical and clinical science, multiple points of entry for students, flexibility in format, cost effectiveness, career ladders and robust partnerships.

  14. High Temperature Corrosion studies on Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welded Alloy C-276 in Molten Salt Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, M.; Arivarasu, M.; Arivazhagan, N.; Puneeth, T.; Sivakumar, N.; Murugan, B. Arul; Sathishkumar, M.; Sivalingam, S.

    2016-09-01

    Alloy C-276 is widely used in the power plant environment due to high strength and corrosion in highly aggressive environment. The investigation on high- temperature corrosion resistance of the alloy C-276 PCGTA weldment is necessary for prolonged service lifetime of the components used in corrosive environments. Investigation has been carried out on Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding by autogenous and different filler wires (ERNiCrMo-3 and ERNiCrMo-4) under molten state of K2SO4-60% NaCl environment at 675oC under cyclic condition. Thermogravimetric technique was used to establish the kinetics of corrosion. Weight gained in the molten salt reveals a steady-state parabolic rate law while the kinetics with salt deposits displays multi-stage growth rates. PCGTA ERNiCrMo-3 shows the higher parabolic constant compared to others. The scale formed on the weldment samples upon hot corrosion was characterized by using X-ray diffraction, SEM and EDAX analysis to understand the degradation mechanisms. From the results of the experiment the major phases are identified as Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and NiCr2O4. The result showed that weld fabricated by ERNiCrMo-3 found to be more prone to degradation than base metal and ERNiCrMo-4 filler wire due to higher segregation of alloying element of Mo and W in the weldment

  15. Induced current density in the foetus of pregnant workers in high magnetic field environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, C; Wood, A W; Dovan, T

    2004-12-01

    There are moves to limit by legislation the amount of electric and magnetic fields that workers and the general public are exposed to. In work locations near wiring, cables & equipment carrying high electric currents, there are situations in which the proposed magnetic field limits could be exceeded. Since the limits for the general public are more conservative than those for workers and since the foetus or a pregnant worker should be afforded the status of a member of the general public, it is important to assess a worst-case scenario for the purposes of a general code of practice. Three different magnetic field exposures are modelled, which include the worst case - the body of a pregnant woman at a smallest distance of 30 cm to the conductor. All computations were done by using Multiple Multipole Program (MMP), which is based on the Generalized Multipole Technique (GMT) from ETH (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), Zurich, Switzerland. In a worst-case scenario the proposed basic restrictions would be exceeded slightly in both maternal and foetal tissue. With appropriate pre-placement assessment, these over-exposures can be avoided.

  16. Legacy and currently used pesticides in the atmospheric environment of Lake Victoria, East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinaitwe, Kenneth; Kiremire, Bernard T; Muir, Derek C G; Fellin, Phil; Li, Henrik; Teixeira, Camilla; Mubiru, Drake N

    2016-02-01

    The Lake Victoria watershed has extensive agricultural activity with a long history of pesticide use but there is limited information on historical use or on environmental levels. To address this data gap, high volume air samples were collected from two sites close to the northern shore of Lake Victoria; Kakira (KAK) and Entebbe (EBB). The samples, to be analyzed for pesticides, were collected over various periods between 1999 and 2004 inclusive (KAK 1999-2000, KAK 2003-2004, EBB 2003 and EBB 2004 sample sets) and from 2008 to 2010 inclusive (EBB 2008, EBB 2009 and EBB 2010 sample sets). The latter sample sets (which also included precipitation samples) were also analyzed for currently used pesticides (CUPs) including chlorpyrifos, chlorthalonil, metribuzin, trifluralin, malathion and dacthal. Chlorpyrifos was the predominant CUP in air samples with average concentrations of 93.5, 26.1 and 3.54 ng m(-3) for the EBB 2008, 2009, 2010 sample sets, respectively. Average concentrations of total endosulfan (ΣEndo), total DDT related compounds (ΣDDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (ΣHCHs) ranged from 12.3-282, 22.8-130 and 3.72-81.8 pg m(-3), respectively, for all the sample sets. Atmospheric prevalence of residues of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) increased with fresh emissions of endosulfan, DDT and lindane. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and dieldrin were also detected in air samples. Transformation products, pentachloroanisole, 3,4,5-trichloroveratrole and 3,4,5,6-tetrachloroveratrole, were also detected. The five most prevalent compounds in the precipitation samples were in the order chlorpyrifos>chlorothalonil>ΣEndo>ΣDDTs>ΣHCHs with average fluxes of 1123, 396, 130, 41.7 and 41.3 ng m(-2)sample(-1), respectively. PeCB exceeded HCB in precipitation samples. The reverse was true for air samples. Backward air trajectories suggested transboundary and local emission sources of the analytes. The results underscore the need for a concerted

  17. A review on emerging contaminants in wastewaters and the environment: current knowledge, understudied areas and recommendations for future monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Bruce; Barden, Ruth; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    of using an integrated analytical approach which compliments targeted and non-targeted screening with biological assays to measure ecological impact. With respect to current toxicity testing protocols, failure to consider the enantiomeric distribution of chiral compounds found in the environment, and the possible toxicological differences between enantiomers is concerning. Such information is essential for the development of more accurate environmental risk assessment.

  18. Corrosion Behavior of X80 Steel with Coupled Coating Defects under Alternating Current Interference in Alkaline Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Li, Caiyu; Qian, Hongchang; Li, Jun; Huang, Liang; Du, Cuiwei

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of X80 steel in the presence of coupled coating defects was simulated and studied under the interference of alternating current (AC) in an alkaline environment. The results from electrochemical measurements showed that the electrode potential of the coating defect with the smaller exposed area was lower than that with the larger area, which indicated that the steel with the smaller coating defect was more prone to corrosion. The result of weight loss tests also showed that the smaller coating defect had induced a higher corrosion rate. However, the corrosion rate of X80 steel at the larger coating defect decreased gradually with the increase of the larger defect area at a constant smaller defect area. The corrosion morphology images showed that the coating defects with smaller areas suffered from more severe pitting corrosion. PMID:28773078

  19. Current asthma, respiratory symptoms and airway infections among students in relation to the school and home environment in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Motoko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Norbäck, Dan

    2017-08-01

    To study associations between the school and home environment and current asthma, respiratory symptoms and airway infections among Japanese students. Japanese students (12-15 y) (N = 1048) in four schools responded to a questionnaire on respiratory health, allergy and the home environment. Temperature, relative air humidity (RH) and student density (students/m(2) floor area) was measured in the classrooms: dust was collected from floors and in classroom air and analysed for cat (Fel d 1) and dog (Can f 1) allergens. Health associations were analysed by multi-level logistic regression. Doctor's diagnosed asthma was common (13.4%), 8.8% reported cat allergy and 6.1% dog allergy. The median level in floor dust was 41 ng/g (IQR 23-92) for Fel d 1 and 101 ng/g (IQR 54-101) for Can f 1. The median level in air was 18.6 ng/ m(2)/ day (IQR5.9-25.1) for Fel d 1 and 18.6 ng/ m(2)/ day (IQR 6.0-13.3) for Can f 1. High RH, high student density and airborne cat allergen was associated with airway infections. In the home environment, recent indoor painting, new floor materials, odour, having cats as pets, window pane condensation in winter, and dampness in floor construction were associated with respiratory illness. High relative air humidity, high student density and airborne cat allergens at school may increase the risk of airway infections. Having cats as pets, chemical emissions from paint and new floor materials, odour and dampness can constitute domestic risk factors for respiratory symptoms while having dogs as pets could be protective.

  20. [Current status of operations in community general support centers and the correlation of personal traits, work environment and occupational stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the current status of operations at community general support centers which provide coordination for elderly care and the correlation of personal traits, work environment and the occupational stress of the staff. Subjects of the study were 251 staff members of community general support centers. The current status of operations at the community general support centers and the personal traits, work environment, effort-remuneration imbalance model (ERI) and general health questionnaire (GHQ) were surveyed. The initial analysis involved a comparison by a chi-square test on: The effort-remuneration ratio (E/R ratio) of personal traits and work environment, risk of over-commitment (OC), and GHQ score. To explore the correlation between the E/R ratio of the three GHQ groups (low, middle and high score groups) and the OC value, one-way analysis of variance was performed. Out of the four basic functions of the community general support centers, 22.0% of the respondents noted that "establishment of a regional, comprehensive/multi-tiered service network" was functioning, and 50.4% of respondents noted that "comprehensive and continuous care management" was functioning. The average effort score was 15.5 +/- 5.3, approximately double the average value of preceding studies. Significant differences found in GHQ scores were related to working hours (pworking hours of 50 h or more" (OR: 10.38, 95% CI: 2.52-42.70), "Unstable employment" (OR: 2.75, 95% CI: 1.22-6.21) and "Anxiety related to task content" (OR: 17.04, 95% CI: 3.57-81.24). Items observed to have significant correlation with OC value risk factors were: "Weekly working hours of 50 h or more" (OR: 8.04, 95% CI: 1.99-32.41) and "Anxiety related to task content" (OR: 4.60, 95% CI: 2.04-10.37). We conclude that the basic functions of the community general support centers are not presently very functional. The stress levels of the community general support center staff are high and

  1. Modeling the fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in the agricultural environment: current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeng, Duncan; Haberbeck, Leticia U; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Springael, Dirk; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2014-04-01

    The significance of fresh vegetable consumption on human nutrition and health is well recognized. Human infections with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica linked to fresh vegetable consumption have become a serious public health problem inflicting a heavy economic burden. The use of contaminated livestock wastes such as manure and manure slurry in crop production is believed to be one of the principal routes of fresh vegetable contamination with E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica at preharvest stage because both ruminant and nonruminant livestock are known carriers of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica in the environment. A number of challenge-testing studies have examined the fate of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica in the agricultural environment with the view of designing strategies for controlling vegetable contamination preharvest. In this review, we examined the mathematical modeling approaches that have been used to study the behavior of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica in the manure, manure-amended soil, and in manure-amended soil-plant ecosystem during cultivation of fresh vegetable crops. We focused on how the models have been applied to fit survivor curves, predict survival, and assess the risk of vegetable contamination preharvest. The inadequacies of the current modeling approaches are discussed and suggestions for improvements to enhance the applicability of the models as decision tools to control E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica contamination of fresh vegetables during primary production are presented.

  2. The I.A.G. / A.I.G. SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current and future activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Lamoureux, Scott; Decaulne, Armelle

    2013-04-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated geomorphic process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G. / A.I.G. ) SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme was formed in 2005 to address this existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD currently has about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from eight different countries: Achim A. Beylich (Chair) (Norway), Armelle Decaulne (Secretary) (France), John C. Dixon (USA), Scott F. Lamoureux (Vice-Chair) (Canada), John F. Orwin (Canada), Jan-Christoph Otto (Austria), Irina Overeem (USA), Thorsteinn Sæmundsson (Iceland), Jeff Warburton (UK) and Zbigniew Zwolinski (Poland). The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Initially formed as European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (Sedimentary Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Cold Environments) (2004 - ), SEDIBUD has further expanded to a global group of researchers with field research sites located in polar and alpine regions in the northern and southern hemisphere. Research carried out at each of the close to 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by programme, logistics and available

  3. Parental Involvement and Home Environment in Music: Current and Former Students from Selected Community Music Programs in Brazil and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Gail V.; DeFreitas, Aureo; Grego, John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals' perceptions of parental involvement and home environment in music vary with nationality (Brazil/United States) and time frame (past/current). Past and current students from selected community music programs in the United States and Brazil completed the PI-HEM (Parental Involvement and…

  4. Internal structure and current evolution of very small debris-covered glacier systems located in alpine permafrost environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste eBosson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the internal structure of very small debris-covered glacier systems located in permafrost environments and their current dynamical responses to short-term climatic variations. Three systems were investigated with electrical resistivity tomography and dGPS monitoring over a 3-year period. Five distinct sectors are highlighted in each system: firn and bare-ice glacier, debris-covered glacier, heavily debris-covered glacier of low activity, rock glacier and ice-free debris. Decimetric to metric movements, related to ice ablation, internal deformation and basal sliding affect the glacial zones, which are mainly active in summer. Conversely, surface lowering is close to zero (-0.04 m yr-1 in the rock glaciers. Here, a constant and slow internal deformation was observed (c. 0.2 m yr-1. Thus, these systems are affected by both direct and high magnitude responses and delayed and attenuated responses to climatic variations. This differential evolution appears mainly controlled by (1 the proportion of ice, debris and the presence of water in the ground, and (2 the thickness of the superficial debris layer.

  5. Evolution of the Synthetic Environment in the FFSE Section: Survey of Current Usage of Synthetic Environment within FFSE and Recommendations for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    d’outils de modélisation et de simulation pour créer des expériences et des exercices virtuels pour DND, dans le but d’aider au développement de...différents outils, exercices et expériences, onze instances de simulations ont été identifiées et caractérisées. Ces instances sont décrites brièvement...Mission Rehearsal in a Synthetic Environment: Summary and Preliminary Analyses . (DRDC Ottawa TM 2004-200). Defence R&D Canada - Ottawa 5. B. Kim

  6. Study for the electric arc of alternative current at the single phase welding machine using the Matlab/Simulink environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, I.; Ghiormez, L.; Vasar, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper is presented a mathematical model of the electric arc for an alternative current welding machine of low power. The electric arc model is based on dividing the voltage-current characteristic of the electric arc in many functioning zones. For the model of the entire welding machine are used real parameters as the ones of the proper welding machine. The voltage and current harmonics spectrum that is obtained during the welding process is presented. Also, the waveforms for the current and voltage of the electric arc plotted against time and the voltage-current characteristic of the electric arc are illustrated. The electric arc is considered as being supplied by alternative voltage from the electrical power network using a single phase transformer which has the output voltage of 80 volts. The model of the welding machine is developed in Simulink and the variations of some parameters of the electric arc are obtained by modifying of them in a Matlab function. Also, in this paper is presented the total harmonic distortion for the voltage and current of the electric arc obtained during simulation of the welding machine.

  7. A Practical approach for fault component network for Current and Voltage Phasor Diagram in Power Electronic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Ashish Choubey

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In many large-scale power plants, the structure of its auxiliary power system is complex, and the coordination of its relay protections is difficult. To enhance power supply reliability for the user terminals in the case of the distribution system to avoid interference by the fault again, rapidly complete the automatic identification, positioning, automatic fault isolation, network reconfiguration until the resumption of supply of non-fault section, a microprocessor-based relay protection device has developed. As the fault component theory is widely used in microcomputer protection, and fault component exists in the network of fault component, it is necessary to build up the fault component network when short circuit fault emerging and to draw the current and voltage component phasor diagram at fault point. We proposed a special phase sequence component based on the boundary condition. We analysis the velocity according to the relationship between analysis formula and phasor diagram and current in fault component boundary conditions and sequence voltage and current in boundary conditions. The negative and zero sequence component current and voltage at fault point are the same as fault component. The positive sequence component current and voltage at fault point are different from the fault component. So we consider the positive sequences according to that sequences we analyze the fault point

  8. A Practical approach for fault component network for Current and Voltage Phasor Diagram in Power Electronic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Choubey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In many large-scale power plants, the structure of its auxiliary power system is complex, and the coordination of its relay protections is difficult. To enhance power supply reliability for the user terminals in the case of the distribution system to avoid interference by the fault again, rapidly complete the automatic identification, positioning, automatic fault isolation, network reconfiguration until the resumption of supply of non-fault section, a microprocessor-based relay protection device has developed. As the fault component theory is widely used in microcomputer protection, and fault component exists in the network of fault component, it is necessary to build up the fault component network when short circuit fault emerging and to draw the current and voltage component phasor diagram at fault point. We proposed a special phase sequence component based on the boundary condition. We analysis the velocity according to the relationship between analysis formula and phasor diagram and current in fault component boundary conditions and sequence voltage and current in boundary conditions. The negative and zero sequence component current and voltage at fault point are the same as fault component. The positive sequence component current and voltage at fault point are different from the fault component. So we consider the positive sequences according to that sequences we analyze the fault point.

  9. Development and Application of a Wireless Sensor for Space Charge Density Measurement in an Ultra-High-Voltage, Direct-Current Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Encheng; Ju, Yong; Yuan, Haiwen

    2016-10-20

    A space charge density wireless measurement system based on the idea of distributed measurement is proposed for collecting and monitoring the space charge density in an ultra-high-voltage direct-current (UHVDC) environment. The proposed system architecture is composed of a number of wireless nodes connected with space charge density sensors and a base station. The space charge density sensor based on atmospheric ion counter method is elaborated and developed, and the ARM microprocessor and Zigbee radio frequency module are applied. The wireless network communication quality and the relationship between energy consumption and transmission distance in the complicated electromagnetic environment is tested. Based on the experimental results, the proposed measurement system demonstrates that it can adapt to the complex electromagnetic environment under the UHVDC transmission lines and can accurately measure the space charge density.

  10. Risk assessment of chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and erythromycin in aquatic environment: are the current environmental concentrations safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kyunghee; Kim, Sunmi; Han, Sunyoung; Seo, Jihyun; Lee, Sangwoo; Park, Yoonsuk; Choi, Kyunghee; Kho, Young-Lim; Kim, Pan-Gyi; Park, Jeongim; Choi, Kyungho

    2012-10-01

    To understand potential risks of major pharmaceutical residues in waters, we evaluated ecotoxicities of five major veterinary pharmaceuticals, i.e., chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and erythromycin, which have been frequently detected in freshwater environment worldwide. We conducted acute and chronic toxicity tests using two freshwater invertebrates (Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa) and a fish (Oryzias latipes). In general, D. magna exhibited greater sensitivity than M. macrocopa, and chronic reproduction was the most sensitive endpoints for both organisms. The population growth rate was adversely influenced by exposure to chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, or sulfathiazole in water fleas, but reduction in population size was not expected. In O. latipes, the tested pharmaceuticals affected several reproduction related endpoints including time to hatch and growth. Based on the toxicity values from the present study and literature, algae appeared to be the most sensitive organism, followed by Daphnia and fish. Hazard quotients derived from measured environmental concentrations (MECs) and predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) for erythromycin and oxytetracycline exceeded unity, suggesting that potential ecological effects at highly contaminated sites cannot be ruled out. Long-term consequences of veterinary pharmaceutical contamination in the environment deserve further investigation.

  11. Current use of impact models for agri-environment schemes and potential for improvements of policy design and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Jorgen; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Finn, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) to maintain or promote environmentally-friendly farming practices were implemented on about 25% of all agricultural land in the EU by 2002. This article analyses and discusses the actual and potential use of impact models in supporting the design, implementation...... and evaluation of AES. Impact models identify and establish the causal relationships between policy objectives and policy outcomes. We review and discuss the role of impact models at different stages in the AES policy process, and present results from a survey of impact models underlying 60 agri-environmental...... schemes in seven EU member states. We distinguished among three categories of impact models (quantitative, qualitative or common sense), depending on the degree of evidence in the formal scheme description, additional documents, or key person interviews. The categories of impact models used mainly...

  12. Current use of impact models for agri-environment schemes and potential for improvements of policy design and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primdahl, Jørgen; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Finn, John A; Vlahos, George; Kristensen, Lone; Vejre, Henrik

    2010-06-01

    Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) to maintain or promote environmentally-friendly farming practices were implemented on about 25% of all agricultural land in the EU by 2002. This article analyses and discusses the actual and potential use of impact models in supporting the design, implementation and evaluation of AES. Impact models identify and establish the causal relationships between policy objectives and policy outcomes. We review and discuss the role of impact models at different stages in the AES policy process, and present results from a survey of impact models underlying 60 agri-environmental schemes in seven EU member states. We distinguished among three categories of impact models (quantitative, qualitative or common sense), depending on the degree of evidence in the formal scheme description, additional documents, or key person interviews. The categories of impact models used mainly depended on whether scheme objectives were related to natural resources, biodiversity or landscape. A higher proportion of schemes dealing with natural resources (primarily water) were based on quantitative impact models, compared to those concerned with biodiversity or landscape. Schemes explicitly targeted either on particular parts of individual farms or specific areas tended to be based more on quantitative impact models compared to whole-farm schemes and broad, horizontal schemes. We conclude that increased and better use of impact models has significant potential to improve efficiency and effectiveness of AES. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetic Reconnection in the Heliospheric Current Sheet: The Implications of the Different Environments Seen by the VoyagerSpacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisdak, M. M.; Drake, J. F.; Opher, M.

    2014-12-01

    The magnetic field abutting the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is primarily in the azimuthal direction, either east-to-west or west-to-east. Mis-alignment of the solar rotational and magnetic axesleads to the characteristic ballerina-skirt shape of the HCS and during the solar cycle there can be large excursions in the sheet's latitudinal extent. Voyager 2's observations of energetic electrondropouts are related to its crossing of this boundary. Magnetic reconnection is also thought to occur as the HCS compresses and narrows between the termination shock and the heliopause. Near theequator the two HCS field alignments are present in roughly equal amounts, while near the edges the distribution can be considerably skewed. This will lead to substantial differences in the environmentsof the two Voyager spacecraft since Voyager 1 is north of the equator, but firmly in the sector region, while Voyager 2 is south of the equator and skirting the edges of the sector region. We presentparticle-in-cell simulations demonstrating the consequences of the reconnection of asymmetric amounts of flux. In particular, we will discuss Voyager 2's remaining time in the heliosphere -- including theimplications for the solar wind velocity, energetic particle transport, and the expected structure of Voyager 2's heliopause crossing -- and compare it with the data collected from Voyager 1.

  14. Global Security Rule Sets An Analysis of the Current Global Security Environment and Rule Sets Governing Nuclear Weapons Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollahan, K; Nattrass, L

    2004-09-30

    America is in a unique position in its history. In maintaining its position as the world's only superpower, the US consistently finds itself taking on the role of a global cop, chief exporter of hard and soft power, and primary impetus for globalization. A view of the current global situation shows an America that can benefit greatly from the effects of globalization and soft power. Similarly, America's power can be reduced significantly if globalization and its soft power are not handled properly. At the same time, America has slowly come to realize that its next major adversary is not a near peer competitor but terrorism and disconnected nations that seek nuclear capabilities. In dealing with this new threat, America needs to come to terms with its own nuclear arsenal and build a security rule set that will establish for the world explicitly what actions will cause the US to consider nuclear weapons release. This rule set; however, needs to be established with sensitivity to the US's international interests in globalization and soft power. The US must find a way to establish its doctrine governing nuclear weapons release without threatening other peaceful nations in the process.

  15. Advances in the study of current-use non-PBDE brominated flame retardants and dechlorane plus in the environment and humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The fate of the high production volume,currently in use,and not regulated non-polybrominated diphenyl ether(PBDE) flame retardants,such as tetrabromobisphenol A(TBBPA) ,hexabromocyclododecane(HBCD) and dechlorane plus(DP),and the alternative flame retardants of PBDE,such as BTBPE and DBDPE,in the environment has attracted increasing attention and aroused concern due to the increasing regulation and phasing-out of PBDEs.This paper reviews the distribution,bioaccumulation,human exposure and environmental behavior of those non-PBDE flame retardants in various environmental compartments.The data gaps and needs for future research are discussed.

  16. Risk factors for stereotypic behavior and self-biting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): animal's history, current environment, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Capitanio, John P; McCowan, Brenda

    2013-10-01

    Captive rhesus macaques sometimes exhibit undesirable abnormal behaviors, such as motor stereotypic behavior (MSB) and self-abuse. Many risk factors for these behaviors have been identified but the list is far from comprehensive, and large individual differences in rate of behavior expression remain. The goal of the current study was to determine which experiences predict expression of MSB and self-biting, and if individual differences in personality can account for additional variation in MSB expression. A risk factor analysis was performed utilizing data from over 4,000 rhesus monkeys at the California National Primate Research Center. Data were analyzed using model selection, with the best fitting models evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. Results confirmed previous research that males exhibit more MSB and self-biting than females, MSB decreases with age, and indoor reared animals exhibit more MSB and self-biting than outdoor reared animals. Additionally, results indicated that animals exhibited less MSB and self-biting for each year spent outdoors; frequency of room moves and number of projects positively predicted MSB; pair separations positively predicted MSB and self-biting; pair housed animals expressed less MSB than single housed and grate paired animals; and that animals expressed more MSB and self-biting when in bottom rack cages, or cages near the room entrance. Based on these results we recommend limiting exposure to these risk factors when possible. Our results also demonstrated a relationship between personality and MSB expression, with animals low on gentle temperament, active in response to a human intruder, and high on novel object contact expressing more MSB. From these results we propose that an animal's MSB is related to its predisposition for an active personality, with active animals expressing higher rates of MSB.

  17. Valores hacia el trabajo del personal de enfermería: Un análisis descriptivo Values toward the infirmary personnel´s work: a descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª del Carmen Aguilar Luzón

    2004-06-01

    and its respective teams of nurses and, for other, to check if consistency exists among the profiles of values of both groups. For it, it has been selected a sample of 53 nurses and 4 supervisors of four different areas from infirmary of a hospital of the Andalusian community. All they answered the questionnaire of work values EVAT-30. The obtained results indicate that supervisors and nurses establish hierarchies of similar values and, therefore, with a high consistency grade. On the other hand, the dimensions of superior order more valued by both groups they have been those of Self-Enhancement and Conservation.

  18. 短程心率变异性评估疗养飞行员生物反馈训练效果的研究%Short-range Assessment of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback Training Effect Infirmary Pilot Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪芳; 田建全; 胡乃鉴

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the short-range assessment of heart rate variability biofeedback training effect infirmary pilot,and provide the basis for aviation psychological training.Methods:Using multi-parameter analyzer biofeedback training for pilots and short-range detection of heart rate variabil-ity.Results:Short HRV comparison showed,SDNN,RMSSD,HF and TP were increased after training( t=2.33~8.46,P<0.01);HR,LF,LF /HF were lower after training(t=4.13~20.54,P<0.01).Con-clusion:Biofeedback training can improve the functional activity of the autonomic nervous pilots situation effectively assess performance short convalescence HRV biofeedback training pilots effect.%目的:探讨短程心率变异性评估疗养飞行员生物反馈训练效果,为航空心理训练提供依据。方法:采用多参数生物反馈仪对飞行员进行训练及短程心率变异性检测。结果:短程心率变异性比较结果显示, SDNN、RMSSD、HF和TP均是训练后升高,有非常显著统计学意义(t=2.33~8.46,P<0.01);HR、LF、LF/HF均是训练后降低,有非常显著统计学意义(t=4.13~20.54,P<0.01)。结论:生物反馈训练能改善飞行员自主神经功能活性状况,短程心率变异性能有效评估疗养飞行员生物反馈训练的效果。

  19. The Patient’s Pain in Her Own Words: Margaret Mathewson’s ‘Sketch of Eight Months a Patient, in the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, A.D. 1877’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Wilson Carpenter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been commonly assumed that nineteenth-century hospital patients were objectified, silenced, treated as the 'accident' of their disease, to use Michel Foucault's term, and also that as charity patients they were largely illiterate paupers, and consequently did not write accounts of their hospital experience. One such account has been known, however, since the 1970s, when W. B. Howie and S. A. B. Black published two articles in medical journals on Margaret Mathewson's 'Sketch of Eight Months a Patient, in the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, A.D. 1877'. Martin Goldman subsequently published excerpts from the 'Sketch' in 'Lister Ward' (1987. But Mathewson's account of her experience as a surgical patient of Joseph Lister has never been published in its entirety, nor has it been known that the two existing copies of the manuscript differ extensively, as Mathewson decided to leave out 'some insignificant items and put in others more interesting' in the later version. Admitted because Lister thought he could save her arm from amputation by excision of her tuberculous shoulder joint, her narrative vividly details what it was like to be a surgical patient in Scotland in 1877. Her revisions to that narrative provide clues as to what she thought prudent to exclude from her account, after friends had asked her to publish it. As a charity patient, she was subordinated to the hospital staff, expected to wait uncomplainingly and to accept whatever treatment was given. But her 'Sketch' reveals such unexpected and surprising information as the willingness of the staff, including Lister himself, to teach her and other patients about the nature of their disease and also how to care for themselves, especially how to change their own dressings. Even more startling, Mathewson's narrative documents her confrontation of a 'cruel dresser', a medical student whom she believed to be deliberately causing her pain when he changed her dressing and manipulated her arm

  20. Current studies on nursing work environment and strategies for improvement of nursing work environment%护理工作环境的研究探讨与改革策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤黎明; 刘佳丽; 郑晶; 刘可

    2016-01-01

    The important role of nursing work environment has received much attention in the management of nursing workforce and the quality of health care services. This paper analyzed current studies on nursing work environment, and suggested that the government and hospital administrators pay more attention to the development of nursing workforce, adequate clinical nurse staffing levels and promoting healthy work environment for nurses.%护理工作环境在护士队伍建设和护理服务质量管理中的重要地位在近年来受到广泛关注。本文分析了国内外护理工作环境的研究结果及国外护理工作环境的改革策略,建议我国各级卫生行政部门和医疗卫生机构重视护理人才队伍建设,切实保障临床护理人力配置,共同努力构建健康的护理工作环境。

  1. Radiation Environment at LEO in the frame of Space Monitoring Data Center at Moscow State University - recent, current and future missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagkova, Irina; Kalegaev, Vladimir; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Svertilov, Sergey; Bogomolov, Vitaly; Bogomolov, Andrey; Barinova, Vera; Barinov, Oleg; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Dolenko, Sergey; Mukhametdinova, Ludmila; Shiroky, Vladimir; Shugay, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Radiation Environment of Near-Earth space is one of the most important factors of space weather. Space Monitoring Data Center of Moscow State University provides operational control of radiation conditions at Low Earth's Orbits (LEO) of the near-Earth space using data of recent (Vernov, CORONAS series), current (Meteor-M, Electro-L series) and future (Lomonosov) space missions. Internet portal of Space Monitoring Data Center of Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU) http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/ provides possibilities to control and analyze the space radiation conditions in the real time mode together with the geomagnetic and solar activity including hard X-ray and gamma- emission of solar flares. Operational data obtained from space missions at L1, GEO and LEO and from the Earth's magnetic stations are used to represent radiation and geomagnetic state of near-Earth environment. The models of space environment that use space measurements from different orbits were created. Interactive analysis and operational neural network forecast services are based on these models. These systems can automatically generate alerts on particle fluxes enhancements above the threshold values, both for SEP and relativistic electrons of outer Earth's radiation belt using data from GEO and LEO as input. As an example of LEO data we consider data from Vernov mission, which was launched into solar-synchronous orbit (altitude 640 - 83 0 km, inclination 98.4°, orbital period about 100 min) on July 8, 2014 and began to receive scientific information since July 20, 2014. Vernov mission have provided studies of the Earth's radiation belt relativistic electron precipitation and its possible connection with atmosphere transient luminous events, as well as the solar hard X-ray and gamma-emission measurements. Radiation and electromagnetic environment monitoring in the near-Earth Space, which is very important for space weather study, was also realised

  2. Mapping the Tidewater Submarine and Ice-Marginal Environment Using Interferometric Bathymetry, Ground-Based LiDAR and Current Velocities; Hubbard Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, D. C.; Lawson, D. E.; Butler, W.; Waller, T.; Pratt, T.

    2009-12-01

    The seasonal advance and retreat of tidewater glaciers is a relatively well-documented phenomenon. But our understanding of the processes and conditions within the ice-marginal submarine environment that drive or result from this activity is limited. Capturing holistic information within this environment such as bathymetric topography, hydrographic measurements and geospatial information about the terminus itself is often limited to discrete measurements far from the terminus grounding line or lack the detail and scale necessary to identify features that may be indicative of process. To understand these processes, it is essential to accurately obtain data at resolutions that are sufficient to understand the geologic and marine environment. This paper describes the results of a first-of-its-kind survey of the submarine and ice-marginal terrestrial environment of the Hubbard Glacier tidewater terminus. Hubbard Glacier is the largest non-polar tidewater glacier in the world. It encompasses an area of 3500 sq km and flows 120 km from the flanks of Mt Logan (5959 m) in the Wrangell St. Elias Mountains (Canada) to sea level where its terminus widens to ~13 km. In contrast to most glaciers in Southeast Alaska, Hubbard Glacier continues to advance and thicken and is predicted to continue for the foreseeable future. We utilize a multi-sensor fusion approach that integrates high-resolution interferometric (swath-based) multibeam bathymetry with high-resolution ground-based LiDAR topography and current velocity profiles to provide a detailed look at the section of the glacier where significant ice advance and potential ice-damming occurs. Through simultaneous collection of these data we are able to precisely map the topography of the sea floor adjacent to and at the grounding line of the ice terminus while simultaneously mapping the ice terminus and surrounding terrain to create a complete 3D topographic model of the aerial and submarine environment. These data allow for

  3. Analysis of currently available data for characterising the risk of engineered nanomaterials to the environment and human health--lessons learned from four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschberger, Karin; Micheletti, Christian; Sokull-Klüttgen, Birgit; Christensen, Frans M

    2011-08-01

    Production volumes and the use of engineered nanomaterials in many innovative products are continuously increasing, however little is known about their potential risk for the environment and human health. We have reviewed publicly available hazard and exposure data for both, the environment and human health and attempted to carry out a basic risk assessment appraisal for four types of nanomaterials: fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, metals, and metal oxides (ENRHES project 2009(1)). This paper presents a summary of the results of the basic environmental and human health risk assessments of these case studies, highlighting the cross cutting issues and conclusions about fate and behaviour, exposure, hazard and methodological considerations. The risk assessment methodology being the basis for our case studies was that of a regulatory risk assessment under REACH (ECHA, 2008(2)), with modifications to adapt to the limited available data. If possible, environmental no-effect concentrations and human no-effect levels were established from relevant studies by applying assessment factors in line with the REACH guidance and compared to available exposure data to discuss possible risks. When the data did not allow a quantitative assessment, the risk was assessed qualitatively, e.g. for the environment by evaluating the information in the literature to describe the potential to enter the environment and to reach the potential ecological targets. Results indicate that the main risk for the environment is expected from metals and metal oxides, especially for algae and Daphnia, due to exposure to both, particles and ions. The main risks for human health may arise from chronic occupational inhalation exposure, especially during the activities of high particle release and uncontrolled exposure. The information on consumer and environmental exposure of humans is too scarce to attempt a quantitative risk characterisation. It is recognised that the currently available database for both

  4. LightForce photon-pressure collision avoidance: Efficiency analysis in the current debris environment and long-term simulation perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Yang, Fan; Nelson, Bron; Aziz, Jonathan; Carlino, Roberto; Dono Perez, Andres; Faber, Nicolas; Foster, Cyrus; Frost, Chad; Henze, Chris; Karacalıoğlu, Arif Göktuğ; Levit, Creon; Marshall, William; Mason, James; O'Toole, Conor; Swenson, Jason; Worden, Simon P.; Stupl, Jan

    2016-09-01

    This work provides an efficiency analysis of the LightForce space debris collision avoidance scheme in the current debris environment and describes a simulation approach to assess its impact on the long-term evolution of the space debris environment. LightForce aims to provide just-in-time collision avoidance by utilizing photon pressure from ground-based industrial lasers. These ground stations impart minimal accelerations to increase the miss distance for a predicted conjunction between two objects. In the first part of this paper we will present research that investigates the short-term effect of a few systems consisting of 20 kW class lasers directed by 1.5 m diameter telescopes using adaptive optics. The results found such a network of ground stations to mitigate more than 85 percent of conjunctions and could lower the expected number of collisions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by an order of magnitude. While these are impressive numbers that indicate LightForce's utility in the short-term, the remaining 15 % of possible collisions contain (among others) conjunctions between two massive objects that would add large amount of debris if they collide. Still, conjunctions between massive objects and smaller objects can be mitigated. Hence, we choose to expand the capabilities of the simulation software to investigate the overall effect of a network of LightForce stations on the long-term debris evolution. In the second part of this paper, we will present the planned simulation approach for that effort. For the efficiency analysis of collision avoidance in the current debris environment, we utilize a simulation approach that uses the entire Two Line Element (TLE) catalog in LEO for a given day as initial input. These objects are propagated for one year and an all-on-all conjunction analysis is performed. For conjunctions that fall below a range threshold, we calculate the probability of collision and record those values. To assess efficiency, we compare a baseline

  5. LightForce Photon-pressure Collision Avoidance: Efficiency Analysis in the Current Debris Environment and Long-Term Simulation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan Y.; Nelson, Bron; Carlino, Roberto; Perez, Andres D.; Faber, Nicolas; Henze, Chris; Karacahoglu, Arif G.; O'Toole, Conor; Swenson, Jason; Stupl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an efficiency analysis of the LightForce space debris collision avoidance scheme in the current debris environment and describes a simulation approach to assess its impact on the long-term evolution of the space debris environment. LightForce aims to provide just-in-time collision avoidance by utilizing photon pressure from ground-based industrial lasers. These ground stations impart minimal accelerations to increase the miss distance for a predicted conjunction between two objects. In the first part of this paper we will present research that investigates the short-term effect of a few systems consisting of 10kW class lasers directed by 1.5 m diameter telescopes using adaptive optics. The results found such a network of ground stations to mitigate more than 85 percent of conjunctions and could lower the expected number of collisions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by an order of magnitude. While these are impressive numbers that indicate LightForce's utility in the short-term, the remaining 15 percent of possible collisions contain (among others) conjunctions between two massive objects that would add large amount of debris if they collide. Still, conjunctions between massive objects and smaller objects can be mitigated. Hence we choose to expand the capabilities of the simulation software to investigate the overall effect of a network of LightForce stations on the long-term debris evolution. In the second part of this paper, we will present the planed simulation approach for that effort.

