WorldWideScience

Sample records for current infant feeding

  1. Current infant feeding practices and impact on growth in babies during the second half of infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, T; Hettiarachchi, M; Liyanage, C; Amarasena, S

    2015-08-01

    Sri Lanka has made remarkable improvements in health, social and educational indices. However, child malnutrition exists as a significant health problem. Infant feeding indicators have not reached expected levels and improvements are partly constrained by a lack of data. The present study aimed to determine current infant feeding practices and their impact on growth among 6-12-month-old infants. The study comprised a descriptive cross-sectional investigation conducted in randomly selected (n = 7) Public Health Midwife areas in Galle, Sri Lanka. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on sociodemographics and infant feeding. Mothers (n = 515) attending well-baby clinics were recruited on voluntary and consecutive basis. Infants' body weights and lengths were measured using standard procedures. Exclusive breastfeeding rate for first 6 months was 49.0%. In total, 42.6% infants (219 out of 515) were given rice as first weaning food, followed by salt (58.6%) and sugar (42.3%). Oil had been introduced to 84.9% of infants by the end of 12 months. Most infants (over 71%) were given dairy products, whereas 62.3% were being fed various liquid foods using bottles. The introduction of commercial infant cereals, chocolates, plain tea, ice cream and deep fried snacks was noted. Age-specific body weight and length were not achieved by 30.5% and 29.5% of infants, respectively. Weight for length was not achieved by 25.5% of the infants. Delayed achievements of motor milestones were observed. Mothers' knowledge scores on basic nutrients were low. Complementary feeding indices of the study group were not satisfactory. Maternal and child healthcare personnel need to identify causative factors for inappropriate feeding with a view to improve the complementary feeding patterns. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. Breast-Feeding Analgesia in Infants: An Update on the Current State of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Britney; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Latimer, Margot; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha

    To provide an updated synthesis of the current state of the evidence for the effectiveness of breast-feeding and expressed breast milk feeding in reducing procedural pain in preterm and full-term born infants. A systematic search of key electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE) was completed. Of the 1032 abstracts screened, 21 were found eligible for inclusion. Fifteen studies reported on the use of breast-feeding or expressed breast milk in full-term infants and 6 reported on preterm infants. Direct breast-feeding was more effective than maternal holding, maternal skin-to-skin contact, topical anesthetics, and music therapy, and was as or more effective than sweet tasting solutions in full-term infants. Expressed breast milk was not consistently found to reduce pain response in full-term or preterm infants. Studies generally had moderate to high risk of bias. There is sufficient evidence to recommend direct breast-feeding for procedural pain management in full-term infants. Based on current evidence, expressed breast milk alone should not be considered an adequate intervention.

  3. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  4. Infant feeding: formula, solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barness, L A

    1985-04-01

    This article discusses and evaluates current formulas, traces their continual improvement (based largely on new information on breast milk composition), and then discusses the question of supplemental feedings.

  5. Current Knowledge and Future Research on Infant Feeding in the Context of HIV: Basic, Clinical, Behavioral, and Programmatic Perspectives12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sera L.; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Chantry, Caroline J.; Geubbels, Eveline P.; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Cohan, Deborah; Vosti, Stephen A.; Latham, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, between 129,000 and 194,000 of the 430,000 pediatric HIV infections worldwide were attributable to breastfeeding. Yet in many settings, the health, economic, and social consequences of not breastfeeding would have dire consequences for many more children. In the first part of this review we provide an overview of current knowledge about infant feeding in the context of HIV. Namely, we describe the benefits and risks of breastmilk, the evolution of recommended infant feeding modalities in high-income and low-income countries in the last two decades, and contextualize the recently revised guidelines for infant feeding in the context of HIV current knowledge. In the second section, we suggest areas for future research on the postnatal prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in developing and industrialized countries. We suggest two shifts in perspective. The first is to evaluate PMTCT interventions more holistically, to include the psychosocial and economic consequences as well as the biomedical ones. The second shift in perspective should be one that contextualizes postnatal PMTCT efforts in the cascade of maternal health services. We conclude by discussing basic, clinical, behavioral, and programmatic research questions pertaining to a number of PMTCT efforts, including extended postnatal ARV prophylaxis, exclusive breastfeeding promotion, counseling, breast milk pasteurization, breast milk banking, novel techniques for making breast milk safer, and optimal breastfeeding practices. We believe the research efforts outlined here will maximize the number of healthy, thriving, HIV-free children around the world. PMID:22332055

  6. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimshaw, K E C

    2009-10-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised to assess the effectiveness of current dissemination and implementation strategies.

  7. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  8. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000712.htm Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants To use ... prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Babies and infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies ...

  9. Infant feeding practices in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S A; Ngo, T T; Knodel, J; Le, H; Tran, T T

    1995-12-01

    Data from the 1988 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey and the 1994 Demographic Survey are used to determine the trends in breast feeding and amenorrhea among ever married women of reproductive age. Life table procedures are used to calculate monthly probabilities of weaning. Then five month moving averages of equal weight are computed for observed monthly probabilities of weaning. The smoothed probabilities are used to calculate the cumulative proportion weaned at successive monthly ages. Breast feeding is universal in Vietnam. Infants are put to the breast earlier when delivery occurs at home. Almost all children are breast fed through the first six months, and 80% are breast fed for a year. The median duration was 15.3 months in the 1988 survey and 15.9 months in the 1994 survey based on life table methods. Calculations based on current status methods were slightly higher for both years. Rural women tended to breast feed longer than urban women. Children who had mothers working in agriculture were breast fed longer than children whose mothers had other occupations. Socioeconomic factors did not correlate well with breast feeding duration. Findings indicate that over 66% of breast fed infants aged under 3 months were given plain water, and over 90% of infants aged 3-5 months were given plain water. Fresh cow's milk is not given to Vietnamese infants. Juices were given to children aged older than 6 months. Sugar water was given to younger infants. The introduction of supplemental liquids was more common in urban areas. Few infants during the first few months of life were given solid or mushy foods. But by 4 months of age, 50% of infants were given solid or mushy foods, and the practice was more common in rural areas. The urban-rural gap closed by 6 months of age. Over 90% of infants received solids at 9 months. It is expected that modernization will negatively impact on breast feeding.

  10. Some thoughts about infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickse, R G

    1983-12-01

    This article summarizes the nutritional considerations, impact on infection and immunity, and psychosocial aspects of the breast versus bottle feeding debate and concludes with guidelines for reorganizing government health services to promote breastfeeding. Its aim is to encourage reappraisal on the part of physicians of the direct implications of infant feeding for the health and well-being of people in all societies, but especially in developing countries. As a result of widespread abandonment of breastfeeding in developing countries, marasmus and infant diarrhea have increased. Although the biologic advatages of breast over bottle feeding are indisputable, the social and economic advantages are more difficult to quantify. Many Third World women curtail breastfeeding to meet the conditions of employment; however, the economic advantages of artificial feeding diminish as one descends down the pay scale. The counterproductive trend toward bottle feeding has been compounded by adoption of this method on the part of the educated elite in Third World countries, including medical and nursing professionals, thus conferring on it as status associated with progress and affluence. The present trend can be reversed only if communities are convinced of the advantages of breastfeeding and make adjustments to facilitate this practice. Preparation for motherhood must be viewed as an integral function of the health care system, with emphasis placed on the nutrition of pregnant and lactating women, preparation for breastfeeding, and the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. Obstetric units must actively discourage the removal of infants from their mothers or routine artificial feeding. In addition, facilities must be provided at workplaces for breastfeeding, the working day should be modified to allow brestfeeding, maternity leaves should be extended, and appropriate payments should be made to nursing mothers. The nutrition needs of infants must be viewed as a shared

  11. Breast feeding and infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G V; Calvert, L J; Kanto, W P

    1978-04-01

    Breast feeding is a management problem requiring knowledge of the physiology of lactation, maternal and infant nutritional requirements, and specifics such as drugs which enter the milk. The job of the physician is to allay anxiety; this helps establish the let-down reflex and increases milk production. "Caking," mastitis and even abscesses are not indications for weaning. Rest, warm compresses and frequent nursing are indicated. Breast-fed infants have less tendency to obesity than those who are bottle-fed. Early solid foods in the diet are not needed.

  12. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  13. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, K.E.C.; Allen, K.; Edwards, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack...

  14. Infant feeding and allergy prevention : a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimshaw, K. E. C.; Allen, K.; Edwards, C. A.; Beyer, K.; Boulay, A.; van der Aa, L. B.; Sprikkelman, A.; Belohlavkova, S.; Clausen, M.; Dubakiene, R.; Duggan, E.; Reche, M.; Marino, L. V.; Norhede, P.; Ogorodova, L.; Schoemaker, A.; Stanczyk-Przyluska, A.; Szepfalusi, Z.; Vassilopoulou, E.; Veehof, S. H. E.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Wjst, M.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack of

  15. A Model of Feeding Readiness for Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Pickler, Rita H

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of bottle feeding readiness in preterm infants, which hypothesizes relationships between bottle feeding readiness, experience, and outcomes. The synactive theory of development provided the conceptual foundation for the model. The model, which is currently being tested, is designed to establish bottle feeding readiness criteria that will help nurses decide when to offer a bottle to a preterm infant The model may also provide a useful framework for deter...

  16. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  17. Mothers who formula feed: their practices, support needs and factors influencing their Infant feeding decision

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to 6 months postpartum, aimed to advance our understanding of maternal formula feeding practices, their reasons for deciding to formula feed, sources of feeding information and perceived support needs; insights into infant formula milk consumption patterns in relation to current feeding guidelines are also provided. In summary, the vast majority of infants at 6 weeks were provided with formula milk (n = 368; 81.8%). Positive maternal perceptions of formula feeding were among the most frequently reported reasons underlying mothers’ decision to formula feed (e.g. convenience, 17.3%). Potential public health concerns over the large formula milk volumes consumed by infants (mean 205ml\\/kilogram\\/day) relative to infant feeding guidelines (150ml\\/kilogram\\/day) were raised from this study. Some mothers continue to add solid foods to infant bottle feeds at 6 weeks (3.8%) and 6 months (6%), a non-recommended feeding practice posing a choking risk for infants. Crucially, this study highlights the need to provide greater support and information to mothers who decide to formula feed postpartum including practical information on sterilisation and formula reconstitution. While breastfeeding promotion and research continues to be a public health priority in Ireland, addressing the support and information needs of mothers who formula feed, an underrepresented and understudied population in the literature, also needs to be considered to ensure optimal health and safety for their infants.

  18. Development of infant oral feeding skills: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chantal

    2016-02-01

    The hospital discharge of premature infants in neonatal intensive care units is often delayed due to their inability to feed by mouth safely and competently. With immature physiologic functions, infants born prematurely cannot be expected to readily feed by mouth at the equivalent age of a third trimester of gestation as the majority of their term counterparts do. Consequently, it is crucial that health care professionals gain an adequate knowledge of the development of preterm infants' oral feeding skills so as to optimize their safety and competency as they transition to oral feeding. With a greater sensitivity toward their immature skills, we can offer these infants a safer and smoother transition to independent oral feeding than is currently observed. This review article is an overview of the evidence-based research undertaken over the past 2 decades on the development of very-low-birth-weight infants' oral feeding skills. The description of the different functional levels where these infants can encounter hurdles may assist caregivers in identifying a potential cause or causes for their individual patients' oral feeding difficulties. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Ethical Challenges in Infant Feeding Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin; Lee, Mi Kyung; Kagawa, Masaharu

    2017-01-11

    Infants have a complex set of nutrient requirements to meet the demands of their high metabolic rate, growth, and immunological and cognitive development. Infant nutrition lays the foundation for health throughout life. While infant feeding research is essential, it must be conducted to the highest ethical standards. The objective of this paper is to discuss the implications of developments in infant nutrition for the ethics of infant feeding research and the implications for obtaining informed consent. A search was undertaken of the papers in the medical literature using the PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and CINAHL databases. From a total of 9303 papers identified, the full text of 87 articles that contained discussion of issues in consent in infant feeding trials were obtained and read and after further screening 42 papers were included in the results and discussion. Recent developments in infant nutrition of significance to ethics assessment include the improved survival of low birth weight infants, increasing evidence of the value of breastfeeding and evidence of the lifelong importance of infant feeding and development in the first 1000 days of life in chronic disease epidemiology. Informed consent is a difficult issue, but should always include information on the value of preserving breastfeeding options. Project monitoring should be cognisant of the long term implications of growth rates and early life nutrition.

  20. Challenges faced by health-care providers offering infant-feeding counseling to HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Emily L; Chan, Jessica; Butler, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has been identified as the optimal nutrition and critical behavior in attaining human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-free infant survival in resource-limited settings. Health-care providers (HCPs) in clinic- and community-settings throughout sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) provide infant-feeding counseling. However, rates of EBF at 6 months of age are suboptimal. HCPs are uniquely positioned to educate HIV-positive mothers and provide support by addressing known barriers to EBF. However, limited evidence exists on the experiences faced by HCPs in providing counseling on infant feeding to HIV-positive women. Our objective is to describe experiences faced by HCPs when delivering infant-feeding counseling in the context of HIV in program settings in sSA. We searched a range of electronic databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from January 1990 to February 2013, in addition to hand-searching, cross-reference searching, and personal communications. The search was limited to publications in English. Empirical studies of HCP experiences providing infant-feeding counseling in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programs in sSA were selected. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles reporting HCP challenges in infant-feeding counseling that met inclusion criteria. Articles included qualitative, cross-sectional and mixed-method studies, and cumulatively reported 31 challenges faced by HCPs. Among the challenges identified, the most commonly reported were personal beliefs held by the HCPs toward infant feeding in the context of HIV, contradictory messages, staff workload, directive counseling styles, and a lack of practical strategies to offer mothers, often leading to improvised counseling approaches. Counseling strategies need to be developed that are relevant, meaningful, and responsive to the needs of both HCPs and mothers.

  1. Progress in developing an infant and child feeding index

    OpenAIRE

    Arimond, Mary; Ruel, Marie T., ed.

    2002-01-01

    "Feeding practices are an important determinant of the nutritional status of infants and children. It is therefore useful to measure and describe infant and child feeding practices in a number of contexts. Such measurements could enable (1) international comparisons of the adequacy of infant and child feeding, (2) research linking infant and child feeding to determinants or outcomes, (3) advocacy regarding the importance of adequate infant and child feeding, and (4) monitoring and evaluation ...

  2. Factors associated with infant feeding practices and nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with infant feeding practices and nutritional status among children ... and practices on infant feeding, socio-demographic factors that influence choice of ... refusal by the child to breastfeed or feeding on complementary food.

  3. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, L.; KITZINGER, Jenny; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media.\\ud Design: Content analysis.\\ud Subjects: Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999.\\ud Setting: UK mass media.\\ud Main outcome measures: Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes.\\ud Results: Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in...

  4. Current concepts in infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Y L; Paige, D M

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional needs vary during the first year of life according to the infant's individualized pattern of growth and amount of physical activity. After delivery, the infant must make many physiologic adjustments, develop immunologic defenses, and take in adequate nutrients for survival. The type and consistency of foods change as the gastrointestinal system matures and becomes able to metabolize the components and excrete the needed metabolites of increasingly complex foods. The recommended dietary allowance for infancy is based on the amount of nutrients provided to healthy infants in human milk during the first six months of life and on the consumption of formula and increasing amounts of solid food during the second six months. The introduction of solid foods should parallel the developmental changes that occur within the central nervous system throughout the first year; these provide a level of readiness for the infant to manage foods of various textures from full liquid to soft. Even though significant technologic advances have led to changes in the way infants can be fed, human milk is still the optimal choice. Most women can be encouraged to breast-feed regardless of their own nutritional status or dietary intake. Contraindications can be managed on an individual basis. If women do not elect to breast-feed, suitable commercial formulas are available. The important issue in feeding is that of providing a variety of appropriately prepared foods offered in a nonjudgmental atmosphere so that the foundation is laid for the development of good food habits.

  5. Prenatal office practices regarding infant feeding choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusdieker, Lois B; Dungy, Claibourne I; Losch, Mary E

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the obstetric care providers' roles in breast-feeding promotion during prenatal care. A questionnaire addressing breast-feeding issues was sent to family practitioners (FP), obstetric-gynecologists (OB/GYN), and nurse midwives (NM) in Iowa, USA. All NM, 97% of FP, and 85% of OB/GYN reported asking infant feeding preference-usually only at the first prenatal visit. NM (73%) were most likely to provide extensive breast-feeding counseling. OB/GYN (68%) and FP physicians (90%) reported doing their own breast-feeding counseling. Breast examinations targeting future breast-feeding problems were done in 82% to 84% of patients. NM practices shared more information supportive of breast-feeding. Nearly all providers offered prenatal classes, but only 41% of FP offered breast-feeding classes. Free formula samples were available in 73% of FP, 54% of OB/GYN, and 36% NM offices. Pamphlets on formula feeding and also breast-feeding were readily available. Overall NM (64%) reported being strong breast-feeding advocates compared to only 13% of FP and 7% of OB/GYN. In conclusion, little promotion of breast-feeding occurs in most prenatal practice settings.

  6. Technical inventions that enabled artificial infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Artificial feeding of infants, called hand-feeding, was unsafe well into the 19th century. This paper aims to identify technical innovations which made artificial feeding less dangerous. In rapid succession from 1844 to 1886, the vulcanization of rubber, production of rubber teats, cooling machines for large-scale ice production, techniques for milk pasteurization, evaporation and condensation, and packing in closed tins were invented or initiated. Remarkably, most of these inventions preceded the discovery of pathogenic bacteria. The producers of proprietary infant formula made immediate use of these innovations, whereas in the private household artificial feeding remained highly dangerous - mostly because of ignorance about bacteria and hygiene, and partly because the equipment for safe storage, transport, preparation and application of baby food was lacking.

  7. Economy in the feeding of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, E; Delaney, J; Dwyer, J T

    1977-02-01

    The food costs of various infant feeds were examined with focus on how these vary and the cost differences between different feeding patterns in the 1st year of life. The objectives were: 1) to compare prices for branded commercial milk-based products with other types of formulas and breast milk, and with each other according to source of supply, 2) to compare prices of different sources of Beikost (foods other than milk or formulas) used in feeding babies and how these vary by form (home made versus various types of commercially prepared products) and among brands, 3) to review total annual costs of 5 different hypothetical feeding patterns and actual patterns; and 4) to summarize factors other than price which may be significant in the economics and efficiency of infant feeding. National price survey data on a large number of commercial products from several companies producing food for infants were made available for this study. In addition, during June 1976 price surveys were conducted in several large supermarkets, small grocery stores, and drugstores in the Boston area to furnish information on local price differentials. The least expensive acceptable food for an infant was found to be a home made evaporated milk formula. While food costs were quite low, the formula must be prepared, and preparation time was slightly longer than it was with pre-mixed products. Whole milk was the most inexpensive milk-based feed but was undesirable for infant feeding, at least in the early months of life. On a moderate cost diet which supplies the extra nutrients required for lactation primarily from animal resources, lactation ranked in the middle from the standpoint of food cost. The various commercial milk-based feeds were nearly twice the cost of evaporated milk formulas. Concentrated formulas were least expensive, followed by powdered, with ready-to-feed products being the most expensive. Costs of breast feeding for a year ranged from $156 to $281, depending on the diet

  8. College Students' Attitudes regarding Infant Feeding Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, Anne K.; Chang, Yunhee; Knight, Kathy B.; Tidwell, Diane K.; Wachter, Kathy; Endo, Seiji; West, Charles K.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of college students toward various infant feeding practices using a questionnaire created by the authors on the basis of a review of the literature. Five hundred ten students enrolled at the University of Mississippi took part in the study. Findings indicated that respondents believed both high school and…

  9. [Current views on breast feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüttner, R

    1983-07-01

    One of the greatest advantages of feeding exclusively breast-milk is the continuous provision of immunoglobulin A, especially during the first days of life, and of leucocytes with macrophage function as well as unspecific, antiinfectious agents like lactoferrin, lysozyme and neuraminic acid. It seems, that the organism is protected against allergic reactions at the mucosa level of the small intestine caused by the penetration of "foreign" protein by feeding exclusively breast-milk especially during the first weeks and months of life. During the first months of the infant's life an increased supply of iron results from the higher content of iron in breast-milk as compared to cow's milk, and the better absorption of the iron from breast-milk. Just because of this (the better provision with iron from natural food) solid foods should not be added to the infant's diet before 6 months of age. One of the disadvantages of breast-feeding is the passage of unwanted substances from breast-milk to the infant. First of all the chlorinated hydrocarbons have to be mentioned within this context. However, a decreasing tendency can be assumed according to recent investigations. An increasing tendency in breast-milk, though not confirmed, seems possible only for the polychlorinated biphenyls. Nevertheless, for the pediatrician no reason to advise against breast-feeding results from the unwanted admixtures of chlorinated hydrocarbons in breast-milk. One should rather vigorously propagate to feed as many children as possible exclusively with breast-milk over a period of 4 to 6 months.

  10. Infant feeding: beyond the nutritional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselia A.P. Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To draw attention to the importance of interaction between caregiver and child during feeding and the influence of parenting style on dietary habit formation. Source of data: A search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases for articles addressing responsive feeding; the articles considered most relevant by the authors were selected. Synthesis of data: The way children are fed is decisive for the formation of their eating habits, especially the strategies that parents/caregivers use to stimulate feeding. In this context, responsive feeding has been emphasized, with the key principles: feed the infant directly and assist older children when they already eat on their own; feed them slowly and patiently, and encourage children to eat but do not force them; if the child refuses many types of foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods of encouragement; minimize distractions during meals; and make the meals an opportunity for learning and love, talking to the child during feeding and maintaining eye contact. It is the caregiver's responsibility to be sensitive to the child's signs and alleviate tensions during feeding, and make feeding time pleasurable; whereas it is the child's role to clearly express signs of hunger and satiety and be receptive to the caregiver. Conclusion: Responsive feeding is very important in dietary habit formation and should be encouraged by health professionals in their advice to families.

  11. Infant feeding: beyond the nutritional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Giselia A P; Costa, Karla A O; Giugliani, Elsa R J

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the importance of interaction between caregiver and child during feeding and the influence of parenting style on dietary habit formation. A search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases for articles addressing responsive feeding; the articles considered most relevant by the authors were selected. The way children are fed is decisive for the formation of their eating habits, especially the strategies that parents/caregivers use to stimulate feeding. In this context, responsive feeding has been emphasized, with the key principles: feed the infant directly and assist older children when they already eat on their own; feed them slowly and patiently, and encourage children to eat but do not force them; if the child refuses many types of foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods of encouragement; minimize distractions during meals; and make the meals an opportunity for learning and love, talking to the child during feeding and maintaining eye contact. It is the caregiver's responsibility to be sensitive to the child's signs and alleviate tensions during feeding, and make feeding time pleasurable; whereas it is the child's role to clearly express signs of hunger and satiety and be receptive to the caregiver. Responsive feeding is very important in dietary habit formation and should be encouraged by health professionals in their advice to families. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  12. Cup versus bottle feeding for hospitalized late preterm infants in Egypt: A quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabash Soheir A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although previous studies have demonstrated beneficial breastfeeding outcomes when cup feeding rather than bottle feeding was used for feeding preterm infants, cup feeding has not been implemented in Egypt. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of using cup feeding as an exclusive method of feeding preterm infants during hospitalization on breastfeeding outcomes after discharge. Methods A quasi-experimental design, with the control group studied first, was used to examine the effect of cup feeding for preterm infants on breastfeeding outcomes after discharge. Sixty preterm infants (mean gestational age was 35.13 weeks and mean birth weight was 2150 grams were recruited during Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU stay. Control group infants (n = 30 received only bottle feedings during hospitalization and the experimental group (n = 30 received only cup feedings during hospitalization. Both groups were followed up after discharge for six weeks to evaluate infant's breastfeeding behavior and mother's breastfeeding practices. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and repeated measures ANOVA for testing the differences between the cup feeding and bottle feeding groups over six weeks after discharge. Results Cup fed infants demonstrated significantly more mature breastfeeding behaviors when compared to bottle fed infants (p Conclusion Cup fed infants were more exclusively breast fed one week after discharge, supporting the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative recommendations for using cup feeding and avoiding bottle feeding when providing supplementation for preterm infants. The current study provides initial evidence for the implementation of cup feeding as a method of supplementation for late preterm infants during hospitalization. Trial Registration Clinical Trial NCT00756587.

  13. Infant sleep and night feeding patterns during later infancy: association with breastfeeding frequency, daytime complementary food intake, and infant weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Harries, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Infant sleep is a common concern for new parents. Although many expect a newborn infant to wake frequently, encouraging a baby to sleep through the night by a few months of age is seen as both a developmental aim and a parenting success. Many new mothers believe that their infants' diet is related to their sleep; formula milk or increased levels of solid food are often given in an attempt to promote sleep. However, the impact of these in later infancy is not understood. In the current study 715 mothers with an infant 6-12 months of age reported their infants' typical night wakings and night feeds alongside any breastfeeding and frequency of solid meals. Of infants in this age range, 78.6% still regularly woke at least once a night, with 61.4% receiving one or more milk feeds. Both night wakings and night feeds decreased with age. No difference in night wakings or night feeds was found between mothers who were currently breastfeeding or formula feeding. However, infants who received more milk or solid feeds during the day were less likely to feed at night but not less likely to wake. The findings have important implications for health professionals who support new mothers with infant sleep and diet in the first year. Increasing infant calories during the day may therefore reduce the likelihood of night feeding but will not reduce the need for parents to attend to the infant in the night. Breastfeeding has no impact on infant sleep in the second 6 months postpartum.

  14. Impact of infant feeding practices on childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F

    2009-02-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex disease influenced by genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. The current surge in childhood obesity in the United States is attributable to an interaction between a genetic predisposition toward obesity and a permissive environment. Several recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been published on the association between breast-feeding and childhood obesity. In these analyses, adjustment for confounding factors attenuated or nullified the protective effect of breast-feeding on later obesity. The Viva La Familia Study was designed to identify genetic and environmental factors affecting obesity and its comorbidities in 1030 Hispanic children from 319 families. Odds ratios for potential risk factors associated with childhood overweight were computed using binary logistic regression for panel data. Early infant-feeding practices were not significant. Salient independent risk factors for childhood obesity in this cohort of Hispanic children were age, birth weight, maternal obesity, paternal obesity, number of children in the family, and the percentage of awake time spent in sedentary activity. Breast-feeding may have a small protective effect against childhood obesity, although residual confounding may exist. Human milk is exquisitely fitted for optimal infant growth and development and may uniquely modulate neuroendocrine and immunologic pathways involved in the regulation of body weight. Nevertheless, other genetic and environmental determinants such as socioeconomic status, parental obesity, smoking, birth weight, and rapid infancy weight gain far supersede infant-feeding practices as risk factors for childhood obesity.

  15. Factors Associated with Recurrent Infant Feeding Practices in Subsequent Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Jason P; Bond, Diana; de Vroome, Michelle; Yip, Elizabeth; Nassar, Natasha

    2016-11-01

    Previous breastfeeding experience has been associated with subsequent infant feeding practices. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated formula-only feeding patterns or the full range of potentially associated characteristics. This study aimed to determine the recurrence of infant feeding practices and maternal, birthing, and infant characteristics associated with recurrent formula-only feeding and changes between exclusive breastfeeding and formula-only feeding across subsequent births. We conducted a population-based record-linkage study of 317 027 mothers, with a term singleton live-birth in 2007-2011, New South Wales, Australia. Infant feeding patterns were described using sequential birth pairs. For mothers with a first and second birth, robust Poisson regression was used to investigate the association between maternal, birthing, and infant characteristics and infant feeding patterns. Combined relative risks (RRs) were calculated for selected maternal characteristics. Across 69 994 sequential birth pairs, the recurrence rate of formula-only feeding was 71%, and 92% for exclusive breastfeeding. Maternal characteristics breastfeeding to formula-only feeding (RR, 9.0; 95% CI, 7.4-10.7), and being less likely to change from formula-only feeding to exclusive breastfeeding (RR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.38-0.59). Infant feeding practices were strongly recurrent, highlighting the importance of successful breastfeeding for first-time mothers. Additional support for young mothers from disadvantaged backgrounds accounting for infant feeding history, experiences, and common barriers could improve recurrent exclusive breastfeeding and positively affect infant and maternal health.

  16. Transpyloric feeding in 49 infants undergoing intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, E

    1980-11-01

    The use of transpyloric feeding in 46 very ill newborn infants requiring assisted ventilation was evaluated. It was found to be a simple and well-tolerated technique. A possible complication of significance was necrotising enterocolitis in 4 infants. Transpyloric tube feeding in 3 infants with treated upper small-bowel atresia is also described.

  17. Design of wireless multi-parameter monitoring system for oral feeding of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Kuo, Hsing-Chien; Wang, Lin-Yu; Ko, Mei-Ju; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2016-07-01

    Premature infants often cannot successfully and coordinately complete their oral feeding. Mature sucking, swallowing, and respiration activities are crucial indicators for the survival of newborn infants. Due to the vulnerability and unobvious muscle activities of premature infants, current clinical care givers mainly depend on the subjective behavioral observation of infants during oral feeding. There is still lack of an integrated oral feeding monitoring system to objectively and quantifiably monitor the related physiological parameters of premature infants. In this study, a wireless multi-parameter monitoring system for oral feeding of premature infants was proposed to monitor the sucking-swallowing-respiratory activities and the heart rate variability to provide quantitative indices of oral feeding. Here, a novel sucking pressure sensing module was also developed to monitor the premature infant's sucking pressure under oral feeding to avoid the immersion influence of milk. The experimental results showed that the proposed system detected the related physiological parameters of premature infants during oral feeding effectively and may provide an objective clinical evaluation tool for oral feeding ability and safety of premature infants in the future.

  18. Infant mortality and infant feeding in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegman, M E; Marchante, R F; Kramer, M

    1942-03-01

    Data on infant mortality and infant feeding in Puerto Rico were examined. The material studied was the infant and preschool records found in the active and pending files of the public health units. The information tabulated was that of the status of the child at the time of 1st admission to Health Department service, before any specific benefit could have been obtained from that service. A total of 1189 records was tabulated from 3 municipalities: 171 from Ciales; 360 from Guayama; and 658 from Rio Piedras. Results of the 2 sexes were combined. Breastfed means that the sole source of milk was breast. The proportion breastfed declined with advancing age of child. There was a striking difference between Ciales, an area of relatively low infant mortality, and the other 2 municipalities. The proportion breastfed in Ciales was definitely higher than in the other 2 communities in the 2-3 months group. The difference was even greater in the 4-5 months group. The total records from Ciales were only 171, but the differences were statistically significant. Rio Piedras was consistently the lowest in every age group. In the youngest age group of the children there was a decreasing proportion breastfed with the advancing age of the mother. This finding was statistically significant. In the group of children 6 months and older, it appeared that the older mothers had the highest proportion of breastfed children. In this group, the difference according to mother's age only approached significance. In regard to rural-urban differences, there was clearly little difference in the early months of life, but in the older age groups the proportion breastfed was higher for inhabitants of rural areas. These differences were significant and suggest that rural mothers tend to nurse their infants longer. There was no evidence that the rates for older infants in the rural areas were weighted with older mothers tending to have th e highest proportion of infants breastfed at age of 6 months and

  19. The determination of infant feeding attitudes among Turkish mothers using the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Sumeyra; Yuvaci, Hilal Uslu; Erkorkmaz, Unal; Cinar, Nursan; Altinkaynak, Sevin

    2017-10-01

    To assess whether the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale is a valid and reliable scale for Turkish mothers, and to assess maternal attitudes toward various aspects of infant feeding. This methodological, analytical study was conducted at the obstetrics and gynaecology department of Sakarya Training and Research Hospital, Sakarya, Turkey, from June to August 2015, and comprised mothers of newborn babies. Data was collected using the Turkish version of Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale. SPSS 23 was used for data analysis. There were 391 participants in the study. Five items of the original Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale were excluded due to the low correlation with the scale integrity (Cronbach's alpha=0.67). The total mean score of the mothers was 48.11±6.57. A statistically significant difference was found between the educational status, having social security, what the mothers having other children fed these children in the first 6 months and family types (p=0.05 each). Significant difference was also found between the mothers only breastfeeding and the mothers feeding with mother's milk and formula (p=0.008). The scale was found to be culturally acceptable, reliable and valid scale for Turkish mothers.

  20. Infant nutrition and lifelong health: current perspectives and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S M

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the role and importance of nutrition in early postnatal life, as an influence on lifelong vulnerability to poor health, is an important part of current research. We need to be able to define optimal patterns of infant feeding, not just to support growth and development in infancy, but also as determinants of later health. To date, much of the focus on the long-term effects of infant nutrition has been on milk feeding, to compare breast and formula feeding and to evaluate the effects of exclusivity, timing and duration of feeding different types of milk in infancy; other aspects of infant feeding such as age at introduction of solid foods and type of weaning diet have received less attention, and relatively little is known about their links to later health. Contemporary data are needed to enable us to move beyond explanation of historical infant feeding data in order to understand and predict health outcomes in future generations. Ongoing and new population studies, that include infants from diverse settings, will be key to providing generalizable data that can be used to define optimal feeding practice. There are some methodological challenges ahead, although significant progress has already been made, and further progress is envisaged in the future. In particular, the opportunity to bring together epidemiological studies and new mechanistic insights that will help identify key aspects of infant nutrition and their causal effects offer great promise both in moving this field forward as well as the potential for health benefits for future generations.

  1. Feeding of newborns and infants (cultural aspects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, V R; Desai, A B

    1970-07-01

    A total of 435 mothers in the postnatal ward of the Civil Hospital in Ahmedabad, India were interviewed to determine the cultural beliefs and traditional practices influencing the feeding of newborns and infants. A thorough physical and neurological examination of the newborns was conducted. All newborns and mothers were followed for a period varying from 3-7 days to detect any complications either in the newborn or the mother related to feeding patterns. The various methods of feeding were observed. In most of the cases the deciding factor to giving the 1st feed was the cry of the baby. As a 1st feed, various liquid preparations were used by the mothers. 66.2% of the mothers offered boiled water as a 1st feed. In the postnatal ward boiled water is an easily available preparation for newborns and is usually provided by the ward sister whenever the mother requests it. In most of the cases the mother herself was the initiator. 40.3% of the mothers began supplementing breast milk with milk or solid food before the age of 1 year, and 18% by the age of 1 1/2 years. 27.3% of the mothers kept their children on breast milk only until the age of 1 year, and 12.7% until the age of 2 years. 46.5% of the mothers did not give milk at all during infancy and childhood. The most common age for introducing solid food was 1-1 1/2 (61.4%); only 10.2% of the mothers introduced solid food during the 1st year of life. The various sweet carbohydrate preparations used as 1st feed are known as "Galthuthi." 25.9% of the mothers gave "Galthuthi" to their newborns during the 1st 3 days of life and 16.9% of the mothers used it as a 1st feed. Most mothers were giving it as a custom or community tradition. The infants exposed to "Galthuthi" are exposed to gastrointestinal infections. The common practice of giving fresh milk as a prelacteal feed during the 1st 3 days of life appears to be harmful to subsequent breastfeeding. It seems that prelacteal feed is not harmful as long as it is given in a

  2. Infant feeding practices among HIV-positive women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, indicate a need for more intensive infant feeding counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sera L; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten A; Dantzer, Emily A; Ngonyani, Monica M; Nyambo, Margaret T; Ash, Deborah M; Chantry, Caroline J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess feeding practices of infants born to HIV-positive women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. These data then served as a proxy to evaluate the adequacy of current infant feeding counselling. Design A cross-sectional survey of infant feeding behaviours. Setting Four clinics in greater Dar es Salaam in early 2008. Subjects A total of 196 HIV-positive mothers of children aged 6–10 months recruited from HIV clinics. Results Initiation of breastfeeding was reported by 95·4% of survey participants. In the entire sample, 80·1%, 34·2% and 13·3% of women reported exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) up to 2, 4 and 6 months, respectively. Median duration of EBF among women who ever breast-fed was 3 (interquartile range (IQR): 2·1, 4·0) months. Most non-breast-milk foods fed to infants were low in nutrient density. Complete cessation of breast-feeding occurred within 14 d of the introduction of non-breast-milk foods among 138 of the 187 children (73·8%) who had ever received any breast milk. Of the 187 infants in the study who ever received breast milk, 19·4% received neither human milk nor any replacement milks for 1 week or more (median duration of no milk was 14 (IQR: 7, 152) d). Conclusions Infant feeding practices among these HIV-positive mothers resulted in infants receiving far less breast milk and more mixed complementary feeds than recommended, thus placing them at greater risk of both malnutrition and HIV infection. An environment that better enables mothers to follow national guidelines is urgently needed. More intensive infant feeding counselling programmes would very likely increase rates of optimal infant feeding. PMID:20587116

  3. [Development of oral feeding skills in the preterm infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C

    2007-09-01

    Preterm infants cannot readily transition from tube to oral feeding. Such difficulty often delays their discharge from the hospital and mother-infant reunion. Therefore, understanding the development of the necessary skills preterm infants need to acquire for safe and successful oral feeding is essential. It is now recognized that a mature sucking pattern consisting of the rhythmic alternation of suction and expression is not sufficient for an infant to feed by mouth safely. Rather, an adequate coordination of sucking, swallowing, and respiration appear to be crucial if the infant is to feed with no episodes of desaturation, apnea, bradycardia, and/or aspiration. Studies have shown the benefits of some interventions in facilitating oral feeding in the preterm infant. However, it remains to be determined whether these effects can be generalized.

  4. Knowledge, opinions and practices of healthcare workers related to infant feeding in the context of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liska Janse van Rensburg

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Healthcare workers' knowledge did not conform favourably with the current WHO guidelines. These healthcare workers were actively involved in the care of patients in the maternity wards where HIV-infected mothers regularly seek counselling on infant feeding matters.

  5. The crisis in infant feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, A

    1978-01-01

    This article maintains that the dramatic decline in breast-feeding in low-income countries is extracting a substantial cost, both in infant health and in outright economic loss. From the 6th to 12th month of life, breast-feeding can supply up to 3/4 of a child's protein needs. The breast-fed child has received about 375 liters of breast milk by age 2. The nutritional equivalent in cow's milk would cost about $65; in packaged dried milk formulas, close to $140. Yet in the few developing countries where surveys of breast-feeding have been conducted over the years, the common pattern is one of significant decline, with greatest decline in urban areas. As communication techniques become more effective in developing countries, urban life styles will have increasing influence on rural societies. Estimates show that losses in breast milk can produce losses in the billions of dollars to developing countries. In terms of national development, lactation has another major economic asset: its link to family planning as a major form of contraception. One investigation reports that the incidence of pregnancy in the 1st 9 months after childbirth of nonnursing mothers was twice that of mothers who breast-fed, including those who simultaneously used other foods. Just as breast milk can be the major source of nutrition, the failure to provide breast milk is a major cause of infant malnutrition and mortality. Poor parents often dilute milk formulas to extend their supply; many cannot read labels and instructions; and hygienic needs often cannot be met by the parents. Breast-fed babies are more resistant to a host of diseases. The costs and obstacles of designing campaigns to encourage breast-feeding in developing countries may be less imposing than those of alternate nutrition intervention programs designed to achieve the same ends. Such a campaign calls for: 1) attracting the public's attention to the benefits of breast-feeding and the dangers of foregoing it through the media

  6. A qualitative systematic review of maternal infant feeding practices in transitioning from milk feeds to family foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Michelle; Brodribb, Wendy; Hepworth, Julie

    2016-10-03

    Evidence supports the establishment of healthy feeding practices early in life to promote lifelong healthy eating patterns protective against chronic disease such as obesity. Current early childhood obesity prevention interventions are built on extant understandings of how feeding practices relate to infant's cues of hunger and satiety. Further insights regarding factors that influence feeding behaviors in early life may improve program designs and outcomes. Four electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed qualitative studies published between 2000 to 2014 with transitional infant feeding practice rationale from developed countries. Reporting transparency and potential bias was assessed using the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research quality checklist. Thematic synthesis of 23 manuscripts identified three themes (and six sub-themes): Theme 1. Infant (physical cues and behavioural cues) focuses on the perceived signs of readiness to start solids and the feeding to influence growth and "health happiness." Theme 2. Mother (coping strategies and knowledge and skills) focuses on the early survival of the infant and the family and the feeding to satisfy hunger and influence infant contentment, and sleep. Theme 3. Community (pressure and inconsistent advice) highlights the importance of generational feeding and how conflicting feeding advice led many mothers to adopt valued familial or culturally established practices. Overall, mothers were pivotal to feeding decisions. Satisfying infant's needs to reach "good mothering" status as measured by societal expectations was highly valued but lacked consideration of nutrition, obesity, and long term health. Maternal interpretation of healthy infant feeding and successful parenting need attention when developing strategies to support new families.

  7. Infant milk feeding practices in the Netherlands and associated factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, C.I.; Wouwe, J.P. van; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe infant feeding practices and associated factors, and to explore mothers' main reasons for starting and stopping breastfeeding. Methods: We performed a national inquiry into milk feeding practices among 9133 Dutch infants aged <7 mo by means of a

  8. Infant milk feeding practices in the Netherlands and associated factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, Caren; Van Wouwe, JP; Reijneveld, SA

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe infant feeding practices and associated factors, and to explore mothers' main reasons for starting and stopping breastfeeding. Methods: We performed a national inquiry into milk feeding practices among 9133 Dutch infants aged = 38 wk of gestation, with a

  9. Evaluation of Feeding Torerance in Intrauterine Growth Restricted Preterm Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozzetti, V.

    2016-01-01

    Intra Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) is an important and common problem in obstetrics. The purpose of the present thesis was to investigate: 1. Feeding issues in IUGR preterm infants; 2. Clinical and strumental parameters as predictors of feeding tolerance in IUGR preterm infants; 3. Splanchnic a

  10. Infant milk feeding practices in the Netherlands and associated factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, Caren; Van Wouwe, JP; Reijneveld, SA

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe infant feeding practices and associated factors, and to explore mothers' main reasons for starting and stopping breastfeeding. Methods: We performed a national inquiry into milk feeding practices among 9133 Dutch infants aged = 38 wk of gestation, with a bir

  11. Guidelines for Feeding Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that feeding a very low birth weight (VLBW neonate is a fundamental and inevitable part of its management, this is a field which is beset with controversies. Optimal nutrition improves growth and neurological outcomes, and reduces the incidence of sepsis and possibly even retinopathy of prematurity. There is a great deal of heterogeneity of practice among neonatologists and pediatricians regarding feeding VLBW infants. A working group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants was constituted in McMaster University, Canada. The group listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBW infants, systematically reviewed the literature, critically appraised the level of evidence, and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines. These guidelines form the basis of this state-of-art review. The review touches upon trophic feeding, nutritional feeding, fortification, feeding in special circumstances, assessment of feed tolerance, and management of gastric residuals, gastro-esophageal reflux, and glycerin enemas.

  12. Fertility, Infant Feeding, and Change in Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howrigan, Gail A.

    1988-01-01

    Although the Yucatec pattern of child care conforms on the whole to the pattern seen in other agrarian societies, it is currently becoming destabilized as the society becomes more modern. Some of the developing customs, such as bottle-feeding, are maladaptive, at least in the short run. (RH)

  13. Using grounded theory methodology to conceptualize the mother-infant communication dynamic: potential application to compliance with infant feeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jennifer; Bower, Katherine M; Spence, Marsha; Kavanagh, Katherine F

    2015-10-01

    Excessive, rapid weight gain in early infancy has been linked to risk of later overweight and obesity. Inappropriate infant feeding practices associated with this rapid weight gain are currently of great interest. Understanding the origin of these practices may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Low-income populations in the Southeastern United States are at increased risk for development of inappropriate infant feeding practices, secondary to the relatively low rates of breastfeeding reported from this region. The objective was to use grounded theory methodology (GTM) to explore interactions between mothers and infants that may influence development of feeding practices, and to do so among low-income, primiparous, Southeastern United States mothers. Analysis of 15 in-depth phone interviews resulted in development of a theoretical model in which Mother-Infant Communication Dynamic emerged as the central concept. The central concept suggests a communication pattern developed over the first year of life, based on a positive feedback loop, which is harmonious and results in the maternal perception of mother and infant now speaking the same language. Importantly, though harmonious, this dynamic may result from inaccurate maternal interpretation of infant cues and behaviours, subsequently leading to inappropriate infant feeding practices. Future research should test this theoretical model using direct observation of mother-infant communication, to increase the understanding of maternal interpretation of infant cues. Subsequently, interventions targeting accurate maternal interpretation of and response to infant cues, and impact on rate of infant weight gain could be tested. If effective, health care providers could potentially use these concepts to attenuate excess rapid infant weight gain. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. FEEDING GUIDELINES FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS (START HEALTHY PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Butte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The dietary guidelines for americans contains recommendations on diets and healthy lifestyles but it does not deal with specificities of the diet and feeding breast and small infants (to 2 years. However, parents and carecgivers need practical recommendations on feeding infants and toddlers that are necessary to ensure a normal growth and to create the basis for forming healthy food habits, which apart from other benefits might help prevent the development of obesity and other diseases in both childhood and adulthood. The feeding guidelines for infants and toddlers is aimed at providing parents and carecgivers with practical information on feeding breast and small infants. It is intendced for adding and broadening recommendations worked out by other expert groups and organizations. The article provides a substantiation of the guidelines. The methodology, results and a complete reference list used to work out the recommendations are presented in another document.Key words: infants, nutrition.

  15. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Mothers Regarding Infant Feeding Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Sriram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6months. 90.67% think that colostrum is good for baby.34.67% mothers have given pre-lacteal feeds, tea and jaggery was most common.84.67% mothers knew that they should take extra food during lactation. Father (36% most commonly help in feeding while 31.33% don’t get any domestic help.78.67% women consult doctor for feeding problems. Most common reason of stopping breast feeding was inadequate milk secretion(54.67%.18% think that feeding should be stopped during illness. 75.33% women were completely satisfied with their feeding practices. Conclusion-Mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding practices. Inspite of good knowledge there are lacunae in the practices of mothers due to social and economic reasons. Level of education has positive impact on infant feeding practices. Counselling by doctors had a better impact on the attitude and practices of mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 147-150

  16. infant-feeding knowledge and the practices of mothers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-07

    May 7, 2012 ... annum,12 it is clear that the most suitable infant-feeding choice to ... prescription by designated healthcare professionals, when formula feeding is medically ..... Africa: do counsellors need more or different training? ... Bekele A, Berhane Y. Magnitude and determinants of bottle feeding in rural communities.

  17. The Influence of Maternal Psychosocial Characteristics on Infant Feeding Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katherine J.; Thompson, Amanda L.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children’s later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors—specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms—influence mothers’ infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. PMID:27174251

  18. The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katherine J; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children's later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors-specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms-influence mothers' infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A self-paced oral feeding system that enhances preterm infants' oral feeding skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C; Fucile, S; Schanler, R J

    2015-06-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have difficulty transitioning to independent oral feeding, be they breast- or bottle-feeding. We developed a 'self-paced' feeding system that eliminates the natural presence of the positive hydrostatic pressure and internal vacuum build-up within a bottle during feeding. Such system enhanced these infants' oral feeding performance as monitored by overall transfer (OT; % ml taken/ml prescribed), rate of transfer (RT; ml/min over an entire feeding). This study hypothesizes that the improvements observed in these infants resulted from their ability to use more mature oral feeding skills (OFS). 'Feeders and growers' born between 26-29 weeks gestation were assigned to a control or experimental group fed with a standard or self-paced bottle, respectively. They were monitored when taking 1-2 and 6-8 oral feedings/day. OFS was monitored using our recently published non-invasive assessment scale that identifies 4 maturity levels based on infants' RT and proficiency (PRO; % ml taken during the first 5 min of a feeding/total ml prescribed) during bottle feeding. Infants oral feeding outcomes, i.e., OT, RT, PRO, and OFS maturity levels were enhanced in infants fed with the self-paced vs. standard bottle (p ≤ 0.007). The improved oral feeding performance of VLBW infants correlated with enhanced OFS. This study is a first to recognize that VLBW infants' true OFS are more mature than recognized. We speculate that the physical properties inherent to standard bottles that are eliminated with the self-paced system interfere with the display of their true oral feeding potential thereby hindering their overall oral feeding performance.

  20. Breast-feeding among Mothers of Low Birth Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, Francine

    1990-01-01

    The physical and emotional condition of the mother delivering a premature or low birth weight infant may be quite different than that of the mother of a healthy term infant when initiating breast-feeding. Despite this difference, incidence and duration of lactation among mothers of pre-term or low birth weight infants was found to be quite good compared with that of mothers of term infants. Considerable problems, however, are encountered by premature or low birth weight infants when breast-fe...

  1. Associations between infant feeding practices and length, weight, and disease in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eYarnoff

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding are well known, but the relative detrimental impacts of other foods on infant health are unknown. Because infants in developing countries are fed a wide range of food, quantifying the burden of these diverse feeding practices on infant health is essential for public health policy. We used data from the Demographic Health Survey from 20 developing countries over multiple years to examine the independent association of six different types of food (exclusive breastfeeding, nonexclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods with five measures of infant health (length, weight, diarrhea, fever, and cough. We estimated associations with regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors with infant, mother, and household factors and community-year fixed effects. We used these estimates in a simulation model to quantify the burden of different combinations of food on infant health. We show that for an infant younger than 6 months old, following current guidelines and exclusively breastfeeding instead of giving the infant solid foods may increase length by 0.75 centimeters and weight by 0.25 kilograms and decrease diarrhea, fever, and cough prevalence by 8%, 12%, and 11%, respectively. We found that the burden on infant health of some feeding practices is less than others. Although all other feeding practices are associated with worse health outcomes than exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding supplemented with liquids has a lower burden on infant health than solid foods and infant formula has a lower burden than milk or nonmilk liquids as measured by four of five health metrics. Providing specific quantified burden estimates of these practices can help inform public health policy related to infant feeding practices.

  2. Age-appropriate feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending child welfare clinic at a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar M Lawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Appropriate infant feeding is the key to optimum infant and child development and survival. This study investigates age-appropriate infant feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending the immunization and child welfare clinic at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional descriptive design, a sample of 300 sets of infants (age ≤12 months and caregivers was systematically selected and studied. The data were analyzed using the MINITAB ® 12.21 (USA statistical software. Results: All the infants studied were still on breast milk. Most of the mothers demonstrated correct body positioning (89.9 and attachment (78.7% during breastfeeding, and effective suckling was demonstrated in 77.0%. Interestingly, none of the infants was either exclusively breastfed for 6 months or currently on exclusive breastfeeding. Furthermore, only 64 (58.2% of the 110 infants that were more than 6 months of age had appropriately been started on complementary feeding from 6 months of age. Overall, most caregivers (88.7% had "fair" to "good" infant feeding practices. The practices were significantly associated with their level of education, and their relationship with the infants. Up to 40.0% and 73.7% of the infants had varying degrees of wasting and stunting respectively. Infant feeding practices and the age of the infants emerged as the only factors significantly associated with stunting, while both the caregivers′ practices and age of the infants emerged as significant predictors of wasting in the infants. Conclusion and Recommendations: Barely 3 years to the 2015 target of the millennium development goals (MDGs, infant feeding and nutritional status still poses a serious threat to the dream of realizing the MDG-4. The Ministry of Health and relevant developing partners in this region should as a matter of urgency, formulate and implement a strong community-based public health intervention program to

  3. Adherence with early infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Sinéad M; Murray, Deirdre M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Kiely, Mairead

    2015-10-01

    To describe adherence with infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines. Prospective study of infant feeding and complementary feeding practices were collected as part of the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study. Cork, Ireland. Data are described for the 823 infants for whom a diary was completed. Breast-feeding was initiated in 81 % of infants, and 34 %, 14 % and 1 % of infants were exclusively breast-fed at hospital discharge, 2 and 6 months, respectively. Stage one infant formula decreased from 71 % at 2 months to 13 % at 12 months. The majority of infants (79 %) were introduced to solids between 17 and 26 weeks and 18 % were given solid foods before 17 weeks. Mothers of infants who commenced complementary feeding prior to 17 weeks were younger (29·8 v. 31·5 years; Pfood was usually baby rice (69 %), infant breakfast cereals (14 %) or fruit/vegetables (14 %). Meals were generally home-made (49 %), cereal-based (35 %), manufactured (10 %), dairy (3 %) and dessert-based (3 %). The median gap between the first-second, second-third, third-fourth and fourth-fifth new foods was 4, 2, 2 and 2 d, respectively. We present the largest prospective cohort study to date on early infant feeding in Ireland. The rate of breast-feeding is low by international norms. Most mothers introduce complementary foods between 4 and 6 months with lengthy gaps between each new food/food product. There is a high prevalence of exposure to infant breakfast cereals, which are composite foods, among the first foods introduced.

  4. Early feeding and neonatal hypoglycemia in infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Cordero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the effects of early formula feeding or breast-feeding on hypoglycemia in infants born to 303 A1-A2 and 88 Class B-RF diabetics. Methods: Infants with hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 40 mg/dL were breast-fed or formula-fed, and those with recurrences were given intravenous dextrose. Results: Of 293 infants admitted to the well-baby nursery, 87 (30% had hypoglycemia, corrected by early feeding in 75 (86%, while 12 (14% required intravenous dextrose. In all, 98 infants were admitted to the newborn intensive care unit for respiratory distress (40%, prematurity (33% or prevention of hypoglycemia (27%. Although all newborn intensive care unit patients received intravenous dextrose, 22 (22% had hypoglycemia. Of 109 hypoglycemia episodes, 89 (82% were single low occurrences. At discharge, 56% of well-baby nursery and 43% of newborn intensive care unit infants initiated breast-feeding. Conclusions: Hypoglycemia among infants of diabetic mothers can be corrected by early breast-feeding or formula feeding.

  5. Pap, gruel, and panada: early approaches to artificial infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper collects information on artificial infant feeding published before 1860, the year when commercial formula became available. We have extensive artifactual evidence of thousands of feeding vessels since the Bronze Age. Special museum collections can be found in London, Paris, Cologne, Fécamp, Toronto, New Mexico, and elsewhere. The literature on the use of animal milk for infant feeding begins with Soranus in the 2nd century CE. Literature evidence from the very first printed books in the 15th century proves that physicians, surgeons, midwives, and the laity were aware of the opportunities and risks of artificial infant feeding. Most 17th to 19th century books on infant care contained detailed recipes for one or several of the following infant foods: pap, a semisolid food made of flour or bread crumbs cooked in water with or without milk; gruel, a thin porridge resulting from boiling cereal in water or milk, and panada, a preparation of various cereals or bread cooked in broth. During the 18th century, the published opinion on artificial feeding evolved from health concerns to a moral ideology. This view ignored the social and economic pressures which forced many mothers to forego or shorten breast-feeding. Bottle-feeding has been common practice throughout history.

  6. Relationship between maternal obesity and infant feeding-interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifshitz Fima

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no data regarding the relationship between maternal adiposity and interaction and feeding of infants and possible contribution to childhood obesity. In this study we determined the relationship between maternal body weight and composition and infant feeding patterns and maternal-infant interaction during 24-hour metabolic rate measurements in the Enhanced Metabolic Testing Activity Chamber (EMTAC. Methods The amount of time four obese (BMI = 33.5 ± 5.3 kg/m2 and three normal weight (BMI = 23.1 ± 0.6 kg/m2 biological mothers, spent feeding and interacting with their infants, along with what they ingested, was recorded during 24-hour metabolic rate measurements in the EMTAC. The seven infants were 4.9 ± 0.7 months, 69 ± 3 cm, 7.5 ± 0.8 kg, 26 ± 3 % fat and 29 ± 25 percentile for weight for length. Energy and macronutrient intake (kcal/kg were assessed. Maternal body composition was determined by air displacement plethysmorgraphy and that of the infants by skin-fold thicknesses. Pearson correlations and independent t-tests were utilized for statistical analysis (p Results Infants born to obese biological mothers consumed more energy (87.6 ± 18.9 vs. 68.1 ± 17.3 and energy as carbohydrate (25 ± 6 vs.16 ± 3; p Conclusion Greater maternal body weight and percent body fat were associated with greater infant energy intakes. These infants were fed less frequently and consumed more carbohydrates in a shorter period of time as compared to infants from normal weight biological mothers. These variations in feeding patterns may predispose certain infants to obesity.

  7. Prey perception in feeding-current feeding copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Florian Couespel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey concentrati...

  8. Infant feeding practices in a poor district of Santo Domingo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclennan, J D; Spady, D W

    1994-01-01

    During August-December 1989, in the Dominican Republic, local health promoters interviewed 103 primary caretakers and took anthropometric measurements from 103 children aged 3 years and under during home visits in three poor neighborhoods of Los Alcarrizos (Alto de Chavon, Barrio Landia, and Pueblo Nuevo) to examine infant feeding practices. 95% of the mothers had started breast feeding. The median duration of breast feeding was 7.5 months. Almost 33% had quit breast feeding by 3 months. Perception of insufficient milk was the leading reason for early discontinuation of exclusive breast feeding. The local pharmacies in all three communities offered powdered milk. About 25% of mothers began using breast milk substitutes within the first week. A non-infant formula milk powder was the most commonly used breast milk substitute. 30% of mothers stored prepared milk for later feeds, as long as half a day. Only 13% of households had a refrigerator. The most frequently used first weaning foods were orange juice, lime juice, and beans. 76% of mothers had used or were currently using baby bottles. 95% of them reported washing the bottle in boiling water. The median age of introducing the baby bottle was 3 days. Only 44% of mother covered prepared food during storage. The most commonly eaten foods among children aged at least 1 year were milk, beans, rice, and citrus fruits. Yet the children did not eat all these foods daily. 18% of 1-2 year olds and 13% of 2-3 year olds did not eat meats and alternatives regularly. 7% of 1-2 year olds and 10% of 2-3 year olds did not eat fruits and vegetables regularly. 4% of 1-2 year olds and 3% of 2-3 year olds did not eat breads and cereals regularly. About 14% of all children were not consuming any milk at the time of the survey. These findings will be used to refine nutrition education programs in the district to make them more effective.