  6. Assessing the effects of urbanization on the environment with soil legacy and current-use insecticides: a case study in the Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Li; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Chen-Chou; He, Zai-Cheng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic events on the rapid urbanized environment, the levels of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use insecticides (CUPs), i.e., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), pyrethroids and organophosphates in soil of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and surrounding areas were examined. Spatial concentration distributions of legacy OCPs and CUPs shared similar patterns, with higher concentrations occurred in the central PRD with more urbanization level than that in the PRD's surrounding areas. Furthermore, relatively higher concentrations of OCPs and CUPs were found in the residency land than in other land-use types, which may be attributed to land-use change under rapid urbanization. Moderate correlations between gross domestic production or population density and insecticide levels in fifteen administrative districts indicated that insecticide spatial distributions may be driven by economic prosperity. The soil-air diffusive exchanges of DDTs and HCHs demonstrated that soil was a sink of atmospheric o,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDT, and was a secondary source of HCHs and p,p'-DDT to atmosphere. The soil inventories of DDTs and HCHs (100 ± 134 and 83 ± 70 tons) were expected to decrease to half of their current values after 18 and 13 years, respectively, whereas the amounts of pyrethroids and organophosphates (39 and 6.2 tons) in soil were estimated to decrease after 4 and 2 years and then increase to 87 and 1.0 tons after 100 years. In this scenario, local residents in the PRD and surrounding areas will expose to the high health risk for pyrethroids by 2109. Strict ban on the use of technical DDTs and HCHs and proper training of famers to use insecticides may be the most effective ways to alleviate the health effect of soil contamination.

  7. Characterisation of impacts on the environment of an idealised offshore wind farm foundation, under waves and the combination of waves and currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermosa, Isabel; Abcha, Nizar; Brossard, Jérôme; Bennis, Anne-Claire; Ezersky, Alexander; Gross, Marcus; Iglesias, Gregorio; Magar, Vanesa; Miles, Jon; Mouazé, Dominique; Perret, Gaële; Pinon, Grégory; Rivier, Aurélie; Rogan, Charlie; Simmonds, David

    2015-04-01

    Offshore wind technology is currently the most widespread and advanced source of marine renewable energy. Offshore wind farms populate waters through the North Sea and the English Channel. The UK and French governments devised deadlines to achieve percentages of electricity from renewable sources by 2020, these deadlines and the direct translation of land based wind farm technology to the offshore environment resulted in the rapid expansion of the offshore wind energy. New wind farms have been designed with a larger number of masts and are moving from shallow offshore banks to deeper waters and in order to produce more power the diameters of monopoles masts are becoming larger to support larger turbines. The three-partner EU INTERREG funded project OFELIA (http://www.interreg-ofelia.eu/) aims to establish a cross-channel (between the UK and France) research collaboration to improve understanding of the environmental impacts of offshore wind farm foundations. The objective of the present study is to characterise changes in the hydrodynamics and sea bed in the vicinity of an offshore wind farm mast and in the wake area under wave and wave-current conditions corresponding to events in the French wind farm site of Courseulles-sur-mer (offshore of Lower Normandy, in the English Channel). Experiments were carried out in two laboratory facilities: a wave flume of 35 m long, 0.9 m wide and 1.2 m in depth with regular and irregular waves (García-Hermosa et al., 2014); and a wave and current flume of 17 m long, 0.5 m wide and 0.4 m depth with regular waves, currents from 180° to the waves and a mobile bed (Gunnoo et al., 2014). Flow velocity measurements were taken with an Acoustic Dopple Velocimeter (ADV) at various points around the cylinder and Particle Image Velocitmetry (PIV) techniques were applied to larger areas upstream and downstream of the cylinder. During the assessment of waves and currents' effects on the bed evolution were assessed using a laser and camera

  8. Environment protection in the legal system of Albania: The current situation in Albania on combating environmental crimes and the new reform directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkëlzen Selimi

    2016-07-01

    The conclusions reached at the end shows the evolution of the concept of environment and its protection, welcomes the new reform by noting the need of the judicial authorities to be trained in order to be fully implemented.

  9. Drilling in Current-Controlled Sedimentary Environments on the Southeast African Margin - The SAFARI Pre-Site Survey Challenges on the Madagascar, Mozambique and the South African Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, V.; Preu, B.; Schwenk, T.; Palamenghi, L.; Schneider, R.; Zahn, R.; Hall, I.

    2009-04-01

    As part of the global conveyer belt circulation, the Agulhas, Mozambique and Madagascar Currents are guided southward along the Southeast African margin as strong contour currents, affecting local sediment mobilization, redistribution and deposition. To gain a better understanding of their evolution through time, a transect of drill sites ranging from the southern tip of Africa to Madagascar was proposed by Zahn et al. (SAFARI, IODP proposal 702). As contour currents become erosive in their vicinity, deposition may be inhibited and incoming sediment will be redistributed. To find suitable drill sites, they must be positioned strategically to provide continuous depositional records on the one hand by not not being located in the core of the current, and to record variations in current activity and strength, which requires a certain proximity to the mean current position. Furthermore, sources of sediment and their spatial and temporal variability play a role for the interpretation of accumulation rates, provenance of particles, reconstruction of current velocities and terrestrial input, which can be compared as climate indicators with marine geochemical tracers. Six different working areas, West of Capetown, Natal Valley, Limpopo Cone, Zambezi margin, Davie Ridge and N-Madagascar margin, were visited during R/V Meteor Cruises M63/1 (2005) and M75/3 (2008) to gain an understanding of sediment deposition and to select sites for the drilling proposal. Main observations of both cruises were, in contrast to the expectation of margins being predominantly shaped by fan deposition and mass wasting processes, the widespread occurrences of large scales contourite bodies, which were situated between 100 and 1500 m water depth. They appear to be independent of the mechanisms and volume of sediment input, revealing a close relationship to the acting contour currents. Accordingly, the drift bodies appear to be suitable deposits which record the activity of the currents by

  10. Current developments of research on permafrost engineering and cold region environment:a report of the 8th International Symposium on Permafrost Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Eighth International Symposium on Permafrost Engineering was held in Xi’an,China,October 2009.The major topics discussed in the symposium included:permafrost engineering (involving design,construction and evaluation);mitigation of frost hazards in the regions affected by seasonally frozen ground;properties of frozen soils,model development and their applications;frost hazards and periglacial environments in mountain and plateau regions;climatic,environmental and cryospheric changes;and permafrost hydrology,cold regions water resources and land uses.The papers submitted to the symposium and lectures during the meeting represented some new developments of research on cold region engineering and environment.Here we summarized the works of the symposium in topics including:Permafrost engineering;General geocryology;Properties of frozen soils:model development and their applications;And climatic,environmental and cryospheric changes.During the symposium,the attendees pointed out that future studies should pay more attention to theoretical study and engineering mechanism study,and also on interaction between climate change and cold region environments and their engineering affects.

  11. Current Status of Agriculture and Plant Protection in Malaysia (Original papers in Kobe Symposium on Agriculture, Food and Environment in Asia : Towards the 21st Century)

    OpenAIRE

    Khew, K. l.

    1997-01-01

    Malaysia with the warm (21-32℃) and humid (200-250cm annual rainfall) climate, is a tropical wonderland for plants, conducive to the growth of a number of agricultural crops. The major agricultural commodities include oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), pepper (Piper nigrum) rice (Oryza sativus) and together with fruits, vegetables and floriculture which play a less dominant role. Malaysia is currently the world's largest producer and exporter o...

  12. Evaluation of JSAF EM Propagation Prediction Methods for Navy Continuous Training Environment/Fleet Synthetic Training Results and Recommendations: Part 1 - Evaluation of Current JSAF EM Propagation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    FFACTR” which is a part of the Engineers Refractive Index Prediction System (EREPS) Tactical Decision Aid ( TDA ) developed by what is now SPAWARS SSC San...currently used in JSAF is “FFACTR” which is a part of the Engineers Refractive Index Prediction System (EREPS) Tactical Decision Aid ( TDA ) developed by what...Decision Aid ( TDA ) developed by what is now SPAWARS SSC San Diego in 1988. This model is no longer supported by SPAWARS or any other group and has been

  13. Metrology of natural radionuclides. Current challenges in radiation protection for industry and the environment; Metrologie natuerlicher Radionuklide. Aktuelle Herausforderungen fuer den Strahlenschutz in Industrie und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maringer, F.J. [Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria). Referat fuer ionisierende Strahlung und Radioaktivitaet; Univ. fuer Bodenkultur, Wien (Austria). Low-Level Counting Lab. Arsenal; Moser, H.; Kabrt, F. [Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria). Referat fuer ionisierende Strahlung und Radioaktivitaet; Baumgartner, A.; Stietka, M. [Univ. fuer Bodenkultur, Wien (Austria). Low-Level Counting Lab. Arsenal

    2015-07-01

    In a range of industrial branches increased activity concentrations of natural radionuclides occur in various NORM materials processed. The ICRP 103 recommendation, and subsequent the IAEA International Basic Safety Standards and the European Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection, raised new challenges in radiation protection concerning natural radionuclide metrology and activity measurement methods - in particular for natural decay chain radionuclides ({sup 238}U+, {sup 232}Th+, {sup 235}U+). Especially adequate traceability and optimized measurement uncertainties of applied activity measurement methods are of increasing concern. In this paper a review on radionuclide metrology of natural radionuclides and its implementation to end-user activity measurement methods and practice is presented. This includes an overview on current and emerging drivers, targets, challenges, deliverables, technologies and stakeholders in the field. Current research results on activity measurement standards and instrumentation for natural radionuclides, revised decay data, in-situ measurement methods, NORM reference materials, are covered as well as benefits of natural radionuclide metrology on radiation protection of workers and the public.

  14. 接地线缆HEMP电流响应规律研究%Study on Current Response of Grounding Cable in HEMP Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴焱杰; 张春光; 许凯; 赵煜

    2014-01-01

    The cable connecting the information systems may be coupled by the electromagnetic pulse energy to the internal cir-cuit,resulting in system performance degradation,damage and even burned,and bringing great harm. Therefore,the work to research cables’ effects under electromagnetic pulse is the precondition to take electromagnetic protective measures. The finite-difference time-domain ( FDTD) method and Noda thin models are used to establish the space and computational model with high-altitude nuclear elec-tromagnetic pulse (HEMP) as the incident source,the grounding cable HEMP current response in the different states is analyzed and calculated. The results show that the response current of grounding cable attenuates rapidly in the oscillation process with a large peak at a position higher;the incident direction changes of the wave source can produce different results in response,and the response current mainly appears from the cable laid in the same direction with the electric field excitation component. The conclusions can provide useful guidance for the cable electromagnetic protection.%连接电子系统的线缆能够将电磁脉冲能量耦合至系统的内部电路,造成系统性能降级、损伤甚至烧毁,带来极大的危害,因此开展线缆的电磁脉冲效应研究工作是采取针对性电磁防护措施的必要前提。以高空核爆电磁脉冲(HEMP)为入射源,基于时域有限差分(FDTD)方法和Noda细线模型建立仿真空间和计算模型,分析计算了不同状态下接地线缆的HEMP电流响应。结果表明,接地线缆的响应电流在振荡过程中迅速衰减,且在较高位置处峰值较大;波源入射方向的改变会产生不同的响应结果,线缆响应电流主要来自与其布设方向一致的电场分量的激励。所得结论能够为线缆的电磁防护提供有益指导。

  15. [Considering the current state of fire safety in Taiwan's care environment from the perspective of the nation's worst recent hospital fire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Wen; Shih, Chung-Liang; Chien, Shen-Wen

    2013-04-01

    Taiwan's worst hospital fire in history on October 23rd, 2012 at Sinying Hospital's Bei-Men Branch resulted in 13 elderly patient deaths and over 70 injuries. The heavy casualties were due in part to the serious condition of patients. Some patients on life-support machines were unable to move or be moved. This disaster highlights the issue of fire safety in small-scale hospitals that have transformed existing hospital space into special care environments for elderly patients. Compared with medical centers and general hospitals, these small-scale health facilities are ill equipped to deal properly with fire safety management and emergency response issues due to inadequate fire protection facilities, fire safety equipment, and human resources. Small-scale facilities that offer health care and medical services to mostly immobile patients face fire risks that differ significantly from general health care facilities. This paper focuses on fire risks in small-scale facilities and suggests a strategy for fire prevention and emergency response procedures, including countermeasures for fire risk assessment, management, and emergency response, in order to improve fire safety at these institutions in Taiwan.

  16. Neonicotinoids in the Canadian aquatic environment: a literature review on current use products with a focus on fate, exposure, and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J C; Dubetz, C; Palace, V P

    2015-02-01

    Developed to replace organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, neonicotinoids are structurally similar to nicotine. The three main neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam, are being re-evaluated by Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA). An important aspect of the re-evaluation is the potential for effects in non-target organisms, including aquatic organisms. Leaching into surface waters is one of the major concerns surrounding extensive use of neonicotinoids, especially in close proximity to water bodies. The PMRA has classified IMI as 'persistent' with a 'high' leaching potential. Globally, neonicotinoids have been detected in a variety of water bodies, typically at concentrations in the low μg/L range. While IMI has been included in some monitoring exercises, there are currently very few published data for the presence of CLO and THM in Canadian water bodies. The majority of neonicotinoid toxicity studies have been conducted with IMI due to its longer presence on the market and high prevalence of use. Aquatic insects are particularly vulnerable to neonicotinoids and chronic toxicity has been observed at concentrations of IMI below 1 μg/L. Acute toxicity has been reported at concentrations below 20 μg/L for the most sensitive species, including Hyalella azteca, ostracods, and Chironomus riparius. Fish, algae, amphibians, and molluscs are relatively insensitive to IMI. However, the biological effects of THM and CLO have not been as well explored. The Canadian interim water quality guideline for IMI is 0.23 μg/L, but there is currently insufficient use, fate, and toxicological information available to establish guidelines for CLO and THM. Based on concentrations of neonicotinoids reported in surface waters in Canada and globally, there is potential for aquatic invertebrates to be negatively impacted by neonicotinoids. Therefore, it is necessary to address knowledge gaps to inform decisions around guidelines

  17. Assessing and Managing the Current and Future Pest Risk from Water Hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes), an Invasive Aquatic Plant Threatening the Environment and Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world’s worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. Under two future greenhouse gas emission scenarios for 2080 simulated with three Global Climate Models, the area with a favourable temperature regime appears set to shift polewards. The greatest potential for future range expansion lies in Europe. Elsewhere in the northern hemisphere temperature gradients are too steep for significant geographical range expansion under the climate scenarios explored here. In the Southern Hemisphere, the southern range boundary for E. crassipes is set to expand southwards in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand; under current climate conditions it is already able to invade the southern limits of Africa. The opportunity exists to prevent its spread into the islands of Tasmania in Australia and the South Island of New Zealand, both of which depend upon hydroelectric facilities that would be threatened by the presence of E. crassipes. In Europe, efforts to slow or stop the spread of E. crassipes will face the challenge of limited internal biosecurity capacity. The modelling technique demonstrated here is the first application of niche modelling for an aquatic weed under historical and projected future climates. It provides biosecurity agencies with a spatial tool to foresee and manage the emerging invasion threats in a manner that can be included in the international standard for pest risk assessments. It should also support more detailed local and regional management. PMID:27513336

  18. Current and emerging treatment options for Graves’ hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Abraham

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Prakash Abraham1, Shamasunder Acharya21Department of Endocrinology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen, UK; 2Department of Endocrinology, John Hunter Hospital, New Lambton NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Radioiodine, antithyroid drugs and surgery have been well established therapies for Graves’ hyperthyroidism for several decades. However there remain large variations in practice among physicians in the preferred modality and the method of administration. Patient choice and perceptions also play a big role in the choice of treatment. Radioiodine may be given using fixed high doses or by calculated doses following uptake studies. The risks of radioiodine including eye disease and the role of prophylactic steroid therapy are discussed. The commonly used antithyroid drugs include carbimazole, methimazole and propylthiouracil; however a number of other agents have been tried in special situations or in combination with these drugs. The antithyroid drugs may be given in high (using additional levothyroxine in a block–replace regimen or low doses (in a titration regimen. This review examines the current evidence and relative benefits for these options as well as looking at emerging therapies including immunomodulatory treatments such as rituximab which have come into early clinical trials. The use of antithyroid therapies in special situations is also discussed as well as clinical practice issues which may influence the choices.Keywords: Graves’ hyperthyroidism, radioiodine, antithyroid drugs, methimazole, propylthiouracil

  19. Emplacement of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) in a deep-sea environment: The Val d'Aveto Formation case (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Andrea; Groppelli, Gianluca

    2016-12-01

    The occurrence of PDC deposits in a foredeep basin sequence, named Val d'Aveto Formation (32-29 Ma, Northern Apennines, Italy), provides new information on the behavior of pyroclastic density currents entering the water. In this work, stratigraphic, petrographic and mineralogical features that characterize three pyroclastic deposits have been described and analyzed in the field (facies and lithological analysis on the blocky-size fraction) and in the laboratory (image analyses on the blocky-size detritus, optical analyses of the microtextures, mineralogical analyses through X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectometry (SEM-EDS). The deposits are lapilli- to blocky-size, with a blocky-size fraction constituted of accidental detritus. In thin sections, their groundmass texture varies from porphyritic to eutaxitic where coarser particles become close each others. Growth rims have been also detected around plagioclase crystals. Pyrite habits and oxidation, and plagioclase albitization are consistent with hydrothermal temperature conditions of 200 °C. All these results have been compared with the information provided by modern examples of PDC deposits and laboratory experiments on the behavior of water/hot particles mixing. Grain-to-grain collision has been considered as the main flow mechanism that sustained and avoided the disaggregation of the PDCs entering the water.

  20. Research Issues and Current Progress in Underwater Sensor Networks for Intelligent Environment Monitoring%水下传感器网络研究挑战与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜秀娟

    2015-01-01

    水下传感器网络采用声波进行通信,具有长时延、低带宽、高错误率、低能耗要求和稀疏部署等技术挑战,使现有通信协议无法满足性能要求,节点的有限资源决定了其上运行的协议栈不能太复杂.文章阐述了水下传感网络的应用、通信特点,分析了传统协议架构在水下传感网络的局限性,指出:水下传感器网络需要研究一种新型的、绿色网络体系架构模型,基于该架构模型实现各层协议的优化设计,在满足QoS性能要求和系统有限资源的约束下,提高能量效率、延长网络生存期,实现绿色网络.%Underwater sensor network (UWSN) adopts acoustic communication,characterized by high delay,low bandwidth,high error rate,low energy-consumption requirement and sparse deployment which lead to great challenges for UWSN communication.Conventional communication protocols are unable to satisfy the performance of UWSN while the limited resources of nodes determine the protocol stack run-ning on it shouldn't be much complicated.Through analyzing the characteristics of application and commu-nication in UWSN and the limitations of traditional protocol architecture for UWSN,we indicate that re-search of UWSN for intelligent environment monitoring require to develop a new,green network protocol architecture model,and realize protocol optimization design for each layer in the new protocol architecture model so as to improve energy efficiency,prolong the network lifetime and achieve green network while meeting the requirement of QoS with the constraints of limited resource.

  1. Investigation for Current Situation of College Students’ Environmental Awareness and Strategies for Environment Education%高校学生环境意识现状调查与环境教育对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜卫红; 王振龙

    2015-01-01

    The environment education is an effective method to achieve strategy of sustainable development and build the socialist cultural power.Colleges and universities take on the historical responsibility of training high-quality talents for our country, offering environ-mental education curriculum is good for college students to understand the relation of resources, development and environment, establish environmental values, improve environmental literacy effectively, strengthen social responsibility of environmental protection, and create a beautiful China collectively.This paper takes Hulunbuir College as an example, investigates the environmental awareness of college students, analyzes the current situation and deficiency of environmental education, puts forward the corresponding measures and provides a reference for the environmental education in Colleges and universities.%环境教育是实现可持续发展战略和建设社会主义文化强国的有效手段。高等院校担负着为国家培养高素质人才的重任,开设环境教育课程有利于大学生正确认识资源、发展与环境的关系,树立环境价值观,增强环境保护的社会责任感,共创美丽中国。本文以呼伦贝尔学院为例,调查大学生的环境意识状况,分析环境教育的现状与不足,并提出相应的措施,为高校环境教育提供参考。

  2. Neurosurgery at the Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford: a history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, T Z; Adams, C B

    1995-09-01

    Neurosurgery started in Oxford in 1938. In this article, we commence the story of Oxford neurosurgery with Thomas Willis and trace the historical thread through William Osler, Charles Sherrington, John Fulton, and Harvey Cushing to Hugh Cairns. The department in Oxford is renowned for the training of neurosurgeons. The initial stimulus for this was the abundance of neurosurgical and neurological expertise in Oxford during World War II with Cairns, and this tradition continued with Joe Pennybacker and his successors. The large and ever increasing work load ensures trainees a wide exposure to challenging neurosurgical problems. An increasing emphasis placed on research has resulted in the creation of two posts; each consists of half-time clinical neurosurgery and half-time research. Hugh Cairns organized the department along "Cushing lines." This organization still exists, allowing us to treat a large number of patients with relatively few beds and an average length of patient stay less than 6 days. We look to the future with confidence.

  3. 气象探测环境现状及保护措施的探讨%Discussion on current situation of meteorological observational environment and its protection measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国华; 关彦华; 郭艳岭

    2012-01-01

    environment were reviewed, and the current situation was analyzed by using a case study. According to the statistical data, the height of buildings around the meteorological observational sites exceeds the standard height from the law of "protection method of meteorological observational environment and equipment", which was the main reason destroying the meteorological observational environment. The sources of reasons could be attributed to two parts, i. e. inside one and outside one. The real estate construction was rapidly expanding because of the rapid development of economy and society and the interests of the local government,and these were the outside reason. On the other hand, the construction standard of office building and the new station selection model in the meteorological depart- ments made the selection of the new station location difficult and also made weather station moved frequently, and these were the inside reason. Some specific measurements protecting meteorological observational environment were proposed as follows: scientificity and preciseness of meteorological observational environment protection standard should be established in the meteorological department, and the protection mechanism based on classification of meteorological observational environment should be set up;protecting the meteorological observational environment by the corresponding law and adequate administrative intervention should be used;go with the trend of national socio-economic development and handle comprehensively problems of the meteorological observational environment protection ;For the station that must be moved, the meteorological observational environment protection should be the first as selecting new station locations. At the same time, the various patterns may be used to the construction layout of a new station.

  4. Mycotoxins in the soil environment

    OpenAIRE

    Elmholt, S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper outlines the current knowledge concerning fate of mycotoxins in the soil environment, including - outline of mycotoxins addressed (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin) - routes by which the mycotoxins enter the soil environment - routes by which they are immobilised or removed from the soil environment - mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in the soil environment

  5. The current situation and trend of environment control technology in greenhouse%温室环境控制技术的研究现状与发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      随着数字化农业技术的发展,智能温室在我国得到了更广泛的应用,为保证蔬菜供应、增加农民收入做出了重要贡献。准确掌握温室环境控制技术的发展成就与研究现状,并对未来的发展方向进行展望,对于促进我国温室环境控制技术的发展具有重要意义。%Along with the development of digital agriculture technology, intelligent greenhouse in our country has got more extensive applica-tion, and been contributing a lot to solving the problem of vegetables supply and increasing peasants' income. To understand the current sit-uation and prospect the trend, the paper had important directive significance for the development environment control technology in green-house in China.

  6. Analysis Respiratory Care in Five Regions of the Country: Current Status and Future Tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Durán Palomino

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyse the respiratory carepractice in five regions f the country, by meansof a descriptive – exploratory research, aimingto review the formation tendencies, the workingconditions, the roles of the practitioners, theprofessional practice dilemmas and the characterizationof the physical therapeutic andrespiratory therapeutic functions.The information was obtained through surveyswith respiratory therapeutics, physical therapeutics,interview with infirmary and medicalprofessionals, who work in third and fourth complexitydegree health institutions in select citiesfor the study.The collected information includes not onlydaily routines but also the knowledge andpreferences regarding the professional practice and their related aspects of labour conditionsand characteristics of the professional exercise.The study allowed to conclude that there isan idealization of the conceptual missing rolesto efficiently carry out the respiratory carewithout and additional formation of graduatelevel or training courses in this area, weaknessof the administrative and investigative functionsof domiciliary attentions and initial evaluationof the environment, lack of positioning of thefunction in front of the interdisciplinary teamand precarious labour conditions.

  7. Factors derived from the intrahospitable laboratories that cause stress in infirmary students Factores derivados de los laboratorios intrahospitalarios que provocan estrés en los estudiantes de enfermería Fatores derivados dos laboratórios intra-hospitalares que provocam estresse nos estudantes de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Basso Musso

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative, correlation cross-sectional study with descriptive analysis, whose objective was to assess the factors derived from the intra-hospitable laboratories that affect the stress appearance in Infirmary students. The sample consisted of 129 students, which voluntarily acceded to answer questionnaires Evaluative Scale de Hamilton for the Anxiety, validated in 2003, and Questionnaire KEZKAK, both adapted by the investigating group. The obtained data was processed through Microsoft Excel program, appearing: the 100% of the students presented Stress. From the manifestations of Stress, the tensional anxiety and insomnia appear with the biggest percentages. From the Stress producing Factors, in Student's competitions: "having errors on its work and harming the patient", and in the Educational "receiving contradictory orders" are the ones that present greater frequency of intensity, being the Educational factor the preponderant in the appearance of stress. One concludes that is necessary to adapt the educational positions of a guardian in the clinical practices given greater emphasis to the support that will have to be lend to student, with the purpose of diminishing stress an favoring the learning.Estudio transversal, cuantitativo, correlacional con análisis descriptivo, cuyo objetivo fue conocer los factores derivados de los laboratorios intrahospitalarios que inciden en la aparición de estrés en 129 estudiantes de Enfermería, que contestaron los cuestionarios Escala Hamilton y KEZKAK. Los datos fueron procesados con el programa Microsoft Excel, según los resultados: el 100% presenta Estrés. Ansiedad, tensión e insomnio, aparecen con mayor porcentaje. Los Factores Competencias del alumno: "cometer errores en su trabajo y perjudicar al paciente", y en Docente: "recibir ordenes contradictorias" son los que presentan mayor frecuencia, siendo el Docente el predominante en la aparición de estrés. Se concluye que es necesario adecuar las

  8. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  9. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  10. EOP Current Magnitude and Direction

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contain shipboard current magnitudes and directions collected in the Pacific, both pelagic and near shore environments. Data is collected using an RD...

  11. Ubiquitous Working Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Carl Gustaf

    This chapter presents the Ubiquitous Working Environments, a vision for the work environments of the future and how this vision is manifested in current experimental environments and projects at KTH. Building upon the Ubiquitous Computing paradigm, our research targets environments, which support collaborating mobile workers in a seamless way, providing work support anywhere and anytime. In our design work so far, we have been particularly interested in the following three design aspects: First, context aware, proactive, and adaptive services; second, ad hoc configuration and synchronization of available resources, including both devices and services; third, new ways of sharing and using resources in a work environment. The systems we design comprise both devices, services, and their interfaces.

  12. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... a too narrow aesthetic goal, especially when it comes to the evaluation of built environments as a whole. Architectural value has therefore been perceived as a different concept than aesthetic value, primarily related to a static and unchanging expression. This fact creates problems in relation...... to current conservation tasks, which today include more and more untraditionally built environments, including cultural environments. Architectural value must in this case rather be associated with development, ongoing processes, and allow room for future change. The Danish architect Johannes Exner, defines...

  13. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  14. Observing environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2012-01-01

    , and analyse how their conceptions of environment are connected to differences of perspective and observation. Results: We show the need to distinguish between inside and outside perspectives on the environment, and identify two very different and complementary logics of observation, the logic of distinction......, and that it is based fully on the conception of observation as indication by means of distinction....

  15. Encapsulated Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Cheung, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    In many occupational settings, clothing must be worn to protect individuals from hazards in their work environment. However, personal protective clothing (PPC) restricts heat exchange with the environment due to high thermal resistance and low water vapor permeability. As a consequence, individuals

  16. Current State of Digital Reference in Primary and Secondary Education; The Technological Challenges of digital Reference; Question Negotiation and the Technological Environment; Evaluation of Chat Reference Service Quality; Visual Resource Reference: Collaboration between Digital Museums and Digital Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankes, R. David; Penka, Jeffrey T.; Janes, Joseph; Silverstein, Joanne; White, Marilyn Domas; Abels, Eileen G.; Kaske, Neal; Goodrum, Abby A.

    2003-01-01

    Includes five articles that discuss digital reference in elementary and secondary education; the need to understand the technological environment of digital reference; question negotiation in digital reference; a pilot study that evaluated chat reference service quality; and collaborative digital museum and digital library reference services. (LRW)

  17. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  18. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  19. Design of a 10-bit segmented current-steering digital-to-analog converter in CMOS 65 nm technology for the bias of new generation readout chips in high radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Robertis, G.; Loddo, F.; Mattiazzo, S.; Pacher, L.; Pantano, D.; Tamma, C.

    2016-01-01

    A new pixel front end chip for HL-LHC experiments in CMOS 65nm technology is under development by the CERN RD53 collaboration together with the Chipix65 INFN project. This work describes the design of a 10-bit segmented current-steering Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) to provide a programmable bias current to the analog blocks of the circuit. The main requirements are monotonicity, good linearity, limited area consumption and radiation hardness up to 10 MGy. The DAC was prototyped and electrically tested, while irradiation tests will be performed in Autumn 2015.

  20. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  1. Enacting Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Enacting Environments is an ethnography of the midst of the encounter between corporations, sustainable development and climate change. At this intersection 'environmental management' and 'carbon accounting' are put into practice. Purportedly, these practices green capitalism. Drawing on fieldwork...... of day-to-day practices of corporate environmental accountants and managers, Ingmar Lippert reconstructs their work as achieving to produce a reality of environment that is simultaneously stable and flexible enough for a particular corporate project: to stage the company, and in consequence capitalism......, as in control over its relations to an antecedent environment. Not confined to mere texts or meetings between shiny stakeholders co-governing the corporation – among them some of the world's biggest auditing firms, an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) and standards – control is found...

  2. Safe environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-28

    A new film on the Social Care Institute for Excellence website aims to encourage health and social care organisations to create safe environments in which staff can raise concerns as part of normal practice. Key points raised in the film include that managers should listen to what whistleblowers say and ensure the concerns raised are managed well, and that open cultures in which concerns can be raised help build safer working environments and effective learning organisations. You can view the film at tinyurl.com/oh3dk3q.

  3. Environment in Submarine Compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Shrivastava

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available The crew operating in the confined environment of a submarine are subjected to discomfort as a result of physiological stress caused by toxic substances which are generated due to engineering, operational and other human activities. The physioiogical problems of men under prolonged confinement in a submarine have been reviewed. Data on air pollutants monitored during 'cruise' and 'at rest' conditions inside a submarine are given. Threshold limit value (TLV of trace substances in the confined environment has been discussed. The merits of air purification and air revitalization systems currently employed for control of air pollution have been brought out.

  4. Human Rights and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Manta, Claudiu

    2009-01-01

    The current work wants to present the human right in a healthy environment, regarded as the individual’s fundamental right. Also, it presents the consequences of the disrespect of the environment norms by the states as committing the state responsibility in case of serious pollution with trans-frontier effects.

  5. Current Situation and Prospect of Research on Minority Bilingual Education in ICT Environment%少数民族双语教育信息化研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧臣; 王玥; 赵琳; 严文彬

    2015-01-01

    The information technology makes bilingual education in minority areas change tremendously, which also has a revolutionary impact on minority bilingual education. The research focused on minority bilingual education in ICT environment in china from the aspects of theory construction, design and development, teaching application and effect evaluation. When reflecting on existing problems in research, it found that the number of minority personnel participated in research team was small; the study view of minority bilingual education in ICT environment needed to be expanded; the evaluation and empirical research were lack of; the theory and practice need to be further integrated. For the prospect of minority bilingual education in ICT environment, it is necessary that, carry out practical research of minority bilingual education basing on its characteristics, establish the theoretical system of minority bilingual education focusing on the system, enrich the object of minority bilingual education by perfecting research method; evaluate the value and limitation of minority bilingual education informatization scientifically.%信息技术使少数民族地区的双语教育发生了巨大的变化,对少数民族双语教育产生了革命性的影响。我国少数民族双语教育信息化的研究围绕理论建构、设计开发、教学应用和效果评价等方面展开。文章反思了研究中存在的问题:少数民族人员较少参与双语教育信息化研究的团队,少数民族双语教育信息化的研究视野有待拓展,缺乏评价与实证研究,理论与实践有待融合。文章还指出,未来少数民族双语教育信息化研究应该:着眼系统,构建少数民族双语教育信息化的理论体系;立足特点,开展少数民族双语教育信息化研究实践;完善方法,丰富少数民族双语教育信息化的研究对象;科学评价,评估少数民族双语教育信息化的作用与局限。

  6. Environment Debate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    resource diversity, environmental variability and global influences on local ... these relationship has moved from the biased technocratic objective assessment of ... The environment of a particular human group includes both cultural ... and analysis using a livelihood approach that incorporates local knowledge, perceptions, ...

  7. Architecture & Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  8. Enacting Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    , as in control over its relations to an antecedent environment. Not confined to mere texts or meetings between shiny stakeholders co-governing the corporation – among them some of the world's biggest auditing firms, an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) and standards – control is found......, ultimately, the epistemic and ontic effects of fact-making in the heart of neoliberal capitalism....

  9. Robotic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic architectural environments to be implemented and tested in the last decade in virtual and physical prototypes. These prototypes are incorporating sensing-actuating mec

  10. Architecture & Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  11. 水下滑翔机海洋环境深平均流估计方法%Estimating Depth-averaged Currents of Underwater Gliders in Ocean Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周耀鉴; 俞建成; 王晓辉

    2016-01-01

    提出了水下滑翔机海洋环境深平均流估计方法。首先,基于水下滑翔机稳态运动模型,研究海水密度差异和耐压舱体压缩变形对水下滑翔机运动速度的影响,建立水下滑翔机运动速度快速计算模型,并证明了该模型的正确性及有效性。然后,利用得到的水下滑翔机运动速度和船位推算方法结合,给出了海洋环境深平均流估算方法。利用该深平均流估算方法对3台水下滑翔机海上试验过程中的深平均流进行估算,并分析了估算结果的有效性。实验结果证明利用本文得到的深平均流可以提高水下滑翔机船位推算中的定位精度。%We propose a depth-averaged current estimation method.Firstly,based on a stable motion model of an underwater glider,we discuss the influence of seawater density difference and compression deformation of pressure hull on the movement of the glider.We then build a rapid-calculation model for glider speed,and demonstrate its effectiveness and feasibility.In combination with recalculated glider speed and dead reckon-ing,we present a depth-averaged current estimation method.We estimate the depth-averaged currents from the sea trials of three different gliders using this method,and demonstrate its effectiveness.The results show that the accuracy of dead reckoning positioning of underwater gliders can be improved with the help of depth-averaged currents.

  12. 世界环境日:图书馆在行动%Delivering Services and Programs on the World Environment Day:Investigation into the Current Practice by China Libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔秀艳; 亢琦; 郝倩; 郭兆红

    2015-01-01

    World Environment Day is celebrated every year on 5 June to raise global awareness to take positive environmental action to protect nature and the planet Earth. It is run by the United Nations Environment Programme . During a World Environment Day event, series of educational outreach programs among 35 libraries are well-established and expressed in broad and diverse ways to celebrate and enhance the environmental concerns. However, the network survey revealed several issues, including ongoing activities annually are lacking, programs types are not rich enough and not combined with self-work as well as media coverage pay less attention. The libraries acknowledged the importance and urgency of energy saving and environmental protection, a commitment to series activities and programs offered and conducted are proposed. The findings and implications for practice are applicable to the future environmental literacy education, and promotes the development of green, low-carbon library, and integrate the concept of ecological civilization into all aspects and the whole process of library operations and services.%世界环境日是联合国促进全球环境意识、提高各机构对环境问题的注意并采取行动的主要媒介之一。通过对国内各类型图书馆的网络调查发现,35所图书馆在世界环境日期间开展了丰富多彩的活动,反映了图书馆积极行动,努力提升用户的环境意识。对调查所得的数据进行分析,探究各图书馆在环境日开展的实践活动内容和存在的问题,发现图书馆存在没有根据环境日主题持续开展活动、活动内容形式单一且没有与图书馆工作结合起来以及对宣传报道不够重视等问题,提出图书馆要在思想上充分认识到节约能源和环境保护的重要性和紧迫性,环境纪念日宣传与环境素养教育活动要常态化、持续性、系统性地开展,以期推动图书馆绿色低碳发展和环境素养教

  13. Performative Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo Stjerne

    2008-01-01

    on the means by which architecture can enact places through socio-technical relationships. The architecture stands out as dynamic and open and carries emergent affects that facilitate interaction in a new configuration between objects and subjects. By crossing social and technological networks between flows...... of local interactions and network behaviour, building becomes social infrastructure and prompts an understanding of architectural structures as quasiobjects, which can retain both variation and recognisability in changing social constellations.......The paper explores how performative architecture can act as a collective environment localizing urban flows and establishing public domains through the integration of pervasive computing and animation techniques. The NoRA project introduces the concept of ‘performative environments,' focusing...

  14. Feline coronavirus in multicat environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, Yvonne; Alcaraz, Ana; Bossong, Frank J; Collisson, Ellen W; Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P

    2011-11-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a fatal disease in cats worldwide, is caused by FCoV infection, which commonly occurs in multicat environments. The enteric FCoV, referred to as feline enteric virus (FECV), is considered a mostly benign biotype infecting the gut, whereas the FIP virus biotype is considered the highly pathogenic etiologic agent for FIP. Current laboratory tests are unable to distinguish between virus biotypes of FCoV. FECV is highly contagious and easily spreads in multicat environments; therefore, the challenges to animal shelters are tremendous. This review summarizes interdisciplinary current knowledge in regard to virology, immunology, pathology, diagnostics, and treatment options in the context of multicat environments.

  15. Discussion about the Dispersion and Reformation of the Disseminator and Audience on the Current Communication Environment%当前传播语境下传受主体的消解与重建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌; 刘纯怡

    2011-01-01

    以web2.0和3G手机为代表的新媒体传播中,非专业化的私人传播日益扩大,很多方面已经超越了职业传播者的影响,传统意义上的传播者和受众的概念正在模糊化和彼此消解。这对传播的社会影响肯定会带来一系列新的问题。传统的新闻传播者要充分认识网络传播环境的特点,把传统优势和网络特征结合起来,在网络传播时代重建自己的话语主导权。%In the new media communication represented by web2.0 and 3G mobile phones; private no - professional communication is growing beyond the influence effect of Professional communicators in many ways. The traditional concepts of communicators and audiences are getting blurred. This trend is sure to bring a series of new problems. Traditional disseminators have to understand the characteristics of the network communication environment, combining the Traditional strengths with Network characteristics to rebuild our discourse Dominance in the network communication era.

  16. 电子商务环境下生鲜农产品配送模式研究发展现状%The Electronic Commerce Environment Research in Current Situation of the Development of Fresh Agricultural Products Distribution Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杨青

    2014-01-01

    电子商务环境下的农产品物流有着极大的发展空间和前景,农产品电子商务化的需求飞速增长。然而生鲜类产品电子商务化与其他产品电子商务化相差甚大,包括顾客对生鲜产品更高的配送时效性要求,生鲜产品的特殊性对配送运输的要求等。现有的生鲜产品配送体系也难以满足生鲜电商发展的需求。越来越多的学者专家开始关注这个领域的研究。%Under the e-commerce environment of agricultural products logistics has a great development in space and prospects, and the demands rapid growth of e-commerce. However fresh products in e-commerce, e-commerce and other products are very large, including customer delivery timeliness requirements for higher fresh products, fresh products, such as the particularity of the requirement for the shipping transportation. The existing distribution systems of fresh products are difficult to meet the needs of fresh electricity development. More and more scholars begin to pay close attention to this area of research.

  17. DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and Covey-based TQM: A historical perspective on current issues in research environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M

    1994-06-01

    Three years ago there were no standards or published guidelines for quality in research environments. Today, one standard has been published, and three guidelines documents are in final draft form and about to be published. In this paper, I describe the events that led to the writing of DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, and DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, focusing on the cultural barriers that arose (largely in the community of quality assurance professionals) during this process. I go on to describe why I believe that implementing DOE 5700.6C and 10CFR830.120 must be pushed even further toward an approach that embodies the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and why even this is not far enough. The reason is because the most crucial aspect of successfully implementing a quality initiative is to base it on a cohesive, unified foundation of organizational and individual values and beliefs. Stephen Covey`s 7 Habits of Highly Effective People and Principle Centered Leadership provide such a foundations.

  18. DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and Covey-based TQM: A historical perspective on current issues in research environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M

    1994-06-01

    Three years ago there were no standards or published guidelines for quality in research environments. Today, one standard has been published, and three guidelines documents are in final draft form and about to be published. In this paper, I describe the events that led to the writing of DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, and DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, focusing on the cultural barriers that arose (largely in the community of quality assurance professionals) during this process. I go on to describe why I believe that implementing DOE 5700.6C and 10CFR830.120 must be pushed even further toward an approach that embodies the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and why even this is not far enough. The reason is because the most crucial aspect of successfully implementing a quality initiative is to base it on a cohesive, unified foundation of organizational and individual values and beliefs. Stephen Covey`s 7 Habits of Highly Effective People and Principle Centered Leadership provide such a foundations.

  19. 基于当前市场环境的企业融资对策研究%Study on Corporate Financing Countermeasures Based on the Current Market Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵国珍

    2011-01-01

    当前企业融资渠道狭窄,金融体制不够完善,企业难以找到信贷担保,资金需求得不到满足,众多企业因为资金链的断裂而倒闭破产。这些对我国企业的生存和发展造成了重大的影响,从更长远的角度来看,融资难问题已经成为阻碍企业发展的主要原因。本文在分析了融资难的原因的基础上,提出了解决中小企业融资问题对策。%The current situation of the financing channel is narrow, the financial system are not perfect, enterprise is hard to find the credit guarantee, the enterprise funds unmet needs, many enterprises of fracture because capital chain, all of the collapse in bankruptcy caused the survival and development of enterprises, and a significant impact from the more long-term perspective, difficulty in financing has become the main cause of block enterprise development. Based on the analysis of the reasons of financing, this paper proposes measures to solve the financing problem.

  20. Biology and ecology of the ``Pompeii worm'' (Alvinella pompejana Desbruyères and Laubier), a normal dweller of an extreme deep-sea environment: A synthesis of current knowledge and recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbruyères, D.; Chevaldonné, P.; Alayse, A.-M.; Jollivet, D.; Lallier, F. H.; Jouin-Toulmond, C.; Zal, F.; Sarradin, P.-M.; Cosson, R.; Caprais, J.-C.; Arndt, C.; O'Brien, J.; Guezennec, J.; Hourdez, S.; Riso, R.; Gaill, F.; Laubier, L.; Toulmond, A.

    1998-01-01

    Alvinella pompejana, the "Pompeii worm" lives on active hydrothermal edifices at deep-sea vents of the East Pacific Rise. The physical and chemical patterns of its microhabitat were determined from temperature probe measurements, temperature time series, and on-board and shore-based chemical analyses based on discrete sampling (pH, H 2S, CO 2, CH 4, S 2O 2-3, Ca, Mg, Cu, Cd, Zn). The microhabitat is characterised by high temporal and microscale spatial variability, with temperature values in the range of 20°-45°C at the immediate periphery of tubes but reaching higher, still undetermined, values inside the tubes. The difference observed between in vitro temperature limits for the stability of biomolecules and metabolic rates, and suggested in situ conditions seems to indicate a significant protective role of biological interfaces (tubes and cuticle). Temporal instability possibly also plays an important role in the ability for these worms to colonise such an extreme habitat. The functional role of dominant epibiotic bacteria is discussed in the light of recent biochemical and molecular data: the tube-worm-bacteria system can be considered as a symbiotic entity where carbon is probably metabolised and recycled. Sulphide detoxification occurs by oxidation at the gill level and possibly at the intracellular haemoglobin level. Heavy metals, ingested or absorbed, are trapped in spherocrystals and bound to metallothionein-like proteins. Anatomical, physiological and molecular adaptations to hypoxia allow the worm to successfully colonise the chimneys. A. pompejana lives in an ephemeral environment and must reproduce and disperse accordingly. It is a gonochoric species that displays a pseucopulatory behaviour allowing transfer of sperm to female spermathecae, thus avoiding dispersion of the gametes. The size of the oocytes suggests a lecithotrophic or benthic development. The population size structure is polymodal, indicating discontinuous recruitment. Population

  1. Study on Consumers’ Cognitive Behavior of New Products in Current Network Information Environment%网络信息环境下消费者对新产品认知行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洁; 杨巨峰; 李川

    2014-01-01

    From the macroscopic and microscopic aspects, this paper expounds the environmental factors influencing consumers’ cognitive behavior, and further from the perspective of psychology, analyzes the cognitive process of consumers, and connecting with the current development of information network, introduces the new SICAS mode for consumers’ cognitive behavior; based on being clear about the related factors of consumers’ cognitive behavior, designs the survey questionnaire of consumers’ cognitive behavior according to consumers’ cognitive model, and finds the cognitive changes of consumers through understanding consumers’ decision-making behavior in the process of using the new products;and puts forward some suggestions from the perspective of enterprise to promote the new products.%从宏观和微观两个方面阐述了影响消费者认知行为的环境因素,进而从心理学的角度分析了消费者的认知过程,并且结合当前信息网络的发展介绍了消费者认知行为的SICAS新模式;在明确了消费者认知行为相关因素的基础上,依据消费者的认知模型设计了针对新产品认知行为的调查问卷,通过了解消费者采用新产品过程中的决策行为,发现了消费者的认知变化;并从企业推广新产品的角度提出了一些建议。

  2. On active current selection for Lagrangian profilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Zhou, Qiuyang; Zielinski, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    simple and computationally-efficient control strategies to actively select and use ocean currents so that a profiler can autonomously reach a desired destination. After briefly presenting a typical profiler and possible mechanical modifications for a coastal environment, we introduce simple mathematical...... models for the profiler and the currents it will use. We then present simple feedback controllers that, using the direction of the currents and taking into account the configuration of the environment (coastal or deep-sea), is able to steer the profiler to any desired horizontal location. To illustrate...... the approach, a few results are presented using both simulated currents and real current velocities from the North Sea....

  3. The evolution of doses in the IEA-R1 reactor environment and tendencies based on the current results; Evolucao das doses no ambiente do Reator IEA-R1 e tendencias com base nos resultados atuais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Eduardo Yoshio

    2016-11-01

    The IPEN / CNEN-SP have a Nuclear Research Reactor-NRR named IEA-R1, in operation from 1957. It is an open swimming pool reactor using light water as shielding, moderator and as cooling, the volume of this pool is 273m{sup 3}.Until 1995 the reactor operated daily at a power of 2,0 MW. From June of that year, after a few safety modifications the reactor began operating in continuous way from Monday to Wednesday without shutdown totalizing 64 hours per week and the power was increased to 4,5MW also. Because of these changes, continuous operation and increased power, workers' doses would tend to increase. In the past several studies were conducted seeking ways to reduce the workers' doses. A study was made on the possibility to introduce a shielding at the top of the reactor core with a hot water layer. Studies have shown that a major limitation for operating a reactor at high power comes from the gamma radiation emitted by the sodium-24. Other elements such as magnesium-27, aluminum-28, Argon-51, contribute considerably to the water activity of the pool. The introduction of a hot water layer on the swimming pool would form a layer of surface, stable and free of radioactive elements with a 1.5m to 2m thickness creates a shielding to radiation from radioactive elements dissolved in water. Optimization studies proved that the installation of the hot layer was not necessary for the regime and the current power reactor operation, because other procedures adopted were more effective. From this decision the Radiological Protection Reactor Team, set up a dose assessment program to ensure them remained in low values based on principles established in national and international standards. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the individual doses of OEI (Occupationally Exposed Individual), which will be checked increasing doses resulting from recent changes in reactor operation regime and suggested viable safety and protection options, in the first instance to

  4. Geomagnetically Induced Currents: Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Denny M.; Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.

    2017-10-01

    The geospace, or the space environment near Earth, is constantly subjected to changes in the solar wind flow generated at the Sun. The study of this environment variability is called Space Weather. Examples of effects resulting from this variability are the occurrence of powerful solar disturbances, such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The impact of CMEs on the Earth's magnetosphere very often greatly perturbs the geomagnetic field causing the occurrence of geomagnetic storms. Such extremely variable geomagnetic fields trigger geomagnetic effects measurable not only in the geospace but also in the ionosphere, upper atmosphere, and on and in the ground. For example, during extreme cases, rapidly changing geomagnetic fields generate intense geomagnetically induced currents (GICs). Intense GICs can cause dramatic effects on man-made technological systems, such as damage to high-voltage power transmission transformers leading to interruption of power supply, and/or corrosion of oil and gas pipelines. These space weather effects can in turn lead to severe economic losses. In this paper, we supply the reader with theoretical concepts related to GICs as well as their general consequences. As an example, we discuss the GIC effects on a North American power grid located in mid-latitude regions during the 13-14 March 1989 extreme geomagnetic storm. That was the most extreme storm that occurred in the space era age.

  5. Swine brucellosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen SC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SC Olsen, FM Tatum Infectious Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: Brucella suis is a significant zoonotic species that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human-to-human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic livestock, preventing human infection is the primary reason for its emphasis in disease control programs. Although disease prevalence varies worldwide, in areas outside of Europe, swine brucellosis is predominantly caused by B. suis biovars 1 and 3. In Europe, swine are predominantly infected with biovar 2 which is much less pathogenic in humans. In many areas worldwide, feral or wild populations of swine are important reservoir hosts. Like other Brucella spp. in their natural host, B. suis has developed mechanisms to survive in an intracellular environment and evade immune detection. Limitations in sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostics require use at a herd level, rather for individual animals. There is currently no commercial vaccine approved for preventing brucellosis in swine. Although not feasible in all situations, whole-herd depopulation is the most effective regulatory mechanism to control swine brucellosis. Keywords: livestock, transmission, pathogenicity, vaccine, host, infection

  6. Current Issues in Lactation:Advantages,Environment,Silicone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Kacew

    1994-01-01

    The physiological process of breast-feeding should be encouraged under most circumstances despite the presence of trace amounts of environmental toxins.The decision for the initiation and continuation of lactation must involve the expectant father,esecially in the provision of knowledge by clinicians of the beneficial effects on infant and mother.Awareness that growth patterns of breast-fed infants differ from formula-feeding is essential in the interpretation of toxicity and not an indicator to terminate lactation.Numerous studies demonstrate the importance of breast-feeding in providing protection against various diseases and decreasing the incidence of infant morbidity and mortality.Inert material such as silicone or environmental toxins including organophosphate pesticides,chlorinated hydrocarbons.solvents,and heavy metals have been identified in human milk.Toxic manifestations were reported in suckling infants exposed to mammary chemicals.he observed adverse reactions were suggested to be due to either(1)a direct action of the chemical without any maternal dietary deficiency,(2) a cobination of essential mother nutrient deficiency and excess toxicant in breast milk;or(3)the presence of several toxicants in human milk acting in conjunction as bioactivators or promoters of toxicity.In weiging the risks vs benefits of lactation there is a clear consensus that even in the presence of mammary toxicants,breast-feeding should be promoted and maintatined.

  7. [Peritoneum and laparoscopic environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canis, Michel; Matsuzaki, Sachiko; Bourdel, Nicolas; Jardon, Kris; Cotte, Benjamin; Botchorishvili, Revaz; Rabischong, Benoit; Mage, Gérard

    2007-12-01

    Laparoscopic surgery takes place in a closed environment, the peritoneal cavity distended by the pneumoperitoneum whose parameters, such as pressure, composition, humidity and temperature of the gas, may be changed and adapted to influence the intra and postoperative surgical processes. Such changes were impossible in the "open" environment. This review includes recent data on peritoneal physiology, which are relevant for surgeons, and on the effects of the pneumoperitoneum on the peritoneal membrane. The ability to work in a new surgical environment, which may be adapted to each situation, opens a new era in endoscopic surgery. Using nebulizers, the pneumoperitoneum may become a new way to administer intraoperative treatments. Most of the current data on the consequences of the pneumoperitoneum were obtained using poor animal models so that it remains difficult to estimate the progresses, which will be brought to the operative theater by this new concept. However this revolution will likely be used by thoracic or cardiac surgeon who are also working in a serosa. This approach may even appear essential to all the surgeons who are using endoscopy in a retroperitoneal space such as urologists or endocrine surgeons.

  8. Investigation and Research on Current Economic Environment Problems in Rural Areas in More Developed Towns--Take Hu'nan Shaodong Liuze Town as an example%当前经济较发达地区农村乡镇环境问题的调查与研究--以湖南省邵东县流泽镇为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈波; 曾方荣

    2014-01-01

    With the development of urbanization, industrialization, the rural environment pollution problem increasingly prominent. In order to further understand the current rural environment pollution and treatment status. We have investigated the weeklong on Liu Ze town in Shao Dong County of Hunan province. Through the survey found that as the economy is relatively developed township rural pollution increasing, the performance in pollution sources is increasing, living garbage, pollutant treatment facilities and other issues, the cause of these problems is, etc. In view of the current rural environmental problems, the countermeasures we should strengthen management, strict law enforcement, increasing investment, to award to promote governance and the comprehensive improvement of multi-pronged.%随着城镇化、工业化发展,农村环境污染问题日益突出。为进一步了解当前农村环境污染和整治状况,我们对湖南省邵东县流泽镇进行了为期一星期的调查。通过调查发现,作为经济较发达乡镇农村污染不断加剧,表现在污染源日益增多、生活垃圾困扰大、污染物处理设施落后等问题,造成这些问题原因是多方面的。针对当前农村环境问题,解决对策应从加强管理、严格执法、加大投入、以奖促治、综合整治等多管齐下入手。

  9. High PRF high current switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  10. The modern research environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsøe, Flemming

    1993-01-01

    Information Technology, research environment, structured documents, networked information retrieval......Information Technology, research environment, structured documents, networked information retrieval...

  11. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  12. Current noise in tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Moritz; Grabert, Hermann [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, 79104, Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    We study current fluctuations in tunnel junctions driven by a voltage source. The voltage is applied to the tunneling element via an impedance providing an electromagnetic environment of the junction. We use circuit theory to relate the fluctuations of the current flowing in the leads of the junction with the voltage fluctuations generated by the environmental impedance and the fluctuations of the tunneling current. The spectrum of current fluctuations is found to consist of three parts: a term arising from the environmental Johnson-Nyquist noise, a term due to the shot noise of the tunneling current and a third term describing the cross-correlation between these two noise sources. Our phenomenological theory reproduces previous results based on the Hamiltonian model for the dynamical Coulomb blockade and provides a simple understanding of the current fluctuation spectrum in terms of circuit theory and properties of the average current. Specific results are given for a tunnel junction driven through a resonator. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. 8. report of the Standing Senate Committee on energy, the environment and natural resources : facts do not justify banning Canada's current offshore drilling operations : a Senate review in the wake of BP's Deepwater Horizon incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, W.D.; Mitchell, G. (comps.)

    2010-08-15

    The blowout of BP's Macondo well in the Gulf of Mexico has prompted many drilling practice reviews worldwide. This review by Canada's Senate Committee on Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources investigated Canadian offshore drilling practices. It showed that the risk of an offshore accident is quite low, partly because of the small amount of drilling currently underway in Canada. As a result, the committee recommended against a moratorium on offshore drilling. The study found that Canada's regulations for safety are more stringent than regulations in the United States. This report has elicited further reviews of liability and responsibility issues regarding offshore drilling. The Canadian legislation specifies that oil and gas companies are responsible for all spill clean-up costs and damage compensation. A $30 million absolute liability fund covers blowout costs for drilling in Canada's east offshore coast. A second civil liability fund requires drilling companies to provide Canadian regulators access to $70 million to cover damages from fault or negligence in offshore drilling. In addition, well operators may be required to provide evidence that they have a minimum of $250 million to fund well control, well safety and spill cleanup expenses. This report recommended a comprehensive review of liability, including whether thresholds should be adjusted to reflect current economic realities. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. 上海市某二级医院护理工作环境现状及对护士知觉压力的影响分析%Current status of nursing work environment and influences on perceived stress in nursing staff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡诗凝; 刘薇群; 田蓓; 葛津津

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of nursing work environment and nurses′perceived stress, and to explore the influences of work environment on perceived stress in nursing staff. Methods The study used questionnaire survey to investigate 302 nurses of a second-class hospital in Shanghai from February to April in 2014. The scores of nursing work environment and perceived stress would be collected and the results would be evaluated and correlation analyzed. Results The average score of nursing work environment was (218. 92 ± 33. 54). The scores of workload and acceptance were lowest, and the scores of system maintain and transform were highest. The average score of the perceived stress scale was ( 26. 58 ± 6. 10);however, 103 (34. 1%) nurses were still in unhealthy status. Furthermore, the work environment had negative correlation to the perceived stress (r= -0. 422). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that workload and system maintain and transform were impact factors of perceived stress. Conclusions Nursing work environment is closely related to nurses′ perceived stress. Thus, the perceived stress can be relieved by reducing nurses′workload and improving system maintain and transform in order to develop their health and the quality of nursing.%目的:了解上海市某二级医院护理工作环境及护士知觉压力的现状,并探索护理工作环境对护士知觉压力的影响。方法于2014年2—4月对上海市某二级医院全体护士共302名进行问卷调查,统计护士对护理工作环境和护士知觉压力得分情况,并对两者的相关性进行分析。结果该医院全体护士对医院护理工作环境评价的总体平均分为(218.92±33.54)分,其中工作负荷和认可度维度得分最低,系统维持与变革维度最高;护士知觉压力的总体平均分为(26.58±6.10)分,处于正常范围内,但有103名(34.1%)护士知觉压力超过健康范围;护理工作环境与护士

  15. Perception of Family environment with Russian adolescent twins: possible genotype-environment correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Barsky, Philipp; Gindina, Elena; Lobaskova, Marina; Malykh, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    Gene-environment correlations have been studied in behavior genetics since the beginning of the 1980s, including genetic effect on the perceived family environment; however, the majority of studies have been based on retrospective self-reports. The current study is meant to analyze the sources of variance (complementary genetic factors, shared and non-shared environmental variance) in perceived family environment with Russian adolescent twins. Perception of family environment was measured wit...

  16. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Kötlujökull transports considerable amounts of supraglacial debris at its snout because of frontal oscillations with frequent ice advances followed by ice-margin stagnation. Kötlujökull provides suitable conditions of studying dead-ice melting and landscape formation in a debris-charged lowland...... glacier environment. The scientific challenges are to answer the key questions. What are the conditions for dead-ice formation? From which sources does the sediment cover originate? Which melting and reworking processes act in the ice-cored moraines? What is the rate of de-icing in the ice-cored moraines...... and conclusions on dead-ice melting and landscape formation from Kötlujökull. Processes and landform-sediment associations are linked to the current climate and glacier–volcano interaction....

  17. Current measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  18. The LOFAR radio environment

    CERN Document Server

    Offringa, A R; Zaroubi, S; van Diepen, G; Martinez-Ruby, O; Labropoulos, P; Brentjens, M A; Ciardi, B; Daiboo, S; Harker, G; Jelic, V; Kazemi, S; Koopmans, L V E; Mellema, G; Pandey, V N; Pizzo, R F; Schaye, J; Vedantham, H; Veligatla, V; Wijnholds, S J; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P; Alexov, A; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, M; Beck, R; Bell, M; Bell, M R; Bentum, M; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Birzan, L; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Bruggen, M; Butcher, H; Conway, J; de Vos, M; Dettmar, R J; Eisloeffel, J; Falcke, H; Fender, R; Frieswijk, W; Gerbers, M; Griessmeier, J M; Gunst, A W; Hassall, T E; Heald, G; Hessels, J; Hoeft, M; Horneffer, A; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V; Koopman, Y; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Mann, G; McKean, J; Meulman, H; Mevius, M; Mol, J D; Nijboer, R; Noordam, J; Norden, M; Paas, H; Pandey, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A; Rafferty, D; Rawlings, S; Reich, W; Rottgering, H J A; Schoenmakers, A P; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Sobey, C; Stappers, B; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; van Ardenne, A; van Cappellen, W; van Duin, A P; van Haarlem, M; van Leeuwen, J; van Weeren, R J; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Wijers, R A M J; Wise, M; Wucknitz, O

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This paper discusses the spectral occupancy for performing radio astronomy with the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR), with a focus on imaging observations. Methods: We have analysed the radio-frequency interference (RFI) situation in two 24-h surveys with Dutch LOFAR stations, covering 30-78 MHz with low-band antennas and 115-163 MHz with high-band antennas. This is a subset of the full frequency range of LOFAR. The surveys have been observed with a 0.76 kHz / 1 s resolution. Results: We measured the RFI occupancy in the low and high frequency sets to be 1.8% and 3.2% respectively. These values are found to be representative values for the LOFAR radio environment. Between day and night, there is no significant difference in the radio environment. We find that lowering the current observational time and frequency resolutions of LOFAR results in a slight loss of flagging accuracy. At LOFAR's nominal resolution of 0.76 kHz and 1 s, the false-positives rate is about 0.5%. This rate increases approximately linear...

  19. Antibiotics in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, D G Joakim

    2014-05-01

    Molecules with antibiotic properties, produced by various microbes, have been around long before mankind recognized their usefulness in preventing and treating bacterial infections. Bacteria have therefore been exposed to selection pressures from antibiotics for very long times, however, generally only on a micro-scale within the immediate vicinity of the antibiotic-producing organisms. In the twentieth century we began mass-producing antibiotics, mainly synthetic derivatives of naturally produced antibiotic molecules, but also a few entirely synthetic compounds. As a consequence, entire bacterial communities became exposed to unprecedented antibiotic selection pressures, which in turn led to the rapid resistance development we are facing today among many pathogens. We are, rightly, concerned about the direct selection pressures of antibiotics on the microbial communities that reside in or on our bodies. However, other environments, outside of our bodies, may also be exposed to antibiotics through different routes, most often unintentionally. There are concerns that increased selection pressures from antibiotics in the environment can contribute to the recruitment of resistance factors from the environmental resistome to human pathogens. This paper attempts to 1) provide a brief overview of environmental exposure routes of antibiotics, 2) provide some thoughts about our current knowledge of the associated risks for humans as well as ecosystems, and 3) indicate management options to reduce risks.

  20. Communication in hazardous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, W N; Herold, T R

    1986-01-01

    Radios were investigated for use in hazardous environments where protective breathing equipment such as plastic suits and respirators interfere with communication. A radio system, manufactured by Communications-Applied technology (C-AT), was identified that was designed specifically for hazardous environment communications. This equipment had been used successfully by the US Army and NASA for several years. C-AT equipment was evaluated in plantwide applications at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) using temporary frequencies obtained by the Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR). Radios performed well in all applications, which included a tritium facility, high-level caves, a nuclear reactor building, tank farm, and a canyon building interior. Permanent frequencies were obtained by DOE-SR for two complete six-man C-AT systems at SRP. Because of the relatively short range of these systems, replicates will cover all applications of this type of equipment plantwide. Twelve radio systems are currently being used successfully in plantwide applications.

  1. Sensorial Virtualization: Coupling Gaming and Virtual Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbaya, S.; Miraoui, C.; Wendrich, R.E.; Lim, T.; Stanescu, I.A.; Hauge, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality and virtualization are currently used to design complex systems and demonstrate that they represent the functionalities of real systems. However, the design refinement of the virtual environment (VE) and distributed virtual environment (DVE) are still time consuming and costly, as it

  2. Cryogenic current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizek, F.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical, technical and design questions are examined of cryogenic current leads for SP of magnetic systems. Simplified mathematical models are presented for the current leads. To illustrate modeling, the calculation is made of the real current leads for 500 A and three variants of current leads for 1500 A for the enterprise ''Shkoda.''

  3. Plants' responses to drought and shade environments | Kwon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants' responses to drought and shade environments. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current ... Water and light are the most important environements for plants' growth. These environemts are ...

  4. EnviroNET - The Space Environment Information Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriente, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The recent development of EnviroNET, the Space Environment Information Service, is discussed. The activities pursued by the Space Shuttle Working Group to establish a user-friendly database of current information on the Space Shuttle environment are described.

  5. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  6. Current considerations on teenage pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cristina Manfré

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy has acquired significant proportions. It is estimated that 20 to 25% of all pregnant women in Brazil are teenagers. The present study, through an analysis of the current literature, examines the main aspects involving pregnancy during adolescence, along with its consequences on the life of young mothers, their children and social environment. We conclude that the efforts of health care professionals, parents and educators are crucial to increase awareness of adolescent sexuality. The application of this knowledge is a way to prevent teen pregnancy, thus avoiding the harmful effects on young mothers and their children.

  7. Environment and the serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreland, L; Nordquist, N; Hallman, J; Harro, J; Nilsson, K W

    2010-06-01

    In summary, genetics, as well as foetal and early life environmental factors shape the size or capacity of our monoamine systems, of which the serotonergic one might play a leading role. Those constitutional properties then form the biological basis for personality traits, such as impulsiveness and "sensation seeking", which interact with psychosocial settings and life events to form a pattern of reactivity to a current life event or psychosocial situation, shown as a high or low order of magnitude of gene-environment interaction. In the present paper emphasis is put on the role of genotypes of the serotonin transporter, of monoamine oxidases A and B, and of platelet monoamine oxidase B activity, which all have been shown to be of importance for behaviour and with obvious effects of interactions with environment. Under unfortunate circumstances constitutional properties might be strong enough to result in vulnerability for suicide, even with a modest influence of environment.

  8. Evaluating current processors performance and machines stability

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, R; Tortone, G; Taurino, F M

    2003-01-01

    Accurately estimate performance of currently available processors is becoming a key activity, particularly in HENP environment, where high computing power is crucial. This document describes the methods and programs, opensource or freeware, used to benchmark processors, memory and disk subsystems and network connection architectures. These tools are also useful to stress test new machines, before their acquisition or before their introduction in a production environment, where high uptimes are requested.

  9. An Action Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Brand, Mark; Iversen, Jørgen; Mosses, Peter David

    2004-01-01

    constructs underlying Core ML. The paper also describes the Action Environment, a new environment supporting use and validation of ASDF descriptions. The Action Environment has been implemented on top of the ASF+SDF Meta-Environment, exploiting recent advances in techniques for integration of different...

  10. Species Egalitarianism and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Tiili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A general anthropocentric view of the human species affects the environment and is a major contributing factor in the environmental crisis we are currently facing. A species egalitarian society would have positive effects on the crisis, and particularly in regards to short term goals of decreasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Additionally it would increase the quality of life and alleviate the suffering of countless beings, nonhuman animals and humans alike.

  11. Built Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Forsyth, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sinclair, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The market currently encourages BWT deployment before the technology is ready for full-scale commercialization. To address this issue, industry stakeholders convened a Rooftop and Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the National Wind Technology Center, located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. This report summarizes the workshop.