  9. Breast-feeding success among infants with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta-Wright, Sandra A; Shelton, Kathleen C; Lowe, Nancy D; Knafl, Kathleen A; Houck, Gail M

    2012-08-01

    Breast milk is the nutrition of choice for human infants (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2005; American Association of Family Physicians, 2008; Association of Women's Health Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses, 2005; Canadian Paediatric Society, 2005; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 2008; World Health Organization, 2009). In comparison to standard commercial formula, human breast milk has a lower concentration of protein and a lower content of the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe). For infants with phenylketonuria (PKU), these attributes of human breast milk make it ideal as a base source of nutrition. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence and duration of breast-feeding and corresponding Phe levels of breast-fed and formula-fed infants with PKU in the caseload of a pediatric metabolic clinic at an urban tertiary-care medical center. Charts were reviewed for infants diagnosed with PKU beginning with 2005 and ending with 1980, the year no further breast-feeding cases were identified in the PKU population. During the first year of life, most of the infants, whether breast-fed or formula-fed, had similar mean Phe levels. However, the frequency distributions revealed that more breast-fed infants with PKU had Phe levels within the normal range (120-360 μmol/L) and were less likely to have low Phe levels (<120 μmol/L) than formula-fed infants with PKU. Further research is needed to understand how mothers manage breast-feeding in the context of PKU.

  10. Feeding the feeble: steps towards nourishing preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes historic steps in feeding techniques and knowledge on the nutritional needs of premature infants. Devices to overcome weak sucking and swallowing were developed from 1851 to 1920, including tube feeding by gavage, medicine droppers and pipettes, feeding bottles with an air inlet, and beaked spoons for nasal feeding. Indwelling nastrogastric tubes were in use from 1951. For alleged safety concerns in the 1950s, postnatal feeding was postponed until a week of starvation was reached, and studies showed an association with neurological handicaps. The premature infant's elevated need for energy, protein, and minerals has been established since 1919. However, these remained controversial, and nutritional practices continued to lag behind theoretical knowledge. Concentrated formula was developed in the 1940s, parenteral supplementation in the 1960s, and human milk fortifiers in the 1970s. In the 1990s, necrotizing enterocolitis was found to be more frequent in infants who were fed formula than in those who were fed human milk. Recently, probiotics were shown to reduce the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Nevertheless, compared with other aspects of neonatal medicine, there is still remarkably little evidence on how to feed preterm infants.

  11. Development of infant oral feeding skills: what do we know?123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    The hospital discharge of premature infants in neonatal intensive care units is often delayed due to their inability to feed by mouth safely and competently. With immature physiologic functions, infants born prematurely cannot be expected to readily feed by mouth at the equivalent age of a third trimester of gestation as the majority of their term counterparts do. Consequently, it is crucial that health care professionals gain an adequate knowledge of the development of preterm infants’ oral feeding skills so as to optimize their safety and competency as they transition to oral feeding. With a greater sensitivity toward their immature skills, we can offer these infants a safer and smoother transition to independent oral feeding than is currently observed. This review article is an overview of the evidence-based research undertaken over the past 2 decades on the development of very-low-birth-weight infants’ oral feeding skills. The description of the different functional levels where these infants can encounter hurdles may assist caregivers in identifying a potential cause or causes for their individual patients’ oral feeding difficulties. PMID:26791183

  12. BREAST FEEDING SUPPORT IN PREMATURE INFANTS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Belyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Support of long-term breast feeding is a pressing issue of neonatology. It is known that the unique composition of breast milk ensures proper physical and neuropsychic development of infants, as it contains all the necessary nutrients in the sufficient amount and optimal proportion. The authors gave specific attention to provision of premature infants, especially with very low and extremely low birth weight, with breast milk. However, it is very difficult to launch and maintain breast feeding in this very category of patients. There are many reasons impeding adequate provision of premature infants with breast milk. The main problem on the part of the mother is hypogalactia, which may be caused by preterm labor stress, lack of confidence in successful lactation, temporary medical contraindications and, therefore, deviant formation of the lactation dominant, motivation towards prolonged breast feeding etc. On the part of the child: severe condition, no or weak sucking reflex, often — prolonged parenteral and tube feeding, need in supplementary feeding. The article presents published data on various methods of maintaining breast feeding at the stage of hospital developmental care of premature infants and experience of breast feeding support accumulated at the Scientific Center of Children’s Health, which proves that simultaneous support and follow-up of the child’s mother and her family in whole by several specialists (neonatologist/pediatrician, psychologist, breast physician, dietician and recreation therapist not only at the stages of labor and development care, but also after discharge from hospital are required to ensure rational and prolonged breast feeding of premature infants and normal growth and development thereof. 

  13. Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Practices among HIV-Exposed Infants in Coastal Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Anne M; Chantry, Caroline; Geubbels, Eveline L; Ramaiya, Astha K; Shemdoe, Aloisia I; Tancredi, Daniel J; Young, Sera L

    2016-02-01

    Appropriate infant feeding is a persistent challenge for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to describe correlates of infant feeding among HIV-infected mothers in coastal Tanzania. HIV-infected women (n = 400) with infants younger than 18 months were enrolled from June to November 2011 from 3 public health facilities in Pwani, Tanzania: Tumbi Regional Hospital (TRH), Chalinze Health Center (CHC), and Bagamoyo District Hospital (BDH). Participants were surveyed about sociodemographics and infant feeding behavior at enrollment; infant feeding data were collected prospectively and retrospectively in the month of study follow-up. Statistically significant correlates of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) were infant age (months) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-0.9), enrollment facility (TRH: reference; CHC: AOR = 5.0, 95% CI, 1.2-20.8; BDH: AOR = 11.6, 95% CI, 2.3-59.9), and HIV disclosure to one's mother (AOR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6). Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence among infants younger than 6 months was 77%, but 50% of infants older than 6 months no longer receiving breast milk did not receive animal source foods (ASF) daily. Enrollment facility (TRH: reference; CHC: AOR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.1-1.0; BDH: AOR = 0.1, 95% CI, 0.01-0.4) and HIV disclosure (to mother-in-law: AOR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.1-0.8; to brother: AOR = 0.3, 95% CI, 0.1-0.8) were negatively associated with ASF provision. High prevalence of EBF suggests that it is an attainable behavior, whereas low prevalence of daily ASF provision suggests that adequate diets are difficult to achieve after breastfeeding cessation. These findings support current recommendations for HIV-infected mothers in resource-poor regions to continue breastfeeding for at least 1 year and suggest the need for greater support with complementary feeding. Associations between HIV disclosure and infant feeding merit further exploration, and correlations

  14. Feeding considerations in infants born with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Subramanya Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infants born with the congenital deformity of cleft lip and or palate suffer from varieties of complications since the day 1 of their life. The most important of which is the feeding difficulty which leads to insufficient food intake and thereby causing deleterious effects on their overall development leading to malnutrition and death in some cases. However, research into the anatomical variations of these infants in the region of lip and palate has led to the development of several types of feeders and their modifications which would help them thrive well in the initial days and also for later. Hence, it is worth important to know about them in detail and help these infants and their families psychologically so that the infants do not suffer from feeding difficulties anymore.

  15. Infant feeding and HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa: what lies beneath the dilemma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Faith E; Ndebele, Paul; Kelley, Maureen C

    2008-01-01

    The debate over how to best guide HIV-infected mothers in resource-poor settings on infant feeding is more than two decades old. Globally, breastfeeding is responsible for approximately 300,000 HIV infections per year, while at the same time, UNICEF estimates that not breastfeeding (formula feeding with contaminated water) is responsible for 1.5 million child deaths per year. The largest burden of these infections and deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using this region as an example of the burden faced more generally in other resource-poor settings, we contrast the evolution of the clinical standard of care for infant feeding with HIV-infected mothers in high-income countries to the current international clinical guidelines for HIV-infected mothers and infant feeding in resource-poor settings. While the international guidelines of exclusive breastfeeding for a 6-month period seem to offer the least-worst strategy for reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV during infancy while conferring some immunity through breastfeeding post-6 months, we argue that the impact of the policy on mothers and healthcare workers on the ground is not well understood. The harm reduction approach on the level of health policy translates into a complicated, painful moral dilemma for HIV-positive mothers and those offering them guidance on infant feeding. We argue that the underlying socio-economic disparities that continue to fuel the need for a harm reduction policy on infant feeding and the harm to women and children justify: (1) that higher priority be given to solving the infant feeding dilemma with improved data on safe feeding alternatives, and (2) support of innovative, community-driven solutions that address the particular economic and cultural challenges that continue to result in HIV-transmission to children within these communities.

  16. Breast feeding--a study of 8750 Malaysian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathmanathan, I

    1978-12-01

    Infant feeding patterns in Malaysia were assessed using data obtained by interviewing 5160 women who gave birth to 8755 babies in 3 urban areas and 6 rural areas from 1970-1974. The study was undertaken in an effort to determine appropriate strategies for promoting breast-feeding. 64.2% of the 8755 were breast-fed. Considerable variation in breast-feeding patterns was observed when the data was analyzed in reference to ethnic affiliation, residence, family income, and mother's educational level. While 88.9% of the Malay infants were breast-fed, only 69.7% of the Indian infants and 42.3% of the Chinese infants were breast-fed. 47.0% of the infants in urban areas were breast-fed compared to 77.5% in the rural areas. Women in higher income and educational groupings were less likely to breast-feed their children than women in lower income and educational groupings. In the urban areas, approximately 1/2 of the Malay women, 1/2 of the Indian women, and 2/3 of the Chinese women discontinued breast-feeding before their children were 3 months old. Chinese women who delivered in private hospitals were less likely to breast-feed their infants than those who delivered in government hospitals. Among rural Malay women, those who delivered in hospitals were less likely to breast-feed than those who delivered at home. The findings suggested that 1) hospital personnel, especially those who work in private hospitals, should take a more active role in promoting lactation; 2) health personnel and mothers need to be more adequately informed about the advantages of breast-feeding; 3) women in higher income and educational groups should be encouraged to breast-feed since they serve as role models for women in the lower income and educational groups; and 4) additional studies should be undertaken in order to identify those cultural attitudes which inhibit lactation among Chinese women. Tables showed 1) the number and % distribution of breast-feeding and 2) the % of infants breast-fed by

  17. Infant feeding practices, childhood growth and obesity in adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Cardoso, Marly Augusto

    2009-07-01

    Child health is widely affected by nutritional status, and there is growing interest surrounding the possibility that child nutritional status and infant feeding practices may be linked to obesity in adulthood, increasing risks of metabolic complications. Prospective studies enable appropriate investigation and evaluation of the determinants of childhood development. The present paper therefore aimed to provide a review of the main evidence to date from longitudinal studies concerning the associations of infant feeding practices, patterns of childhood growth and nutritional status exhibited in adult life.

  18. Social networks and infant feeding in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutich, Amber; McCarty, Christopher

    2008-04-01

    The health benefits of delaying the introduction of complementary foods to infants' diets are widely known. Many studies have shown that mothers with the support of close social network members are more compliant with medical recommendations for infant feeding. In our study, we examine the effects of a broader spectrum of network members (40 people) on mothers' infant feeding decisions. The survey was conducted in Oaxaca, Mexico as part of a follow-up to a nationwide Mexican Social Security Institute survey of infant health. Sixty mothers were interviewed from a stratified random sample of the original respondents. Multivariate tests were used to compare the efficacy of network-level variables for predicting the introduction of 36 foods into infants' diets, when compared with respondent-level variables. The study yields four findings. First, network-level variables were better predictors of the timing of food introduction than socio-demographic variables. Second, mothers with more indigenous networks delayed the introduction of some grains (oatmeal, cereal, noodle soup, rice) and processed pork products (sausage and ham) to the infant's diet longer than mothers with less indigenous networks. Third, mothers who had stronger ties to their networks delayed the introduction of rice and processed pork products (sausage and ham) to the infant's diet longer than mothers who had weaker ties to their networks. Fourth, mothers who heeded the advice of distant network members introduced some grains (rice and cereal) earlier than mothers who did not heed the advice of distant network members.

  19. [Investigation on the feeding status of infants and young children in poor counties of Gansu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Li, Wenxian; Sun, Jing; Huo, Junsheng; Dong, Caixia

    2011-05-01

    To understand the feeding status and the current situation of complementary food supplement of infants and young children aged 6-23 months in Yongjing County and Yuzhong County, two of poorer counties in Gansu Province. A study was conducted by cluster sampling. The status of breastfeeding and complementary food supplement was surveyed by using questionnaires. A total of 836 infants and young children aged 6-23 months were investigated. The results showed that 18. 2% of infants received breastfeeding in the first hour after birth. The breastfeeding rate reached up to 84.1%, while the percentage of continuous breastfeeding for 12-15 months and 20-23 months was only 29.6% and 8.7%, respectively. The percentage of almost exclusive breastfeeding,mixed feeding and artificial feeding attained 42.7%, 41.4% and 15.9% ,respectively during the first 6 months after birth. Besides, the complementary food not supplemented in time was in 68.7% of infants, among which, 35.2% of infants were supplemented too early and 33.5% not in time. The diversity of complementary foods in 6-11 month-old infants was less than that in 12-17 and 18-23 month-old young children. The situation of complementary food supplement for meeting the minimum acceptable dietary level in breastfeeding infants was lower than that in non-breastfeeding infants. The exclusive breastfeeding rate was relatively low. The inappropriate addition of complementary foods in time, category and frequency were the main issues to be concerned. It was suggested that publicizing knowledge on infant feeding should be strengthened.

  20. Infant Feeding Websites and Apps: A Systematic Assessment of Quality and Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Sarah; Campbell, Karen J; Russell, Catherine G; Elliott, Rosalind; Laws, Rachel; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth

    2015-09-29

    Internet websites and smartphone apps have become a popular resource to guide parents in their children's feeding and nutrition. Given the diverse range of websites and apps on infant feeding, the quality of information in these resources should be assessed to identify whether consumers have access to credible and reliable information. This systematic analysis provides perspectives on the information available about infant feeding on websites and smartphone apps. A systematic analysis was conducted to assess the quality, comprehensibility, suitability, and readability of websites and apps on infant feeding using a developed tool. Google and Bing were used to search for websites from Australia, while the App Store for iOS and Google Play for Android were used to search for apps. Specified key words including baby feeding, breast feeding, formula feeding and introducing solids were used to assess websites and apps addressing feeding advice. Criteria for assessing the accuracy of the content were developed using the Australian Infant Feeding Guidelines. A total of 600 websites and 2884 apps were screened, and 44 websites and 46 apps met the selection criteria and were analyzed. Most of the websites (26/44) and apps (43/46) were noncommercial, some websites (10/44) and 1 app were commercial and there were 8 government websites; 2 apps had university endorsement. The majority of the websites and apps were rated poor quality. There were two websites that had 100% coverage of information compared to those rated as fair or poor that had low coverage. Two-thirds of the websites (65%) and almost half of the apps (47%) had a readability level above the 8th grade level. The findings of this unique analysis highlight the potential for website and app developers to merge user requirements with evidence-based content to ensure that information on infant feeding is of high quality. There are currently no apps available to consumers that address a variety of infant feeding topics

  1. Infant Feeding Websites and Apps: A Systematic Assessment of Quality and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen J; Russell, Catherine G; Elliott, Rosalind; Laws, Rachel; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet websites and smartphone apps have become a popular resource to guide parents in their children’s feeding and nutrition. Given the diverse range of websites and apps on infant feeding, the quality of information in these resources should be assessed to identify whether consumers have access to credible and reliable information. Objective This systematic analysis provides perspectives on the information available about infant feeding on websites and smartphone apps. Methods A systematic analysis was conducted to assess the quality, comprehensibility, suitability, and readability of websites and apps on infant feeding using a developed tool. Google and Bing were used to search for websites from Australia, while the App Store for iOS and Google Play for Android were used to search for apps. Specified key words including baby feeding, breast feeding, formula feeding and introducing solids were used to assess websites and apps addressing feeding advice. Criteria for assessing the accuracy of the content were developed using the Australian Infant Feeding Guidelines. Results A total of 600 websites and 2884 apps were screened, and 44 websites and 46 apps met the selection criteria and were analyzed. Most of the websites (26/44) and apps (43/46) were noncommercial, some websites (10/44) and 1 app were commercial and there were 8 government websites; 2 apps had university endorsement. The majority of the websites and apps were rated poor quality. There were two websites that had 100% coverage of information compared to those rated as fair or poor that had low coverage. Two-thirds of the websites (65%) and almost half of the apps (47%) had a readability level above the 8th grade level. Conclusions The findings of this unique analysis highlight the potential for website and app developers to merge user requirements with evidence-based content to ensure that information on infant feeding is of high quality. There are currently no apps available to

  2. Iron intakes of Australian infants and toddlers: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Linda A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Campbell, Karen J; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2016-01-28

    Fe deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and young children are at particular risk. Preventative food-based strategies require knowledge of current intakes, sources of Fe, and factors associated with low Fe intakes; yet few data are available for Australian children under 2 years. This study's objectives were to determine intakes and food sources of Fe for Australian infants and toddlers and identify non-dietary factors associated with Fe intake. Dietary, anthropometric and socio-demographic data from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial Program were analysed for 485 infants (mean age: 9·1 (sd 1·2) months) and 423 toddlers (mean age: 19·6 (sd 2·6) months) and their mothers. Dietary intakes were assessed via 24-h recalls over 3 non-consecutive days. Prevalence of inadequate Fe intake was estimated using the full probability approach. Associations between potential non-dietary predictors (sex, breast-feeding status, age when introduced to solid foods, maternal age, maternal education, maternal employment status and mother's country of birth) and Fe intakes were assessed using linear regression. Mean Fe intakes were 9·1 (sd 4·3) mg/d for infants and 6·6 (sd 2·4) mg/d for toddlers. Our results showed that 32·6 % of infants and 18·6 % of toddlers had inadequate Fe intake. Main food sources of Fe were Fe-fortified infant formula and cereals for infants and toddlers, respectively. Female sex and current breast-feeding were negatively associated with infant Fe intakes. Introduction to solid foods at or later than 6 months was negatively associated with Fe intake in toddlers. These data may facilitate food-based interventions to improve Australian children's Fe intake levels.

  3. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices of infant feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community engagement, including education and awareness strategies ... community-based AIDS movement for nearly 15 years, Dr Braitstein began doing .... have to some extent neglected infant feeding challenges (Koniz- ...... What obstacles are HIV positive mothers most likely to face while using breast milk substitutes?

  4. Infant feeding, poverty and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of the International Breastfeeding Journal's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. It is proposed that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding to 12 months, could prevent 1,301,000 deaths or 13% of all child deaths under 5 years in a hypothetical year. Although there is a conventional wisdom that poverty 'protects' breastfeeding in developing countries, poverty actually threatens breastfeeding, both directly and indirectly. In the light of increasingly aggressive marketing behaviour of the infant formula manufacturers and the need to protect the breastfeeding rights of working women, urgent action is required to ensure the principles and aim of the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes, and subsequent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly, are implemented. If global disparities in infant health and development are to be significantly reduced, gender inequities associated with reduced access to education and inadequate nutrition for girls need to be addressed. Improving women's physical and mental health will lead to better developmental outcomes for their children.

  5. Simplified feeding appliance for an infant with cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Masih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A child born with cleft palate may experience difficulties while feeding. Early surgical treatment may need to be postponed until certain age and weight gain of the infant. The case presented here is of a 1-month-old neonate born with cleft palate, assisted with a new feeding appliance made with ethylene vinyl acetate using pressure molding technique to aid in proper feeding. The patient′s weight and health significantly improved after the insertion of obturator. The advantages of this material included being lightweight, moldability, good palatal fit and decreased soft tissue injury.

  6. A call for clarity in infant breast and bottle-feeding definitions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulier, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Unclear and inconsistent infant-feeding definitions have plagued much of breastfeeding research. To determine accurate health outcomes associated with infant feeding, it is imperative that different types of feedings be explicitly described. Definitions must be based on content, not mode of milk delivery. Five new definitions for infant feeding are provided. These definitions are operationally useful for breastfeeding researchers, allowing for the inclusion of almost every infant into an appropriate sample group.

  7. Coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and oxygen saturation during early infant breast-feeding and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Eugene C; Richardson, Michael J; Lee, Kimberly G; Margetts, Stacey

    2006-10-01

    This prospective study compared the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and its relationship to oxygen saturation in infants during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. After 4 to 6 wk of exclusive breast-feeding, infants began bottle-feedings of expressed human milk using one of two systems: a soft-walled bottle and nipple (system 1, Playtex) or a hard-walled bottle and nipple (system 2, Avent). Infants' sucking, swallowing, breathing, and oxygenation were measured during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, and coordination of these activities during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding were compared. During breast-feeding, swallowing occurred nonrandomly between breaths and did not interfere with breathing. The same distribution of swallowing occurred in infants fed with system 1, while swallowing occurred randomly in infants fed with system 2. Swallowing significantly increased during bottle-feeding among infants using system 2, but decreased among infants using system 1. Infants using system 2 also had a greater instability in the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and more perturbation of breathing. Oxygen saturation was significantly higher in infants fed with system 1 compared with system 2. These results suggest that the overall feeding pattern and oxygenation of system 1 are closer to the physiologic norm than system 2.

  8. The Mother-Infant Feeding Relationship across the First Year and the Development of Feeding Difficulties in Low-Risk Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Dalia; Feldman, Ruth; Gardner, Judith M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Kuint, Jacob; Geva, Ronny

    2009-01-01

    Although feeding problems are common during infancy and are typically accompanied by relational difficulties, little research observed the mother-infant feeding relationship across the first year as an antecedent to the development of feeding difficulties. We followed 76 low-risk premature infants and their mothers from the transition to oral…

  9. Maternal executive function, infant feeding responsiveness and infant growth during the first 3 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestad, A J; Demerath, E W; Finsaas, M C; Moore, C J; Georgieff, M K; Carlson, S M

    2017-08-01

    There is limited research in young infants, particularly executive function (cognitive control over one's own behaviour), maternal feeding decisions and infant weight and adiposity gains. We used a checklist to assess cues mothers use to decide when to initiate and terminate infant feedings at 2 weeks and 3 months of age (N = 69). Maternal executive function was assessed using the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery subtests for executive function and infant body composition using air displacement plethysmography. Mothers with higher executive function reported relying on fewer non-satiety cues at 2 weeks of age (β = -0.29, p = 0.037) and on more infant hunger cues at 3 months of age (β = 0.31, p = 0.018) in their decisions on initiating and terminating feedings. Responsive feeding decisions, specifically the use of infant-based hunger cues at 3 months, in turn were associated with lower gains in weight-for-length (β = -0.30, p = 0.028) and percent body fat (β = -0.2, p = 0.091; non-covariate adjusted β = -0.27, p = 0.029). These findings show both an association between maternal executive function and responsive feeding decisions and an association between responsive feeding decisions and infant weight and adiposity gains. The causal nature and direction of these associations require further investigation. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  10. Infant feeding practices among tribal communities of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimala, V; Ratnaprabha, C

    1987-10-01

    Some of the major obstacles to the practice of breast feeding among tribal communities are ignorance and taboos concerning food and feeding. 100 nursing mothers in 12 tribal villages were observed in a study of infant feeding practices. Information about the existing feeding practices was collected; in addition, the study researched attitudes and values concerning the topic of infant feeding. 95% of the women breast fed their babies. Many of the mothers (42%) understood that supplementary foods could be given by the end of the 1st year. Although breast feeding practice was high, the majority of the women (83%) did not believe that it was necessary to make changes in their diets or work styles during the lactating period. 66% of the women did not comprehend how lactation performance could decrease. Only 17% of the mothers took good care during the period of lactation. Education programs should be designed to encourage a unique work and dietary routine for mothers who are breast feeding.

  11. Prevailing breast feeding practices of infants attending paediatric out-patient department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha Swamy R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objectives of current study were to know the prevailing infant feeding practices in infants and to identify the problems affecting infant and young child feeding practices and to analyze the environmental factors influence the mothers, families and caregivers in infant feeding. Methods: The present study is a hospital based observation study. A total of 501 mothers and their infants attending new born paediatric OPD, immunization clinic of department of paediatrics for various reasons of health care were recruited for the study after their informed consent and institutional ethical clearance. Information about the first feed after birth, time of initiation of breastfeeding, duration of exclusive breast feeding, time of introduction of complementary feeding, knowledge of feeding skills, mother's concept of adequacy of breast milk were collected in the structured, pre tested proforma by personal one to one interview with the mothers. All the mothers of infants from 0 to 1 year were included. Statistical analysis: The data obtained by the interview were analyzed with regarding to mothers education level, religion and other related parameters pertaining to feeding practices. Percentages of parameters were calculated and analyzed. Results: Majority of the mothers belong to the age group of 18 to 30 years (96.01%, prelacteal feeds were given by a good number of mothers (42.32%, 60.66% mothers were given the sugar water as the prelacteal feed and 71.56% mothers have used cup and spoon to give prelacteal feeds. 75.25% of the mothers have practiced giving colostrum, 72.26% of mothers were breastfeeding their baby for 5 to 10 minutes during each feed at an interval of 0.5 hours to 3.5 hours. Majority of mothers (34.73% had the knowledge of starting of weaning at six months and 46.88% of mothers were giving weaning food twice daily. Conclusion: Significant number of mothers had discarded colostrum and most of the mothers intended to give only

  12. The Effect of Modes of Delivery on Infants' Feeding Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Saeed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast feeding has a great impact on the infant morbidity and mortality. According to Pakistan Demographic and Health survey (PDHS infant mortality rate is 78 deaths per 1,000 live births. World Health Organization recommends that exclusive breast feeding for six months can decrease infant mortality rate by one-third. The objective of the study was to find out how the mode of delivery had impact on the practice of breast feeding. Data were collected for 2500 consecutive patients during a period of two years, and it was seen that maternal initiative to breast feed was low and problems with lactation were much more in cases delivering their babies via cesarean sections than those delivering theirs by normal delivery. Vaginal and cesarean section deliveries took place in 54% and 46% of the case, respectively. Thirty percent of the women studied felt that they had no problems regarding breastfeeding, but 70% of them had some sort of problems with breastfeeding their babies. When the women were matched for the mode of delivery, 58% of women who had breastfeeding problems belonged to the cesarean delivery group and 42% of complaining mothers were from women with normal delivery. The relative risk of having problems with breastfeeding for women subjected to cesarean was 1.38 and the odds ratio was 0.61. The findings of the present study indicate that more in depth counseling sessions are required for women undergoing operative delivery to improve breast feeding among them

  13. Adherence to infant-feeding choices by HIV-infected mothers at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: HIV-infected mothers, infant-feeding choice, infant-feeding practices, PMTCT, adherence. Adherence to ... should introduce appropriate complementary food thereafter, and continue ..... poor complementary food because they could not purchase enough .... Infant feeding intentions and practices of HIV positive ...

  14. Benefits of donor milk in the feeding of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, Enrico; Giuliani, Francesca; Baricco, Marta; Di Nicola, Paola; Peila, Chiara; Vassia, Cristina; Chiale, Federica; Pirra, Alice; Cresi, Francesco; Martano, Claudio; Coscia, Alessandra

    2013-10-01

    Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but also provides health benefits that are of vital importance for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), even though the growth and neurodevelopmental needs of very premature infants are best met by appropriate fortification of human milk (HM). When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor milk (DM) represents the second best alternative and, although some nutritional elements are inactivated by the pasteurization process, it still has documented advantages compared to formula. Occasionally, the concern that the use of DM might decrease breastfeeding is being raised, but reports exist in literature showing that the use of donor HM in the NICU increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for VLBW infants. The demonstrated benefits of HM highlight the importance of educating health care professionals in breastfeeding support.

  15. Brazilian infant and preschool children feeding: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santos Mello

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the feeding profile of Brazilian infants and preschool children aged 6 months to 6 years, based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of food and nutrient intake. Data source This review analyzed studies carried out in Brazil that had food survey data on infants and preschool children. The search was limited to publications from the last 10 years included in the LILACS and MEDLINE electronic databases. Data summary The initial search identified 1480 articles, of which 1411 were excluded after the analysis of abstracts, as they were repeated or did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 69 articles assessed in full, 31 articles contained data on food survey and were selected. Only three studies concurrently assessed children from different Brazilian geographical regions. Of the assessed articles, eight had qualitative data, with descriptive analysis of food consumption frequency, and 23 had predominantly quantitative data, with information on energy and nutrient consumption. Conclusions The articles assessed in this review showed very heterogeneous results, making it difficult to compare findings. Overall, the feeding of infants and preschool children is characterized by low consumption of meat, fruits, and vegetables; high consumption of cow's milk and inadequate preparation of bottles; as well as early and high intake of fried foods, candies/sweets, soft drinks, and salt. These results provide aid for the development of strategies that aim to achieve better quality feeding of Brazilian infants and preschoolers.

  16. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Mayuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs. Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year of age through both qualitative and quantitative methods. Feeding recommendations by HCPs were assessed through a quantitative method. Results: The children are commonly initiated on bovine milk post 3 months of age. The milk is not covered while boiling in 70% cases and boiled at suboptimal temperature (moderate: 62% or low: 31%. Half of the families store milk outside refrigerators openly in the kitchen or rooms. The milk is modified in the majority of cases (81% before being fed. Modification of the milk was often done with sugar (85%, followed by water (49%, biscuits, fennel seeds, cardamom or infant cereals before feeding the baby. Addition of water was more prevalent among mothers of infants between 3 and 6 months. HCPs do not advise consumption of bovine milk by infants unless there is no other option available. Conclusion: A clear gap exists between recommended and actual practices for infant feeding in India. There is a huge opportunity to educate mothers on importance of breast feeding and benefits of implementing appropriate processing, storage, and consumption practices of bovine milk.

  17. The SHINE Trial Infant Feeding Intervention: Pilot Study of Effects on Maternal Learning and Infant Diet Quality in Rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Amy; Smith, Laura E; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Fundira, Dadirai; Tavengwa, Naume V; Malaba, Thokozile R; Majo, Florence D; Humphrey, Jean H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial is designed to measure the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene and improved infant feeding on child stunting and anemia in Zimbabwe. We developed and pilot-tested the infant feeding intervention delivered by 9 village health workers to 19 mothers of infants aged 7-12 months. Between September 2010 and January 2011, maternal knowledge was assessed using mixed methods, and infant nutrient intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall. We observed positive shifts in mothers' knowledge. At baseline, 63% of infants met their energy requirement and most did not receive enough folate, zinc, or calcium; none met their iron requirement. Postintervention, all infants received sufficient fat and vitamin A, and most consumed enough daily energy (79%), protein (95%), calcium (89%), zinc (89%), folate (68%), and iron (68%). The SHINE trial infant feeding intervention led to significant short-term improvements in maternal learning and infant nutrient intakes.

  18. Exploring intended infant feeding decisions among low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Kelly K; Hornsby, Paige P; Drake, Emily; Mulvihill, Evan M; Kinsey, Emily N; Yitayew, Miheret S; Lauer, Claire; Corriveau, Sharon; Coleman, Valerie; Gulati, Guari; Kellams, Ann L

    2014-10-01

    Low-income women have the lowest rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Greater understanding of factors that predict intention to feed artificial breastmilk substitute is needed to inform the design and timing of interventions to promote breastfeeding among vulnerable women. This study aimed to identify demographic and reproductive characteristics and other factors associated with intent to feed artificial breastmilk substitute among low-income women. Data from 520 low-income women interviewed at 24-41 weeks of gestation during enrollment in a prenatal breastfeeding education intervention study were analyzed. Participant characteristics, reasons for feeding decision, and sources and types of information received were compared among women intending to feed only artificial breastmilk substitute and other women. Most participants (95%) had already chosen an infant feeding method at the time of interview. There were no differences in plans to return to work by feeding plan. Women reporting intention to feed only artificial breastmilk substitute were less likely to report receiving information about the benefits of breastfeeding, how to breastfeed, and pumps and were more likely to cite personal preference and convenience as reasons for their decision. Women were more likely to intend to feed artificial breastmilk substitute if they had a previous live birth or had not breastfed a child, including the most recent. These findings suggest breastfeeding promotion should target women early and include sensitive, effective ways to promote breastfeeding among women who have not previously successfully breastfed. Breastfeeding history should be elicited, and plans to pump should be supported prenatally.

  19. Feeding an infant with high arched palate by high flow rate bottle nipple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Abdulkadir; Bilgin, Huseyin; Kara, Semra

    2015-01-01

    For infants with high arched palate, feeding is one of the most immediate challenges faced by parents and caretakers. General suggestions for feeding in infants with cleft palate may be adapted to infants with high arched palate. These include oral feeding facilitation techniques and special feeding tools. Here we present a newborn with a high arched palate and serious feeding problems who was fed easily by a large size and a large hole nipple, ordinarily used for infants older than 6 months, instead of specialized feeding equipment.

  20. Do early infant feeding patterns relate to breast-feeding continuation and weight gain ? data from a longitudinal cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Casiday, R. E.; Wright, C. M.; Panter-Brick, C.; Parkinson, K.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the first-week feeding patterns for breast- vs bottle-fed babies, and their association with sustained breast-feeding and infant weight gain at 6 weeks. Design: A longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Feeding diaries were completed by mothers in an urban UK community shortly after birth; follow-up weight and feeding data were collected at routine health checks. Subjects: Mothers of 923 full-term infants born during the recruiting period agreed to join the stud...

  1. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water...... and 3% acetic acid testing at 40degrees C for 10 days. The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) has assessed that a migration above 0.33 mg for 2-BEA and a group of eight related substances kg(-1) foodstuff from plastics articles used exclusively for infants is unacceptable. Migration of 2......-BEA was found from eight of 12 bottles. However, migration above the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was not observed in the third decisive test from any of the 12 different brands of polycarbonate feeding bottles. A migration of between 0.05 and 0.26 mg kg(-1) from seven of 12 bottles was measured...

  2. [Infant feeding practices and deterioration of breastfeeding in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Cosío, Teresita; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia; González-Castell, Luz Dinorah; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Ángel

    2013-01-01

    To present data on infant and young child feeding practices (IYCFP) in Mexico from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012) to support the development of public policy. Women 12-49y and children breastfeeding (EBF) Breastfeeding deteriorated in most vulnerable groups. Decline in EBFbreastfeeding declined in Mexico. Promotion actions must be integral, coordinated, financed and evaluated, with Federal government leadership and should include the participation of various stakeholders.

  3. Monitoring of Infant Feeding Behavior Using a Jaw Motion Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid weight gain during infancy increases the risk of obesity. Given that infant feeding may contribute to rapid weight gain, it would be useful to develop objective tools which can monitor infant feeding behavior. This paper presents an objective method for examining infant sucking count during meals. A piezoelectric jaw motion sensor and a video camera were used to monitor jaw motions of 10 infants during a meal. Videotapes and sensor signals were annotated by two independent human raters, counting the number of sucks in each 10 second epoch. Annotated data were used as a gold standard for the development of the computer algorithms. The sensor signal was de-noised and normalized prior to computing the per-epoch sucking counts. A leave-one-out cross-validation scheme resulted in a mean error rate of -9.7% and an average intra-class correlation coefficient value of 0.86 between the human raters and the algorithm.

  4. Supporting oral feeding in fragile infants: an evidence-based method for quality bottle-feedings of preterm, ill, and fragile infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Erin Sundseth; Philbin, M Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Successful oral feeding of preterm and other ill and fragile infants is an interactive process that requires (1) sensitive, ongoing assessment of an infant's physiology and behavior, (2) knowledgeable decisions that support immediate and long-term enjoyment of food, and (3) competent skill in feeding. Caregivers can support feeding success by using the infant's biological and behavioral channels of communication to inform their feeding decisions and actions. The Supporting Oral Feeding in Fragile Infants (SOFFI) Method is described here with text, algorithms, and reference guides. Two of the algorithms and the reference guides are published separately as Philbin, Ross. SOFFI Reference Guides: Text, Algorithms, and Appendices (in review). The information in all of these materials is drawn from sound research findings and, rarely, when such findings are not available, from expert, commonly accepted clinical practice. If the quality of a feeding takes priority over the quantity ingested, feeding skill develops pleasurably and at the infant's own pace. Once physiologic organization and behavioral skills are established, an affinity for feeding and the ingestion of sufficient quantity occur naturally, often rapidly, and at approximately the same postmenstrual age as volume-focused feedings. Nurses, therapists, and parents alike can use the SOFFI Method to increase the likelihood of feeding success in the population of infants at risk for feeding problems that emerge in infancy and extend into the preschool years.

  5. The Voice of Low-Income Adolescent Mothers on Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A.; Mills, Kristen J.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent mothers' feeding practices impact infant weight gain. Infant obesity, especially in low-income families, is rapidly increasing. The aim of the exploratory study reported here was to identify factors affecting low-income African American and non-Hispanic White adolescent mothers' infant feeding practices and useful learning modalities.…

  6. Infant feeding choices: experience, self-identity and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Naomi; Harvey, Kate

    2011-01-01

    In England, 78% of mothers initiate breastfeeding and, in the UK, less than 1% exclusively breastfeed until 6 months, despite World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations to do so. This study investigated women's infant feeding choices using in-depth interviews with 12 mothers of infants aged 7-18 weeks. Using content analysis, four themes emerged: (1) information, knowledge and decision making, (2) physical capability, (3) family and social influences, (4) lifestyle, independence and self-identity. While women were aware of the 'Breast is Best' message, some expressed distrust in this information if they had not been breastfed themselves. Women felt their own infant feeding choice was influenced by the perceived norm among family and friends. Women described how breastfeeding hindered their ability to retain their self-identities beyond motherhood as it limited their independence. Several second-time mothers felt they lacked support from health professionals when breastfeeding their second baby, even if they had previously encountered breastfeeding difficulties. The study indicates that experience of breastfeeding and belief in the health benefits associated with it are important factors for initiation of breastfeeding, while decreased independence and self-identity may influence duration of breastfeeding. Intervention and support schemes should tackle all mothers, not just first-time mothers.

  7. Pressuring and restrictive feeding styles influence infant feeding and size among a low-income African-American sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight among infants and toddlers has increased dramatically in the past three decades, highlighting the importance of identifying factors contributing to early excess weight gain, particularly in high-risk groups. Parental feeding styles and the attitudes and behaviors that characterize parental approaches to maintaining or modifying children's eating behavior are an important behavioral component shaping early obesity risk. Using longitudinal data from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort study of 217 African-American mother-infant pairs with feeding styles, dietary recalls, and anthropometry collected from 3 to 18 months of infant age, we examined the relationship between feeding styles, infant diet, and weight-for-age and sum of skinfolds. Longitudinal mixed models indicated that higher pressuring and indulgent feeding style scores were positively associated with greater infant energy intake, reduced odds of breastfeeding, and higher levels of age-inappropriate feeding of liquids and solids, whereas restrictive feeding styles were associated with lower energy intake, higher odds of breastfeeding, and reduced odds of inappropriate feeding. Pressuring and restriction were also oppositely related to infant size with pressuring associated with lower infant weight-for-age and restriction with higher weight-for-age and sum of skinfolds. Infant size also predicted maternal feeding styles in subsequent visits indicating that the relationship between size and feeding styles is likely bidirectional. Our results suggest that the degree to which parents are pressuring or restrictive during feeding shapes the early feeding environment and, consequently, may be an important environmental factor in the development of obesity. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  8. Instruments for assessing readiness to commence suck feeds in preterm infants: effects on time to establish full oral feeding and duration of hospitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Linda; Chang, Anne; Wallace, Karen

    2012-04-18

    . There is currently no evidence to inform clinical practice, with no studies meeting the inclusion criteria for this review. Research is needed in this area to establish an evidence base for the clinical utility of implementing the use of an instrument to assess feeding readiness in the preterm infant population.

  9. Poor infant and young child feeding practices and sources of caregivers' feeding knowledge in rural Hebei Province, China: findings from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Scherpbier, Robert W; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Wang, Wei; Li, Ye; Zhang, Yanfeng; Car, Josip

    2014-07-29

    To obtain a general overview of infant and young child feeding practices in one rural county in China and identify current delivery channels and challenges. A cross-sectional study. A rural county, Zhao County, in Hebei Province, China. 10 clusters were first selected within each township (16 townships in total) with proportional to population size sampling. In each cluster, a name list was used to select 13 children aged 0-23 months. We interviewed caregivers of all the selected children. Coverage of infant feeding practices, reasons for low coverage of infant feeding practices and current delivery channels of infant feeding practices. Findings from our survey indicated that infant feeding practices were poor. Early initiation of breastfeeding was only 22.4%, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was less than 10% and continued breastfeeding up to the age of two was just 38.2%. Only 32.5% of children were given iron-rich or iron-fortified foods. The leading sources of infant feeding information were family members, neighbours, friends and popular media. Only around 20% of the information came from health facilities and nearly none came from communities. Household property data showed that 99.9% of households owned televisions and 99.4% owned mobile phones. In addition, 61.2% of the households owned computers, with 54.8% having access to the internet. Few caregivers of children in Zhao County received feeding information during pregnancy and after delivery. Moreover, their feeding knowledge and practices were poor. Multi-channel approaches, delivered through health facilities, community resources, popular media, the internet and mobile phones, hold potential to improve infant feeding practices and should be explored in future studies. Although this study took place only within one county, a full range of globally standard feeding indicators was used to assess the feeding practices of caregivers in our study. The name lists of children in some villages may not be

  10. Poor infant and young child feeding practices and sources of caregivers’ feeding knowledge in rural Hebei Province, China: findings from a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Scherpbier, Robert W; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Wang, Wei; Li, Ye; Zhang, Yanfeng; Car, Josip

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To obtain a general overview of infant and young child feeding practices in one rural county in China and identify current delivery channels and challenges. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting A rural county, Zhao County, in Hebei Province, China. Participants 10 clusters were first selected within each township (16 townships in total) with proportional to population size sampling. In each cluster, a name list was used to select 13 children aged 0–23 months. We interviewed caregivers of all the selected children. Primary and secondary outcomes measures Coverage of infant feeding practices, reasons for low coverage of infant feeding practices and current delivery channels of infant feeding practices. Results Findings from our survey indicated that infant feeding practices were poor. Early initiation of breastfeeding was only 22.4%, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was less than 10% and continued breastfeeding up to the age of two was just 38.2%. Only 32.5% of children were given iron-rich or iron-fortified foods. The leading sources of infant feeding information were family members, neighbours, friends and popular media. Only around 20% of the information came from health facilities and nearly none came from communities. Household property data showed that 99.9% of households owned televisions and 99.4% owned mobile phones. In addition, 61.2% of the households owned computers, with 54.8% having access to the internet. Conclusions Few caregivers of children in Zhao County received feeding information during pregnancy and after delivery. Moreover, their feeding knowledge and practices were poor. Multi-channel approaches, delivered through health facilities, community resources, popular media, the internet and mobile phones, hold potential to improve infant feeding practices and should be explored in future studies. Strengths and limitations Although this study took place only within one county, a full range of globally standard feeding

  11. Healthy babies through infant-centered feeding protocol: an intervention targeting early childhood obesity in vulnerable populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horodynski Mildred A

    2011-11-01

    in helping mothers develop healthy infant feeding practices that contribute to improving infant health and development and reducing the risk of early-onset childhood obesity. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ACTRN126100000415000

  12. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: the types of foods fed to Hispanic infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Ziegler, Paula; Briefel, Ronette; Novak, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of breastfeeding and formula feeding, the age of introduction to specific foods, and the types of foods and beverages consumed by Hispanic infants and toddlers compared with similarly aged non-Hispanic infants and toddlers living in the United States. Descriptive and comparative analysis of dietary recall data and responses to specific interview questions, which were collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. Breastfeeding status, timing of introduction of complementary foods, percentage consuming foods from specific food groups, and the most frequently consumed fruits and vegetables by Hispanic and non-Hispanic children by age group (4-5 months, 6-11 months, 12-24 months). A national random sample of 371 Hispanic and 2,637 non-Hispanic infants and toddlers between the ages of 4 and 24 months. To test for differences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic children in the percentage who consumed a particular food item, we calculated percentages and standard errors in SUDAAN and 95% and 99% confidence intervals. The most frequently consumed fruits and vegetables were determined by tallying the percentage of infants and toddlers who consumed each specific fruit or vegetable on a given day. Although there were some similarities, the early flavor and food experiences of Hispanic infants were different from similarly aged non-Hispanic infants in several ways. Hispanic infants younger than 1 year of age were more likely to have ever been breastfed and those who were 4 to 5 months were more likely than non-Hispanics to be eating pureed baby foods on a daily basis. Although less likely to be eating non-infant cereals and baby food vegetables, 6- to 11-month-old Hispanics were more likely to be eating fresh fruits, fruit-flavored drinks, baby cookies, and foods such as soups, rice, and beans that are common in many Hispanic cultures. When fruits were introduced into the Hispanic child's diet, they were most commonly consumed fresh. This

  13. Cot deaths in Edinburgh: infant feeding and socioeconomic factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, J K; Harkness, R. A.; Elton, R.A.; Bartholomew, S

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-six consecutive cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in the Edinburgh area have been studied with particular reference to the interrelationship of feeding, associated biochemical changes, and social status. There was an excess of cases born to parents in Social Classes IV and V: the effect was maximal in children who dies beyond 12 weeks of age. A low-grade uraemia was discovered in approximately one-fifth of the cases; analysis showed this to be related most st...

  14. Aby-led feeding: problems and consequences in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.D. Duka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. WHO and UNICEF recommend “to encourage breastfeeding on demand of the child” in the paragraph 8 of Declaration. This is the recommendation for each institution that provides obstetrical services and follow-up of a newborn. But after 5–6 months of breastfeeding on demand it cannot be declared. At the child’s growth all the organs and systems of the kid are forming. And what was natural in the neonatal period may not be mechanically taken against the child of 3 months old. This is caused by special needs of a child for feeding, sleep duration; also it is less time for nap and more for activity in different ages. Therefore, the term free feeding on demand of the child often comes to casuistic when 3–4 month baby gets breastfeeding up to 8–9 times per day on demand. A three-year child who has been on free breastfeeding for a long time (more than 6 months refuses any food, but breast milk. The purpose of the study was to clarify the situation concerning baby-led breastfeeding on demand in infants according to questionnaires. Materials and methods. There were analyzed questionnaires of mothers who have children aged under one year in different areas of the city of Dnipro (n = 248 questionnaires. Results. According to the survey results baby-led breastfeeding until 6 months occurred in 48 % of cases, more than 6 months in 29.6 % of cases, to one year or more in 18.4 %. It is interesting that today late (7 months and older breastfeeding takes place. Often it becomes a chaotic feeding excluding major age-related anatomical and physiological characteristics of the digestive tract that dictate the rules for weaning needs. Conclusions. The researches of the baby-led breastfeeding showed the problems and consequences that accompany it, namely relatively late complementary feeding in infants on free breastfeeding, chaotic feeding without taking into account the basic age needs of infants.

  15. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles.

  16. Looking for cues - infant communication of hunger and satiation during milk feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shloim, N; Vereijken, C M J L; Blundell, P; Hetherington, M M

    2017-01-01

    It is known that duration of breastfeeding and responsive feeding are associated with decreased risk of obesity. It is however, not clear whether breastfed infants signal more to mothers to facilitate responsive feeding, compared to formula fed, nor what communication cues are important during the feeding interaction. The present study aimed to explore feeding cues in milk-fed infants and to examine if such cues vary by mode of feeding. Twenty-seven mothers and infants were filmed while breastfeeding or formula feeding. Infants' age ranged from 3 to 22 weeks. Feeding cues were identified using a validated list of communication cues (NCAST). The frequency of each cue during the beginning, middle, and end of the meal was recorded. There were 22 feeding cues identified during the feeds, with significantly more frequent disengagement cues expressed than engagement cues. Significantly more frequent feeding cues were observed at the beginning than at the end of the meal showing that cue frequency changes with satiation. Breastfeeding infants exhibited more engagement and disengagement cues than formula fed infants. Supporting mothers to identify engagement and disengagement cues during a milk feed may promote more responsive feeding-strategies that can be acquired by mothers using different modes of feeding.

  17. Nutritional status and complementary feeding among HIV-exposed infants: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenju, Pili; Liu, Enju; Hertzmark, Ellen; Spiegelman, Donna; Kisenge, Rodrick; Kupka, Roland; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P; Duggan, Christopher; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2016-09-30

    Complementary feeding is crucial for improving child survival and promoting growth and development, particularly among HIV-exposed children who have higher risk of morbidity and mortality than their un-exposed peers. This prospective study employed an infant and child feeding index (ICFI) to measure complementary feeding and determine its association with nutritional status among 2092 HIV-exposed infants followed from 6 to 24 months of age in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The ICFI measured both quality and quantity of complementary feeding, including current breastfeeding status, food consistency, dietary diversity scores (DDS), food group frequency score, and meal frequency. The ICFI score ranged from 0 to 9; the median score was 6 (Inter-Quartile Range, IQR= 4-7). After adjusting for potential confounders, high ICFI scores were associated with reduced risk of stunting (high vs. low tertile hazard ratio, HR: 0.72; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.57, 0.91; Pnutrition programs in low-income countries to emphasize educating HIV-exposed children's caregivers on the importance of dietary diversity and optimal complementary feeding to improve nutritional status in this important subpopulation.

  18. Effect of infant feeding on maternal body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDougald Dawn M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women gain total body weight and accrue body fat during pregnancy. Breastfeeding has been suggested as an efficient means of promoting postpartum weight loss due to its high energy cost. We investigated the effect of infant feeding mode on maternal body composition. Methods This study evaluated maternal weight and percent body fat changes in exclusively breastfeeding versus mixed feeding mothers during the first 12 weeks postpartum using the BOD POD. Twenty four mothers aged 19 – 42 years were studied. Participants were recruited from Athens-Clarke County and surrounding areas of the State of Georgia, USA. The study was conducted between November 2005 and December 2006. Results Prepregnancy weight was higher in mixed feeding mothers than in exclusively breastfeeding mothers (68.4 kg vs. 61.4 kg but the difference was not statistically significant. At 12 weeks postpartum, exclusively breastfeeding mothers had lost more total body weight than mixed feeding mothers (4.41 ± 4.10 kg versus 2.79 ± 3.09 kg; p = 0.072. There was no significant difference in fat weight change between the two groups (4.38 ± 2.06 kg versus 4.17 ± 2.63 kg. However, mixed feeding mothers lost slightly more percent body fat than exclusively breastfeeding mothers (1.90 ± 4.18 kg versus 1.71 ± 3.48 kg, but the difference was not statistically significant. The trend in percent body fat loss was significant among exclusively breastfeeding mothers (p = 0.034 but not mixed feeding mothers (p = 0.081. Exclusively breastfeeding mothers consumed more calories than mixed feeding mothers (1980 ± 618 kcal versus 1541 ± 196 kcal p = 0.08. Physical activity levels were, however, higher in mixed feeding mothers than exclusively breastfeeding mothers. Conclusion Our results provide further evidence that exclusive breastfeeding promotes greater weight loss than mixed feeding among mothers even in the early postpartum period. This suggests that there is the need

  19. Infant Nutrition and Later Health: A Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fall

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition of the need for a lifecourse approach to understanding the aetiology of adult disease, and there is now significant evidence that links patterns of infant feeding to differences in health outcomes, both in the short and longer term. Breastfeeding is associated with lower rates of infection in infancy; in high-income populations, it is associated with reductions in blood pressure and total blood cholesterol, and lower risks of obesity and diabetes in adult life. Breastfeeding rates are suboptimal in many countries, and strategies to promote breastfeeding could therefore confer important benefits for health at a population level. However, there are particular challenges in defining nutritional exposures in infancy, including marked social gradients in initiation and duration of breastfeeding. In recent studies of low and middle-income populations of children and young adults, where the influences on infant feeding practice differ, beneficial effects of breastfeeding on blood pressure, BMI and risk of diabetes have not been confirmed, and further information is needed. Little is currently known about the long-term consequences of differences in the timing and nature of the weaning diet. Future progress will depend on new studies that provide detailed prospective data on duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding together with appropriate characterisation of the weaning diet.

  20. Reflux Incidence among Exclusively Breast Milk Fed Infants: Differences of Feeding at Breast versus Pumped Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourkavitch, Jennifer; Zadrozny, Sabrina; Flax, Valerie L

    2016-10-14

    The practice of feeding infants expressed breast milk is increasing in the United States, but the impacts on infant and maternal health are still understudied. This study examines the monthly incidence of regurgitation (gastro-esophageal reflux) in exclusively breast milk fed infants from ages two to six months. Among infants whose mothers participated in the Infant Feeding Practices II Study (IFPS II; 2005-2007), data on reflux and feeding mode were collected by monthly questionnaires. A longitudinal, repeated measures analysis was used, with feeding mode lagged by one month in order to compare reflux incidence among infants fed directly at the breast to infants receiving pumped breast milk. Mothers in both feeding groups had similar characteristics, although a greater proportion feeding at least some pumped milk were primiparous. The number of exclusively breastfed infants decreased steadily between months 2 and 6, although the proportion fed at the breast remained similar over time. An association between feeding mode and reflux incidence was not found; however, the analyses were limited by a small number of reported reflux cases. More studies are needed to further explain the relationship between different feeding modes and infant reflux.

  1. Infant feeding and obesity risk in the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Wendy H

    2012-07-01

    Early nutrition in infancy may influence later child health outcomes including overweight through 'programming'. Systematic reviews suggest that breastfeeding is associated with a modest reduction in the risk of later overweight and obesity. This commentary explores some of these mechanisms behind this association. Generally breastfed infants are leaner than artificially (formula)-fed infants and behavioural and hormonal mechanisms may explain this difference. The theory is that a high nutrient diet in infancy adversely programs the principal components of the metabolic syndrome in the child (body mass index, blood pressure and blood lipids) by promoting growth acceleration, whereas slower growth benefits later cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. Artificial-feeding stimulates a higher postnatal growth velocity with the adiposity rebound occurring earlier in those children who have greater fatness later, whereas breastfeeding has been shown to promote slower growth. The adverse long-term effects of early growth acceleration emerge as fundamental in later overweight and obesity. The higher protein content of artificial baby milk compared to the lower protein content in breastmilk is responsible for the increased growth rate and adiposity during the influential period of infancy of formula-fed infants. Breastfeeding, on the other hand, has a protective effect on child overweight and obesity by inducing lower plasma insulin levels, thereby decreasing fat storage and preventing excessive early adipocyte development. Plausible biological mechanisms underlying the protective effect of breastfeeding against obesity are based on the unique composition of human milk and the metabolic and physiological responses to human milk.

  2. Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-Feeding Behaviors among Formula-Feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…

  3. Current treatment for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2003-08-01

    This paper provides an update and critical review of available data on the treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis in previously healthy infants, with special focus on new or promising therapies. The main potential benefits of medical assistance in these patients reside in the careful monitoring of their clinical status, the maintenance of adequate hydration and oxygenation, the preservation of the airway opened and cleared of secretions and the option to perform parental education. There is no convincing evidence that any other form of therapy will reliably provide beneficial effects in infants with bronchiolitis and currently, any treatment beyond supportive care should be prescribed on a case-by-case basis with watchful appraisal of its effects. Therapies such as ribavirin, IFN, vitamin A, antibiotics, mist therapy or anticholinergics, have not demonstrated any measurable clinical effect. Several studies and meta-analyses with beta(2)-agonists and corticosteroids have failed to show any benefit of significant extent, however, physicians keep favouring their use. Presently, adrenaline has received rather consistent support from clinical trials but it is not yet widely prescribed. There are other therapeutic strategies, for instance, heliox, hypertonic saline, noninvasive ventilation, physical therapy techniques, thickened feeds or palivizumab that have shown promising potential benefits, but evidence supporting its use is still limited and further studies should be warranted. In the meantime, infants with acute viral bronchiolitis should be treated following evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, keeping the patient central in the process and being sensitive to social, cultural and familiar influences on their treatment strategy.

  4. [Feeding infants and young children with acute diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouraqui, J-P; Michard-Lenoir, A-P

    2007-10-01

    Acute gastroenteritis remains a common and often severe illness among infants and children throughout the world. The management of a child with acute diarrhea includes rehydration and maintenance fluids with oral rehydration solutions (ORS), combined with continued age-appropriate nutrition. However, although substantial data support the role of continued nutrition in improving gastrointestinal function and anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical outcomes, the practice of continued feeding during diarrheal episodes has been difficult to establish as accepted standard of care. Recommendations for maintenance dietary therapy depend on the age and diet history of the patient. It has been clear for many years that, when affected by gastroenteritis, breastfed infants should be continued on breast milk without any need for interruption and, by that way, will get faster recovery and improved nutrition. Moreover, many well-conducted studies have provided evidence that in formula-fed children not severely dehydrated, a rapid return to full feeding is well tolerated. Lactose intolerance and/or secondary cow's milk allergy are not a clinical concern for the vast majority of patients. In fact early refeeding i.e resumption of normal diet, in amounts sufficient to satisfy energy and nutrient requirements, should be the rule. However, in children younger than 6 months of age, the lack of suitable studies must lead to caution and use of specific lactose-free or extensively hydrolysate formulae, especially in case of severe and/or prolonged diarrhea. Several studies support the use of zinc supplementation or probiotics for acute diarrhea but some doubts persist in infant in developed countries.

  5. Effect of Four Approaches to Oral Feeding Progression on Clinical Outcomes in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita H. Pickler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study of preterm infants was to test the effect of four approaches to the time of transition from gavage to full oral feedings, time to discharge, and weight gain during the transition. Methods. A randomized experimental design was used with four intervention groups: early start (32 weeks’ postmenstrual age/slow progressing experience (gradually increasing oral feedings offered per day; early start/maximum experience (oral feedings offered at every feeding opportunity; late start (34 weeks’ postmenstrual age/slow progressing experience; and late start/maximum experience. Results. The analysis included 86 preterm infants. Once oral feedings were initiated, infants in the late start/maximum experience group achieved full oral feeding and were discharged to home significantly sooner than infants in either early start group. Although not significantly different, these infants also achieved these outcomes sooner than infants in the late start/slow progressing experience group. There were no differences in weight gain across groups. Conclusions. Results suggest starting oral feedings later in preterm infants may result in more rapid transition to full oral feedings and discharge although not at early postnatal ages. Provision of a more consistent approach to oral feeding may support infant neurodevelopment and reduce length of hospitalization.