  12. Physical chemistry and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Garrett, B.C.; Kolb, C.E. Jr.; Shaw, R.W.; Choppin, G.R.; Wagner, A.F.

    1994-08-01

    From the ozone hole and the greenhouse effect to plastics recycling and hazardous waste disposal, society faces a number of issues, the solutions to which require an unprecedented understanding of the properties of molecules. We are coming to realize that the environment is a coupled set of chemical systems, its dynamics determining the welfare of the biosphere and of humans in particular. These chemical systems are governed by fundamental molecular interactions, and they present chemists with an unparalleled challenge. The application of current concepts of molecular behavior and of up-to-date experimental and computational techniques can provide us with insights into the environment that are needed to mitigate past damage, to anticipate the impact of current human activity, and to avoid future insults to the environment. Environmental chemistry encompasses a number of separate, yet interlocking, areas of research. In all of these areas progress is limited by an inadequate understanding of the underlying chemical processes involved. Participation of all chemical approaches -- experimental, theoretical and computational -- and of all disciplines of chemistry -- organic, inorganic, physical, analytical and biochemistry -- will be required to provide the necessary fundamental understanding. The Symposium on ``Physical Chemistry and the Environment`` was designed to bring the many exciting and challenging physical chemistry problems involved in environmental chemistry to the attention of a larger segment of the physical chemistry community.

  13. Takayasu's Arteritis in Pregnancy: A Rare Case Report from a Tertiary Care Infirmary in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Monika; Mohindra, Ritin; Sharma, Manjula; Topden, Sonam R.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a rare, chronic, inflammatory, progressive, idiopathic arteriopathy, afflicting young women of reproductive age group, causing narrowing, occlusion, and aneurysms of systemic and pulmonary arteries, especially the aorta and its branches. During pregnancy, such patients warrant special attention. An interdisciplinary collaboration of obstetricians, cardiologists, and neurologists is necessary to improve maternal and fetal prognosis. Here a case is reported where a patient with diagnosis of TA, complicated by neurological sequelae, successfully fought the vagaries of the condition twice to deliver uneventfully. Case. 25-year-old G2P1L1 presented at 34 weeks of gestation, with chronic hypertension, with TA, with epilepsy, and with late-onset severe IUGR. Following a multidisciplinary approach, she delivered an alive born low birth weight baby (following induction). Her postpartum course remained uneventful. Conclusion. Pregnancy with TA poses a stringent challenge to an obstetrician. Despite advancements in cardiovascular management and advent of new-fangled drugs, the optimal management for pregnant patients with this disease still remains elusive. PMID:28265476

  14. Interesting in- and outpatient attendances at Hogwarts Infirmary and St Mungo's Hospital for magical maladies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Erle C H; Pomfrey, Poppy M; Quek, Amy M L; Seet, Raymond C S

    2006-02-01

    Ailments afflicting wizarding folk are underreported in the muggle world. The recent integration of muggles and magical folk with the return of You-Know-Who (aka He Who Must Not Be Named) may result in a similar affliction of inhabitants of both worlds. We describe interesting maladies afflicting muggles and wizarding folk alike, arising from the use and misuse of magic. We also provide a basic glossary of magical ailments, and describe their muggle corollaries. Further studies will hopefully result in the development of immunity against the unforgivable curses.

  15. Currents for Arbitrary Helicity

    CERN Document Server

    Dragon, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Using Mackey's classification of unitary representations of the Poincar\\'e group on massles states of arbitrary helicity we disprove the claim that states with helicity |h|>=1 cannot couple to a conserved current by constructing such a current.

  16. Magnetic current sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to a electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

  17. Current and Current Fluctuations in Quantum Shuttles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Flindt, Christian; Novotny, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    theoretical tools needed for the analysis, e.g., generalized master equations and Wigner functions, and we outline the methods how the resulting large numerical problems can be handled. Illustrative results are given for current, noise, and full counting statistics for a number of model systems. Throughout...

  18. GLobal Integrated Design Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Matthew; McGuire, Melissa; Smith, David A.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2011-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a collaborative engineering application built to resolve the design session issues of real-time passing of data between multiple discipline experts in a collaborative environment. Utilizing Web protocols and multiple programming languages, GLIDE allows engineers to use the applications to which they are accustomed in this case, Excel to send and receive datasets via the Internet to a database-driven Web server. Traditionally, a collaborative design session consists of one or more engineers representing each discipline meeting together in a single location. The discipline leads exchange parameters and iterate through their respective processes to converge on an acceptable dataset. In cases in which the engineers are unable to meet, their parameters are passed via e-mail, telephone, facsimile, or even postal mail. The result of this slow process of data exchange would elongate a design session to weeks or even months. While the iterative process remains in place, software can now exchange parameters securely and efficiently, while at the same time allowing for much more information about a design session to be made available. GLIDE is written in a compilation of several programming languages, including REALbasic, PHP, and Microsoft Visual Basic. GLIDE client installers are available to download for both Microsoft Windows and Macintosh systems. The GLIDE client software is compatible with Microsoft Excel 2000 or later on Windows systems, and with Microsoft Excel X or later on Macintosh systems. GLIDE follows the Client-Server paradigm, transferring encrypted and compressed data via standard Web protocols. Currently, the engineers use Excel as a front end to the GLIDE Client, as many of their custom tools run in Excel.

  19. Persistent Factors Facilitating Excellence in Research Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalpazidou Schmidt, Evanthia; Graversen, Ebbe Krogh

    2017-01-01

    The paper identifies robust and time-invariant features that characterise dynamic and innovative research environments. It takes as its point of departure the results of an empirical study conducted in 2002, which identified the common characteristics of 15 dynamic and innovative public research...... environments, and focusses on their development by revisiting the environments after more than a decade, hence mapping them in the current research landscape. Based on a model for studies of research environments, constructed and used in the Nordic countries, the paper maps elements internal as well...

  20. Silicon carbide microsystems for harsh environments

    CERN Document Server

    Wijesundara, Muthu B J

    2011-01-01

    Silicon Carbide Microsystems for Harsh Environments reviews state-of-the-art Silicon Carbide (SiC) technologies that, when combined, create microsystems capable of surviving in harsh environments, technological readiness of the system components, key issues when integrating these components into systems, and other hurdles in harsh environment operation. The authors use the SiC technology platform suite the model platform for developing harsh environment microsystems and then detail the current status of the specific individual technologies (electronics, MEMS, packaging). Additionally, methods

  1. Controlled current inductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, S.

    1970-01-01

    Magnetic permeability and shape of special core inserts are varied to produce desired changes in saturation characteristics of current dependent inductor, thus improving its inductance-to-current properties. Materials and saturation levels of the core pieces are selected to permit a wide variety of relationships between inductance and current.

  2. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  3. On Active Current Selection for Lagrangian Profilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jouffroy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Lagrangian profilers are now widely used as measurement and monitoring platforms, notably in observation programs as Argo. In a typical mode of operation, the profilers drift passively at their parking depthbefore making a vertical profile to go back to the surface. This paperpresents simple and computationally-efficient control strategies to activelyselect and use ocean currents so that a profiler can autonomously reach adesired destination. After briefly presenting a typical profiler andpossible mechanical modifications for a coastal environment, we introducesimple mathematical models for the profiler and the currents it will use. Wethen present simple feedback controllers that, using the direction of thecurrents and taking into account the configuration of the environment(coastal or deep-sea, is able to steer the profiler to any desiredhorizontal location. To illustrate the approach, a few results are presentedusing both simulated currents and real current velocity profiles from theNorth Sea.

  4. Decomposition of residue currents

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Mats; Wulcan, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Given a submodule $J\\subset \\mathcal O_0^{\\oplus r}$ and a free resolution of $J$ one can define a certain vector valued residue current whose annihilator is $J$. We make a decomposition of the current with respect to Ass$(J)$ that correspond to a primary decomposition of $J$. As a tool we introduce a class of currents that includes usual residue and principal value currents; in particular these currents admit a certain type of restriction to analytic varieties and more generally to construct...

  5. Inrush Current Control Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An inrush current control circuit having an input terminal connected to a DC power supply and an output terminal connected to a load capacitor limits the inrush current that charges up the load capacitor during power up of a system. When the DC power supply applies a DC voltage to the input terminal, the inrush current control circuit produces a voltage ramp at the load capacitor instead of an abrupt DC voltage. The voltage ramp results in a constant low level current to charge up the load capacitor, greatly reducing the current drain on the DC power supply.

  6. 对我国评刊体系相关问题的分析--形成我国评刊体系的社会环境%Analyze the Problems Existing in the Current Periodical Evaluation System in Our Country---Formation periodical evaluation system of our country social environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海昕

    2015-01-01

    To examine the existing scientific and technological periodical evaluation system in China and call for a rational evaluation system.By re‐viewing the development and research environment of scientific and technological periodicals in our country ,to introduce several mature academic factions rising in the international intelligence community ,also to find media theory influence on periodical evaluation and analyze the problems ex‐isting in the current periodical evaluation system in our country.FindingsEvaluation of scientific and technological periodicals in our country are in‐fluenced by international evaluation system ,currently dominated by impact factor of all kinds of periodical evaluation system. With the external in‐dex as a measure of parameters of the periodicals ,it has become a monopoly method for the evaluation on periodical market in our country. The use value of academic journal is different from that of market‐oriented journals such as traveling or shopping guide etc.. Its value lies in its long‐term fundamental role and serves for the innovation of scientific technology inventions. Therefore it is not right to use nearsighted market perspective to view the value of the academic science and technology periodical.%审视我国现有科技期刊评价体系,呼吁理性评刊系统。通过梳理我国科技期刊发展、研究环境;介绍国际情报学界兴起的几个成熟的学术派别,挖掘传媒理论对期刊评价的影响,分析我国现行期刊评价体系存在的问题。发现我国科技期刊受国际评刊体系影响,当前以“影响因子”为主导的各种期刊评价体系,用期刊的外部指标作为衡量的参数,已经垄断了我国的评刊市场的垄断评刊方法。认为学术期刊的使用价值不同于旅游、导购等市场性期刊,其价值在于其长远的根本性作用,服务于创新技术科学的发明,因此不应用近视的市场眼光来看待

  7. Engineering Compensations in Web Service Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Micahel; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    compensations based on forward recovery principles. We extend the existing Web service transaction coordination architecture and infrastructure in order to support flexible compensation operations. A contract-based approach is being used, which allows the specification of permitted compensations at runtime. We......Business to business integration has recently been performed by employing Web service environments. Moreover, such environments are being provided by major players on the technology markets. Those environments are based on open specifications for transaction coordination. When a failure...... in such an environment occurs, a compensation can be initiated to recover from the failure. However, current environments have only limited capabilities for compensations, and are usually based on backward recovery. In this paper, we introduce an engineering approach and an environment to deal with advanced...

  8. Molds in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Molds in the Environment What are molds? What are some of the ... molds found? Molds are found in virtually every environment and can be detected, both indoors and outdoors, ...

  9. Protect the Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琪

    2006-01-01

    How to protect the environment becomes one of the biggest problems in the world.Rubbish not only pollutes our environment,but also harms people’s health, so we shouldn’t scatter litter.Some factories

  10. Healthy Environments for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OUTSIDE, THEY NEED CARE AND AFFECTION IN A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT! ...AT SCHOOL... 2 ...AT HOME... ...EVEN IN THEIR ... CAN WE DO? HOW CAN WE GUARANTEE A HEALTHY FUTURE FOR ... PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT, ESPECIALLY RIVERS AND FORESTS, WE CAN IMPROVE THE ...

  11. Electric current locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul E [Corvallis, OR; Woodside, Charles Rigel [Corvallis, OR

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  12. Current limiter circuit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witcher, Joseph Brandon; Bredemann, Michael V.

    2017-09-05

    An apparatus comprising a steady state sensing circuit, a switching circuit, and a detection circuit. The steady state sensing circuit is connected to a first, a second and a third node. The first node is connected to a first device, the second node is connected to a second device, and the steady state sensing circuit causes a scaled current to flow at the third node. The scaled current is proportional to a voltage difference between the first and second node. The switching circuit limits an amount of current that flows between the first and second device. The detection circuit is connected to the third node and the switching circuit. The detection circuit monitors the scaled current at the third node and controls the switching circuit to limit the amount of the current that flows between the first and second device when the scaled current is greater than a desired level.

  13. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  14. THE RIGHT TO ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Viorica Paraschivescu; Carmen Elena Radu

    2011-01-01

    This study refers to the fundamental right of the human being to have a healthy, ecologically balanced environment as well as to the necessity of recognizing and guaranteeing this right. We analyze the major components of the human being environment protection, the right to water, the right to fresh air, the right to the environment of the human settlements, the relationship: health – environment. A special attention is given to the integration of the sustainable development in the EU policie...

  15. Computing environment logbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourn, Gordon C; Bouchard, Ann M

    2012-09-18

    A computing environment logbook logs events occurring within a computing environment. The events are displayed as a history of past events within the logbook of the computing environment. The logbook provides search functionality to search through the history of past events to find one or more selected past events, and further, enables an undo of the one or more selected past events.

  16. Hacking the hospital environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Boisen, Anne Bank; Thomsen, Stine Legarth

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for youth-friendly hospital environments as the ward environment may affect both patient satisfaction and health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To involve young people in designing youth-friendly ward environment. METHODS: We arranged a design competition lasting 42 h (Hackathon...

  17. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  18. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Current filaments in turbulent magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martines, E.; Vianello, N.; Sundkvist, D.;

    2009-01-01

    Direct measurements of current density perturbations associated with non-linear phenomena in magnetized plasmas can be carried out using in situ magnetic measurements. In this paper we report such measurements for three different kinds of phenomena. Current density fluctuations in the edge density...... gradient region of a fusion plasma confined in reversed field pinch configuration and in a density gradient region in the Earth magnetosphere are measured and compared, showing that in both environments they can be attributed to drift-Alfvén vortices. Current structures associated with reconnection events...

  20. The state of multiple sclerosis: current insight into the patient/health care provider relationship, treatment challenges, and satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintoré M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mar Tintoré,1 Maggie Alexander,2 Kathleen Costello,3 Martin Duddy,4 David E Jones,5 Nancy Law,6 Gilmore O’Neill,7 Antonio Uccelli,8 Robert Weissert,9 Sibyl Wray10 1Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; 2European Multiple Sclerosis Platform, Brussels, Belgium; 3National Multiple Sclerosis Society, Denver, CO, USA; 4Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK; 5Department of Neurology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 6Nancy Law Consulting LLC, Parker, CO, USA; 7Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA; 8Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 9Department of Neurology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; 10Hope Neurology Multiple Sclerosis Center, Knoxville, TN, USA Background: Managing multiple sclerosis (MS treatment presents challenges for both patients and health care professionals. Effective communication between patients with MS and their neurologist is important for improving clinical outcomes and quality of life. Methods: A closed-ended online market research survey was used to assess the current state of MS care from the perspective of both patients with MS (≥18 years of age and neurologists who treat MS from Europe and the US and to gain insight into perceptions of treatment expectations/goals, treatment decisions, treatment challenges, communication, and satisfaction with care, based on current clinical practice. Results: A total of 900 neurologists and 982 patients completed the survey, of whom 46% self-identified as having remitting-relapsing MS, 29% secondary progressive MS, and 11% primary progressive MS. Overall, patients felt satisfied with their disease-modifying therapy (DMT; satisfaction related to comfort in speaking with their neurologist and participation in their DMT decision-making process. Patients who self-identified as having relapsing-remitting MS were more likely to be very satisfied with their treatment

  1. Heating a chemical current source which operates at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumata, T.; Khosikhara, N.

    1983-02-14

    A chamber for catalytic ignition of hydrogen or gasoline is installed in a chemical current source. The isolated heat heats the chemical current source with a low temperature of the environment providing its optimal operational conditions. The fuel is fed into the chamber from a tank or chamber located in the body of the chemical current source.

  2. Merging of plasma currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.; Schep, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    The merging process of current filaments in a strongly magnetized plasma is described. The evolution is calculated using a contour dynamics method, which accurately tracks piecewise constant distributions of the conserved quantities. In the interaction of two screened currents, both develop dipolar

  3. The Bransfield Gravity Current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangrà, P.; Stegner, A.; Hernández-Arencibia, Mónica; Márrero-Díaz, A.; Salinas, C.; Aguiar-González, B.; Henríquez-Pastene, C.H.; Mouriño-Carballido, B.

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data and laboratory experiments, we show that the circulation of the Bransfield Current (BC) around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) may be characterized in terms of a propagating buoyant gravity current. First, we describe the SSI hydrography and some drifter trajectories, paying spec

  4. Discrete Noether Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Seidl, Gerhart

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple generalization of Noether's theorem for discrete symmetries in relativistic continuum field theories. We calculate explicitly the conserved current for several discrete spacetime and internal symmetries. In addition, we formulate an analogue of the Ward-Takahashi identity for the Noether current associated with a discrete symmetry.

  5. Direct current transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  6. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  7. The Bransfield Gravity Current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangrà, P.; Stegner, A.; Hernández-Arencibia, Mónica; Márrero-Díaz, A.; Salinas, C.; Aguiar-González, B.; Henríquez-Pastene, C.H.; Mouriño-Carballido, B.

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data and laboratory experiments, we show that the circulation of the Bransfield Current (BC) around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) may be characterized in terms of a propagating buoyant gravity current. First, we describe the SSI hydrography and some drifter trajectories, paying

  8. Mobility Management in beyond 3G-Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bargh, Mortaza S.; Bijwaard, Dennis; Zandbelt, Hans; Meeuwissen, Erik; Peddemors, Arjan

    2003-01-01

    Beyond 3G-environments are typically defined as environments that integrate different wireless and fixed access network technologies. In this paper, we address IP based Mobility Management (MM) in beyond 3G-environments with a focus on wireless access networks, motivated by the current trend of WiFi

  9. Build and Execute Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-21

    At exascale, the challenge becomes to develop applications that run at scale and use exascale platforms reliably, efficiently, and flexibly. Workflows become much more complex because they must seamlessly integrate simulation and data analytics. They must include down-sampling, post-processing, feature extraction, and visualization. Power and data transfer limitations require these analysis tasks to be run in-situ or in-transit. We expect successful workflows will comprise multiple linked simulations along with tens of analysis routines. Users will have limited development time at scale and, therefore, must have rich tools to develop, debug, test, and deploy applications. At this scale, successful workflows will compose linked computations from an assortment of reliable, well-defined computation elements, ones that can come and go as required, based on the needs of the workflow over time. We propose a novel framework that utilizes both virtual machines (VMs) and software containers to create a workflow system that establishes a uniform build and execution environment (BEE) beyond the capabilities of current systems. In this environment, applications will run reliably and repeatably across heterogeneous hardware and software. Containers, both commercial (Docker and Rocket) and open-source (LXC and LXD), define a runtime that isolates all software dependencies from the machine operating system. Workflows may contain multiple containers that run different operating systems, different software, and even different versions of the same software. We will run containers in open-source virtual machines (KVM) and emulators (QEMU) so that workflows run on any machine entirely in user-space. On this platform of containers and virtual machines, we will deliver workflow software that provides services, including repeatable execution, provenance, checkpointing, and future proofing. We will capture provenance about how containers were launched and how they interact to annotate

  10. The Bransfield Gravity Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrà, Pablo; Stegner, Alexander; Hernández-Arencibia, Mónica; Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Salinas, Carolina; Aguiar-González, Borja; Henríquez-Pastene, Cristian; Mouriño-Carballido, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data and laboratory experiments, we show that the circulation of the Bransfield Current (BC) around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) may be characterized in terms of a propagating buoyant gravity current. First, we describe the SSI hydrography and some drifter trajectories, paying special attention to the recirculation of the BC at the northeastern tip and northern slopes of the SSI. We observed that when the northeastward-flowing BC reaches the northeastern tip of the SSI, it recirculates around an anticyclonic mesoscale eddy that has not previously been reported in this region. Part of this recirculating water then proceeds southwest along the northern SSI shelf break as a narrow baroclinic jet and another part join the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Consequently, the cross-slope gradients of properties strengthen, and the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current becomes a nearly submesoscale ( 10 km) front. Second, we compare the observations with buoyant gravity current laboratory experiments in an open basin setup where the SSI topographic barrier is represented by a central wall. The resulting circulation of the buoyant gravity current around the wall mirrors our in situ observations. First, a narrow buoyant gravity current flows northeastward along the southern boundary of the wall. Once the head of the buoyant gravity current reaches the tip of the wall, a recirculating anticyclonic vortex is generated, and the buoyant gravity current then proceeds westward along the north side of the wall. This circulation of the BC around the SSI as a buoyant gravity current may contribute to the fertilization of the waters around the SSI, as suggested by previously reported distributions of nutrients and phytoplankton.

  11. Scalable Networked Information Processing Environment (SNIPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagg, G.E.; Moore, K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Dongarra, J.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Geist, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.

    1997-11-01

    SNIPE is a metacomputing system that aims to provide a reliable, secure, fault tolerant environment for long term distributed computing applications and data stores across the global Internet. This system combines global naming and replication of both processing and data to support large scale information processing applications leading to better availability and reliability than currently available with typical cluster computing and/or distributed computer environments.

  12. Analysis of the US Business Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Gina

    2006-01-01

    In the last five years, the US has experienced a significant number of unprecedented events, many of which will have long-term impact on its business environment. Given this fact and the rapid pace of change in the world today, there is a new imperative for understanding and managing these complex dynamics and associated emergent risks. This dissertation, therefore, focused on analyzing the current state of the US business environment; the analysis creates a basis for further examination of t...

  13. On current trace problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The pricing of electricity trasmission requires determining how much use each generator is making of a transmission line and what is each generator's contribution to the system losses. Such problems cannot be solved by only using Kirchoff's laws. This paper proposes two current decomposition axioms based on which the theories and models are established for the current trace problem. To create an efficient algorithm the graph theory is employed. It is proved that there is no directed circuit in a directed current distribution graph. According to this theorem a very simple and efficient algorithm based on recursive elimination process is suggested. A simple example is used to explain the algorithm.

  14. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  15. Occupational asthma in maritime environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, David; Loddé, Brice; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2016-01-01

    In 2006 we published our first review based on the available literature on occupational asthma in maritime environments in the “International Maritime Health” journal. Since then, we have obtained a great deal of new knowledge on asthma in seafood workers and fishermen and on the impact...... of exposures from sulphites preservatives, container fumigants etc. in maritime workers. This review aims to provide an update of the current knowledge base about occupational asthma in a maritime context and to provide recommendations regarding medical surveillance of workers at risk....

  16. Collaborative design in virtual environments

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiangyu

    2011-01-01

    Collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) are multi-user virtual realities which actively support communication and co-operation. This book offers a comprehensive reference volume to the state-of-the-art in the area of design studies in CVEs. It is an excellent mix of contributions from over 25 leading researcher/experts in multiple disciplines from academia and industry, providing up-to-date insight into the current research topics in this field as well as the latest technological advancements and the best working examples. Many of these results and ideas are also applicable to other areas su

  17. Water Current Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tidal, river and ocean current observations collected by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Period of record is late 1800s to mid-1980s.

  18. Prognosis - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on research related to cancer prognosis. Includes posts on factors that influence prognosis, prognostic biomarkers, and doctor-patient communications about prognosis.

  19. NOAA NDBC SOS - currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have currents data. Because of the nature of SOS requests, requests for...

  20. AUTO FIB Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, I.; Sharples, R. M.

    The current status of the automated fibre positioner, Autofib, is reviewed including the positioning performance and the set-up speed. Future plans to build another Autofib for the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope are also briefly discussed.

  1. Electrifying Current Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip

    1980-01-01

    The author describes how he has adapted the television quiz show format of "College Bowl" to current events study for junior high school students. An insert explains use of the same technique with fourth graders. (SJL)

  2. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  3. Current Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Current Icing Product (CIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The CIP algorithm combines...

  4. Current Resource Imagery Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...

  5. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Characteristics and Perceptions of the Medicare Population Data from the 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey is a series of source books based on the...

  6. Eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyang Beom; Kim, Young Hwan [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants.

  7. CORPORATE COMMUNICATION CHALLENGES IN MULTICULTURAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Cristina VASILE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic environment where globalization is powerful and demographic changes complex and continuously changing, the cultural and structural dimensions inside and outside business are getting more intricate. Management and companies leaders search a more complex and valuable solution to increase shareholders satisfaction, to protect the environment and keep calm internal circumstances. The more complex the changes are, the higher the leaders challenges for setting the successful path to their organizations are and our aim in the current paper would be to present several solutions found through communication tools.

  8. Bioreactor Engineering of Stem Cell Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Nina; Marolt, Darja; Cimetta, Elisa; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells hold promise to revolutionize modern medicine by development of new therapies, disease models and drug screening systems. Standard cell culture systems have limited biological relevance because they do not recapitulate the complex 3-dimensional interactions and biophysical cues that characterize the in vivo environment. In this review, we discuss the current advances in engineering stem cell environments using novel biomaterials and bioreactor technologies. We also reflect on the challenges the field is currently facing with regard to translation of stem cell based therapies into the clinic. PMID:23531529

  9. The marketing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The tourism marketing environment consists of internal and external forces which could impact the organisations’ performance. To be successful, companies must adapt to ongoing trends and developments in their macro and micro environments. When organisations scan their marketing environment they will be in a position to deal with any possible threats from the market and to capitalise on any available opportunities. Therefore, this chapter explains the external environmental factors, including;...

  10. Characterizing environment friendly tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Reinsberg, Cicilie; Vinje, Linn Therese

    2010-01-01

    The central aim of sustainable tourism research today is to find tourists that have a low environmental impact on destinations, which can also be defined as environment friendly tourists. The majority of earlier studies on this topic have focused on characteristics of ecotourists, assuming that these are the only tourists that are environment friendly. Few have tried to identify characteristics of environment friendly tourists using a sample from the general tourist population....

  11. Fermi UNIX trademark environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholls, J.

    1991-03-01

    The introduction of UNIX at Fermilab involves multiple platforms and multiple vendors. Additionally, a single user may have to use more than one platform. This heterogeneity and multiplicity makes it necessary to define a Fermilab environment for UNIX so that as much as possible the systems look and feel'' the same. We describe our environment, including both the commercial products and the local tools used to support it. Other products designed for the UNIX environment are also described. 19 refs.

  12. Man & Sound Environment 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings to the conference "Man and Sound Environment 2010" arranged by The sound Envirnment Center at Lund university. Ulf Landström, Swedish Noise Research Network & Frans Mossberg The Sound Environment Centre at Lund university. CONTENTS: Preface – Symposium “Man and Sound Environment 2010” The prevalence of noise problems. Gunn Marit Aasvang, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Department of Environmental Medicine, Nydalen, Oslo, Norway Effects of ...

  13. Nanotechnology, risk and the environment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, William; Thompson, Paul B

    2008-03-01

    Nanotechnologies are already interacting with the environment. Scientists and engineers are manipulating matter at the nanoscale, and these nanoscale processes and products are being used by industry in commercially available products. These products are either applied directly to the environment or end up in the environment through indirect pathways. This review examines the state of current environmental risk assessment of nanotechnologies. Nanotechnology is described generally, then both the possible benefits of nanotechnology and the risks are reviewed in a traditional way. Subsequently, a philosophical criticism of the traditional way of looking at risks is offered.

  14. Space Debris Environment Remediation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; Klinkrad, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    Long-term projections of the space debris environment indicate that even drastic measures, such as an immediate, complete halt of launch and release activities, will not result in a stable environment of man-made space objects. Collision events between already existing space hardware will within a few decades start to dominate the debris population, and result in a net increase of the space debris population, also in size regimes which may cause further catastrophic collisions. Such a collisional cascading will ultimately lead to a run-away situation ("Kessler syndrome"), with no further possibility of human intervention. The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) has been investigating the status and the stability of the space debris environment in several studies by first looking into space traffic management possibilities and then investigating means of mitigating the creation of space debris. In an ongoing activity, an IAA study group looks at ways of active space debris environment remediation. In contrast to the former mitigation study, the current activity concentrates on the active removal of small and large objects, such as defunct spacecraft, orbital stages, and mission-related objects, which serve as a latent mass reservoir that fuels initial catastrophic collisions and later collisional cascading. The paper will outline different mass removal concepts, e.g. based on directed energy, tethers (momentum exchange or electrodynamic), aerodynamic drag augmentation, solar sails, auxiliary propulsion units, retarding surfaces, or on-orbit capture. Apart from physical principles of the proposed concepts, their applicability to different orbital regimes, and their effectiveness concerning mass removal efficiency will be analyzed. The IAA activity on space debris environment remediation is a truly international project which involves more than 23 contributing authors from 9 different nations.

  15. The Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Pelupessy, F I; de Vries, N; McMillan, S L W; Drost, N; Zwart, S F Portegies

    2013-01-01

    We present the open source Astrophysical Multi-purpose Software Environment (AMUSE, www.amusecode.org), a component library for performing astrophysical simulations involving different physical domains and scales. It couples existing codes within a Python framework based on a communication layer using MPI. The interfaces are standardized for each domain and their implementation based on MPI guarantees that the whole framework is well-suited for distributed computation. It includes facilities for unit handling and data storage. Currently it includes codes for gravitational dynamics, stellar evolution, hydrodynamics and radiative transfer. Within each domain the interfaces to the codes are as similar as possible. We describe the design and implementation of AMUSE, as well as the main components and community codes currently supported and we discuss the code interactions facilitated by the framework. Additionally, we demonstrate how AMUSE can be used to resolve complex astrophysical problems by presenting exampl...

  16. Metadata and API Based Environment Aware Content Delivery Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the limitations of current content delivery networks is lack of support for environment aware content delivery. This paper first discusses the requirements of such support, and proposes a new metadata gateway based environment aware content delivery architecture. The paper discusses in some details key functions and technologies of environment aware content delivery architecture, including its APIs and control policies. Finally the paper presents an application to illustrate advantages of environment aware content delivery architecture in the context of next generation network.

  17. Creating a healthy work environment for nursing faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Nursing administrators and faculty have a professional and ethical responsibility to develop and maintain a caring and healthy work environment for nursing faculty. To recruit and retain quality nursing faculty in the current nursing faculty shortage, a healthy work environment is essential. This article focuses on nursing administrators' and nursing faculty members' role in promoting a healthy academic work environment. Strategies to develop and sustain this environment are discussed.

  18. CANE: The Content Addressed Network Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner-Stephen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The fragmented nature and asymmetry of local and remote file access and network access, combined with the current lack of robust authenticity and privacy, hamstrings the current internet. The collection of disjoint and often ad-hoc technologies currently in use are at least partially responsible for the magnitude and potency of the plagues besetting the information economy, of which spam and email borne virii are canonical examples. The proposed replacement for the internet, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), does little to tackle these underlying issues, instead concentrating on addressing the technical issues of a decade ago. This paper introduces CANE, a Content Addressed Network Environment, and compares it against current internet and related technologies. Specifically, CANE presents a simple computing environment in which location is abstracted away in favour of identity, and trust is explicitly defined. Identity is cryptographically verified and yet remains pervasively open in nature. It is argued tha...

  19. Management of mydriasis and pain in cataract and intraocular lens surgery: review of current medications and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grob SR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Seanna R Grob,1–3 Luis A Gonzalez-Gonzalez,1–3 Mary K Daly1,2,4 1Department of Ophthalmology, Veterans Administration Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, USA; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The maintenance of mydriasis and the control of postoperative pain and ­inflammation are critical to the safety and success of cataract and intraocular lens replacement surgery. Appropriate mydriasis is usually achieved by topical and/or intracameral administration of anticholinergic agents, sympathomimetic agents, or both, with the most commonly used being cyclopentolate, tropicamide, and phenylephrine. Ocular inflammation is common after cataract surgery. Topical steroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used because they have been proved effective to control postsurgical inflammation and decrease pain. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have also been shown to help maintain dilation. However, use of multiple preoperative drops for pupil dilation, inflammation, and pain control have been shown to be time consuming, resulting in delays to the operating room, and they cause dissatisfaction among perioperative personnel; their use can also be associated with systemic side effects. Therefore, ophthalmologists have been in search of new options to streamline this process. This article will review the current medications commonly used for intraoperative mydriasis, as well as pain and inflammation control. In addition, a new combination of ketorolac, an anti-inflammatory agent, and phenylephrine, a mydriatic agent has recently been designed to maintain intraoperative mydriasis and to reduce postoperative pain and irritation from intraocular lens replacement surgery. Two Phase III clinical trials evaluating this

  20. The Chukchi slope current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, W. Bryce; Pickart, Robert S.

    2017-04-01

    Using a collection of 46 shipboard hydrographic/velocity transects occupied across the shelfbreak and slope of the Chukchi Sea between 2002 and 2014, we have quantified the existence of a current transporting Pacific-origin water westward over the upper continental slope. It has been named the Chukchi slope current, which is believed to emanate from Barrow Canyon. The current is surface-intensified, order 50 km wide, and advects both summer and winter waters. It is not trapped to a particular isobath, but instead is reminiscent of a free jet. There is no significant variation in Pacific water transport with distance from Barrow Canyon. A potential vorticity analysis suggests that the flow is baroclinically unstable, consistent with the notion that it meanders. The current is present during all synoptic wind conditions, but increases in strength from summer to fall presumably due to the seasonal enhancement of the easterly winds in the region. Its transport increased over the 12-year period of data coverage, also likely in response to wind forcing. In the mean, the slope current transports 0.50 ± 0.07 Sv of Pacific water. This estimate allows us to construct a balanced mass budget of the Chukchi shelf inflows and outflows. Our study also confirms the existence of an eastward-flowing Chukchi shelfbreak jet transporting 0.10 ± 0.03 Sv of Pacific water towards Barrow Canyon.

  1. Longshore currents and sediment trnsport along Kannirajapuram Coast, Tamilnadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Chandramohan, P.; AshokKumar, K.; Gowthaman, R.; Pednekar, P.S.

    The objective of the study was to estimate longshore current and sediment transport from measured wave data and from the observations on the littoral environment. A directional wave rider buoy was deployed at 12m water depth, 11 km off...

  2. Understanding Our Environment: Planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit places Earth in the context of its environment-the Universe-then focuses on Earth as seen from satellites. Students analyze patterns formed by the…

  3. An Engaging Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The author believes that a stimulating learning environment can offer benefits to the general classroom conduct of young people through the different charts displayed in his classroom. Students see the teacher taking pride in their shared working environment and wall or table graffiti. He mentions that he does not only care for his students'…

  4. Designing Creative Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cochrane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Designing creative learning environments involves not only facilitating student creativity, but also modeling creative pedagogical practice. In this paper we explore the implementation of a framework for designing creative learning environments using mobile social media as a catalyst for redefining both lecturer pedagogical practice, as well as redesigning the curriculum around student generated m-portfolios.