  6. Clinical Management of the Breast-Feeding Mother-Infant Dyad in Recovery From Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Deborah W

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is one of the most health-promoting and cost-effective nutritional substances known to humankind. Breastmilk provides substantial and remarkable physiological and psychological health benefits. Within the last decade, there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the United States and worldwide and an increased awareness of the immense health benefits for mothers, infants, and societies that support it. Each mother-baby dyad is a unique pair, with distinct relationships, biases, barriers, and obstacles. This article aims to address clinical management for the opioid-recovering breast-feeding dyad and to translate current evidenced-based practice findings, recommendations, and resources to best support this unique population. The recovering breast-feeding mother and newborn with opioid dependence deserve special consideration and expert care to foster their recovery and breast-feeding efforts. It is our moral and ethical responsibility as healthcare professionals to enable, foster, and promote breast-feeding among all families, especially those who stand to benefit the greatest. Substance recovery cannot be treated in isolation, nor can breast-feeding efforts; an interdisciplinary professional team effort promises the greatest chances for recovery success. With appropriate evidence-based practice support, training, and intervention by knowledgeable professionals, many women can overcome the biases and obstacles associated with opioid recovery to successfully breast-feed their babies.

  7. Infant Feeding and Timing of Complementary Foods in the Development of Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Anita M.; Virtanen, Suvi M.; Becker, Dorothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that results from the destruction of the β cells of the pancreas in genetically at-risk individuals. The autoimmune process that precedes the development of T1D is believed to be triggered by environmental factors, including nutrition. Early introduction of complementary foods has been implicated in the etiology of T1D as a possible explanation of the increasing incidence of the disease, particularly in children younger than 5 years of age. Infant feeding recommendations have been designed to promote adequate growth, provide essential nutrients, and reduce the risk of developing chronic illnesses. The World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months of age followed by continued breastfeeding as complementary foods are introduced. A lack of compliance with these recommendations has been observed in the general population as well as in infants at high risk for T1D. Dietary factors such as the provision of breast milk and duration of breastfeeding, the age at introduction of cow's milk and gluten-containing foods, as well as other complementary feeding have been investigated. However, the evidence that early infant feeding patterns are linked with T1D currently remains inconclusive. PMID:26202843

  8. Infant Feeding Decision-Making and the Influences of Social Support Persons Among First-Time African American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiodu, Ifeyinwa V; Waters, Catherine M; Dailey, Dawn E; Lyndon, Audrey

    2017-04-01

    Background While breast milk is considered the gold standard of infant feeding, a majority of African American mothers are not exclusively breastfeeding their newborn infants. Objective The overall goal of this critical ethnographic research study was to describe infant feeding perceptions and experiences of African American mothers and their support persons. Methods Twenty-two participants (14 pregnant women and eight support persons) were recruited from public health programs and community based organizations in northern California. Data were collected through field observations, demographic questionnaires, and multiple in-person interviews. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes. Results Half of the mothers noted an intention to exclusively breastfeed during the antepartum period. However, few mothers exclusively breastfed during the postpartum period. Many participants expressed guilt and shame for not being able to accomplish their antepartum goals. Life experiences and stressors, lack of breastfeeding role models, limited experiences with breastfeeding and lactation, and changes to the family dynamic played a major role in the infant feeding decision making process and breastfeeding duration. Conclusions for Practice Our observations suggest that while exclusivity goals were not being met, a considerable proportion of African American women were breastfeeding. Future interventions geared towards this population should include social media interventions, messaging around combination feeding, and increased education for identified social support persons. Public health measures aimed at reducing the current infant feeding inequities would benefit by also incorporating more culturally inclusive messaging around breastfeeding and lactation.

  9. Feeding Practices among Infants in a Rural Community in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Das Gupta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper feeding practices during infancy are necessary for the growth and development of infants and to prevent malnutrition. This study was conducted to describe the feeding practice among infants in a rural area in Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and June 2013. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews of 212 mothers using a pretested questionnaire. Results: Exclusive breast feeding and complementary feeding rates were 40.6% and 97.3%, respectively. One third of the mothers practiced prelactal feeding, and honey was the most common item. Maternal illness (72.7% was the most common reason for not giving breast milk. Infant formula was used as an alternative food in majority of the cases (72.7%. Conclusion: Percentage of exclusive breast feeding was not satisfactory. Encouragement of female education is recommended to improve feeding practices and infant care.

  10. Relationship between oxygen saturation, gestational age, and level of oral feeding skills in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Raquel Coube de Carvalho; Prade, Leila Sauer; Bolzan, Geovana de Paula; Weinmann, Angela Regina Maciel; Keske-Soares, Márcia

    2017-03-09

    To correlate the peripheral oxygen saturation with gestational age and the level of oral feeding skills in the introduction of oral feeding in preterm infants. This is a cross-sectional, quantitative study whose sample was composed of 169 clinically stable preterm infants. Peripheral oxygen saturation was assessed before and after introduction of oral feeding. The preterm infants were stratified into three groups based on their gestational age at birth: 26-29, 30-33, and 34-36 weeks. The preterm infants were classified into four levels according to their oral feeding skill and resistance. No differences in oxygen saturation were observed between the strata of gestational age and between the levels of oral feeding skill. Differences were observed in the groups of preterm infants aged 30-33 weeks (p=0.04) and 34-36 weeks (p=0.02) and on the level I of oral feeding skills (p=0.04) when oxygen saturation was compared at pre- and post-first oral feeding. Significant correlations (poral feeding skills (r=0.38); in Group A, between gestational age and oxygen saturation before the first oral feeding (r=0.83); in Group B, between the level of oral feeding skill and oxygen saturation before the first oral feeding (r=0.26) and between level of oral feeding skill and gestational age (r=0.26). Correlation was found for peripheral oxygen saturation when compared with gestational age and with the level of oral feeding skills.

  11. A survey of current status of knowledge,attitude and practice of 228 puerperae concerning infant and young children feeding in Chongqing%重庆市228例产妇婴幼儿喂养知识态度行为的现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 关蕴良; 赵勇; 刘达美; 李廷玉

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过调查重庆市部分产妇关于婴幼儿喂养的知识、态度、行为现况,为母婴保健宣传项目的 开展提供有效参考和指导.方法 对重庆医科大学附属第一、二医院妇产科住院产妇进行问卷调查,询问产妇对婴幼儿喂养相关知识的了解程度,以及与喂养相关的态度和行为情况.结果 产妇对婴幼儿喂养方面的知识平均得分率为(61.40±0.21)%,产妇对于哺乳相关知识掌握较好,但对婴幼儿营养相关疾病预防了解较少.正性的关于婴幼儿喂养的态度和行为产妇的比例并不高,尤其是纯母乳喂养的比例仅23.25%,超过半数的人对喂养没有信心.结论 重庆产妇关于婴幼儿喂养方面的知识、态度和行为情况并不理想,喂养方面的健康宣教有待进一步改进和加强.%Objective To investigate the current status of knowledge, attitude and practice of puerperae concerning infant and young children feeding in Chongqing city and provide effective reference and guidance for carrying out promotion project of maternal, infant and young children health care. Methods Questionary survey was conducted on hospitalized puerperae in obstetric and gynecology departments of the first and the second affiliated hoapital of Chongqing Medical University,and the understanding level, attitude and practice of the puerperae concerning infant and young children feeding were investigated. Results Average score rate of maternal knowledge of infant and young children feeding was(61. 40 + 0. 21)% showing a better understanding of breast-feeding in puerperae, but their knowledge of preventing infant and young children nutrition-related diseases were poor. The proportion of puer-pera who owned positive attitude and practice was not high, especially the proportion of exclusive breastfeeding with only 23. 25% , and more than half of the puerperae had no confidence in breastfeeding. Conclusion Current status of knowledge,attitude and

  12. Mechanisms Affecting the Gut of Preterm Infants in Enteral Feeding Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Embleton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Large randomized controlled trials (RCTs in preterm infants offer unique opportunities for mechanistic evaluation of the risk factors leading to serious diseases, as well as the actions of interventions designed to prevent them. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC a serious inflammatory gut condition and late-onset sepsis (LOS are common feeding and nutrition-related problems that may cause death or serious long-term morbidity and are key outcomes in two current UK National Institutes for Health Research (NIHR trials. Speed of increasing milk feeds trial (SIFT randomized preterm infants to different rates of increases in milk feeds with a primary outcome of survival without disability at 2 years corrected age. Enteral lactoferrin in neonates (ELFIN randomizes infants to supplemental enteral lactoferrin or placebo with a primary outcome of LOS. This is a protocol for the mechanisms affecting the gut of preterm infants in enteral feeding trials (MAGPIE study and is funded by the UK NIHR Efficacy and Mechanistic Evaluation programme. MAGPIE will recruit ~480 preterm infants who were enrolled in SIFT or ELFIN. Participation in MAGPIE does not change the main trial protocols and uses non-invasive sampling of stool and urine, along with any residual resected gut tissue if infants required surgery. Trial interventions may involve effects on gut microbes, metabolites (e.g., short-chain fatty acids, and aspects of host immune function. Current hypotheses suggest that NEC and/or LOS are due to a dysregulated immune system in the context of gut dysbiosis, but mechanisms have not been systematically studied within large RCTs. Microbiomic analysis will use next-generation sequencing, and metabolites will be assessed by mass spectrometry to detect volatile organic and other compounds produced by microbes or the host. We will explore differences between disease cases and controls, as well as exploring the actions of trial interventions. Impacts of this research

  13. Systematic review with meta-analysis: early infant feeding and coeliac disease--update 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajewska, H; Shamir, R; Chmielewska, A; Pieścik-Lech, M; Auricchio, R; Ivarsson, A; Kolacek, S; Koletzko, S; Korponay-Szabo, I; Mearin, M L; Ribes-Koninckx, C; Troncone, R

    2015-06-01

    New evidence emerged on early feeding practices and the risk of coeliac disease. To systematically update evidence on these practices to find out whether there is a need to revise current recommendations. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched from July 2012 (end of last search) to February 2015 for studies of any design that assessed the effect of gluten consumption and breastfeeding on the development of coeliac disease and/or coeliac disease-related autoimmunity. We identified 21 publications, including two, new, large, randomised controlled trials performed in high-risk infants. Exclusive or any breastfeeding, as well as breastfeeding at the time of gluten introduction, did not reduce the risk of developing coeliac disease during childhood. For infants at high risk of developing coeliac disease, gluten introduction at 4 months of age in very small amounts, or at 6 or 12 months of age, resulted in similar rates of coeliac disease diagnosis in early childhood. Later gluten introduction was associated with later development of coeliac specific autoimmunity and coeliac disease during childhood, but not total risk reduction. Observational studies indicate that consumption of a higher amount of gluten at weaning may increase the risk for coeliac disease development. Infant feeding practices (breastfeeding, time of gluten introduction) have no effect on the risk of developing coeliac disease during childhood (at least at specific timeframes evaluated in the included studies), necessitating an update of current European recommendations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 1 Feeding practices and nutritional status of infants in Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Permission was sought from the Morogoro Region Health authority to .... study has potential negative and indirect effects on child nutrition, feeding patterns and ... represents a more accurate reflection of current period of sickness and short term food .... Semba, R.D. (2008) Effect of parental education on child stunting.

  15. Assessment of infant feeding styles among low income African American mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Lisa M.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Carby-Shields, Kenitra; Borja, Judith B.; Goldman, Barbara D.

    2007-01-01

    This study’s goal was to provide a detailed description of feeding styles adopted by a sample of African-American women in feeding their infants in North Carolina, and to examine the correspondence between reported and observed feeding styles. Cross-sectional semi-structured interview and videotaped data were gathered in the homes of 20 participating low-income mothers of infants aged 3-20 months. Feeding styles were characterized through a tailored coding scheme (the Infant Feeding Styles Video Coding Scheme, IFSVCS) applied to both interview and video-taped data. We found that the most frequent feeding styles identified for both interviews and videotaped observations was restrictive, but that mothers were roughly equally divided among predominantly controlling (pressuring or restrictive) and less controlling (laissez-faire or indulgent) styles across methods. However, for over 2/3 of the sample, there was a lack of correspondence between interview and video-taped feeding styles. This unique characterization and comparison of observed and reported infant feeding styles provides additional insights into parental feeding approaches among mothers of infants at high risk of obesity, and highlights the need for further study of feeding style assessment and potential impact on infant weight outcomes. PMID:17336423

  16. Feeding Currents Generated by Upside Down Jellyfish

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Terry; Gyoerkoe, Megan; Miller, Laura

    2010-01-01

    We present fluid dynamics videos of the pulsing dynamics and the resulting fluid flow generated by the upside down jellyfish, Cassiopea spp. Medusae of this genus are unusual in that they typically rest upside down on the ocean floor and pulse their bells to generate feeding currents, only swimming when significantly disturbed. The pulsing kinematics and fluid flow around these upside down jellyfish is investigated using a combination of videography, flow visualization, and numerical simulation. Significant mixing occurs around and directly above the oral arms and secondary mouths. Numerical simulations using the immersed boundary method with a porous layer representing the oral arms agree with the experimental results. The simulations also suggest that the presence of porous oral arms induce net horizontal flow towards the bell. Coherent vortex rings are not seen in the wake above the jellyfish, but starting and stopping vortices are observed before breaking up as they pass through the elaborate oral arms (i...

  17. Correlation of 4-month infant feeding modes with their growth and iron status in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yu-hua; JI Cheng-ye; ZHENG Xiu-xia; SHAN Jin-ping; HOU Rui

    2008-01-01

    Background Growth and development of infants has been an impoRant topic in pediatrics for a long time.Infants must be provided with food containing all necessary nutrienls.Breast milk js believed to be the most desirable natural and cheapest food for well-balanced nutrition.But with the progress in the development of substitute food in developed countries,it is thought that formula milk can meet the requirement for infant growth.During early infancy,growth,as the most sensitive index of health,is therefore a critical component in evaluating the adequacy of breast-feeding,mixed-feeding and formula feeding.Iron status is another important index of infant health.Iron deficiency anemia remains the most prevalent nutritional deficiency index in infants worldwide.This study is to compare infants in Beijing at 4 months who are on three different feeding modes(breast feeding,mixed feeding and formula feeding)in physical changes and iron status.The results may provide new mothers with support in feeding mode selection,which will also be helpful to the China Nutrition Association in feeding mode education.Methods This is a cohort study.One thousand and one normal Beijing infants were followed regularly for 12 months.Body weight and horizontal length were measured.Hemoglobin,red blood cell counts,mean corpuscular volume,mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum iron were analyzed at 4 months.Results The breast feeding percentage in the first 4 months was 47.9%.The feeding mode was not significantly related to maternal delivery age,education,labor pathway nor infant sex(P>0.05).Infant boys and girls exclusively breast-fed from 0 to 4 months had the highest weight at 0-6 months.The anemia rate of breast-fed infant boys at 4 months was the highest.Conclusions Breast feeding should be given more emphasis.It is compulsory for new mothers to breast-feed their Infants if possible.Social environment should also guarantee the requirement for breast feeding.Furthermore the normal values

  18. Infant Feeding Practices in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying Toh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO, 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding practices when the infants were aged 9 and 12 months. In the first year, 20.5% of infants were given dietary supplements, while 5.7% took probiotics and 15.7% homeopathic preparations. At age 9 months, 45.8% of infants had seasonings added to their foods, increasing to 56.3% at 12 months. At age 12 months, 32.7% of infants were given blended food, although 92.3% had begun some form of self-feeding. Additionally, 87.4% of infants were fed milk via a bottle, while a third of them had food items added into their bottles. At both time points, more than a third of infants were provided sweetened drinks via the bottle. Infants of Indian ethnicity were more likely to be given dietary supplements, have oil and seasonings added to their foods and consumed sweetened drinks from the bottle (p < 0.001. These findings provide a better understanding of variations in infant feeding practices, so that healthcare professionals can offer more targeted and culturally-appropriate advice.

  19. Intravenous fluids versus gastric-tube feeding in hospitalized infants with viral bronchiolitis: a randomized, prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelman, Amir; Raibin, Karine; Dabbah, Husein; Chistyakov, Irina; Srugo, Isaac; Even, Lea; Bzezinsky, Nurit; Riskin, Arieh

    2013-03-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends intravenous fluids for infants with bronchiolitis who are unable to sustain oral feedings. Our randomized, prospective pilot study shows that gastric tube feeding (in 31 infants) is feasible and demonstrated comparable clinical outcomes with intravenous fluids (in 20 infants) among hospitalized infants ≤6 months of age with moderate bronchiolitis.

  20. Association between feeding difficulties and language delay in preterm infants using Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Chapman, Ira; Bann, Carla M; Vaucher, Yvonne E; Stoll, Barbara J

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the relationship between abnormal feeding patterns and language performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition at 18-22 months adjusted age among a cohort of extremely premature infants. This is a descriptive analysis of 1477 preterm infants born ≤ 26 weeks gestation or enrolled in a clinical trial between January 1, 2006 and March 18, 2008 at a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network center who completed the 18-month neurodevelopmental follow-up assessment. At 18-22 months adjusted age, a comprehensive neurodevelopmental evaluation was performed by certified examiners including the Receptive and Expressive Language Subscales of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition and a standardized adjusted age feeding behaviors and nutritional intake. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multilevel linear and logistic regression modeling. Abnormal feeding behaviors were reported in 193 (13%) of these infants at 18-22 months adjusted age. Abnormal feeding patterns, days of mechanical ventilation, hearing impairment, and Gross Motor Functional Classification System level ≥ 2 each independently predicted lower composite language scores. At 18 months adjusted age, premature infants with a history of feeding difficulties are more likely to have language delay. Neuromotor impairment and days of mechanical ventilation are both important risk factors associated with these outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Picky Eating Habits or Sensory Processing Issues? Exploring Feeding Difficulties in Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stacy D.; Bruns, Deborah A.; Rains, Kari W.

    2010-01-01

    For infants and toddlers demonstrating feeding problems, it is critical to find the basis for the problems to create more pleasurable mealtimes for the child, his or her family members, and caregivers. Feeding difficulties can affect general health, developmental gains, and emotional well-being. Understanding the cause of feeding problems and…

  2. Fabricating feeding plate in CLP infants with two different material: A series of case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding is a family′s biggest concerns when a child is born with cleft lip and/or palate. The goal for that child is to have as near normal feeding as possible. This report presents fabrication of feeding plates in two infants born with cleft lip and palate using two different materials.

  3. Infant Feeding Practices in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Jia Ying; Yip, Grace; Han, Wee Meng; Fok, Doris; Low, Yen-Ling; Lee, Yung Seng; Rebello, Salome A; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-05-13

    The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO), 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding practices when the infants were aged 9 and 12 months. In the first year, 20.5% of infants were given dietary supplements, while 5.7% took probiotics and 15.7% homeopathic preparations. At age 9 months, 45.8% of infants had seasonings added to their foods, increasing to 56.3% at 12 months. At age 12 months, 32.7% of infants were given blended food, although 92.3% had begun some form of self-feeding. Additionally, 87.4% of infants were fed milk via a bottle, while a third of them had food items added into their bottles. At both time points, more than a third of infants were provided sweetened drinks via the bottle. Infants of Indian ethnicity were more likely to be given dietary supplements, have oil and seasonings added to their foods and consumed sweetened drinks from the bottle (p feeding practices, so that healthcare professionals can offer more targeted and culturally-appropriate advice.

  4. Can frontline workers be change agents for infant feeding and growth? - A community Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipta Kanti Mukhopadhyay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role of optimum infant feeding practices on growth and survival of children is well established. Promoting it through routine public health care system is the challenge. Objectives: To assess the change in knowledge and practices of caregivers about infant feeding and physical growth of infants through training of frontline health workers. Methods: A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted among 130 infant mother pairs (65 in each group, recruited at birth, in a rural community in Bankura, West Bengal. Frontline health workers of the intervention area received modular training on infant feeding and supported the caregivers in adopting optimum feeding practices. Change in knowledge and practice of caregivers on infant feeding and physical growth of infants were assessed at monthly interval. Results: Knowledge regarding early initiation, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and timely introduction of semi-solid food was increased significantly at 6th month in intervention area with almost no improvement in control area. At 6th month, exclusive breastfeeding was practiced by 76.9% infants in intervention area and 63.1% in control area, although in both cases, it was reduced from the proportion at birth. Proportion of infants having bottle feeding and intake of other liquid food also increased with time and more so in control area. In 6 months, infants of intervention area gained on average 600 gms more weight than those of control area, but gain in length was almost similar in both the groups. Conclusion: Promotion of infant feeding through frontline workers is a feasible intervention in the present context.

  5. Characterization of the developmental stages of sucking in preterm infants during bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C; Alagugurusamy, R; Schanler, R J; Smith, E O; Shulman, R J

    2000-07-01

    It is acknowledged that the difficulty many preterm infants have in feeding orally results from their immature sucking skills. However, little is known regarding the development of sucking in these infants. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the bottle-feeding performance of preterm infants is positively correlated with the developmental stage of their sucking. Infants' oral-motor skills were followed longitudinally using a special nipple/bottle system which monitored the suction and expression/compression component of sucking. The maturational process was rated into five primary stages based on the presence/absence of suction and the rhythmicity of the two components of sucking, suction and expression/compression. This five-point scale was used to characterize the developmental stage of sucking of each infant. Outcomes of feeding performance consisted of overall transfer (percent total volume transferred/volume to be taken) and rate of transfer (ml/min). Assessments were conducted when infants were taking 1-2, 3-5 and 6-8 oral feedings per day. Significant positive correlations were observed between the five stages of sucking and postmenstrual age, the defined feeding outcomes, and the number of daily oral feedings. Overall transfer and rate of transfer were enhanced when infants reached the more mature stages of sucking. We have demonstrated that oral feeding performance improves as infants' sucking skills mature. In addition, we propose that the present five-point sucking scale may be used to assess the developmental stages of sucking of preterm infants. Such knowledge would facilitate the management of oral feeding in these infants.

  6. COMPARISON OF GROWTH, INFECTIONS AND FEEDING HABITS AMONG FORMULA-FED INFANTS STARTING COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING AT 4 TO 6 MONTHS OLD WITH THOSE STARTING AT 6 MONTHS OLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noppornlertwong, Chanon; Tantibhaedhyangkul, Ruangvith

    2016-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends starting complementary feeding among infants beginning at 6 months old, as opposed to 4 to 6 months old. We prospectively studied 21 formula-fed infants beginning complementary feeding at 4 to 6 months old and compared them with 20 formula-fed infants starting feeding at 6 months old to determine difference in growth, number of infections and feeding habits. The studied infants were each enrolled at age 4 months. The decision as to which group the infants were classified into was based on the parental decision as to when to start complementary feeding. Initial demographic data were obtained for each subject. Growth, infections, and feeding habit data were recorded. No significant differences in growth were detected between the 2 groups. Respiratory infections at age 10 to 12 months were more common among children who began complementary feeding later. By age 12 months, the percentages of subjects who were bottle feeding and night feeding, and new food acceptance were not different from each other, but those who began complementary feeding at age 6 months were less picky eaters. By 15 months old, those who began complementary feeding at age 6 months had less bottle feeding and better food acceptance. In conclusion, for formula-fed infants, age of onset of complementary feeding was not associated with infant growth or infection rates. However, some feeding habits differed between the two groups. It is unclear if the age of introducing complementary feeding caused these differences or was merely associated with these differences.

  7. Context for food-based approaches for improved feeding of infants and children in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecker, Barbara J; Abebe, Yewelsew

    2014-12-01

    Regardless of efforts by the health sector and partner organizations, maternal and child malnutrition is still a challenge in Ethiopia. To describe the context of current infant and child feeding patterns in Ethiopia. Feeding patterns, diet content and quality, and nutritional outcomes and feeding practices of mothers of young children are described from literature review of a number of field studies. Protein and energy deficiencies and multiple micronutrient deficiencies are common. Breastfeeding is often prolonged until 2 years of age, with introduction of small amounts of poor-quality complementary foods. Vitamin A and iodine deficiencies have also been problems. Focus group discussions showed that mothers did not believe that animal-source foods are needed.by young children or schoolchildren. However, the Health Extension Program led by the Federal Ministry of Health promotes optimal child feeding as one of the health extension packages. Continued use of germination and fermentation of cereals should be encouraged to increase bioavailability of trace elements. Use of fat in the diet would increase energy density. To improve the situation, extension education, including nutrition and agricultural expertise delivered in aformat understandable to mothers about appropriate complementary feeding, including animal-source foods, is urgently needed, with expansion of governmental and nongovernmental resources.

  8. Surface electromyography of facial muscles during natural and artificial feeding of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Cristiane F; Trezza, Ercília M C; Murade, Emílio C M; Padovani, Carlos R

    2006-01-01

    To measure and compare the activity of the masseter, temporalis and buccinator muscles in different infant feeding methods. Cross-sectional study of 60 full-term infants with no intercurrent diseases, aged between two and three months, classified into the following groups: 1) exclusive breastfeeding; 2) breastfeeding plus bottle-feeding; and 3) exclusive breastfeeding plus cup feeding. Surface electromyography was performed during infant feeding. The Krushal-Wallis test was used, complemented by multiple paired comparisons of the groups. A 5% significance level was chosen for the tests. Statistically higher results were verified in the breastfeeding group in relation to the bottle-feeding one, both in the range of movement and the mean contraction of the masseter. With regard to the temporalis muscle, statistically higher results were found in the breastfeeding group comparatively to the bottle-feeding one. As to the buccinator muscle, statistically higher results were observed in the breastfeeding group in relation to the bottle-feeding one, although in this case, the difference concerned only the range of contraction. The similarities between the muscle activity in the breastfeeding and in the cup-feeding groups suggests that cup-feeding can be used as an alternative infant feeding method, being better than bottle-feeding, due to the hyperactivity of the buccinator muscle, which could result in changes to the structural growth and development of the stomatognathic system functions.

  9. Breast versus bottle: correlates of adolescent mothers' infant-feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, A; Radius, S M

    1987-05-01

    Since the 1970s, breast-feeding as the preferred method of infant feeding has increased in overall popularity. However, certain populations, particularly poor, young, black, and less-educated women, have been slow to adopt this method. This prospective study was undertaken to identify factors relating to the choice of infant-feeding method among inner-city adolescents. Two hundred fifty-four pregnant adolescents completed a questionnaire supplying information regarding attitudes toward and knowledge about breast-feeding, social support, personal experience, and other variables hypothesized to correlate with their choice of infant-feeding method. Of the total sample, 17% said they were "probably" or "definitely" going to breast-feed their babies. Analyses revealed adolescents most likely to intend to breast-feed were those who perceived more benefits to breast-feeding, who desired more knowledge about it, who were themselves breast-fed, who reported supportive social environments, and who perceived relatively fewer barriers to breast-feeding their infants. Specific interventions based upon these findings are proposed. We conclude that adolescent mothers are interested in breast-feeding their babies and that interventions are feasible to increase breast-feeding within this population.

  10. Maternal weight status and responsiveness to preterm infant behavioral cues during feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianas, Evanthia A; Rankin, Kristin M; Norr, Kathleen F; White-Traut, Rosemary C

    2017-04-11

    Parental obesity is highly predictive of child obesity, and preterm infants are at greater risk of obesity, but little is known about obese and non-obese mothers' responsiveness to preterm infant cues during feeding. The relationship between maternal weight status and response to preterm infant behavioral cues during feeding at 6-weeks corrected age was examined. This secondary analysis used data from a randomized clinical trial. Maternal weight was coded during a play session. Mother-infant interaction during feeding was coded using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Feeding Scale (NCAST). We used multivariate linear regressions to examine NCAST scores and multivariate logistic regressions for the two individual items, satiation cues and termination of feeding. Of the 139 mothers, 56 (40.3%) were obese, two underweight women were excluded. Obese mothers did not differ from overweight/normal weight mothers for overall NCAST scores, but they had higher scores on response to infant's distress subscale (mean = 10.2 vs. 9.6, p = 0.01). The proportion of infants who exhibited satiation cues did not differ by maternal weight. Obese mothers were more likely than overweight/normal weight mothers to terminate the feeding when the infant showed satiation cues (82.1% vs. 66.3%, p = 0.04, adjusted OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 0.97, 5.48). Limitations include lack of BMI measures and small sample size. Additional research is needed about maternal weight status and whether it influences responsiveness to preterm infant satiation cues. Results highlight the need for educating all mothers of preterm infants regarding preterm infant cues. NCT02041923 . Feeding and Transition to Home for Preterms at Social Risk (H-HOPE). Registered 15 January 2014.

  11. The effect of music reinforcement for non-nutritive sucking on nipple feeding of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne M; Cassidy, Jane; Grant, Roy; Cevasco, Andrea; Szuch, Catherine; Nguyen, Judy; Walworth, Darcy; Procelli, Danielle; Jarred, Jennifer; Adams, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    In this randomized, controlled multi-site study, the pacifier-activated-lullaby system (PAL) was used with 68 premature infants. Dependent variables were (a) total number of days prior to nipple feeding, (b) days of nipple feeding, (c) discharge weight, and (d) overall weight gain. Independent variables included contingent music reinforcement for non-nutritive sucking for PAL intervention at 32 vs. 34 vs. 36 weeks adjusted gestational age (AGA), with each age group subdivided into three trial conditions: control consisting of no PAL used vs. one 15-minute PAL trial vs. three 15-minute PAL trials. At 34 weeks, PAL trials significantly shortened gavage feeding length, and three trials were significantly better than one trial. At 32 weeks, PAL trials lengthened gavage feeding. Female infants learned to nipple feed significantly faster than male infants. It was noted that PAL babies went home sooner after beginning to nipple feed, a trend that was not statistically significant.

  12. Associations of infant feeding with trajectories of body composition and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katherine A; Wagner, Carol L; Feldman, Henry A; Shypailo, Roman J; Belfort, Mandy B

    2017-08-01

    Background: The extent to which breastfeeding is protective against later-life obesity is controversial. Little is known about differences in infant body composition between breastfed and formula-fed infants, which may reflect future obesity risk.Objective: We aimed to assess associations of infant feeding with trajectories of growth and body composition from birth to 7 mo in healthy infants.Design: We studied 276 participants from a previous study of maternal vitamin D supplementation during lactation. Mothers used monthly feeding diaries to report the extent of breastfeeding. We measured infants' anthropometrics and used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to assess body composition at 1, 4, and 7 mo. We compared changes in infant size (z scores for weight, length, and body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))]) and body composition (fat and lean mass, body fat percentage) between predominantly breastfed and formula-fed infants, adjusting in linear regression for sex, gestational age, race/ethnicity, maternal BMI, study site, and socioeconomic status.Results: In this study, 214 infants (78%) were predominantly breastfed (median duration: 7 mo) and 62 were exclusively formula fed. Formula-fed infants had lower birth-weight z scores than breastfed infants (-0.22 ± 0.86 and 0.16 ± 0.88, respectively; P infants gained more lean mass (difference: 303 g; 95% CI: 137, 469 g) than breastfed infants, but not fat mass (difference: -42 g; 95% CI: -299, 215 g).Conclusions: Formula-fed infants gained weight more rapidly and out of proportion to linear growth than did predominantly breastfed infants. These differences were attributable to greater accretion of lean mass, rather than fat mass. Any later obesity risk associated with infant feeding does not appear to be explained by differential adiposity gains in infancy. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Perioperative Feeding Approaches in Single Ventricle Infants: A Survey of 46 Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slicker, Julie; Sables-Baus, Sharon; Lambert, Linda M; Peterson, Laura E; Woodard, Frances K; Ocampo, Elena C

    2016-12-01

    Background Feeding dysfunction occurs commonly in infants with single ventricle heart disease and impacts growth and long-term outcomes. Little evidence exists to guide safe feeding in this population. This study surveyed centers participating in the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative to assess prevailing feeding practices amongthose caring for single ventricle neonates. Methods Web-based survey of 56 pediatric cardiac surgical centers was conducted. Questions addressed peri-operative feeding approaches and responses were presented and analyzed descriptively. Results Of 56 centers, 46 (82%) completed a survey. Preoperative feeding was common in single ventricle infants (30/46; 65%), routes varied. Centers who did not feed infants preoperatively cited the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (16/16; 100%), presence of umbilical artery catheter (12/16; 75%), and prostaglandin infusion (9/16; 56%) as main concerns. 67% of centers reported no specific vital sign thresholds for withholding enteral feedings. In the postoperative period, most centers used an "internal guideline" (21/46; 46%) or an "informal practice" (15/46; 33%) to determine feeding readiness. Approaches to findings were significantly different among centers. About 40% of centers did not send patients home with feeding tubes, and there was no clear consensus between preferred feeding tube modality at discharge. Conclusion Considerable variation exists in feeding practices for infants with single ventricle congenital heart disease among 46 centers participating in a quality improvement collaborative. Although most centers generally feed infants preoperatively, feeding practices remain center-specific. Variability continues in the immediate post-operative and interstage periods. Further opportunities exist for investigation, standardization and development of best-practice feeding guidelines.

  14. Oral Feeding Assessment Predicts Length of Hospital Stay in Late Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chantal; Bhat, Kiran; Potak, Debra; Schanler, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background When compared with term infants, late preterm (LP) infants have greater morbidity and mortality, longer hospital stay, and greater rate of hospital readmission. Oral feeding difficulty is one of the prominent reasons for delayed discharge in LP infants. Objective To identify the maturity levels of LP infants’ oral feeding skills (OFS) at the time of their first oral feeding and to determine the relationship between OFS maturity levels and length of hospital stay. Methods OFS was assessed in 48 LP infants born between 340/7 and 356/7 weeks gestational age at the time of their first oral feeding within 24 h of birth. The intake at 5 minutes, at completion of the feeding, and the duration of feeding a 15 mL prescribed volume of milk were tabulated. Proficiency expressed as percent mL consumed in the first 5 min/15 mL prescribed and rate of milk transfer over the entire feeding (mL/min) were recorded. OFS were assessed using a novel 4-level scale defined by the combined proficiency and rate of milk transfer. Results When compared with their 35-week counterparts, infants born at 34 weeks gestation had poorer OFS profiles (p = 0.035) and longer hospital stay (p < 0.001). Additionally, further analyses demonstrated that, independently, LOS was associated negatively with both GA and OFS. Conclusion Assessment of OFS levels in LP infants at their first oral feeding can help identify infants at risk of oral feeding issues that may delay hospital discharge. For those infants, we speculate that provision of evidence-based efficacious interventions that improve OFS may shorten hospital stay and decrease hospital re-admissions. PMID:27042698

  15. Effects of the neonatal intensive care unit environment on preterm infant oral feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickler RH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rita H Pickler,1 Jacqueline M McGrath,2 Barbara A Reyna,3 Heather L Tubbs-Cooley,1 Al M Best4, Mary Lewis,3 Sharon Cone,3 Paul A Wetzel51Department of Patient Services, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 2School of Nursing, University of Connecticut and Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, CT, USA; 3VCU Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Richmond, Richmond, VA, USA; 4School of Dentistry, 5School of Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USAObjective: To examine the effect of neonatal intensive care unit environmental characteristics (perceived levels of light and sound, and time of day in open unit wards and single-family rooms (SFRs on oral feeding outcomes in preterm infants.Design: Data were collected at each scheduled oral feeding for 87 preterm infants from the first oral feeding until discharge. Data included the prescribed volume of feeding and the volume consumed, the infant's level of wakefulness before feeding, and the nurse's perception of light and sound.Results: Data were collected on 5111 feedings in the ward unit and 5802 in the SFR unit from feedings involving 87 preterm infants. Light and sound were rated significantly lower in the SFR (χ2 = 139 and 1654.8, respectively. Feeding times of 9 am, 12 noon, and 3 pm were associated with the highest perceived levels of light and sound, regardless of unit design (P < 0.0001. Moderate light levels and feeding times of 12, 3, and 6 am were associated with improved feeding outcomes. Infants consumed a greater proportion of their prescribed feeding volume when fed in the open ward and when awake before feeding.Conclusion: Further study on the clinical effects of unit design is needed, as is study on the effects of environmental stimuli, so that interventions can be appropriately developed and tailored for infants needing the most support for optimal development.Keywords: NICU design, clinical outcomes, environment

  16. Age-appropriate feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending child welfare clinic at a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Lawan, Umar M.; Gboluwaga T Amole; Jahum, Mahmud G.; Abdullahi Sani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Appropriate infant feeding is the key to optimum infant and child development and survival. This study investigates age-appropriate infant feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending the immunization and child welfare clinic at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional descriptive design, a sample of 300 sets of infants (age ≤12 months) and caregivers was systematically selected and studied. The data were analyzed using the MINI...

  17. Pressuring and restrictive feeding styles influence infant feeding and size among a low-income African-American sample

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Amanda L.; Adair, Linda S.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight among infants and toddlers has increased dramatically in the past three decades, highlighting the importance of identifying factors contributing to early excess weight gain, particularly in high-risk groups. Parental feeding styles, the attitudes and behaviors that characterize parental approaches to maintaining or modifying children’s eating behavior, are an important behavioral component shaping early obesity risk. Using longitudinal data from the Infant Care an...

  18. The relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and perceptions of infant eating behaviours at 4 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Sullivan, Serena E; de Jersey, Susan J; Daniels, Lynne A

    2016-10-01

    Parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviours are inter-related and both have been implicated in the development of childhood obesity. However, research on the parent-child feeding relationship during the first few months of life is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and infant eating behaviours in a community sample. Mothers (N = 413) of 4 month old infants recruited during pregnancy for the New Beginnings: Healthy Mothers and Babies study self-reported feeding beliefs/practices and eating behaviours of their infants on established tools. Data on a comprehensive range of maternal and infant characteristics were also collected. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the associations between five feeding beliefs and practices and four eating behaviours, adjusting for key maternal and infant covariates. Mothers concerned about their infant becoming underweight rated the infant higher on satiety responsiveness and lower on enjoyment of food. Higher awareness of infant feeding cues was associated with higher infant enjoyment of food. Mothers concerned about their infant becoming overweight and those who used food to calm their baby rated the infant as higher on food responsiveness. Feeding to a schedule (vs on demand) was not associated with any of the infant eating behaviours. A relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and infant eating behaviours is apparent early in life, therefore longitudinal investigation to establish the directions of this relationship is warranted.

  19. Mother's Beliefs, Attitudes, and Decision Making Related to Infant Feeding Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzyminski, Sharon; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2016-01-01

    All mothers at some point make a decision about whether to breast- or formula feed their infant. Marital status, education, age, culture, and confidence have all been identified as variables affecting this decision. Previous research has concentrated on the decision-making process in breastfeeding mothers. This qualitative descriptive study investigated the beliefs, attitudes, and decisions of both breast- and formula-feeding mothers. Four categories were identified influencing maternal decision making: (a) infant nutritional benefits, (b) maternal benefits, (c) knowledge about infant feeding, and (d) personal and professional support. Analysis of the data indicated that mothers differed in their choice depending on whether they were infant- or maternal-centered and that most women combine both methods of feeding.

  20. Mother’s Beliefs, Attitudes, and Decision Making Related to Infant Feeding Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzyminski, Sharon; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT All mothers at some point make a decision about whether to breast- or formula feed their infant. Marital status, education, age, culture, and confidence have all been identified as variables affecting this decision. Previous research has concentrated on the decision-making process in breastfeeding mothers. This qualitative descriptive study investigated the beliefs, attitudes, and decisions of both breast- and formula-feeding mothers. Four categories were identified influencing maternal decision making: (a) infant nutritional benefits, (b) maternal benefits, (c) knowledge about infant feeding, and (d) personal and professional support. Analysis of the data indicated that mothers differed in their choice depending on whether they were infant- or maternal-centered and that most women combine both methods of feeding. PMID:26848247

  1. Effect of bottles, cups, and dummies on breast feeding in preterm infants: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Carmel T; Ryan, Philip; Crowther, Caroline A; McPhee, Andrew J; Paterson, Susan; Hiller, Janet E

    2004-07-24

    To determine the effect of artificial teats (bottle and dummy) and cups on breast feeding in preterm infants. Randomised controlled trial. Two large tertiary hospitals, 54 peripheral hospitals. 319 preterm infants (born at 23-33 weeks' gestation) randomly assigned to one of four groups: cup/no dummy (n = 89), cup/dummy (n = 72), bottle/no dummy (n = 73), bottle/dummy (n = 85). Women with singleton or twin infants Dummies do not affect breast feeding in preterm infants. Cup feeding significantly increases the likelihood that the baby will be fully breast fed at discharge home, but has no effect on any breast feeding and increases the length of hospital stay.

  2. Wireless Monitoring System for Oral-Feeding Evaluation of Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Ting; Wang, Yu-Lin; Wang, Chen-An; Ko, Mei-Ju; Fang, Wai-Chi; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2015-10-01

    The oral feeding disorder is one of the important indicators for the high risk group of neurodevelopment delay. The procedure of oral feeding requires the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing activities, and it is the most complex sensorimotor process for newborn infants. Premature infants often uneasily complete the procedure of oral feeding. However, the evaluation of the oral feeding disorders and severity are usually dependent on the subjective clinical experience of the physician. Monitoring the sucking-swallowing-breathing activities directly is difficult for preterm infants. In this study, a wireless monitoring system for oral-feeding evaluation of full term and preterm infants was proposed to objectively and quantitatively evaluate the coordination of suck-swallow-respiration function during oral feeding. Moreover, the ratios of the swallowing and breathing event numbers to the sucking event number were defined to evaluate the coordination of suck-swallow-respiration function during oral feeding. Finally, the system performance was validated and the coordination of suck-swallow-respiration function for full term and preterm infants during oral feeding was also investigated.

  3. Long-term oral sensitivity and feeding skills of low-risk pre-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodrill, Pamela; McMahon, Sandra; Ward, Elizabeth; Weir, Kelly; Donovan, Tim; Riddle, Bena

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the oral sensitivity and feeding skills of low-risk pre-term infants at 11-17 months corrected age. Twenty pre-term infants (PT) born between 32 and 37 weeks at birth without any medical comorbidities were assessed. All of this PT group received supplemental nasogastric (NG) tube feeds during their birth-stay in hospital. A matched control group of 10 healthy full-term infants (FT) was also assessed. Oral sensitivity and feeding skills were assessed during a typical mealtime using the Royal Children's Hospital Oral Sensitivity Checklist (OSC) and the Pre-Speech Assessment Scale (PSAS). Results demonstrated that, at 11-17 months corrected age, the PT group displayed significantly more behaviours suggestive of altered oral sensitivity and facial defensiveness, and a trend of more delayed feeding development than the FT group. Further, results demonstrated that, relative to the FT group, pre-term infants who received greater than 3 weeks of NG feeding (PT>3NG) displayed significantly more facial defensive behaviour, and displayed significant delays across more aspects of their feeding development than pre-term infants who received less than 2 weeks of NG feeding (PToral sensitivity and facial defensiveness, as well as feeding delays. These observations warrant further investigation on this topic.

  4. Feeding practices and nutritional status of infants in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, John G; Kimambo, Stella C; Lwelamira, James E

    2013-07-01

    Breast feeding practice especially exclusive breast feeding (EBF) is a major determinant of child growth and development. In Tanzania, most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternative feeding too early in life. The objective of this study was to determine factors affecting EBF and the relationship between feeding practices and the nutritional status of infants. This cross-sectional survey, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in Morogoro Municipality in Tanzania. The study involved lactating women recruited from five randomly selected health facilities. Demographic, clinical, knowledge and practices related to infant feeding as well as infant anthropometric information were collected. Infant nutritional status was assessed based on weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight- for- height. There were wide variations in knowledge and practice of breastfeeding among women. Majority (92%) of the respondents gave colostrums to infants although more than 50% did not know its benefits. Eight percent of the respondents discarded colostrums on the account that it is not good for their neonates. Only 23.1% of the respondents thought that infants should be breastfed exclusively during the first six months of infancy. Ninety-eight percent of infants infants aged 2-3 months and 22.3% among those who were above 3 months of age. No child in the ≥ 4 months old was exclusively breastfed. Over 80% of the infants had normal weights, 13% were stunted and 8% wasted. EBF was associated with higher scores for height- for- age Z (P feeding practices in the study population were largely suboptimal. As a result, considerable proportions of children had poor health indicators. Thus, correct breastfeeding practices should be supported and promoted to improve the well-being of children.

  5. Maternal anxiety versus depressive disorders: specific relations to infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, J; Wittchen, H-U; Einsle, F; Martini, J

    2016-03-01

    Maternal depression has been associated with excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems, but the specificity of maternal depression, as compared with maternal anxiety remains unclear and manifest disorders prior to pregnancy have been widely neglected. In this prospective longitudinal study, the specific associations of maternal anxiety and depressive disorders prior to, during and after pregnancy and infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems were investigated in the context of maternal parity. In the Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) Study, n = 306 primiparous and multiparous women were repeatedly interviewed from early pregnancy until 16 months post partum with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V) to assess DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders. Information on excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems was obtained from n = 286 mothers during postpartum period via questionnaire and interview (Baby-DIPS). Findings from this study revealed syndrome-specific risk constellations for maternal anxiety and depressive disorders as early as prior to pregnancy: Excessive infant crying (10.1%) was specifically associated with maternal anxiety disorders, especially in infants of younger and lower educated first-time mothers. Feeding problems (36.4%) were predicted by maternal anxiety (and comorbid depressive) disorders in primiparous mothers and infants with lower birth weight. Infant sleeping problems (12.2%) were related to maternal depressive (and comorbid anxiety) disorders irrespective of maternal parity. Primiparous mothers with anxiety disorders may be more prone to anxious misinterpretations of crying and feeding situations leading to an escalation of mother-infant interactions. The relation between maternal depressive and infant sleeping problems may be better explained by a transmission of unsettled maternal sleep to the fetus during pregnancy or a lack of daily

  6. Determinants of infant feeding choices by Zambian mothers: a mixed quantitative and qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisenga, Molly; Siame, Joshua; Baisley, Kathy; Kasonka, Lackson; Filteau, Suzanne

    2011-04-01

    Choosing an infant feeding mode is complex for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected African women. We documented infant feeding choices by 811 mothers of infants aged less than 18 months enrolled in the Chilenje Infant Growth, Nutrition and Infection Study of fortified complementary or replacement foods. We also conducted 20 interviews and 4 focus group discussions among women and nurses to explore the issues in depth. Practices of most HIV-infected women did not closely follow national or international guidelines: 26% never initiated breastfeeding, and 55% were not breastfeeding by 6 months post partum. Women of lower socio-economic status and those not meeting criteria for safe replacement feeding were more likely to initiate breastfeeding, to continue longer and to stop at 6 months when provided with free food within the trial. Most HIV-negative women and women of unknown HIV status continued breastfeeding into the infant's second year, indicating limited 'spillover' of infant feeding messages designed for HIV-infected women into the uninfected population. Qualitative work indicated that the main factors affecting HIV-infected women's infant feeding decisions were the cost of formula, the advice of health workers, influence of relatives, stigma and difficulties with using an exclusive feeding mode. Rapidly changing international recommendations confused both mothers and nurses. Many HIV-infected women chose replacement feeding without meeting criteria to do this safely. Women were influenced by health workers but, for several reasons, found it difficult to follow their advice. The recently revised international HIV and infant feeding recommendations may make the counselling process simpler for health workers and makes following their advice easier for HIV-infected women. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jenik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO2 and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake. Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1,163±479.1 g were studied at 35.4±1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO2 was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  8. Paternal postnatal depressive symptoms, infant sleeping and feeding behaviors, and rigid parental regulation: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockshaw, Wendell D; Muscat, Tracey; Obst, Patricia L; Thorpe, Karen

    2014-12-01

    Paternal postnatal depression (PND) is now recognized as a serious and prevalent problem, associated with poorer well-being and functioning of all family members. Aspects of infant temperament, sleeping and feeding perceived by parents as problematic are associated with maternal PND, however, less is known about paternal PND. This study investigated depressive symptoms (Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS)) in 219 fathers of infants aged from 1 to 24 weeks (median 7.0 weeks). Infant predictor variables were sleeping problems, feeding problems and both mother and father reported temperament. Control variables were partner's support, other support and life events. Rigidity of parenting beliefs regarding infant regulation was also measured as a potential moderating factor. Infant feeding difficulties were associated with paternal depressive symptoms, subsuming the variance associated with both sleep problems and temperament. This relationship was not moderated by regulation beliefs. It was concluded that infant feeding is important to fathers. Fathers of infants with feeding difficulties may not be able to fulfill their idealized construction of involved fatherhood. Role incongruence may have an etiological role in paternal PND.

  9. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenik, Alejandro; Fustiñana, Carlos; Marquez, Maritza; Mage, David; Fernandez, Gloria; Mariani, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO(2) and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake). Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1, 163 ± 479.1 g) were studied at 35.4 ± 1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO(2) was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  10. A qualitative study of the infant feeding beliefs and behaviours of mothers with low educational attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Catherine Georgina; Taki, Sarah; Azadi, Leva; Campbell, Karen J; Laws, Rachel; Elliott, Rosalind; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background Infancy is an important period for the promotion of healthy eating, diet and weight. However little is known about how best to engage caregivers of infants in healthy eating programs. This is particularly true for caregivers, infants and children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds who experience greater rates of overweight and obesity yet are more challenging to reach in health programs. Behaviour change interventions targeting parent-infant feeding interactions are m...

  11. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and Weight Gain at 4 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.W.; Pasker-Jong, P.C.M. de; Wouwe, J.P. van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%). Bre

  12. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and weight gain at 4 months.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.; Pasker-de Jong, P.C.M.; Wouwe, JP van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%).

  13. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and Weight Gain at 4 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.W.; Pasker-Jong, P.C.M. de; Wouwe, J.P. van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%). Bre

  14. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and weight gain at 4 months.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.; Pasker-de Jong, P.C.M.; Wouwe, JP van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%). Bre

  15. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and Weight Gain at 4 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.W.; Pasker-Jong, P.C.M. de; Wouwe, J.P. van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%).

  16. Infant feeding practices in Kenya, Mexico and Malaysia. The rarity of the exclusively breast-fed infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, H J; Ashworth, A

    1987-02-01

    Infant feeding practices of 6149 mothers in Kenya, Mexico and Malaysia are reported. A high proportion of mothers initiated breast-feeding in each country regardless of social class. Most Kenyan mothers continued to breast-feed for at least 12 months. In Mexico and Malaysia, however, breast-feeding was discontinued relatively early, especially among urban mothers. Early supplementation of breast-fed infants with milk and/or other food was a common practice in each of the three countries. Among breast-fed infants below 4 months of age, the percentages who were exclusively breast-fed in the urban elite, urban poor and rural groups respectively were 6, 14 and 21 per cent in Kenya, 8, 19 and 31 per cent in Mexico, and 11, 9 and 11 per cent in Malaysia. Supplementation of breast-fed infants in the first two months of life was more likely to be with infant formula than with any other milk or food. At three months of age, however, nonmilk foods were the most common supplements in all population groups with the exception of those in urban Kenya. The policy implications are discussed.

  17. Early cessation of breast milk feeding in very low birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killersreiter, B; Grimmer, I; Bührer, C; Dudenhausen, J W; Obladen, M

    2001-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to comparatively assess the duration of breast milk feeding and to analyze risk factors for early cessation of breast milk feeding in term and very preterm infants. A cohort study was performed in 89 consecutive very low birthweight (VLBW) infants (2500 g born in the same hospital matched for gender and multiplicity. Median duration of breast milk feeding, as determined from charts and questionnaires mailed to the mothers at 6 and 12 months corrected age, was 36 days in VLBW infants, compared to 112 days in control infants (P35 years and spontaneous pregnancy (as opposed to pregnancy following infertility treatment) in term infants. Multivariate analysis revealed that VLBW, smoking and low parental school education were independent negative predictors of breast milk feeding. While these results emphasize the need for special support of VLBW infant mothers promoting lactation, the relationships between smoking, school education and breast milk feeding in both strata show that efforts to increase breast milk feeding require a public health perspective.

  18. A novel approach to assess oral feeding skills of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C; Smith, E O

    2011-01-01

    There is no well-defined means to identify the level of oral feeding skills (OFS) in preterm infants. To determine whether OFS as reflected by the combination of proficiency (PRO, %ml taken during the first 5 min/ml prescribed) and rate of milk transfer (RT, ml/min) correlates with gestational age (GA), oral feeding performance (OT, %ml taken during a feeding/ml prescribed) and days from start to independent oral feeding (SOF-IOF). Our working premises are that PRO is reflective of infants' actual feeding skills when fatigue is minimal and RT, monitored over an entire feeding session, reflects their overall skills when fatigue comes into play. Infants (26-36 weeks GA) with prematurity as their principal diagnosis were recruited and monitored at their first oral feeding. GA was divided into 3 strata, 26-29, 30-33, and 34-36 weeks GA. OFS was divided into 4 levels delineated by PRO (≥ or skills and endurance. As a clinical tool, it can help caretakers monitor infants' skills as they transition to oral feeding and identify oral feeding issues arising from immature skills and/or poor endurance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Infant Formula Feeding at Birth Is Common and Inversely Associated with Subsequent Breastfeeding Behavior in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan T; Withers, Mellissa; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-10-01

    The association between infant formula feeding at birth and subsequent feeding patterns in a low- or middle-income context is not clear. We examined the association of infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth with subsequent infant formula feeding and early breastfeeding cessation in Vietnam. In a cross-sectional survey, we interviewed 10,681 mothers with children aged 0-23 mo (mean age: 8.2 mo; 52% boys) about their feeding practices during the first 3 d after birth and on the previous day. We used stratified analysis, multiple logistic regression, propensity score-matching analysis, and structural equation modeling to minimize the limitation of the cross-sectional design and to ensure the consistency of the findings. Infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth (50%) was associated with a higher prevalence of subsequent infant formula feeding [stratified analysis: 7-28% higher (nonoverlapping 95% CIs for most comparisons); propensity score-matching analysis: 13% higher (P practice was also associated with a higher prevalence of early breastfeeding cessation (e.g., breastfeeding cessation (β: 0.285; P breastfeeding, which underscores the need to make early, exclusive breastfeeding normative and to create environments that support it.

  20. Survey for the current situation of infant feeding knowledge, attitude and behaviors of some rural mothers in southern Shaanxi province%陕南部分农村母亲的婴幼儿喂养知信行现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓芬; 胡晓菊; 陈凤萍

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解农村婴幼儿母乳喂养及辅食添加现状及影响因素,为进一步实施科学喂养、科学育儿,提高儿童健康水平提供科学依据。方法自拟调查问卷,随机抽取南郑县10个乡镇1000名1周岁婴幼儿母亲进行现场问卷调查,并对数据进行分析。结果母乳喂养率88.6%,6个月纯母乳喂养率31.2%,初乳喂养率66.3%,早开奶喂养率54.9%,其中部分农村母亲受家里老人观念的影响挤掉初乳占55%,母亲自认为奶水不足占48.8%,认为母乳营养不够该添加辅食了占51.2%,满4~6个月添加辅食率63.4%,满6个月以上添加辅食率仅占22.8%,添加辅食的种类以稀粥、菜汁、水果汁占的比例最大,为62.2%,而添加蛋黄比例为45.9%,动物类(肉、肝、鱼类)仅占5.9%。没有坚持母乳喂养的母亲主要是自认为母乳不足而过早加辅食;初乳挤掉主要是母亲认识不够,受旧观念影响;不添加动物类食物的母亲主要是认为孩子1岁以后才能消化。结论初乳喂养率、早期开奶率、6个月纯母乳喂养率及满6个月添加辅食率均偏低,辅食添加不合理且种类单一,动物性食物摄入严重不足;应加强妇幼保健、产儿科人员及婴幼儿母亲的培训,以更新相关知识及技能。%Objective To know the current situation of breastfeeding and complementary feeding of rural infants and its influencing factors , so as to provide basis for further implementation of scientific feeding , scientific child-raising and child health improving .Methods The questionnaires were made by investigators according to program requirements .The samples were 1 000 one-year infant ’ s mothers who were randomly selected from 10 villages and towns in Nanzheng County .The survey was conducted on spot among these mothers and the data recorded were analyzed .Results The breastfeeding rate was 88

  1. Oral-motor dysfunction and feeding disorders of infants with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathisen, B; Reilly, S; Skuse, D

    1992-02-01

    The oral-motor function of 10 infants with Turner syndrome and their age- and sex-matched controls were assessed during feeding. In addition to well-recognised dysmorphic features, including oral anomalies and high-arched palates, index infants had marked hypotonia of the cheeks and lips, dysfunctional tongue movements and poorly developed chewing skills. Their meal-times were significantly shorter than those of the controls and they weighed significantly less at six, 12 and 15 months. All mothers of infants with Turner syndrome complained of difficulties feeding their children and these problems often had been present since birth.

  2. A study of feeding practices among infants born to HIV-infected mothers and its association with morbidity in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha S Mamulwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Globally, 2.3 million children have been victims of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV as of December 2006. Transmission through breastfeeding (BF is estimated to account for one third to one half of all these pediatric HIV infections. Aim: To study the feeding practices followed by HIV-infected mothers in Mumbai. Settings and Design: It is a prospective observational type of study conducted in a tertiary care hospital with antiretroviral treatment center for a period of one year. Materials and Methods: The study was reviewed and approved by the ethical committee of the hospital. Babies aged 0 to 9 months and born to HIV-positive mothers who are brought to integrated HIV outpatient department were included in the study. Statistical Analysis Used: The data entry and analysis was done using SPSS 15 package, Microsoft Excel 2003, and Epi Info. Results: As per the findings of this study, proportion of exclusive BF was 34.2%, top feeding was 42.1%, and mix feeding (MF was 23.7%. Diarrhea occurred more frequently in mix-fed infants (53.6% as compared to exclusively breast-fed infants (2.5% and top-fed infants (12.7%. The percentage of infants who were exclusively breast fed and had normal weight for age was 53.8%. Moderately malnourished infants were 30.8% and 15.4% of infants were severely malnourished. The percentage of severe malnutrition was more in top-fed and mix-fed infants (23.4% and 32.1%, respectively. Conclusion: MF was associated with increased risk of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection. Top-fed and mix-fed infants were more likely to suffer from infectious diseases.

  3. Feeding practices in infants: ritual factors dominating mother's education - a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Ritual and customary factors have much impact then mother's education on breast feeding practices of infants. Apart from education, breast feeding awareness programme should be increased including both literate and illiterate mothers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1642-1647

  4. Infant Feeding Practices: Perceptions of Native American Mothers and Health Paraprofessionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Calcatera, Mary; Carpenter, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain infant feeding practices and to explore the feasibility of an in-home feeding intervention with Native American Indian (NAI) mothers in six Native American communities in the United States (US). Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Six Native American communities in the Midwest region of the United States.…

  5. "Giving Guilt the Flick"?: An Investigation of Mothers' Talk about Guilt in Relation to Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kate; Donaghue, Ngaire; Kurz, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Manuals offering advice to new parents on the topic of infant feeding have recently begun to attend to the possible implications of pro-breast-feeding discourses for mothers' subjective experiences, particularly with respect to guilt. In this article, we present a discursive analysis of focus groups with 35 Australian mothers in which we examine…

  6. The infant-feeding practices of mothers enrolled in the prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    up care during a ... front in the global combat against the pandemic disease of Acquired. Immune ... breast milk and feeding the infant with formula milk from birth with other ... mixed feeding, a total of 22 mothers, used different types of commercial.