  5. SMashup Personal Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatti, Mohamed; Jarke, Matthias; Wang, Zhaohui; Specht, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Chatti, M. A., Jarke, M., Wang, Z., & Specht, M. (2009). SMashup Personal Learning Environments. In F. Wild, M. Kalz, M. Palmér & D. Müller (Eds.), Proceedings of 2nd Workshop Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments (MUPPLE'09). Workshop in conjunction with 4th European Conference on Technology

  6. Precision in harsh environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, Paddy; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Roozeboom, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Microsystems are increasingly being applied in harsh and/or inaccessible environments, but many markets expect the same level of functionality for long periods of time. Harsh environments cover areas that can be subjected to high temperature, (bio)-chemical and mechanical disturbances, electromagnet

  7. Understanding Our Environment: Planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit places Earth in the context of its environment-the Universe-then focuses on Earth as seen from satellites. Students analyze patterns formed by the…

  8. Designing Creative Learning Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Cochrane; Laurent Antonczak

    2015-01-01

    Designing creative learning environments involves not only facilitating student creativity, but also modeling creative pedagogical practice. In this paper we explore the implementation of a framework for designing creative learning environments using mobile social media as a catalyst for redefining both lecturer pedagogical practice, as well as redesigning the curriculum around student generated m-portfolios.

  9. On current trace problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡凡; 王秀丽

    2000-01-01

    The pricing of electricity trasmission requires determining how much use each generator is making of a transmission line and what is each generator’s contribution to the system losses. Such problems cannot be solved by only using Kirchoff’s laws. This paper proposes two current decomposition axioms based on which the theories and models are established for the current trace problem. To create an efficient algorithm the graph theory is employed. It is proved that there is no directed circuit in a directed current distribution graph. According to this theorem a very simple and efficient algorithm based on recursive elimination process is suggested. A simple example is used to explain the algorithm .

  10. Decomposing the Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tim

    The field of molecular electronics have been shown to span a huge range of properties. In an effort to extract the parameters of the system that governs these properties, a number of methods that decomposes the current have been developed. These methods function not just as tools for data...... extraction, but also serves as the foundation upon which to gain insights into the physics that governs the molecular properties. As such, the understanding of the applicability and the development of new methods to decompose the current may be a goal in it self. In this thesis we will explore some...... of these methods, and use the insights from this study to develop new methods. First, we will compare two methods that decompose the current into the transmission from a single conducting level of the molecular device, by extracting level position and broadening. In general we see that the method that relies on I...

  11. Models of current sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Sebastian; Engelke, Lukas; Winterer, Markus; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2017-06-01

    Densification of (semi-)conducting particle agglomerates with the help of an electrical current is much faster and more energy efficient than traditional thermal sintering or powder compression. Therefore, this method becomes more and more common among experimentalists, engineers, and in industry. The mechanisms at work at the particle scale are highly complex because of the mutual feedback between current and pore structure. This paper extends previous modelling approaches in order to study mixtures of particles of two different materials. In addition to the delivery of Joule heat throughout the sample, especially in current bottlenecks, thermoelectric effects must be taken into account. They lead to segregation or spatial correlations in the particle arrangement. Various model extensions are possible and will be discussed.

  12. Decomposing the Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tim

    The field of molecular electronics have been shown to span a huge range of properties. In an effort to extract the parameters of the system that governs these properties, a number of methods that decomposes the current have been developed. These methods function not just as tools for data...... extraction, but also serves as the foundation upon which to gain insights into the physics that governs the molecular properties. As such, the understanding of the applicability and the development of new methods to decompose the current may be a goal in it self. In this thesis we will explore some...... of these methods, and use the insights from this study to develop new methods. First, we will compare two methods that decompose the current into the transmission from a single conducting level of the molecular device, by extracting level position and broadening. In general we see that the method that relies on I...

  13. Quantum Robots and Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Benioff, P

    1998-01-01

    Quantum robots and their interactions with environments of quantum systems are described and their study justified. A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system that includes a quantum computer and needed ancillary systems on board. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include specified changes in the state of the environment or carrying out measurements on the environment. Each task is a sequence of alternating computation and action phases. Computation phase activities include determination of the action to be carried out in the next phase and possible recording of information on neighborhood environmental system states. Action phase activities include motion of the quantum robot and changes of neighborhood environment system states. Models of quantum robots and their interactions with environments are described using discrete space and time. To each task is associated a unitary step operator T that gives the single time step dynamics. T = T_{a}+T_{c} is a sum of action phase and computation phase step ...

  14. Environment and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horii, Ryo; Ikefuji, Masako

    This paper examines the implications of the mutual causality between environmental quality and economic growth. While economic growth deteriorates the environment through increasing amounts of pollution, the deteriorated environment in turn limits the possibility of further economic growth...... the emission of greenhouse gases raises the risk of natural disasters. Stronger environmental policies are required to overcome this link. While there is a trade-off between the environment and growth in the short run, we show that an appropriate policy can improve both in the long run........ In a less developed country, this link, which we call “limits to growth,” emerges as the “poverty-environment trap,” which explains the persistent international inequality both in terms of income and environment. This link also threatens the sustainability of the world’s economic growth, particularly when...

  15. Genesis Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; Skipworth, William C.

    2007-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft launched on 8 August 2001 sampled solar wind environments at L1 from 2001 to 2004. After the Science Capsule door was opened, numerous foils and samples were exposed to the various solar wind environments during periods including slow solar wind from the streamer belts, fast solar wind flows from coronal holes, and coronal mass ejections. The Survey and Examination of Eroded Returned Surfaces (SEERS) program led by NASA's Space Environments and Effects program had initiated access for the space materials community to the remaining Science Capsule hardware after the science samples had been removed for evaluation of materials exposure to the space environment. This presentation will describe the process used to generate a reference radiation Genesis Radiation Environment developed for the SEERS program for use by the materials science community in their analyses of the Genesis hardware.

  16. Environment Assumptions for Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Jobstmann, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis problem asks to construct a reactive finite-state system from an $\\omega$-regular specification. Initial specifications are often unrealizable, which means that there is no system that implements the specification. A common reason for unrealizability is that assumptions on the environment of the system are incomplete. We study the problem of correcting an unrealizable specification $\\phi$ by computing an environment assumption $\\psi$ such that the new specification $\\psi\\to\\phi$ is realizable. Our aim is to construct an assumption $\\psi$ that constrains only the environment and is as weak as possible. We present a two-step algorithm for computing assumptions. The algorithm operates on the game graph that is used to answer the realizability question. First, we compute a safety assumption that removes a minimal set of environment edges from the graph. Second, we compute a liveness assumption that puts fairness conditions on some of the remaining environment edges. We show that the problem of findi...

  17. Environment and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horii, Ryo; Ikefuji, Masako

    This paper examines the implications of the mutual causality between environmental quality and economic growth. While economic growth deteriorates the environment through increasing amounts of pollution, the deteriorated environment in turn limits the possibility of further economic growth....... In a less developed country, this link, which we call “limits to growth,” emerges as the “poverty-environment trap,” which explains the persistent international inequality both in terms of income and environment. This link also threatens the sustainability of the world’s economic growth, particularly when...... the emission of greenhouse gases raises the risk of natural disasters. Stronger environmental policies are required to overcome this link. While there is a trade-off between the environment and growth in the short run, we show that an appropriate policy can improve both in the long run....

  18. Feasibility study: PASS computer environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-10

    The Policy Analysis Screening System (PASS) is a computerized information-retrieval system designed to provide analysts in the Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for Environment, Office of Technology Impacts (DOE-ASEV-OTI) with automated access to articles, computer simulation outputs, energy-environmental statistics, and graphics. Although it is essential that PASS respond quickly to user queries, problems at the computer facility where it was originally installed seriously slowed PASS's operations. Users attempting to access the computer by telephone repeatedly encountered busy signals and, once logged on, experienced unsatisfactory delays in response to commands. Many of the problems stemmed from the system's facility manager having brought another large user onto the system shortly after PASS was implemented, thereby significantly oversubscribing the facility. Although in March 1980 Energy Information Administration (EIA) transferred operations to its own computer facility, OTI has expressed concern that any improvement in computer access time and response time may not be sufficient or permanent. Consequently, a study was undertaken to assess the current status of the system, to identify alternative computer environments, and to evaluate the feasibility of each alternative in terms of its cost and its ability to alleviate current problems.

  19. Current concepts in osteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivere, B; Wimhurst, J A; Clark, I M; Donell, S T

    2012-01-01

    The most frequent cause of failure after total hip replacement in all reported arthroplasty registries is peri-prosthetic osteolysis. Osteolysis is an active biological process initiated in response to wear debris. The eventual response to this process is the activation of macrophages and loss of bone. Activation of macrophages initiates a complex biological cascade resulting in the final common pathway of an increase in osteolytic activity. The biological initiators, mechanisms for and regulation of this process are beginning to be understood. This article explores current concepts in the causes of, and underlying biological mechanism resulting in peri-prosthetic osteolysis, reviewing the current basic science and clinical literature surrounding the topic.

  20. Current power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, J.H.

    1979-03-06

    A current power plant is described that includes a shaft mounted turbine wheel for employment in water current, a housing adjacent the impeller and to which the shaft extends, a ramp positioned on the upstream side of the impellar, and a frame on which the turbine wheel is mounted. The frame is mounted by rollers on a tract such that the impeller and frame may be rolled on the tracks inside the housing, whereafter doors are closed, and water around the turbine wheel may be pumped out to facilitate turbine repair.

  1. Induction motor starting current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arneaud, J.M.; Langman, R.A. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Large errors may occur if leakage path saturation is neglected when reduced-voltage test results are used to predict the direct-on-line starting current of induction motors. The results of applying three existing and two new methods for starting current prediction are compared with test data from 52 motors. A quantitative assessment is made of the probable reduction in error that would be achieved by increasing the number of available sets of reduced-voltage, locked rotor test results or by including slot design data. Guidelines are given for selecting an appropriate predictive method. (author). 4 tabs., 1 fig., 6 refs.

  2. RNEDE: Resilient Network Design Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkat Venkatasubramanian, Tanu Malik, Arun Giridh; Craig Rieger; Keith Daum; Miles McQueen

    2010-08-01

    Modern living is more and more dependent on the intricate web of critical infrastructure systems. The failure or damage of such systems can cause huge disruptions. Traditional design of this web of critical infrastructure systems was based on the principles of functionality and reliability. However, it is increasingly being realized that such design objectives are not sufficient. Threats, disruptions and faults often compromise the network, taking away the benefits of an efficient and reliable design. Thus, traditional network design parameters must be combined with self-healing mechanisms to obtain a resilient design of the network. In this paper, we present RNEDEa resilient network design environment that that not only optimizes the network for performance but tolerates fluctuations in its structure that result from external threats and disruptions. The environment evaluates a set of remedial actions to bring a compromised network to an optimal level of functionality. The environment includes a visualizer that enables the network administrator to be aware of the current state of the network and the suggested remedial actions at all times.

  3. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such

  4. [Acromegaly: current view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kršek, Michal

    2015-10-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by autonomous oversecretion of growth hormone mostly by pituitary adenoma. Untreated acromegaly leads to significantly increased morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment is therefore essential for improvement of patients prognosis and management of acromegaly should be concentrated in specialized centres. Present article summarizes current view on diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly.

  5. Analysis of methods. [information systems evolution environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard J. (Editor); Ackley, Keith A.; Wells, M. Sue; Mayer, Paula S. D.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Decker, Louis P.; Toland, Joel A.; Crump, J. Wesley; Menzel, Christopher P.; Bodenmiller, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    Information is one of an organization's most important assets. For this reason the development and maintenance of an integrated information system environment is one of the most important functions within a large organization. The Integrated Information Systems Evolution Environment (IISEE) project has as one of its primary goals a computerized solution to the difficulties involved in the development of integrated information systems. To develop such an environment a thorough understanding of the enterprise's information needs and requirements is of paramount importance. This document is the current release of the research performed by the Integrated Development Support Environment (IDSE) Research Team in support of the IISEE project. Research indicates that an integral part of any information system environment would be multiple modeling methods to support the management of the organization's information. Automated tool support for these methods is necessary to facilitate their use in an integrated environment. An integrated environment makes it necessary to maintain an integrated database which contains the different kinds of models developed under the various methodologies. In addition, to speed the process of development of models, a procedure or technique is needed to allow automatic translation from one methodology's representation to another while maintaining the integrity of both. The purpose for the analysis of the modeling methods included in this document is to examine these methods with the goal being to include them in an integrated development support environment. To accomplish this and to develop a method for allowing intra-methodology and inter-methodology model element reuse, a thorough understanding of multiple modeling methodologies is necessary. Currently the IDSE Research Team is investigating the family of Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) DEFinition (IDEF) languages IDEF(0), IDEF(1), and IDEF(1x), as well as ENALIM, Entity

  6. Development of high current electron beam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Sun Kook [and others

    1997-05-01

    A high-current electron beam generator has been developed. The energy and the average current of the electron beam are 2 MeV and 50 mA, respectively. The electron beam generator is composed of an electron gun, RF acceleration cavities, a 260-kW RF generator, electron beam optics components, and control system, etc. The electron beam generator will be used for the development of a millimeter-wave free-electron laser and a high average power infrared free-electron laser. The machine will also be used as a user facility in nuclear industry, environment industry, semiconductor industry, chemical industry, etc. (author). 15 tabs., 85 figs.

  7. Honey bee genotypes and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meixner, Marina D; Büchler, Ralph; Costa, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Although knowledge about honey bee geographic and genetic diversity has increased tremendously in recent decades, the adaptation of honey bees to their local environment has not been well studied. The current demand for high economic performance of bee colonies with desirable behavioural...

  8. Marketing research model of competitive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasilya Dmitriy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To support its competitive advantages in current market conditions, each company needs to choose better ways of guaranteeing its favorable competitive position. In this regard, considerable interest lies in the structuring and algorithmization of marketing research processes that provide the information background of such choice. The article is devoted to modeling the process of marketing research of competitive environment.

  9. Work environment quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman; Busck, Ole Gunni; Lind, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how employee participation influences the quality of the work environment and workers’ well-being at 11 Danish workplaces from within six different industries. Both direct participation and representative forms of participation at the workplace level were studied. Statistical...... as well as qualitative comparative analyses reveal that work environment quality and high levels of participation go hand in hand. Within a typology of participation models the highest level of participation, including strong elements of collective participation, and also the best work environment......, measured as ‘psychosocial well-being’, were found at workplaces managed in accordance with democratic principles....

  10. A palliative environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Connie; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Høybye, Mette Terp

    2015-01-01

    The findings show a tension between clinical and technical sensory impressions and more aesthetic ones in the hospital environment. Aesthetic elements in an environment dominated by many clinical impressions proved important for the patients’ positive thoughts and feelings. Aesthetic sensory...... impressions caused a sense of homeliness and familiarity in the hospital environment that was perceived by the patients as carrying a positive meaning. Clinical impressions, on the other hand, were generally associated with unfamiliarity and insecurity and were experienced as creating a negative mood....

  11. Environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paavola, Jouni; Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews socio-economic research on the environment and sustainability. The chapter first explores core aspects of socio-economics, examines how socio-economics has related to the agenda of research on the environment, and assesses how socio-economic research on the environment became...... to a research agenda for ‘socio-ecological economics’. Sustainable consumption and global environmental change are already important areas of research for it. But ecological macroeconomics is also needed to formulate coordinated responses to multiple crises such as economic downturn, climate change and loss...

  12. Work environment quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman; Busck, Ole Gunni; Lind, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how employee participation influences the quality of the work environment and workers’ well-being at 11 Danish workplaces from within six different industries. Both direct participation and representative forms of participation at the workplace level were studied. Statistical...... as well as qualitative comparative analyses reveal that work environment quality and high levels of participation go hand in hand. Within a typology of participation models the highest level of participation, including strong elements of collective participation, and also the best work environment...

  13. Forest Resources and Environment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANShaohui; ZENGXiangwei; ZHANGQun

    2004-01-01

    With a vast territory, China is rich in forest resources and diversified environments. The changes in forest resources have a direct bearing on environmental quality. The paper gives a detailed account of the dynamic change in forest resources in China, including the overall process of forest evolution, the status quo and features of the existing forest resources and the development and use of major forest resources. In addition, it analyses the current situation of China' s environment and explores the main contn'buting factors based on the overall environmental situation. In order to achieve sustainable management of forest resources and improve the environment in China, the Chinese government attaches great importance to the protection and development of forest resources as well as environmental development and improvement. The paper gives an overview of the thinking for sustainable forest resource and environmental development in the future and current focus of efforts.

  14. Human response to combined indoor environment exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    Most thermal comfort standards and guidelines presume sedentary, light activity and a neutral overall thermal sensation when predicting local thermal discomfort. In addition, current standards specify criteria for separate aspects of the indoor environment, e.g. thermal climate, air quality or no...... thermal discomfort factors were observed. Limited evidence was found of significant interactions between different aspects of the indoor environment. Only for the effect of air temperature and air humidity on sensory air quality were well-estabished relationships available.......Most thermal comfort standards and guidelines presume sedentary, light activity and a neutral overall thermal sensation when predicting local thermal discomfort. In addition, current standards specify criteria for separate aspects of the indoor environment, e.g. thermal climate, air quality...

  15. Independent Particles in a Dynamical Random Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Mathew; Seppäläinen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    We study the motion of independent particles in a dynamical random environment on the integer lattice. The environment has a product distribution. For the multidimensional case, we characterize the class of spatially ergodic invariant measures. These invariant distributions are mixtures of inhomogeneous Poisson product measures that depend on the past of the environment, and we also investigate the correlations in this measure. For dimensions one and two, we also prove convergence to equilibrium from spatially ergodic initial distributions. In the one-dimensional situation we study fluctuations of net current seen by an observer traveling at a deterministic speed. When this current is centered by its quenched mean its limit distributions are the same as for classical independent particles.

  16. Marijuana: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald eGreydanus

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (cannabis remains a controversial drug in the 21st century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the 21st century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption.

  17. Marijuana: Current Concepts†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption. PMID:24350211

  18. Current management of presbyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandelis A Papadopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presbyopia is a physiologic inevitability that causes gradual loss of accommodation during the fifth decade of life. The correction of presbyopia and the restoration of accommodation are considered the final frontier of refractive surgery. Different approaches on the cornea, the crystalline lens and the sclera are being pursued to achieve surgical correction of this disability. There are however, a number of limitations and considerations that have prevented widespread acceptance of surgical correction for presbyopia. The quality of vision, optical and visual distortions, regression of effect, complications such as corneal ectasia and haze, anisometropia after monovision correction, impaired distance vision and the invasive nature of the currently techniques have limited the utilization of presbyopia surgery. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update of current procedures available for presbyopia correction and their limitations.

  19. Quantum Robots Plus Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Benioff, P

    1998-01-01

    A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system including an on bord quantum computer and ancillary systems, that interact with an environment of quantum systems. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include carrying out measurements and physical experiments on the environment. Environments considered so far in the literature: oracles, data bases, and quantum registers, are shown to be special cases of environments considered here. It is noted that quantum robots should include a quantum computer and cannot be simply a multistate head. A model is discussed in which each task, as a sequence of computation and action phases, is described by a unitary step operator. Overall system dynamics is described in terms of a Feynman sum over paths of completed computation and action phases. A simple task example, measuring the distance between the quantum robot and a particle on a 1D space lattice, with quantum phase path and time duration dispersion present, is analyzed.

  20. ENVIRONMENTS and EOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Schnetzer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY: The association of organisms to their environments is a key issue in exploring biodiversity patterns. This knowledge has traditionally been scattered, but textual descriptions of taxa and their habitats are now being consolidated in centralized resources. However, structured annotations...

  1. Space Environment Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  2. CERN and the environment

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    New webpages answer common questions about CERN and the environment.   One of the new public webpages dedicated to CERN and the environment. Do your neighbours ever ask you about CERN’s environmental impact? And about radiation in particular? If so, the answers to those questions can now be found online on a new set of public webpages dedicated to CERN and the environment. These pages, put together by the Occupational Health, Safety and Environmental Protection (HSE) unit and the groups responsible for CERN's site maintenance, contain a wealth of information on topics linked to the environment, such as biodiversity at CERN, waste management, ionising radiation, and water and electricity consumption. “CERN forms part of the local landscape, with its numerous sites and scientific activities. It’s understandable that people living nearby have questions about the impact of these activities and it’s important that we respond with complete transp...

  3. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2014-01-01

    Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking an environme...

  4. Environment and World Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larre, Dominique

    1979-01-01

    Tourism can create significant impacts on both the social and natural environment; however, many nations have avoided the negative impacts. Consideration of the effects of tourism should be part of national policy toward the tourist industry. (RE)

  5. Visualization Design Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomplun, A.R.; Templet, G.J.; Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.; Schwegel, J.; Hughes, K.R.

    1999-02-01

    Improvements in the performance and capabilities of computer software and hardware system, combined with advances in Internet technologies, have spurred innovative developments in the area of modeling, simulation and visualization. These developments combine to make it possible to create an environment where engineers can design, prototype, analyze, and visualize components in virtual space, saving the time and expenses incurred during numerous design and prototyping iterations. The Visualization Design Centers located at Sandia National Laboratories are facilities built specifically to promote the ''design by team'' concept. This report focuses on designing, developing and deploying this environment by detailing the design of the facility, software infrastructure and hardware systems that comprise this new visualization design environment and describes case studies that document successful application of this environment.

  6. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu; Popescu Andrei; Ploesteanu Mara Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    .... Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization...

  7. Business Game Learning Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Valcke, Martin; Van Vilsteren, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., Valcke, M., & Van Vilsteren, P. (1997) Business Game Learning Environment. Design and development of a competency-based distance education business curriculum at the Open University of the Netherlands.

  8. Extreme environments and exobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, E I

    1993-01-01

    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  9. Current and future photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Boreland, M.B.; Bagnall, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Photovoltaics, now a billion-dollar industry, is experiencing staggering growth as increased concerns over fuel supply and carbon emissions have encouraged governments and environmentalists to become increasingly prepared to offset the extra cost of solar energy. Three 'generations' of photovoltaics have been envisaged that will take solar power into the mainstream. Photovoltaic production is currently 90% 'first-generation' or '1G' solar cells that rely on expensive bulk multi-crystalline or...

  10. Current Research Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-01

    Biological oceanography, marine food chain dynamics, carbon cycling in the ocean. Martin, Seelye,Ph.D., Johns Hopkins. Geophysical fluid dynamics...currently under investigation, (Ahmed, Packard) 8. Amylase studies An assay for amylase activity has been adapted to measure zooplankton grazing. This...as a function of available food and of the biomass of copepods, was prescribed by sixteen equations: five, corresponding to copepodite stages (I to V

  11. Lubricated viscous gravity currents

    OpenAIRE

    Kowal, Katarzyna N.; Worster, M. Grae

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available via CUP at http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9553100&fileId=S0022112015000300. We present a theoretical and experimental study of viscous gravity currents lubricated by another viscous fluid from below. We use lubrication theory to model both layers as Newtonian fluids spreading under their own weight in two-dimensional and axisymmetric settings over a smooth rigid horizontal surfa...

  12. Hotspots, Jets and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, M. J.

    2008-06-01

    I discuss the nature of `hotspots' and `jet knots' in the kpc-scale structures of powerful radio galaxies and their relationship to jet-environment interactions. I describe evidence for interaction between the jets of FRI sources and their local environments, and discuss its relationship to particle acceleration, but the main focus of the paper is the hotspots of FRIIs and on new observational evidence on the nature of the particle acceleration associated with them.

  13. Environment induced incoherent controllability

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Raffaele; D'Alessandro, Domenico

    2005-01-01

    We prove that the environment induced entanglement between two non interacting, two-dimensional quantum systems S and P can be used to control the dynamics of S by means of the initial state of P. Using a simple, exactly solvable model, we show that both accessibility and controllability of S can be achieved under suitable conditions on the interaction of S and P with the environment.

  14. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  15. Clopidogrel Resistance: Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NS Neki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet agents are mainly used in the prevention and management of atherothrombotic complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy, combining aspirin and clopidogrel, is the standard care for patients having acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention according to the current ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines. But in spite of administration of dual antiplatelet therapy, some patients develop recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events especially stent thrombosis which is a serious clinical problem. Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel varies widely among patients based on ex vivo platelet function measurements. Clopidogrel is an effective inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation due to its selective and irreversible blockade of the P2Y12 receptor. Patients who display little attenuation of platelet reactivity with clopidogrel therapy are labeled as low or nonresponders or clopidogrel resistant. The mechanism of clopidogrel resistance remains incompletely defined but there are certain clinical, cellular and genetic factors including polymorphisms responsible for therapeutic failure. Currently there is no standardized or widely accepted definition of clopidogrel resistance. The future may soon be realised in the routine measurement of platelet activity in the same way that blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar are followed to help guide the therapy, thus improving the care for millions of people. This review focuses on the methods used to identify patients with clopidogrel resistance, the underlying mechanisms, metabolism, clinical significance and current therapeutic strategies to overcome clopidogrel resistance. J Enam Med Col 2016; 6(1: 38-46

  16. Turbulent current drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbet, X.; Esteve, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Smolyakov, A.

    2014-11-01

    The Ohm's law is modified when turbulent processes are accounted for. Besides an hyper-resistivity, already well known, pinch terms appear in the electron momentum flux. Moreover it appears that turbulence is responsible for a source term in the Ohm's law, called here turbulent current drive. Two terms contribute to this source. The first term is a residual stress in the momentum flux, while the second contribution is an electro-motive force. A non zero average parallel wave number is needed to get a finite source term. Hence a symmetry breaking mechanism must be invoked, as for ion momentum transport. E × B shear flows and turbulence intensity gradients are shown to provide similar contributions. Moreover this source term has to compete with the collision friction term (resistivity). The effect is found to be significant for a large scale turbulence in spite of an unfavorable scaling with the ratio of the electron to ion mass. Turbulent current drive appears to be a weak effect in the plasma core, but could be substantial in the plasma edge where it may produce up to 10 % of the local current density.

  17. Application of Terrestrial Environments in Orion Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Terrestrial and Planetary Environments (TPE) Team support to the NASA Orion space vehicle. The TPE utilizes meteorological data to assess the sensitivities of the vehicle due to the terrestrial environment. The Orion vehicle, part of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Program, is designed to carry astronauts beyond low-earth orbit and is currently undergoing a series of tests including Exploration Test Flight (EFT) - 1. The presentation describes examples of TPE support for vehicle design and several tests, as well as support for EFT-1 and planning for upcoming Exploration Missions while emphasizing the importance of accounting for the natural environment's impact to the vehicle early in the vehicle's program.

  18. An environment-mediated quantum deleter

    CERN Document Server

    Srikanth, R; Banerjee, Subhashish

    2006-01-01

    Environment-induced decoherence presents a great challenge to realizing a quantum computer. We point out the somewhat surprising fact that decoherence can be useful, indeed necessary, for practical quantum computation, in particular, for the effective erasure of quantum memory in order to initialize the state of the quantum computer. The essential point behind the deleter is that the environment, by means of a dissipative interaction, furnishes a contractive map towards a pure state. We present a specific example of an amplitude damping channel provided by a two-level system's interaction with its environment in the weak Born-Markov approximation. This is contrasted with a purely dephasing, non-dissipative channel provided by a two-level system's interaction with its environment by means of a quantum nondemolition interaction. We point out that currently used state preparation techniques, for example using optical pumping, essentially perform as quantum deleters.

  19. A study on environment public spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Bueno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This text deals with the importance of studying environment public spending. Initially, we discuss the concept of environment public spending and how it became a public accounting function. Later, an analysis of several studies on the theme was carried out to promote a discussion on the environment public funds allocated by governments. Next, a discussion on the relevance of the theme and the need for further studies is presented, since investments on environment management still need to be better allocated and duly dimensioned. Currently, transparence in public spending has promoted the realization of more studies, leading to a more careful observation of environmental issues by the society, showing that these issues still need more attention from the goverment.

  20. The PISCES 2 parallel programming environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Terrence W.

    1987-01-01

    PISCES 2 is a programming environment for scientific and engineering computations on MIMD parallel computers. It is currently implemented on a flexible FLEX/32 at NASA Langley, a 20 processor machine with both shared and local memories. The environment provides an extended Fortran for applications programming, a configuration environment for setting up a run on the parallel machine, and a run-time environment for monitoring and controlling program execution. This paper describes the overall design of the system and its implementation on the FLEX/32. Emphasis is placed on several novel aspects of the design: the use of a carefully defined virtual machine, programmer control of the mapping of virtual machine to actual hardware, forces for medium-granularity parallelism, and windows for parallel distribution of data. Some preliminary measurements of storage use are included.

  1. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  2. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on

  3. Current metabolomics: technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Sastia P; Yamamoto, Shinya; Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2013-07-01

    Metabolomics, the global quantitative assessment of metabolites in a biological system, has played a pivotal role in various fields of science in the post-genomic era. Metabolites are the result of the interaction of the system's genome with its environment and are not merely the end product of gene expression, but also form part of the regulatory system in an integrated manner. Therefore, metabolomics is often considered a powerful tool to provide an instantaneous snapshot of the physiology of a cell. The power of metabolomics lies on the acquisition of analytical data in which metabolites in a cellular system are quantified, and the extraction of the most meaningful elements of the data by using various data analysis tool. In this review, we discuss the latest development of analytical techniques and data analyses methods in metabolomics study.

  4. Stochastic longshore current dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan M.; Venkataramani, Shankar

    2016-12-01

    We develop a stochastic parametrization, based on a 'simple' deterministic model for the dynamics of steady longshore currents, that produces ensembles that are statistically consistent with field observations of these currents. Unlike deterministic models, stochastic parameterization incorporates randomness and hence can only match the observations in a statistical sense. Unlike statistical emulators, in which the model is tuned to the statistical structure of the observation, stochastic parametrization are not directly tuned to match the statistics of the observations. Rather, stochastic parameterization combines deterministic, i.e physics based models with stochastic models for the "missing physics" to create hybrid models, that are stochastic, but yet can be used for making predictions, especially in the context of data assimilation. We introduce a novel measure of the utility of stochastic models of complex processes, that we call consistency of sensitivity. A model with poor consistency of sensitivity requires a great deal of tuning of parameters and has a very narrow range of realistic parameters leading to outcomes consistent with a reasonable spectrum of physical outcomes. We apply this metric to our stochastic parametrization and show that, the loss of certainty inherent in model due to its stochastic nature is offset by the model's resulting consistency of sensitivity. In particular, the stochastic model still retains the forward sensitivity of the deterministic model and hence respects important structural/physical constraints, yet has a broader range of parameters capable of producing outcomes consistent with the field data used in evaluating the model. This leads to an expanded range of model applicability. We show, in the context of data assimilation, the stochastic parametrization of longshore currents achieves good results in capturing the statistics of observation that were not used in tuning the model.

  5. The Weak Neutral Current

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This is a review of electroweak precision physics with particular emphasis on low-energy precision measurements in the neutral current sector of the electroweak theory and includes future experimental prospects and the theoretical challenges one faces to interpret these observables. Within the minimal Standard Model they serve as determinations of the weak mixing angle which are competitive with and complementary to those obtained near the Z-resonance. In the context of new physics beyond the Standard Model these measurements are crucial to discriminate between models and to reduce the allowed parameter space within a given model. We illustrate this for the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with or without R-parity.

  6. ONLINE PUBLISHING CURRENT SCENARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to unravel the current scenario in online publishing. Advent of internet has brought with it tremendous changes in the publishing industry. What was hither to an industry dominated by publisher has been thrown open to one and sundry. Online publishing has brought with it a reach which was hitherto never been imagined. In the normal course it would take at least a year to publish a manuscript. Online publishing has managed to bring this time down to a few weeks / at most a month. This article attempts to discusses the positives and perils of online publishing scenario.

  7. SBC Dark Current Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaz, Sara

    2013-10-01

    This takes a series of SBC dark measurements over a continuous period of about 6 hours {4 orbits}. The aim is to collect dark images during an extended SBC on-time. Earlier measurements indicate that the dark current increases with SBC on-time and may also be increasing with overall SBC use. The 6-hour time matches the longest time used by any observer. As with all SBC observations this needs continuous SAA free time.This program is executed once per cycle. The last exposures were taken in Mar 2013 under Program 13161.

  8. Current Conveyor Equivalent Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejmal S. Rathore

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An equivalence between a class of (current conveyor CC II+ and CC II- circuits is established. CC IIequivalent circuit uses one extra element. However, under certain condition, the extra element can be eliminated. As an illustration of the application of this equivalence, minimal first and second order all-pass filters are derived. Incertain cases, it is possible to compensate the effect of the input resistor of CC at port X. At the end, an open problem of realizing an Nth order (N > 2 minimal all-pass filter is stated.

  9. Light Cone Current Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald

    2003-01-01

    This talk follows by a few months a talk by the same authors on nearly the same subject at the Coral Gables Conference. The ideas presented here are basically the same, but with some amplification, some change of viewpoint, and a number of new questions for the future. For our own convenience, we have transcribed the Coral Gables paper, but with an added ninth section, entitled "Problems of light cone current algebra", dealing with our present views and emphasizing research topics that require study.

  10. Generalized Quantum Current Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liu

    2001-01-01

    Two general families of new quantum-deformed current algebras are proposed and identified both as infinite Hopf family of algebras, a structure which enables one to define "tensor products" of these algebras. The standard quantum affine algebras turn out to be a very special case of the two algebra families, in which case the infinite Hopf family structure degenerates into a standard Hopf algebra. The relationship between the two algebraic families as well as thefr various special examples are discussed, and the free boson representation is also considered.

  11. Saturn's Other Ring Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, F. J.

    2014-04-01

    Saturn's main rings orbit the planet within an atmosphere and ionosphere of water, oxygen and hydrogen, produced by meteoritic impacts on and ultraviolet photodesorbtion of the ring particles [Johnson et al., 2006; Luhmann et al., 2006; Tseng et al., 2010]. The neutral atmosphere itself has only been tentatively detected through ultraviolet fluorescents of OH [Hall et al., 1996] while the ionosphere was observed in situ by the Cassini spacecraft shortly after orbital insertion [Coates et al.,2005; Tokar et al. 2005, Waite et al. 2005]. Although the plasma flow velocity of this ionosphere is not well-constrained, but the close association with the rings suggests that its speed would be couppled to the keplarian velocity of the rings themselves. As a result, the motion of the plasma through Saturn's magnetic field would produce an induced voltage, oriented away from the planet outside synchronous orbit and towards the planet inside synchronous orbit. Such a potential could result in currents flowing across the ring plane and closeing along magnetic field lines and through Saturn's ionosphere at latitudes between 36o and 48o. Cassini observations of whistler-mode plasma wave emissions [Xin et al.,2006] centered on synchronous orbit (1.76 Rs, mapping to 41o latitude) have been interpreted as a product of field-aligned electron beams associated with such a current. This presentation will investigate the magnitude of these currents and the resulting Joule heating of the ionosphere. An important constraint is that no auroral ultraviolet emissions have been observed at the relevant latitudes. In contrast, Joule heating could affect infrared emissions from H3+. Variations in H3+ emission associated with Saturn's rings have been reported by O'Donoghue et al., 2013, and interpreted as a result of ring "rain", i.e. precipitating water group species from the rings which alter ionosphereic chemistry and H3+ densities. As noted by O'Donoghue et al., this interpretation may be

  12. BLOCKING ALGORITHM FOR CURRENT PROTECTION DURING INRUSH MAGNETIZATION CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romaniuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents blocking algorithm for current protection during inrush process. The algorithm is based on the evaluation of the ratio of the positive sequence second harmonic current to the negative sequence first harmonic current.

  13. Evolving Robot Controllers for Structured Environments Through Environment Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Faiña, Andres; Støy, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    show that by using a sequence the evolutionary algorithm can find a controller that performs well in all sub-environments more consistently than when presenting all sub-environments together. We conclude that environment decomposition is an useful approach for evolving controllers for structured......In this paper we aim to develop a controller that allows a robot to traverse an structured environment. The approach we use is to decompose the environment into simple sub-environments that we use as basis for evolving the controller. Specifically, we decompose a narrow corridor environment...... into four different sub-environments and evolve controllers that generalize to traverse two larger environments composed of the sub-environments. We also study two strategies for presenting the sub-environments to the evolutionary algorithm: all sub-environments at the same time and in sequence. Results...

  14. Influence of Current Transformer Saturation on Operation of Current Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romaniouk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the influence of instrument current transformer errors on operation of current protection of power supply diagram elements has been carried out in the paper. The paper shows the influence of an aperiodic component of transient current and secondary load on current  transformer errors.Peculiar operational features of measuring elements of electromechanical and microprocessor current protection with their joint operation with electromagnetic current transformers have been analyzed in the paper.

  15. Quantum robots plus environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, P.

    1998-07-23

    A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system, including an on board quantum computer and needed ancillary systems, that interacts with an environment of quantum systems. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include making specified changes in the state of the environment or carrying out measurements on the environment. The environments considered so far, oracles, data bases, and quantum registers, are seen to be special cases of environments considered here. It is also seen that a quantum robot should include a quantum computer and cannot be simply a multistate head. A model of quantum robots and their interactions is discussed in which each task, as a sequence of alternating computation and action phases,is described by a unitary single time step operator T {approx} T{sub a} + T{sub c} (discrete space and time are assumed). The overall system dynamics is described as a sum over paths of completed computation (T{sub c}) and action (T{sub a}) phases. A simple example of a task, measuring the distance between the quantum robot and a particle on a 1D lattice with quantum phase path dispersion present, is analyzed. A decision diagram for the task is presented and analyzed.

  16. Current Ebola vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ebolaviruses cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, neither a specific treatment nor a vaccine licensed for use in humans is available. However, a number of vaccine candidates have been developed in the last decade that are highly protective in non-human primates, the gold standard animal model for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Areas covered This review analyzes a number of scenarios for the use of ebolavirus vaccines, discusses the requirements for ebolavirus vaccines in these scenarios, and describes current ebolavirus vaccines. Among these vaccines are recombinant Adenoviruses, recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, recombinant Human Parainfluenza viruses and virus-like particles. Interestingly, one of these vaccine platforms, based on recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, has also demonstrated post-exposure protection in non-human primates. Expert opinion The most pressing remaining challenge is now to move these vaccine candidates forward into human trials and towards licensure. In order to achieve this, it will be necessary to establish the mechanisms and correlates of protection for these vaccines, and to continue to demonstrate their safety, particularly in potentially immunocompromised populations. However, already now there is sufficient evidence that, from a scientific perspective, a vaccine protective against ebolaviruses is possible. PMID:22559078

  17. Non-inductive current drive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture addresses the various ways of non-inductive current generation. In particular, the topics covered include the bootstrap current, RF current drive, neutral beam current drive, alternative methods, and possible synergies between different ways of non-inductive current generation.

  18. NON-INDUCTIVE CURRENT DRIVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2010-01-01

    This lecture addresses the various ways of non-inductive current generation. In particular, the topics covered include the bootstrap current, RF current drive, neutral beam current drive, alternative methods, and possible synergies between different ways of non-inductive current generation.

  19. Built-Environment Report Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, Ian; Fields, Jason; Preus, Robert; Oteri, Frank

    2016-06-14

    Built-environment wind turbine (BEWT) projects are wind energy projects that are constructed on, in, or near buildings. These projects present an opportunity for distributed, low-carbon generation combined with highly visible statements on sustainability, but the BEWT niche of the wind industry is still developing and is relatively less mature than the utility-scale wind or conventional ground-based distributed wind sectors. The findings presented in this presentation cannot be extended to wind energy deployments in general because of the large difference in application and technology maturity. This presentation summarizes the results of a report investigating the current state of the BEWT industry by reviewing available literature on BEWT projects as well as interviewing project owners on their experiences deploying and operating the technology. The authors generated a series of case studies that outlines the pertinent project details, project outcomes, and lessons learned.

  20. The ESIS Correlation Environment Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giommi, P.; Ansari, S. G.; Ciarlo, A.; Donzelli, P.; Stokke, H.; Torrente, P.; Walker, S.; Zampognaro, V.

    This paper gives a brief description of the Correlation Environment Prototype currently under development at ESRIN (Frascati, Italy) as part of the European Space Information System (ESIS) project. The prototype consists of a C program that acts as graphical user-interface, as tasks scheduler and as data-handler within the general ESIS system. This program will provide a uniform view to a number of applications that allow the user to retrieve, inspect and compare Astronomy and Space-Physics data. The prototype architecture is object oriented and open so that new packages can easily be included as they become available. The prototype will run on VAX-VMS and on UNIX systems.

  1. Nova Scotia Environment Act: Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    In January 1993, a comprehensive review and consolidation of 13 statutes currently under the Department of the Environment's administration began to create a more rational, efficient, and user-friendly framework for environmental management; to fulfill outstanding commitments for regulatory reform; and to provide an opportunity for focused stakeholder consultations on substantive changes to the legislative framework. Draft legislation was released for public comment in November 1993. This report summarizes the public comments but also includes comments by the Public Consultation Committee. Issues addressed include administration, environmental education and research, environmental assessment process, approvals and certificates, release of substances, hazardous substances and pesticides, contaminated sites, waste management, water management, inspections and investigations, orders, appeals, civil remedies, penalties and prosecutions, and documentary evidence.

  2. Space Environment Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, William J.

    1984-04-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Space Environment Laboratory (SEL), along with several other NOAA programs, is slated for a major budget reduction in FY 1985, a reduction which would have a serious impact upon the space environment services now provided by the laboratory.SEL, jointly with the U.S. Air Force's Air Weather Service, operates the Space Environment Services Center (SESC) in Boulder, Colorado. SESC acquires, in near real-time, world-wide data on solar activity, on the terrestrial magnetic field, and on energetic particles at geostationary and polar orbiting satellite altitudes. Data are available to SESC from solar observatories operated by both the Air Force and a number of nongovernment organizations, the NOAA geostationary and polar orbiting satellites, and a U.S.-Canadian magnetometer network.

  3. Gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuck, Stephen B; McCaffery, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of increasingly accessible technologies for typing genetic variation, studies of gene-environment (G×E) interactions have proliferated in psychological research. Among the aims of such studies are testing developmental hypotheses and models of the etiology of behavioral disorders, defining boundaries of genetic and environmental influences, and identifying individuals most susceptible to risk exposures or most amenable to preventive and therapeutic interventions. This research also coincides with the emergence of unanticipated difficulties in detecting genetic variants of direct association with behavioral traits and disorders, which may be obscured if genetic effects are expressed only in predisposing environments. In this essay we consider these and other rationales for positing G×E interactions, review conceptual models meant to inform G×E interpretations from a psychological perspective, discuss points of common critique to which G×E research is vulnerable, and address the role of the environment in G×E interactions.

  4. The hovercraft environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovesey, E J

    1970-06-01

    In just over a decade the hovercraft has progressed from first prototype to a successful commercial form of transport which also has the ability to penetrate many environments hitherto virtually inaccessible to manned vehicles. Comparison with rival short range vehicles such as the helicopter and hydrofoil show that the hovercraft has become one of the most versatile forms of transport available. This versatility and ability to operate in unusual or extreme environments has been accompanied by the problems of control and of protection of the occupants of the hovercraft from the hazards associated with these environments. Several of these problems are discussed, together with their possible solutions. This article is based on a paper given to the Nederlands Vereniging Voor Ergonomie/Ergonomics Research Society joint conference at Noordwijk in Holland, 11-13 June, 1969.

  5. Appropriating the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Environmental policy has become an important area of European Union (EU) policy making, even though it had not originally been foreseen in the Treaty of Rome. Its emergence in the early 1970s can be understood as a result of a transfer of the novel policy idea of the environment to the European...... of the environment as a political concept emerging in the context of international organizations at the time. Secondly, an analysis of the first Environmental Action Programme of 1973 will be used to show how the EC conceptualized the environment, including the definition of problems and potential remedies. Thirdly...... level. This paper thus inquires into the emergence of a European environmental policy from a diffusion of ideas perspective. Rather than focusing on multi-level policy making it seeks to trace the diffusion of environmental ideas from the level of international organizations to the European Communities...

  6. Environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paavola, Jouni; Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    on institutional sources of environmental problems on monetary valuation and environmental decision-making as two areas where socio-economics has had a particularly strong influence. The chapter concludes that the acknowledgement in these areas of research of ecological and social embeddedness has given rise...... to a research agenda for ‘socio-ecological economics’. Sustainable consumption and global environmental change are already important areas of research for it. But ecological macroeconomics is also needed to formulate coordinated responses to multiple crises such as economic downturn, climate change and loss......This chapter reviews socio-economic research on the environment and sustainability. The chapter first explores core aspects of socio-economics, examines how socio-economics has related to the agenda of research on the environment, and assesses how socio-economic research on the environment became...

  7. Automating the multiprocessing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpasi, D.J.

    1989-03-01

    An approach to automate the programming and operation of tree-structured networks of multiprocessor systems is discussed. A conceptual, knowledge-based operating environment is presented, and requirements for two major technology elements are identified as follows: (1) An intelligent information translator is proposed for implementating information transfer between dissimilar hardware and software, thereby enabling independent and modular development of future systems and promoting a language-independence of codes and information; (2) A resident system activity manager, which recognizes the systems capabilities and monitors the status of all systems within the environment, is proposed for integrating dissimilar systems into effective parallel processing resources to optimally meet user needs. Finally, key computational capabilities which must be provided before the environment can be realized are identified.

  8. Children's Environment in ECEC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anette Boye; Laursen, Hanne; Jørgensen, Hanne Hede

    2017-01-01

    Danish Legislation prescribes that children’s environment in Early Childhood Education (ECE) is evaluated and enhanced as an integrated part of curriculum work. Children’s perspectives must be included in the efforts. During the last 10 years, pedagogues have endeavoured to include children...... in evaluations of physical, psychological and aesthetic environmental dimensions of education. The present study aims to elucidate how professionals and children co-operate in order to develop children’s environments and study the impact of children’s perspectives on pedagogy and children’s processes of ‘bildung...... such as play and artwork when they asked to describe the best child environmental practice. Children’s perspectives on their environment still are to be investigated. The study offers knowledge regarding children as active participants in a Nordic ECE culture with educated staff and a long tradition...

  9. Tourism in Rural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI IELENICZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is now determined by limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, low motivation to possible offers, lack of proper service guarantees. Nearly 500 Romanian villages are already tourist locations, with certain characteristics determined by a heritage item, or complex ones when multiple components lead to various activities. This paper includes a typology of tourist villages in Romania according to the types of practiced tourist activities, insisting on the use of a more comprehensive terminology: tourism in rural environment, participative and creative tourism in rural areas. Tourism becomes a system accepted in the rural environment as a real opportunity for economic development with multiple social consequences. By multiplying tourism potential to meet tourists’ demands, many villages will get tourism valences with various activities in this filed, including environment protection.

  10. The national operational environment model (NOEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, John J.; Romano, Brian; Geiler, Warren

    2011-06-01

    The National Operational Environment Model (NOEM) is a strategic analysis/assessment tool that provides insight into the complex state space (as a system) that is today's modern operational environment. The NOEM supports baseline forecasts by generating plausible futures based on the current state. It supports what-if analysis by forecasting ramifications of potential "Blue" actions on the environment. The NOEM also supports sensitivity analysis by identifying possible pressure (leverage) points in support of the Commander that resolves forecasted instabilities, and by ranking sensitivities in a list for each leverage point and response. The NOEM can be used to assist Decision Makers, Analysts and Researchers with understanding the inter-workings of a region or nation state, the consequences of implementing specific policies, and the ability to plug in new operational environment theories/models as they mature. The NOEM is built upon an open-source, license-free set of capabilities, and aims to provide support for pluggable modules that make up a given model. The NOEM currently has an extensive number of modules (e.g. economic, security & social well-being pieces such as critical infrastructure) completed along with a number of tools to exercise them. The focus this year is on modeling the social and behavioral aspects of a populace within their environment, primarily the formation of various interest groups, their beliefs, their requirements, their grievances, their affinities, and the likelihood of a wide range of their actions, depending on their perceived level of security and happiness. As such, several research efforts are currently underway to model human behavior from a group perspective, in the pursuit of eventual integration and balance of populace needs/demands within their respective operational environment and the capacity to meet those demands. In this paper we will provide an overview of the NOEM, the need for and a description of its main components

  11. The impact of business environment changes on recent costing techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林慧涓

    2011-01-01

    1.Introduction The acceleration of globalization and the prosperity of information technology benefit business a great deal.But with the speeding up of economic development,firms are facing more and more pressure from various aspects of their business.The heated debate is on about whether traditional management accounting practices and techniques are irrelevant to the current business environment and this essay will explore the causes for using some traditional management accounting practices and techniques in the current business environment are inappropriate and put forward some contemporary management accounting techniques which is relevant to the current business environment.Thus,the essay will be divided into three sections to discuss the traditional management accounting practices and techniques and contemporary management accounting techniques in current business environment.

  12. Current Opinions on Tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaux, Jean-François; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Goff, Caroline Le; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Tendinopathy is characterized by pain in the tendon and impaired performance sometimes associated with swelling of the tendon. Its diagnosis is usually clinical but ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging can refine the diagnosis. Tendinopathy is highly prevalent and is one of the most frequently self reported musculoskeletal diseases in physical workers and sports people. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to carry out general epidemiologic studies on tendinopathy because of the varying sports cultures and sports habits in different countries. The aetiology of tendinopathy seems to be multi-factorial, involving intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The role of inflammation is still debated but the absence of inflammatory cells does not mean that inflammatory mediators are not implicated. Different theories have been advanced to explain pain and chronicity mechanisms, but these mechanisms remain largely unknown. “Conventional ”treatments are generally employed empirically to fight pain and inflammation but they do not modify the histological structure of the tendon. However, these treatments are not completely satisfactory and the recurrence of symptoms is common. Currently, eccentric training remains the treatment of choice for tendinopathy, even though some studies are contradictory. Moreover, many interesting new treatments are now being developed to treat tendinopathy, but there is little evidence to support their use in clinical practice. Key points The word “tendinopathy ”is the correct term for the clinical diagnosis of pain accompanied by impaired performance, and sometimes swelling in the tendon. The aetiology of tendinopathy seems to be a multi-factorial process, involving promoting factors that are intrinsic or extrinsic, working either alone or in combination. US (with color Doppler) and MRI are usually prescribed when tendinopathy is unresponsive to treatment and entails lingering symptoms. Eccentric training is currently considered to be the

  13. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  14. Sample Handling in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellar, Louisa; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2013-01-01

    Harsh environments, such as that on Venus, preclude the use of existing equipment for functions that involve interaction with the environment. The operating limitations of current high temperature electronics are well below the actual temperature and pressure found on Venus (460 deg C and 92 atm), so proposed lander configurations typically include a pressure vessel where the science instruments are kept at Earth-like temperature and pressure (25 deg C and 1 atm). The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a method for sample transfer from an external drill to internal science instruments for a lander on Venus. The initial concepts were string and pneumatically driven systems; and the latter system was selected for its ability to deliver samples at very high speed. The pneumatic system was conceived to be driven by the pressure difference between the Venusian atmosphere and the inside of the lander. The pneumatic transfer of a small capsule was demonstrated, and velocity data was collected from the lab experiment. The sample transfer system was modeled using CAD software and prototyped using 3D printing. General structural and thermal analyses were performed to approximate the proposed system's mass and effects on the temperature and pressure inside of the lander. Additionally, a sampler breadboard for use on Titan was tested and functionality problems were resolved.

  15. Sample Handling in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellar, Louisa; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2013-01-01

    Harsh environments, such as that on Venus, preclude the use of existing equipment for functions that involve interaction with the environment. The operating limitations of current high temperature electronics are well below the actual temperature and pressure found on Venus (460 deg C and 92 atm), so proposed lander configurations typically include a pressure vessel where the science instruments are kept at Earth-like temperature and pressure (25 deg C and 1 atm). The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a method for sample transfer from an external drill to internal science instruments for a lander on Venus. The initial concepts were string and pneumatically driven systems; and the latter system was selected for its ability to deliver samples at very high speed. The pneumatic system was conceived to be driven by the pressure difference between the Venusian atmosphere and the inside of the lander. The pneumatic transfer of a small capsule was demonstrated, and velocity data was collected from the lab experiment. The sample transfer system was modeled using CAD software and prototyped using 3D printing. General structural and thermal analyses were performed to approximate the proposed system's mass and effects on the temperature and pressure inside of the lander. Additionally, a sampler breadboard for use on Titan was tested and functionality problems were resolved.

  16. Energy law and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosemary Lyster; Adrian Bradbrook [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2006-08-15

    The current unsustainable practices worldwide in energy production and consumption have led to a plethora of environmental problems. Until recently environmental law largely overlooked the relevance of energy production and consumption; energy was seen to be of little significance to the advancement of sustainable development. This has changed since 2000 with the global concern attached to climate change, the publication by the United Nations of the World Energy Assessment and the detailed consideration given to this issue at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002. Australia has been seen to be lagging behind the other major industrialised nations of the world in addressing sustainable energy issues. Contents are: Overview of energy production and use in Australia; 2. Energy technologies and sustainable development; 3. Energy, international environmental law and sustainable development; 4. Evaluating Australian government initiatives relating to energy, climate change and the environment; 5. Sustainable energy in the Australian electricity and gas sectors; 6. State government initiatives relating to energy and the environment; 7. A sustainable energy law future for Australia. 2 apps.

  17. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  18. BIG DATA IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logica BANICA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, dealing with a lot of data originating from social media sites and mobile communications among data from business environments and institutions, lead to the definition of a new concept, known as Big Data. The economic impact of the sheer amount of data produced in a last two years has increased rapidly. It is necessary to aggregate all types of data (structured and unstructured in order to improve current transactions, to develop new business models, to provide a real image of the supply and demand and thereby, generate market advantages. So, the companies that turn to Big Data have a competitive advantage over other firms. Looking from the perspective of IT organizations, they must accommodate the storage and processing Big Data, and provide analysis tools that are easily integrated into business processes. This paper aims to discuss aspects regarding the Big Data concept, the principles to build, organize and analyse huge datasets in the business environment, offering a three-layer architecture, based on actual software solutions. Also, the article refers to the graphical tools for exploring and representing unstructured data, Gephi and NodeXL.

  19. The stress and underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  20. Jupiter Environment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Erick J.; Monahue, Kenneth M.; Biehl, James P.; Kokorowski, Michael; Ngalande, Cedrick,; Boedeker, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The Jupiter Environment Tool (JET) is a custom UI plug-in for STK that provides an interface to Jupiter environment models for visualization and analysis. Users can visualize the different magnetic field models of Jupiter through various rendering methods, which are fully integrated within STK s 3D Window. This allows users to take snapshots and make animations of their scenarios with magnetic field visualizations. Analytical data can be accessed in the form of custom vectors. Given these custom vectors, users have access to magnetic field data in custom reports, graphs, access constraints, coverage analysis, and anywhere else vectors are used within STK.

  1. Energy, Environment and IMCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    and storage as well as for monitoring and protection of our environment are exemplified. The strong impact of the international IMCC research on development of devices based on such materials is illustrated, and some recent trends in the scientific exploration of IMCC are highlighted. Important groups......This paper gives a brief description of the important role that the ionic and mixed conducting ceramics (IMCC) type of materials will play in the R&D of energy and environment technologies of the - presumably - near future. IMCC materials based technologies for energy harvesting, conversion...

  2. Environment as datascape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    as configuring carbon-as-dataspace, I argue, allows grasping adequately the contingency and constraints of managing carbon as a particular mate- rial-discursive form of environment. In conclusion I generalise the environmental management office as a space that can be configured to stage, beyond carbon, other......Ecological modernist approaches to climate change are premised upon knowing carbon emissions. I ask how corporate environmental managers know and do carbon, i.e., shape the reality of emissions. I argue that for managers’ practical purposes carbon exists as malleable data. Based on ethnographic...... global environments as well....

  3. Brain abscess: Current management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvis Miranda, Hernando; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Elzain, Mohammed Awad; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Brain abscess (BA) is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA. PMID:24174804

  4. Current Automotive Holometry Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Mitchell M.; Snyder, D. S.

    1990-04-01

    Holometry studies of automotive body and powertrain components have become a very useful high resolution test methodology to knowledgeable Ford engineering personnel. Current examples of studies that represent the static or dynamic operational conditions of the automotive test component are presented. Continuous wave laser holometry, computer aided holometry (CAH) and pulsed laser holometry were the holometric techniques used to study the following subjects: (1) body in prime (BIP) vibration modes, (2) transmission flexplate stud-torque converter deformation due to engine torque pulses, (3) engine cylinder head and camshaft support structure deformation due to cylinder pressure and (4) engine connecting rod/cap lift-off. Static and dynamic component loading and laboratory techniques required to produce usable and valid test results are discussed along with possible conclusions for the engineering concerns.

  5. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma: Current therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; Zhang; Lu-Nan; Yan

    2014-01-01

    Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, which is a rare primary malignancy, originates from the epithelial cells of the bile duct. Usually invading the periductal tissues and the lymph nodes, perihilar cholangiocarcinoma is commonly diagnosed in the advanced stage of the disease and has a dismal prognosis. Currently, complete hepatectomy is the primary therapy for curing this disease. Perioperative assessment and available surgical procedures can be considered for achieving a negative margin resection, which is associated with long-term survival and better quality of life. For patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma, several palliative treatments have been demonstrated to produce a better outcome; and liver transplantation for selected patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma is promising and desirable. However, the role of palliative treatments and liver transplantation was controversial and requires more evidence and substantial validity from multiple institutions. In this article, we summarize the data from multiple institutions and discuss the resectability, mortality, morbidity and outcome with different approaches.

  6. Brain abscess: Current management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Alvis-Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain abscess (BA is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA.

  7. Misophonia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavanna AE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrea E Cavanna,1–3 Stefano Seri3,4 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust and University of Birmingham, Birmingham, 2Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, 3School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston Brain Centre, Wellcome Trust Laboratory for MEG Studies, Aston University, 4Children’s Epilepsy Surgery Programme, The Birmingham Children’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Misophonia is characterized by a negative reaction to a sound with a specific pattern and meaning to a given individual. In this paper, we review the clinical features of this relatively common yet underinvestigated condition, with focus on co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders. Currently available data on the putative pathophysiology of the condition can inform our understanding and guide the diagnostic process and treatment approach. Tinnitus retraining therapy and cognitive behavior therapy have been proposed as the most effective treatment strategies for reducing symptoms; however, current treatment algorithms should be validated in large population studies. At the present stage, competing paradigms see misophonia as a physiological state potentially inducible in any subject, an idiopathic condition (which can present with comorbid psychiatric disorders, or a symptomatic manifestation of an underlying psychiatric disorder. Agreement on the use of standardized diagnostic criteria would be an important step forward in terms of both clinical practice and scientific inquiry. Areas for future research include phenomenology, epidemiology, modulating factors, neurophysiological underpinnings, and treatment trials. Keywords: misophonia, selective sound sensitivity syndrome, hyperacusis, neurodevelopmental disorders, Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive spectrum

  8. Extreme geomagnetically induced currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Ngwira, Chigomezyo

    2016-12-01

    We propose an emergency alert framework for geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), based on the empirically extreme values and theoretical upper limits of the solar wind parameters and of d B/d t, the time derivative of magnetic field variations at ground. We expect this framework to be useful for preparing against extreme events. Our analysis is based on a review of various papers, including those presented during Extreme Space Weather Workshops held in Japan in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Large-amplitude d B/d t values are the major cause of hazards associated with three different types of GICs: (1) slow d B/d t with ring current evolution (RC-type), (2) fast d B/d t associated with auroral electrojet activity (AE-type), and (3) transient d B/d t of sudden commencements (SC-type). We set "caution," "warning," and "emergency" alert levels during the main phase of superstorms with the peak Dst index of less than -300 nT (once per 10 years), -600 nT (once per 60 years), or -900 nT (once per 100 years), respectively. The extreme d B/d t values of the AE-type GICs are 2000, 4000, and 6000 nT/min at caution, warning, and emergency levels, respectively. For the SC-type GICs, a "transient alert" is also proposed for d B/d t values of 40 nT/s at low latitudes and 110 nT/s at high latitudes, especially when the solar energetic particle flux is unusually high.

  9. Ocular tuberculosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakarchi FI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Faiz I Shakarchi1,21Ibn Al-Haetham Teaching Eye Hospital, 2Department of Opthalmology, Medical College, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: The World Health Organization currently estimates that nearly two billion people, or one-third of the world’s population, are infected by tuberculosis, and that roughly 10% of the infected people are symptomatic. Tuberculosis affects the lungs in 80% of patients, while in the remaining 20% the disease may affect other organs, including the eye. Uveitis can be seen concurrently with tuberculosis, but a direct association is difficult to prove. Ocular tuberculosis is usually not associated with clinical evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, as up to 60% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients may not have pulmonary disease. The diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis is often problematic and in nearly all reported cases, the diagnosis was only presumptive. Tuberculous uveitis is a great mimicker of various uveitis entities and it can be considered in the differential diagnosis of any type of intraocular inflammation. It is still unknown if ocular manifestations result from a direct mycobacterium infection or hypersensitivity reaction and this is reflected on the management of tuberculous uveitis. Prevalence of tuberculosis as an etiology of uveitis may reach up to 10% in endemic areas. Tuberculous uveitis is a vision-threatening disease that inevitably leads to blindness if not properly diagnosed and treated. The aim of this review is to illustrate the various clinical features and management of presumed tuberculous uveitis. The current review focuses on the diagnostic criteria, significance of tuberculin skin test, and use of systemic corticosteroids in the management of tuberculous uveitis as recommended in recent publications.Keywords: tuberculosis, uveitis, choroiditis, tuberculin skin test

  10. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment (ACE) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... of updates to ACE . America's Children and the Environment (ACE) America's Children and the Environment (ACE) is ...

  11. The GenePattern Notebook Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Michael; Tabor, Thorin; Liefeld, Ted; Thorvaldsdóttir, Helga; Hill, Barbara; Tamayo, Pablo; Mesirov, Jill P

    2017-08-23

    Interactive analysis notebook environments promise to streamline genomics research through interleaving text, multimedia, and executable code into unified, sharable, reproducible "research narratives." However, current notebook systems require programming knowledge, limiting their wider adoption by the research community. We have developed the GenePattern Notebook environment (http://www.genepattern-notebook.org), to our knowledge the first system to integrate the dynamic capabilities of notebook systems with an investigator-focused, easy-to-use interface that provides access to hundreds of genomic tools without the need to write code. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Geomicrobiological processes in extreme environments: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailiang Dong; Bingsong Yu

    2007-01-01

    @@ The last decade has seen an extraordinary growth of Geomicrobiology. Microorganisms have been studied in numerous extreme environments on Earth, ranging from crystalline rocks from the deep subsurface, ancient sedimentary rocks and hypersaline lakes, to dry deserts and deep-ocean hydrothermal vent systems. In light of this recent progress, we review several currently active research frontiers: deep continental subsurface microbiology, microbial ecology in saline lakes, microbial formation of dolomite, geomicrobiology in dry deserts,fossil DNA and its use in recovery of paleoenvironmental conditions, and geomicrobiology of oceans.Throughout this article we emphasize geomicrobiological processes in these extreme environments.

  13. Managing infrastructure and underpinning the planned environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available involved in much of this work. State of the built environment The most comprehensive review to date of the state of the built environment in South Africa has been that released by the South African Institution of Civil Engineering (SAICE). At the end... infrastructure is maintained in good working order. As noted, reviews have been undertaken of the state of infrastructure and facilities, the state of their management and current initiatives to enhance maintenance (Public Works, 2006; SAICE, 2006; CIDB et...

  14. Permanent challenge for a healthy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Teresinha Gimeniz Galvão

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For over a century, Florence Nightingale, a precursor of modern nursing, promulgated the importance of the adequate environment for disease prevention, treatment of diseased and their recovery. He highlighted, among others, the importance of clean air and environmental hygiene. Concerning the disease prevention, considered necessary care residences about air, water, sewerage, cleaning and illumination. In current times, the concepts expanded, the wounds arising from lack of water and sanitation, demonstrated care urgently in the wide mode environment, and prevention in the residential areas and peridomicile.

  15. Occupational exposure limits and olfaction in hyperbaric environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, M.E. [MATSU, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    This report with 62 references presents the results of a literature review of current information on exposure limits and olfaction in hyperbaric environments. Sources of contamination in the hyperbaric environment are identified, and measured concentrations of contaminants, occupational limits for contaminants in hyperbaric conditions, and principles adopted for the establishment of exposure limits are examined. Toxicological studies and olfaction and sense of smell are discussed, Details of current practice, alternative strategies, monitoring techniques, and the data on olfaction are given.

  16. A CASE STUDY OF LEARNING WRITING IN A CMC ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoHongjie; ZhouQinqin

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on an EFL writing class via computer-mediated communication (CMC) in an online virtual environment. The purpose was twofold: first to investigate how the constructivist learning theory is perfectly reflected in the online learning environment, and secondly to provide an indepth case study of CMC-based EFL writing instruction. The results indicated that learning EFL writing in a CMC environment fits in with the current trend of constructivist language learning theory and the communicative teaching approach.

  17. The Greening of Pesticide–Environment Interactions: Some Personal Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Casida, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pesticide–environment interactions are bidirectional. The environment alters pesticides by metabolism and photodegradation, and pesticides in turn change the environment through nontarget or secondary effects. Objectives: Approximately 900 currently used commercial pesticides of widely diverse structures act by nearly a hundred mechanisms to control insects, weeds, and fungi, usually with minimal disruption of nature’s equilibrium. Here I consider some aspects of the discovery, de...

  18. Religious Orientations: The Role of College Environment and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Lee B.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Dubois, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influence of college environment and classification on religious orientation. The current study compared private, religious versus public, nonreligious college students to determine if there was a difference over time and environment in religious orientation, as measured by the Religious Orientation Scale. The results…

  19. Construction of a Digital Learning Environment Based on Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jihong; Xiong, Caiping; Liu, Huazhong

    2015-01-01

    Constructing the digital learning environment for ubiquitous learning and asynchronous distributed learning has opened up immense amounts of concrete research. However, current digital learning environments do not fully fulfill the expectations on supporting interactive group learning, shared understanding and social construction of knowledge.…

  20. Design Characteristics of Virtual Learning Environments: State of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Daniel; Strohmeier, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Virtual learning environments constitute current information systems' category for electronically supported training and development in (higher) education(al) and vocational training settings. Frequently expected advantages of using virtual learning environments refer, for instance, to the efficiency, individuality, ubiquity, timeliness and…

  1. Testing the Dissipative Type of a Qubit Interacting with Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾浩生; 匡乐满; 高克林

    2003-01-01

    We propose a method to test the correctness of the coupling model of a qubit interacting with environment and to determine the type of dissipation. The environment is modelled by a bath of oscillators with infinite degrees of freedom and the qubit-bath coupling is chosen to be a general dissipation-decoherence form. The proposed method can be realized in current experiments.

  2. Construction of a Digital Learning Environment Based on Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jihong; Xiong, Caiping; Liu, Huazhong

    2015-01-01

    Constructing the digital learning environment for ubiquitous learning and asynchronous distributed learning has opened up immense amounts of concrete research. However, current digital learning environments do not fully fulfill the expectations on supporting interactive group learning, shared understanding and social construction of knowledge.…

  3. Multiple environment unmanned vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobart, Clinton G.; Morse, William D.; Bickerstaff, Robert James

    2017-02-28

    A MEUV that is able to navigate aerial, aquatic, and terrestrial environments through the use of different mission mobility attachments is disclosed. The attachments allow the MEUV to be deployed from the air or through the water prior to any terrestrial navigation. The mobility attachments can be removed or detached by and from the vehicle during a mission.

  4. Understanding Our Environment: Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

  5. Common HEP UNIX Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Arnaud

    After it had been decided to design a common user environment for UNIX platforms among HEP laboratories, a joint project between DESY and CERN had been started. The project consists in 2 phases: 1. Provide a common user environment at shell level, 2. Provide a common user environment at graphical level (X11). Phase 1 is in production at DESY and at CERN as well as at PISA and RAL. It has been developed around the scripts originally designed at DESY Zeuthen improved and extended with a 2 months project at CERN with a contribution from DESY Hamburg. It consists of a set of files which are customizing the environment for the 6 main shells (sh, csh, ksh, bash, tcsh, zsh) on the main platforms (AIX, HP-UX, IRIX, SunOS, Solaris 2, OSF/1, ULTRIX, etc.) and it is divided at several "sociological" levels: HEP, site, machine, cluster, group of users and user with some levels which are optional. The second phase is under design and a first proposal has been published. A first version of the phase 2 exists already for AIX and Solaris, and it should be available for all other platforms, by the time of the conference. This is a major collective work between several HEP laboratories involved in the HEPiX-scripts and HEPiX-X11 working-groups.

  6. Environment and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Pabrua Batoon, María Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Este eBook está dividido en cinco secciones: introducción a la ecología, componentes del ambiente, población, desarrollo y desarrollo sustentable. El siguiente esquema provee un vistazo general de la organización de Environment and Sustainability.

  7. The Greenfoot Programming Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Greenfoot is an educational integrated development environment aimed at learning and teaching programming. It is aimed at a target audience of students from about 14 years old upwards, and is also suitable for college- and university-level education. Greenfoot combines graphical, interactive output with programming in Java, a standard, text-based…

  8. Nanotechnology and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Serrano

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This book intends to present a comprehensive overview of recent progress with regard to different aspects of nanomaterials research and development that are closely related to their manufacture process, through to their release to the environment, identifying the critical areas undergoing further research.

  9. Transportation and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banister, D.; Anderton, K.; Bonilla, D.; Givoni, M.; Schwanen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of CO2-intensive transport, mobility and the impact of transport on the environment are reviewed. The recent global exponential growth in transport is unsustainable and must end unless the transport sector can decarbonize. The paper examines solutions for low-carbon transport systems; the

  10. The Greenfoot Programming Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Greenfoot is an educational integrated development environment aimed at learning and teaching programming. It is aimed at a target audience of students from about 14 years old upwards, and is also suitable for college- and university-level education. Greenfoot combines graphical, interactive output with programming in Java, a standard, text-based…

  11. Virtual Environments 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains the proceedings of the joint 9th International Immersive Projection Technologies Workshop and the 11th EUROGRAPHICS Virtual Environments Workshop (IPTEGVE). The event was held in Aalborg, Denmark the 6. and 7. October 2005. It was organized at the VR Media Lab, Aalborg University...