  7. Complementary Feeding and Growth of Infant and Young Child in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU-YING CHANG; WU HE; CHUN-MING CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Objective To understand the status and problems of complementary feeding and to explore the strategy of improving complementary feeding for infants and young children in China. Method Data of urban and rural children were selected from the China Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (CFNSS) dataset to describe the status of complementary feeding and growth of children. Logistic Regression was used to analyze the relationship between child growth and the complementary feeding pattern. Results Applications of foods that come from animals, vegetable/fruit and dairy product in complementary feeding were negatively correlated to the prevalence of stunting and underweight. Attributable risk (AR) of no application of vegetable/fruit in complementary feeding to stunting was 30.2%, to underweight 35.4%; AR of no application of foods from animal products in complementary feeding to stunting was 2g.2%, to underweight 11.7%; and the AR of no application of diary products in complementary feeding to stunting was 27.4%, to underweight was 15.9%. Conclusion Complementary feeding contributed to the improvement of infants and young children growth in China. There is an urgent need to develop health education in the public on infants and young children complementary feeding, in the mean time, it is pressing to pay attention and take actions to develop and promote affordable, acceptable, and accessible fortified complementary food in rural areas of China.

  8. Comparison of the finger-feeding versus cup feeding methods in the transition from gastric to oral feeding in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Cláudia M D; Cavalcante-Silva, Regina P G V; Fujinaga, Cristina I; Marson, Francine

    2017-07-14

    To assess the finger-feeding technique when compared with the cup feeding method during the early stage of preterm infant feeding transition regarding milk loss, milk ingestion period, and complications. Experimental, randomized, prospective study including 53 preterm infants with gestation age28 points in the Oral Feeding Readiness Assessment Scale. The preterm babies were randomized to be included in the control group, which underwent the feeding transition using a cup or in the experimental group, which used the finger-feeding technique. The analysis of data was performed using Student's t-test to evaluate differences between mean values of the appointed variables, and Fischer's test for categorical variables; the asymmetric variables were assessed by the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test. When compared with the control group, the experimental group showed lower milk loss, longer milk ingestion time, and a lower frequency of complications during feeding. The significance level was set at 5%, with a confidence interval of 90%. The finger-feeding technique was shown to be a better feeding transition method regarding efficacy when compared with cup feeding method, due to lower milk loss and fewer complication episodes. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a wireless oral-feeding monitoring system for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Hung, Jing-Sheng; Wang, Lin-Yu; Ko, Mei-Ju; Chou, Willy; Kuo, Hsing-Chien; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2015-05-01

    Oral-feeding disorder is common in preterm infants. It not only shows the adverse effect for growth and neurodevelopment in clinical but also becomes one of the important indicators of high-risk group for neurodevelopment delay in preterm infants. Preterm infants must coordinate the motor patterns of sucking, swallowing, and respiration skillfully to avoid choking, aspiration, oxygen desaturation, bradycardia, or apnea episodes. However, up to now, the judgment and classification severity in preterm infants are mostly subjective and phasic evaluations. Directly monitoring the coordination of sucking-swallowing-breathing during oral feeding simultaneously is difficult for preterm infants. In this study, we proposed a wireless oral-feeding monitoring system for preterm infants to quantitatively monitor the sucking pressure via a designed sucking pressure sensing device, swallowing activity via a microphone to detect swallowing sound, and diaphragmatic breathing movement via surface electromyogram. Moreover, a sucking-swallowing-breathing detection algorithm is also proposed to evaluate the events of sucking-swallowing-breathing activities. Furthermore, verification of the accuracy and rationality of oral-feeding parameters with clinical findings including sucking, swallowing, and breathing in term and preterm infants had proved the practicality and value of the proposed system.

  10. Feeding premature infants while low umbilical artery catheters are in place: a prospective, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, A M; Wagner, C L; Cox, C; Kendig, J W

    1994-05-01

    The objective of this prospective, randomized clinical trial was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the frequency of feeding problems and necrotizing enterocolitis between a group of premature infants who received early enteral feedings while low umbilical artery catheters (LUACs) were in place, and a late group who were not fed until 24 hours after removal of LUACs. Twenty-nine premature infants (born at 28.5 +/- 3.0 SD weeks of gestational age) who were in stable condition received early enteral feedings at a median of 2 days while a LUAC was in place; 31 infants (born at 28.6 +/- 2.7 SD weeks of gestational age) received late enteral feedings at a median of 5 days of age, 24 hours after the removal of the LUAC. Feeding complications and interventions and nutritional characteristics were recorded prospectively. There were no differences in the baseline perinatal characteristics of the two groups. The incidence of gastric residua and the incidence of abdominal distention were the same in both groups. The early feeding group had significantly fewer percutaneous central venous catheters, evaluations for sepsis, and episodes of receiving nothing by mouth while a gastric suction tube was in place. Infants in the early group received parenteral alimentation-lipid emulsion infusions for a median of 13 days versus 30 days for the late-fed group (p = 0.0028 by Wilcoxon test). There were two cases of necrotizing enterocolitis in the early group versus four cases in the late group. Premature infants in stable condition who receive enteral feedings while LUACs are in place do not have an increased incidence of feeding problems compared with infants who do not receive enteral feedings until 24 hours after removal of LUACs.

  11. A Innovative Technique - Modified Feeding Bottle for a Cleft Palate Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Vinuta Siddayya; Lingegowda, Ashwini Budunur; Rayannavar, Sounyala; Kumari, Nirmala

    2016-04-01

    Cleft lip and cleft palate are one of the most common craniofacial anomalies. Infants suffer a lot of difficulty in sucking during the initial few days after birth. There is even psychological stress to the parents due to improper feeding and the infants lose weight and are prone to nutritional insufficiency. Due to recent advancement in the medical field, there is a total repair of cleft lip and cleft palate and these procedures are performed in the later stages of infants. It is the multidisciplinary approach which includes pedodontist, oral surgeon, prosthodontist and speech therapist. In this article, the technique is highlighted to fulfill the feeding problem of infants in the early stages of birth with a modified feeding bottle.

  12. Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…

  13. Estimated radiation dose to breast feeding infant following maternal administration of 57Co labelled to vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Kay M; Sawyer, Laura J; Evans, Martyn J

    2005-09-01

    Administration of a radiopharmaceutical may result in a radiation dose to an infant due to ingestion of the radiopharmaceutical secreted in the breast milk. Following a maternal administration of Co labelled to vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) as part of a Schilling test an estimate of the absorbed dose to a breast feeding infant was calculated. Milk samples were collected from every feed in the first 24 h, and at approximately 48 and 72 h post-administration. The absorbed dose to the infant's liver (the organ receiving the highest dose) was calculated to be 0.23 mGy. The effective dose to the infant was calculated to be 0.025 mSv, which is considerably lower than the current regulatory limit of 1 mSv. The Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee advise that the first feed, at approximately 4 h after administration, be discarded. The data show that this was unwarranted, and that the peak concentration of Co in the breast milk occurred at around 24 h.

  14. Effects of different complementary feeding regimens on iron status and enteric microbiota in breastfed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Nancy F; Sherlock, Laurie G; Westcott, Jamie; Culbertson, Diana; Hambidge, K Michael; Feazel, Leah M; Robertson, Charles E; Frank, Daniel N

    2013-08-01

    To compare iron status in breastfed infants randomized to groups receiving complementary feeding regimens that provided iron from fortified infant cereals or meats, and to examine the development of the enteric microbiota in these groups. Forty-five exclusively breastfed 5-month-old infants were randomized to 1 of 3 feeding groups (FGs)-commercially available pureed meats, iron- and zinc-fortified infant cereals, or iron-only fortified infant cereals-as the first and primary complementary food through 9-10 months of age. Dietary iron was determined by monthly 3-day diet records. Iron status was assessed at the end of the study by measurements of hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor levels. In a subsample of 14 infants, enteric microbiota were profiled in monthly stool samples (5-9 months) by 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing. Infants in the 2 cereal FGs had 2- to 3-fold greater daily iron intakes versus the meat FG (P deficient, and complementary feeding, including iron exposure, influenced the development of the enteric microbiota. If these findings are confirmed, then reconsideration of strategies to both meet infants' iron requirements and optimize the developing microbiome may be warranted. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Does Newborn Care, Feeding Practices and Immunization Status have an Effect on Anthropometric Measurements of Infants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mili Mishra, Shraddha Dwivedi, M A Hassan, Khurshid Parveen, M A Khan

    2015-01-01

    Method: A cohort study conducted in a community among newborns born during the period of November 2011 to April 2012. IEC (Information, Education and Counselling was given to their mothers from last three months of pregnancy till the newborns completed one year of age. The effect of newborn care, infant feeding practices and immunization status was assessed in terms of anthropometric measurements. Results: More than half of the infants i.e. 47 (60.26 % gained weight to reach within the normal range and weight of 33 (42.31% infants was below 2 standard deviation. Conclusion: Newborn care, infant feeding practices, immunization status and lesser episodes of illnesses have a positive effect on nutritional status of infants in terms of weight and length."

  16. Fortifier and Cream Improve Fat Delivery in Continuous Enteral Infant Feeding of Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Tabata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature and high-risk infants require accurate delivery of nutrients to promote appropriate growth. Continuous enteral feeding methods may result in significant fat and micronutrient loss. This study evaluated fat loss in enteral nutrition using current strategies for providing high-risk infants fortified human milk (HM. The fat content of HM was measured by IR analyzer in a simulated feeding system using the Kangaroo epumpTM and the MedFusionTM 2010 pump. Comparisons in fat loss were made between HM, HM supplemented with donor HM-derived fortifier Prolacta + H2MFTM (H2MF, and HM supplemented with H2MF and donor HM-derived cream ProlactCRTM (cream. When using the Kangaroo epumpTM, the addition of H2MF and cream to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 75.0% ± 1.2% to 83.7% ± 1.0% (p < 0.0001. When using the MedFusionTM 2010 pump, the addition of H2MF to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 83.2% ± 2.8% to 88.8% ± 0.8% (p < 0.05, and the addition of H2MF and cream increased fat delivery efficiency to 92.0% ± 0.3% (p < 0.01. The addition of H2MF and cream to HM provides both the benefits of bioactive elements from mother’s milk and increased fat delivery, making the addition of H2MF and cream an appropriate method to improve infant weight gain.

  17. The influence of infant feeding patterns on growth of children in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, J R

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the trends in infant feeding practices in American Samoa and analyzes the relationship between infant feeding and growth among children born in American Samoa from 1976 to 1982. The study population is composed of the Polynesian inhabitants of the islands comprising the Territory of American Samoa. The sample is drawn from the records of the Well Baby Clinic in American Samoa. Feeding habit information and health of the infant was solicited by the nurses and doctor during clinic visits. The mothers were questioned about the child's diet. About 40% of the infants were exclusively breastfed; 13% had bottle supplements; 6% were classified as milk drinkers; and 40% were formula-fed. Frequently more than 1 feeding pattern was noted for a given child. Feeding influences were found to be significant on weight up to age 4, and height up to age 3. The timing of the introduction of solids was found to have a significant relationship with length through age 2. There appears to be a complex set of interactions between socioeconomic, growth and health factors. Mothers wean children early to return of work. This results from the availability of infant formula in Samoan stores, more jobs for women and the desire to improve socioeconomic status. Bottlefed infants of working mothers are more likely to have gastrointestinal problems than other infants. As a group, however, bottlefed infants are likely to have higher weights. The most significant contributing factor to morbidity and mortality among adults in American Samoa is the high prevalence of obesity. Extended breastfeeding of the infant can promote health in infancy and in later years.

  18. Survival of infants born to HIV-positive mothers, by feeding modality, in Rakai, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kagaayi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data comparing survival of formula-fed to breast-fed infants in programmatic settings are limited. We compared mortality and HIV-free of breast and formula-fed infants born to HIV-positive mothers in a program in rural, Rakai District Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred eighty two infants born to HIV-positive mothers were followed at one, six and twelve months postpartum. Mothers were given infant-feeding counseling and allowed to make informed choices as to whether to formula-feed or breast-feed. Eligible mothers and infants received antiretroviral therapy (ART if indicated. Mothers and their newborns received prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT if they were not receiving ART. Infant HIV infection was detected by PCR (Roche Amplicor 1.5 during the follow-up visits. Kaplan Meier time-to-event methods were used to compare mortality and HIV-free survival. The adjusted hazard ratio (Adjusted HR of infant HIV-free survival was estimated by Cox regression. Seventy-five infants (41% were formula-fed while 107 (59% were breast-fed. Exclusive breast-feeding was practiced by only 25% of breast-feeding women at one month postpartum. The cumulative 12-month probability of infant mortality was 18% (95% CI = 11%-29% among the formula-fed compared to 3% (95% CI = 1%-9% among the breast-fed infants (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR = 6.1(95% CI = 1.7-21.4, P-value < 0.01. There were no statistically significant differentials in HIV-free survival by feeding choice (86% in the formula-fed compared to 96% in breast-fed group (Adjusted RH = 2.8[95%CI = 0.67-11.7, P-value = 0.16] CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Formula-feeding was associated with a higher risk of infant mortality than breastfeeding in this rural population. Our findings suggest that formula-feeding should be discouraged in similar African settings.

  19. 'Please don't put the whole dang thing out there!': a discursive analysis of internet discussions around infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Jane E M; Lazard, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The promotion of breastfeeding is an important focus of intervention for professionals working to improve infant health outcomes. Literature in this area focuses largely on 'choices' and 'barriers to breastfeeding'. It is our argument, however, that women's cultural context plays a key role in infant feeding 'choices'. In this article, we explore contested representations of infant feeding and infant feeding choices in public debates conducted on a large British parenting website. To sample dominant representations of infant feeding circulating in UK culture, two threads were chosen from the debating board of a busy online parenting community (105 and 99 individual posts, respectively). Participants on the threads were largely women. A feminist informed Foucauldian discourse analysis was used to deconstruct the intersecting constructions of gender, childhood and motherhood implicit in public discussions about infant feeding choices. We identify dominant constructions of women who breastfeed or bottle feed, social representations of both forms of infant feeding, and explore the relationship between constructions of infant feeding choices and constructions of 'good' or 'bad' motherhood. This analysis functions to trouble the individualist assumptions underpinning the notion of infant feeding 'choices', considering the cultural context within which British mothers 'choose' how to feed their babies.

  20. Development of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiff Annie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing recognition that public health strategies to prevent childhood obesity need to start early in life. Any behavioural interventions need to target maternal attitudes and infant feeding practices, This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices. Methods We designed a 57-item (19 questions, self-administered questionnaire to measure the following four domains- 1 type of milk feeding, decision making and sources of advice; 2 frequency and quantity of milk feeds; 3 attitudes to infant feeding and growth; and 4 theory-based beliefs about following infant feeding recommendations. Forty mothers completed the questionnaire on two occasions six days apart (to assess test-retest reliability and then participated in a semi-structured, open-ended telephone interview covering the same domains (to assess criterion validity. Percentage agreement, Cohen's Kappas (for categorical variables and Spearman's correlation coefficients (for continuous variables were used to quantify reliability and validity. Internal consistency between theory-based constructs (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and intention was quantified by Chronbach's alpha. Results Of the 57 questionnaire items 51 (89% had percentage agreement above 70% indicating good test-retest reliability, and the remaining 6 items had moderate or substantial levels of agreement (kappa 0.41-0.68. Comparing questionnaire with interview coding (validity, percentage agreement was above 66% for 39/57 items (68%. Of the 16 items with percentage agreement below 66%, only five had kappa values below 0.20 (two items had insufficient interview responses. Internal consistency was 0.51, 0.79 and 0.90 for self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and intention respectively. Conclusions This questionnaire could be a useful tool in understanding the determinants of infant feeding and

  1. Feeding of preterm infants and fortification of breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Mangili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The administration of the adequate amount of nutrients helps to improve a correct short-term linear growth and long-term neurocognitive development. To reduce the extra-uterine growth delay in very low birth weight infants (VLBW the best strategy of nutrition (parenteral or enteral should be established rapidly, since the first day of life. In preterm infants, nutrition can be administered parenterally and enterally. Prematurity is the most frequent indication for parenteral nutritional support due to intestinal functional immune deficiency, deficiency of digestive enzymatic systems and reduced nutritional reserve of these infants. In terms of enteral nutrition, breast milk is the first choice. In case of preterm and VLBW infants, fortifiers are used to overcome breast milk’s protein and mineral deficiencies. When breast milk is not available, specific infant formula is the alternative.

  2. The portrayal of infant feeding in British women's magazines: a qualitative and quantitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, E; Myles, P; Pritchard, C

    2017-06-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is the best start an infant can receive. However, in many high-income countries breastfeeding rates are low and this may be a reflection of social norms which in turn may be influenced by the media. This study therefore explored the portrayal of infant feeding in women's general interest magazines. The five top selling women's weekly magazines in Britain and Ireland for 2013 over a 4-month period were included. A quantitative and qualitative content analysis was conducted for both written and visual content. In 58 magazines, there were 90 references to infant feeding with an average of 1.5 (range: 0-5) per magazine. Breastfeeding and formula feeding references were present in equal number and both were predominantly portrayed positively. There was only 1 visual representation of breast feeding compared with 11 of bottle feeding. Potential drivers for breastfeeding included its role in post-pregnancy weight loss and celebrity endorsement while family routine, the role of males in the house and concerns about adverse health effects were identified as barriers to breastfeeding. An improvement in visual representations of breast feeding and factual information in women's weekly magazines may be helpful in re-defining social norms regarding infant feeding. Keywords: food and nutrition, health promotion, public health.

  3. Infant feeding bottle design, growth and behaviour: results from a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fewtrell MS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the design of an anti-vacuum infant feeding bottle influences infant milk intake, growth or behavior is unknown, and was the subject of this randomized trial. Methods Subjects 63 (36 male healthy, exclusively formula-fed term infants. Intervention Randomisation to use Bottle A (n = 31, one-way air valve: Philips Avent versus Bottle B (n = 32, internal venting system: Dr Browns. 74 breast-fed reference infants were recruited, with randomisation (n = 24 to bottle A (n = 11 or B (n = 13 if bottle-feeding was subsequently introduced. Randomisation stratified by gender and parity; computer-based telephone randomisation by independent clinical trials unit. Setting Infant home. Primary outcome measure infant weight gain to 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes (i milk intake (ii infant behaviour measured at 2 weeks (validated 3-day diary; (iii risk of infection; (iv continuation of breastfeeding following introduction of mixed feeding. Results Number analysed for primary outcome Bottle A n = 29, Bottle B n = 25. Primary outcome There was no significant difference in weight gain between randomised groups (0-4 weeks Bottle A 0.74 (SD 1.2 SDS versus bottle B 0.51 (0.39, mean difference 0.23 (95% CI -0.31 to 0.77. Secondary outcomes Infants using bottle A had significantly less reported fussing (mean 46 versus 74 minutes/day, p Breast-fed reference group There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between breast-fed and formula fed infants. The likelyhood of breastfeeding at 3 months was not significantly different in infants subsequently randomised to bottle A or B. Conclusion Bottle design may have short-term effects on infant behaviour which merit further investigation. No significant effects were seen on milk intake or growth; confidence in these findings is limited by the small sample size and this needs confirmation in a larger study. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00325208.

  4. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity: Cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Karen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT aims to determine the effectiveness of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention delivered to first-time parents. The intervention, conducted with parents over the infant's first 18 months of life, will use existing social networks (first-time parent's groups and an anticipatory guidance framework focusing on parenting skills which support the development of positive diet and physical activity behaviours, and reduced sedentary behaviours in infancy. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised controlled trial, with first-time parent groups as the unit of randomisation, will be conducted with a sample of 600 first-time parents and their newborn children who attend the first-time parents' group at Maternal and Child Health Centres. Using a two-stage sampling process, local government areas in Victoria, Australia will be randomly selected at the first stage. At the second stage, a proportional sample of first-time parent groups within selected local government areas will be randomly selected and invited to participate. Informed consent will be obtained and groups will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. Discussion The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge this will be the first randomised trial internationally to demonstrate whether an early health promotion program delivered to first-time parents in their existing social groups

  5. [The relationship between the infant nursing bottle caries and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior and parents' oral health information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhao-qi

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between the infant nursing bottle caries in city community and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information, and to provide scientific basis for future infant nursing bottle caries prevention. Three hundred infants aged 6, 7, 12, 18 months in April 2009 in Bai Guan Street Community Hospital Shangyu City were enrolled in this study, nursing bottle caries were examined and recorded. Questionnaires on infant basic data, feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information were asked and recorded in these 300 parents. The relationship was analyzed between the infant nursing bottle caries and the questionnaires by Chi-square test with the SPSS14.0 software package. The infant nursing bottle caries correlated obviously with the habit of sleeping with the nursing bottle or mammary papilla in mouth, and did not correlate with the breast or artificial feeding patterns. The occurrence rate of infant nursing bottle caries was significantly lower in the infants with oral health behavior than those without oral health behavior. After feeding food, more parents feed the infants with little plain boiled water than clean the infant oral cavity with finger cap wet carbasus. 56.7% of parents had no acknowledge of danger of infant nursing bottle caries. There is some correlation between the infant nursing bottle caries and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information.

  6. Iron sufficiency with prolonged exclusive breast-feeding in Peruvian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, R A; Howanitz, P J; Oski, F A

    1981-10-01

    Serum ferritin and erythrocyte porphyrin concentrations were measured in seven Peruvian infants, who ranged in age from 7.5-12.0 months (mean: 9.3 months), who had been exclusively breast-fed all their lives. No infant had evidence of iron deficiency as reflected by a reduced serum ferritin, or an increased erythrocyte porphyrin. Mean serum ferritin and erythrocyte porphyrin values in these seven infants were similar to those of 40 nonanemic, noniron-deficient U.S. infants who ranged in age from 9 to 12 months, on a mixed diet. These findings illustrate that exclusively breast-feeding an infant for at least 9 months of life meets the iron requirements of the full-term infant.

  7. Airway and feeding problems in infants with Fairbairn-Robin triad deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna M. du Plessis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of patients with Pierre Robin sequence in the subdivision Fairbairn-Robin triad (FRT, are born with glossoptosis, retro-/micrognathia and cleft or agenesis of the palate leading to feeding difficulties and airway obstruction. There is limited literature on these problems, and on methods used to address them.Objectives: Community nurses in the Facial Cleft Deformity Clinic evaluate associated airway obstruction and feeding problems and devise nursing interactions to address these. This retrospective study examined the incidence of airway and feeding difficulties in the neonatal,pre-surgical period, as well as the surgical and nutritional management of these infants.Method: Retrospective records of 215 infants with FRT were examined and data on incidence, airway and feeding difficulties and surgical and nutritional management was collected. Descriptive statistics, including average and percentage values, were compiled.Results: The incidence of FRT amongst the cleft palate patients was 6.0%, with 37.7% of these having feeding difficulties. However, surgical interventions such as glossopexy (5.6%, distraction osteogenesis (0.9% and tracheotomy (2.3% for airway management were seldom required. Most of the infants who had upper airway obstruction and feeding problems werehandled by means of suction and drinking plates, along with additional specific feeding aids.This reduced airway obstruction in 70.6%, and feeding problems in 62.4% of these infants.Conclusion: Based on this study’s finding the introduction of the suction and drinking plateand the use of specific types of feeding devices and surgical management can improve growthand development in infants with FRT.

  8. Airway and feeding problems in infants with Fairbairn-Robin triad deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna M. du Plessis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of patients with Pierre Robin sequence in the subdivision Fairbairn-Robin triad (FRT, are born with glossoptosis, retro-/micrognathia and cleft or agenesis of the palate leading to feeding difficulties and airway obstruction. There is limited literature on these problems, and on methods used to address them.Objectives: Community nurses in the Facial Cleft Deformity Clinic evaluate associated airway obstruction and feeding problems and devise nursing interactions to address these. This retrospective study examined the incidence of airway and feeding difficulties in the neonatal, pre-surgical period, as well as the surgical and nutritional management of these infants.Method: Retrospective records of 215 infants with FRT were examined and data on incidence, airway and feeding difficulties and surgical and nutritional management was collected. Descriptive statistics, including average and percentage values, were compiled.Results: The incidence of FRT amongst the cleft palate patients was 6.0%, with 37.7% of these having feeding difficulties. However, surgical interventions such as glossopexy (5.6%, distraction osteogenesis (0.9% and tracheotomy (2.3% for airway management were seldom required. Most of the infants who had upper airway obstruction and feeding problems were handled by means of suction and drinking plates, along with additional specific feeding aids. This reduced airway obstruction in 70.6%, and feeding problems in 62.4% of these infants.Conclusion: Based on this study’s finding the introduction of the suction and drinking plate and the use of specific types of feeding devices and surgical management can improve growth and development in infants with FRT.

  9. Airway and feeding problems in infants with Fairbairn-Robin triad deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Susanna M; van den Berg, Hester J S; Bütow, Kurt W; Hoogendijk, Christiaan F

    2013-01-01

    The majority of patients with Pierre Robin sequence in the subdivision Fairbairn- Robin triad (FRT), are born with glossoptosis, retro-/micrognathia and cleft or agenesis of the palate leading to feeding difficulties and airway obstruction. There is limited literature on these problems, and on methods used to address them. Community nurses in the Facial Cleft Deformity Clinic evaluate associated airway obstruction and feeding problems and devise nursing interactions to address these. This retrospective study examined the incidence of airway and feeding difficulties in the neonatal, pre-surgical period, as well as the surgical and nutritional management of these infants. Retrospective records of 215 infants with FRT were examined and data on incidence, airway and feeding difficulties and surgical and nutritional management was collected. Descriptive statistics, including average and percentage values, were compiled. The incidence of FRT amongst the cleft palate patients was 6.0%, with 37.7% of these having feeding difficulties. However, surgical interventions such as glossopexy (5.6%), distraction osteogenesis (0.9%) and tracheotomy (2.3%) for airway management were seldom required. Most of the infants who had upper airway obstruction and feeding problems were handled by means of suction and drinking plates, along with additional specific feeding aids. This reduced airway obstruction in 70.6%, and feeding problems in 62.4% of these infants. Based on this study’s finding the introduction of the suction and drinking plate and the use of specific types of feeding devices and surgical management can improve growth and development in infants with FRT.

  10. Developing a novel tool to assess liking and wanting in infants at the time of complementary feeding - The Feeding Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetherington, M.M.; Madrelle, J.; Nekitsing, C.; Barends, C.; Graaf, de C.; Morgan, S.; Parrott, H.; Weenen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Consumption of foods is determined in part by how much a food is liked. However, assessing liking in infants is difficult. Research with infants has often relied on indirect measures such as intake or subjective ratings from mothers. Therefore the aim of the present research was to

  11. Randomized controlled trial: impact of glycerin suppositories on time to full feeds in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadr, Sophie N; Ibhanesebhor, Samuel E; Rennix, Connie; Fisher, Hazel E; Manjunatha, Chikkanayakanahalli M; Young, David; Abara, Rosemary C

    2011-01-01

    Feed intolerance delays achievement of enteral feeding in preterm infants. Parenteral nutrition is associated with cholestasis and increased risk of sepsis. Glycerin suppositories have been used to promote gastrointestinal motility and feed tolerance. To investigate whether daily glycerin suppositories (a) reduce the time to full enteral feeding in infants born at suppository for 10 days from 24 h of age, 250 mg (24-27(+6) weeks subgroup) or 500 mg (two 250-mg suppositories; 28-31(+6) weeks subgroup); controls - no intervention. The same feeding protocol and departmental guidelines for other aspects of neonatal intensive care were used in all subjects. Analysis was by intention to treat. 54 babies were recruited (31 males), 29 randomized to receive suppositories; 48 achieved full enteral feeds. The median (range) time to full feeds was 1.6 days shorter in intervention group babies than controls, but not statistically significant: 7.4 (4.6-30.9) days versus 9.0 (4.4-13.3) days (p = 0.780; 95% confidence interval: -1.917, 2.166). No significant differences were observed in secondary outcomes. Intervention group babies passed their first stool earlier than controls (median: day 2 vs. day 4; p = 0.016). Regular glycerin suppositories did not reduce the time to full enteral feeds in infants born at <32 weeks' gestation in our setting. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Exclusive breastfeeding rate and factors associated with infant feeding practices in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovita Ananta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk is the ideal food for infants. According to the 2007 Indonesian National Household Health Survey, only 23% of mothers exclusively breastfeed for six months.Objectives To determine the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia, to evaluate factors associated with infant feeding practices, and to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively-breastfed and formula-fed infants.Methods A survey was conducted in hospitals located in 17 provinces in Indonesia. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was calculated. Many variables were investigated as potential predictors for exclusive breastfeeding using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Further analysis was performed to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively breastfed and formula-fed infants at the time of survey.Results From 1,804 infant subjects, the overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 46.3%, ranging from 10.5% in East Java to 66.9% in Jambi. Predominant breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and formula feeding rates were 14.3%, 8.6%, and 30.7%, respectively. Maternal unemployment was associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding (P=0.000. There were significantly more formula-fed infants who were undernourished compared to exclusively-breastfed infants (14% vs. 8%, P=0.001. There were also significantly more infants in the formula-fed group who had abnormal head circumference compared to those in the exclusively-breastfed group (9% vs. 6%, P=0.031. Child development, as assessed by the Pre-screening Developmental Questionnaire, was similar between the two groups (P=0.996.Conclusion The overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia is 46.3%. Maternal unemployment is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfed infants have significant better growth and head circumference compared to formula fed infants, while the development is similar between the two groups.

  13. Exclusive breastfeeding rate and factors associated with infant feeding practices in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovita Ananta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk is the ideal food for infants. According to the 2007 Indonesian National Household Health Survey, only 23% of mothers exclusively breastfeed for six months. Objectives To determine the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia, to evaluate factors associated with infant feeding practices, and to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively-breastfed and formula-fed infants. Methods A survey was conducted in hospitals located in 17 provinces in Indonesia. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was calculated. Many variables were investigated as potential predictors for exclusive breastfeeding using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Further analysis was performed to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively breastfed and formula-fed infants at the time of survey. Results From 1,804 infant subjects, the overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 46.3%, ranging from 10.5% in East Java to 66.9% in Jambi. Predominant breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and formula feeding rates were 14.3%, 8.6%, and 30.7%, respectively. Maternal unemployment was associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding (P=0.000. There were significantly more formula-fed infants who were undernourished compared to exclusively-breastfed infants (14% vs. 8%, P=0.001. There were also significantly more infants in the formula-fed group who had abnormal head circumference compared to those in the exclusively-breastfed group (9% vs. 6%, P=0.031. Child development, as assessed by the Pre-screening Developmental Questionnaire, was similar between the two groups (P=0.996. Conclusion The overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia is 46.3%. Maternal unemployment is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfed infants have significant better growth and head circumference compared to formula fed infants, while the development is similar between the two groups.

  14. HIV and infant feeding counselling: challenges faced by nurse-counsellors in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blystad Astrid

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding is a subject of worry in prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT programmes in settings where breastfeeding is normative. Nurse-counsellors, expected to counsel HIV-positive women on safer infant feeding methods as defined in national/international guidelines, are faced with a number of challenges. This study aims to explore the experiences and situated concerns of nurses working as infant feeding counsellors to HIV-positive mothers enrolled in pMTCT programmes in the Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 25 nurse-counsellors at four pMTCT sites. Interviews were handwritten and FGDs were tape-recorded and transcribed, and the programme Open Code assisted in sorting and structuring the data. Analysis was performed using 'content analysis.' Results The findings revealed a high level of stress and frustration among the nurse-counsellors. They found themselves unable to give qualified and relevant advice to HIV-positive women on how best to feed their infants. They were confused regarding the appropriateness of the feeding options they were expected to advise HIV-positive women to employ, and perceived both exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive replacement feeding as culturally and socially unsuitable. However, most counsellors believed that formula feeding was the right way for an HIV-positive woman to feed her infant. They expressed a lack of confidence in their own knowledge of HIV and infant feeding, as well as in their own skills in assessing a woman's possibilities of adhering to a particular method of feeding. Moreover, the nurses were in general not comfortable in their newly gained role as counsellors and felt that it undermined the authority and trust traditionally vested in nursing as a knowledgeable and caring profession. Conclusion The findings illuminate the immense burden placed on

  15. Decline of breast-feeding among New York urban poor linked to sources of information on infant feeding practices: a lesson for African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenalumhe, T E

    1984-01-01

    Using a structured interview schedule, the relationship between infant feeding practices and sources of information on infant feeding was evaluated. Subjects of the study were 2 matched groups of breast feeding and non-breast feeding mothers of low socioeconomic status in New York City. It was found that non-breast feeding mothers received significantly more information (p 0.01) from the baby food industry, physicians, and nurses than breast feeding mothers. By contrast, breast feeders received significantly more information (p 0.03) from relatives, friends, and organizations that promote breast feeding than did the non-breast feeders. Over 80% of educational materials on infant feeding, supplied freely to mothers attending ante- and postnatal clinics, were produced by different infant food industries compared with only 17% of such materials produced by the professionals; the materials produced by infant food industries were essentially promotional of the respective company's products with a high potential for discouraging breast feeding. It is suggested that health workers in developing countries should produce and utilize educational materials on infant feeding practices relevant to their respective communities instead of relying on the supply of these materials by baby food manufactures.

  16. A COMMUNITY BASED STUDY ON INFANT AND YOUNG FEEDING PRACTICES IN A RURAL AREA OF KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharvanan Udayar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childho od is critical to the development of children’s full human potential . OBJECTIVE : The main objective was to assess the Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF pra ctices and associated socio demographic variables among children aged less than two years i n rural areas METHODS: A community based, cross sectional descriptive study was done du ring Sept 09-Aug 2010 which is the rural field practice area of Shri. B. M. Patil Medical Col lege SBMPMC. The data was computed and analyzed using SPSS statistical package (version 13. 0. RESULTS: During the study period 264 mothers of infants and young children interviewed w ith the questionnaire and 159 out of 264 had received prelacteal feeds (males 64 % and female s56.3 %. Illiterate mothers (69.7% practiced more prelacteal feeding than the literate m others (54.6%. 36% received exclusive breast feeding for a period six months. Majority of the illiterate mothers were practicing early (31.4% and delayed weaning (32.5%.Poor socioecono mic status, illiteracy, birth spacing and cultural beliefs had significant effect on infant a nd young children feeding practices. CONCLUSIONS: The study re-emphasized the need for conducting con tinued infant and child feeding intervention programmes especially for the mo ther during antenatal and postnatal checkups.

  17. Perceiving the algae: How feeding-current feeding copepods detect their nonmotile prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Feeding-current feeding copepods detect and capture prey individually, but the mechanism by which nonmotile prey is detected has been unclear. Early reports that copepods detect phytoplankton prey at distances of one body length or more led to the hypothesis that solutes leaking from the prey wou...

  18. [Feeding disorders in infants and toddlers: advantages of a joint consultation with pediatrician and psychologist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascales, T; Olives, J-P

    2013-08-01

    Feeding disorders and food refusal can be found in 25% of infants, a minority of these disorders has an organic explanation. Failure to thrive and/or severe malnutrition is found in 3-5% of infants in the general population. The authors describe the various phases of the interdisciplinary therapeutic intervention by underlining the advantages and the objectives to integrate therapeutic approaches across professional boundaries. Caregiver-infant relationship disturbances are certainly the most important factor, but the induced psychosomatic conditions also have a multifactorial etiology. This article points out the specificities of the disorders of infant feeding behaviors and explains the advantages of a joint pediatrician-psychologist consultation compared to separate consultations in pediatrics and child psychiatry.

  19. Evaluation of Parents’ Knowledges and Experiences about Infant Feeding in Children between Six-Twenty Four Months

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Kaya; Özgül Yiğit; Meltem Erol; Özlem Bostan Gayret

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Complementary feeding is important in early childhood. Therefore, raising awareness of families about complementary feeding is of importance. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the parents’ knowledge and experience of infant feeding. Methods: This study was made in the pediatric outpatient clinic at Bağcılar Training and Research Hospital between 25.09.2012 and 25.11.2012. A questionnaire including questions regarding infant feeding was administered to 417 parents (250 mothers, 167 f...

  20. Puerto Rican cultural beliefs: influence on infant feeding practices in western New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, B

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cultural beliefs and practices of Puerto Rican families that influence feeding practices and affect the nutritional status of infants and young children. The goal of the study was to outline strategies that would enable nurses to provide culturally congruent care for this population. Culture care theory guided the research, and an ethnonursing methodology was used. From interviews with 10 key and 5 general informants, 11 universal and 2 diverse themes were abstracted. The dimensions of kinship, cultural values, lifeways, and philosophical beliefs were found to influence Puerto Rican infant feeding practices. The cultural belief that big is healthy was found to be integrally related to cultural feeding practices. Strategies are suggested to facilitate provision of culturally congruent care for Puerto Rican infants and children in an ambulatory setting.

  1. An analysis of infant feeding content found within the Hong Kong print media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgson, Joan E; Tarrant, Marie; Thompson, Jackie T; Young, Branda

    2008-08-01

    Worldwide public media greatly affect women's decisions about infant feeding and may not reflect evidence-based practices. The aims of this research were to (1) describe the characteristics of printed articles having infant-feeding content, (2) describe this thematic content, and (3) compare the thematic content found in groupings based on media type and language (English and Chinese). Four Chinese-language newspapers, the English-language newspaper, and 3 bilingual parenting magazines were analyzed. A multiphase qualitative and quantitative content analysis found 5 themes (social context, mothers' information, effects on baby, the value of breast milk, and the utility of formula). Significant differences were found based on media type and language. Although breastfeeding was usually positively framed in all the media, Chinese media had more inaccurate information. Through this analysis, areas where actions could be taken to improve the quality of information about infant feeding received by the public have been identified.

  2. Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayati Dyah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the infant feeding practices of participating mothers who were recruited into a research project aimed at improving the nutritional status of mildly wasted children (-scores aged ≥ 6 to Methods Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers of the index children (n = 215 who were admitted to the community program for mildly wasted children in the study area. Four focus groups and twenty in-depth interviews were conducted to explore further information on infant feeding practices in the study area. Results Retrospective results indicated that 6% of the mothers never breastfed. Fifty two percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within six hours of birth, but 17% discarded colostrum. Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age was practiced by 12%. Seventy-four percent of the mothers offered supplementary liquids besides breast milk within the first 7 days of life, and 14% of infants received these supplementary liquids from 7 days onwards until 6 months of age. Moreover, 79% of the infants were given complementary foods (solid, semi-solid, or soft foods before 6 months of age. About 9% of the children were breastfed at least two years. Less than one in five of the mildly wasted children (19% were breastfed on admission to the community program. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Conclusion Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia. To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes breastfeeding, taking into account social

  3. Experience of early breast milk feeding in preterm very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Z; Islam, Q R; Roy, S; Akhter, N; Hoque, M M

    2012-04-01

    Although human milk is generally accepted as the gold standard for the feeding of term infants, its use in the preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants particularly in the initial period of birth has been more controversial. Little is known about the risks and benefits of early introduction of breast feeding on preterm VLBW infants. The primary object of this study was to evaluate the safety and benefit of early breast milk feeding in preterm VLBW newborns during their initial hospitalization periods. Therefore a prospective observational study was conducted among 37 preterm VLBW infants who were admitted to the Neonatal ward of Sir Salimullah Medical College and Mitford Hospital during the period of February 15th to July 25th, 2003. Oral feeding with breast milk was started within one hour of birth, and weight gain, feeding tolerance, nosocomial infection rate as well as other associated problems of pre-maturity, and postnatal growth curve were recorded upto 16th postnatal day. Seventy three percent of the newborns tolerate breast milk well from the very beginning, and the rest did not tolerate initially but all of them tolerate within 24 hours of birth. Infants had less initial weight loss (20 ± 10 gm) and faster recovery of birth weight. They regained their birth weight at 12th postnatal day. Hyper-bilirubinaemia was found in only 22% cases, and was observed in the group who initially didn't tolerate breast milk and was on intravenous fluid. Nobody developed symptomatic hypoglycemia or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Two cases of sepsis and another two cases of minor infection like conjunctivitis and oral thrush have occurred. In conclusion it can be said that early breast milk feeding is safe in preterm VLBW infants and it helps to promote growth and reduce the need for intravenous line.

  4. A serial qualitative interview study of infant feeding experiences: idealism meets realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddinott, Pat; Craig, Leone C A; Britten, Jane; McInnes, Rhona M

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the infant feeding experiences of women and their significant others from pregnancy until 6 months after birth to establish what would make a difference. Qualitative serial interview study. Two health boards in Scotland. 72 of 541 invited pregnant women volunteered. 220 interviews approximately every 4 weeks with 36 women, 26 partners, eight maternal mothers, one sister and two health professionals took place. The overarching theme was a clash between overt or covert infant feeding idealism and the reality experienced. This is manifest as pivotal points where families perceive that the only solution that will restore family well-being is to stop breast feeding or introduce solids. Immediate family well-being is the overriding goal rather than theoretical longer term health benefits. Feeding education is perceived as unrealistic, overly technical and rules based which can undermine women's confidence. Unanimously families would prefer the balance to shift away from antenatal theory towards more help immediately after birth and at 3-4 months when solids are being considered. Family-orientated interactive discussions are valued above breastfeeding-centred checklist style encounters. Adopting idealistic global policy goals like exclusive breast feeding until 6 months as individual goals for women is unhelpful. More achievable incremental goals are recommended. Using a proactive family-centred narrative approach to feeding care might enable pivotal points to be anticipated and resolved. More attention to the diverse values, meanings and emotions around infant feeding within families could help to reconcile health ideals with reality.

  5. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Janton, Susan; Henderson, Wendy A; Matson, Adam; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, pgut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types. In conclusion, infant postnatal age, gender and feeding type significantly contribute to the dynamic development of the gut microbiome in preterm infants.

  6. Improving Outcomes for Infants with Single Ventricle Physiology through Standardized Feeding during the Interstage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Weston

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease is identified as the most common birth defect with single ventricle physiology carrying the highest mortality. Staged surgical palliation is required for treatment, with mortality historically as high as 22% in the four- to six-month period from the first- to second-stage surgical palliation, known as the interstage. A standardized postoperative feeding approach was implemented through an evidence-based protocol, parent engagement, and interprofessional team rounds. Five infants with single ventricle physiology preprotocol were compared with five infants who received the standardized feeding approach. Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted to evaluate the hypotheses that infants in the intervention condition would consume more calories and have a positive change in weight-to-age z-score (WAZ and shorter length of stay (LOS following the first and second surgeries compared to infants in the control condition. After the protocol, the change in WAZ during the interstage increased by virtually one standard deviation from 0.05 to 0.91. Median LOS dropped 32% after the first surgery and 43% after the second surgery. Since first- and second-stage palliative surgeries occur within the same year of life, this represents savings of $500,000 to $800,000 per year in a 10-infant model. The standardized feeding approach improved growth in single ventricle infants while concurrently lowering hospital costs.

  7. Growth of Infants with Intestinal Failure or Feeding Intolerance Does Not Follow Standard Growth Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L. Morton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Infants with intestinal failure or feeding intolerance are nutritionally compromised and are at risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The aim of the study was to evaluate growth velocities of infants with intestinal failure and feeding intolerance for the first three months of age and to determine growth percentiles at birth and at 40-week postmenstrual age (PMA. Methods. A chart review of infants followed by the Texas Children’s Hospital Intestinal Rehabilitation Team was conducted from April 2012 to October 2014. Weekly weight, length, and head circumference growth velocities were calculated. Growth data were compared to Olsen growth curves to determine exact percentiles. Results. Data from infants (n=164 revealed that average growth velocities of 3-month-old infants (weight gain, 19.97 g/d; length, 0.81 cm/week; head circumference, 0.52 cm/week fluctuated and all were below expected norms. At discharge or death, average growth velocities had further decreased (length, 0.69 cm/week; head circumference, 0.45 cm/week except for weight, which showed a slight increase (weight, 20.56 g/d. Weight, length, and head circumference percentiles significantly decreased from birth to 40-week PMA (P<0.001. Conclusions. Growth of infants with intestinal failure or feeding intolerance did not follow standard growth curves.

  8. Exploring the Effect of Mass Media on Perceptions of Infant Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylaska-Davies, Paula

    2015-09-01

    This qualitative study explored women's perceptions of mass media and infant feeding. Mass media is a universal means of communication with potential to impact social norms. Data obtained from interviews with women (n = 20) were compared with text and visual representation from Internet sites (n = 12) on parenting and infant feeding. Themes from interviews reflected information represented on Internet sites. Participants offered suggestions for future media messages, such as public service announcements of breastfeeding. Participants emphasized that public opinion needs to be altered, and breastfeeding in public would then be viewed as the norm.

  9. Feeding practices in infants: ritual factors dominating mother's education - a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Kumar; Indra Kumar Sharma; Mukesh Vir Singh; Durgesh Kumar; Krishan Mohan Shukla; Dinesh Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective was to know the impact of mother education on feeding practices of infants. Methods: Observational analytic cross sectional study. We used Semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire to interview 355 mothers of infants, aged one and half to 12 months, who came in OPD of Department of Paediatrics UPRIMS and R, Saifai for immunization or some problem. Results: Total 267 (75.2 %) out of 355 women had initiated breast feeding within 24 hours of birth. 172 (48.5%) mot...

  10. Assessing Infant Feeding Attitudes of Expectant Women in a Provincial Population in Canada: Validation of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twells, Laurie K; Midodzi, William K; Ludlow, Valerie; Murphy-Goodridge, Janet; Burrage, Lorraine; Gill, Nicole; Halfyard, Beth; Schiff, Rebecca; Newhook, Leigh Anne

    2016-08-01

    Maternal attitudes to infant feeding are predictive of intent and initiation of breastfeeding. The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has not been validated in the Canadian population. This study was conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador, a Canadian province with low breastfeeding rates. Objectives were to assess the reliability and validity of the IIFAS in expectant mothers; to compare attitudes to infant feeding in urban and rural areas; and to examine whether attitudes are associated with intent to breastfeed. The IIFAS assessment tool was administered to 793 pregnant women. Differences in the total IIFAS scores were compared between urban and rural areas. Reliability and validity analysis was conducted on the IIFAS. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of the IIFAS was assessed against mother's intent to breastfeed. The mean ± SD of the total IIFAS score of the overall sample was 64.0 ± 10.4. There were no significant differences in attitudes between urban (63.9 ± 10.5) and rural (64.4 ± 9.9) populations. There were significant differences in total IIFAS scores between women who intend to breastfeed (67.3 ± 8.3) and those who do not (51.6 ± 7.7), regardless of population region. The high value of the area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC (AUC = 0.92) demonstrates excellent ability of the IIFAS to predict intent to breastfeed. The internal consistency of the IIFAS was strong, with a Cronbach's alpha greater than .80 in the overall sample. The IIFAS examined in this provincial population provides a valid and reliable assessment of maternal attitudes toward infant feeding. This tool could be used to identify mothers less likely to breastfeed and to inform health promotion programs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Use of probiotics and prebiotics in infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Randi J; Jensen, Elizabeth T; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    Gut colonization by beneficial bacteria in early life is necessary for establishing the gut mucosal barrier, maturation of the immune system and preventing infections with enteric pathogens. Mode of delivery, prematurity, breastfeeding, and use of antibiotics are some of many factors that have been described to influence early life colonization. Dysbiosis, the absence of normal colonization, is associated with many disease conditions. Pre- and probiotics are commonly used as supplementation in infant formula, such as prebiotic oligosaccharides for stimulation of Bifidobacterium growth aiming to mimic the high levels of these commensal bacteria in the gut of breastfed infants. Studies suggest that probiotic supplementation may be beneficial in prevention and management of disease (e.g., reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants and treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children). Although these studies show promising beneficial effects, the long-term risks or health benefits of pre- and probiotic supplementation are not clear.

  12. Lessons from the feeding infants and toddlers study in North America: what children eat, and implications for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Jose M; Deming, Denise; Dattilo, Anne; Reidy, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The latest exhaustive survey of dietary patterns in infants from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) in North America documents and quantifies current trends in infant feeding. These include higher than generally recommended energy, protein, and saturated fat intakes. The majority of infants are bottle fed at some point in their first year of life, and their weaning diet often includes low intakes of fruits and vegetables, with high starchy, rather than green or yellow, vegetables. Early introduction of solids, use of cow's milk prior to 1 year of age, and high juice intake in the first 2 years - all less desirable diet practices - are improving, but are still prevalent. More preschoolers are likely to get sweets or sweetened beverages than a serving of fruit or a vegetable on a given day. These food intake patterns mimic the adult American diet and are associated with an increased risk of obesity in childhood and later life. But more importantly, these patterns appear to be set as early as 18 months of age, and by 20 months of age, they mimic the adult diet. Despite increase in total energy intake, and greater variety of foods, the basic characteristics of macronutrient intake distribution and food group contribution of energy to the diet before 2 years of age remain remarkably stable and similar to the family table. Obesity prevention needs to include specific targets in terms of breastfeeding and adequate formula feeding, as well as appropriate introduction of weaning foods with goals of changing the inadequate patterns documented in the FITS. These interventions will also require addressing parent and caregiver behaviors, including attending to hunger satiety cues (responsive feeding), and shaping early food preferences. This needs to be done starting at birth, in the first months of life. Early intervention offers a unique and potentially efficacious opportunity to shape the future dietary patterns of the next generation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger

  13. Nutritional requirements and feeding recommendations for small for gestational age infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudehope, David; Vento, Maximo; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Pachi, Paulo

    2013-03-01

    We define the small for gestational age (SGA) infant as an infant born ≥ 35 weeks' gestation and nutritional requirements and provides short- and long-term benefits. Several distinct patterns of intrauterine growth restriction are identified among the heterogeneous grouping of SGA infants; each varies with regard to neonatal morbidities, requirements for neonatal management, postnatal growth velocities, neurodevelopmental progress, and adult health outcomes. There is much we do not know about nutritional management of the SGA infant. We need to identify and define: infants who have "true" growth restriction and are at high risk for adverse metabolic outcomes in later life; optimal growth velocity and "catch-up" growth rates that are conducive with life-long health and well being; global approaches to management of hypoglycemia; and an optimal model for postdischarge care. Large, rigorously conducted trials are required to determine whether aggressive feeding of SGA infants results in improved nutritional rehabilitation, growth, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Before birth, maternal supplementation with specific nutrients reduces the rate and severity of growth restriction and may prevent nutrient deficiency states if infants are born SGA. After birth, the generally accepted goal is to provide enough nutrients to achieve postnatal growth similar to that of a normal fetus. In addition, we recommend SGA infants be allowed to "room in" with their mothers to promote breastfeeding, mother-infant attachment, and skin-to-skin contact to assist with thermoregulation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early Lactation and Infant Feeding Practices Differ by Maternal Gestational Diabetes History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza-Frank, Reena; Moreland, Jennifer J; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-11-01

    Detailed data on lactation practices by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) history are lacking, precluding potential explanations and targets for interventions to improve lactation intensity and duration and, ultimately, long-term maternal and child health. This study aimed to examine breastfeeding practices through 12 months postpartum by GDM history. Women who delivered a singleton, liveborn infant at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center (Columbus, OH), in 2011 completed a postal questionnaire to assess lactation and infant feeding practices and difficulties. Bivariate and multivariate associations between GDM history and lactation and infant feeding practices were examined. The sample included 432 women (62% response rate), including 7.9% who had GDM during the index pregnancy. Women with GDM initiated breastfeeding (at-the-breast or pumping) as often as women without any diabetes but were more likely to report introduction of formula within the first 2 days of life (79.4% vs 53.8%, P breastfeeding difficulty (odds ratio: 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-5.52). However, there was a trend toward women with GDM reporting more formula feeding and less at-the-breast feeding as strategies to address difficulty compared with women without diabetes. Additional research is needed to understand why women with GDM engage in different early lactation and infant feeding practices, and how best to promote and sustain breastfeeding among these women.

  15. Influence of bottle-feeding on serum bisphenol a levels in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, Young-Jun; Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Oh, Yeon Joung; Kim, Ho-Seong; Lee, Kee-Hyoung

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), particularly during developmental periods, gives rise to a variety of adverse health outcomes. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known EDC commonly found in plastic products including food and water containers, baby bottles, and metal can linings. This study investigates infant exposure to BPA and the effect of bottle-feeding on serum BPA levels in infants. Serum BPA levels in normal healthy infants 6 to 15 months of age (n=60) were evaluated by a competitive ELISA. BPA was detected in every study sample. Serum BPA levels of bottle-fed infants (n=30) were significantly higher than those of breast-fed infants (n=30) (96.58±102.36 vs 45.53±34.05 pg/mL, P=0.014). There were no significant differences in serum BPA levels between boys (n=31) and girls (n=29). No significant correlations were found between serum BPA levels and age, body weight, birth weight, and gestational age. Bottle-feeding seems to increase the risk of infant exposure to BPA. Establishment of health policies to reduce or prevent BPA exposure in infants is necessary.

  16. What are mothers doing while bottle-feeding their infants? Exploring the prevalence of maternal distraction during bottle-feeding interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golen, Rebecca Pollack; Ventura, Alison K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which mothers engage in distracting activities during infant feeding. Mothers reported engaging in other activities during 52% of feedings; television watching was the most prevalent activity reported. Further research on the impact of distraction on feeding outcomes is needed.

  17. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilia R. Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow’s milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow’s milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required.

  18. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Camilia R; Ling, Pei-Ra; Blackburn, George L

    2016-05-11

    Mothers' own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow's milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow's milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required.

  19. High versus standard volume enteral feeds to promote growth in preterm or low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiramalatha, Thangaraj; Thomas, Niranjan; Gupta, Vijay; Viswanathan, Anand; McGuire, William

    2017-09-12

    Breast milk alone, given at standard recommended volumes (150 to 180 mL/kg/d), is not adequate to meet the protein, energy, and other nutrient requirements of growing preterm or low birth weight infants. One strategy that may be used to address these potential nutrient deficits is to give infants enteral feeds in excess of 200 mL/kg/d ('high-volume' feeds). This approach may increase nutrient uptake and growth rates, but concerns include that high-volume enteral feeds may cause feed intolerance, gastro-oesophageal reflux, aspiration pneumonia, necrotising enterocolitis, or complications related to fluid overload, including patent ductus arteriosus and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. To assess the effect on growth and safety of feeding preterm or low birth weight infants with high (> 200 mL/kg/d) versus standard (≤ 200 mL/kg/d) volume of enteral feeds. Infants in intervention and control groups should have received the same type of milk (breast milk, formula, or both), the same fortification or micronutrient supplements, and the same enteral feeding regimen (bolus, continuous) and rate of feed volume advancement.To conduct subgroup analyses based on type of milk (breast milk vs formula), gestational age or birth weight category of included infants (very preterm or VLBW vs preterm or LBW), presence of intrauterine growth restriction (using birth weight relative to the reference population as a surrogate), and income level of the country in which the trial was conducted (low or middle income vs high income) (see 'Subgroup analysis and investigation of heterogeneity'). We used the Cochrane Neonatal standard search strategy, which included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 2) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (1946 to November 2016); Embase (1974 to November 2016); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to November 2016), as well as conference proceedings, previous reviews, and trial

  20. Randomised trial of continuous nasogastric, bolus nasogastric, and transpyloric feeding in infants of birth weight under 1400 g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, P D; Skeoch, C H; Carse, H; Dryburgh, F; Alroomi, L G; Galea, P; Gettinby, G

    1992-04-01

    Forty three infants under 1400 g were fed by a bolus nasogastric, continuous nasogastric, or transpyloric route. There were more complications with transpyloric feeding and no identifiable benefits in the growth rate, oral energy input, or chosen biochemical indices of nutrition. Bolus or continuous nasogastric feeds rather than transpyloric are better routine methods in infants of low birth weight.

  1. An Opinion on "Staging" of Infant Formula: A Developmental Perspective on Infant Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Hernell, Olle

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk is a dynamic fluid with compositional changes occurring throughout the period of lactation. Some of these changes in nutrient concentrations reflect the successively slowing growth rate and developmental changes in metabolic requirements that infants undergo during the first year of life. Infant formula, in contrast, has a static composition, intended to meet the nutritional requirements of infants from birth to 6 or 12 months of age. To better fit the metabolic needs of infants and to avoid nutrient limitations or excesses, we suggest that infant formulas should change in composition with the age of the infant, that is, different formulas are created/used for different ages during the first year of life. We propose that specific formulas for 0 to 3 months (stage 1), 3 to 6 months (stage 2), and 6 to 12 months (stage 3) of age may be nutritionally and physiologically advantageous to infants. Although this initially may impose some difficult practical/conceptual issues, we believe that this staging concept would improve nutrition of formula-fed infants and, ultimately, improve outcomes and make their performance more similar to that of breast-fed infants.

  2. Infant and Young Child Feeding Perceptions and Practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    child feeding (IYCF) practices comprising breastfeeding as ... the nutritional status of children. Malnutrition has been ... in infancy and early childhood, resulting in malnutrition, ..... providers and the nursing mothers should be more frequent to.

  3. Lysine kinetics in preterm infants : the importance of enteral feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoor, SRD; Reeds, PJ; Stellaard, F; Wattimena, JDL; Sauer, PJJ; Buller, HA; van Goudoever, JB

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Lysine is the first limiting essential amino acid in the diet of newborns. First pass metabolism by the intestine of dietary lysine has a direct effect on systemic availability. We investigated whether first pass lysine metabolism in the intestine is high in preterm infants, particular

  4. Feeding Patterns and Emotional Care in Breastfed Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie P.; Ellwood, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have suggested breastfed infants have improved bonding and attachment or cognitive development outcomes. However, mechanisms by which these differences might develop are poorly understood. We used maternal time use data to examine whether exclusively breastfeeding mothers spend more time in close interactive behaviors with…

  5. Feeding premature infants banked human milk homogenized by ultrasonic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayol, M R; Martinez, F E; Jorge, S M; Gonçalves, A L; Desai, I D

    1993-12-01

    Premature neonates fed ultrasonically homogenized human milk had better weight gain and triceps skin-fold thickness than did a control group given untreated human milk (p homogenization of human milk appears to minimize loss of fat and thus allows better growth of premature infants.