  12. Designing Virtual Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Niels Einar

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this working paper is to present a conceptual model for media integrated communication in virtual learning environments. The model for media integrated communication is very simple and identifies the necessary building blocks for virtual place making in a synthesis of methods...

  13. Towards Multilingual Programming Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, T. van der; Vinju, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Software projects consist of different kinds of artifacts: build files, configuration files, markup files, source code in different software languages, and so on. At the same time, however, most integrated development environments (IDEs) are focused on a single (programming) language. Even if a prog

  14. Towards multilingual programming environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, T. van der; Vinju, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Software projects consist of different kinds of artifacts: build files, configuration files, markup files, source code in different software languages, and so on. At the same time, however, most integrated development environments (IDEs) are focused on a single (programming) language. Even if a prog

  15. Oral environment and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer.

  16. Conceptualizations of Human Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H.

    1973-01-01

    Presents six major methods by which characteristics of environments have been related to indexes of human functioning: (1) ecological dimensions; (2) behavior settings; (3) dimensions of organizational structure; and, (4) dimensions identifying the collective personal and/or behavioral characteristics of the milieu inhabitants; and two others.…

  17. Pervasive Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper; Helms, Niels Henrik

    2006-01-01

    from virtual learning environments (VLE) primarily because in PLE?s the learning content is very much related to the actual context in which the learner finds himself. Two local (Denmark) cases illustrate various aspects of pervasive learning. One is the eBag, a pervasive digital portfolio used...... and perspectives as regards the need also for a pedagogical grounding are outlined....

  18. Distance Learning Environment Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The Distance Learning Environment Demonstration (DLED) was a comparative study of distributed multimedia computer-based training using low cost high...measurement. The DLED project provides baseline research in the effective use of distance learning and multimedia communications over a wide area ATM/SONET

  19. Understanding Our Environment: Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

  20. Multiprocessor programming environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.B.; Fornaro, R.

    1988-12-01

    Programming tools and techniques have been well developed for traditional uniprocessor computer systems. The focus of this research project is on the development of a programming environment for a high speed real time heterogeneous multiprocessor system, with special emphasis on languages and compilers. The new tools and techniques will allow a smooth transition for programmers with experience only on single processor systems.

  1. Picturing the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phyllis Scott

    2011-01-01

    Around Scout Island Education Center, a site used by schools in Fresno County to explore the area's natural environment, a total of 200 cylinder-shaped concrete stools display tiles representing small mammals, flying insects, birds, wildflowers, and more. Twenty sets have been created by elementary, middle, and high-school art students as part of…

  2. Managing the Global Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Forest Markets.’ Environment. 31.4 (May 1989): 4-6. Repetto , Robert, and Malcolm Gillis, ed. Public Policies and the Misuse of Forest Resources. New... Repetto , Robert. ’Needed: New Policy Goals.’ &mr-a Foet. 94.11-12 (Nov.-Dec. 1988): 58. 48 ’Response to Global Warming.’ Chemical and Engineerint News

  3. Journal of Vietnamese Environment

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Journal of Vietnamese Environment (J. Viet. Env.) plays the role of a scientific platform for researchers and stakeholders working on environmental issues in Vietnam and abroad. The journal is open for all kind of Vietnam-related environmental topics, from climate change and renewable energies to legislative framework and socio-economic aspects.

  4. Collaborative augmented reality environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büscher, Monika; Christensen, Michael; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes Manufaktur, a prototype of a concept and infrastructure that goes beyond the classical CVE systems toward a collaborative augmented reality environment, where users? documents and objects appear as live representations in a 3D workspace. Manufaktur supports collaborative...

  5. Designing Virtual Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Niels Einar

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this working paper is to present a conceptual model for media integrated communication in virtual learning environments. The model for media integrated communication is very simple and identifies the necessary building blocks for virtual place making in a synthesis of methods...... from Cultural Media Science, Architecture and Digital Design...

  6. Distributed Virtual Environment Overview%分布式虚拟环境综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵沁平; 何红梅

    2000-01-01

    Distributed virtual environment consists of human-machine interaction,three-dimensional virtual environment,entity modeling and network communication.In this paper,key technologies in current systems are presented.

  7. Evolving Robot Controllers for Structured Environments Through Environment Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Faiña, Andres; Støy, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we aim to develop a controller that allows a robot to traverse an structured environment. The approach we use is to decompose the environment into simple sub-environments that we use as basis for evolving the controller. Specifically, we decompose a narrow corridor environment into ...

  8. The Counseling Training Environment Scale (CTES): Development of a Self-Report Measure to Assess Counseling Training Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jared Miki Jun Kong

    2012-01-01

    Based on Bronfenbrenner's (1979, 1992) ecological framework, the Counseling Training Environment Scale (CTES) was developed as a self-report measure that assesses the learning and training environment of counseling and related mental health training programs as perceived by current students. A two-phase mixed-methods design was used to create…

  9. Osteomyelitis: a current challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Souza Jorge

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 30 years, the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis has almost been totally elucidated, and many factors responsible for the persistence of this infection have been identified. Numerous antimicrobial agents with distinct spectrums of action, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics have been used in its treatment. Surgical techniques, including muscle grafts, the Ilizarov technique, and antibiotic bone cements, have been applied. However, bone infections are still a challenge. Despite the importance of isolation and identification of microorganisms to determine the antimicrobial treatment of bone infections, there are few systematic national studies about the etiological profile of these diseases. This article describes the current knowledge of osteomyelitis and summarizes published national data based on the experience of different Orthopedic and Traumatology Services. In general, S. aureus was described as an important etiological agent; however, the difference in design of national studies makes a comparison between the prevalence of bone infection, the associated risk factors, and the different therapeutic approaches difficult. In conclusion, effort is necessary in order to stimulate systematic national studies in different Orthopedics and Traumatology Services to obtain a better consensus on preventive measures and therapies of bone infections.

  10. Chronic prostatitis: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Vaidyanathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chronic prostatitis (CP is a common condition. It causes significant suffering to the patients and constitutes a sizeable workload for the urologists. The purpose of this review is to describe the currently accepted concepts regarding the aspects of CP. Materials and Methods: Relevant papers on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of CP were identified through a search of MEDLINE using text terms "prostatitis", "chronic prostatitis" and "chronic pelvic pain syndrome". The list of articles thus obtained was supplemented by manual search of bibliographies of the identified articles and also by exploring the MEDLINE option "Related Articles". Results: The salient points of the relevant articles on each aspect of CP have been summarized in the form of a non-systematic narrative review. Conclusion: Chronic prostatitis is caused by a variety of infective and non-infective factors and is characterized by a rather long remitting and relapsing clinical course. The diagnosis is based on symptoms comprising pain and nonspecific urinary and/or ejaculatory disturbances and microbiological tests to localize bacteria and/or leucocytes in segmented urinary tract specimens. The contemporary classification was proposed by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes Digestive Kidney Diseases (NIH/NIDDK. National Institutes of Health - Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI is the patient evaluation tool used extensively in clinical practice and research. Management should be individualized, multimodal and of an appropriate duration.

  11. Sustainable winegrowing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Angela Mariani,1 Antonella Vastola2 1Department of Economic and Legal Studies, University Parthenope, Naples, 2School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy Abstract: The winegrowing sector worldwide is strongly committed to improving environmental and social sustainability. The aim of this work, based on a literature review, is to highlight current sustainability perspectives and the related main issues. There is a broad consensus that the challenge to achieve a greater spread of sustainable practices is to enhance environmental and social sustainability while maintaining economic viability. From the producers' point of view, the priority is to bridge the still substantial knowledge gaps in terms of perceived environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs. Thus, an increased research effort focusing on the costs and benefits of different winegrowing practices and technical assistance with implementation might support their diffusion. Moreover, targeted marketing strategies are needed to: enhance consumers' involvement and their attitude toward sustainable wine; improve understanding and use of sustainable labels and claims; and raise awareness of some environmental credentials of wine packaging, mainly with reference to lightweight glass bottles. Keywords: winegrower, sustainability, wine, consumer, marketing strategies

  12. Bioartificial liver: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, G; Sauer, I M

    2005-11-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening syndrome. With the growing disparity between the number of suitable donor organs and the number of patients awaiting transplantation, efforts have been made to optimize the allocation of organs, to find alternatives to cadaveric liver transplantation, and to develop extracorporeal methods to support or replace the function of the failing organ. An extracorporeal liver support system has to provide the main functions of the liver: detoxification, synthesis, and regulation. The understanding that the critical issue of the clinical syndrome in liver failure is the accumulation of toxins not cleared by the failing liver led to the development of artificial filtration and adsorption devices (artificial liver support). Based on this hypothesis, the removal of lipophilic, albumin-bound substances, such as bilirubin, bile acids, metabolites of aromatic amino acids, medium-chain fatty acids, and cytokines, should be beneficial to the clinical course of a patient in liver failure. Artificial detoxification devices currently under clinical evaluation include the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), Single-Pass Albumin Dialysis (SPAD), and the Prometheus system. The complex tasks of regulation and synthesis remain to be addressed by the use of liver cells (bioartificial liver support). The Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device (ELAD), HepatAssist, Modular Extracorporeal Liver Support system (MELS), and the Amsterdam Medical Center Bioartificial Liver (AMC-BAL) are bioartificial systems. This article gives a brief overview on these artificial and bioartificial devices and discusses remaining obstacles.

  13. Renal autotransplantation: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, B H; Banowsky, L H; Hewitt, C B; Straffon, R A

    1976-01-01

    Autotransplantation, with or without an extracorporeal renal operation, has been done 39 times in 37 patients. Indications for the procedure included severe ureteral injury in 4 patients, failed supravesical diversion in 2, renal carcinoma in a solitary kidney in 1, renovascular hypertension in 1 and donor arterial reconstruction before renal transplantation in 29. Success was obtained in all but 2 procedures, both of which involved previously operated kidneys with severe inflammation and adhesions involving the renal pelvis and pedicle. Based on our experience and a review of currently available literature we believe that renal autotransplantation and extracorporeal reconstruction can provide the best solution for patients with severe renovascular and ureteral disease not correctable by conventional operative techniques. The technique can be of particular value in removing centrally located tumors in solitary kidneys and in preparing donor kidneys with abnormal arteries for renal transplantation. The role of autotransplantation in the management of advanced renal trauma and calculus disease is less clear. A long-term comparison of patients treated by extracorporeal nephrolithotomy versus conventional lithotomy techniques will be necessary before a conclusion is reached in these disease categories.

  14. Umbilical metastases: current viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidi Federico

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Umbilical metastases from a malignant neoplasm, also termed Sister Mary Joseph's nodule, are not commonly reported in the English literature, and they have usually been considered as a sign of a poor prognosis for the patient. The present article reports on the current view point on umbilical metastasis besides discussing the epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathophysiology and treatment. Method A search of Pubmed was carried out using the term 'umblic*' and 'metastases' or metastasis' revealed no references. Another search was made using the term "Sister Joseph's nodule" or sister Joseph nodule" that revealed 99 references. Of these there were 14 review articles, however when the search was limited to English language it yielded only 20 articles. Articles selected from these form the basis of this report along with cross references. Results The primary lesions usually arise from gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract malignancies and may be the presenting symptom or sign of a primary tumour in an unknown site. Conclusion A careful evaluation of all umbilical lesions, including an early biopsy if appropriate, is recommended. Recent studies suggest an aggressive surgical approach combined with chemotherapy for such patients may improve survival.

  15. [Current contact allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, J; Uter, W; Lessmann, H; Schnuch, A

    2011-10-01

    Ever-changing exposure to contact allergens, partly due to statutory directives (e.g. nickel, chromate, methyldibromo glutaronitrile) or recommendations from industrial associations (e.g. hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde), requires on-going epidemiologic surveillance of contact allergy. In this paper, the current state with special focus in fragrances and preservatives is described on the basis of data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) of the year 2010. In 2010, 12,574 patients were patch tested in the dermatology departments belonging to the IVDK. Nickel is still the most frequent contact allergen. However the continuously improved EU nickel directive already has some beneficial effect; sensitization frequency in young women is dropping. In Germany, chromate-reduced cement has been in use now for several years, leading to a decline in chromate sensitization in brick-layers. Two fragrance mixes are part of the German baseline series; they are still relevant. The most important fragrances in these mixes still are oak moss absolute and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. However, in relation to these leading allergens, sensitization frequency to other fragrances contained in the mixes seems to be increasing. Among the preservatives, MCI/MI has not lost its importance as contact allergen, in contrast to MDBGN. Sources of MCI/MI sensitization obviously are increasingly found in occupational context. Methylisothiazolinone is a significant allergen in occupational settings, and less frequently in body care products.

  16. [Current management of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Global neurological knowledge is essential for differential diagnosis of epileptic syndromes due to the diversity of ictal semiology, causes and syndromes. Neurologists play an important role in planning the medical care for patients with epilepsy, as medication is the most fundamental therapeutic strategy. Some patients with early-onset epilepsy require joint care by pediatric neurologists, those with intractable epilepsy by neurosurgeons, and those with psychological comorbidity by psychiatrists, and neurologists should play a coordinating role. While there is a great need for neurologists to participate in epilepsy care, neurologists in Japan currently do not participate substantially in the epilepsy management system. It is necessary to train more neurologists who can provide epilepsy care and conduct basic and clinical research on epilepsy by providing continuous education on epilepsy for general neurologists as well as pre- and post-graduate medical students. Most of the patients who require long-term treatment experience many medical problems and social handicaps, such as adverse effects of medication, social stigma, educational disadvantages and difficulties in obtaining driver's license. To improve the quality of life of patients with epilepsy, it is desirable to build broad medical-social networks participated by patients, doctors, neurological nurses, psychologists, social workers, school teachers, managers of employment support facilities and care givers.

  17. Current trends in minilaparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Layne, Alyssa; Pinkard, Lauren; Shepherd, Jessica

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to understand the current use of minilaparoscopy in the field and how minilaparoscopy compares with traditional laparoscopy in terms of operative times, complications, pain, and cosmesis. Although there are few randomized controlled trials comparing minilaparoscopy with traditional laparoscopy in gynecologic procedures, the results suggest that minilaparoscopy can be performed safely with improved cosmetic outcomes and similar complication rates and operating times. Postoperative pain may be decreased with minimizing incisions sizes. Recently, case reports and case series have been published demonstrating the use of minilaparoscopy across many subtypes of gynecologic surgery. Traditional laparoscopic surgery has become common practice in gynecology as it has been found to be a well tolerated procedure with improved outcomes and decreased morbidity when compared with laparotomy. Although minilaparoscopy has been used for over 2 decades, its role in gynecology is continuing to evolve. Minilaparoscopy is a growing surgical option in gynecology as we try to minimize the impact of surgery. Results of minilaparoscopy in gynecology mirror those found in urology and general surgery. Although research is limited, minilaparoscopy has proven to be a well tolerated alternative for gynecology.

  18. Psychosomatics: a current overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbein, José Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    The term 'psychosomatic' has typically defined a series of illnesses in which somatic injury breaks out from psychic conflict not recognized as such. Currently, health is considered the only psychosomatic state of integration of mind and soma: an ideal state of integration. Somatic pathology is an effect of mind/body splitting. In the heterogeneous 'field of psychosomatics' interaction between psyche and soma ranges from classical psychosomatic illness to sporadic episodes in which the body has responded to an inability to process mental conflict. The author briefly reviews the development of psychoanalytic thought on psychosomatics in Argentina. He suggests the need to find appropriate conceptual tools to approach the mental structure underlying this pathology. He presents his ideas about the mental functioning of patients with somatization disorders. He introduces the concept of somatic event as a restitution phenomenon through which the subject attempts to re-establish self-integration and links with reality. He also offers some reflections on temporality and on changes in psychoanalytic technique with these patients. A clinical case illustrates his ideas.

  19. ALMA Pipeline: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, H.; Humphreys, E.; Indebetouw, R.; Villard, E.; Kern, J.; Davis, L.; Miura, R. E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Kosugi, G.; Akiyama, E.; Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Williams, S.; Lightfoot, J.; Kent, B.; Momjian, E.; Hunter, T.; ALMA Pipeline Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA Pipeline is the automated data reduction tool that runs on ALMA data. Current version of the ALMA pipeline produces science quality data products for standard interferometric observing modes up to calibration process. The ALMA Pipeline is comprised of (1) heuristics in the form of Python scripts that select the best processing parameters, and (2) contexts that are given for book-keeping purpose of data processes. The ALMA Pipeline produces a "weblog" that showcases detailed plots for users to judge how each step of calibration processes are treated. The ALMA Interferometric Pipeline was conditionally accepted in March 2014 by processing Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data sets. From Cycle 2, ALMA Pipeline is used for ALMA data reduction and quality assurance for the projects whose observing modes are supported by the ALMA Pipeline. Pipeline tasks are available based on CASA version 4.2.2, and the first public pipeline release called CASA 4.2.2-pipe has been available since October 2014. One can reduce ALMA data both by CASA tasks as well as by pipeline tasks by using CASA version 4.2.2-pipe.

  20. Current trends of banking innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Karminskiy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current stage of the global banking system development takes place in an increasingly competitive environment and unstable financial markets. One of the key factors of bank's successful development is a policy of continuous innovative behavior. Nowadays innovation is a key factor of bankingnstability, competitiveness and sustainable growth.The aim of the article. The main goal of this article is to examine key trends of banking innovations and innovative in Russia. Experience in the development of new banking products, services and technologies in the Russian market is mainly based on international practice. Noteworthy is the fact that Russian banks take over not only the successful practice of new product lines, but also information technology as well as key methodological aspects of bank management and the technological aspects related the business processes.The results of the analysis. Innovative policy in the credit institution must not take place spontaneously. The positive effect of innovation can be achieved only if there is the possibility of managing the innovation process, which is not possible without a clearly highlighted definition and characteristics of banking innovation, which at least would allow distinguishing of innovation and modification. The paper describes the main aspects of the morphology of banking innovation with the detailed classification depended on the variety of attributes from its origin to the direction of action and highlights the major trends of current banking innovation, such as:development of information and cyber technology (and hence the possibility of the emergence of computational complexity and risk prediction models, the development of information security tools,etc.;implementation of customer-oriented model as the best practice;optimization of its own business processes.The article shows a number of real examples of each kind of banking innovation including the innovations in the non

  1. Theme: Staying Current--Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shry, Carroll L., Jr.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This theme issue on staying current in horticulture includes articles on sex equity in horticulture, Future Farmers of America, career opportunities in horticulture, staying current with your school district's needs, staying current in horticulture instruction, staying current with landscape trade associations, emphasizing the basics in vocational…

  2. Non-inductive current probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl

    1977-01-01

    The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is......The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is...

  3. Current development of biorefinery in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Shang, Fei; Zhang, Xu

    2010-01-01

    To meet the demand of its fast growing economy, China has become already the second largest buyer of crude oil. China is facing critical problems of energy shortage and environment deterioration. Rational and efficient energy use and environment protection are both getting more attention in China. Biomass energy is renewable energy made from biological sources. China's biomass resources are abundant, which could provide energy for future social and economic development. However technologies for biomass resource conversion in China are still just beginning. In this paper, current biomass resource distribution and technologies of biomass energy, including power generation, biofuel production and biomass-based chemical production are reviewed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of black soil environment based on Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhang, Y. F.; Wu, C. H.; Wang, J. F.

    2017-05-01

    As everyone knows, the black soil of Heilongjiang bred rice is famous in the world. How to use networking technology to detection the growth environment of Heilongjiang rice, and expands it to the local planting environment to our country is the most important topic. However, the growth environment of rice is complex. In current research, some importnat factors such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, temperature and humidity, pH value and microbial content in black soil that affect the growth of plants are selected, and a kind of black land based on data acquisition and transmission system based on the Arduino development environment and the mechanism construction of Kingview has been realized. The collected data was employed to establish the simulation environment for the growth of rice in Heilongjiang. It can be applied to stimulate the rice growing environment of Heilongjiang province, and gives a improvement of rice quality in other areas. Keywords: Arduino; Kingview; living environment

  5. Fahr's disease: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai XY

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xin You Tai, Amit BatlaUCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UKAbstract: Based on original descriptions of brain calcification by Theodor Fahr, brain calcification, and more specifically basal ganglia calcification, is referred to as Fahr's syndrome. Recent identification of genetic mutations has concerted the description of this erstwhile heterogeneous condition which we refer to here as Fahr's disease. Fahr's disease refers to idiopathic calcification of the basal ganglia without a secondary (non-genetic cause. Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC is another term, which offers a more accurate description of this condition. Within the last 2 years, genetic mutations for IBGC have been described in SLC20A2, PDGFB, and PDGFRB. These findings broaden our understanding of the pathophysiology and encourage a search for specific treatment options in this rare but disabling condition. Clinically, parkinsonism, dystonia, and other movement disorders are the most common clinical features, but psychiatric features can predominate. Cases with confirmed genetic mutations reveal new clinical features linked with Fahr's disease, such as headaches. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is usually the trigger for suspecting Fahr's disease and important for identifying the calcification pattern. Symmetric calcification of the globus pallidus, thalamus, and dentate nucleus is the most common pattern in IBGC, but other parts of the brain such as the cerebellum are involved. Treatment of Fahr's disease is currently limited and is largely symptomatic. A better understanding of this condition in light of genetic findings is important to improve the clinical diagnosis and develop specific treatment options.Keywords: Fahr's disease, basal ganglia calcification, parkinsonism, calcium

  6. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyer, R.A. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  7. The Environment of Galaxies at Low Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Ivezic, Nicolas B Cowan Zeljko

    2008-01-01

    We compare environmental effects in two analogous samples of galaxies, one from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the other from a semi-analytic model (SAM) based on the Millennium Simulation (MS), to test to what extent current SAMs of galaxy formation are reproducing environmental effects. We estimate the large-scale environment of each galaxy using a Bayesian density estimator based on distances to all ten nearest neighbors and compare broad-band photometric properties of the two samples as a function of environment. The feedbacks implemented in the semi-analytic model produce a qualitatively correct galaxy population with similar environmental dependence as that seen in SDSS galaxies. In detail, however, the colors of MS galaxies exhibit an exaggerated dependence on environment: the field contains too many blue galaxies while clusters contain too many red galaxies, compared to the SDSS sample. We also find that the MS contains a population of highly clustered, relatively faint red galaxies with velo...

  8. LCA of Buildings and the Built Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Rasmussen, Freja Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    How we design human settlements has a profound influence on society’s environmental pressures. This chapter explores the current state of LCA applied to two scales of human settlements; individual buildings and the built environment, where the built environment is understood as a collection...... of autonomous buildings along with the infrastructure and human activity between those buildings. The application of LCA to buildings has seen growing interest in recent years, partly as a result of the increased application of environmental certification to buildings. General findings are that the use stage...... of the building tends to dominate environmental impacts, though as buildings become increasingly energy efficient, life cycle impacts shift towards other stages. LCA of built environments has been a useful supplement to mass-based urban environmental assessments, highlighting the importance of embodied...

  9. The Birth Environment of the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Fred C

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews our current understanding of the possible birth environments of our Solar System. Since most stars form within groups and clusters, the question becomes one of determining the nature of the birth aggregate of the Sun. This discussion starts by reviewing Solar System properties that provide constraints on our environmental history. We then outline the range of star-forming environments that are available in the Galaxy, and discuss how they affect star and planet formation. The nature of the solar birth cluster is constrained by many physical considerations, including radiation fields provided by the background environment, dynamical scattering interactions, and by the necessity of producing the short-lived radioactive nuclear species inferred from meteoritic measurements. Working scenarios for the solar birth aggregate can be constructed, as discussed herein, although significant uncertainties remain.

  10. Future integrated design environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Sørensen, Kristian Birch

    2009-01-01

    and modeling of explicit and implicit end-user needs and requirements on both the building to be designed and the supporting design tools. The paper provides grounds to higher success rate in capture of explicit and implicit end user needs and requirements on functional performance in use and re......We are facing a probable great change in the way we carry through design in future ICT supported environments. The main driving forces are the digitalization of information handling leading to a paramount paradigm shift when information storage and access media are separated, building process...... and product systems are formalized in digital models, user environments are provided with rich adaptable multimedia access to virtual models, virtual collaboration rooms established, and new efficient and effective ICT tools defined and implemented. There are though some barriers putting strains...

  11. Individually Controlled Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    individual differences in physiological and psychological response, clothing insulation, activity, preference for air temperature and movement, etc., exist between people. Environmental conditions acceptable for most of the occupants in buildings may be achieved by providing each occupant......The thermal environment and inhaled air quality in buildings to which occupants are exposed has an effect on their health, comfort, performance and productivity. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform environment. However, large...... knowledge on human response to an individually controlled microenvironment. Recently developed new principles and methods for individually controlled local heating and clean air distribution aimed at improving occupants¿ comfort and performance, as well as protection of occupants from airborne transmission...

  12. Auditing Hybrid IT Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Mateescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a personal approach of auditing the hybrid IT environments consisting in both on premise and on demand services and systems. The analysis is performed from both safety and profitability perspectives and it aims to offer to strategy, technical and business teams a representation of the value added by the cloud programme within the company’s portfolio. Starting from the importance of the IT Governance in the actual business environments, we presented in the first section the main principles that drive the technology strategy in order to maximize the value added by IT assets in the business products. Section two summarizes the frameworks leveraged by our approach in order to implement the safety and profitability computation algorithms described in the third section. The paper concludes with benefits of our personal frameworks and presents the future developments.

  13. Pervasive Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Hundebøl, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The potentials of pervasive communication in learning within industry and education are right know being explored through different R&D projects. This paper outlines the background for and the possible learning potentials in what we describe as pervasive learning environments (PLE). PLE's differ...... from virtual learning environments (VLE) primarily because in PLE's the learning content is very much related to the actual context in which the learner finds himself. Two local (Denmark) cases illustrate various aspects of pervasive learning. One is the eBag, a pervasive digital portfolio used...... in schools. The other is moreover related to work based learning in that it foresees a community of practitioners accessing, sharing and adding to knowledge and learning objects held within a pervasive business intelligence system. Limitations and needed developments of these and other systems are discussed...

  14. Environment and Protostellar Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yichen

    2014-01-01

    Even today in our Galaxy, stars form from gas cores in a variety of environments, which may affect the properties of resulting star and planetary systems. Here we study the role of pressure, parameterized via ambient clump mass surface density, on protostellar evolution and appearance, focussing on low-mass, Sun-like stars and considering a range of conditions from relatively low pressure filaments in Taurus, to intermediate pressures of cluster-forming clumps like the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), to very high pressures that may be found in the densest Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) or in the Galactic Center (GC). We present unified analytic and numerical models for collapse of prestellar cores, accretion disks, protostellar evolution and bipolar outflows, coupled to radiative transfer (RT) calculations and a simple astrochemical model to predict CO gas phase abundances. Prestellar cores in high pressure environments are smaller and denser and thus collapse with higher accretion rates and efficiencies, resulting...

  15. Spiders in random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gallesco, Christophe; Popov, Serguei; Vachkovskaia, Marina

    2010-01-01

    A spider consists of several, say $N$, particles. Particles can jump independently according to a random walk if the movement does not violate some given restriction rules. If the movement violates a rule it is not carried out. We consider random walk in random environment (RWRE) on $\\Z$ as underlying random walk. We suppose the environment $\\omega=(\\omega_x)_{x \\in \\Z}$ to be elliptic, with positive drift and nestling, so that there exists a unique positive constant $\\kappa$ such that $\\E[((1-\\omega_0)/\\omega_0)^{\\kappa}]=1$. The restriction rules are kept very general; we only assume transitivity and irreducibility of the spider. The main result is that the speed of a spider is positive if $\\kappa/N>1$ and null if $\\kappa/N<1$. In particular, if $\\kappa/N <1$ a spider has null speed but the speed of a (single) RWRE is positive.

  16. Performative Urban Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Thomsen, Bo Stjerne

    2008-01-01

    becomes the political tool for incorporating change in urban spaces creating new ‘public domains'. Such conceptualization draws on the notion of ‘performative environments' that focuses on what a building does instead of what it is said to be. Architecture becomes dynamic and open and may act as self-organizing......The chapter explores how temporary architectural structures can become media for bottom-up approaches to urban development. Urban interactions in the city developed from the sidewalks were seen as locally bounded neighbourhoods. However, with the advent of contemporary network technologies......, communicative environments for an organized complexity between flows of local interactions and network behaviour. The chapter applies the concepts on the case of the Pavilion Project, NoRA, built for the 10th International Architecture Biennale in Venice for the network of Food College Denmark....

  17. Future integrated design environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Sørensen, Kristian Birch

    2009-01-01

    We are facing a probable great change in the way we carry through design in future ICT supported environments. The main driving forces are the digitalization of information handling leading to a paramount paradigm shift when information storage and access media are separated, building process...... on the development. Among the most important are missing ontologies both on business and Web/Internet service levels as well as their interrelations, poor user involvement in needs and requirements formulations on new ICT tools as well as in continuous user involvement in design and evaluation of new user...... environments, lack of interoperability within building process/product models, and the effects of local community behavior on global scale. The general competence level and preparedness for organizational and work change due to globalization and development of new common grounds for building design needs...

  18. Environment scattering in GADRAS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoreson, Gregory G.; Mitchell, Dean J; Theisen, Lisa Anne; Harding, Lee T.

    2013-09-01

    Radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the angular tallies for scattered gamma-rays as a function of distance, height, and environment. Greens Functions were then used to encapsulate the results a reusable transformation function. The calculations represent the transport of photons throughout scattering surfaces that surround sources and detectors, such as the ground and walls. Utilization of these calculations in GADRAS (Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software) enables accurate computation of environmental scattering for a variety of environments and source configurations. This capability, which agrees well with numerous experimental benchmark measurements, is now deployed with GADRAS Version 18.2 as the basis for the computation of scattered radiation.

  19. Tourism and environment protection

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović, Miomir

    2011-01-01

    There is dramatic turning point on global tourism market. The newest tendencies are characterized by hyper-mobility: especially large growth of air transport, the largest consumer of energy and CO2 issuer. Hyper-mobility - enabled with the expansion of so called 'low-cost' air companies, growth of general level of education, standard of living and extra free time - in industrially developed countries leads rapidly to global effects negative for environment. Further uncontrolled trend of hyper...

  20. The natural environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter readers will learn about the following: • The emergence of environmental politics and political ecology. • How and why environmental politics has globalized. • Why achieving global consensus for political action on environmental issues has proved difficult. • How, in spite of such difficulties, a consensus on global political action on the environment has emerged, persisted and survived US-led resistance.

  1. Microswimmers in Patterned Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, Giovanni; Vogt, Dominik; Kuemmerer, Hans-Juergen; Bechinger, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate with experiments and simulations how microscopic self-propelled particles navigate through environments presenting complex spatial features, which mimic the conditions inside cells, living organisms and future lab-on-a-chip devices. In particular, we show that, in the presence of periodic obstacles, microswimmers can steer even perpendicularly to an applied force. Since such behaviour is very sensitive to the details of their specific swimming style, it can be employed to develop advanced sorting, classification and dialysis techniques.

  2. Ionophores in the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren Alex; Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Erland

    Questions have arisen about the effects of veterinary medicines and especially their metabolites have on organisms in the environment. A couple of recent investigations has further reported that metabolites of certain veterinary drugs such as antibacterial agents (i.e. tetracyclines) and antipara......-001-0017-2 Hansen M, Krogh KA, Brandt A, Christensen JH, Halling-Sorensen B (2009) Environmental Pollution 157: 2 p. 474-480. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2008.09.022...

  3. Anchored Interactive Learning Environments

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Advances in computer technology and multi-media systems have led to widespread interest in computer-based instruction and learning environments. The use of video, animation, graphics, and simulation allow the presentation of material in realistic contexts, thus addressing the problems of inert knowledge while promoting constructive and generative learning. But the true potential and benefits of these systems are yet to be realized. Cognitive studies on learning and transfer suggest that conce...

  4. Mining and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisgyorgy, S.

    1986-01-01

    The realization of new mining projects should be preceded by detailed studies on the impact of mining activities on the environment. For defining the conditions of environmental protection and for making proper financial plans the preparation of an information system is needed. The possible social effects of the mining investments have to be estimated, first of all from the points of view of waste disposal, mining hydrology, subsidence due to underground mining etc.

  5. Energy, Economics & Environment

    OpenAIRE

    David James

    1997-01-01

    Energy-economic-environment (EEE) interactions can be expected to play a crucial role in the development process. Energy is a critical resourced underpinning economic growth. Countries in SE Asia have reached different levels of economic welfare, and this is reflected in their energy use patterns. Some of the countries are well endowed with energy resources - to the extent of being major exporters of energy. Others face serious poverty, accompanied by low levels of energy use. To achieve impr...

  6. [Hair and their environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2015-02-01

    Hair is influenced by the effects of the daily environment. Some toxic xenobiotics slow down or block the cell renewal of the hair matrix, thus inhibiting hair growth. The ultraviolet light obviously influences the physical structure and physiology of the hair follicle. Tobacco is similarly responsible for negative influences on the evolution of various alopecias. Several cosmetic procedures for maintaining and making hair more attractive are not always harmless, and they occasionally represent a possible origin for alopecia.

  7. Altered Perspectives: Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.

  8. ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg BOGOMOLOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Market reforms in the post-socialist countries have brought into sharp focus the problem of interconnection and interaction between the economy and the social environment. The economy is inseparable from politics and the operation of the political system, from the state of the social consciousness, the moral and cultural level of the population and from many other aspects of human life and behavior, in short, from everything that can be described by the concept of social environment. Society in every country is a single organism with closely interconnected and interacting parts and systems. Their conjugation and mutual influence are not always apparent and are often overlooked. It is quite easy to see how changes in policy affect the economy and then trace the feedback effect of the economy on policy. It is more difficult to discern the direct and feedback relationship of the economy with administrative relations, with the state of culture, science, morals and public opinion. Meanwhile, an underestimation of these mutual influences is a frequent cause of failures in socio-economic transformation. It is to be regretted that the reforms in Russia were accompanied by a dangerous disruption not only of the economy, but also of the entire system of social relations. What was primary here and what was secondary? In order to answer this question the paper takes a theoretical look at the problem of interaction between the economy and the social environment.

  9. Greening the built environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Maf; Whitelegg, John; Williams, Nick J.

    1998-07-15

    The built environment incorporates our homes, our workplaces and places of leisure. Under the influence of a complex web of social and economic processes, it is where many issues of human and environmental well-being come to a head - whether of space, mobility, energy consumption, pollution, health or security. All too often, concerns such as cost are put before the things we value for a fulfilling life, including peace and quiet and health and happiness. Getting the built environment right is fundamental to a sustainable society and requires an integrated approach. This important new book, published in association with the World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF-UK), provides us with a firm understanding of the interrelationships of many of the issues and problems of the built environment and describes the holistic models of development, management and planning necessary for urban sustainability. It draws attention to the major challenges and policy implications and offers analysis, approaches and vision for moving towards sustainable towns and cities that in turn will facilitate sustainable lifestyles. (Author)

  10. Lean and psychosocial work environment in manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Thye, Nina; Nielsen, Anders P.