  6. Association of family and health care provider opinion on infant feeding with mother's breastfeeding decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Erika C; Li, Ruowei; Scanlon, Kelley S; Perrine, Cria G; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    In the United States, about 25% of women choose not to initiate breastfeeding, yet little is known about how opinions of individuals in a woman's support network influence her decision to breastfeed. In the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II, women completed questionnaires from the last trimester of pregnancy until 12 months postpartum. Mothers indicated prenatally their family members' and health care providers' opinion on how newborns should be fed: breastfed only, formula fed only, breast and formula fed, or no opinion/don't know. Breastfeeding initiation was determined by asking mothers around 4 weeks postpartum (n=2,041) whether they ever breastfed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between mothers' perception of family members' and health care providers' opinion on how to feed the infant and the initiation of breastfeeding, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Nearly 14% of mothers surveyed did not initiate breastfeeding. Mothers who believed their family members or health care providers preferred breastfeeding only were least likely not to initiate breastfeeding. Never breastfeeding was significantly associated with the following perceptions: the infant's father (odds ratio [OR]=110.4; 95% CI 52.0 to 234.4) or maternal grandmother (OR=15.9; 95% CI 7.0 to 36.0) preferred only formula feeding; the infant's father (OR=3.2; 95% CI 1.7 to 5.9) or doctor (OR=2.7; 95% CI 1.2 to 6.2) preferred both breast and formula feeding; and the infant's father (OR=7.6; 95% CI 4.5 to 12.7), maternal grandmother (OR=5.4; 95% CI 2.6 to 11.0), or doctor (OR=1.9; 95% CI 1.0 to 3.7) had no opinion/didn't know their feeding preference. The prenatal opinions of family members and health care providers play an important role in a woman's breastfeeding decisions after the infant's birth.

  7. Early enteral feeding with human milk for VLBW infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisi, G; Berti, M; De Nisi, M; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    In a NICU early enteral feeding is usually possible only when the newborn clinical conditions permit it. Because of the frequent need of umbilical/central catheters, they usually start with parenteral feeding and/or with minimal enteral feeding (trophic feeding). This kind of management is even more frequent in VLBWIs, in which the risk of NEC is very high. In this work we describe a model of early enteral exclusive feeding (EEEF) based on the use of banking human milk followed by mother milk. In the Centre of Neonatology of Trento, as in other Centers, the newborns weighing less than 750g or with a GE 26 weeks define a group in which we find critical neonates, who can not be treated with enteral feeding, and neonates whose clinical conditions permit EEEF. In particular, in a period of 16 years (1994-2009) in Trento, 308 newborns weighing 750-1249 g and GE > than 26 weeks were admitted. The 90,9 % has been treated with prenatal steroids, the 91,9 % was inborn, the 96,1% survived. In the 59,1 % of the cases (175) we gave EEEF. We could continue with a complete EEEF in the 40,2 % of the total (119 cases). The characteristics of these neonates and our centre management, based mainly on early use of banking human milk and mother milk, are detailed described.

  8. Highest Plasma Phenylalanine Levels in (Very Premature Infants on Intravenous Feeding; A Need for Concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cortés-Castell

    Full Text Available To analyse the association in newborns between blood levels of phenylalanine and feeding method and gestational age.This observational, cross-sectional study included a sample of 11,829 infants between 2008 and 2013 in a Spanish region. Data were recorded on phenylalanine values, feeding method [breast, formula, mixed (breast plus formula, or partial or fully intravenous feeding], gestational age in weeks (<32, 32-37, ≥37, gender and days since birth at the moment of blood collection. Outcomes were [phenylalanine] and [phenylalanine] ≥95th percentile. Associations were analysed using multivariate models [linear (means difference and logistic regression (adjusted odds ratios].Higher phenylalanine values were associated with lower gestational age (p<0.001 and with intravenous feeding (p<0.001.The degree of prematurity and intravenous feeding influenced the plasma concentration of phenylalanine in the newborn. Caution should be taken in [phenylalanine] for newborns with intravenous feeding, monitoring them carefully. Very preterm infants given the recommended amount of amino acids should also be strictly monitored. These findings should be taken into consideration and call for adapting the amounts to the needs of the infant.

  9. Does frenotomy improve breast-feeding difficulties in infants with ankyloglossia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to critically examine the existing literature regarding the effectiveness of tongue-tie division in infants with ankyloglossia, using the new grades of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) rating system. A clinical question was structured according to patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome, as follows: in infants with poor breast-feeding and ankyloglossia (patient), does frenotomy (intervention), compared to lactation support alone (comparison), improve feeding (outcome)? An electronic literature search was systematically conducted from databases including PubMed, Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (Igaku Chuo Zasshi), CINAHL, and Cochrane Library using the key words "ankyloglossia," "tongue-tie," "frenotomy," and/or "breast-feeding" in English and equivalent terms in Japanese. The literature search yielded four randomized clinical trials, and 12 observational studies for analysis. The quality of the literature was rated in regard to the two most important outcomes (sucking/latching, and nipple pain) and five less important outcomes (milk supply/milk production, continuation of breast-feeding, weight gain, adverse events, and dyad distress) in accordance with the GRADE system. Evidence levels of the most important outcomes were rated either A (strong evidence) or B (moderate evidence), and less important outcomes were rated C (weak evidence); every outcome consistently showed a favorable effect of frenotomy on breast-feeding. The literature review supported an overall moderate quality of evidence for the effectiveness of frenotomy for the treatment of breast-feeding difficulties in infants with ankyloglossia. No major complications from frenotomy were reported.

  10. The Breast vs. Bottle Battle: Infant Feeding Mis/Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Rothfus

    2012-04-01

    ="false" Priority="21" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" />

    That “breast is best” is a truism even infant formula manufacturers do not openly dispute, and the choice to breastfeed has increasingly become part of the measure of a good mother in modern Canadian society.  Yet the information in support of breastfeeding’s purported benefits is problematic, even as public discourse vilifies the alternative.  This paper examines the issues surrounding infant feeding choices and the way in which information is utilized and manipulated by both sides of the emotionally charged breast vs. bottle debate.  While there are good reasons to support breastfeeding practices, the current state of our knowledge of its benefits does not justify the often strident

  11. Aboriginal women in rural Australia; a small study of infant feeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helps, Catherine; Barclay, Lesley

    2015-06-01

    Aboriginal women in rural areas have lower rates of breastfeeding than Australian averages. The reasons for this are poorly understood. Aboriginal people experience higher morbidity and increased rates of chronic disease throughout the life cycle. The protective effects of sustained breastfeeding could benefit rural Aboriginal communities. To explore the factors impacting upon infant feeding choices in a rural Aboriginal Community. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight Aboriginal rural dwelling first time mothers. These women received a continuity of midwife and Aboriginal Health Worker model of care. Interviews were also undertaken with five Aboriginal Health Workers and two Aboriginal community breastfeeding champions. The analysis was integrated with a conventional literature review and was further developed and illustrated with historical literature. Indigenist methodology guided the study design, analysis and the dissemination of results. Three key themes were identified. These were "I'm doing the best thing for..." which encompasses the motivations underpinning infant feeding decisions; "this is what I know..." which explores individual and community knowledge regarding infant feeding; and "a safe place to feed" identifying the barriers that negative societal messages pose for women as they make infant feeding decisions. It appears loss of family and community breastfeeding knowledge resulting from colonisation still influences the Aboriginal women of today. Aboriginal women value and trust knowledge which is passed to them from extended family members and women within their Community. Cultural, historical and socioeconomic factors all strongly influence the infant feeding decisions of individuals in this study. Efforts to normalise breastfeeding in the culture of rural dwelling Aboriginal women and their supporting community appear to be necessary and may promote breastfeeding more effectively than optimal professional care of individuals can

  12. The potential effectiveness of the nutrition improvement program on infant and young child feeding and nutritional status in the Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon, Central Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reinsma, Kate; Nkuoh, Godlove; Nshom, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    .... Although infant feeding counselling by health workers increases caregivers' knowledge, and improves breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and children's linear growth, most of the counselling in sub...

  13. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Cong

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05-0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types

  14. Parents' beliefs about appropriate infant size, growth and feeding behaviour: implications for the prevention of childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swift Judy A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of risk factors are associated with the development of childhood obesity which can be identified during infancy. These include infant feeding practices, parental response to infant temperament and parental perception of infant growth and appetite. Parental beliefs and understanding are crucial determinants of infant feeding behaviour; therefore any intervention would need to take account of their views. This study aimed to explore UK parents' beliefs concerning their infant's size, growth and feeding behaviour and parental receptiveness to early intervention aimed at reducing the risk of childhood obesity. Method Six focus groups were undertaken in a range of different demographic localities, with parents of infants less than one year of age. The focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Results 38 parents (n = 36 female, n = 2 male, age range 19-45 years (mean 30.1 years, SD 6.28 participated in the focus groups. 12/38 were overweight (BMI 25-29.99 and 8/38 obese (BMI >30. Five main themes were identified. These were a parental concern about breast milk, infant contentment and growth; b the belief that the main cause of infant distress is hunger is widespread and drives inappropriate feeding; c rationalisation for infants' larger size; d parental uncertainty about identifying and managing infants at risk of obesity and e intentions and behaviour in relation to a healthy lifestyle. Conclusions There are a number of barriers to early intervention with parents of infants at risk of developing obesity. Parents are receptive to prevention prior to weaning and need better support with best practice in infant feeding. In particular, this should focus on helping them understand the physiology of breast feeding, how to differentiate between infant distress caused by hunger and other causes and the timing of weaning. Some parents also need

  15. Growth of Infants with Intestinal Failure or Feeding Intolerance Does Not Follow Standard Growth Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Danielle L.; Hawthorne, Keli M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Infants with intestinal failure or feeding intolerance are nutritionally compromised and are at risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The aim of the study was to evaluate growth velocities of infants with intestinal failure and feeding intolerance for the first three months of age and to determine growth percentiles at birth and at 40-week postmenstrual age (PMA). Methods. A chart review of infants followed by the Texas Children's Hospital Intestinal Rehabilitation Team was conducted from April 2012 to October 2014. Weekly weight, length, and head circumference growth velocities were calculated. Growth data were compared to Olsen growth curves to determine exact percentiles. Results. Data from infants (n = 164) revealed that average growth velocities of 3-month-old infants (weight gain, 19.97 g/d; length, 0.81 cm/week; head circumference, 0.52 cm/week) fluctuated and all were below expected norms. At discharge or death, average growth velocities had further decreased (length, 0.69 cm/week; head circumference, 0.45 cm/week) except for weight, which showed a slight increase (weight, 20.56 g/d). Weight, length, and head circumference percentiles significantly decreased from birth to 40-week PMA (P feeding intolerance did not follow standard growth curves.

  16. Breast feeding pattern in urban infants in Chandigarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Sharma, R; Vanaja, K; Real, M

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of breastfeeding and the factors which determine the practice were assessed in 670 mothers from urban areas of Chandigarh. Unsupplemented breastmilk was administered to only 36.6% of babies up until 4 months of age. Women from the lower socioeconomic class, uneducated, and poorly educated mothers were more successful than those from the upper socioeconomic clases or those with higher education (P0.01). The success rate for breastfeeding was higher among babies born at home (50.0%) as compared to those born in the hospital (32.3%). Similarly, high proportions of male infants were successfully breastfed (40.3%) as compared to females (31.6%). Among those infants weaned breastfeeding was discontinued before 1 month of age in more than 60%. The main reason that breastfeeding failed was insufficient milk. Promotional efforts for unsupplemented breastfeeding should consider some of the above factors for their success.

  17. Infant feeding and HIV positive mothers in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Ramara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice at Mankweng clinic in the Limpopo province are experiencing specific problems with various feeding methods. This study was undertaken with the aim to explore and describe the socioeconomic and cultural experiences of HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice. The research design was exploratory, descriptive, qualitative and contextual in nature. A phenomenological approach was adopted to focus on the lived experiences of HIV-positive mothers. The study sample was purposely selected. Ten HIV-positive mothers volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected through in-depth unstructured interviews. All participants responded to an open-ended question: “Could you please tell me, in detail, your experience on infant feeding of your choice?” Interviews were conducted until saturation, as was reflected in repeating themes, was reached. The model of trustworthiness, as outlined in Guba and Lincoln (1985:301 -318, to ensure credibility and dependability, was used in this study. The study adhered to the ethical standards as set by DENOSA (1998:2.3.2-2.3.4. Data were analysed according to Tesch’s method, as outlined in Creswell (2003:192 and De Vos (1998:343. Literature control was performed to verify the results. Two main categories that emerged were guided by options for infant feeding; namely those that chose formula feeding for their babies and those participants who opted to breast-feed their babies The study proposed to recommend guidelines for the development of relevent content for inclusion in health education programmes of registered midwives who, in turn, can use such information to educate mothers

  18. Infant feeding and HIV positive mothers in the Capricorn District of Limpopo province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramara, N S; Maputle, M S; Lekhuleni, M E

    2010-03-01

    HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice at Mankweng clinic in the Limpopo province are experiencing specific problems with various feeding methods. This study was undertaken with the aim to explore and describe the socioeconomic and cultural experiences of HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice. The research design was exploratory, descriptive, qualitative and contextual in nature. A phenomenological approach was adopted to focus on the lived experiences of HIV-positive mothers. The study sample was purposely selected. Ten HIV-positive mothers volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected through in-depth unstructured interviews. All participants responded to an open-ended question: "Could you please tell me, in detail, your experience on infant feeding of your choice?" Interviews were conducted until saturation, as was reflected in repeating themes, was reached. The model of trustworthiness, as outlined in Guba and Lincoln (1985:301-318), to ensure credibility and dependability, was used in this study. The study adhered to the ethical standards as set by DENOSA (1998:2.3.2-2.3.4). Data were analysed according to Tesch's method, as outlined in Creswell (2003:192) and De Vos (1998:343). Literature control was performed to verify the results. Two main categories that emerged were guided by options for infant feeding; namely those that chose formula feeding for their babies and those participants who opted to breast-feed their babies. The study proposed to recommend guidelines for the development of relevent content for inclusion in health education programmes of registered midwives who, in turn, can use such information to educate mothers.

  19. 4. mothers' perception of infant feeding counselling in the context of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    provided in counselling on HIV and infant-feeding assist mothers in making ..... conducted in the MNCH units for pregnant mothers attending ... to protect the baby from HIV because I am on medication ... The herbal medicine is perceived to ...

  20. Evaluation of potential factors predicting attainment of full gavage feedings in preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The clinical measures of gastric residuals and abdominal distention are often used to guide feeding in preterm infants, but there are few data demonstrating their usefulness. Similarly, techniques are now available to investigate gastrointestinal (GI) function noninvasively and safely, but their abi...

  1. An Assessment of the Breastfeeding Practices and Infant Feeding Pattern among Mothers in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashmika Motee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper breastfeeding practices are effective ways for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. While many mothers understand the importance of breastfeeding, others are less knowledgeable on the benefits of breastfeeding and weaning. The aim in here is to assess breastfeeding pattern, infant formula feeding pattern, and weaning introduction in Mauritius and to investigate the factors that influence infant nutrition. 500 mothers were interviewed using a questionnaire which was designed to elicit information on infant feeding practices. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS (version 13.0, whereby chi-square tests were used to evaluate relationships between different selected variables. The prevalence of breastfeeding practice in Mauritius has risen from 72% in 1991 to 93.4% as found in this study, while only 17.9% breastfed their children exclusively for the first 6 months, and the mean duration of EBF (exclusive breastfeeding is 2.10 months. Complementary feeding was more commonly initiated around 4–6 months (75.2%. Despite the fact that 60.6% of mothers initiate breastfeeding and 26.1% of mothers are found to breastfeed up to 2 years, the practice of EBF for the first 6 months is low (17.9%. Factors found to influence infant feeding practices are type of delivery, parity, alcohol consumption, occupation, education, and breast problems.

  2. Infant Feeding among Women Attending an Immunisation Clinic at a Tertiary Health Institution in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatiregun, A. A.; Abegunde, V. O.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal characteristics can affect a mother's decision to breastfeed. This study used a cross-sectional design to assess maternal variables and infant feeding patterns among nursing mothers attending an immunisation clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of 264 mothers who consecutively attended the immunisation clinic and met certain inclusion…

  3. Infant orthopedics in UCLP: effect on feeding, weight, and length: a randomized clinical trial (Dutchcleft).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prahl, C.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Prahl-Andersen, B.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of infant orthopedics (IO) on feeding, weight, and length. DESIGN: Prospective two-arm randomized controlled trial in three academic Cleft Palate Centers. Treatment allocation was concealed and performed by means of a computerized balanced allocation method. SETTING:

  4. Infant feeding patterns are associated with cardiovascular structures and function in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.L. de Jonge (Layla); G.C. Langhout; H.R. Taal (Rob); O.H. Franco (Oscar); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); L. van Osch-Gevers (Lennie); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractNutrition in infancy seems to be associated with cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in adulthood. These associations may be explained by cardiovascular developmental adaptations in childhood in response to specific infant feeding patterns. The aim of this study was to assess whe

  5. Response Current from Spin-Vortex-Induced Loop Current System to Feeding Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Tsubasa; Wakaura, Hikaru; Abou Ghantous, Michel; Koizumi, Hiroyasu

    2017-07-01

    The spin-vortex-induced loop current (SVILC) is a loop current generated around a spin-vortex formed by itinerant electrons. It is generated by a U(1) instanton created by the single-valued requirement of wave functions with respect to the coordinate, and protected by the topological number, "winding number". In a system with SVILCs, a macroscopic persistent current is generated as a collection of SVILCs. In the present work, we consider the situation where external currents are fed in the SVILC system and response currents are measured as spontaneous currents that flow through leads attached to the SVILC system. The response currents from SVILC systems are markedly different from the feeding currents in their directions and magnitude, and depend on the original current pattern of the SVILC system; thus, they may be used in the readout process in the recently proposed SVILC quantum computer, a quantum computer that utilizes SVILCs as qubits. We also consider the use of the response current to detect SVILCs.

  6. Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This study investigated the infant feeding practices of participating mothers who were recruited into a research project aimed at improving the nutritional status of mildly wasted children (practices in the study area. Results Retrospective results indicated that 6% of the mothers never breastfed. Fifty two percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within six hours of birth, but 17% discarded colostrum. Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age was practiced by 12%. Seventy-four percent of the mothers offered supplementary liquids besides breast milk within the first 7 days of life, and 14% of infants received these supplementary liquids from 7 days onwards until 6 months of age. Moreover, 79% of the infants were given complementary foods (solid, semi-solid, or soft foods) before 6 months of age. About 9% of the children were breastfed at least two years. Less than one in five of the mildly wasted children (19%) were breastfed on admission to the community program. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Conclusion Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia. To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes breastfeeding, taking into account social-cultural factors such as the influence of paternal grandmothers on infant feeding practice, is needed. PMID:22436662

  7. Escape of protists in predator-generated feeding currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The ciliate Strobilidium sp. and 2 flagellates, Chrysochromulina simplex and Gymnodinium sp., were exposed to predator-generated feeding currents, and their escape responses were quantified using 2- and 3-dimensional video techniques. All 3 studied organisms responded by escaping at a defined...... of Strobilidium sp. to the copepod Temora longicornis. The predicted reaction distance fit closely that measured, When the flagellates were exposed to the flow field of the ciliate Uronema filificum, they both responded up-stream to the feeding current. From the distance at which the flagellates responded...

  8. Current safety standards in infant nutrition--a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernell, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Foods intended specifically for infants and young children are considered under European community law and are defined in specific commission directives. In principal, these directives conclude that such foods must be safe, have a special composition, be distinguishable from normal foods, be suitable for fulfilling particular nutritional requirements, and should, when marketed, indicate such suitability. Since infant formulas are intended as the sole source of nutrition during the first months of life, their nutritional adequacy and safety are particularly strictly regulated. The Scientific Committee on Food report from 2003, on which the current commission directive is based, makes clear recommendations on how benefits, suitability, and safety of modifications beyond established standards should be documented and evaluated. These principles resulted in part from a workshop on characterization of infant food modifications in the EU and two position papers by the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). These papers are reviewed below.

  9. Efficacy of semielevated side-lying positioning during bottle-feeding of very preterm infants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne; Knafl, George J; Hodges, Eric A; Nix, William B

    2014-01-01

    Very preterm (VP, ≤30 wk gestational age) infants are at risk for impaired lung function, which significantly limits their ability to eat. A semielevated side-lying (ESL) position is a feeding strategy that may improve oral feeding by supporting breathing during feeding. The study evaluated the efficacy of the ESL position compared with the semielevated supine (ESU) position on physiological stability and feeding performance of bottle-fed VP infants. Using a within-subject crossover design, 6 VP infants were bottle-fed twice on 1 day, in both the ESL and ESU positions in a random order. Physiological stability (heart rate, oxygen saturation [SaO2], and respiratory characteristics) and feeding performance (percent intake, proficiency, efficiency, and duration of feeding) were measured before and/or during feeding. Very preterm infants fed in the ESL position demonstrated significantly less variation in heart rate, less severe and fewer decreases in heart rate, respiratory rate that was closer to the prefeeding state, shorter and more regular intervals between breaths, and briefer feeding-related apneic events. No significant differences for SaO2 or feeding performance were found. The findings indicate that the ESL position may support better regulation of breathing during feeding, thereby allowing VP infants to better maintain physiological stability throughout feeding.

  10. Infant and young child feeding practices on Unguja Island in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akwilina

    About 24% of the women practiced exclusive breastfeeding and 21% of the children .... time of the survey, out of which 5.8% were 20 to 23.9 months old. ... to consuming the same amount of food as when they were not sick. .... feeding included low level of maternal education, limited access to mass media, lack of postnatal.

  11. The role of infant appetite in extended formula feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syrad, H.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Wardle, J.; Llewellyn, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Parental decision-making around extended formula feeding (12 months+) has not been explored previously. This study tested the hypotheses that extended formula milk use (i) is associated with poorer appetite and (ii) supplements lower food intake. METHODS: Appetite was assessed with the Ch

  12. Infant feeding counselling of HIV-infected women in two areas in Kenya in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Waithaka, Margaret; Greiner, Ted

    2014-11-01

    While WHO no longer recommends individual infant feeding counselling to HIV-positive women, it may still be practised in some settings and for specific cases. In any case, lessons can be learned by examining how well front line health workers are able to take on counselling tasks. This qualitative study was designed to assess how counsellors deal with challenges they face in two Kenyan provinces. It consisted of brief post-counselling exit interviews with 80 mothers, observations of 21 counselling sessions and 11 key informant interviews. Much infant feeding counselling was of reasonable quality, better than often reported elsewhere. However, nutrition and infant feeding were given low priority, counsellors' training was inadequate, individual postnatal counselling as well as growth monitoring and promotion were rarely done and complementary feeding was inadequately covered. Acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe (AFASS) assessments were not of satisfactory quality. Breast milk expression was mentioned only to a minority and the possibility of heat treatment during the transition to cessation was not mentioned. Counsellors were often biased in discussing risks of breastfeeding and replacement feeding. Implementing the new WHO guidance will reduce the need for AFASS assessments, greatly simplifying both the government's and counsellors' tasks.

  13. State of the science: a contemporary review of feeding readiness in the preterm infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Carrie-Ellen; McGrath, Jacqueline; Cong, Xiaomei; Cusson, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Oral feeding readiness has been described by researchers in the neonatal intensive care unit, and research has continued on this topic for many years. The purpose of this narrative review is to identify research and practice guidelines related to oral feeding readiness in preterm infants that have occurred during the last decade. The introduction and mastery of oral feeding is a major developmental task for the preterm infant that is often a prerequisite for discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. Having a better understanding of the evidence supporting the development of this skill will help the practicing nurse choose appropriate interventions and the researcher to develop trajectories of research that continue to increase our knowledge in this important practice area.

  14. Infant feeding and professional advice in the first half of the 20th century in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechlivani, Fani; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2008-11-01

    This study aims to assess the role that health professional and State policies played in shaping breastfeeding practices and attitudes in Greece during the first half of the 20th century. Original texts were used; including those concerned with breastfeeding traditions, health professionals' attitudes to breastfeeding, infant feeding patterns, partial breastfeeding, artificial feeding and State policies for the promotion of breastfeeding. Content analysis was used and breastfeeding rates were considered. In the first two decades of the 20th century, most Greek women breastfed their children, as advised by other experienced women. In the succeeding decades, health professionals and policy makers wrote books and articles praising breastfeeding albeit stressing the nursing mothers' ignorance of sanitary measures. Many health professionals were influenced by trends in developed countries and advocated novel infant feeding practices. Consequently, full breastfeeding was not promoted.

  15. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF INFANT FEEDING PRACTICES AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN EASTERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor infant feeding practices and their consequences are one of the world's major problems and a serious obstacle to social and economic development. Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival , birth spacing , and the prevent ion of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation , duration , and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. Breastfeeding practices vary among different regions and communities. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To assess the knowledge , attitude and practices of infant feeding and , to assess the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practices among women in rural area of West Bengal , India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross - sectional study was conducted on mothers of childr en less than two year of age attending the outpatient department of Malda Medical College and Hospital , a rural medical college in Eastern India. A total of 200 mothers were interviewed who were randomly selected. A structured , pretested and predesigned qu estionnaire was used to collect information on the socio - demographic profile and infant feeding practice. RESULTS : Mothers of male children were 65% and female children were 35%. 44% were literate upto middle school and 28% with primary education. 14% mothe rs were illiterate. 52% of mothers had the knowledge about initiation of breast feeding within 1 hour of birth whereas only 28% practiced it. 80% mothers had the knowledge of exclusive breast feeding but only 60% practiced it. 24% of infants had received p relacteal feeds and only 2% breast fed upto 24 months. CONCLUSIONS : Despite higher rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding , awareness of the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding was low. Creating an awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding will strengthen and support this common practice in rural communities and avoid early introduction of complementary foods for socio - cultural

  16. Comparison of caloric intake and weight outcomes of an ad lib feeding regimen for preterm infants in two nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridham, K F; Kosorok, M R; Greer, F; Kayata, S; Bhattacharya, A; Grunwald, P

    2001-09-01

    Effects on caloric intake and weight gain of an ad libitum (ad lib) feeding regimen for preterm infants may be specific to a special care nursery. To explore across two nurseries the similarity of effect on caloric intake and weight gain of an ad lib feeding regimen compared with a prescribed regimen and the similarity of effect of caloric intake on weight gain. All infants participating in the multi-site randomized clinical trial (RCT) of the ad lib feeding regimen were lib. After accounting for caloric intake, the ad lib regimen did not affect weight gain. The time-by-regimen interaction effect on caloric intake was significant in both nurseries. Caloric intake for infants fed ad lib increased significantly over 5 days. Despite differences between nurseries in infant characteristics and in protocol implementation, the feeding regimen effect was consistent for caloric intake and weight gain. Further support was found for the development of infant self-regulatory capacity.

  17. Non-puerperal induced lactation: an infant feeding option in paediatric HIV/AIDS in tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunlesi, Tinuade A; Adekanmbi, Folasade A; Fetuga, Bolanle M; Ogundeyi, Mojisola M

    2008-09-01

    A major problem in the management of infants exposed to HIV is the issue of feeding, which stems from the need to avoid transmission of the virus via breast milk. Other important issues in the nutrition of infants exposed to the virus include severe maternal illness, which makes suckling extremely difficult, and feeding orphans. Wet nursing is one of the recommended steps in addressing the feeding problems of such infants but for reasons of sociocultural disapproval, it appears not to be popular in traditional African settings. Non-puerperal induced lactation or re-lactation of a close relation, usually a grandmother, which hitherto has been used to rehabilitate severely malnourished motherless infants, may be equally useful. The procedure of re-lactation and the limitations of the method are highlighted. Also, the need to employ information, education and communication in improving the sociocultural acceptability of this veritable infant feeding method in tropical Africa is discussed.

  18. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: meal and snack intakes of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Paula; Hanson, Charlotte; Ponza, Michael; Novak, Timothy; Hendricks, Kristy

    2006-01-01

    To describe meal and snack patterns of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers. A cross-sectional telephone survey in which mothers or other primary caregivers reported their infants' and toddlers' food and beverage intake for a 24-hour period. Subjects were a subset of the national random sample of children aged 4-24 months who participated in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study includes a stratified random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers aged 4-24 months. Three hundred seventy-one Hispanic and 2,637 non-Hispanic children who had 24-hour dietary recalls are included in the subset. Means+/-standard errors of daily intakes of energy, nutrients, and nutrient densities were calculated, as were percentages of children consuming foods at each eating occasion. Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers, on average, were fed seven times per day. Overall, the percentages of children who ate snacks increased with age, and more than 80% of toddlers aged 12-24 months consumed afternoon snacks, with more than 90% of Hispanic children consuming an afternoon snack. In each age group, there were significant differences between ethnic groups in nutrient intakes by eating occasion. No significant difference was seen for energy across all meal occasions. At age 6-11 months, Hispanic children had a significantly lower intake of carbohydrate at dinner and lower intake of saturated fat at afternoon snacks compared with non-Hispanic children (Pfiber intake contributed 2 g/meal for both ethnic groups. Snacks contributed, on average, less than 1 g fiber, except Hispanic toddlers had significantly higher fiber intake at afternoon snacks (1.5 g) than non-Hispanic toddlers. Foods frequently consumed at meals and snacks were lacking in whole grains, vegetables, and fruits. Most nutrients were not significantly different between Hispanics and non-Hispanics for meals and snacks. Considering the sizeable contribution that snacks

  19. Somatosensory Modulation of Salivary Gene Expression and Oral Feeding in Preterm Infants: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Steven Michael; Maron, Jill Lamanna; Alterovitz, Gil; Song, Dongli; Wilson, Bernard Joseph; Jegatheesan, Priya; Govindaswami, Balaji; Lee, Jaehoon; Rosner, Austin Oder

    2017-06-14

    Despite numerous medical advances in the care of at-risk preterm neonates, oral feeding still represents one of the first and most advanced neurological challenges facing this delicate population. Objective, quantitative, and noninvasive assessment tools, as well as neurotherapeutic strategies, are greatly needed in order to improve feeding and developmental outcomes. Pulsed pneumatic orocutaneous stimulation has been shown to improve nonnutritive sucking (NNS) skills in preterm infants who exhibit delayed or disordered nipple feeding behaviors. Separately, the study of the salivary transcriptome in neonates has helped identify biomarkers directly linked to successful neonatal oral feeding behavior. The combination of noninvasive treatment strategies and transcriptomic analysis represents an integrative approach to oral feeding in which rapid technological advances and personalized transcriptomics can safely and noninvasively be brought to the bedside to inform medical care decisions and improve care and outcomes. The study aimed to conduct a multicenter randomized control trial (RCT) to combine molecular and behavioral methods in an experimental conceptualization approach to map the effects of PULSED somatosensory stimulation on salivary gene expression in the context of the acquisition of oral feeding habits in high-risk human neonates. The aims of this study represent the first attempt to combine noninvasive treatment strategies and transcriptomic assessments of high-risk extremely preterm infants (EPI) to (1) improve oral feeding behavior and skills, (2) further our understanding of the gene ontology of biologically diverse pathways related to oral feeding, (3) use gene expression data to personalize neonatal care and individualize treatment strategies and timing interventions, and (4) improve long-term developmental outcomes. A total of 180 extremely preterm infants from three neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) will be randomized to receive either PULSED or

  20. Women's liberation and the rhetoric of "choice" in infant feeding debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hausman Bernice L

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This short essay examines infant formula marketing and information sources for their representation of "choice" in the infant feeding context, and finds that while providing information about breast and bottle feeding, infant formula manufacturers focus on mothers' feelings and intuition rather than knowledge in making decisions. In addition, the essay considers how "choice" operates in the history of reproductive rights, shifting the discourse from a rights-based set of arguments to one based on a consumerist mentality. Utilizing the work of historian Rickie Solinger and a 2007 paper for the National Bureau of Labor Statistics, I argue that the structure of market work, and not abstract maternal decision making, determine mothers' choices and practices concerning infant feeding. For true freedoms for mothers to be achieved, freedoms that would include greater social provisions for mothers, our culture will have to confront how structural constraints make breastfeeding difficult, as well as how the concept of choice divides mothers into those who make good choices and those who do not.

  1. The relationship between acculturation and infant feeding styles in a Latino population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancel, Liz D; Perrin, Eliana; Yin, Shonna H; Sanders, Lee; Delamater, Alan; Perreira, Krista M; Bronaugh, Andrea B; Eden, Svetlana; Shintani, Ayumi; Rothman, Russell L

    2015-04-01

    To assess the relationship between parental acculturation and infant feeding style in a sample of Latino parents. A post hoc analysis was performed using data from an ongoing four-site randomized controlled trial to promote early childhood obesity prevention. Cross-sectional data of parent-child dyads at the 12-month well-child visit who self-reported their Latino ethnicity were analyzed. The Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (SASH) and a subset of the Infant Feeding Style Questionnaire (IFSQ) that assessed four primary feeding styles were administered. SASH level (low vs. high) with each feeding style was compared by analyses. Complete SASH data were available for 398 of 431 Latino dyads. Median SASH score was 1.8 (IQR 1.4-2.7); 82% of participants had low acculturation (score acculturation were more likely than those with higher acculturation to endorse feeding styles that are associated with child obesity. Further research is needed to determine why acculturation and feeding style relate. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  2. Inadequate feeding of infant and young children in India: lack of nutritional information or food affordability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Nisha

    2013-10-01

    Despite a rapidly growing economy and rising income levels in India, improvements in child malnutrition have lagged. Data from the most recent National Family Health Survey reveal that the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices recommended by the WHO and the Indian Government, including the timely introduction of solid food, are not being followed by a majority of mothers in India. It is puzzling that even among rich households children are not being fed adequately. The present study analyses the socioeconomic factors that contribute to this phenomenon, including the role of nutritional information. IYCF practices from the latest National Family Health Survey (2005-2006) were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to establish the determinants of poor feeding practices. The indicators recommended by the WHO were used to assess the IYCF practices. India. Children (n 9241) aged 6-18 months. Wealth was shown to have only a small effect on feeding practices. For children aged 6-8 months, the mother's wealth status was not found to be a significant determinant of sound feeding practices. Strikingly, nutritional advice on infant feeding practices provided by health professionals (including anganwadi workers) was strongly correlated with improved practices across all age groups. Exposure to the media was also found to be a significant determinant. Providing appropriate information may be a crucial determinant of sound feeding practices. Efforts to eradicate malnutrition should include the broader goals of improving knowledge related to childhood nutrition and IYCF practices.

  3. Early versus Late Trophic Feeding in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Satarzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Improved survival of preterm infants, beneficial effects of trophic feeding and limited data on timing management of enteral feeding for very low birth weight preterm infants requires more researches to determine the exact starting time and increased volumes. This study aims to compare early (72h trophic feeding with respect to important neonatal outcomes.Methods: In a cohort study from September 2007 to October 2008, a total of 170 preterm infants (1000-1500gram, 26-31 weeks consisting of 125 who received trophic feeding enterally within the first 48 hours of birth(early group and 45 fed enterally after 72 h0urs (late group, without major congenital birth defects and severe asphyxia entered the study. Bolus feeding was started in both groups at 1-2 cc/kg every 4-6 hours of human milk or preterm infant formula and was advanced 1-2 cc/kg/day if tolerated along with parenteralnutrition. Feeding intolerance, possibility of necrotizing entrocolitis (NEC, episodes of sepsis, body weight,length of NICU stay, and duration of parenteral nutrition were assessed serially.Findings: There were no statistically significant differences in the clinical and maternal characteristics ofinfants in the two groups. The time to gain birth weight (13.75±5.21 vs 20.53±6.31 (P<0.001, duration of parenteral nutrition (9.26±4.572 days vs 14.11±6.415 days (P<0.001, hospital stay (12.14±8.612 vs 21.11±1.156 (P<0.001 were significantly shorter in early compared to late feeding group; none of the twogroups experienced a high incidence of late onset sepsis (P=0.73. There was 1 case of confirmed NEC in every group.Conclusion: The benefits of early trophic feeding shown by this study strongly support its use for the preterm infants without adding to complications.

  4. A serial qualitative interview study of infant feeding experiences: idealism meets realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Leone C A; Britten, Jane; McInnes, Rhona M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infant feeding experiences of women and their significant others from pregnancy until 6 months after birth to establish what would make a difference. Design Qualitative serial interview study. Setting Two health boards in Scotland. Participants 72 of 541 invited pregnant women volunteered. 220 interviews approximately every 4 weeks with 36 women, 26 partners, eight maternal mothers, one sister and two health professionals took place. Results The overarching theme was a clash between overt or covert infant feeding idealism and the reality experienced. This is manifest as pivotal points where families perceive that the only solution that will restore family well-being is to stop breast feeding or introduce solids. Immediate family well-being is the overriding goal rather than theoretical longer term health benefits. Feeding education is perceived as unrealistic, overly technical and rules based which can undermine women's confidence. Unanimously families would prefer the balance to shift away from antenatal theory towards more help immediately after birth and at 3–4 months when solids are being considered. Family-orientated interactive discussions are valued above breastfeeding-centred checklist style encounters. Conclusions Adopting idealistic global policy goals like exclusive breast feeding until 6 months as individual goals for women is unhelpful. More achievable incremental goals are recommended. Using a proactive family-centred narrative approach to feeding care might enable pivotal points to be anticipated and resolved. More attention to the diverse values, meanings and emotions around infant feeding within families could help to reconcile health ideals with reality. PMID:22422915

  5. Intimate Partner Violence Against HIV-Positive Women is Associated with Sub-Optimal Infant Feeding Practices in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampanda, Karen

    2016-12-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to determine how intimate partner violence against HIV-positive women affects safe infant feeding practices in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was conducted with 320 married postpartum women at a large public health center in Lusaka, Zambia, in 2014. Variables were measured using previously validated instruments from the Demographic and Health Survey. Data were analyzed using simple and multivariate logistic regression in Stata 12. Results Thirty-seven percent of women report early mixed infant feeding prior to six months. Women who experienced intimate partner violence have 2.8 higher adjusted odds of early mixed infant feeding (p feeding (p feeding (p feeding (p feeding, putting infants at greater risk for both mother-to-child transmission of HIV and other infant morbidities. Intimate partner violence should thus be given increased attention within the context of infant feeding and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

  6. Knowledge of Breastfeeding Recommendations and Breastfeeding Duration: A Survival Analysis on Infant Feeding Practices II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenborn, Jordyn T; Ihongbe, Timothy; Rozario, Sylvia; Masho, Saba W

    2017-04-01

    According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life followed by breastfeeding with complementary food for up to 2 years of age or beyond. Knowledge of breastfeeding recommendations may greatly influence breastfeeding practices; however, the association between a woman's knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding recommendations and breastfeeding duration is not well explored. This study aims to examine the relationship between knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding recommendations before birth and breastfeeding duration. Data from the prospective, longitudinal 2005-2007 Infant Feeding and Practices Study II were analyzed (N = 2,935). Knowledge of national breastfeeding recommendations (yes; no) was based on a survey question asking the recommended length of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding duration was reported in weeks and was analyzed as any breastfeeding or exclusive breastfeeding. Cox proportional hazard models were used to obtain crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence limits (CLs). Overall, 91.7% of women did not exclusively breastfeed the recommended duration and one in five (21.4%) did not know current breastfeeding recommendations. Women without knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding recommendations had a lower probability of breastfeeding compared with women with knowledge of breastfeeding recommendations. Furthermore, after adjusting for confounders, women without knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding recommendations had 11% higher risk (HR = 1.11; 95% CL = 1.01-1.23) of ceasing breastfeeding at every point in time compared with women who reported knowledge of breastfeeding recommendations while exclusive breastfeeding was not significant. Findings from this study provide evidence that a mother's knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding recommendations impacts breastfeeding practices. Healthcare providers and public health professionals should educate mothers about

  7. Factors influencing the practice of bottle feeding in infants at the well-child clinic Dr. Pirngadi Hospital Medan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman, H; Kaswadharma, K C; Lubis, I Z; Manoeroeng, S M; Lubis, C P

    1991-01-01

    From July to August 1988, a cross sectional analytical study on factors influencing bottle-feeding practice in infants at the Well-Child Clinic Dr. Pirngadi Hospital Medan, was conducted by using a designated interview and questionnaire. The sample size was determined by a standard formula. The purpose of this study was to define factors influencing bottle-feeding practice in infants. During that period, 264 cases were studied. Of 85 infants age 0-3 months, 10 infants (11.7%) were exclusively bottle-fed, 35 (41.2%) bottle- and breast fed and 40 (47.1%) exclusively breast-fed. The practice of bottle feeding seemed to increase with age. In 85 infants of 7-12 months old, 28 (32.9%) were bottle-fed, 29 (34.2%) breast and bottle-fed, and 28 (32.9%) breast-fed. The main reason to use bottle-feeding was that the mother worked outside the house as in the group of infants with working-mothers 30.7% were bottle-fed. In relation to mother's education, it seemed that the practice of bottle-feeding was more frequently found in infants of high-educated mothers (26%). The one child families preferred bottle-feeding more (30.7%). Based on the family income, it seemed that the higher the income, the more they tended to give bottle-feeding. In the age group of 0-6 months, there were 176 well-nourished babies of which 74 were (42.1%) breast feeding, 75 (42.6%) breast- and bottle-feeding, and 27 (15.3%) bottle-feeding. Whereas, of 54 wellnourished babies aged 7-12 months, 15 infants (27.7%) were breast-fed, 20 (37.7%) breast- and bottle-fed, and 19 (35.2%) bottle-fed.

  8. Infant feeding: the interfaces between interaction design and cognitive ergonomics in user-centered design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Flavia; Araújo, Lilian Kely

    2012-01-01

    This text presents a discussion on the process of developing interactive products focused on infant behavior, which result was an interactive game for encouraging infant feeding. For that, it describes the use of cognitive psychology concepts added to interaction design methodology. Through this project, this article sustains how the cooperative use of these concepts provides adherent solutions to users' needs, whichever they are. Besides that, it verifies the closeness of those methodologies to boundary areas of knowledge, such as design focused on user and ergonomics.

  9. Infant feeding practices in a South African birth cohort-A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budree, Shrish; Goddard, Elizabeth; Brittain, Kirsty; Cader, Shihaam; Myer, Landon; Zar, Heather J

    2016-10-02

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. The choices of complementary foods, which are important in infant nutrition, are poorly described in this setting. We investigated infant feeding practices in a South African birth cohort, the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Longitudinal feeding data were collected from March 2012 to March 2015. Feeding practices at birth, 6-10 and 14 weeks and 6, 9, and 12 months, were investigated using food frequency questionnaires. Anthropometry was measured at birth and 12 months. The quality of the diet was analyzed using the World Health Organization infant and young child feeding indicators. Regression models were used to explore associations between feeding and growth outcomes at 1 year. Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was low (13%), and 19% of infants were introduced to solid foods before 4 months. There was high daily consumption of processed meat (56%) and inappropriate foods such as fruit juice (82%), soft drinks (54%), and refined sugary foods (51%) at 1 year. Dietary diversity and consumption of iron rich foods were low at 6 months (5% and 3%, respectively) but higher by 12 months (75% and 78%). Longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a lower height-for-age z-score at 1 year. Several dietary deficits and a rising trend in the consumption of inappropriate nutritionally poor foods were identified. These findings raise concern about poor dietary practices and the impact on child and long-term health.

  10. Recombinant Bile Salt-Stimulated Lipase in Preterm Infant Feeding: A Randomized Phase 3 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Casper

    Full Text Available Feeding strategies are critical for healthy growth in preterm infants. Bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL, present in human milk, is important for fat digestion and absorption but is inactivated during pasteurization and absent in formula. This study evaluated if recombinant human BSSL (rhBSSL improves growth in preterm infants when added to formula or pasteurized breast milk.LAIF (Lipase Added to Infant Feeding was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study in infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. The primary efficacy variable was growth velocity (g/kg/day during 4 weeks intervention. Follow-up visits were at 3 and 12 months. The study was performed at 54 centers in 10 European countries.In total 415 patients were randomized (rhBSSL n = 207, placebo n = 208, 410 patients were analyzed (rhBSSL n = 206, placebo n = 204 and 365 patients were followed until 12 months. Overall, there was no significantly improved growth velocity during rhBSSL treatment compared to placebo (16.77 vs. 16.56 g/kg/day, estimated difference 0.21 g/kg/day, 95% CI [-0.40; 0.83], nor were secondary endpoints met. However, in a predefined subgroup, small for gestational age infants, there was a significant effect on growth in favor of rhBSSL during treatment. The incidence of adverse events was higher in the rhBSSL group during treatment.Although this study did not meet its primary endpoint, except in a subgroup of infants small for gestational age, and there was an imbalance in short-term safety, these data provide insights in nutrition, growth and development in preterm infants.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01413581.

  11. BOTTLE MATERIAL AND CLEANSING PROCEDURES OF INFANT FEEDING BOTTLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Lang

    2016-01-01

    The cleanliness of feeding bottles is vital for child health. Although machine cleansing of bottles in the food industry has been established, mechanical and manual cleansing methods are highly variable. This study was undertaken to determine the differences in the cleanliness of bottles that were cleaned using various combinations of bottle materials [glass and polypropylene (PP)], rinsing water volumes (1/3, 1/2, and 2/3 capacity of a bottle), and sustained shaking times (5 seconds and 20 seconds). Total organic carbon (TOC) and conductivity measurements were respectively used to evaluate the rinsed quantities of organic and inorganic formula residue from feeding bottles. The results indicated that glass bottles filled with rinsing water to 2/3 of their capacity showed the most efficient cleansing performance. However, the PP bottles exhibited a relatively poor cleansing result, particularly for organic cleanliness. The organic residue tends to accumulate on the PP bottle interior because of the aggregation of compounds with similar properties. The shaking time hardly influenced the cleanliness. The glass bottle was superior to the PP bottle in both organic and inorganic cleanliness, and organic constituents were more difficult to rinse from the bottle than the inorganic constituents were.

  12. A fluid mechanical model for current-generating-feeding jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John

    2008-11-01

    Many jellyfish species, e.g. moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita, use body motion to generate fluid currents which carry their prey to the vicinity of their capture appendages. In this study, a model was developed to understand the fluid mechanics for this current-generating-feeding mode of jellyfish. The flow generated by free-swimming Aurelia aurita was measured using digital particle image velocimetry. The dynamics of prey (e.g., brine shrimp Artemia) in the flow field were described by a modified Maxey-Riley equation which takes into consideration the inertia of prey and the escape forces, which prey exert in the presence of predator. A Lagrangian analysis was used to identify the region of the flow in which prey can be captured by the jellyfish and the clearance rate was quantified. The study provides a new methodology to study biological current-generating-feeding and the transport and mixing of particles in fluid flow in general.

  13. Temperament and the mother-infant dyad: associations with breastfeeding and formula feeding with a bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielbratowska, Bogumila; Kazmierczak, Maria; Michalek, Justyna; Preis, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding supports the formation of an emotional bond between mothers and their children. The feeding method is associated with both the child's temperament and the mother's perception of herself and the child. Therefore, the present study focuses on the feeding method, mothers' reaction during feeding, and infants' temperament traits. Ninety-eight mothers with children aged 3 to 5 months participated in the study. Children were assessed with the Children Development Scale (A. Matczak et al., 2007) to measure their temperament. Mothers completed the Mother and Baby Scale (D. Wolke & I. St James-Roberts, 1987, as cited in T.B. Brazelton & K. Nugent, 1995), which measures mothers' evaluation of their children's behaviors during feeding and their overall experiences with their children's care. The results show that breastfed newborns, as compared to bottle-fed newborns, demonstrate higher vigor, which includes activity and the intensity of reaction. Bottle-fed children demonstrate higher regularity than do breastfed children. Mothers who bottle-feed their children perceive themselves to be less confident in the feeding domain than do mothers who breastfeed. Our results indicate that children's temperament might be an important factor in the decision regarding the feeding method. The study supports the idea of promoting knowledge of children's behaviors during feeding among mothers even before their children are born, such as during antenatal classes.

  14. Anemia and Feeding Practices among Infants in Rural Shaanxi Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfu Luo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6–11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infants were administered a finger prick blood test for hemoglobin (Hb. Anthropometric measurement and household survey of demographic characteristics and feeding practices were conducted in the survey. We found that 54.3% of 6–11 month old infants in poor rural China are anemic, and 24.3% of sample infants suffer from moderate or severe anemia. We find that children still breastfed over 6 months of age had lower Hb concentrations and higher anemia prevalence than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p < 0.01, and that children who had ever been formula-fed had significantly higher Hb concentrations and lower anemia prevalence than their non-formula-fed counterparts (p < 0.01. The results suggest the importance of iron supplementation or home fortification while breastfeeding.

  15. Perspectives and reflections on the practice of behaviour change communication for infant and young child feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Gretel H; Martin, Stephanie L; van Liere, Marti J; Fabrizio, Cecilia S

    2016-04-01

    Behaviour change communication (BCC) is a critical component of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) interventions. In this study we asked BCC practitioners working in low- and middle-income countries to participate in an examination of BCC practice. We focus here on results of their personal reflections related to larger issues of practice. We used a combination of iterative triangulation and snowball sampling procedures to obtain a sample of 29 BCC professionals. Major themes include (1) participants using tools and guidelines to structure their work, and many consider their organisation's tools to be their most important contribution to the field; (2) they value research to facilitate programme design and implementation; (3) half felt research needed to increase; (4) they have a strong commitment to respecting cultural beliefs and culturally appropriate programming; (5) they are concerned about lack of a strong theoretical foundation for their work. Based on participants' perspectives and the authors' reflections, we identified the following needs: (1) conducting a systematic examination of the alternative theoretical structures that are available for nutrition BCC, followed by a review of the evidence base and suggestions for future programmatic research to fill the gaps in knowledge; (2) developing a checklist of common patterns to facilitate efficiency in formative research; (3) developing an analytic compendium of current IYCF BCC guidelines and tools; (4) developing tools and guidelines that cover the full programme process, including use of innovative channels to support 'scaling up nutrition'; and (5) continued support for programmes of proven effectiveness.

  16. Backcasting to identify food waste prevention and mitigation opportunities for infant feeding in maternity services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan-Fogarty, Yvonne; Becker, Genevieve; Moles, Richard; O'Regan, Bernadette

    2017-03-01

    Food waste in hospitals is of major concern for two reasons: one, healthcare needs to move toward preventative and demand led models for sustainability and two, food system sustainability needs to seek preventative measures such as diet adaptation and waste prevention. The impact of breast-milk substitute use on health services are well established in literature in terms of healthcare implications, cost and resourcing, however as a food demand and waste management issue little has been published to date. This paper presents the use of a desk based backcasting method to analyse food waste prevention, mitigation and management options within the Irish Maternity Service. Best practice in healthcare provision and waste management regulations are used to frame solutions. Strategic problem orientation revealed that 61% of the volume of ready to use breast-milk substitutes purchased by maternity services remains unconsumed and ends up as waste. Thirteen viable strategies to prevent and manage this waste were identified. Significant opportunities exist to prevent waste and also decrease food demand leading to both positive health and environmental outcomes. Backcasting methods display great promise in delivering food waste management strategies in healthcare settings, especially where evidenced best practice policies exist to inform solution forming processes. In terms of food waste prevention and management, difficulties arise in distinguishing between demand reduction, waste prevention and waste reduction measures under the current Waste Management Hierarchy definitions. Ultimately demand reduction at source requires prioritisation, a strategy which is complimentary to health policy on infant feeding.

  17. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF INFANT FEEDING PRACTICES AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN EASTERN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ratan; Amitava

    2015-01-01

    Poor infant feeding practices and their consequences are one of the world's major problems and a serious obstacle to social and economic development. Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival , birth spacing , and the prevent ion of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation , duration , and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. Breastfeeding practices vary among differ...

  18. Infant feeding practices and diarrhoea in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbo, Felix A; Agho, Kingsley; Ogeleka, Pascal; Woolfenden, Sue; Page, Andrew; Eastwood, John

    2017-01-01

    The impacts of optimal infant feeding practices on diarrhoea have been documented in some developing countries, but not in countries with high diarrhoea mortality as reported by the World Health Organisation/United Nations Children's Fund. We aimed to investigate the association between infant feeding practices and diarrhoea in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality. The study used the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets collected in nine sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality, namely: Burkina Faso (2010, N = 9,733); Demographic Republic of Congo (2013; N = 10,458); Ethiopia (2013, N = 7,251); Kenya (2014, N = 14,034); Mali (2013, N = 6,365); Niger (2013, N = 7,235); Nigeria (2013, N = 18,539); Tanzania (2010, N = 5,013); and Uganda (2010, N = 4,472). Multilevel logistic regression models that adjusted for cluster and sampling weights were used to investigate the association between infant feeding practices and diarrhoea in these nine African countries. Diarrhoea prevalence was lower among children whose mothers practiced early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding were significantly associated with lower risk of diarrhoea (OR = 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77-0.85, Pbreastfeeding at one year (OR = 1.27; 95%CI: 1.05-1.55) were significantly associated with a higher risk of diarrhoea. Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding are protective of diarrhoea in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality. To reduce diarrhoea mortality and also achieve the health-related sustainable development goals in sub-Saharan African, an integrated, multi-agency strategic partnership within each country is needed to improve optimal infant feeding practices.

  19. Food Based Complementary Feeding Strategies for Breastfed Infants: What's the Evidence that it Matters?

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    The period of complementary feeding represents a major portion of the 1000 day critical window and thus impacts a period of substantial and dynamic infant development. This review highlights and synthesizes findings of several recent studies conducted to evaluate food based strategies on outcomes related to micronutrient status, growth and neurocognitive development. Particular emphasis is placed on interventions using meat or fortified products to impact iron and zinc intakes, due to the dep...

  20. Infant milk feeding influences adult bone health: a prospective study from birth to 32 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Pirilä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peak bone mass, attained by early adulthood, is influenced by genetic and life-style factors. Early infant feeding and duration of breastfeeding in particular, associate with several health-related parameters in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine whether the effects of early infant feeding extend to peak bone mass and other bone health characteristics at adult age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cohort of 158 adults (76 males born in Helsinki, Finland, 1975, prospectively followed up from birth, underwent physical examination and bone densitometry to study bone area, bone mineral content (BMC, and bone mineral density (BMD at 32 years of age. Life-style factors relevant for bone health were recorded. For data analysis the cohort was divided into three equal-size groups according to the total duration of breastfeeding (BF: Short (≤3 months, Intermediate and Prolonged (≥7 months BF groups. In males short BF is associated with higher bone area, BMC, and BMD compared to longer BF. Males in the Short BF group had on average 4.7% higher whole body BMD than males in the Prolonged BF group. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for multiple confounding factors, the influence of BF duration on adult bone characteristics persisted in males. Differences between the three feeding groups were observed in lumbar spine bone area and BMC, and whole body BMD (MANCOVA; p = 0.025, p = 0.013, and p = 0.048, respectively, favoring the Short BF group. In women no differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In men, early infant milk feeding may have a significant impact on adult bone health. A potential explanation is that the calcium and phosphate contents were strikingly higher in formula milk and commercial cow milk/cow milk dilutions as opposed to human milk. Our novel finding merits further studies to determine means to ensure optimal bone mass development in infants with prolonged breastfeeding.

  1. Infant Feeding Practices And Its Impact On The Prevalence Of Protein Energy- Malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nanda

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein-Energy-Malnulrition is an important Public Hea Ith Problem among infants and young children. Though poverty is known to be the major fac­tor but faulty feeding habits arising out of ignorance often lead to inadequate intake of essential nutrients by the infant. In order to find out the actual prevailing feeding practices and its impact on the nutritional status of infants this study conducted in one urban andtivo rural units of Varanasi district by adopting appropriate sampling procedure. In a II mothers of360 infants (120 in each study un it were interviewed regarding breastfeeding practices, dilution and nature of top milk, age of introducing supplementaryfeeding etc. It was observed that the o verall prevalence of PEM was sig­nificantly higher in bottle fed group (72.73% than spoonfed group (40.11%. Similarly the prevalence of PEM was 67.86% in late weaned group as compared to 48.38% in optimum weaned group.

  2. Infant feeding options, other nonchemoprophylactic factors, and mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Kwasi; Kabaso, Mushota; Weaver, Mark A; Kasonde, Prisca; Mukonka, Victor; Bweupe, Maximillian; Mukundu, Jonathan; Mandala, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The role of antiretroviral drugs in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV is well known. The objective of this study is to explore how nonchemoprophylactic factors, including infant feeding practices, mother's HIV status disclosure, mode and place of delivery, infant gender, and maternal age, are related to MTCT. The study analyzed program data of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results from dried blood spot samples and selected client information from perinatally exposed infants aged 0 to 12 months. A total of 8237 samples were analyzed. In all, 84% of the mothers ever breast-fed their children. In instances where both mother and baby received intervention, the transmission rates of HIV were higher among those who are still breast-feeding after 6 to 12 months. Disclosure, location, and mode of delivery did not have an effect on the transmission rates of HIV when both mother and baby received prophylaxis. Nonchemoprophylaxis factors, especially breast-feeding, play a key role in perinatal transmission of HIV.

  3. Women Literacy and Infant Feeding Practices in Rural Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS Block of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davey Sanjeev , Davey Anuradha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant feeding practices have significant effect on the child nutrition, which largely dependent upon the mothers correct knowledge and awareness for the same. Objective: To find out effect of rural women empowerment through literacy on infant feeding practices in an ICDS block. Material and Methodology: Interview of the mothers of registered children up to 6 years in the rural ICDS block for the feeding practices and recording of the weight of those registered children by the salter weighing scale for their nutritional status. Results: Three fourth of the children had received ceremonial feed in the form of honey or gutti and 40 percent of the mothers in our study has discarded colostrums, considering it as ‘bad milk’. Exclusive breast feeding was received by 34.6% children. As literacy level of mothers increased the nutritional status of children was better. This could be because most of the women who are middle school passed or above are non working, so are able to give more time for care and feeding practices. The Severe malnutrition (grade III and IV was evident only in illiterate category of mothers, where 58.7% women were working in unskilled or semiskilled job outside home. Conclusion: Women living in chronic hunger are forced to unskilled jobs for income generation for the family, thereby influencing the feeding practices of their children. In such scenario AWCs and AWWs can be a unique opportunity with their focused approach to take care of severe and moderate malnutrition.

  4. Parental control over feeding in infancy. Influence of infant weight, appetite and feeding method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fildes, A.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Llewellyn, C.; Wardle, J.; Fisher, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Parental control over feeding has been linked to child overweight. Parental control behaviours have been assumed to be exogenous to the child, but emerging evidence suggests they are also child-responsive. This study tests the hypothesis that parental control in early

  5. Parental control over feeding in infancy. Influence of infant weight, appetite and feeding method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fildes, A.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Llewellyn, C.; Wardle, J.; Fisher, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Parental control over feeding has been linked to child overweight. Parental control behaviours have been assumed to be exogenous to the child, but emerging evidence suggests they are also child-responsive. This study tests the hypothesis that parental control in early infan

  6. Mother-Infant Vocal Interaction During Feeding at Six and Nine Months and Its Relationship to Maternal Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, Jill C.

    This study explored the relationship between maternal sensitivity and the development of mother-infant vocal interaction. Two characteristics of mother and infant vocalizations were assessed at six and nine months in a home feeding situation: (1) the degree of mutual responsiveness, and (2) the affective quality of vocalization. These assessments…

  7. Infants-feeding practices and their relationship with socio-economic and health conditions in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Ijaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pakistan, has high infant mortality rate. Among every 1000 live births 0.76% becomes the victim of death due to malnutrition and fatal infections. Therefore, feeding modes and practices may serve as important factors for assessment of an infant's growth and nutritional status. This study was designed to assess the exclusive breast feeding rate, frequency of diseases during breast feeding, status of breast feeding along with weaning, level of education, occupation and socio-economic status of parents. Methods: In the descriptive and cross-sectional study, a total of one hundred (100 infants were included. The sampling technique was non-probability convenience sampling. This study was conducted at vaccination centers and children clinics in different hospitals in city of Lahore -Pakistan. Results: The results showed that 67% of the mothers exclusively breastfed their babies. 64% of the mothers had knowledge of exclusive breast feeding. The practice of breast feeding was found as 81% while artificial feeding was practiced among 19% of the mothers. Majority of the mothers started weaning their babies at the age 4 (31% and 6 months (32% whereas 28% mothers started after 6 months. 54% of mothers continued breastfeeding along with weaning. 72% of the mothers were aware of the importance of colostrum. Conclusion: Maternal education and women's employment have been found major determinants for breastfeeding. The result indicates that in Pakistan, mothers receive counseling on breast feeding which is quite satisfactory and feeding practices of infants are found as better in Pakistan.

  8. Association between feeding methods and sucking habits: a cross-sectional study of infants in their first 18 months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezu, Takuro; Arano-Kojima, Taiko; Kumazawa, Kaido; Shintani, Seikou

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate infant feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding methods on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Japanese infants. A random sample of 353 mothers of infants of 18 months of age was interviewed at a public health facility in "K" city. The prevalence and duration of infant feeding patterns categorized as breast-feeding, partial breast-feeding, and bottle-feeding, were determined. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits (pacifier use and finger sucking). The data were analyzed using the Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons to assess possible association between feeding method and non-nutritive sucking behavior. The infants were categorized into the following groups depending on feeding method: breast-feeding (27.2%), partial breast-feeding (32.0%), or bottle-feeding (40.8%). Among all infants, 13.9% used a pacifier, 18.4% sucked their fingers, and 0.3% had both habits at 18 months of age. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and finger sucking. In contrast, bottle-feeding was strongly associated with pacifier use and finger sucking. These results suggest that breast-feeding provides benefits to infants, and that non-nutritive sucking habits may be avoided by promoting correct breast-feeding practices.

  9. Current concepts and issues in the management of regurgitation of infants : A reappraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenplas, Y; Belli, D; Benhamou, PH; Cadranel, S; Cezard, JP; Cucchiara, S; Dupont, C; Faure, C; Gottrand, F; Hassall, E; Heymans, HSA; Kneepkens, CMF; Sandhu, BK

    1996-01-01

    Regurgitation in infants is a common problem. Recent issues, such as the increased risk of sudden infant death in the prone sleeping position, the finding of persisting occult gastro-oesophageal reflux with feed thickeners, and the increasing awareness of the cost-benefit ratio of medications may ch

  10. Infant and Young Child Feeding – Knowledge and Practices of ASHA workers of Doiwala Block, Dehradun District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartika Saxena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Promotion and support of breastfeeding is a global priority and an important child-survival intervention. Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs can play a significant role in the promotion of breast-feeding. Present research paper reviews their knowledge & practices with respect to Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF issues. Further, it also analyzes difficulties being faced by them in promoting positive IYCF practices so that necessary support can be provided for carrying out their desired role. Material and Methods: It was a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted in the block Doiwala of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand. All 168 ASHAs were included in the study for the assessment of knowledge and practices by interview technique based on predesigned and pre-tested questionnaire. Results: 98% ASHAs had complete and correct information about exclusive breast feeding, however only 38% ASHAs were aware that breastfeeding should be started within 4 hours in children delivered by caesarean section. Only 18% ASHAs reported to be able to motivate mothers to practice exclusive breast feeding. Insufficient mother’s milk (55.4%, Caesarean sections (20.2%, coercion from elders in the family to start top milk were among the important factors attributed for failure of exclusive breastfeeding. Regarding complementary feeding, only 45% ASHAs knew the correct timing of initiation of complementary feeding; however 58% ASHAs had introduced the complementary feeding at 7th month in their children. 83.9% ASHAs knew that complementary food should be semisolid in consistency, while 87.5% and 32.7% ASHAs were aware that egg and non-vegetarian food items can be given as complementary food to the child. Bottle feeding had been practiced by about 33% of ASHAs in the past; however no ASHA had reported bottle feeding currently. Conclusion: Present research paper concludes that although knowledge level of ASHAs is high regarding IYCF practices but

  11. The effects of infant feeding patterns on the occlusion of the primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charchut, Steven W; Allred, Elizabeth N; Needleman, Howard L

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different methods of infant feeding on the development of the occlusion in the primary dentition. The study included 126 children. Parents completed questionnaires regarding feeding and health history, and the primary dental occlusion was recorded for each child. The authors found that: (1) predominant bottle-feeding between 0 and 6 months of age was associated with the development of a pacifier habit; (2) children who used a pacifier were more likely to develop a nonmesial step occlusion, an overjet >3 mm, and an open bite; (3) children who sucked their thumb were more likely to develop an overjet >3 mm; and (4) in the absence ofnonnutritive oral habits, children who were predominantly bottle-fed between 0 and 6 months of age were more likely to develop an overbite >75%, although just shy of nominal statistical significance.

  12. Feeding patterns before 6 months of age: the relative validity of recall from interviews of mothers of Guatemalan infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossenaar, Marieke; van Beusekom, Ilse; Doak, Colleen; Solomons, Noel W

    2014-01-01

    The WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 mo of life; however, deviations from this recommendation are widespread. The objective of the current study was to evaluate exclusive and predominant breastfeeding rates, as defined by the WHO, in a cross-sectional sample of Guatemalan children using retrospective records on the temporal pattern of introducing foods and beverages before 6 mo. Mothers of 150 infants, aged 6 to 23 mo, attending a public health clinic were interviewed about early life feeding practices with a structured questionnaire. In addition, the plausibility of the reported offering of liquids and foods, other than breast milk, since birth was checked against reported current feeding practices. We observed that estimated exclusive breastfeeding was rare with 14% of infants receiving exclusive breastfeeding for 5 mo, and only 9% for the recommended 6 mo. The proportion of infants with predominant breastfeeding, which allows certain liquids such as water, juices and ritual fluids, was 33% through 5 mo and 23% through 6 mo. One-quarter of mothers (n=38) reported implausible answers concerning age-of-introduction of liquids and foods. Nevertheless, retrospective reports at up to 2 y give credible outcomes for estimations of feeding pattern at 6 mo of age. Our findings match the findings of other studies conducted in Guatemala. Overall adherence to the WHO guidelines for feeding in the first semester of infancy was much less than ideal and in need of strengthening.

  13. Gendered perceptions on infant feeding in Eastern Uganda: continued need for exclusive breastfeeding support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamagi Charles A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-poor settings, HIV positive mothers are recommended to choose between 'Exclusive breastfeeding' (EBF or 'Exclusive replacement feeding' (ERF. Acceptability, Feasibility, Affordability, Sustainability and Safety (AFASS has been the World Health Organization (WHO's a priori criteria for ERF the last ten years. 'AFASS' has become a mere acronym among many workers in the field of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, PMTCT. Thereby, non-breastfeeding has been suggested irrespective of social norms. EBF for the first half of infancy is associated with huge health benefits for children in areas where infant mortality is high. But, even if EBF has been recommended for a decade, few mothers are practicing it. We set out to understand fathers' and mothers' infant feeding perceptions and the degree to which EBF and ERF were 'AFASS.' Methods Eight focus groups with 81 informants provided information for inductive content analysis. Four groups were held by men among men and four groups by women among women in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda. Results Two study questions emerged: How are the different feeding options understood and accepted? And, what are men's and women's responsibilities related to infant feeding? A mother's commitment to breastfeed and the husband's commitment to provide for the family came out strongly. Not breastfeeding a newborn was seen as dangerous and as unacceptable, except in cases of maternal illness. Men argued that not breastfeeding could entail sanctions by kin or in court. But, in general, both men and women regarded EBF as 'not enough' or even 'harmful.' Among men, not giving supplements to breast milk was associated with poverty and men's failure as providers. Women emphasised lack of time, exhaustion, poverty and hunger as factors for limited breast milk production. Although women had attended antenatal teaching they expressed a need to know more. Most men felt left out from

  14. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-11-17

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89-0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p 1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age-Z-score of the birthweight; r = -0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086-12.597, p hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure through breastfeeding and fish intake as a complementary food did not directly affect anthropometry in this population. If prolonged breastfeeding is expected, however, the Hg exposure through fish intake may need to be monitored for both mothers and infants.

  15. Iodine status and associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development in six-month-old South African infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Jennifer; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Rothman, Marinel; Matsungo, Tonderayi M; Covic, Namukolo; Faber, Mieke; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2016-12-28

    Iodine is important for normal growth and psychomotor development. While infants below 6 months of age receive iodine from breast milk or fortified infant formula, the introduction of complementary foods poses a serious risk for deteriorating iodine status. This cross-sectional analysis assessed the iodine status of six-month-old South African infants and explored its associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development. Iodine concentrations were measured in infant (n = 386) and maternal (n = 371) urine (urinary iodine concentration [UIC]), and in breast milk (n = 257 [breast milk iodine concentrations]). Feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development were assessed in all infants. The median (25th-75th percentile) UIC in infants was 345 (213-596) μg/L and was significantly lower in stunted (302 [195-504] μg/L) than non-stunted (366 [225-641] μg/L) infants. Only 6.7% of infants were deficient. Maternal UIC (128 [81-216] μg/L; rs  = 0.218, p psychomotor developmental scores were observed. Our results suggest that iodine intake in the studied six-month-old infants was adequate. Iodine in breast milk and commercial infant cereals potentially contributed to this adequate intake.

  16. Global trends and patterns of commercial milk-based formula sales: is an unprecedented infant and young child feeding transition underway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Smith, Julie; Salmon, Libby; Friel, Sharon; Kent, George; Iellamo, Alessandro; Dadhich, J P; Renfrew, Mary J

    2016-10-01

    The marketing of infant/child milk-based formulas (MF) contributes to suboptimal breast-feeding and adversely affects child and maternal health outcomes globally. However, little is known about recent changes in MF markets. The present study describes contemporary trends and patterns of MF sales at the global, regional and country levels. Descriptive statistics of trends and patterns in MF sales volume per infant/child for the years 2008-2013 and projections to 2018, using industry-sourced data. Eighty countries categorized by country income bracket, for developing countries by region, and in countries with the largest infant/child populations. MF categories included total (for ages 0-36 months), infant (0-6 months), follow-up (7-12 months), toddler (13-36 months) and special (0-6 months). In 2008-2013 world total MF sales grew by 40·8 % from 5·5 to 7·8 kg per infant/child/year, a figure predicted to increase to 10·8 kg by 2018. Growth was most rapid in East Asia particularly in China, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam and was led by the infant and follow-up formula categories. Sales volume per infant/child was positively associated with country income level although with wide variability between countries. A global infant and young child feeding (IYCF) transition towards diets higher in MF is underway and is expected to continue apace. The observed increase in MF sales raises serious concern for global child and maternal health, particularly in East Asia, and calls into question the efficacy of current regulatory regimes designed to protect and promote optimal IYCF. The observed changes have not been captured by existing IYCF monitoring systems.

  17. The timing of complementary feeding in preterm infants and the effect on overweight: study protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Karin M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Goudoever, van H.; Janse, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    In term infants, there is evidence that early complementary feeding is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Therefore, timely introduction of complementary feeding during infancy is necessary. The World Health Organization (WHO) and European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology

  18. Feeding and Nutrition of Infants and Young Children. Guidelines for the WHO European Region. WHO Regional Office for Europe. 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen; Fleischcer Michælsen, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Good feeding practices will prevent malnutrition and early growth retardation, which is still common in some parts of the WHO European Region, especially countries of the former Soviet Union. Despite the importance of nutrition and feeding of infants and young children, limited attention has been...

  19. The timing of complementary feeding in preterm infants and the effect on overweight: study protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Karin M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Goudoever, van H.; Janse, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    In term infants, there is evidence that early complementary feeding is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Therefore, timely introduction of complementary feeding during infancy is necessary. The World Health Organization (WHO) and European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hep

  20. How Feasible Is Baby-Led Weaning as an Approach to Infant Feeding? A Review of the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael W. Taylor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Baby-Led Weaning (BLW is an alternative method for introducing complementary foods to infants in which the infant feeds themselves hand-held foods instead of being spoon-fed by an adult. The BLW infant also shares family food and mealtimes and is offered milk (ideally breast milk on demand until they self-wean. Anecdotal evidence suggests that many parents are choosing this method instead of conventional spoon-feeding of purées. Observational studies suggest that BLW may encourage improved eating patterns and lead to a healthier body weight, although it is not yet clear whether these associations are causal. This review evaluates the literature with respect to the prerequisites for BLW, which we have defined as beginning complementary foods at six months (for safety reasons, and exclusive breastfeeding to six months (to align with WHO infant feeding guidelines; the gross and oral motor skills required for successful and safe self-feeding of whole foods from six months; and the practicalities of family meals and continued breastfeeding on demand. Baby-Led Weaning will not suit all infants and families, but it is probably achievable for most. However, ultimately, the feasibility of BLW as an approach to infant feeding can only be determined in a randomized controlled trial. Given the popularity of BLW amongst parents, such a study is urgently needed.

  1. PECULIARITIES OF BREAST FEEDING OF PREMATURE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Kotlukov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6: 170–175

  2. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayana Regina de Souza Grance

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant.

  3. Food Based Complementary Feeding Strategies for Breastfed Infants: What's the Evidence that it Matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Nancy F

    2014-01-01

    The period of complementary feeding represents a major portion of the 1000 day critical window and thus impacts a period of substantial and dynamic infant development. This review highlights and synthesizes findings of several recent studies conducted to evaluate food based strategies on outcomes related to micronutrient status, growth and neurocognitive development. Particular emphasis is placed on interventions using meat or fortified products to impact iron and zinc intakes, due to the dependence of breastfed infants on complementary food choices to meet requirements for these two critical micronutrients. Regular consumption of modest amounts of meat or fortified cereals provides adequate absorbed zinc to meet estimated physiologic requirements, whereas homeostatic adaptation to lower zinc intake from unfortified cereal/plant staples is inadequate to meet requirements. Iron fortification of cereals may be somewhat more effective than meat to improve iron status, but neither prevents iron deficiency in breastfed infants, even in westernized settings. Improvements in the quality of complementary foods have had very modest effects on linear growth in settings where stunting is prevalent. Maternal education is strongly associated with both linear growth and with child neurodevelopment. The determinants of early growth faltering are more complex and intractable than 'simple' dietary deficiencies of micronutrients. Solutions to growth faltering in young children most likely need to be multi-factorial, and almost certainly will need to start earlier than the complementary feeding period.

  4. Parent Health Literacy and “Obesogenic” Feeding and Physical Activity-related Infant Care Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H. Shonna; Sanders, Lee M.; Rothman, Russell L.; Shustak, Rachel; Eden, Svetlana K.; Shintani, Ayumi; Cerra, Maria E.; Cruzatte, Evelyn F.; Perrin, Eliana M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between parent health literacy and “obesogenic” infant care behaviors. Study design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary care-based, early childhood obesity prevention program (Greenlight). English and Spanish-speaking parents of 2 month old children enrolled (n=844). The primary predictor variable was a parent health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA); adequate>=23; lowparent age, race/ethnicity, language, number of adults/children in home, income, and site. Results 11.0% of parents were categorized as having low health literacy. Low health literacy significantly increased the odds of a parent reporting that they feed more formula than breast milk (AOR=2.0 [95%CI:1.2–3.5]), immediately feed when their child cries (AOR=1.8[1.1–2.8]), bottle prop (AOR=1.8 [1.002–3.1]), any infant TV watching (AOR=1.8 [1.1–3.0]), and inadequate tummy time (parent health literacy is associated with certain obesogenic infant care behaviors. These behaviors may be modifiable targets for low health literacy-focused interventions to help reduce childhood obesity. PMID:24370343

  5. Parent health literacy and "obesogenic" feeding and physical activity-related infant care behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H Shonna; Sanders, Lee M; Rothman, Russell L; Shustak, Rachel; Eden, Svetlana K; Shintani, Ayumi; Cerra, Maria E; Cruzatte, Evelyn F; Perrin, Eliana M

    2014-03-01

    To examine the relationship between parent health literacy and "obesogenic" infant care behaviors. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary care-based early childhood obesity prevention program (Greenlight). English- and Spanish-speaking parents of 2-month-old children were enrolled (n = 844). The primary predictor variable was parent health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults; adequate ≥ 23; low parent age, race/ethnicity, language, number of adults/children in home, income, and site. Eleven percent of parents were categorized as having low health literacy. Low health literacy significantly increased the odds of a parent reporting that they feed more formula than breast milk, (aOR = 2.0 [95% CI: 1.2-3.5]), immediately feed when their child cries (aOR = 1.8 [1.1-2.8]), bottle prop (aOR = 1.8 [1.002-3.1]), any infant TV watching (aOR = 1.8 [1.1-3.0]), and inadequate tummy time (parent health literacy is associated with certain obesogenic infant care behaviors. These behaviors may be modifiable targets for low health literacy-focused interventions to help reduce childhood obesity. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A descriptive study of Cambodian refugee infant feeding practices in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labbok Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine Cambodian refugee mothers' infant feeding beliefs, practices, and decision making regarding infant feeding in the U.S. and to explore if a culturally-specific breastfeeding program is appropriate for this community. Methods A self-administered questionnaire and a 30 minute in-person interview were used to collect information from nine women. The audio-taped interviews were transcribed, answers compiled, and themes from each question identified. Results All participants practiced either traditional Cambodian diet (pregnancy and postpartum diet including, tnam sraa, herbs mixed with either wine or tea, traditional Cambodian rituals (like spung, amodified sauna or both, despite having lived in the U.S. for many years. All nine women initiated breastfeeding, however eight women introduced infant formula while in hospital. Perceived low milk supply and returning to work were the main reasons cited for partial breastfeeding and early cessation of breastfeeding. Conclusion While causes of initiation of other foods are similar to those found in the U.S. as a whole, a culturally-specific Cambodian breastfeeding support program may help overcome some breastfeeding problems reported by Cambodian refugee mothers who have immigrated to the United States.

  7. Predicting and understanding mothers' infant-feeding intentions and behavior: testing the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manstead, A S; Proffitt, C; Smart, J L

    1983-04-01

    The present study examines the applicability of Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action to the prediction and understanding of how primiparous and multiparous mothers intended to feed their infants and how they actually fed these infants during the 6 weeks following delivery. Measures of attitudes to behavior, subjective norms, and behavioral intentions were taken during the last trimester of pregnancy. Behavior was assessed by self-report 6 weeks postpartum. In most respects the findings supported the theory of reasoned action. However, attitudes to behavior were found to make an independent and significant contribution to the prediction of infant-feeding behavior, and the previous behavior of multiparous mothers explained an independent and significant proportion of variation in their behavioral intentions. The relative importance of the attitudinal and normative components of the theoretical model tended to vary according to whether the mothers had direct experience of the criterion behavior. Further analysis revealed that mothers who breast-fed during the 6-week postpartum period differed from those who bottle-fed exclusively during this period on a number of behavioral beliefs, outcome evaluations, and normative beliefs, and on one measure of motivation to comply. The implications of these findings for the theory of reasoned action are discussed.

  8. Pervasive promotion of breastmilk substitutes in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and high usage by mothers for infant and young child feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L.; Mengkheang, Khin; Kroeun, Hou; Champeny, Mary; Roberts, Margarette; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In 2005, Cambodia passed the Sub‐Decree on Marketing of Products for Infant and Young Child Feeding (no. 133) to regulate promotion of commercial infant and young child food products, including breastmilk substitutes. Helen Keller International assessed mothers' exposure to commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes and use of these products through a cross‐sectional survey among 294 mothers of children less than 24 months of age. Eighty‐six per cent of mothers reported observing commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes, 19.0% reported observing infant and young child food product brands/logos on health facility equipment and 18.4% reported receiving a recommendation from a health professional to use a breastmilk substitute. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was high, occurring among 43.1% of children 0–5 months and 29.3% of children 6–23 months of age. Findings also indicated a need to improve breastfeeding practices among Phnom Penh mothers. Only 36.1% of infants 0–5 months of age were exclusively breastfed, and 12.5% of children 20–23 months of age were still breastfed. Children that received a breastmilk substitute as a prelacteal feed were 3.9 times more likely to be currently consuming a breastmilk substitute than those who did not. Despite restriction of commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes without government approval, occurrence of promotions is high and use is common among Phnom Penh mothers. In a country with high rates of child malnutrition and pervasive promotions in spite of restrictive national law, full implementation of Cambodia's Sub‐Decree 133 is necessary, as are policies and interventions to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Key messages Despite prohibition without specific approval by the national government, companies are pervasively promoting breast‐milk substitutes in Phnom Penh, particularly on television and at points of sale.Strengthened implementation and enforcement

  9. Survival and health benefits of breastfeeding versus artificial feeding in infants of HIV-infected women: developing versus developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace

    2010-12-01

    Infant feeding policies for HIV-infected women in developing countries differ from policies in developed countries. This article summarizes the epidemiologic data on the risks and benefits of various infant feeding practices for HIV-infected women living in different contexts. Artificial feeding can prevent a large proportion of mother-to-child HIV transmission but also is associated with increases in morbidity and mortality among exposed-uninfected and HIV-infected children. Antiretroviral drugs can be used during lactation and reduce risks of transmission. For most of the developing world, the health and survival benefits of breastfeeding exceed the risks of HIV transmission, especially when antiretroviral interventions are provided.

  10. Identification of Risk Factors for Poor Feeding in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease and a Novel Approach to Improve Oral Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indramohan, Gitanjali; Pedigo, Tiffany P; Rostoker, Nicole; Cambare, Mae; Grogan, Tristan; Federman, Myke D

    2017-02-03

    Many infants with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) do not develop the skills to feed orally and are discharged home on gastrostomy tube or nasogastric feeds. We aimed to identify risk factors for failure to achieve full oral feeding and evaluate the efficacy of oral motor intervention for increasing the rate of discharge on full oral feeds by performing a prospective study in the neonatal and cardiac intensive care units of a tertiary children's hospital. 23 neonates born at ≥37weeks gestation and diagnosed with single-ventricle physiology requiring a surgical shunt were prospectively enrolled and received oral motor intervention therapy. 40 historical controls were identified. Mean length of stay was 53.7days for the control group and 40.9days for the study group (p=0.668). 13/23 patients who received oral motor intervention therapy (56.5%) and 18/40 (45.0%) controls were on full oral feeds at discharge, a difference of 11.5% (95% CI -13.9% to 37.0%, p=0.378). Diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, longer intubation and duration of withholding enteral feeds, and presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease were predictors of poor oral feeding on univariate analysis. Although we did not detect a statistically significant impact of oral motor intervention, we found clinically meaningful differences in hospital length of stay and feeding tube requirement. Further research should be undertaken to evaluate methods for improving oral feeding in these at-risk infants.

  11. 早产儿喂养不耐受%Feeding intolerance in preterm infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霞(综述); 李志奇(审校)

    2015-01-01

    Feeding intolerance in preterm infants,which is an important issue that the neonatal pediatri-cians have to work out,leads to malnutrition of early preterm infants and growth restriction which have an impact on later behavioral and cognitive outcomes. Feeding intolerance is related to the immature of gastrointestinal function,perinatal asphyxia,infection and other diseases. Minimal enteral feeding,prokinetic agents and supple-mentation of the enteral probiotics,are used generally,but at present there is no guidelines for the prevention and treatment.%早产儿喂养不耐受可导致早期营养不良、生长受限,对以后的行为和认知产生影响,是目前新生儿科医生面临的重要问题。喂养不耐受与早产儿胃肠功能不成熟、围生期窒息、感染等疾病因素相关。临床治疗常采用微量喂养,促胃肠动力药、口服益生菌等方法,但目前尚无统一的预防和治疗指南。

  12. Innovations in infant milk feeding: from the past to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold

    2010-01-01

    Innovation is important for life science and economy, but the value of innovation for public health depends on its impact on promoting health. Breastfeeding is not innovative but evolved slowly over 250-300 million years, yet its total benefits are not surpassed by more innovative ways of infant feeding. Until the 19th century, infants fed inadequate breast milk substitutes suffered from high mortality. In 1865 a major improvement was von Liebig's 'soup for infants', the first breast milk substitute based on chemical human milk analysis, soon followed by commercial applications. Other early innovations include whey protein-dominant formula, addition of specific carbohydrates to promote bifidobacteria ('prebiotic') and of live bacteria ('probiotic'), predecessors of apparently recent innovations. Opportunities for innovations exist since many outcomes in formula-fed infants do not match those in breastfed populations. Of concern, expected economic benefits through innovations may override scientific arguments. Business and marketing desires must be counterbalanced by independent pediatric and scientific evaluation. Developing innovations with relevant outcome effects is complex, costly and cannot be expected to occur every few years. Cooperation between academic investigators, small and medium enterprises with high innovative potential, and large industries promotes progress and should be facilitated, e.g. by public research funding. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Infant feeding and growth trajectory patterns in childhood and body composition in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzehak, Peter; Oddy, Wendy H; Mearin, M Luisa; Grote, Veit; Mori, Trevor A; Szajewska, Hania; Shamir, Raanan; Koletzko, Sibylle; Weber, Martina; Beilin, Lawrence J; Huang, Rae-Chi; Koletzko, Berthold

    2017-08-01

    Background: Growth patterns of breastfed and formula-fed infants may differ, with formula-fed infants growing more rapidly than breastfed infants into childhood and adulthood.Objective: Our objectives were to identify growth patterns and investigate early nutritional programming potential on growth patterns at 6 y and on body composition at 20 y.Design: The West Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study and 3 European cohort studies (European Childhood Obesity Trial, Norwegian Human Milk Study, and Prevention of Coeliac Disease) that collaborate in the European Union-funded Early Nutrition project combined, harmonized, and pooled data on full breastfeeding, anthropometry, and body composition. Latent growth mixture modeling was applied to identify growth patterns among the 6708 individual growth trajectories. The association of full breastfeeding for patterns were identified and labeled as follows-class 1: persistent, accelerating, rapid growth (5%); class 2: early, nonpersistent, rapid growth (40%); and class 3: normative growth (55%). A shorter duration of full breastfeeding for patterns in early childhood could be a mediating link between infant feeding and long-term obesity risk. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. DDT in fishes from four different Amazon sites: exposure assessment for breast feeding infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amato, C.; Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Lab. de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Inst. de Biofisica, UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Bastos, W. [Lab. de Biogeoquimica, UNIR, Porto Velho (Brazil); Claudio, L.; Markowitz, S. [International Training Program on Environmental and Occupational Health, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Queens Coll., NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Concerning DDT in food, based on clinical observations as well as experimental animals, the annual Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues held in 2000 estimated a Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT in 0.01 mg/kg/day. Marien and Laflamme have proposed a Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for breast feedings infants of 5 x 10{sup -3} mg/kg/day, and conducted an assessment to evaluate the public health significance of eating {sigma}ODDT contaminated fish, accomplished by establishing a daily intake level of DDT for the population of greatest concern, like breastfeeding infants. Their results indicated that mothers who frequently consume contaminated fish could have breast milk DDT concentrations highly enough to expose their infants to levels above the TDI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ODDT (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDE + o,p'-DDD) levels in commercial fish samples from distinct Brazilian Amazon sites, which are consumed by the riverine populations, and to assess the potential health impacts from eating these fishes, especially for breastfeeding infants.

  15. Association between infant formula feeding and dental fluorosis and caries in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loc G; Levy, Steven M; Spencer, A John

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between patterns of infant formula feeding and dental fluorosis and caries in a representative sample of Australian children. A population-based study gathered information on fluoride exposure in early childhood. Information on infant formula feeding and fluoridation status was used to group children: three groups in nonfluoridated areas (formula nonuser, user for ≤6 months, and user for 6+ months) and four groups in fluoridated areas (nonuser, user with nonfluoridated water, user with fluoridated water for ≤6 months, and user with fluoridated water for 6+ months). Children aged 8-13 years were examined for fluorosis using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF) Index. Primary tooth caries experience recorded at age 8-9 years was extracted from clinical records. Fluorosis cases were defined as having TF 1+ on maxillary incisors. Fluorosis prevalence and primary caries experience were compared across formula user groups in multivariable regression models adjusting for other factors. Total sample was 588 children. Children in fluoridated areas had higher prevalence of very mild to mild fluorosis, but lower caries experience than those in nonfluoridated areas. Among children in nonfluoridated areas, formula users for 6+ months had significantly higher prevalence of fluorosis compared with nonusers. There was no significant difference in fluorosis prevalence among the formula users in fluoridated areas. Among children in fluoridated areas, formula users with nontap water had higher caries experience. Infant formula use was associated with higher prevalence of fluorosis in nonfluoridated areas but not in fluoridated areas. Type of water used for reconstituting infant formula in fluoridated areas was associated with caries experience. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale among a Multiethnic Population during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Htun, Tha Pyai; Lim, Peng Im; Ho-Lim, Sarah Su Tin; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee

    2016-05-01

    The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) was developed to measure maternal attitudes toward infant feeding, but a number of validated studies on the IIFAS found that it was subject to methodological limitations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the IIFAS among a multiethnic population in Singapore. A cross-sectional research design was used on a sample of 417 antenatal women. The internal consistency and stability of the IIFAS were evaluated using Cronbach's α and test-retest reliability. Known-group comparisons discriminated certain group differences in a predictable way. A series of exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) was conducted to test the factor structure of the IIFAS using the maximum likelihood and principal axis factoring. The number of factors was selected according to theoretical and statistical considerations. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was further performed to validate the factor structure constructed in the prior EFA. The IIFAS had a Cronbach's α and Pearson correlation of 0.79 and 0.85, respectively. The known-group comparisons among certain groups were supported. The EFA results showed that the 3-factor structure produced the most interpretable and theoretical sense. A second-order CFA was conducted to confirm the construct dimensionality of the 15-item IIFAS, with satisfactory fit indices found. The 15-item IIFAS is a psychometrically sound measurement tool that health care professionals can use to understand the diverse infant feeding attitudes and knowledge among different ethnic groups in order to provide breastfeeding interventions that are culturally sensitive. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Associations of infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Eun; Kim, Juhee; Mathai, Rose Ann

    2011-09-01

    Picky eating behaviors are prevalent during childhood and are often linked to nutritional problems. However, information on the determinants of picky eating behaviors during infancy, when food acceptance patterns develop, is scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of infant feeding practices on the development of picky eating behaviors during preschool years. Baseline survey data from the Synergistic Theory and Research on Obesity and Nutrition Group Kids (STRONG Kids) program were used for this retrospective data analysis. Primary caregiver-child dyads were recruited from child-care centers in Eastern Illinois between February and July of 2009. A total of 129 self-reported responses from mothers of preschool-aged children were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors. Children who were introduced to complementary foods before 6 months of age had 2.5 times higher odds of developing food neophobia and limited variety of foods (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 5.93 and 1.06 to 5.73, respectively). Children who were breastfed exclusively for 6 months had lower odds of developing a preference for specific food-preparation methods by 78% (95% CI: 19% to 94%), food rejection by 81% (95% CI: 31% to 94%), and food neophobia by 75% (95% CI: 11% to 93%). Breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods after 6 months of age reduced the odds of picky eating during early childhood. This study documents an association between infant-feeding practices and the development of picky eating behaviors in early childhood.

  18. Promoting Healthy Growth or Feeding Obesity? The Need for Evidence-Based Oversight of Infant Nutritional Supplement Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lampl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD model recognizes growth in infancy and childhood as a fundamental determinant of lifespan health. Evidence of long-term health risks among small neonates who subsequently grow rapidly poses a challenge for interventions aiming to support healthy growth, not merely drive weight gain. Defining healthy growth beyond “getting bigger” is essential as infant and young child feeding industries expand. Liquid-based nutritional supplements, originally formulated for undernourished children, are increasingly marketed for and consumed by children generally. Clarifying the nature of the evidentiary base on which structure/function claims promoting “healthy growth” are constructed is important to curb invalid generalizations. Evidence points to changing social beliefs and cultural practices surrounding supplementary feeding, raising specific concerns about the long-term health consequences of an associated altered feeding culture, including reduced dietary variety and weight gain. Reassessing the evidence for and relevance of dietary supplements’ “promoting healthy growth” claims for otherwise healthy children is both needed in a time of global obesity and an opportunity to refine intervention approaches among small children for whom rapid subsequent growth in early life augments risk for chronic disease. Scientific and health care partnerships are needed to consider current governmental oversight shortfalls in protecting vulnerable populations from overconsumption. This is important because we may be doing more harm than good.

  19. Promoting Healthy Growth or Feeding Obesity? The Need for Evidence-Based Oversight of Infant Nutritional Supplement Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampl, Michelle; Mummert, Amanda; Schoen, Meriah

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) model recognizes growth in infancy and childhood as a fundamental determinant of lifespan health. Evidence of long-term health risks among small neonates who subsequently grow rapidly poses a challenge for interventions aiming to support healthy growth, not merely drive weight gain. Defining healthy growth beyond “getting bigger” is essential as infant and young child feeding industries expand. Liquid-based nutritional supplements, originally formulated for undernourished children, are increasingly marketed for and consumed by children generally. Clarifying the nature of the evidentiary base on which structure/function claims promoting “healthy growth” are constructed is important to curb invalid generalizations. Evidence points to changing social beliefs and cultural practices surrounding supplementary feeding, raising specific concerns about the long-term health consequences of an associated altered feeding culture, including reduced dietary variety and weight gain. Reassessing the evidence for and relevance of dietary supplements’ “promoting healthy growth” claims for otherwise healthy children is both needed in a time of global obesity and an opportunity to refine intervention approaches among small children for whom rapid subsequent growth in early life augments risk for chronic disease. Scientific and health care partnerships are needed to consider current governmental oversight shortfalls in protecting vulnerable populations from overconsumption. This is important because we may be doing more harm than good. PMID:27845744

  20. The difficulty with responding to policy changes for HIV and infant feeding in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Paoli Marina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When and how to wean breastfed infants exposed to HIV infection has provoked extensive debate, particularly in low-income countries where safe alternatives to breastfeeding are rarely available. Although there is global consensus on optimal infant-feeding practices in the form of guidelines, practices are sub-optimal in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Policy-makers and health workers face many challenges in adapting and implementing these guidelines. Methods This paper is based on in-depth interviews with five policy-makers and 11 providers of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV, participant observations during clinic sessions and site visits. Results The difficulties with adapting the global infant-feeding guidelines in Malawi have affected the provision of services. There was a lack of consensus on HIV and infant-feeding at all levels and general confusion about the 2006 guidelines, particularly those recommending continued breastfeeding after six months if replacement feeding is not acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe. Health workers found it particularly difficult to advise women to continue breastfeeding after six months. They worried that they would lose the trust of the PMTCT clients and the population at large, and they feared that continued breastfeeding was unsafe. Optimal support for HIV-infected women was noted in programmes where health workers were multi-skilled; coordinated their efforts and had functional, multidisciplinary task forces and engaged communities. The recent 2009 recommendations are the first to support antiretroviral (ARV use by mothers or children during breastfeeding. Besides promoting maternal health and providing protection against HIV infection in children, the new Rapid Advice has the potential to resolve the difficulties and confusion experienced by health workers in Malawi. Conclusions The process of integrating new evidence into

  1. Does opening a milk bank in a neonatal unit change infant feeding practices? A before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Cooke Elisa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Donor human milk banks are much more than simple centers for collection, storage, processing, and distribution of donor human milk, as they cover other aspects and represent a real opportunity to promote and support breastfeeding. The aim of our study is to assess the impact that opening a human milk bank has had on the proportion of infants receiving exclusive breast milk at discharge and other aspects related to feeding children with birth weight Methods The study included babies of Results Children born in 2008 commenced feeding 16 hours earlier than those born in 2006 (p = 0.00. The proportion of infants receiving exclusive breast milk at discharge was 54% in 2006 and 56% in 2008 (p = 0.87. The number of days they received their mother's own milk during the first 28 days of life was 24.2 days in 2006, compared to 23.7 days in 2008 (p = 0.70. In 2006, 60% of infants received infant formula at least once in the first 28 days of life, compared to 37% in 2008 (p = 0.01. Conclusions The opening of a donor human milk bank in a neonatal unit did not reduce the proportion of infants exclusively fed with breast milk at discharge, but did reduce the proportion of infants that received infant formula during the first four weeks of life. Also, having donor human milk available enables commencement of enteral feeding earlier.

  2. Infant feeding concerns in times of natural disaster: lessons learned from the 2014 flood in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Zaharah; Mohamad, Noraini; Ismail, Tengku Alina Tengku; Johari, Nazirah; Hussain, Nik Hazlina Nik

    2016-01-01

    The flood that hit Kelantan in December 2014 was the worst in Malaysian history. Women and their infants accounted for a large proportion of the people at risk who were badly affected, as almost half of the population in Kelantan was in the reproductive age group. This report serves to raise awareness that breastfeeding mothers and infants are a special population with unique needs during a disaster. Four of their concerns were identified during this massive flood: first, the negative impact of flood on infant nutritional status and their health; second, open space and lack of privacy for the mothers to breastfeed their babies comfortably at temporary shelters for flood victims; third, uncontrolled donations of infant formula, teats, and feeding bottles that are often received from many sources to promote formula feeding; and lastly, misconceptions related to breastfeeding production and quality that may be affected by the disaster. The susceptibility of women and their infant in a natural disaster enhances the benefits of promoting the breastfeeding rights of women. Women have the right to be supported which enables them to breastfeed. These can be achieved through monitoring the distribution of formula feeding, providing water, electricity and medical care for breastfeeding mothers and their infants. A multifaceted rescue mission team involving various agencies comprising of local government, including the health and nutrition departments, private or non-governmental organizations and individual volunteers have the potential to improve a satisfactory condition of women and infants affected by floods and other potential natural disasters.

  3. Infant feeding and components of the metabolic syndrome: findings from the European Youth Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, D.A.; Riddoch, C.J.; Page, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    -response in this association with decreasing mean systolic blood pressure across categories from never exclusively breast fed to breast fed for more than six months. Exclusive breast feeding was not associated with other components of the metabolic syndrome. Results were similar when examined separately in each country......Aims: To assess the associations of type and duration of infant feeding with components of the metabolic syndrome in children aged 9 and 15. Methods: A total of 2192 randomly selected schoolchildren aged 9 and 15 years from Estonia (n = 1174) and Denmark (n = 1018) were studied. Insulin resistance...... (homoeostasis model assessment), triglyceride levels, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure were measured. Results: Children who had ever been exclusively breast fed had lower systolic blood pressures than those who were not. With full adjustment for age, sex, country, birth weight...

  4. Reliability and Validity of the Japanese Version of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanishi, Keiko; Jimba, Masamine

    2014-08-01

    The 17-item Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has shown good reliability and validity to measure attitudes toward infant feeding in various countries. It is also known to be associated with breastfeeding intention and exclusivity. However, the IIFAS has not been psychometrically tested among Japanese women. This study aimed to develop the Japanese version of the IIFAS (IIFAS-J) and assess its reliability and validity. This longitudinal study was conducted with 781 women at 4 hospitals in Japan. The translated IIFAS was administered to participants during their third trimester. Infant feeding status was self-reported at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum using follow-up questionnaires. The predictive validity was determined by examining the association between the IIFAS-J score during pregnancy and infant feeding status at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum. One item was removed after a principal components analysis. Therefore, the IIFAS-J consisted of 16 items. Cronbach's alpha of the IIFAS-J was 0.66. A higher IIFAS-J score during the third trimester was associated with a higher postdischarge exclusive breastfeeding rate at 4 weeks postpartum (B = 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.10). The 16-item Japanese version of the IIFAS is a reliable and valid scale for measuring maternal infant-feeding attitudes during pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. A comparison of infant and toddler feeding practices of mothers with and without histories of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Bentley, Margaret E; Hamer, Robert M; Hodges, Eric A; Ward, Dianne S; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2014-07-01

    This preliminary study surveyed the feeding practices of mothers with eating disorder histories through evaluation of mothers' reported feeding styles, child diet composition and restrictive special approaches to feeding. For this non-randomised cohort study, 25 mothers with eating disorder histories and 25 mothers with no history of an eating disorder with children ages 6-36 months were selected such that the groups were similar based on child age group and child sex. Mothers were compared on self-reported feeding style using the Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire and on child diet composition and special feeding approaches using a modified version of the Toddler Diet Questionnaire from the Women, Infants, and Children program. Mothers with eating disorder histories scored lower on the restrictive feeding style subscale than controls. No significant differences were detected between groups in child diet including the percentage of mothers who breastfed, duration of breastfeeding, age at solid food introduction, daily number of meals or snacks or daily frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables or protein foods. Mothers with eating disorder histories were more likely to report taking a restrictive special approach to feeding such as limiting processed foods or feeding organic foods only. Although mothers with eating disorder histories may not differ greatly from control mothers in terms of child diet composition (smaller effects may not have been detected due to limited sample size), they may be more likely to take restrictive special approaches to feeding which mirror dietary rules common in individuals with eating disorders.

  6. Impact of feeding and breastfeeding practices on the nutritional status of infants in a district of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, I I; A, Laxmaiah; K, Venkaiah; N V, Brahmam G

    2012-01-01

    Infant feeding practices have a major role in determining the nutritional status of children and are associated with household socioeconomic and demographic factors. We did a cross-sectional household study to assess feeding practices of infants and young children in rural areas of Medak district, Andhra Pradesh. A total of 805 child-mother pairs were included using systematic random sampling. Age-specific feeding patterns were described using frequencies, proportions and survival analysis. Logistic regression was done with feeding practice as dependent and sociodemographic factors as independent variables. Breastfeeding was universal in the study area. Only 22% of mothers initiated breastfeeding within one hour whereas 44% initiated it within three hours after delivery. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 5.5 months. Pre-lacteal use was high (44.7%). Only 41% of infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and 58% of infants (6-11 months) received complementary feeding at 6-9 months of age. Timely initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was significantly more likely among mothers belonging to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.10-0.76 and OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.08-0.76). Timely initiation of complementary feeding was more likely among scheduled caste and scheduled tribe communities (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.11-0.54). Early initiation of breastfeeding (within an hour of birth) and other feeding practices were associated with community, type of family and education of mother. Efforts are needed to promote early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and age-appropriate complementary feeding among infants. Copyright 2012, NMJI.

  7. The influence of maternal infant feeding practices and beliefs on the expression of food neophobia in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassells, Erin L; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A; Mallan, Kimberley M

    2014-11-01

    Food neophobia is a highly heritable trait characterized by the rejection of foods that are novel or unknown and potentially limits dietary variety, with lower intake and preference particularly for fruits and vegetables. Understanding non-genetic (environmental) factors that may influence the expression of food neophobia is essential to improving children's consumption of fruits and vegetables and encouraging the adoption of healthier diets. The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal infant feeding beliefs (at 4 months) were associated with the expression of food neophobia in toddlers and whether controlling feeding practices mediated this relationship. Participants were 244 first-time mothers (M=30.4, SD=5.1 years) allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial. The relationships between infant feeding beliefs (Infant Feeding Questionnaire) at 4 months and controlling child feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire) and food neophobia (Child Food Neophobia Scale) at 24 months were tested using correlational and multiple linear regression models (adjusted for significant covariates). Higher maternal Concern about infant under-eating and becoming underweight at 4 months was associated with higher child food neophobia at 2 years. Similarly, lower Awareness of infant hunger and satiety cues was associated with higher child food neophobia. Both associations were significantly mediated by mothers' use of Pressure to eat. Intervening early to promote positive feeding practices to mothers may help reduce the use of controlling practices as children develop. Further research that can further elucidate the bi-directional nature of the mother-child feeding relationship is still required.

  8. Preparation of feeding obturators for infants with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, O O

    1995-01-01

    Clefts of the lip and palate are the commonest congenital craniofacial malformations in children. Sucking is impaired in infants born with complete clefts of the lip and palate. Feeding obturators improve feeding thereby contributing to weight gain and a thriving state of health, a prerequisite for surgical repair of the defects. A pediatric dentist may be required to fabricate the obturator. A method for constructing the appliance is presented. The severity of the clefts varies so much that stock trays are not always useful for the impression of the infant's maxillary arch. A preliminary impression is taken by introducing a thermoplastic impression material with the index and middle fingers as the tray. A model is produced from which a custom tray is constructed. The final maxillary impression is taken using an irreversible hydrocolloid with the child in an upright position. An obturator is constructed on the stone model by sprinkling soft autopolymerizing acrylic resin on the palate extending well into the mucobuccal fold area. The cured appliance is trimmed and polished prior to insertion.

  9. Validation of the Arabic Version of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale among Lebanese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charafeddine, Lama; Tamim, Hani; Soubra, Marwa; de la Mora, Arlene; Nabulsi, Mona

    2016-05-01

    There is need in the Arab world for validated instruments that can reliably assess infant feeding attitudes among women. The 17-item Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has consistently shown good reliability and validity in different cultures and the ability to predict breastfeeding intention and exclusivity. This study assessed the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the IIFAS (IIFAS-A). After translating to classical Arabic and back-translating to English, the IIFAS-A was pilot tested among 20 women for comprehension, clarity, length, and cultural appropriateness. The IIFAS-A was then validated among 170 women enrolled in a breastfeeding promotion and support clinical trial in Lebanon. The IIFAS-A showed acceptable internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.640), with principal components analysis revealing that it is unidimensional. The 17 items had good interitem reliabilities ranging between 0.599 and 0.665. The number of breastfed children was the only predictor of the overall IIFAS-A score in a multivariate stepwise regression model (β = 1.531, P attitudes in the Arab context. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. [Social network, social support and feeding habits of infants in their fourth month of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Caroline Maria da Costa; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Hasselmann, Maria Helena

    2013-02-01

    The scope of this study was to investigate the association between the social network, social support and the feeding habits of infants in their fourth month of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 294 children selected at 4 Primary Health Care Units in Rio de Janeiro/ Brazil. A 24-hour dietary recall was applied to the mothers to evaluate the feeding habits. Questions related to the number of people upon whom the woman can rely were asked as well as their participation in social activities to measure the social network. The scale in the Medical Outcomes Study was used to measure social support. The analysis was based on multinomial logistic regression models. Most of the infants (84%) received breast milk, but only 16% were exclusively breastfed. Children whose mothers had a small number of relatives to rely on and with low social support were more likely to be bottle-fed rather than exclusively breastfed. The need to integrate members of the social network of the woman during pre-natal care, birth and the after birth period should be encouraged, in such a way that social support can serve the mother's requirements, contributing to exclusive breastfeeding.

  11. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Young Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-level mercury (Hg exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24 µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99 µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001 and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015, the duration (months of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001, and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033. In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles, dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001 and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017, were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg

  12. The impact of early growth patterns and infant feeding on body composition at 3 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Christensen, Line Brinch; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    on body composition at 3 years, and whether infant feeding modified the relationship between early growth and body composition at 3 years. We studied 233 children from the prospective cohort study, SKOT (in Danish: Småbørns Kost og Trivsel). Birth weight z-scores (BWZ) and change in weight-for-age z......Early excessive weight gain is positively associated with later obesity, and yet the effect of weight gain during specific periods and the impact of infant feeding practices are debated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of weight gain in periods of early childhood...... of infant feeding was found for FFMI. In conclusion, high birth weight and rapid growth from 0 to 5 months were associated with increased FMI and FFMI at 3 years. Longer duration of full breastfeeding reduced the effect of birth weight and early weight gain on fat mass....

  13. Obesity related programming statements in infant feeding policies in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Bautista, Elena; Campoy, Cristina; Decsi, Tamás; Bokor, Szilvia; von Rosen-von Hoewel, Julia; Laitinen, Kirsi; Schmid, Martina A; Morgan, Jane; Gage, Heather; Koletzko, Berthold; Raats, Monique

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know how the early nutrition programming concept and its relation with long-term diseases such as obesity is reflected in policy recommendations on infant nutrition in five European countries (Finland, Germany, Hungary, Spain and England). After collating and evaluating infant nutrition policy documents, statements about early nutrition programming, as the origin of diseases such as obesity, were analysed. The number of policy documents analysed were 38 (England: 10, Finland: 2, Germany: 11, Hungary: 8, Spain: 7) with a total of 455 statements identified and categorized into 53 different health outcomes. Obesity was mentioned in 5.5% (n = 25) of the statements, the third most frequent outcome after allergy (14.1%, n = 64) and health in general (5.7%, n = 26). Twenty six percent (n = 6) of the obesity related statements referred to short-term duration of the effects, 48% (n = 12) to medium-term, 24% (n = 6) to long-term effects and the rest were not identified. Only 22% of the obesity statements were evidence based. The link between infant feeding and obesity is integrated into policy documents, but most of the statements did not fully specify the short, medium and long term health implications. Action may be required to keep documents up to date as new evidence emerges and to ensure the evidence base is properly recorded.

  14. Infant and toddler crying, sleeping and feeding problems and trajectories of dysregulated behavior across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Infant and toddler regulatory problems (RPs) including crying, sleeping and feeding, are a frequent concern for parents and have been associated with negative behavioral outcomes in early and middle childhood. Uncertain is whether infant and toddler RPs predict stable, trait-like dysregulated behavior across childhood. We addressed this gap in the literature using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). RPs at 6, 15-18, & 24-30 months and childhood dysregulated behavior at 4, 7, 8, & 9.5 years were assessed using mother report. Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA) indicated that trajectories of childhood dysregulated behavior were stable over time. All single RPs (i.e., crying, sleeping & feeding problems) were significantly associated with childhood dysregulated behavior. For example, crying problems at 6 months after controlling for confounders (Odds Ratios; 95% Confidence Intervals): Moderate dysregulated behavior: OR = 1.50, 95% CI [1.09 to 2.06], high dysregulated behavior: OR = 2.13, 95% CI [1.49 to 3.05] and very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 2.85, 95% CI [1.64 to 4.94]. Multiple RPs were especially strongly associated with dysregulated behavior. For example, the RP composite at 15-18 months: 1 RP, very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 2.79, 95% CI [2.17 to 3.57], 2 RPs, very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 3.46, 95% CI [2.38 to 5.01], 3 RPs, very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 12.57, 95% CI [6.38 to 24.74]. These findings suggest that RPs in infants and toddlers predict stable dysregulated behavior trajectories across childhood. Interventions for early RPs could help prevent the development of chronic, highly dysregulated behavior.

  15. [Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grance, Thayana Regina de Souza; Serafin, Paula de Oliveira; Thomaz, Débora Marchetti Chaves; Palhares, Durval Batista

    2015-01-01

    To develop a homologous additive of human milk for feeding the very low weight infants with an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of fortified human milk with this additive and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45 mL have undergone a lactose removal process, lyophilization and they were diluted in 50 mL of human milk. Doses of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were measured. The composition of the additive milk was lactose 9.22 ± 1.00 g/dL; proteins 2.20 ± 0.36 g/dL; lipids 2.91 ± 0.57 g/dL; calories 71.93 ± 8.69 kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6 ± 32.4 mOsmol/kg H2O; sodium 2.04 ± 0.45 mEq/dL; potassium 1.42 ± 0.15 mEq/dL; calcium 43.44 ± 2.98 mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69 ± 1.24 mg/dL. According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, the human milk with the proposed additive can achieve the nutritional needs of the very low birth weight preterm infant. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Growth and Development in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants After the Introduction of Exclusive Human Milk Feedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colacci, Michael; Murthy, Karna; DeRegnier, Raye-Ann O; Khan, Janine Y; Robinson, Daniel T

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate associations of exclusive human milk (EHM) feedings with growth and neurodevelopment through 18 months corrected age (CA) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Study Design ELBW infants admitted from July 2011 to June 2013 who survived were reviewed. Infants managed from July 2011 to June 2012 were fed with bovine milk-based fortifiers and formula (BOV). Beginning in July 2012, initial feedings used a human milk-based fortifier to provide EHM feedings. Infants were grouped on the basis of feeding regimen. Primary outcomes were the Bayley-III cognitive scores at 6, 12, and 18 months and growth. Results Infants (n = 85; 46% received EHM) were born at 26 ± 1.9 weeks (p = 0.92 between groups) weighing 776 ± 139 g (p = 0.67 between groups). Cognitive domain scores were similar at 6 months (BOV: 96 ± 7; EHM: 95 ± 14; p = 0.70), 12 months (BOV: 97 ± 10; EHM: 98 ± 9; p = 0.86), and 18 months (BOV: 97 ± 16; EHM: 98 ± 14; p = 0.71) CA. Growth velocity prior to discharge (BOV: 12.1 ± 5.2 g/kg/day; EHM: 13.1 ± 4.0 g/kg/day; p = 0.33) and subsequent growth was similar between groups. Conclusion EHM feedings appear to support similar growth and neurodevelopment in ELBW infants as compared with feedings containing primarily bovine milk-based products.

  17. Infant feeding patterns and risk of acute respiratory infections in Baghdad/Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatha S. Al-Sharbatti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: exclusive breastfeeding has been shown to protect infants from contracting various diseases. The aims of this study were: to examine the relationships between infant feeding patterns and the risk of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI, and to assess the importance of some factors that can increase such risk.

    Methods: a case-control study was carried out during the period between February 1st 2005 - May 1st 2005. The study included 137 infants who were hospitalized in the Children Welfare Teaching Hospital for ARIs during the period of study (a case definition of acute lower respiratory infection as given by the WHO (1995 was used. The Control group included 157 healthy infants who were randomly selected from two primary health care centers of the AI-Karkh sector of Baghdad for immunization. The risk of various factors thought to be associated to ARI were studied, these being: non-modifiable (age, gender, birth order, parent education, crowded residence, family history of asthma and history of ARIs in household members in previous 2 weeks and modifiable (short duration of breastfeeding, cigarette smoking in proximity to the infant, delayed immunization and malnutrition. Logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders and for calculating adjusted odds ratios.

    Results: formula fed infants had a 2.7 times higher risk (CI:1.6-4.68 for ARIs compared to breast fed infants. Infants who had undergone a short duration of breastfeeding (<3 months had a 1.4 times increased risk or ARI (CI: 0.89—2.23. Additional factors that were associated with higher ARIs were, female gender (OR= 2.0, CI:1.3-3.3, low educational level of mothers (OR= 6.4, CI:3.2-12.7 and fathers (OR=4.5, CI:2.27-8.78, crowded residence (OR= 4.5, CI: 2.6-7.8, positive history of ARIs in household members in the 2 weeks prior to the study (OR= 5.5, CI:3.3-9.3, family history of asthma (OR = 2.6, CI:1

  18. Lipid Quality in Infant Nutrition: Current Knowledge and Future Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Delplanque, Bernadette; Gibson, Robert; Koletzko, Berthold; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Strandvik, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dietary lipids are key for infants to not only meet their high energy needs but also fulfill numerous metabolic and physiological functions critical to their growth, development, and health. The lipid composition of breast milk varies during lactation and according to the mother's diet, whereas the lipid composition of infant formulae varies according to the blend of different fat sources. This report compares the compositions of lipids in breast milk and infant formulae, and highlig...

  19. Cardiorespiratory parameters and their relation with gestational age and level of oral feeding skills in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Raquel Coube de Carvalho; Prade, Leila Sauer; Berwig, Luana Cristina; Weinmann, Angela Regina Maciel; Keske-Soares, Márcia

    2016-01-01

    To correlate cardiorespiratory parameters with gestational age and level of oral feeding skills in the first oral feeding in preterm infants. Study participants were 37 clinically stable preterm infants. Cardiorespiratory rate was assessed before and after introduction of oral feeding. The newborns were divided into three strata according to gestational age at birth. Oral skill was classified into four levels: I - low oral skill and low resistance to feeding; II - low oral skill and high resistance to feeding; III - high oral skill and low resistance to feeding; IV - high oral skill and high resistance to feeding. No difference was observed in heart and respiratory rate between the strata of gestational age at birth and between the levels of oral skill. Comparison between pre- and post-cardiorespiratory rates within each level of oral skill and stratum of gestational age showed difference between heart rate in the strata of gestational ages of 30 to 33 weeks and of 34 to 36 weeks, as well as between oral skill of levels I, II, and IV. With regard to the comparison between pre- and post- respiratory rates, difference was found in the oral skill of level I. Differences were observed between pre- and post-prandial cardiorespiratory rates regarding the first oral feeding, as well as between strata of gestational age at birth and levels of oral feeding skills.