    2011-01-01

    Lean is currently the rationalization method of choice in the Danish manufacturing industry. This paper reports finding from three lean implementation cases. All cases are manufacturing companies focusing on upmarket products produced in small series. Prior to lean production was organized as self...... organized teams. It is therefore hypothesized that lean would result in a worsening of the psychosocial environment. This was, however, not true and the paper enters into a discussion of possible reasons for this puzzling finding....

  11. GRADE: a graphical programming environment for multicomputers

    OpenAIRE

    Kacsuk, P; G. Dózsa; T. Fadfyas; R. Lovas

    2012-01-01

    To provide high-level graphical support for developing message passing programs, an integrated programming environment (GRADE) is being developed. GRADE currently provides tools to construct, execute, debug, monitor and visualize message passing based parallel programs. GRADE offers the programmer an integrated graphical user interface during the whole life-cycle of program development and provides high-level graphical programming abstraction mechanisms to construct parallel applications. The...

  12. Tidal power harnessing energy from water currents

    CERN Document Server

    Lyatkher, Victor

    2014-01-01

    As the global supply of conventional energy sources, such as fossil fuels, dwindles and becomes more and more expensive, unconventional and renewable sources of energy, such as power generation from water sources, is becoming more and more important.  Hydropower has been around for decades, but this book suggests new methods that are more cost-effective and less intrusive to the environment for creating power sources from rivers, the tides, and other sources of water.   The energy available from water currents is potentially much greater than society's needs.  Presenting a detailed discussi

  13. Current trends in context-aware applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Loayza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2013/10/07 - Accepted: 2013/12/10Context-aware applications adapt their behavior and settings according to the environment conditions and to the user preferences. This state-of-the-art survey identifies the current trends related to the technics and tools for the development of this kind of software, as well as the areas of interest of the scientific community on the subject. It stands out the research on multimodal interfaces, localization, activity detection, interruptions control, predictive and wellbeing applications.

  14. Current Issues in Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, J B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester (United States)

    2007-02-07

    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference

  15. Operational Analysis in the Launch Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, George; Kaouk, Mo; Cao, Tim; Fogt, Vince; Rocha, Rodney; Schultz, Ken; Tucker, Jon-Michael; Rayos, Eli; Bell,Jeff; Alldredge, David; Howsman, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The launch environment is a challenging regime to work due to changing system dynamics, changing environmental loading, joint compression loads that cannot be easily applied on the ground, and control effects. Operational testing is one of the few feasible approaches to capture system level dynamics since ground testing cannot reproduce all of these conditions easily. However, the most successful applications of Operational Modal Testing involve systems with good stationarity and long data acquisition times. This paper covers an ongoing effort to understand the launch environment and the utility of current operational modal tools. This work is expected to produce a collection of operational tools that can be applied to non-stationary launch environment, experience dealing with launch data, and an expanding database of flight parameters such as damping. This paper reports on recent efforts to build a software framework for the data processing utilizing existing and specialty tools; understand the limits of current tools; assess a wider variety of current tools; and expand the experience with additional datasets as well as to begin to address issues raised in earlier launch analysis studies.

  16. Development or the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit K. Jaiswal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The relationship between trade and environment is very complex though development and environment are invariably related to each other. There is a close relationship between development and conservation of the environment. The relationship between the WTO and MEAs is reducing and eliminating barriers to trade in environmental goods and services. This relation was acknowledged in 1972 Stockholm Conference on Human Environment. Over the past 20 years, an extraordinary number of international environmental agreements have been concluded. Very few MEAs actually regulate trade or contain trade-related provisions. Theoretically, MEA trade measures and WTO rules can and should interact in a positive and synergistic way. Approach: The main aim of this paper/research is to find out whether the international law has any method of dispute resolution or a systematic approach towards the ongoing debate between the environment and trade which is interlinked in a very complex manner. The resolution of these complex inter-linkages has become a challenge which we have to face. Results: The author had tried to highlight the complex relationship of WTO-MEA where both the environment and trade policy makers prefer unilateral solution for the environmental problem. Resorting to such unilateralism can pose a risk of arbitrary discrimination. The source of the conflict between the WTO and MEAs lies within the measures contained in MEA's and WTO rules. For example, the violation of WTOs non-discrimination principle by MEAs. The two vital questions that occurred were whether trade measures under multilateral environmental agreements are compatible with WTO rules and If MEA-related disputes are brought to the WTO system, should the WTO discourse on the relationship between the WTO and MEAs? Conclusion: Both trade and environment are crucial for the well being of human society. What is most important is to strike a proper balance between free trade and

  17. Merging imagery and models for river current prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Cheryl Ann; Linzell, Robert S.; McKay, Paul

    2011-06-01

    To meet the challenge of operating in river environments with denied access and to improve the riverine intelligence available to the warfighter, advanced high resolution river circulation models are combined with remote sensing feature extraction algorithms to produce a predictive capability for currents and water levels in rivers where a priori knowledge of the river environment is limited. A River Simulation Tool (RST) is developed to facilitate the rapid configuration of a river model. River geometry is extracted from the automated processing of available imagery while minimal user input is collected to complete the parameter and forcing specifications necessary to configure a river model. Contingencies within the RST accommodate missing data such as a lack of water depth information and allow for ensemble computations. Successful application of the RST to river environments is demonstrated for the Snohomish River, WA. Modeled currents compare favorably to in-situ currents reinforcing the value of the developed approach.

  18. Shipping and the Environment: The View from the Shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Trevor R.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are the effectiveness of the current international regulatory framework to protect the marine environment, the need for more stringent maritime regulations fostered by an increased popular awareness that this current framework is outdated, and the strategies deemed appropriate to assimilate the "total environmental view" within…

  19. Current wound healing procedures and potential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreifke, Michael B; Jayasuriya, Amil A; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C

    2015-03-01

    In this review, we describe current and future potential wound healing treatments for acute and chronic wounds. The current wound healing approaches are based on autografts, allografts, and cultured epithelial autografts, and wound dressings based on biocompatible and biodegradable polymers. The Food and Drug Administration approved wound healing dressings based on several polymers including collagen, silicon, chitosan, and hyaluronic acid. The new potential therapeutic intervention for wound healing includes sustained delivery of growth factors, and siRNA delivery, targeting microRNA, and stem cell therapy. In addition, environment sensors can also potentially utilize to monitor and manage microenvironment at wound site. Sensors use optical, odor, pH, and hydration sensors to detect such characteristics as uric acid level, pH, protease level, and infection - all in the hopes of early detection of complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ROME (Request Object Management Environment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M.; Good, J. C.; Berriman, G. B.

    2005-12-01

    Most current astronomical archive services are based on an HTML/ CGI architecture where users submit HTML forms via a browser and CGI programs operating under a web server process the requests. Most services return an HTML result page with URL links to the result files or, for longer jobs, return a message indicating that email will be sent when the job is done. This paradigm has a few serious shortcomings. First, it is all too common for something to go wrong and for the user to never hear about the job again. Second, for long and complicated jobs there is often important intermediate information that would allow the user to adjust the processing. Finally, unless some sort of custom queueing mechanism is used, background jobs are started immediately upon receiving the CGI request. When there are many such requests the server machine can easily be overloaded and either slow to a crawl or crash. Request Object Management Environment (ROME) is a collection of middleware components being developed under the National Virtual Observatory Project to provide mechanism for managing long jobs such as computationally intensive statistical analysis requests or the generation of large scale mosaic images. Written as EJB objects within the open-source JBoss applications server, ROME receives processing requests via a servelet interface, stores them in a DBMS using JDBC, distributes the processing (via queuing mechanisms) across multiple machines and environments (including Grid resources), manages realtime messages from the processing modules, and ensures proper user notification. The request processing modules are identical in structure to standard CGI-programs -- though they can optionally implement status messaging -- and can be written in any language. ROME will persist these jobs across failures of processing modules, network outages, and even downtime of ROME and the DBMS, restarting them as necessary.

  1. 供应链环境下广西汽车制造业精益物流管理现状分析及应用研究%Study on Current Status and Application of Lean Logistics Management in Automobile Manufacturing Industry in Guangxi under Supply Chain Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩澂

    2015-01-01

    调查了供应链环境下广西汽车制造业在供应物流、生产物流、销售物流和回收物流各环节精益物流管理存在的问题,分析其原因,并运用精益物流管理思想和工具对整条汽车供应链进行优化和流程的完善,从而消除浪费、降低成本,为客户提供满意的物流服务。%In this paper, we investigated the problems existing in the lean practice of the supply logistics, production logistics, sales logistics and recycling logistics of the manufacturing industry in Guangxi under the supply chain environment, analyzed the underlying causes, and then used the principle and methodology of the lean management to optimize the whole process of the automobile supply chain.

  2. Energy and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Davis L.

    2014-07-01

    * The world is currently in an energy transformation. * Fossil fuels extraction technology is resulting in a worldwide exponential increase in the production of oil and gas. * Water may be our most precious natural resource. * What is the role of renewable energy? * How do we maximize world energy production and concurrently minimize environmental impacts?

  3. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  4. Food environment and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard; Foster, Gary D

    2014-12-01

    The food environment plays an important and often dominant role in food choice, eating patterns, and ultimately, energy intake. The Obesity Society and the American Society for Nutrition jointly sponsored a series of reviews on topics of interest to both memberships. The goal was to consider the state of understanding on selected issues related to the food environment and obesity and to identify key knowledge gaps. The first article (not necessarily of importance) targeted energy density (ED) and focuses on the role of ED in the regulation of energy intake and body weight. It offers recommendations for prioritizing research. The second article addresses economic factors and examines food and beverage purchases as a function of price changes. It concludes that targeted food taxes and subsidies alone are unlikely to substantially affect obesity. The third article concerns sweetened beverages and points out the difficulty in establishing the strength of the association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain and obesity. In the fourth article, the contributions of palatability and variety to eating behavior and weight are reviewed. Article five explores the influence of portion size on energy intake and weight management. It finds that consumers generally tend to eat proportionally more as portion size increases. The sixth article focuses on the efficacy and effectiveness of eating frequency manipulations for body weight management and finds that such manipulations have consistently yielded null results. Finally, article seven identifies several limitations of the existing literature regarding neighborhood access to healthy foods. This series of reviews addresses important questions regarding the contribution of the food environment to obesity. Independent of physiological/genetic determinants, factors such as ED, cost, food form, palatability, variety, portion size, eating frequency, and access to healthy food are each evaluated for their role in

  5. Steering Multiple Reverse Current into Unidirectional Current in Deterministic Ratchets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦笃取; 罗晓曙; 覃英华

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown that with varying the amplitude of the external force, the deterministic ratchets exhibit multiple current reversals, which are undesirable in certain circumstances. To control the multiple reverse current to unidirectional current, an adaptive control law is presented inspired from the relation between multiple reversaJs current and the chaos-periodic/quasiperiodic transition of the transport velocity. The designed controller can stabilize the transport velocity of ratchets to steady state and suppress any chaos-periodic/quasiperiodic transition, namely, the stable transport in ratchets is achieved, which makes the current sign unchanged.

  6. Lunar radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadron, Nathan; Spence, Harlan; Wilson, Jody

    One of the goals of the CRaTER investigation is to characterize the radiation environment near the Moon in order to enable exploration. The state-of-the-art understanding developed thus far during the LRO mission is documented in a special issue of the Spaceweather Journal entitled “Space Weather: Building the observational foundation to deduce biological effects of space radiation” (Schwadron et al., 2013a). This recently published CRaTER work probes deeper into the physics of the radiation environment at the Moon. It motivates and provides the scientific basis for new investigations in the next phase of the LRO mission. The effects of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) range from chemical modification of the regolith, the generation of a radiation albedo that is increasingly illuminating chemical properties of the regolith, causing charging of the regolith and hazards to human explorers and robotic missions. Low-lunar orbit provides a platform for measuring SEP anisotropy over timescales of 2 hours both parallel and perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, and so far we have observed more than 18 SEP events with time-variable anisotropies during the LRO mission. Albedo proton maps of the Moon from CRaTER indicate that the flux of lunar albedo protons is correlated with elemental abundances at the lunar surface. The yield of albedo protons from the maria is 1% higher than the yield from the highlands, and there are localized peaks with even higher contrast (that may be co-located with peaks in trace elemental abundances as measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer). The Moon’s radiation environment both charges and affects the chemistry in the Moon’s polar regions, particularly in PSRs. This makes these regions a prime target for new CRaTER observations, since CRaTER measures GCRs and SEPs that penetrate the regolith down to 10s of cm. Thus, we review emerging discoveries from LRO/CRaTER’s remarkable exploration of

  7. Environment Induced Time Arrow

    CERN Document Server

    Polonyi, Janos

    2012-01-01

    The spread of the time arrows from the environment to an observed subsystem is followed within a harmonic model. A similarity is pointed out between irreversibility and a phase with spontaneously broken symmetry. The causal structure of interaction might be lost in the irreversible case, as well. The Closed Time Path formalism is developed for classical systems and shown to handle the time arrow problem in a clear and flexible manner. The quantum case is considered, as well, and the common origin of irreversibility and decoherence is pointed out.

  8. Rotorcraft Conceptual Design Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne; Sinsay, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Requirements for a rotorcraft conceptual design environment are discussed, from the perspective of a government laboratory. Rotorcraft design work in a government laboratory must support research, by producing technology impact assessments and defining the context for research and development; and must support the acquisition process, including capability assessments and quantitative evaluation of designs, concepts, and alternatives. An information manager that will enable increased fidelity of analysis early in the design effort is described. This manager will be a framework to organize information that describes the aircraft, and enable movement of that information to and from analyses. Finally, a recently developed rotorcraft system analysis tool is described.

  9. Improving the workplace environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available the third survey, conducted in 2012, of the science and engineering societies of Japan around the question of work–life balance [2]. He looked at data on how many hours people worked, both in the university and at home, broken down by gender, age... of our working environment, including intangibles such as (1) the im- poster syndrome, which is more prevalent among women; (2) the dean’s dilemma (e.g., “Why take on admin work?”); and (3) showcasing, where one woman ends up on many committees. Making...

  10. Environment Conscious Ceramics (Ecoceramics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Environment conscious ceramics (Ecoceramics) are a new class of materials, which can be produced with renewable natural resources (wood) or wood wastes (wood sawdust). Silicon carbide-based ecoceramics have been fabricated by reactive infiltration of carbonaceous preforms by molten silicon or silicon-refractory metal alloys. These carbonaceous preforms have been fabricated by pyrolysis of solid wood bodies at 1000 C. The fabrication approach, microstructure, and mechanical properties of SiC-based ecoceramics are presented. Ecoceramics have tailorable properties and behave like ceramic materials manufactured by conventional approaches.

  11. Working environment committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheller, Vibeke Kristine; Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard; Nielsen, Klaus T.

    In Denmark, a new Working Environment Act was passed in 2010. The assumptions behind the act are that increased flexibility in the organization of OHS work will: 1) enable a more systematic approach, 2) elevate OHS issues to a strategic level within the company, and 3) integrate these concerns...... in other key business processes. In this paper we examine the validity of these assumptions through a number of qualitative case studies. We discuss whether flexibility, systematization, and strategy lead to better OHS discussions and practices within the case companies....

  12. Oral environment and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it...

  13. Securing the Vista Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Peter

    2007-01-01

    "Securing the Vista Environment" takes you on a quick tour of the most significant security features in Vista, Microsoft's first revision of Windows in almost six years. You'll get background on threats and vulnerabilities that will make you think differently about security. Security is more than just the technology and configurations--it's about how we use the system that makes it secure or not. Then we'll cover Vista's security features, from user privileges to Windows Defender, User Account Control, and BitLocker, as well as strategies for protecting your information from unwanted disclo

  14. The Natural Biotic Environment of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenburg, Hinrich; Félix, Marie-Anne

    2017-05-01

    Organisms evolve in response to their natural environment. Consideration of natural ecological parameters are thus of key importance for our understanding of an organism's biology. Curiously, the natural ecology of the model species Caenorhabditis elegans has long been neglected, even though this nematode has become one of the most intensively studied models in biological research. This lack of interest changed ∼10 yr ago. Since then, an increasing number of studies have focused on the nematode's natural ecology. Yet many unknowns still remain. Here, we provide an overview of the currently available information on the natural environment of C. elegans We focus on the biotic environment, which is usually less predictable and thus can create high selective constraints that are likely to have had a strong impact on C. elegans evolution. This nematode is particularly abundant in microbe-rich environments, especially rotting plant matter such as decomposing fruits and stems. In this environment, it is part of a complex interaction network, which is particularly shaped by a species-rich microbial community. These microbes can be food, part of a beneficial gut microbiome, parasites and pathogens, and possibly competitors. C. elegans is additionally confronted with predators; it interacts with vector organisms that facilitate dispersal to new habitats, and also with competitors for similar food environments, including competitors from congeneric and also the same species. Full appreciation of this nematode's biology warrants further exploration of its natural environment and subsequent integration of this information into the well-established laboratory-based research approaches. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Current AQI Forecast AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - 50) ... credits available from CDC. Learn more more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  16. Drug Establishments Current Registration Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Establishments Current Registration Site (DECRS) is a database of current information submitted by drug firms to register establishments (facilities) which...

  17. Using Geometry To Sense Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughan, Adam N; Abebe, Nathnael S; Zhao, Qing-Yuan; Berggren, Karl K

    2016-12-14

    We describe a superconducting three-terminal device that uses a simple geometric effect known as current crowding to sense the flow of current and actuate a readout signal. The device consists of a "Y"-shaped current combiner, with two currents (sense and bias) entering separately through the top arms of the "Y", intersecting, and then exiting together through the bottom leg of the "Y". When current is added to or removed from one of the arms (e.g., the sense arm), the superconducting critical current in the other arm (i.e., the bias arm) is modulated. The current in the sense arm can thus be determined by measuring the critical current of the bias arm, or inversely, the sense current can be used to modulate the state of the bias arm. The dependence of the bias critical current on the sense current occurs due to the geometric current crowding effect, which causes the sense current to interact locally with the bias arm. Measurement of the critical current in the bias arm does not break the superconducting state of the sense arm or of the bottom leg, and thus, quantized currents trapped in a superconducting loop were able to be repeatedly measured without changing the state of the loop. Current crowding is a universal effect in nanoscale superconductors, and so this device has potential for applicability across a broad range of superconducting technologies and materials. More generally, any technology in which geometrically induced flow crowding exists in the presence of a strong nonlinearity might make use of this type of device.

  18. Harnessing Ocean Energy by Tidal Current Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Mehmood

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The world is heavily dependent on fossil fuels since most of its energy requirements are fulfilled by conventional methods of burning these fuels. The energy demand is increasing by day with growing population. The energy production by fossil fuels is devastating the environment and survival of life on globe is endangered. The renewal energy technologies are vital to ensure future energy sustenance and environmental issues. Ocean is a vast resource of renewable energy. The technology today makes it possible to extract energy from tides. The growing interest in exploring tidal current technologies has compelling reasons such as security and diversity of supply, intermittent but predictable and limited social and environmental impacts. The purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive review of tidal current technologies to harness ocean energy. The ocean energy resources are presented. The author discusses tidal energy technologies. The tidal current turbines are discussed in detail. The author reviews today’s popular tidal current technologies. The present status of ocean energy development is also reported.

  19. Active inrush-current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichak, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    By stretching turn-on time from approximately 1 to 200 ms, effects of inrush current (and of associated large current spikes) and current rate of rise (dl/dt) are made potentially less severe. Limiter arrangement consists of time-variable impedance connected in series between input dc power source return and power circuit of converter.

  20. Plutonium transport in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Annie B

    2013-04-01

    The recent estimated global stockpile of separated plutonium (Pu) worldwide is about 500 t, with equal contributions from nuclear weapons and civilian nuclear energy. Independent of the United States' future nuclear energy policy, the current large and increasing stockpile of Pu needs to be safely isolated from the biosphere and stored for thousands of years. Recent laboratory and field studies have demonstrated the ability of colloids (1-1000 nm particles) to facilitate the migration of strongly sorbing contaminants such as Pu. In understanding the dominant processes that may facilitate the transport of Pu, the initial source chemistry and groundwater chemistry are important factors, as no one process can explain all the different field observations of Pu transport. Very little is known about the molecular-scale geochemical and biochemical mechanisms controlling Pu transport, leaving our conceptual model incomplete. Equally uncertain are the conditions that inhibit the cycling and mobility of Pu in the subsurface. Without a better mechanistic understanding for Pu at the molecular level, we cannot advance our ability to model its transport behavior and achieve confidence in predicting long-term transport. Without a conceptual model that can successfully predict long-term Pu behavior and ultimately isolation from the biosphere, the public will remain skeptical that nuclear energy is a viable and an attractive alternative to counter global warming effects of carbon-based energy alternatives. This review summarizes our current understanding of the relevant conditions and processes controlling the behavior of Pu in the environment, gaps in our scientific knowledge, and future research needs.

  1. Focusing on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdin, C.M. du; Lacroix, D. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    Safety of our packages and operations is our first concern to ensure protection for people and the environment. Environmental impact generated by COGEMA LOGISTICS activities is also covered by an environmental management approach. This systematical environmental management approach starts with the design phase of new products and processes and meets several objectives: -to reduce the environmental impact of our direct activities by optimizing the maintenance, management and storage of our fleet, -to inform and develop awareness among our suppliers and incite them to join us in this approach. We favor the development of partnerships with our suppliers so as to work together to improve our products and services. As part of AREVA's policy of sustainable development, COGEMA LOGISTICS has decided to expand the management system at the environment using the ISO 14001 model. The associated ISO certification was obtained in February 2003 for all our activities and locations. In this context and beyond the compliance with regulations, COGEMA LOGISTICS undertakes to prevent all types of pollution and continuously improve environmental performance, together with customers, authorities, suppliers and local partners.

  2. ENVIRONMENT AND PROTOSTELLAR EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yichen [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Tan, Jonathan C., E-mail: yczhang.astro@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Even today in our Galaxy, stars form from gas cores in a variety of environments, which may affect the properties of the resulting star and planetary systems. Here, we study the role of pressure, parameterized via ambient clump mass surface density, on protostellar evolution and appearance, focusing on low-mass Sun-like stars and considering a range of conditions from relatively low pressure filaments in Taurus, to intermediate pressures of cluster-forming clumps like the Orion Nebula Cluster, to very high pressures that may be found in the densest infrared dark clouds or in the Galactic center. We present unified analytic and numerical models for the collapse of prestellar cores, accretion disks, protostellar evolution, and bipolar outflows, coupled with radiative transfer calculations and a simple astrochemical model to predict CO gas-phase abundances. Prestellar cores in high-pressure environments are smaller and denser and thus collapse with higher accretion rates and efficiencies, resulting in higher luminosity protostars with more powerful outflows. The protostellar envelope is heated to warmer temperatures, affecting infrared morphologies (and thus classification) and astrochemical processes like CO depletion onto dust grain ice mantles (and thus CO morphologies). These results have general implications for star and planet formation, especially via their effect on astrochemical and dust grain evolution during infall to and through protostellar accretion disks.

  3. Adaptation in stochastic environments

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Colib

    1993-01-01

    The classical theory of natural selection, as developed by Fisher, Haldane, and 'Wright, and their followers, is in a sense a statistical theory. By and large the classical theory assumes that the underlying environment in which evolution transpires is both constant and stable - the theory is in this sense deterministic. In reality, on the other hand, nature is almost always changing and unstable. We do not yet possess a complete theory of natural selection in stochastic environ­ ments. Perhaps it has been thought that such a theory is unimportant, or that it would be too difficult. Our own view is that the time is now ripe for the development of a probabilistic theory of natural selection. The present volume is an attempt to provide an elementary introduction to this probabilistic theory. Each author was asked to con­ tribute a simple, basic introduction to his or her specialty, including lively discussions and speculation. We hope that the book contributes further to the understanding of the roles of "Cha...

  4. Environment and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane de Fátima Victor Vasconcelos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows what can be environmental impacts and how those happen, both by the actions made by human kind and by natural disasters. Another concern of the research is the unstoppable incident of the natural resources destruction, result f the globalization actions and the economy, and that the environment impacts have happen in every direction, independently of the geographic scale, harming the life in earth, without giving importance who is the target. The article made reference to incidents because of the disorder of the environment, the consequences of rural exodus, the improper tourism, and which actions to solve this problem have not been enough. With reference to sustainable development, it is waited that everyone can live under environmental, social and economical equilibrium, and also has reasonable habit, being sensible to the conservation of the environmental practice. The article emphasizes the values as a need in the equilibrium of sustainability, and even made reference to the lost of the country in the sustainable development and that Brazil could have more interest by the cause, mainly in the managing in the use of pesticides e fungicides in agriculture. The concern with the globalized economy is a radical change which the developing countries are facing. The cause affects of pollutions resulting in health problems. The danger that humanity faces with its own action, as predatory fishing, causing aquatic disorder and the invasion of commerce in the area of permanent conservation.

  5. General Environment Of World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mohammed Viquaruddin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt regarding the general social/economical/ecological/political and more environments of world certainly with multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary approach. It is discussed that the problems of fore further can besolved through facts/reasoning/science/environment/social sciences etc. As beinga student of political science even peace science a try that can come into existenceor can be practiced only through many dimensions. The philosophy is developedto resist with whatever means we have in hand and are willing to fight for a betterscenario which would be something out of our reach! But can achieve through apositive and plural system not certainly perfect but different in its approach.Achievement to the threats and problems to the liberal vision are pervasive and thesystem is in much greater problematic that is commonly supposed. Protecting/Preserving/ Commanding it in the coming century and beyond will be easier saidthan done! We do not foresee the renaissance of any type we should be sure aboutthat alternative World Multidimensional System (WMS could reasonably competewith the present multidimensional system on theoretical or practical grounds. It isnot enough that this system display substantial practical advantages and genuinetheoretical coherence. No one can deny that world get profit from present system.

  6. Health and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Budimka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Department of Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, is responsible for undergraduate and graduate courses in the field of preventive medicine. The principal task of physicians in the 21st century is to provide health promotion and disease prevention. In the future, evaluation of physician knowledge and competence will be predominantly based on patients' health conditions. Health and Environment. Human health is a result of long-term interaction between human genome and the environment. Good human health requires permanent control of health conditions as well as control of environmental health hazards. Various environmental factors, such as physical, chemical, biological, social and economic, affect the population health. Air, drinking water and food are fundamental to the existence of life of all living beings on Earth, and therefore they have enormous influence on the health of individuals and populations. Conclusion. The significance of the above mentioned requirements, essential for human health, is the reason why the Department of Hygiene conducted an investigation on the quality of air, food and water (water is a foodstuff as well in Vojvodina.

  7. Flow tracing based on current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡兴国; 曹海龙

    2001-01-01

    Analyses the flow tracing based on power flow, points out that the detachment of reactive power and active power is unrealiable and concludes that the current is the real basic of flow tracing,and proposes the new flow tracing model based on current, which devides the current into active current and reactive current, analyses the theory about the matrix to deal with the precision and realization of the flow tracing, and then proposes a new pricing model by fixed rate and marginal rate, which keeps not only economy information such as congestion cost in marginal cost based pricing, but also benefits to make both ends meet.

  8. An Environment for Flexible Advanced Compensations of Web Service Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefer, Michael; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    recovery principles. We extend the existing Web service transaction coordination architecture and infrastructure in order to support flexible compensation operations. We use a contract-based approach, which allows the specification of permitted compensations at runtime. We introduce abstract service......Business to business integration has recently been performed by employing Web service environments. Moreover, such environments are being provided by major players on the technology markets. Those environments are based on open specifications for transaction coordination. When a failure...... in such an environment occurs, a compensation can be initiated to recover from the failure. However, current environments have only limited capabilities for compensations, and are usually based on backward recovery. In this article, we introduce an environment to deal with advanced compensations based on forward...

  9. HLS bunch current measurement system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Bunch current is an important parameter for studying the injection fill-pattern in the storage ring and the instability threshold of the bunch, and the bunch current monitor also is an indispensable tool for the top-up injection. A bunch current measurement (BCM) system has been developed to meet the needs of the upgrade project of Hefei Light Source (HLS). This paper presents the layout of the BCM system. The system based on a high-speed digital oscilloscope can be used to measure the bunch current and synchronous phase shift. To obtain the absolute value of bunch-by-bunch current, the calibration coefficient is measured and analyzed. Error analysis shows that the RMS of bunch current is less than 0.01 mA when bunch current is about 5 mA, which can meet project requirement.

  10. Graphics editors in CPDev environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Jamro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available According to IEC 61131-3 norm, controllers and distributed control systems can be programmed in textual and graphical languages. In many scenarios using a graphical language is preferred by the user, because diagrams can be more legible and easier to understand or modify also by people who do not have strong programming skills. What is more, they can be attached to the documentation to present a part of a system implementation. CPDev is an engineering environment that makes possible to program PLCs, PACs, softPLCs and distributed control systems with the usage of languages defined in IEC 61131-3 norm. In earlier versions, it supported only textual languages - ST and IL. Currently, graphics editors for FBD, LD and SFC languages are also available, so users can choose a suitable language depending on their skills and a specificity of a program that they have to prepare. The article presents implementation of the graphics editors, made by the author, which support creating program organization units in all graphical languages defined in IEC 61131-3 norm. They are equipped with a set of basic and complex functionalities to provide an easy and intuitive way of creating programs, function blocks and functions with visual programming. In the article the project structure and some important mechanisms are described. They include e.g. automatic connections finding (with A* algorithm, translation to ST code, conversion to and from XML format and an execution mode supporting multiple data sources and breakpoints.

  11. Asset tracking in harsh environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neal, E.S. [Infosight Corp., Chillicothe, OH (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Current economic times require tight control of all assets / inventory and processes a company manages. These items if managed correctly and timely can mean the difference between success and failure of a company. Cost savings in hard economic times are essential to allow a company to utilize its assets to the fullest potential by eliminating duplication and waste. Accurate process management leads to greater customer satisfaction and loyalty. Many industries and processes have believed it to be impossible to track their products or assets using bar-codes due to the unique conditions of their environment; whether it is high temperature, rough handling or chemicals. That has now changed. Companies specializing in identification methods have stepped up to the challenge and have overcome many obstacles of the past. It's no longer a paper or plastic bar-code world. The presentation will be broken down into four parts: 1) The differences between Asset and ID tracking; 2) Why does a company need to bar-code?; 3) The objections many companies use for not bar-coding; and, 4) What's new in bar-coding? Case study handouts and a reference list of various companies including software, labeling and attachment techniques will be available at the end of the presentation. (author)

  12. Cognitive Performance in Operational Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Michael; McGhee, James; Friedler, Edna; Thomas, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Optimal cognition during complex and sustained operations is a critical component for success in current and future military operations. "Cognitive Performance, Judgment, and Decision-making" (CPJD) is a newly organized U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command research program focused on sustaining operational effectiveness of Future Force Warriors by developing paradigms through which militarily-relevant, higher-order cognitive performance, judgment, and decision-making can be assessed and sustained in individuals, small teams, and leaders of network-centric fighting units. CPJD evaluates the impact of stressors intrinsic to military operational environments (e.g., sleep deprivation, workload, fatigue, temperature extremes, altitude, environmental/physiological disruption) on military performance, evaluates noninvasive automated methods for monitoring and predicting cognitive performance, and investigates pharmaceutical strategies (e.g., stimulant countermeasures, hypnotics) to mitigate performance decrements. This manuscript describes the CPJD program, discusses the metrics utilized to relate militarily applied research findings to academic research, and discusses how the simulated combat capabilities of a synthetic battle laboratory may facilitate future cognitive performance research.

  13. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway))

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

  14. Working Environment and Technological Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Nielsen, Klaus T.; Jensen, Per Langaa

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the purpose, themes, overarching research questions and specific projects of the programme: Working Environment and Technological Development. The major research themes are:1) Management concepts and the working environment, which considers the visions and their and their conc......The paper describes the purpose, themes, overarching research questions and specific projects of the programme: Working Environment and Technological Development. The major research themes are:1) Management concepts and the working environment, which considers the visions...... and their and their concept of working environment2) Technology renewal, which considers the role of the working environment in connection with the development and use of concrete technologies3) Working environment planning, which considers the existing efforts to place the working environment in a planning process....

  15. Virtual Satellite Integration Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An integrated environment for rapid design studies of small satellite missions will be developed. This environment will be designed to streamline processes at the...

  16. Department of Geography and Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-01-30

    Jan 30, 2017 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 10(1): 125 – 136, 2017. ISSN:1998-0507 ... dumpsites on city environment. ... activities in Nigeria cities' environment ..... Management in Nigeria: problems and.

  17. Improving coherence with nested environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, H. J.; Gorin, T.; Seligman, T. H.

    2015-09-01

    We have in mind a register of qubits for an quantum information system, and consider its decoherence in an idealized but typical situation. Spontaneous decay and other couplings to the far environment, considered as the world outside the quantum apparatus, will be neglected, while couplings to quantum states within the apparatus, i.e., to a near environment, are assumed to dominate. Thus the central system couples to the near environment, which in turn couples to a far environment. Considering that the dynamics in the near environment is not sufficiently well known or controllable, we shall use random matrix methods to obtain analytic results. We consider a simplified situation where the central system suffers weak dephasing from the near environment, which in turn is coupled randomly to the far environment. We find the anti-intuitive result that increasing the coupling between the near and far environment actually protects the central qubit.

  18. Stability analysis of direct current control in current source rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Dapeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Current source rectifier with high switching frequency has a great potential for improving the power efficiency and power density in ac-dc power conversion. This paper analyzes the stability of direct current control based on the time delay effect. Small signal model including dynamic behaviors...... of dc link is developed to identify the control plants of grid ac current control and dc current control. Analysis on the poles and zeros under dq frame is carried out. Base on this model, it turns out that the phase lag caused by the time delay can stabilized the grid ac current control while reduces...... the stable region for dc current control. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the theoretical analysis....

  19. CERN and the Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Aymar, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The impact of CERN’s activities on the surrounding environment is carefully monitored by the Organization via a complete environmental monitoring programme, which is defined and run in agreement with the authorities of Switzerland and France. This programme covers both radiological and conventional aspects. So far the environmental impact of CERN was shown to be negligible. In particular, CERN’s radiological impact is a fraction of the variation of the natural exposure at different locations of the surrounding region. As the site of the Organization is on the territory of two countries and straddles the Swiss-French border, the implementation of its environmental policy requires specific procedures and a very transparent communication towards the Host States authorities and the public opinion. This paper reports the official CERN speech delivered for the opening of the international conference Enviroinfo 2004 that was held at CERN in October 2004.

  20. Sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present.  The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability?  Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...