  20. Demotivating infant feeding counselling encounters in southern Africa: do counsellors need more or different training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskens, I; Jaffe, A

    2008-03-01

    Ethnographic research was conducted in eleven low-resource settings across Swaziland, Namibia and South Africa to explore how the perceptions and experiences of counselling health workers, pregnant women and recent mothers could be used to improve infant feeding counselling in the context of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. We found many counselling encounters to be demotivating. Mothers often reported feeling judged, stigmatised and shamed. Counsellors complained of mothers' poor compliance and passive resistance and reported suffering from stress, depression and burnout. We observed a rift between the mothers and counselling nurses, with both parties holding opposing agendas grounded in conflicting realities, expectations, experiences and needs. While the clients framed the visit as a consultation, counsellors framed it as health education, towards one exclusive purpose; to save the baby. Two communication modes prevailed in the counselling encounter: in theory, the counselling format was non-directive and client-centred but, in practice, most encounters reverted to information-based health education. Neither counselling format enabled the counsellors to acknowledge the reality of the two opposing agendas in the conversation and manage its dynamics. In order to achieve success - which, for the health service, is framed as persuading mothers to test for HIV and disclose the result - counsellors often felt compelled to be prescriptive and authoritative and reverted at times to confronting, judging and shaming mothers. Yet to adhere to their feeding choice consistently, mothers need to be motivated towards the significant behaviour change that this implies: to change their traditional roles and identities as women. For infant feeding counselling in the context of HIV/AIDS to become effective in southern Africa, a different format is therefore required; one that can acknowledge and manage these opposing agendas and conflicting realities and also enable

  1. Feeding practices for infants and young children during and after common illness. Evidence from South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Global evidence shows that children's growth deteriorates rapidly during/after illness if foods and feeding practices do not meet the additional nutrient requirements associated with illness/convalescence. To inform policies and programmes, we conducted a review of the literature published from 1990 to 2014 to document how children 0–23 months old are fed during/after common childhood illnesses. The review indicates that infant and young child feeding (IYCF) during common childhood illnesses is far from optimal. When sick, most children continue to be breastfed, but few are breastfed more frequently, as recommended. Restriction/withdrawal of complementary foods during illness is frequent because of children's anorexia (perceived/real), poor awareness of caregivers' about the feeding needs of sick children, traditional beliefs/behaviours and/or suboptimal counselling and support by health workers. As a result, many children are fed lower quantities of complementary foods and/or are fed less frequently when they are sick. Mothers/caregivers often turn to family/community elders and traditional/non‐qualified practitioners to seek advice on how to feed their sick children. Thus, traditional beliefs and behaviours guide the use of ‘special’ feeding practices, foods and diets for sick children. A significant proportion of mothers/caregivers turn to the primary health care system for support but receive little or no advice. Building the knowledge, skills and capacity of community health workers and primary health care practitioners to provide mothers/caregivers with accurate and timely information, counselling and support on IYCF during and after common childhood illnesses, combined with large‐scale communication programmes to address traditional beliefs and norms that may be harmful, is an urgent priority to reduce the high burden of child stunting in South Asia. PMID:26840205

  2. Complementary feeding of infants in their first year of life: focus on the main pureed baby foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Fabíola Isabel Suano de; Caetano, Michelle Cavalcante; Ortiz, Thaís Tobaruela; Silva, Simone Guerra Lopes da; Sarni, Roseli Oselka Saccardo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the complementary feeding practices for infants, focusing on the main pureed baby foods, and verify adherence to the guidelines adopted in Brazil. Through cross-sectional study, aspects of complementary feeding of 404 healthy infants between 4 and 9 months of age (São Paulo, Curitiba and Recife) were evaluated. Socio-demographic data, history and food habits were collected. Mothers described three recipes (preparations) usually used in key baby foods. The findings were compared with those recommended by the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics. The average age was 6.9 ± 1.6 months. Among infants, 241/404 (59.6%) were still breastfeeding. Among those who received another type of milk, 193/368 (52.4%) received whole cow's milk, while 151/368 (41.0%) drank infant or follow-on formulas. Regarding baby food recipes salted reported by mothers, it was seen that 30% and 60% contained meat and vegetables, respectively. The percentages less suitable for feeding in general were observed for use of cow's milk and added sugar, chocolate and cereal in feeding bottles; 79% and 80.5% of the families interviewed would adopted such practices. The early termination of exclusive/predominant breastfeeding and the practice of an inadequate transition diet have shown a picture of quantitatively and qualitatively inadequate feeding, with the risk of causing serious nutritional problems in later ages, such as anemia and vitamin A deficiency, or excess of nutrients, leading to obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemias.

  3. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Rene L; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models......), and higher intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P Early feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother's milk is absent during the first week after...

  4. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, René L.; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V.

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother’s milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models...... intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P Early feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother’s milk is absent during the first week after preterm birth...

  5. Determinants of Child Malnutrition and Infant and Young Child Feeding Approaches in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbott, Anika; Jordan, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    Women's diets often decrease with regard to amounts per meal and day as well as diversity if a household's access to food is limited. The result is a monotonous diet that, in particular, negatively affects women's nutritional status during pregnancy and lactation and, thus, the infant. The infant's diet is of utmost importance, as it needs to meet the nutrient requirements especially during the first 2 years of life, a critical window for the child's healthy development. In Cambodia, infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are poor. Preparation of a special complementary meal in addition to breast milk feeds for children aged 6-23 months is often not a common habit. Instead, children eat watery, plain rice porridges that do not meet the nutrient requirements at this young age. A lack of adequate caring practices such as responsive feeding exacerbates the risk of malnutrition. Caregivers are often unaware of the importance of nutrition during the first 2 years of life regarding its effects on children's growth. In 2012, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was started in two provinces of northern Cambodia: Oddar Meanchey and Preah Vihear. To contribute to reducing child mortality by addressing malnutrition among children 6-23 months of age, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) implemented a nutrition-sensitive agriculture project with nutrition-specific actions, i.e. a nutrition education intervention was embedded in a food security project. Wealth, a child's age, and maternal education were identified as determinants of a child's dietary diversity. The older the child and/or the wealthier the household, the more diverse the child's diet. Maternal education was positively associated with the child's dietary diversity. Household dietary diversity was significantly associated with child dietary diversity in a model including group, child's age, maternal education, and wealth as confounders. The RCT also showed that a 2- to 3-month

  6. Caterpillar cereal as a potential complementary feeding product for infants and young children: nutritional content and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauserman, Melissa; Lokangaka, Adrien; Kodondi, Kule-Koto; Gado, Justin; Viera, Anthony J; Bentley, Margaret E; Engmann, Cyril; Tshefu, Antoinette; Bose, Carl

    2015-12-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is an important cause of growth stunting. To avoid micronutrient deficiency, the World Health Organization recommends complementary feeding with animal-source foods. However, animal-source foods are not readily available in many parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In such areas, caterpillars are a staple in adult diets and may be suitable for complementary feeding for infants and young children. We developed a cereal made from dried caterpillars and other locally available ingredients (ground corn, palm oil, sugar and salt), measured its macro- and micronutrient contents and evaluated for microbiologic contamination. Maternal and infant acceptability was evaluated among 20 mothers and their 8-10-month-old infants. Mothers were instructed in the preparation of the cereal and asked to evaluate the cereal in five domains using a Likert scale. Mothers fed their infants a 30-g portion daily for 1 week. Infant acceptability was based on cereal consumption and the occurrence of adverse events. The caterpillar cereal contained 132 kcal, 6.9-g protein, 3.8-mg iron and 3.8-mg zinc per 30 g and was free from microbiologic contamination. Mothers' median ratings for cereal characteristics were (5 = like very much): overall impression = 4, taste = 5, smell = 4, texture = 4, colour = 5, and consistency = 4. All infants consumed more than 75% of the daily portions, with five infants consuming 100%. No serious adverse events were reported. We conclude that a cereal made from locally available caterpillars has appropriate macro- and micronutrient contents for complementary feeding, and is acceptable to mothers and infants in the DRC. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Maternal feeding self-efficacy and fruit and vegetable intakes in infants. Results from the SAIDI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Gloria A; Scott, Jane A; Woodman, Richard J; Kim, Susan W; Daniels, Lynne A; Magarey, Anthea M

    2014-10-01

    Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) is a characteristic of a healthy diet but remains a challenge in nutrition interventions. This cross-sectional study explored the multi-directional relationships between maternal feeding self-efficacy, parenting confidence, child feeding behaviour, exposure to new food and FV intake in a cohort of 277 infants. Mothers with healthy infants weighing ≥2500 g and ≥37 weeks gestation were recruited post-natally from 11 South Australian hospitals. Socio-demographic data were collected at recruitment. At 6 months postnatal, infants were weighed and measured, and mothers completed a questionnaire exploring their perceptions of child feeding behaviour and child exposure to new foods. The questionnaire also included the Short Temperament Scale for Infants, Kessler 10 to measure maternal psychological distress and 5 items measuring maternal feeding self-efficacy. The number of occasions and variety of FV (number of subgroups within food groups) consumed by infants were estimated from a 24-hour dietary recall and 2 days food record. Structural equation modelling was performed using Mplus version 6.11. Median (IQR) variety scores were 2 (1-3) for fruit and 3 (2-5) for vegetable intake. The most popular FV consumed were apple (n = 108, 45.0%) and pumpkin (n = 143, 56.3%). None of the variables studied predicted the variety of child fruit intake. Parenting confidence, exposure to new foods and child feeding behaviour were indirectly related to child vegetable intake through maternal feeding self-efficacy while total number of children negatively predicted child vegetable variety (p self-efficacy and the family eating environment as key strategies towards development of healthy eating in children.

  8. Infant sleep and feeding patterns are associated with maternal sleep, stress, and depressed mood in women with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Katherine M; Iko, Ijeoma N; Machan, Jason T; Thompson-Westra, Johanna; Pearlstein, Teri B

    2016-04-01

    Our goal was to examine associations of infant sleep and feeding patterns with maternal sleep and mood among women at risk for postpartum depression. Participants were 30 women (age ± SD = 28.3 ± 5.1 years) with a history of MDD (but not in a mood episode at enrollment) who completed daily sleep diaries, wore wrist actigraphs to estimate sleep, and had their mood assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17) during four separate weeks of the perinatal period (33 weeks pregnancy and weeks 2, 6, and 16 postpartum). They logged their infants' sleep and feeding behaviors daily and reported postnatal stress on the Childcare Stress Inventory (CSI) at week 16. Mothers' actigraphically estimated sleep showed associations with infant sleep and feeding patterns only at postpartum week 2. Shorter duration of the longest infant-sleep bout was associated with shorter maternal sleep duration (p = .02) and lower sleep efficiency (p = .04), and maternal sleep efficiency was negatively associated with the number of infant-sleep bouts (p = .008) and duration of infant feeding (p = .008). Neither infant sleep nor feeding was associated with maternal sleep at 6 or 16 weeks, but more disturbed infant sleep and more frequent feeding at 6 weeks were associated with higher HAM-D scores at 6 and 16 weeks and higher CSI scores. Sleep in the mother-infant dyad is most tightly linked in the early postpartum weeks, but mothers continue to experience disturbed sleep and infant sleep and feeding behaviors continue to be associated with mothers' depressive symptoms and stress ratings as long as 16 weeks postpartum. These data imply that interventions designed to improve maternal sleep and postpartum mood should include both mothers and infants because improving infant sleep alone is not likely to improve maternal sleep, and poor infant sleep is linked to postpartum depression and stress.

  9. Copepod feeding currents : flow patterns, filtration rates and energetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duren, LA; Stamhuis, EJ; Videler, JJ

    2003-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry was used to construct a quasi 3-dimensional image of the flow generated by the feeding appendages of the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis. By scanning layers of flow, detailed information was obtained on flow velocity and velocity gradients. The flow around feeding T. l

  10. Specific antibodies to cow's milk proteins in infants: effect of early feeding and diagnosis of cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilahti, Emma Merike; Saarinen, Kristiina Mertta; Savilahti, Erkki

    2010-12-01

    To investigate whether specific IgA, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 responses to cow's milk proteins differ between infants with cow's milk allergy and infants with cow's milk related symptoms (control subjects), and whether early feeding affects these responses as well as specific IgE. A cohort of 6,209 healthy, full-term infants in a double-blind randomized trial received, as supplementary feeding at maternity hospitals (mean duration 4 days), either cow's milk formula, extensively hydrolyzed whey formula or donor breast milk. Infants who developed cow's milk associated symptoms (n = 223) underwent an open oral cow's milk challenge (mean age 7 months), which confirmed cow's milk allergy in 111 and was negative in 112. We measured in sera cow's milk specific IgE levels with UniCAP (Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden), and β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgA, IgG1, IgG4 and IgG levels with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infants with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy had lower β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgG1, IgG4 and IgG levels (p < 0.05) than infants with non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy or control subjects. Within the group of infants with cow's milk allergy, exposure to cow's milk during the first few days after birth led to higher β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgG4 levels (p < 0.005) compared to infants fed with either breast milk or extensively hydrolyzed formula. Subdued IgG class responses to cow's milk proteins characterized IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. In infants who developed cow's milk allergy early exposure to cow's milk resulted in a heightened specific IgG4 response.

  11. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement of either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models fo...

  12. Effect of minimal enteral feeding on splanchnic uptake of leucine in the postabsorptive state in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Pipaon, MS; Vanbeek, RHT; Quero, J; Perez, J; Wattimena, DJL; Sauer, PJJ

    We conducted a controlled, randomized trial to study the effect of minimal enteral feeding on leucine uptake by splanchnic tissues, as an indicator of maturation of these tissues, in preterm infants in the first week of life. Within a few hours after birth, while receiving only glucose, a primed

  13. Effect of minimal enteral feeding on splanchnic uptake of leucine in the postabsorptive state in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Pipaon, MS; Vanbeek, RHT; Quero, J; Perez, J; Wattimena, DJL; Sauer, PJJ

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a controlled, randomized trial to study the effect of minimal enteral feeding on leucine uptake by splanchnic tissues, as an indicator of maturation of these tissues, in preterm infants in the first week of life. Within a few hours after birth, while receiving only glucose, a primed con

  14. Validation of the Arabic Version of the Infant Feeding Intentions Scale Among Lebanese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehya, Nadine; Tamim, Hani; Shamsedine, Lama; Ayash, Soumaya; Abdel Khalek, Lama; Abou Ezzi, Amanda; Nabulsi, Mona

    2017-05-01

    The Infant Feeding Intentions (IFI) scale was shown to reliably measure maternal intentions to initiate breastfeeding and continue exclusive breastfeeding until 1, 3, or 6 months in English and Spanish but not in Arab contexts. Research aim: This study aimed to validate an Arabic version of the IFI scale (IFI-A) and examine its ability to predict exclusive breastfeeding at 1, 3, or 6 months in pregnant Lebanese women. The internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the IFI-A scale were tested on 50 pregnant women (Group 1), whereas its predictive ability was tested on 196 pregnant women (Group 2), who were surveyed monthly about their infants' nutrition method until 6 months. The IFI-A scale's Cronbach's alpha internal consistency reliability is .82. Its corrected item-total correlations ranged from .26 for Item 2 ("at least give breastfeeding a try") to .86 for Item 4 ("will be exclusively breastfeeding at 3 months"). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that it is unidimensional. IFI-A scores correlated significantly with exclusive breastfeeding duration in Group 1 ( r = .624; p = .001) and with participants' breastfeeding attitude ( r = .390; p scale predicted exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months, albeit weakly (odds ratio = 1.16; 95% confidence interval [0.99, 1.36]), but not at 1 or 6 months. The IFI-A scale is a reliable and valid tool to assess maternal feeding intentions and predict exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months in the Arab context. Further studies are needed in other Arab contexts to confirm our findings.

  15. Association between maternal social capital and infant complementary feeding practices in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yunhee; Kim, Jane; Seo, Eunkyo

    2017-07-17

    Few studies have explored the potential of social capital in improving child nutritional status; however, most components of pathways between social capital and nutritional status have remained unexplained. Complementary feeding practice is a strong mediator of child nutritional status. This study examined the association between complementary feeding practice and maternal social capital in rural Ethiopia, using cross-sectional data of infant aged 6-12 months and their mother pairs (n = 870). The Short Social Capital Assessment Tool was used to assess maternal structural (i.e., community group membership, having emotional/economic support from individuals, and citizenship activities) and cognitive social capital (i.e., trust, social harmony, and sense of belonging) in the past 12 months. Infant's dietary diversity score (DDS, range: 0-7), minimum dietary diversity (MDD), and minimum meal frequency (MMF) were assessed using a 24-hr dietary recall. Multivariable ordinal/binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. Having support from two or more individuals was associated with higher DDS (OR = 1.84) and meeting a minimum level of dietary diversity (MDD: OR = 5.20) but not with MMF, compared to those having no support. Having two or more group memberships was associated with higher DDS (OR = 2.2) but not with MDD or MMF, compared to those without group membership. Citizenship activities showed mixed associations with MMF and no association with DDS or MDD. Cognitive social capital showed no association with DDS or MDD and lower odds of meeting MMF (OR = 0.56). These mixed results call for further studies to examine other potential pathways (e.g., hygiene and caring behaviours) in which social capital could improve child nutritional status. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. HIV and infant feeding in resource-rich settings: considering the clinical significance of a complicated dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, Mark H; Kennedy, V Logan; MacGillivray, S Jay

    2016-08-01

    With advances in the care of HIV-positive pregnant women, the likelihood of perinatal transmission is now less than 1%. In resource-rich settings women are instructed to abstain from breastfeeding, as studies have shown that breastfeeding increases the likelihood of infant acquisition of HIV. As practitioners caring for HIV-positive parents, we are now facing growing tension about the complex issues that inform decisions about infant feeding. In the face of changing guidelines and global immigration patterns, simply telling women that breastfeeding is contraindicated may no longer be good enough. We must fully open the lines of communication regarding this important and evolving issue. This commentary will review the clinical, social and cultural considerations that impact decisions regarding infant feeding in the context of HIV.

  17. Association of infant feeding and dietary intake on obesity prevalence in low-income toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jaimie N; Koleilat, Maria; Shearrer, Grace E; Whaley, Shannon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study assesses the independent and combined effects of breastfeeding (BF) and dietary intake, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), on obesity prevalence in low-income, primarily Hispanic toddlers. The following data were collected in 2011 via phone surveys with caregivers of 2295 low-income children (2-4 years) from Los Angeles County Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) programs: infant feeding, dietary intake, gestational diabetes status, birth weight, gestational age, and mother's BMI. WIC staff measured children's height and weight. Chi-square tests and binary logistic regressions assessed the independent and combined effects of BF and dietary intake on obesity prevalence. Compared to no BF, BF ≥ 12 mos was associated with a 47% reduction in obesity prevalence (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.4-0.8, P = 0.004). Compared to 2 + SSB/d, no SSB/d intake was associated with a 28% reduction in obesity prevalence (AOR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.5-1.0, P = 0.03). High intake of soda, diet soda, and fruit drinks were linked to increases in obesity prevalence. There was no effect of 100% juice, milk (plain or flavored) fruit, vegetable, fast food, or sweetened grain intake on obesity prevalence. These findings support encouragement of BF ≥ 12 mos and no SSB intake to prevent obesity in low-income, primarily Hispanic, toddlers. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  18. Infant and Young Child Feeding: a Key area to Improve Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Taghizade Moghaddam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Good nutrition is essential for survival, physical growth, mental development, performance, productivity, health and well-being across the entire life-span: from the earliest stages of fetal development, at birth, and through infancy, childhood, adolescence and on into adulthood. Poor nutrition in the first 1,000 days of children’s lives can have irreversible consequences. For millions of children, it means they are, forever, stunted. Every infant and child has the right to good nutrition according to the Convention on the Rights of the Child; so the World Health Assembly has adopted a new target of reducing the number of stunted children under the age of 5 by 40 percent by 2025. The first 2 years of a child’s life are particularly important, as optimal nutrition during this period lowers morbidity and mortality, reduces the risk of chronic disease, and fosters better development overall. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding are a critical aspect of caring for infants and young children.

  19. Developing a novel tool to assess liking and wanting in infants at the time of complementary feeding - The Feeding Infants: Behaviour and Facial Expression Coding System (FIBFECS)

    OpenAIRE

    Hetherington, MM; Madrelle, J.; Nekitsing, C; Barends, C; de Graaf, C.; Morgan, S.; Parrott, H.; Weenen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Consumption of foods is determined in part by how much a food is liked. However, assessing liking in infants is difficult. Research with infants has often relied on indirect measures such as intake or subjective ratings from mothers. Therefore the aim of the present research was to devise a tool adapted from existing techniques which can directly and systematically measure liking in infants during the weaning period. Method: A tool was developed by extracting items from previous...

  20. Psychometric properties of a mainland Chinese version of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale among postpartum women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hong-Xia; Guan, Xiang-Dong; Li, Xiao-Mao; You, Li-Ming; Lau, Ying

    2013-04-01

    The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) is used to evaluate maternal infant feeding attitude. The breastfeeding rate has declined but no validated instruments to assess infant feeding attitudes or related studies have been available in mainland China. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a mainland Chinese version of the IIFAS among postpartum women. Postpartum women (N = 660) were recruited from three university hospitals in Guangzhou in mainland China. The participants completed an IIFAS questionnaire before being discharged and accepted telephone follow-up sessions at 6 weeks and 3 months postpartum. The reliability of the scale was evaluated using intra-class correlations (ICC) for test-retest reliability, correlated item-total correlations and Cronbach's a. The validity of the scale was evaluated using the content validity index (CVI), construct validity using exploratory factor analysis and predictive validity using independent t-tests. The ICC was 0.861. The correlated item-total correlations ranged from 0.262-0.691. Cronbach's a was 0.623. The CVI was 0.996. Four factors were extracted using exploratory factor analysis and they contributed to 48.69% of the total variance. The mainland Chinese version of the IIFAS scale can be considered a reliable, valid and predictive scale for assessing infant feeding attitudes among women in mainland China. In-hospital scores on the scale were significant predictors of the infant feeding method and breastfeeding duration at 3 days, 6 weeks and 3 months postpartum. Construct validity was confirmed and showed four factors. However, future studies are required to improve the lower level internal consistency of the IIFAS.

  1. Sociocultural influences on infant feeding decisions among HIV-infected women in rural Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thairu, Lucy N; Pelto, Gretel H; Rollins, Nigel C; Bland, Ruth M; Ntshangase, Ncamisile

    2005-01-01

    The promotion of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by rapid transition to alternative food sources may be an important public health approach to the reduction of mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breastmilk. The basic ethical principle of 'informed choice' requires that HIV positive women are provided with adequate information about their options. However, information is only one factor that affects their decisions. The objective of this ethnographic study was to identify sociocultural influences on infant feeding decisions in the context of a large cohort study designed to assess the impact of a breastfeeding counselling and support strategy to promote exclusive breastfeeding on postnatal transmission of HIV in African women. Following an initial period of exploratory interviewing, ethnographic techniques were used to interview 22 HIV positive women about their views on infant feeding and health. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed with a text analysis program. Five themes of influences on feeding decisions emerged: (1) social stigma of HIV infection; (2) maternal age and family influences on feeding practices; (3) economic circumstances; (4) beliefs about HIV transmission through breastmilk; and (5) beliefs about the quality of breastmilk compared to formula. The study highlights the role of cultural, social, economic and psychological factors that affect HIV positive women's infant feeding decisions and behaviour.

  2. Policy content and stakeholder network analysis for infant and young child feeding in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Sabrina; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Das, Susmita; Chowdhury, Syeda Nafisa; Iqbal, Mohammad; Akter, Syeda Mahsina; Jahan, Khurshid; Uddin, Shahadat; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are essential for nutrition of infants and young children. Bangladesh has one of the highest levels of malnutrition globally along with sub-optimal IYCF practices. A supportive policy environment is essential to ensure that effective IYCF interventions are scaled up. The objectives of our study were to assess the support for IYCF in the national policy environment through policy analysis and stakeholder analysis and in so doing identify opportunities to strengthen the policy environment. We used a matrix developed by SAIFRN (the South Asian Infant Feeding Research Network) to systematically identify supportive national policies, plans and guidelines for IYCF. We adapted narrative synthesis and descriptive approaches to analyze policy content, based on four themes with a focus on support for mothers. We conducted three Net-Map interviews to identify stakeholders who influenced the policies and programs related to IYCF. We identified 19 national policy documents relevant to IYCF. Overall, there was good level of support for IYCF practices at policy level - particularly regarding general support for IYCF and provision of information to mothers - but these were not consistently supported at implementation level, particularly regarding specificity and population coverage. We identified gaps regarding the training of health workers, capacity building, the monitoring and targeting of vulnerable mothers and providing an enabling environment to mothers, specifically with respect to maternity leave for working women. Urban populations and providers outside the public sector remained uncovered by policy. Our stakeholder analysis identified government entities such as the National Nutrition Service, as the most influential in terms of both technical and funding support as they had the mandate for formulation and implementation of policies and national programs. Stakeholders from different sectors played important

  3. [Infant nutrition in Switzerland 1978. A prospective study on the nutritional habits during the first 6 months of life. I. Natural nutrition: breast feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tönz, O; Schwaninger, U; Holzherr, E; Schafroth, M

    1980-06-14

    With the help of 55 nurses counseling young mothers in northern, central and eastern Switzerland the feeding habits of 371 infants born in March and April 1978 were studied during the first 6 months of life. Infants who were still breastfed at the end of the observation period were monitored for another 6 months. 92% of all infants were breastfed during the puerperium (62% receiving exclusively mother's milk). At the end of the second month some 60% of the infants were breast-fed (40% exclusively). At the end of the fourth month the numbers were 30% (15%) and after 6 months 18% (2%). The "mean corrected nursing period" was 10.25 weeks. The length of this period showed a direct correlation with the socioeconomic class of the family and especially with the educational status of the mother. A small difference in duration of the nursing period between male and female infants was not statistically significant, although during childbed there was a significant difference in favour of boys. There appeared to be a relationship between duration of nursing and age, parity and bodyweight of the mother. There were marked differences in frequency and duration of breast-feeding according to whether rooming-in was practiced during childbed or not. At the end of the first half year of life babies with a long nursing period had a significantly lower body weight than those with partial or no breastfeeding. A much smaller difference in body length resulted in a lower and probably more favourable weight/length ratio. There was no difference in head circumference. As compared with other industralized European countries, the authors regard current nursing habits in Switzerland as satisfactory.

  4. Nutritional Deficiencies, the Absence of Information and Caregiver Shortcomings: A Qualitative Analysis of Infant Feeding Practices in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ai; Marsh, Lauren; Zhou, Huan; Medina, Alexis; Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Kenny, Kaleigh; Rozelle, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Development during the first two years of life is critical and has a lasting impact on a child's health. Poor infant and child nutrition can lead to deficiencies in essential micronutrients, which may cause a weakened immune system and lasting effects on children's growth and development. Recent studies in rural Shaanxi Province found an anemia prevalence of 54.3% among rural children aged six to twelve months. While new large-scale, quantitative research has begun to catalogue the extent of child malnutrition and anemia, no effort has yet been made to look more closely at the potential reasons for rural children's nutritional deficiencies through qualitative analysis. This study aims to elucidate some of the fundamental causes of poor complementary feeding practices that may lead to anemia among children in rural Shaanxi Province, China. We interviewed sixty caregivers participating in a large survey on child health and nutrition. We conducted three waves of interviews with children's primary caregivers in seventeen rural villages within four nationally-designated poverty counties in the southern part of Shaanxi Province. The qualitative analysis reveals that poor complementary feeding practices are common across our sample. Information gathered from our interviews suggests that complementary feeding practices are impeded by two constraints: absence of understanding topics related to infant health and nutrition under caregivers, as well as inadequate sources of information on these topics. Poverty does not appear to constrain child feeding practices. Our results uncover lack of proper knowledge on infant and child nutrition among rural caregivers in China. This situation causes them to fail incorporating micronutrient rich foods in their children's diet. Age-appropriate complementary feeding can stimulate children's physical and cognitive development, but in its absence it leads to iron-deficiency anemia. We suggest that steps be taken to educate caregivers to

  5. Early initiation of breast feeding but not bottle feeding increase exclusive breastfeeding practice among less than six months infant in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang: Pemberian asi eksklusif merupakan salah satu upaya dalam menurunkan kematian bayi dan neonatal. Namun, prevalensi asi eksklusif di Indonesia masih rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menilai hubungan inisiasi menyusu dini dan penggunaan botol/dot dengan praktek asi eksklusif pada bayi di bawah usia 6 bulan di Indonesia. Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas tahun 2013. Sub-sampel adalah bayi dibawah usia 6 bulan. Dari 7226 bayi dibawah usia 6 bulan, 6397 memiliki data yang lengkap untuk dilakukan analisis. Analisis dilakukan dengan regresi Cox. Hasil: Dari 6397 responden, 44% mendapatkan asi eksklusif. Inisiasi menyusu dini, penggunaan botol, pelayanan kesehatan pasca persalinan, tempat tinggal dan status sosial ekonomi berhubungan dengan praktek pemberian asi eksklusif. Anak yang mendapat inisiasi menyusu dini 66% lebih besar kemungkinan untuk memperoleh asi eksklusif bila dibandingkan dengan anak yang tidak memperoleh inisiasi menyusu dini [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 1,66; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI: 1,45 – 1,90]. Anak yang menggunakan dot/kempeng memiliki kemungkinan 71% lebih rendah untuk asi eksklusif bila dibandingkan dengan anak yang tidak menggunakan dot/kempeng (RRa = 0,29; 95% CI: 0,25 – 0,34. Kesimpulan: Inisiasi menyusu dini dapat meningkatkan pemberian asi eksklusif, sedangkan penggunaan dot dapat menurunkan praktek pemberian asi eksklusif. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7:44-8 Kata kunci: asi eksklusif, inisiasi menyusu dini, dot  Abstract Background: Exclusive breastfeeding is a intervention to reduce neonatal and infant mortality. However,the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia remains low. The aim of the study was identify the association of early initiation and bottle-feeding with exclusive breastfeeding practice among infant less than six month in Indonesia. Methods: This study was a part of Basic Health Research (RISKESDAS 2013

  6. Parental perception of child weight in the first two years-of-life: a potential link between infant feeding and preschoolers' diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaad, Salma M A; Donovan, Sharon M; Fiese, Barbara H

    2015-08-01

    Approximately 23% of preschoolers are overweight or obese. Establishing a healthy dietary lifestyle at an early age can improve later child diet and body weight. This study examined the determinants of past infant feeding practices that do not follow standard feeding recommendations (breastfeeding for less than 6 months duration, cow's milk prior to the first year of age and solid foods at or before 4 months of age). It also examined the role of parental perception of child weight in the first 2 years-of-life on past infant feeding practices as well as current child diet and body weight. Families of 497 preschoolers aged 22-63 months (39.0 ± 8.2) were recruited from 30 child care centers in East-Central Illinois. Main findings indicate that past infant feeding practices were common and varied by socio-demographic factors including race/ethnicity, parental education and child gender. Children perceived as overweight in the first 2 years-of-life tended to breastfeed for lesser duration. Additionally, the majority (79.8%) of preschoolers who were classified as overweight using BMI percentile were perceived as non-overweight by the parent in the first 2 years-of-life. Mean daily total fatty/sugary food intake was higher among those perceived to be non-overweight in the first 2 years-of-life. These findings have identified parental perception of child weight in the first 2 years-of-life as a modifiable risk factor for unhealthy child diet and obesity among preschoolers.

  7. Cardiovascular MRI without sedation or general anesthesia using a feed-and-sleep technique in neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windram, Jonathan; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Shariat, Masoud; Greer, Mary-Louise; Yoo, Shi-Joon [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Crawford, Mark W. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Anesthesia, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    MRI in small children generally necessitates the use of general anesthesia. We describe our initial results with a new technique that we name the feed-and-sleep method, whereby an infant can undergo a cardiac MRI without the need for general anesthesia or sedation. The infant is fasted for 4 h prior to the scan and is then fed by his mother prior to the scan. He is then swaddled with 1 to 2 infant sheets before being placed in a vacuum-bag immobilizer. As air is removed from the bag, the immobilizer becomes a rigid cradle that fits the infant's body. We prioritize the sequences according to the purpose of the study and in the order of clinical importance. Between January 2010 and January 2011 a total of 20 infants with the median age 14.5 days (minimum 2 days, maximum 155 days) underwent CMR studies via this method. All were performed successfully with no distress to the infant. The median scan time was 46.5 min (minimum 20, maximum 66). All had complex congenital heart defects and all planned sequences were acquired with sufficient quality to allow accurate diagnosis and to plan appropriate surgery. Using this technique, infants younger than 6 months can complete a cardiovascular MRI without the need for sedation or general anesthesia. We advocate the incorporation of this safe and reliable technique into routine clinical practice. (orig.)

  8. The Effects of Pre-feeding Oral Stimulations and Non-nutritive Sucking on Physical Growth and Independent Oral Feeding of Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalessi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding failures and oral feeding problems in preterm infants result in long-term health complications. In this study, therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of oral stimulation along with non-nutritive sucking (NNS on independent oral feeding initiation and weight gain in preterm infants. Methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial was carried out at Aliasghar Hospital in Tehran, Iran, 2014. A total of 50 26-32 weeks gestational age hospitalized infants, who were fed through tubes, were recruited in the study. The newborns were randomized into A, B and C groups. In the A and B groups, the neonates were stimulated through oral stimulation as well as non-nutritive sucking for 5 or 10 days, while in the group C, no especial intervention was performed. Infants' mean daily weight gain, the number of days until initiation of oral feeding, oral feeding progression, the number of days until reaching full oral feeding and date of discharge were recorded. The obtained data were analyzed and compared in the three groups using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Of all the participants, 25 cases (55.55% were male. Mean gestational age at birth and mean birth weight were 28.64±1.93 weeks and 1337.11±185.07 grams, respectively. In the group A, newborns' weight at reaching four and eight oral feedings per day and their weights at discharge were significantly higher than the other two groups (P=0.016, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively. Mean daily weight gain in the group A was higher (84.2850 g than the other groups (69.5814 vs. 64.2677 g. However, ANOVA results showed that this difference was not significant (P=0.108. Moreover, independent samples t-test indicated that this difference between groups A and C was significant (P=0.049. Conclusion: In clinically stable preterm neonates, oral stimulation and should be implemented to increase their weight; however, further studies are required to address this issue.

  9. Enemas, suppositories and rectal stimulation are not effective in accelerating enteral feeding or meconium evacuation in low-birthweight infants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Kim; Sietsma, Ydelette; Brouwer, Annemieke J; Rood, Paul J T; van den Hoogen, Agnes

    2016-11-01

    Early full enteral feeding in preterm infants decreases morbidity and mortality. Our systematic review covered the effectiveness of rectal stimulation, suppositories and enemas on stooling patterns and feeding tolerance in low-birthweight infants born at up to 32 weeks. It comprised seven studies published between 2007 and 2014 and covered 495 infants. Suppositories were ineffective in shortening the time to reach full enteral feeding, and the evidence on enemas was contradictory. Enemas and rectal stimulation did not shorten the time until complete meconium evacuation was reached. Further research into safe, effective interventions to accelerate meconium excretion is needed. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effectiveness of peer-counseling for promoting optimal complementary feeding practices among infants belonging to urban slums of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabharwal Vandana, Passi Santosh Jain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Promotion of appropriate complementary feeding practices is important in reducing malnutrition in infants and young children. Yet, India has dismal rates of optimal complementary feeding practices which are not rising. Aim: This study aimed to find the impact of the educational intervention directed through peer counselors to promote optimal complementary feeding practices. Methods and materials: This is an Interventional study, which has been conducted in an urban slum of Delhi using multi-stage random sampling. From the study area two sectors were randomly selected. From one sector, 54 pregnant women were selected who were not given any counselling forming the non-intervention group. From the other sector, 159 pregnant women were selected to form the intervention group (Igr which were further divided into 3 sub-groups; one sub-group was imparted counselling by a nutrition professional (Igr A; n=53 and the other two (Igr B1;n=53 and Igr B2;n=53 by the peer counselors who where the local health workers trained for promoting optimal infant feeding practices. The infants were followed up till their first birthday and in order to study the impact of counseling, the complementary feeding practices of the intervention and the non-intervention groups have been compared Results: In the intervention groups, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was significantly higher as compared to the non-intervention group (67.5 % vs. 4.2 %. In the intervention groups, 2.6 per cent infants received semi-solid/ solid foods before the age of 6 months, 75.1 percent between 6 – 7 months and the rest by the age of 9 months. However, in the Non-Igr, the respective figures were 48.9, 19.4 and 25.4 per cent; and at the age of one year, 6.4 per cent infants were still being given predominantly mother’s milk. 99.3 per cent infants in the Igrs as compared to 82.3 per cent in the Non-Igr (P<0.05 continued to receive breast milk till the age of

  11. Early infant feeding and risk of developing islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Ruth; Beyerlein, Andreas; Knopff, Annette; Hummel, Sandra; Ziegler, Anette-G; Winkler, Christiane

    2015-06-01

    We investigated whether food supplementation within the first year life or age at introduction of gluten-containing foods influenced the risk of developing islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. A total of 2,291 children with a family history of type 1 diabetes were prospectively followed from birth for 28,983 patient years (median 13.1 years). Dietary exposure data were collected by questionnaires, food records and by family interview. Exposure to gluten-containing foods before age 3 months, which occurred in 19 children, increased the risk of developing islet autoantibodies (n = 4), multiple islet autoantibodies (n = 4), and type 1 diabetes (n = 3) compared to exclusive breastfeeding within the first 3 months [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 3.97 (95 % confidence interval 1.41-11.17), 5.39 (1.89-15.35), and 3.45 (1.04-11.48), respectively] and also compared to first exposure to gluten between 3.1 and 6.0 months of age [adjusted HR 3.40 (1.19-9.70), 4.25 (1.47-12.26), and 3.43 (1.01-11.66), respectively]. Children who received infant formula or other solid food within the first 3 months and children who received gluten-containing foods after age 6 months did not have an increased risk of islet autoantibodies, multiple islet autoantibodies or type 1 diabetes. Our present data affirm that compliance to infant feeding guidelines is a possible way to reduce type 1 diabetes risk in genetically susceptible children.

  12. Current issues connected with usage of genetically modified crops in production of feed and livestock feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, K; Mazur, M; Sieradzki, Z

    2008-01-01

    Progress, which is brought by new advances in modern molecular biology, allowed interference in the genome of live organisms and gene manipulation. Introducing new genes to the recipient organism enables to give them new features, absent before. Continuous increase in the area of the biotech crops triggers continuous discussion about safety of genetically modified (GM) crops, including food and feed derived from them. Important issue connected with cultivation of genetically modified crops is a horizontal gene transfer and a bacterial antibiotic resistance. Discussion about safety of GM crops concerns also food allergies caused by eating genetically modified food. The problem of genetic modifications of GM crops used for livestock feeding is widely discussed, taking into account Polish feed law.

  13. Milk- and solid-feeding practices and daycare attendance are associated with differences in bacterial diversity, predominant communities, and metabolic and immune function of the infant gut microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Thompson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the infant intestinal microbiome in response to dietary and other exposures may shape long-term metabolic and immune function. We examined differences in the community structure and function of the intestinal microbiome between four feeding groups, exclusively breastfed infants before introduction of solid foods (EBF, non-exclusively breastfed infants before introduction of solid foods (non-EBF, EBF infants after introduction of solid foods (EBF+S, and non-EBF infants after introduction of solid foods (non-EBF+S, and tested whether out-of-home daycare attendance was associated with differences in relative abundance of gut bacteria. Bacterial 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was performed on 49 stool samples collected longitudinally from a cohort of 9 infants (5 male, 4 female. PICRUSt metabolic inference analysis was used to identify metabolic impacts of feeding practices on the infant gut microbiome. Sequencing data identified significant differences across groups defined by feeding and daycare attendance. Non-EBF and daycare-attending infants had higher diversity and species richness than EBF and non-daycare attending infants. The gut microbiome of EBF infants showed increased proportions of Bifidobacterium and lower abundance of Bacteroidetes and Clostridiales than non-EBF infants. PICRUSt analysis indicated that introduction of solid foods had a marginal impact on the microbiome of EBF infants (24 enzymes overrepresented in EBF+S infants. In contrast, over 200 bacterial gene categories were overrepresented in non-EBF+S compared to non-EBF infants including several bacterial methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP involved in signal transduction. The identified differences between EBF and non-EBF infants suggest that breast milk may provide the gut microbiome with a greater plasticity (despite having a lower phylogenetic diversity that eases the transition into solid foods.

  14. Milk- and solid-feeding practices and daycare attendance are associated with differences in bacterial diversity, predominant communities, and metabolic and immune function of the infant gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L; Monteagudo-Mera, Andrea; Cadenas, Maria B; Lampl, Michelle L; Azcarate-Peril, M A

    2015-01-01

    The development of the infant intestinal microbiome in response to dietary and other exposures may shape long-term metabolic and immune function. We examined differences in the community structure and function of the intestinal microbiome between four feeding groups, exclusively breastfed infants before introduction of solid foods (EBF), non-exclusively breastfed infants before introduction of solid foods (non-EBF), EBF infants after introduction of solid foods (EBF+S), and non-EBF infants after introduction of solid foods (non-EBF+S), and tested whether out-of-home daycare attendance was associated with differences in relative abundance of gut bacteria. Bacterial 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was performed on 49 stool samples collected longitudinally from a cohort of 9 infants (5 male, 4 female). PICRUSt metabolic inference analysis was used to identify metabolic impacts of feeding practices on the infant gut microbiome. Sequencing data identified significant differences across groups defined by feeding and daycare attendance. Non-EBF and daycare-attending infants had higher diversity and species richness than EBF and non-daycare attending infants. The gut microbiome of EBF infants showed increased proportions of Bifidobacterium and lower abundance of Bacteroidetes and Clostridiales than non-EBF infants. PICRUSt analysis indicated that introduction of solid foods had a marginal impact on the microbiome of EBF infants (24 enzymes overrepresented in EBF+S infants). In contrast, over 200 bacterial gene categories were overrepresented in non-EBF+S compared to non-EBF infants including several bacterial methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP) involved in signal transduction. The identified differences between EBF and non-EBF infants suggest that breast milk may provide the gut microbiome with a greater plasticity (despite having a lower phylogenetic diversity) that eases the transition into solid foods.

  15. Infant feeding patterns are associated with cardiovascular structures and function in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Layla L; Langhout, Marianne A; Taal, H Rob; Franco, Oscar H; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; van Osch-Gevers, Lennie; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2013-12-01

    Nutrition in infancy seems to be associated with cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in adulthood. These associations may be explained by cardiovascular developmental adaptations in childhood in response to specific infant feeding patterns. The aim of this study was to assess whether duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding and timing of introduction of solid foods affect cardiovascular development in childhood. In a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onward, information about duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding and timing of introduction of solid foods was obtained from delivery reports and questionnaires. Blood pressure, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), left atrial diameter (LAD), aortic root diameter (AOD), left ventricular (LV) mass, and fractional shortening (FS) were measured at a median age of 6.0 y (95% range: 5.6-7.4 y). Analyses were based on 5003 children. Age at introduction of solid foods was negatively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure at the age of 6 y. Compared with children who had ever been breast-fed, never-breast-fed children had a higher carotid-femoral PWV (β: 0.13 m/s; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.24 m/s), a smaller LAD (β: -0.29 mm; 95% CI: -0.55, -0.03 mm), and less LV mass (β:-1.46 g; 95% CI: -2.41, -0.52 g) at the age of 6 y. Among breast-fed children, duration and exclusivity were not associated with cardiovascular structures or function. Breastfeeding pattern and age at introduction of solid foods were not associated with AOD or FS. Feeding patterns in infancy may influence cardiovascular development in childhood. Further research is required to replicate these findings and to investigate whether these changes contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING PRACTICES AMONG UNDER-3 YEARS CHILDREN IN URBAN SLUMS OF HUBBALLI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana P, Dattatreya D Bant

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition is a serious public health problem affecting the growth and development of children which have detrimental effect in later adolescent and adult life. Although Malnutrition is multifaceted problem, Infant and young child feeding practices by mothers is crucial for optimum growth and development of the children Objectives: 1 To Assess the Infant and Young child feeding practices followed by the Mothers. 2 To study the influence of feeding practices on weight of Under 3 years children. Methodology: Cross-sectional study conducted in an urban slum of Hubli. 110 mother-child pairs recruited , where the child was between 7 months to 3 years of age. Employed a pre-structured questionnaire as tool and Child’s Anthropometry done. Data presented as percentages and proportions. Chi square test is applied to test association between Feeding practices and underweight, P value less than 0.05 considered as significant. Results: 22.7 % mothers had Breast fed within recommended time following delivery, prelacteal feeding practices observed in 47.3 % and 37.3% followed Exclusively Breast Feeding. However Timely Initiation of complementary foods was seen only in 34.5%. Breast feeding continued in 47.3 % beyond 6 months. 53.6 % & 86.4% didn’t satisfy the Minimum meal frequency and dietary diversity respectively. 50.9% of children were Normal, 49.09% were Underweight. Conclusions: Nearly 50% of the children under this study were underweight. Mothers who had not Exclusively Breast fed for 6 months, not continued Breast feeding beyond 6 months and inadequate meal frequency of the child were significantly associated with underweight of the children.

  17. Evaluation of Infant and young child feeding through a Trial for Improved Practices (TIPs in rural Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmina Anwar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intervention targeting exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding has the greatest impact on child survival. In view of these facts a formative research was conducted in rural Varanasi with objectives-To assess the status of IYCF practices prevailing in the experimental area and to demonstrate the effect of intervention among selected mothers for improved IYCF practices. Methodology: Follow up intervention study, on 2 types of cohort (0-6 and 7-36 months old mother & child pair conducted for the period of November 2011- October 2012.  Cohorts were followed for a period of 3 months, using a formative research methodology. A total of 293 mother & child pair were enrolled for intervention using appropriate sampling methodology. WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF and a child feeding index (CFI were created. The latter consisted of five components: breastfeeding, use of bottle, dietary diversity, food frequency and meal frequency which were adjusted for three age groups: 7-24 and 25-36 months Results: There was inadequacy of optimal breastfeeding and sub optimal Practice regarding Complementary feeding. Measurement of anthropometric Indies indicates that 46.7% were stunted, 35.5% are wasted and 29.6% are underweight. Inferential analysis for Difference in exclusive breast feeding and complementary feeding Index during pre and post TIPs intervention phase indicated a significant (p=0.001 change in exclusive breast and complementary feeding. Conclusion: Study indicated, it is possible to change short-term child-feeding behaviours to promote exclusive breast feeding and complementary feeding using TIPs methodology. However, long-term sustainability of these changes requires further study, and the effect of increased feeding of complementary foods, intakes of breast milk and total daily consumption of energy & nutrients requires further research.

  18. Infant hearing screening in India: Current status and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneela Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss or impairment of auditory sense is the most prevalent deficit of all the sensory organs. With virtually no mortality, hearing impairment causes huge impact on one′s social, educational and economic well-being. There are 5-6 infants who are hard of hearing out of 1000 neonates. They will not be identified till they attain 2 or more years of age, by then irreversible damage would have been done. Universal screening for hearing of new-borns is the only way to decrease the burden of deafness in our society. There are tools available which can be administered by health workers after initial training for screening the infants for hearing impairment. Under the aegis of National Programme for Prevention and Control of Deafness (NPPCD of India universal screening can and should be applied. The programme would entail additional financial burden for the initial purchase of screening machines and rehabilitating the identified children.

  19. Predictors of ante-natal care, delivery and infant feeding practices among rural women in Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrapal Ishwarji Meshram

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal and infant mortality rates and prevalence of under nutrition are high in the State Madhya Pradesh. Regular ante-natal check-ups (ANC, delivery by trained health personnel, delivery practices and optimal infant feeding practices are important to reduce maternal and infant mortality. Objectives: The aim was to assess antenatal care, delivery and infant feeding practices of mothers of <1-year-old children in Madhya Pradesh. Materials and Methods: This was community-based cross-sectional study carried out in the rural areas of Madhya Pradesh by adopting systematic random sampling procedure. Data were collected from 5324 mothers having <1-year-old children. Information on household (HH socioeconomic and demographic particulars was collected from the mothers. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed to study the association between dependent and independent variables. Results and Interpretations: About 36% mothers had undergone at least three ante-natal check-ups and 73% delivered either at government or private hospitals. Only 26% mothers initiated breastfeeding within 1-h of birth and 92% fed colostrum. Step-wise regression analysis showed that ante-natal care for <3 times was significantly (P < 0.01 higher among women with high parity (≥5, illiterate women, and among lower socioeconomic group,s while home delivery was higher among women with high parity (≥5 (odds ratio [OR]: 2.3, among Scheduled Caste and Tribe women (OR: 1.5, illiteracy of head of HH (OR: 2, and among lower socioeconomic groups (OR: 1.3. Discarding colostrum was higher among illiterate women (OR: 1.6, belonging to lower socioeconomic groups (OR: 1.4 and delivery conducted by untrained person (OR: 3.9, while initiation of breastfeeding after 1-h of childbirth was higher among ≥30 years women (OR: 1.9, illiterate women (OR: 1.4, and delivery by untrained person (OR: 2.9. Conclusions: It was observed that antenatal care, delivery and infant and

  20. The impact of early growth patterns and infant feeding on body composition at 3 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Christensen, Line Brinch; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Early excessive weight gain is positively associated with later obesity, and yet the effect of weight gain during specific periods and the impact of infant feeding practices are debated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of weight gain in periods of early childhood......-free mass index (FFMI) at 3 years. Full breastfeeding for 6 months (compared to less than 1 month) eliminated the effect of early growth (P= 0·01). Full breastfeeding for 6 months (compared to less than 1 month) also eliminated the positive relation between BWZ and FMI (P= 0·009). No effect modification...... of infant feeding was found for FFMI. In conclusion, high birth weight and rapid growth from 0 to 5 months were associated with increased FMI and FFMI at 3 years. Longer duration of full breastfeeding reduced the effect of birth weight and early weight gain on fat mass....

  1. Breast or bottle? HIV-positive women's responses to global health policy on infant feeding in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hollen, Cecilia

    2011-12-01

    This article describes how local responses to global health initiatives on infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers reflect and transform sociocultural values in Tamil Nadu, India. Drawing from ethnographic research conducted from 2002 to 2008, the article compares guidelines for counseling HIV-positive mothers established by UNICEF and WHO with decision-making processes and perceptions of HIV-positive mothers. In addition to the financial considerations, three factors are identified as impinging on this decision: (1) a strong sociocultural value in favor of breastfeeding linked to historical traditions and contemporary state and international development discourses, (2) constructions of class identity, (3) the influence of a rights-based discourse in HIV/AIDS advocacy. This wide range of factors points to the difficulty of implementing the international protocols. This is the first study of its kind to closely examine the complex determinants in HIV-positive women's decisions and evaluations of infant feeding methods in India.

  2. Applying Rank Sum Ratio (RSR) to the Evaluation of Feeding Practices Behaviors, and Its Associations with Infant Health Risk in Rural Lhasa, Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Dang, Shaonong; Xing, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Yan, Hong

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the status of feeding practices and analyze the association between feeding practice and health status among Tibetan infants, a cross-sectional survey of 386 women with children aged under 24 months was conducted in rural areas surrounding Lhasa, Tibet. All participants were selected using simple random sampling and were interviewed face-to-face by trained interviewers. Mothers were interviewed to collect information on their feeding practices. A feeding practices index was created using the rank sum ratio method. Most of the infants had been or were being breastfed at the time of the interview. The feeding practices index was significantly and inversely associated with the prevalence of acute upper respiratory infection, and the odds ratio for the qualified feeding practices index vs. the non-qualified feeding practices index was 0.43 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.94). There were no measurable associations observed between acute upper respiratory infection, diarrhea, and the feeding practices index after controlling for selected factors. The method of rank sum ratio provides a flexible way to evaluate feeding practices and is easy to understand. Furthermore, appropriate infant feeding practices might play a protective role in Tibetan infants' health.

  3. Reliability and Validity of the Reduced Spanish Version of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Almarcha, Rosa; Oliver-Roig, Antonio; Richart-Martinez, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    To translate the Iowa Infant Feeding Scale (IIFAS) into Spanish, to test its psychometric properties, and to explore item reduction for the Spanish version. Instrumental study. Six hospitals in eastern Spain. A convenience sample of 1,354 pregnant women was recruited. The IIFAS was translated using forward and back translation. Dimensional structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the Spanish IIFAS version were assessed. Criteria to improve the reliability of the scale and the predictive power of the items were used to reduce the scale. Statistics on the psychometric properties suggested the need for item reduction. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the nine-item final version of the Spanish IIFAS (IIFAS-S) was 0.792. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a unidimensional structure. Demographic response patterns and correlations with the IIFAS-S scale provided further evidence of construct validity. Pregnancy IIFAS-S scores significantly predicted breastfeeding rates and exclusivity. The results of this study indicated that the Spanish translation of the IIFAS is a valid and reliable measure of women's attitudes toward breastfeeding. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Egg yolk as a source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, A P; Salem, N

    1992-02-01

    In this paper we compare the fatty acid content of egg yolks from hens fed four different feeds as a source of docosahexaenoic acid to supplement infant formula. Greek eggs contain more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 omega 3) and less linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 omega 6) and alpha-linolenic acid (LNA, 18:3 omega 3) than do fish-meal or flax eggs. Two to three grams of Greek egg yolk may provide an adequate amount of DHA and arachidonic acid for a preterm neonate. Mean intake of breast milk at age 1 mo provides 250 mg long-chain omega 3 fatty acids. This amount can be obtained from less than 1 yolk of a Greek egg (0.94), greater than 1 yolk of flax eggs (1.6) and fish-meal eggs (1.4), or 8.3 yolks of supermarket eggs. With proper manipulation of the hens' diets, eggs could be produced with fatty acid composition similar to that of Greek eggs.

  5. Hospital discharge bags and breastfeeding at 6 months: data from the infant feeding practices study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadacharan, Radha; Grossman, Xena; Matlak, Stephanie; Merewood, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Distribution of industry-sponsored formula sample packs to new mothers undermines breastfeeding. Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II), we aimed to determine whether receipt of 4 different types of bags was associated with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. We extracted data from IFPS II questionnaires. Type of discharge bag received was categorized as "formula bag," "coupon bag," "breastfeeding supplies bag," or "no bag". We examined exclusive breastfeeding status at 10 weeks (post hoc) and at 6 months using univariate descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographic and attitudinal variables. Overall, 1868 (81.4%) of women received formula bags, 96 (4.2%) received coupon bags, 46 (2.0%) received breastfeeding supplies bags, and 284 (12.4%) received no bag. By 10 weeks, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bags or no bag were significantly more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding than formula bag recipients. In the adjusted model, compared to formula bag/coupon bag recipients, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bag/no bag were significantly more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.36). The vast majority of new mothers received formula sample packs at discharge, and this was associated with reduced exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months. Bags containing breastfeeding supplies or no bag at all were positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months.

  6. [Effects of infant feeding practice on eczema during early childhood in Shanghai, Hohhot, and Fuzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X Q; Zhu, G W; Zheng, Z Q; Yang, Y; Gong, C D; Deng, S S; Wu, Q L; Peng, Y M

    2016-12-02

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of eczema in early childhood and effect of infant feeding practice on eczema by different regions of China with diverse climate and dietary patterns. Method: A questionnaire survey was conducted from June 2012 to October 2012 in Shanghai, Hohhot, and Fuzhou. The parent or guardian of the children aged between 2.5 to 3.5 years attending routine health visit in the chosen communities were invited to complete a modified questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC). Logistic regression model was used to analyze of the family history of allergy, duration of breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods and other potential confounders. Result: A total of 2 242 children were interviewed, 750 from Shanghai, 716 from Hohhot, and 776 from Fuzhou. The prevalence of eczema in early childhood was significantly different among Shanghai (16.9%, 95%CI 16.87-16.93), Hohhot (34.5%, 95%CI 34.46-34.54)and Fuzhou (44.3%, 95%CI 44.26-44.34). The difference was statistically significant between 3 groups (χ(2)=72.05, Pchildhood is various among three cities. The relationship between timing of introduction of complementary foods and eczema in Fuzhou is different from that in Shanghai and Hohhot. The role of climate and dietary patterns on prevalence of eczema needs further studies.

  7. Black non-Hispanic mothers' perceptions about the promotion of infant-feeding methods by nurses and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cricco-Lizza, Roberta

    2006-01-01

    To describe reports of low-income Black non-Hispanic women about the promotion of infant-feeding methods by nurses and physicians. Ethnographic research conducted over 18 months with interviewing and participant observation of informants. The study took place in a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children clinic and neighborhood in the New York metropolitan area. 130 Black non-Hispanic mothers enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children were general informants. From this group, 11 primiparous key informants were selected for close follow-up during pregnancy and the 1st postpartum year. Audiotaped interviews and field notes were analyzed for mothers' descriptions of infant-feeding education and support from nurses and physicians. The informants reported limited breastfeeding education and support during pregnancy, childbirth stay in neonatal intensive care unit, postpartum, and recovery in the community. They also expressed trust/distrust concerns and varying degrees of anxiety about the ways they were treated by nurses and physicians. To decrease disparities in breastfeeding, this research suggests that health care professionals should focus their efforts on the development of trusting relationships and continuity of care along with clear, consistent breastfeeding education and support.

  8. The extended Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT Extend) Program: a cluster-randomized controlled trial of an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen J; Hesketh, Kylie D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Ball, Kylie; McCallum, Zoë; Lynch, John; Crawford, David A

    2016-02-18

    Understanding how we can prevent childhood obesity in scalable and sustainable ways is imperative. Early RCT interventions focused on the first two years of life have shown promise however, differences in Body Mass Index between intervention and control groups diminish once the interventions cease. Innovative and cost-effective strategies seeking to continue to support parents to engender appropriate energy balance behaviours in young children need to be explored. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Extend Program builds on the early outcomes of the Melbourne InFANT Program. This cluster randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of an extended (33 versus 15 month) and enhanced (use of web-based materials, and Facebook® engagement), version of the original Melbourne InFANT Program intervention in a new cohort. Outcomes at 36 months of age will be compared against the control group. This trial will provide important information regarding capacity and opportunities to maximize early childhood intervention effectiveness over the first three years of life. This study continues to build the evidence base regarding the design of cost-effective, scalable interventions to promote protective energy balance behaviors in early childhood, and in turn, promote improved child weight and health across the life course. ACTRN12611000386932. Registered 13 April 2011.

  9. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: how do they compare to current recommendations?

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Thomas G.; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goodell, L. Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L.; Duran, J Andrea Jaramillo; Williams, Kimberly; Beck, Ashley D; Frankel, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample to determine the degree to which observed maternal feeding practices compare with current recommendations. Methods Eighty low-income mothers and their preschool children were videotaped a...

  10. Nutrient intake of infants and toddlers in the United Arab Emirates: the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrazzaq, Y M; Nagelkerke, N; Abdulla, S; Belhaj, G

    2016-08-18

    This descriptive study evaluated the nutrient adequacy of the diet of infants (aged 6-11.9 months) and toddlers (aged 12-24 months) in the United Arab Emirates. A random sample of 1000 infants and toddlers was recruited from 2 cities (Al Ain and Dubai) from March 2011 to February 2012 and their usual nutrient intake was determined using 24-hour recall. In all, 54.2% of infants and 25.2% of toddlers were breastfeeding. Mean energy intake of infant girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 747 (SD 189) kcal and 773 (SD 215) kcal respectively and 810.5 (SD 232.2) kcal and 821.9 (SD 262) kcal for boys. In toddlers, mean energy intake for girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 1032.8 (SD 252) kcal and 1013 (SD 339.1) kcal respectively and 1057.2 (SD 201.8) kcal and 1030.3 (SD 341.7) kcal for boys. Iron intake was low in both groups. Mean body mass index and body weight and height were similar to World Health Organization figures but significant numbers of infants and toddlers of both sexes were over- or underweight. Although mean energy and macronutrient intakes were comparable to the RDA, significant numbers were over- or underfed.

  11. Infant feeding among HIV-positive mothers and the general population mothers: comparison of two cross-sectional surveys in Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tylleskär Thorkild

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers differ from recommendations to mothers of unknown HIV-status. The aim of this study was to compare feeding practices, including breastfeeding, between infants and young children of HIV-positive mothers and infants of mothers in the general population of Uganda. Methods This study compares two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the end of 2003 and the beginning of 2005 in Eastern Uganda using analogous questionnaires. The first survey consisted of 727 randomly selected general-population mother-infant pairs with unknown HIV status. The second included 235 HIV-positive mothers affiliated to The Aids Support Organisation, TASO. In this article we compare early feeding practices, breastfeeding duration, feeding patterns with dietary information and socio-economic differences in the two groups of mothers. Results Pre-lacteal feeding was given to 150 (64% infants of the HIV-positive mothers and 414 (57% infants of general-population mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding of infants under the age of 6 months was more common in the general population than among the HIV-positive mothers (186 [45%] vs. 9 [24%] respectively according to 24-hour recall. Mixed feeding was the most common practice in both groups of mothers. Solid foods were introduced to more than half of the infants under 6 months old among the HIV-positive mothers and a quarter of the infants in the general population. Among the HIV-positive mothers with infants below 12 months of age, 24 of 90 (27% had stopped breastfeeding, in contrast to 9 of 727 (1% in the general population. The HIV-positive mothers were poorer and had less education than the general-population mothers. Conclusion In many respects, HIV-positive mothers fed their infants less favourably than mothers in the general population, with potentially detrimental effects on both the child's nutrition and the risk of HIV transmission. Mixed feeding and pre

  12. Why Do Mothers of Young Infants Choose to Formula Feed in China? Perceptions of Mothers and Hospital Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In China the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and infant formula is widely used. This study aimed to elicit and compare mothers’ and hospital staff perceptions of the reasons that shaped mothers’ decision to formula feed. In-depth interviews with 50 mothers, and four focus group discussions with 33 hospital staff, were conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen in November 2014. Responses given by the mothers and hospital staff showed a number of commonalities. The perception of “insufficient breast milk” was cited by the majority of women (n = 37, 74% as the reason for formula feeding. Mothers’ confidence in breastfeeding appears to be further reduced by maternal mothers or mothers-in-law’s and “confinement ladies” misconceptions about infant feeding. Inadequate breastfeeding facilities and limited flexibility at their workplace was another common reason given for switching to formula feeding. A substantial proportion of mothers (n = 27, 54% lacked an understanding of the health benefits of breastfeeding. Antenatal education on breastfeeding benefits for expectant mothers and their families is recommended. Moreover, mothers should be provided with breastfeeding support while in hospital and be encouraged to seek professional assistance to deal with breastfeeding problems after discharge. Employers should also make work environments more breastfeeding-friendly.

  13. Disinfection methods used in decontamination of bottles used for feeding powdered infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Elizabeth; Griffith, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Infant susceptibility and the risks posed by infections associated with bottle-fed powdered infant formula (PIF) have received increased attention in recent years. Intrinsic contamination of PIF with pathogens has been reported and extrinsic contamination can be introduced from the handler or the environment during reconstitution. Recommended disinfection advice and bottle decontamination have changed in recent years and the aim of this study was to validate the efficacy of four current disinfection methods using bottles that had contained reconstituted PIF spiked with either a representative mixed bacterial culture or specific pathogens. Initially, bottles (n = 6) of reconstituted formula were spiked with 10(5) cfu/ml representative mixed culture. For subsequent experiments, reconstituted formula was spiked with either 10(2) and 10(4) cfu/ml of Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter), Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Before disinfection, bottles were cleaned according to recommended guidelines. Disinfection procedures tested included a hypochlorite-based chemical solution and three heat-based methods. Bottles were sampled in four sites. Before cleaning and disinfection, the inner screw cap and inner-teat were the most heavily contaminated sites with 1.6-7.4 x 10(3) cfu/per-area-sampled; the bottle interior was more contaminated overall with 1.2 x 10(4) cfu/per-area-sampled. After disinfection, adherence to recommended procedures (combined with good hygiene) enabled effective decontamination to be achieved using all methods. Small differences in disinfection ability were not significant (p > 0.05). Cumulatively, 800 sites were sampled and no B. cereus or E. sakazakii were isolated. S. aureus was isolated from 0.1% of sites with one site exceeding 1 cfu/ml. Findings indicate the potential for bottle contamination and that strict adherence to four currently used methods allowed effective decontamination. This highlights the importance of effective consumer

  14. Apoprotein E phenotype determines serum cholesterol in infants during both high-cholesterol breast feeding and low-cholesterol formula feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, M J; Salmenperä, L; Siimes, M A; Perheentupa, J; Gylling, H; Miettinen, T A

    1997-04-01

    Our objective was to establish the role of the apoprotein (apo) E phenotype in determining serum cholesterol levels in infants fed exclusively on high-fat, high-cholesterol human milk and in those fed a low-cholesterol, high-unsaturated fat formula. The total and lipoprotein cholesterol, apoB, and triglyceride concentrations in serum were quantified and related to the apoE phenotype in 151 infants at birth and at 2, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Forty-four had the E3/4 or 4/4 phenotype (E4 group), 94 had the E3/3 phenotype (E3 group), and 13 had the E2/3 or 2/4 phenotype (E2 group). In cord blood, cholesterol concentrations tended to be higher in the E4 than in the E2 group. With exclusive breast-feeding, the concentrations rose significantly faster and higher in the E4 group than in the E3 group or, especially, the E2 group. The values (mmol/L, mean +/- SEM) were 1.6 +/- 0.15, 1.5 +/- 0.05, 1.4 +/- 0.1 (P = n.s.) at birth; 4.2 +/- 0.1, 3.8 +/- 0.08, 3.4 +/- 0.2 (P HDL, HDL2, and HDL3 cholesterol concentrations did not depend on the apoE phenotype. Among infants fed high-fat, high-cholesterol human milk, the total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations and the LDL apoB concentration of those with the apoE phenotype 4/4 or 3/4 rose faster and to higher levels than in other infants. Among formula-fed infants, receiving a low-cholesterol, high-unsaturated fat diet, the differences between the apoE groups were smaller.

  15. Prevention Strategy for Feeding Problems of Infants%婴幼儿喂养困难预防策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仉斌

    2012-01-01

    The feeding problems of children exist with respect to attention degree is rising, but the feeding difficulties understanding is insufficiency and the methods to solve the problems are insufficient.This paper analyzed the influencing factors of feeding difficulties of infant and put forward relevant prevention strategy.%目前儿童喂养问题方面存在着重视程度提高,但是对喂养困难的认识不足、解决问题的方法缺乏等矛盾,本文分析了婴幼儿喂养困难的影响因素,并提出相关预防策略。

  16. Cesarean Section, Formula Feeding, and Infant Antibiotic Exposure: Separate and Combined Impacts on Gut Microbial Changes in Later Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Yasmin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Established during infancy, our complex gut microbial community is shaped by medical interventions and societal preferences, such as cesarean section, formula feeding, and antibiotic use. We undertook this study to apply the significance analysis of microarrays (SAM method to quantify changes in gut microbial composition during later infancy following the most common birth and postnatal exposures affecting infant gut microbial composition. Gut microbiota of 166 full-term infants in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort were profiled using 16S high-throughput gene sequencing. Infants were placed into groups according to mutually exclusive combinations of birth mode (vaginal/cesarean birth, breastfeeding status (yes/no, and antibiotic use (yes/no by 3 months of age. Based on repeated permutations of data and adjustment for the false discovery rate, the SAM statistic identified statistically significant changes in gut microbial abundance between 3 months and 1 year of age within each infant group. We observed well-known patterns of microbial phyla succession in later infancy (declining Proteobacteria; increasing Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes following vaginal birth, breastfeeding, and no antibiotic exposure. Genus Lactobacillus, Roseburia, and Faecalibacterium species appeared in the top 10 increases to microbial abundance in these infants. Deviations from this pattern were evident among infants with other perinatal co-exposures; notably, the largest number of microbial species with unchanged abundance was seen in gut microbiota following early cessation of breastfeeding in infants. With and without antibiotic exposure, the absence of a breast milk diet by 3 months of age following vaginal birth yielded a higher proportion of unchanged abundance of Bacteroidaceae and Enterobacteriaceae in later infancy, and a higher ratio of unchanged Enterobacteriaceae to Alcaligenaceae microbiota. Gut microbiota of infants born

  17. Achieving behaviour change at scale: Alive & Thrive's infant and young child feeding programme in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Tina; Haque, Raisul; Roy, Sumitro; Afsana, Kaosar; Seidel, Renata; Islam, Sanjeeda; Jimerson, Ann; Baker, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The Alive & Thrive programme scaled up infant and young child feeding interventions in Bangladesh from 2010 to 2014. In all, 8.5 million mothers benefited. Approaches - including improved counselling by frontline health workers during home visits; community mobilization; mass media campaigns reaching mothers, fathers and opinion leaders; and policy advocacy - led to rapid and significant improvements in key practices related to breastfeeding and complementary feeding. (Evaluation results are forthcoming.) Intervention design was based on extensive formative research and behaviour change theory and principles and was tailored to the local context. The programme focused on small, achievable actions for key audience segments identified through rigorous testing. Promotion strategies took into account underlying behavioural determinants and reached a high per cent of the priority groups through repeated contacts. Community volunteers received monetary incentives for mothers in their areas who practised recommended behaviours. Programme monitoring, midterm surveys and additional small studies to answer questions led to ongoing adjustments. Scale-up was achieved through streamlining of tools and strategies, government branding, phased expansion through BRAC - a local non-governmental implementing partner with an extensive community-based platform - and nationwide mainstreaming through multiple non-governmental organization and government programmes. Key messages Well-designed and well-implemented large-scale interventions that combine interpersonal counselling, community mobilization, advocacy, mass communication and strategic use of data have great potential to improve IYCF practices rapidly. Formative research and ongoing studies are essential to tailor strategies to the local context and to the perspectives of mothers, family members, influential community members and policymakers. Continued use of data to adjust programme elements is also central to the process. Scale

  18. Infant and Young Child Feeding Behavior among Working Mothers in India: Implications for Global Health Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar, MD, MPH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Guidelines on Infant and Young Child Feeding introduced in 2006 recommended the initiation of breastfeeding immediately after birth, preferably within one hour; exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months; appropriate and adequate complementary feeding from six months of age while continuing breastfeeding; and continued breastfeeding up to the age of two years or beyond. Working women in India constitute a dominant and expanding pool of mothers. There is paucity of research focused on feeding behavior within this group. Method: One hundred and fifty working women answered a structured questionnaire about their demographics, birth history, levels of awareness and practice of feeding guidelines, and perceptions about breastfeeding and counseling. Data analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: Majority of participants belonged to 21-39 years age group, had nuclear families, received college education, and delivered in institutional setups. Gaps were observed between the mother’s levels of awareness and practice for different tenets of national guidelines. Higher education, longer maternity leave, higher income, and utilization of counseling services facilitated adoption of optimal feeding behavior. Most women perceived breast milk to be superior to any alternative and favored provision of counseling during last trimester. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Counseling women on optimal feeding behavior is a potential intervention to convert its awareness into actual practice. The lessons learned from this study can help refine both national and global Mother and Child Health policies and programs.

  19. Infant and young child feeding practices in urban Philippines and their associations with stunting, anemia, and deficiencies of iron and vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Fabian; Woodruff, Bradley A; Aaron, Grant J; Yakes, Elizabeth A; Lebanan, May Antonnette O; Rayco-Solon, Pura; Saniel, Ofelia P

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of stunting, underweight, and micronutrient deficiencies are persistently high in young children in the Philippines, and among other factors, suboptimal infant and young child feeding behavior may contribute to these forms of malnutrition. To improve the understanding of contributors associated with the nutritional status of children 6 to 23 months of age living in urban areas of the Philippines. A cross-sectional survey was conducted covering five urban centers in the Philippines. Data on infant and young child feeding and nutritional status (including wasting, stunting, underweight, anemia, iron deficiency, and vitamin A deficiency) were collected for 1,784 children. Among children from urban and predominantly poor and very poor households, 26% were stunted, 18% were underweight, and 5% were wasted. Forty-two percent were anemic, 28% were iron deficient, and 3% were vitamin A deficient. About half of the children were breastfed within an hour after birth, were breastfed at the time of the survey, and had been continuously breastfed up to 1 year of age. Of the factors investigated, low socioeconomic status, use of cheaper cooking fuel, and nonuse of multivitamins were all independently associated with stunting. The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and vitamin A deficiency were independently associated with the same factors and poorer sanitation facilities, lower maternal education, current unemployment, and inflammation. These factors merit attention in future programming and interventions may include promotion of the timely introduction of appropriate fortified complementary foods, the use of affordable multiple micronutrient preparations, and measures to reduce infections.

  20. Fruit Juice in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Current Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B; Abrams, Steven A

    2017-06-01

    Historically, fruit juice was recommended by pediatricians as a source of vitamin C and as an extra source of water for healthy infants and young children as their diets expanded to include solid foods with higher renal solute load. It was also sometimes recommended for children with constipation. Fruit juice is marketed as a healthy, natural source of vitamins and, in some instances, calcium. Because juice tastes good, children readily accept it. Although juice consumption has some benefits, it also has potential detrimental effects. High sugar content in juice contributes to increased calorie consumption and the risk of dental caries. In addition, the lack of protein and fiber in juice can predispose to inappropriate weight gain (too much or too little). Pediatricians need to be knowledgeable about juice to inform parents and patients on its appropriate uses. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. The effect of enteral and parenteral feeding on secretion of orexigenic peptides in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztefko Krystyna

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The feeding in the first months of the life seems to influence the risks of obesity and affinity to some diseases including atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of these relations are unknown, however, the modification of hormonal action can likely be taken into account. Therefore, in this study the levels of ghrelin and orexin A - peripheral and central peptide from the orexigenic gut-brain axis were determined. Methods Fasting and one hour after the meal plasma concentrations of ghrelin and orexin were measured in breast-fed (group I; n = 17, milk formula-fed (group II; n = 16 and highly hydrolyzed, hypoallergic formula-fed (group III; n = 14 groups, age matched infants (mean 4 months as well as in children with iv provision of nutrients (glucose - group IV; n = 15; total parenteral nutrition - group V; n = 14. Peptides were determined using EIA commercial kits. Results Despite the similar caloric intake in orally fed children the fasting ghrelin and orexin levels were significantly lower in the breast-fed children (0.37 ± 0.17 and 1.24 ± 0.29 ng/ml, respectively than in the remaining groups (0.5 ± 0.27 and 1.64 ± 0.52 ng/ml, respectively in group II and 0.77 ± 0.27 and 2.04 ± 1.1 ng/ml, respectively, in group III. The postprandial concentrations of ghrelin increased to 0.87 ± 0.29 ng/ml, p Conclusion The highly hydrolyzed diet strongly affects fasting and postprandial ghrelin and orexin plasma concentrations with possible negative effect on short- and long-time effects on development. Also total parenteral nutrition with the continuous stimulation and lack of fasting/postprandial modulation might be responsible for disturbed development in children fed this way.

  2. Introducing infant and young child feeding indicators into national nutrition surveillance systems: lessons from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Do Thanh; de Onis, Mercedes

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive set of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators for international use was published in 2008. We describe the process followed to incorporate these indicators into Vietnam's National Nutrition Surveillance System (NNSS). Following its establishment in 1980, the National Institute of Nutrition introduced the Vietnam NNSS to provide an evidence base for nutrition interventions. While anthropometric indicators based on international standards were regularly used for programme purposes, data on IYCF could not be collected with similar rigor until 2010. In 2009, with support from Alive & Thrive and UNICEF, the NNSS questionnaire was reviewed and additional content incorporated to measure IYCF practices. The tool was pilot-tested in 10 provinces and revised before nationwide roll-out in 2010.The tool comprises four pages, the first three of which focus on collecting data relating to maternal nutrition and IYCF. The last page is flexibly designed to incorporate planners' data requests for other relevant activities (e.g. mass media interventions, food security). Once analysed, the data are presented in a report comprising provincial profiles and maps illustrating IYCF practices. Importantly, the IYCF data have been used for policy advocacy (e.g. maternity leave legislation, advertisement law), programme planning, trend monitoring and capacity building. Adoption of the IYCF indicators was successful due to strategic timing, a phased approach, buy-in from stakeholders and capacity building at all levels to ensure the quality and use of data. Further revisions to the NNSS (e.g. sampling methodology, quality assurance systems) will be important to ensure the reliability of indicators.

  3. A comparison of preprepared commercial infant feeding meals with home-cooked recipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstairs, Sharon A; Craig, Leone Ca; Marais, Debbi; Bora, Ourania E; Kiezebrink, Kirsty

    2016-11-01

    To compare the cost, nutritional and food variety contents of commercial meals and published infant and young child feeding (IYCF) home-cooked recipes, and to compare nutritional contents to age-specific recommendations. Cross-sectional study. Full range of preprepared main meals available within the UK market. Main-meal recipes identified from a survey of Amazon's top 20 best-sellers and IYCF cookbooks available from local libraries. 278 commercial IYCF savoury meals from UK market and 408 home-cooked recipes from best-selling IYCF published cookbooks. Cost and nutritional content per 100 g and food variety per meal for both commercial meals and home-cooked recipes. Commercial products provided more 'vegetable' variety per meal (median=3.0; r=-0.33) than home-cooked recipes (2.0). Home-cooked recipes provided 26% more energy and 44% more protein and total fat than commercial products (r=-0.40, -0.31, -0.40, respectively) while costing less (£0.33/100 g and £0.68/100 g, respectively). The majority of commercial products (65%) met energy density recommendations but 50% of home-cooked recipes exceeded the maximum range. The majority of commercial meals provided an energy-dense meal with greater vegetable variety per meal to their home-cooked counterparts. Home-cooked recipes provided a cheaper meal option, however the majority exceeded recommendations for energy and fats. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. In a rural area of Bangladesh, traditional birth attendant training improved early infant feeding practices: a pragmatic cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Shamim; Farhana, Dina; Vitta, Bineti; Greiner, Ted

    2017-01-01

    In rural Bangladesh, most births take place at home. There is little evidence regarding the influence of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or community volunteers (CVs) on early infant feeding practices. We conducted a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial in Panchagarh District to examine the effects of training and post-training supervision of TBAs/CVs on early breastfeeding practices. Nine unions were randomized into three groups of three unions. We compared outcomes between mothers in a control group (CG), those living in unions where TBAs/CVs had received a 5-day training in early feeding practices (TG) and those living in unions where TBAs/CVs were both trained and supervised (SG). A total of 1182 mothers of infants aged 0-6 months were interviewed at baseline. After 6 months of intervention, an endline survey was conducted on a different sample of 1148 mothers of infants aged 0-6 months in the same areas. In both intervention areas, TBAs/CVs made regular home visits and attended births whenever possible. Rates of early initiation of breastfeeding, avoidance of prelacteal feeds and exclusive breastfeeding were compared between groups using cluster-controlled mixed model logistic regression. At endline, both intervention groups had significantly higher proportions of mothers who reported early initiation of breastfeeding (CG: 88%, TG: 96%, SG: 96%) and avoidance of prelacteal feeds (CG: 48%, TG: 80%, SG: 88%) compared with the control group; there were no significant differences between the two intervention groups. The endline rates of reported exclusive breastfeeding were not significantly different among groups (CG: 67%, TG: 76%, SG: 83%). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Exploring infant feeding practices: cross-sectional surveys of South Western Sydney, Singapore, and Ho Chi Minh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Timothy Yong Qun; Ung, Andrew; Qian, Shelley; Nguyen, Jessie Thanh; An, Yvonne; Mudgil, Poonam; Whitehall, John

    2017-06-13

    Infant feeding practices are known to influence the child's long-term health. Studies have associated obesity and other diseases with reduced breastfeeding and early introduction of high calorie beverages (HCBs). The rising prevalence of obesity is already a problem in most developed countries, especially Australia, but cultural differences are influential. Our aim is to examine and compare infant feeding practices and educational levels of respondents through questionnaires in three culturally different sites: Campbelltown (South Western Sydney), Australia, Singapore and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (HCMC). Consenting parents and carers (aged ≥18 years old) of at least one child (≤6 years old) were recruited from paediatric clinics in Campbelltown, Singapore and HCMC. Participants completed an infant feeding practices questionnaire regarding breastfeeding, beverage and solid initiation in addition to the parent's ethnicity, age, and educational level. Data was analysed quantitatively using SPSS. Two hundred eighty-three participants were recruited across the three sites, HCMC (n = 84), Campbelltown (n = 108), and Singapore (n = 91). 237 (82.6%) children were breastfed but in all only 100 (60.2%) were exclusively breastfed for five months or more. There was a statistical difference in rates of breast feeding between each region. HCMC (n = 18, 21.4%) had the lowest, followed by Campbelltown (n = 35, 32.4%), and then Singapore (n = 47, 51.7%). There was also a difference in rates of introduction of HCBs by 3 years of age, with those in HCMC (n = 71, 84.5%) were higher than Campbelltown (n = 71, 65.8%) and Singapore (n = 48, 52.8%). The educational level of respondents was lower in Vietnam where only 46.4% (n = 39) had completed post-secondary education, compared to 75.0% (n = 81) in Campbelltown and 75.8% (n = 69) in Singapore. Rates of breast feeding were inversely correlated with rates of introduction of HCB and positively related to

  6. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaomei Cong; Wanli Xu; Susan Janton; Henderson, Wendy A.; Adam Matson; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Kendra Maas; Joerg Graf

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of li...

  7. Infant Feeding Practices of Emirati Women in the Rapidly Developing City of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Gardner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic and cultural transition in the United Arab Emirates (UAE has been accompanied by new challenges to public health; most notably a rapid rise in chronic disease. Breastfeeding is known to improve health outcomes in adulthood, is associated with reduced risk of developing chronic disease, and is therefore an important public health issue for this rapidly increasing population. Factors associated with infant feeding practices were examined in a cohort of 125 Emirati women and their infants, with data collected at birth and 3, 6 and 15 months postpartum by questionnaires and interviews. Participants were recruited in the Corniche Hospital, the main maternity hospital in the city of Abu Dhabi. Factors affecting the duration of breastfeeding and the introduction of complementary foods were investigated using univariate and multivariate statistics. Recommended infant feeding practices, such as exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods, were poorly adhered to. Factors implicated in early cessation of breastfeeding included: time to first breastfeed, mother’s education level, employment status and early introduction of complementary foods.

  8. Dairy intensification, mothers and children: an exploration of infant and young child feeding practices among rural dairy farmers in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Amanda J; Yount, Kathryn M; Null, Clair; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Webb Girard, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural strategies such as dairy intensification have potential to improve human nutrition through increased household food security. Increasing dairy productivity could also adversely affect infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices because of increased maternal stress, demands on maternal time, and beliefs about the timing and appropriate types of complementary foods. Yet, few studies have looked rigorously at how interventions can affect young children (0-60 months). The study explores, within the context of rural dairy farming in Kenya, the relationship between level of household dairy production and selected IYCF practices using a mixed-methods approach. Six focus group discussions with women involved in dairy farming investigated their attitudes towards breastfeeding, introduction of complementary foods and child diets. Ninety-two households involved in three levels of dairy production with at least one child 0-60 months participated in a household survey. Quantitative results indicated that women from higher dairy producing households were more likely to introduce cow's milk to infants before they reached 6 months than women from households not producing any dairy. Themes from the focus group discussions demonstrated that women were familiar with exclusive breastfeeding recommendations, but indicated a preference for mixed feeding of infants. Evidence from this study can inform nutrition education programmes targeted to farmers participating in dairy interventions in rural, low-income settings to minimise potential harm to the nutritional status of children.

  9. Infant and young child feeding practices among children under 2 years of age and maternal exposure to infant and young child feeding messages and promotions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Bineti S; Benjamin, Margaret; Pries, Alissa M; Champeny, Mary; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    There are limited data describing infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF) in urban Tanzania. This study assessed the types of foods consumed by children under 2 years of age and maternal exposure to promotions of these foods in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 305 mothers of children less than 24 months of age who attended child health services in October and November, 2014. Among infants less than 6 months of age, rates of exclusive breastfeeding were low (40.8%) and a high proportion (38.2%) received semi-solid foods. Continued breastfeeding among 20-23-month-olds was only 33.3%. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was not prevalent, and only 3.9% of infants less than 6 months of age and 4.8% of 6-23 month-olds were fed formula. Among 6-23-month-olds, only 38.4% consumed a minimum acceptable diet (using a modified definition). The homemade complementary foods consumed by the majority of 6-23-month-olds (85.2%) were cereal-dominated and infrequently contained micronutrient-rich ingredients. Only 3.1% of 6-23-month-olds consumed commercially produced infant cereal on the day preceding the interview. In contrast, commercially produced snack foods were consumed by 23.1% of 6-23-month-olds. Maternal exposure to commercial promotions of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods was low (10.5% and 1.0%, respectively), while exposure to promotions of commercially produced snack foods was high (45.9%). Strategies are needed to improve IYCF practices, particularly with regard to exclusive and continued breastfeeding, increased dietary diversity and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods, and avoidance of feeding commercially produced snack foods.

  10. Retrospective reports of child feeding practices, current eating behaviors, and BMI in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Amy T; Farrow, Claire V; Martz, Denise M

    2010-07-01

    Research concerning child feeding practices has focused on children and adolescents, and little is known about how feeding practices used in childhood relate to eating behaviors and weight status in early adulthood. We assessed college students' and their parents' retrospective reports of child feeding practices used when the students were in middle childhood. We also assessed the college students' current reports of their eating behaviors using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and the Intuitive Eating Scale (IES), and measured their current BMI. Results showed that college students' and their parents' reports about previous parental use of child feeding practices were not correlated. Parent reports of their own use of child feeding practices were more related to students' eating behaviors and BMI than were students' recollections about feeding practices used by their parents. An analysis of gender effects showed that there were positive correlations between parental child feeding practices, BMI, and emotional eating for female students. These relationships did not exist for male students. The results suggest that child feeding practices recollected by parents are linked to the development of emotional eating and weight status of women in early adulthood.

  11. A summary index of infant and child feeding practices is associated with child growth in urban Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jing-Qiu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, an infant and child feeding index (ICFI constructed on brief recalls of breastfeeding, feeding frequency and food diversification was assumed to provide long-term prediction about child feeding practices. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the cross-sectional ICFI (CS-ICFI or longitudinal ICFI (L-ICFI and child anthropometric indices in downtown Shanghai, China. Methods The prospective cohort study included 180 infants aged 5-7 mo with their main caregivers who were visited 3 times every 6 months over 12 months. A CS-ICFI was constructed for each visit by using data on feeding practices based on 24-h and 7-d recalls. An L-ICFI was constructed with use of the 3 CS-ICFIs. The associations between ICFI and length-for-age z score (LAZ, weight-for-age z score (WAZ, and weight-for-length z score (WLZ were examined. The stability of the CS-ICFI was assessed by using repeatability coefficient (RC. Results The L-ICFI was positively associated with LAZ and WAZ at Visit 3(beta = 0.151, P = 0.040 and beta = 0.173, P = 0.024, respectively. Moreover, the CS-ICFI at Visit 1 was positively associated with LAZ, WAZ and WLZ (beta = 0.160, P = 0.029; beta = 0.191, P = 0.009; beta = 0.176, P = 0.020 at Visit 3, and the CS-ICFI at Visit 3 was also positively associated with LAZ (beta = 0.176, P = 0.016. Stability of the CS-ICFI was shown by the value of 0.14 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.31 of the RC, which differed significantly from 0 (P Conclusions The ICFI constructed on brief recalls based on cross-sectional studies can be used to evaluate the effects of child feeding practice on child growth.

  12. Comparison of infant-feeding practices in two health subdistricts with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-14

    May 14, 2014 ... World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that infants should be exclusively ... at strengthening practices which protect, promote and support breastfeeding and .... by certain factors, mother and infant pairs were excluded from this ... questionnaire were derived from the external assessment tool of the.

  13. Opportunities for strengthening infant and young child feeding policies in South Asia: Insights from the SAIFRN policy analysis project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Karn, Sumit; Devkota, Madhu Dixit; Rasheed, Sabrina; Roy, S K; Suleman, Yasmeen; Hazir, Tabish; Patel, Archana; Gaidhane, Abhay; Puri, Seema; Godakandage, Sanjeeva; Senarath, Upul; Dibley, Michael J

    2017-06-13

    South Asian countries experience some of the highest levels of child undernutrition in the world, strongly linked to poor infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices. Strong and responsive policy support is essential for effective interventions to improve IYCF. This study aimed to identify opportunities for strengthening the policy environment in the region to better support appropriate infant and young child feeding. We mapped policies relevant to infant and young child feeding in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal, based on a common matrix. The matrix described potentially relevant policies ranging from high-level strategic policy documents to implementation-level guidelines. We analyzed the data based on themes focused on caregiver interactions with IYCF interventions: provision of correct information to mothers, training of frontline workers, enabling mothers to engage with service providers and strategic support for IYCF. Policy support for IYCF was present in relation to each of the themes assessed. In all countries, there was support for nutrition in National Development Plans, and all countries had some level of maternity protection and restrictions on marketing of breast milk substitutes. Sectoral and implementation-level policy documents contained provisions for system strengthening for IYCF and for training of frontline workers. The key opportunities for strengthening IYCF policy support were in relation to translating strategic directives into implementation level documents; improving multi-sectoral support and coordination; and increased clarity regarding roles and responsibilities of frontline workers interacting with mothers. These findings can support efforts to strengthen IYCF policy at the national and regional level.

  14. Policy content and stakeholder network analysis for infant and young child feeding in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Seema; Fernandez, Sylvia; Puranik, Amrita; Anand, Deepika; Gaidhane, Abhay; Quazi Syed, Zahiruddin; Patel, Archana; Uddin, Shahadat; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Over the last decade, infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators in India have improved. However, poor IYCF practices are still apparent, associated with pervasive high rates of child under-nutrition. Interventions to improve IYCF need augmentation by appropriate policy support to consolidate gains. The aim of this study was to identify opportunities to strengthen and support IYCF policies through a policy content and stakeholder network analysis. IYCF policies and guidelines were systematically mapped and coded using predetermined themes. Six 'net-map' group interviews were conducted for stakeholder analysis with data analyzed using ORA (organizational risk analyzer, copyright Carley, Carnegie Mellon University) software. The study was carried out at a national level and in the states of Maharashtra and unified Andhra Pradesh. Thirty relevant policy documents were identified. Support for IYCF was clearly apparent and was actioned within sectoral policies and strategic plans. We identified support for provision of information to mothers and caregivers in both sectoral and high-level/strategic policy documents. At a sectoral level, there was support for training health care workers and for enabling mothers to access IYCF. Opportunities to strengthen policy included expanding coverage and translating policy goals into implementation level documents. At the national level, Ministry of Women and Child Development [MoWCD], Ministry of Health and Family Welfare [MoHFW] and the Prime Minister's Nutrition Council [PMNC] were the most influential actors in providing technical support while MoHFW, MoWCD, and Bill Melinda Gates Foundation were the most influential actors in providing funding and were therefore influential stakeholders in shaping IYCF policies and programs. We identified a wide range of strengths in the IYCF policy environment in India and also opportunities for improvement. One key strength is the integration of IYCF policies into a range of agendas and

  15. Policy and stakeholder analysis of infant and young child feeding programmes in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godakandage, Sanjeeva S P; Senarath, Upul; Jayawickrama, Hiranya S; Siriwardena, Indika; Wickramasinghe, S W A D A; Arumapperuma, Prasantha; Ihalagama, Sathyajith; Nimalan, Srisothinathan; Archchuna, Ramanathan; Umesh, Claudio; Uddin, Shahadat; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF) play a critical role in growth and development of children. A favourable environment supported by appropriate policies and positive contributions from all stakeholders are prerequisites for achieving optimal IYCF practices. This study aimed to assess the IYCF-related policy environment and role of stakeholders in policy making in Sri Lanka, in order to identify opportunities to strengthen the policy environment to better support appropriate IYCF and reduce childhood malnutrition. We mapped national level policy-related documents on IYCF, and conducted a stakeholder analysis of IYCF policy making. A matrix was designed to capture data from IYCF policy-related documents using a thematic approach. A narrative synthesis of data from different documents was conducted to achieve the first objective. We then conducted an analysis of technical and funding links of stakeholders who shape IYCF policies and programmes in Sri Lanka using the Net-Map technique, to achieve the second objective. A total of 35 respondents were purposively selected based on their knowledge on the topic, and individual interviews were conducted. Twenty four policies were identified that contained provisions in line with global recommendations for best-practice IYCF, marketing of breast milk substitutes, strengthening health and non-health systems, maternity benefits, inter-sectoral collaboration, capacity building, health education and supplementation. However, there is no separate, written policy on IYCF in Sri Lanka. Participants identified 56 actors involved in shaping IYCF policies and programmes through technical support, and 36 through funding support. The Government Health Sector was the most connected as well as influential, followed by development partners. Almost all actors in the networks were supportive for IYCF policies and programmes. All evidence-based recommendations are covered in related policies. However, advocacy should be targeted

  16. Infant feeding and the development of food allergies and atopic eczema: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Allen, Katrina J; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-05-01

    There is an increasing awareness of food allergies in the community. Dermatologists frequently see patients with atopic eczema, where parents are extremely concerned about the role of food allergy. Advice given to parents regarding the timing of introduction of solid foods has changed markedly over the past decade. Whereas previous advice advocated delaying the introduction of solid foods until the infant's gastrointestinal system had matured, recent studies suggest that the introduction of solids from around 4 to 6 months may actually prevent the development of allergies. Studies on maternal dietary restrictions during pregnancy and lactation have led researchers to believe that antigen avoidance does not play a significant role in the prevention of atopic disease. Breastfeeding exclusively for 4 to 6 months has multiple benefits for mother and child, however, it does not convincingly prevent food allergies or decrease atopic eczema. New evidence suggests that the use of hydrolysed formulas does not delay or prevent atopic eczema or food allergy. This article aims to highlight current evidence and provide an update for dermatologists on the role of food exposure in the development of atopic disease, namely atopic eczema.

  17. Donor human milk for preterm infants: current evidence and research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Corpeleijn, Willemijn; Moro, Guido; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamas; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Hojsak, Iva; Mihatsch, Walter; Mølgaard, Christian; Shamir, Raanan; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2013-10-01

    The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge and gives recommendations for practice and suggestions for future research directions. Protection against necrotizing enterocolitis is the major clinical benefit deriving from the use of DHM when compared with formula. Limited data also suggest unfortified DHM to be associated with improved feeding tolerance and with reduced cardiovascular risk factors during adolescence. Presence of a human milk bank (HMB) does not decrease breast-feeding rates at discharge, but decreases the use of formula during the first weeks of life. This commentary emphasizes that fresh own mother's milk (OMM) is the first choice in preterm infant feeding and strong efforts should be made to promote lactation. When OMM is not available, DHM is the recommended alternative. When neither OMM nor DHM is available, preterm formula should be used. DHM should be provided from an established HMB, which follows specific safety guidelines. Storage and processing of human milk reduces some biological components, which may diminish its health benefits. From a nutritional point of view, DHM, like HM, does not meet the requirements of preterm infants, necessitating a specific fortification regimen to optimize growth. Future research should focus on the improvement of milk processing in HMB, particularly of heat treatment; on the optimization of HM fortification; and on further evaluation of the potential clinical benefits of processed and fortified DHM.

  18. Basic Characteristics of New Developed Higher-Voltage Direct-Current Power-Feeding Prototype System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babasaki, Tadatoshi; Tanaka, Toshimitsu; Tanaka, Toru; Nozaki, Yousuke; Aoki, Tadahito; Kurokawa, Fujio

    High efficiency power feeding systems are effective solutions for reducing the ICT power consumption with reducing power consumption of the ICT equipment and cooling systems. A higher voltage direct current (HVDC) power feeding system prototype was produced. This system is composed of a rectifier equipment, power distribution unit, batteries, and the ICT equipment. The configuration is similar to a -48V DC power supply system. The output of the rectifier equipment is 100kW, and the output voltage is 401.4V. This paper present the configuration of the HVDC power feeding system and discuss its basic characteristics in the prototype system.

  19. Probiotics and Time to Achieve Full Enteral Feeding in Human Milk-Fed and Formula-Fed Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, Arianna; Gori, Davide; Barone, Giovanni; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Fantini, Maria Pia; Indrio, Flavia; Maggio, Luca; Meneghin, Fabio; Morelli, Lorenzo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2016-07-30

    Probiotics have been linked to a reduction in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. Recently, probiotics have also proved to reduce time to achieve full enteral feeding (FEF). However, the relationship between FEF achievement and type of feeding in infants treated with probiotics has not been explored yet. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics in reducing time to achieve FEF in preterm infants, according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. formula). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics, and reporting on time to reach FEF were included in the systematic review. Trials reporting on outcome according to type of feeding (exclusive HM vs. formula) were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effect or random-effects models were used as appropriate. Results were expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the systematic review. In the five studies recruiting exclusively HM-fed preterm infants, those treated with probiotics reached FEF approximately 3 days before controls (MD -3.15 days (95% CI -5.25/-1.05), p = 0.003). None of the two studies reporting on exclusively formula-fed infants showed any difference between infants receiving probiotics and controls in terms of FEF achievement. The limited number of included studies did not allow testing for other subgroup differences between HM and formula-fed infants. However, if confirmed in further studies, the 3-days reduction in time to achieve FEF in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants might have significant implications for their clinical management.

  20. The challenges of adherence to infant feeding choices in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infections in South East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawani LO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lucky O Lawani,1 Azubuike K Onyebuchi,2 Chukwuemeka A Iyoke,3 Robinson C Onoh,2 Peter O Nkwo31School of Postgraduate Studies, Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu State, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Enugu State, NigeriaBackground: Global and national efforts in the 21st century are directed toward the elimination of new pediatric HIV infections through evidence-based infant feeding interventions for the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission, with patient preference, motivation, and adherence identified as key factors for success.Objectives: This study assessed the challenges faced by HIV-infected parturients in adhering to the national infant feeding recommendations and their infant feeding preference for prevention of mother-to-child transmission in South East Nigeria.Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, questionnaire-based study of 556 parturients infected with HIV/AIDS.Results: The mean age of the participants was 28.0±5.3 years. The infant feeding choices were made jointly by both partners (61.1% in the antepartum period. The HIV status disclosure rate was 89.2%. A large proportion (91.7% practiced exclusive breastfeeding with highly active antiretroviral therapy, and 7.6% practiced mixed feeding because of nonadherence to their choice and national/international recommendations on infant feeding in the context of HIV/AIDS. This was mainly a result of pressure from family members (42.8% and cultural practices (28.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicates that adherence was strongly associated with age, marital status, and employment status, but not with residence, educational status, or parity.Conclusion: Exclusive breastfeeding is predominately the infant feeding choice among HIV

  1. Infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluye Dagnachew

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been estimated that 430,000 children under 15 years of age were newly infected with HIV in 2008, and more than 71% are living in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of intervention to prevent mother-to-child transmission, 30-45% of infants born to HIV-positive mothers in developing countries become infected during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to assess infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from January to May 2011 among all HIV positive mothers with less than two years old child attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions. A structured pre-tested questionnaire using interview technique was used for data collection. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical package. Results A total of 209 HIV positive mothers were included in the study. Of these, 187 (89.5% had followed the recommended way of infant feeding practice while significant percentage (10.5% had practiced mixed breast feeding. In multivariate analysis, disclosure of HIV status with their spouse, insufficient breast milk and occupational status were found to be independently associated (p-value of Conclusions Higher proportion of respondents used the recommended way of infant feeding practice by WHO as well as by Ethiopian Ministry of Health. However, mixed feeding in the first 6 months of age, an undesirable practice in infant feeding, were reported in this study. Infant feeding education that is aligned to national policy should be strengthened in primary health care, particularly in situations where prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV is prioritized.

  2. Infant and Young Child Feeding Status in Iran Compared the Different United Nation Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Salman Khazaei; Kamyar Mansori; Zaher Khazaei; Mohadeseh Sani; Erfan Ayubi

    2016-01-01

    Promote and support breastfeeding is an essential element for the health and development of infants so that, it introduced as most cost-effective intervention to reduce infant mortality in developing countries (1). Breastfeeding has an important role to ensure food security for maintain a healthy and productive life for a large proportion of babies in the world, in addition, it is associated with improves intelligence quotient (IQ), school attendance and higher income in adult life (2). World...

  3. Construction of quality-assured infant feeding process of care data repositories: definition and design (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcí A-de-León-Chocano, Ricardo; Sáez, Carlos; Muñoz-Soler, Verónica; Garcí A-de-León-González, Ricardo; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2015-12-01

    This is the first paper of a series of two regarding the construction of data quality (DQ) assured repositories for the reuse of information on infant feeding from birth until two years old. This first paper justifies the need for such repositories and describes the design of a process to construct them from Electronic Health Records (EHR). As a result, Part 1 proposes a computational process to obtain quality-assured datasets represented by a canonical structure extracted from raw data from multiple EHR. For this, 13 steps were defined to ensure the harmonization, standardization, completion, de-duplication, and consistency of the dataset content. Moreover, the quality of the input and output data for each of these steps is controlled according to eight DQ dimensions: predictive value, correctness, duplication, consistency, completeness, contextualization, temporal-stability and spatial-stability. The second paper of the series will describe the application of this computational process to construct the first quality-assured repository for the reuse of information on infant feeding in the perinatal period aimed at the monitoring of clinical activities and research.

  4. Attitudes towards breastfeeding - the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale in Chinese mothers living in China and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu; Binns, Colin W; Liu, Yi; Maycock, Bruce; Zhao, Yun; Tang, Li

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to translate and validate a Chinese (simplified) version of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) and compare the infant feeding attitudes of Chinese mothers living in Perth Australia and in Chengdu P.R. China. A survey was undertaken on 200 Chinese mothers living in Perth and 1620 mothers living in Chengdu. The simplified Chinese version of IIFAS had a moderate level of internal consistency with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.69 for mothers in Australia and 0.55 for mothers in China. The mean IIFAS scores in both country groups lay in the range of 'neutral breastfeeding attitudes'. Higher IIFAS scores were significantly associated with the likelihood of both breastfeeding initiation (OR: 3.85; CI: 2.49-5.96; p=8 months) breastfeeding duration (OR: 2.52; CI: 1.87-3.40; pattitudes towards breastfeeding than mothers in Chengdu (mean IIFAS score=57.7±5.1, p<0.001), and had a longer duration of 'any breastfeeding' (10.0±6.2 months in Perth compared to 7.4±4.3 months in Chengdu, p<0.001). In conclusion, higher scores on the IIFAS in simplified Chinese are associated with breastfeeding initiation and duration in Chinese populations.

  5. A Continuous Quality Improvement Project to Implement Infant-Driven Feeding as a Standard of Practice in the Newborn/Infant Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrupcala, Kimberly A; Edwards, Taryn M; Spatz, Diane L

    2015-01-01

    To increase the number of neonates who were fed according to cues prior to discharge and potentially decrease length of stay. Continuous quality improvement. Eighty-five bed level IV neonatal intensive care unit. Surgical and nonsurgical neonates of all gestational ages. Neonates younger than 32 weeks gestation, who required intubation, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), high flow nasal cannula (HFNC), or did not have suck or gag reflexes were excluded as potential candidates for infant-driven feeding. The project was conducted over a 13-month period using the following methods: (a) baseline data collection, (b) designation of Infant Driven Feeding (IDF) Champions, (c) creation of a multidisciplinary team, (d) creation of electronic health record documentation, (e) initial staff education, (f) monthly team meetings, (g) reeducation throughout the duration of the project, and (h) patient-family education. Baseline data were collected on 20 neonates with a mean gestational age of 36 0/7(th) weeks and a mean total length of stay (LOS) of 43 days. Postimplementation data were collected on 150 neonates with a mean gestational age of 36 1/7(th) weeks and a mean total LOS of 36.4 days. A potential decrease in the mean total LOS of stay by 6.63 days was achieved during this continuous quality improvement (CQI) project. Neonates who are fed according to cues can become successful oral feeders and can be safely discharged home regardless of gestational age or diagnosis. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  6. Conformity in diversity? Isotopic investigations of infant feeding practices in two iron age populations from Southern Öland, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howcroft, Rachel; Eriksson, Gunilla; Lidén, Kerstin

    2012-10-01

    This article presents the results of a study of infant diet at two Iron Age sites on the island of Öland, Sweden. The cemetery at Bjärby contained a large number of subadults who had survived the earliest years of life, whereas most individuals at Triberga had died by 6 months of age. To investigate whether differences in infant feeding could explain the different mortality rates, the carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotope ratios of bone and tooth dentin collagen from the two sites were analyzed. Twenty-two samples from Triberga and 102 from Bjärby yielded data that could be included in the carbon and nitrogen analysis. Twelve samples from Triberga and 42 from Bjärby were included in the sulfur analysis. The results for carbon (δ(13) C: Triberga X = -18.8, s.d. = 1.1; Bjärby X = -19.8, s.d. = 0.4), nitrogen (δ(15) N: Triberga X = 12.9, s.d. = 1.5; Bjärby X = 13.4, s.d. = 1.4), and sulfur (δ(34) S: Triberga X = 8.1, s.d. = 1.1; Bjärby X = 5.8, s.d. = 1.3) suggest that diet was broadly similar at both sites and based on terrestrial resources. At Bjärby, females and high-status individuals consumed higher-trophic level protein than other males from early childhood onward. There was some indication that the contribution of marine resources to the diet may also have differed between the sexes at Triberga. No consistent differences in breast milk intake were observed between the two sites, but there was substantial variation at each. This variation may reflect an influence of gender and social status on infant feeding decisions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effect of glutamine with auxiliary enteral and parenteral nutrition on feeding intolerance of low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Cai; Chun-Hong Chen; Yan-Fang Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical effects of glutamine assisted enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition on improving the feeding intolerance of low birth weight infants.Methods: A total of 40 cases of low birth weight infants (LBW) in our hospital from May 2013 to June 2015 were selected, which were divided equally into the observation group and the control group according to the different nutritional intervention methods. Patients in the control group received routine enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition while children of observed group received glutamine assisted enteral and parenteral nutrition. Differences of children’s growth and development indicators, nutritional status and levels of calcium and phosphorus, gastrin and motilin levels, mucosal barrier and immune function were compared between two groups. Results:After receiving nutritional intervention, children in the observation group had higher levels of serum leptin, GH, IGF-I and adiponectin than the control group patients, while Cor values were lower. The observation group patients who received nutritional intervention had higher TSF, AMC, TP, ALB, calcium and phosphorus levels than the control group, while the ALP values were lower; children of observation group who received nutrition intervention had higher GAS and MOT levels than the control group; children of observation group after intervention had higher peripheral blood CD3+T, CD4+T and CD4+/CD8+ levels than the control group children, while D-lactic acid and blood ammonia levels were lower.Conclusion:Glutamine assisted enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition could improve the feeding intolerance of low birth weight infants, and it improved the nutritional status as well as growth and development of children as a whole, and thus had positive clinical significance.

  8. Influence of milk-feeding type and genetic risk of developing coeliac disease on intestinal microbiota of infants: the PROFICEL study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada De Palma

    Full Text Available Interactions between environmental factors and predisposing genes could be involved in the development of coeliac disease (CD. This study has assessed whether milk-feeding type and HLA-genotype influence the intestinal microbiota composition of infants with a family history of CD. The study included 164 healthy newborns, with at least one first-degree relative with CD, classified according to their HLA-DQ genotype by PCR-SSP DQB1 and DQA1 typing. Faecal microbiota was analysed by quantitative PCR at 7 days, and at 1 and 4 months of age. Significant interactions between milk-feeding type and HLA-DQ genotype on bacterial numbers were not detected by applying a linear mixed-model analysis for repeated measures. In the whole population, breast-feeding promoted colonization of C. leptum group, B. longum and B. breve, while formula-feeding promoted that of Bacteroides fragilis group, C. coccoides-E. rectale group, E. coli and B. lactis. Moreover, increased numbers of B. fragilis group and Staphylococcus spp., and reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and B. longum were detected in infants with increased genetic risk of developing CD. Analyses within subgroups of either breast-fed or formula-fed infants indicated that in both cases increased risk of CD was associated with lower numbers of B. longum and/or Bifidobacterium spp. In addition, in breast-fed infants the increased genetic risk of developing CD was associated with increased C. leptum group numbers, while in formula-fed infants it was associated with increased Staphylococcus and B. fragilis group numbers. Overall, milk-feeding type in conjunction with HLA-DQ genotype play a role in establishing infants' gut microbiota; moreover, breast-feeding reduced the genotype-related differences in microbiota composition, which could partly explain the protective role attributed to breast milk in this disorder.

  9. Infant and young child feeding in South Africa: stop the crying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Network and the National Strategy for Healthy Complementary. Feeding launched an integrated network (“Amamento e Alimenta”) in order to further ... document included legislation of the Code of Marketing of Breast- milk Substitutes in ... feeding and nutrition, reflective practice and communication skills. In general, this ...

  10. Recommended Feeding and Dietary Practices To Improve Infant and Maternal Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    The LINKAGES Project is intended to improve breastfeeding and related complementary feeding and maternal dietary practices. The project, in consultation with technical experts and program managers, identified a set of recommended feeding and dietary practices intended to break the cycle of poor health and nutrition that passes from generation to…

  11. Cultural variation in early feeding pattern and maternal perceptions of infant growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijsden, Manon; Meijers, Claire M. C.; Jansen, Jessica E.; De Kroon, Marlou L. A.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2015-01-01

    The perception of healthy growth and weight may differ between cultures, which could influence feeding practises and consequently affect the development of overweight. The present study examined ethnic variation in maternal perceptions of growth and their influence on feeding practises among Turkish

  12. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your Newborn ... giving up the breast. previous continue About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formula is a nutritious alternative ...

  13. Alimentação complementar: práticas inadequadas em lactentes Complementary feeding: inappropriate practices in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cavalcante Caetano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as práticas e o consumo alimentar de lactentes saudáveis de três metrópoles do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Por meio de estudo prospectivo, analisaram-se registros alimentares de 7 dias consecutivos de amostra intencional, por cotas e ponderada, das cidades de Curitiba, São Paulo e Recife, de 179 lactentes saudáveis, entre 4 e 12 meses, que não se encontravam em aleitamento materno (AM exclusivo. As mães receberam orientação verbal e escrita, por nutricionista, visando a uniformização da anotação do registro alimentar. Para o cálculo de ingestão, utilizou-se o Programa de Apoio à Nutrição (NutWin. RESULTADOS: A mediana de idade dos lactentes foi de 6,8 meses (4,0-12,6 meses. Observou-se que 50,3% já não recebiam AM. Destes, 12,0 e 6,7% dos menores e maiores de 6 meses, respectivamente, utilizavam fórmulas infantis em substituição ao leite materno. A maioria dos lactentes, portanto, recebia leite de vaca integral. A diluição da fórmula infantil foi correta em apenas 23,8 e 34,7% das crianças menores e maiores de 6 meses, respectivamente. Em relação à alimentação complementar, observou-se que a mediana de idade foi de 4 meses para sua introdução e de 5,5 meses para a alimentação da família. Verificou-se elevada inadequação quantitativa na ingestão de micronutrientes para lactentes de 6 a 12 meses que não recebiam AM, destacando-se as de zinco (75% e ferro (45%. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo mostrou elevada frequência de práticas e consumo alimentar inadequados em lactentes muito jovens. É possível que essas práticas levem a aumento no risco de desenvolvimento futuro de doenças crônicas.OBJECTIVE: To assess feeding practices and dietary intake of healthy infants in three Brazilian municipalities. METHODS: By means of a prospective study, we analyzed the food record of 7 consecutive days of an intentional sample (quota and weighted sampling of 179 healthy infants, aged between 4 and 12 months

  14. Impact of adherence to WHO infant feeding recommendations on later risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Bland, Ruth M; Connelly, Andrew; Reilly, John J

    2016-07-01

    Adherence to WHO infant feeding recommendations has short-term benefits and may also help in the prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study reviewed the evidence on whether adherence to all elements of the WHO infant feeding recommendations (comparison group those exclusively breastfed to 6 months, introduced to appropriate complementary feeding from 6 months, with continued breastfeeding to at least 24 months; exposure group characterised by non-adherence to any of the three recommendations) is associated with reduced risk of later obesity or cardiometabolic disease. The population of interest was children not classified as very low weight (weight-for-age z-score >-3.0). MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL plus, ProQuest Dissertations and Thesis were systematically searched from 2001 to July 2014, manual reference searching of a birth cohort register (http://www.birthcohorts.net/) as well as papers identified in the search and selected journals was carried out. The database search yielded 9050 records, 275 English-language full-text articles were screened, but no studies were eligible, failing to meet the following criteria: comparison (213); exposure (14); population (3); relevant outcome (5); outcome before 24 months (9); insufficient information provided (30); plus one study was qualitative. Eight studies met the inclusion criterion of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months, but did not meet the other inclusion criteria. The present study has revealed an important gap in the evidence on NCD prevention, and suggestions for addressing this evidence gap are provided. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Infant feeding and the concept of early nutrition programming: a comparison of qualitative data from four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Martina A; von Rosen-von Hoewel, Julia; Martin-Bautista, Elena; Szabó, Eva; Campoy, Cristina; Decsi, Tamás; Morgan, Jane; Gage, Heather; Koletzko, Berthold; Raats, Monique

    2009-01-01

    The concept of early nutrition programming is appearing in policy documents, leaflets and magazine articles with different types of statements. However, the level of representation and influence of this concept is unknown in the area of infant nutrition. We established the degree of reflection and the impact of the concept of nutrition programming among the different government stakeholders of infant nutrition in four European countries. In each country, a list of stakeholders in the area of infant feeding was established and key persons responsible for the remit of infant nutrition were identified. We conducted standardised face-to-face or phone interviews from January 2006 to January 2007. The interview guide included questions about the concept of nutrition programming. All interviews were digitally recorded and qualitative data analysis was done using QRS NVivo V2. In total, we analyzed 17 interviews from government organizations in England (5 interviews), Germany (4 interviews), Hungary (3 interviews) and Spain (5 interviews). The concept of nutrition programming was recognized from 4/5 English and 3/4 German interviewees, whereby one organisation reflected the concept in their documents in both countries. In Hungary, 1/3 interviewees recognised the concept and reflected it in their documents. All interviewed Spanish governmental bodies (5/5) recognised the concept of nutrition programming and three of them reflected the concept in their documents. The concept of early nutrition programming was widely recognized among the key persons of government bodies in all four European countries. However, the concept was not necessarily represented in the produced documents.

  16. Nutritional management of newborn infants: Practical guidelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming Ben

    2008-01-01

    The requirements of growth and organ development create a challenge in nutritional management of newborn infants, especially premature newborn and intestinal-failure infants. Since their feeding may increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, some high-risk infants receive a small volume of feeding or parenteral nutrition (PN) without enteral feeding. This review summarizes the current research progress in the nutritional management of newborn infants. Searches of MEDLINE (1998-2007), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2007), abstracts and conference proceedings, references from relevant publications in the English language were performed, showing that breast milk is the preferred source of nutrients for enteral feeding of newborn infants. The number of nutrients found in human milk was recommended as a guideline in establishing the minimum and maximum levels in infant formulas. The fear of necrotizing enterocolitis and feeding intolerance are the major factors limiting the use of the enteral route as the primary means of nourishing premature infants. PN may help to meet many of the nutritional needs of these infants, but has significant detrimental side effects. Trophic feedings (small volume of feeding given at the same rate for at least 5 d) during PN are a strategy to enhance the feeding tolerance and decrease the side effects of PN and the time to achieve full feeding. Human milk is aey component of any strategy for enteral nutrition of all infants. However, the amounts of calcium, phosphorus, zinc and other nutrients are inadequate to meet the needs of the very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during growth. Therefore, safe and effective means to fortify human milk are essential to the care of VLBW infants.

  17. Translating global recommendations on HIV and infant feeding to the local context: the development of culturally sensitive counselling tools in the Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åstrøm Anne N

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the process used to develop an integrated set of culturally sensitive, evidence-based counselling tools (job aids by using qualitative participatory research. The aim of the intervention was to contribute to improving infant feeding counselling services for HIV positive women in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. Methods Formative research using a combination of qualitative methods preceded the development of the intervention and mapped existing practices, perceptions and attitudes towards HIV and infant feeding (HIV/IF among mothers, counsellors and community members. Intervention Mapping (IM protocol guided the development of the overall intervention strategy. Theories of behaviour change, a review of the international HIV/IF guidelines and formative research findings contributed to the definition of performance and learning objectives. Key communication messages and colourful graphic illustrations related to infant feeding in the context of HIV were then developed and/or adapted from existing generic materials. Draft materials were field tested with intended audiences and subjected to stakeholder technical review. Results An integrated set of infant feeding counselling tools, referred to as 'job aids', was developed and included brochures on feeding methods that were found to be socially and culturally acceptable, a Question and Answer Guide for counsellors, a counselling card on the risk of transmission of HIV, and an infant feeding toolbox for demonstration. Each brochure describes the steps to ensure safer infant feeding using simple language and images based on local ideas and resources. The brochures are meant to serve as both a reference material during infant feeding counselling in the ongoing prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT of HIV programme and as take home material for the mother. Conclusion The study underscores the importance of formative research and a systematic theory

  18. Current perspectives for management of acute respiratory insufficiency in premature infants with acute respiratory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Li, Long-Yun

    2014-09-01

    Current perspectives for management of acute respiratory insufficiency in premature infants with ac