WorldWideScience

Sample records for current imaging technology

  1. Diagnostic imaging, a "parallel" discipline. Can current technology provide a reliable digital diagnostic radiology department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C J; Eddleston, B

    1985-04-01

    Only recently has any detailed criticism been voiced about the practicalities of the introduction of generalised, digital, imaging complexes in diagnostic radiology. Although attendant technological problems are highlighted we argue that the fundamental causes of current difficulties are not in the generation but in the processing, filing and subsequent retrieval for display of digital image records. In the real world, looking at images is a parallel process of some complexity and so it is perhaps untimely to expect versatile handling of vast image data bases by existing computer hardware and software which, by their current nature, perform tasks serially. Successes in applying new imaging devices using digital technology, numerical methods and more easily available computing power are directing radiology towards the concept of all-digital departmental complexes. Hence a critical discussion of fundamental problems should be encouraged, to promote a thorough understanding of what may be involved (Gray et al, 1984) in following such a course. It is equally important to gain some perspective about the development possibilities for existing, commercially available equipment being offered to the medical community.

  2. 3D Imaging for hand gesture recognition: Exploring the software-hardware interaction of current technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periverzov, Frol; Ilieş, Horea T.

    2012-09-01

    Interaction with 3D information is one of the fundamental and most familiar tasks in virtually all areas of engineering and science. Several recent technological advances pave the way for developing hand gesture recognition capabilities available to all, which will lead to more intuitive and efficient 3D user interfaces (3DUI). These developments can unlock new levels of expression and productivity in all activities concerned with the creation and manipulation of virtual 3D shapes and, specifically, in engineering design. Building fully automated systems for tracking and interpreting hand gestures requires robust and efficient 3D imaging techniques as well as potent shape classifiers. We survey and explore current and emerging 3D imaging technologies, and focus, in particular, on those that can be used to build interfaces between the users' hands and the machine. The purpose of this paper is to categorize and highlight the relevant differences between these existing 3D imaging approaches in terms of the nature of the information provided, output data format, as well as the specific conditions under which these approaches yield reliable data. Furthermore we explore the impact of each of these approaches on the computational cost and reliability of the required image processing algorithms. Finally we highlight the main challenges and opportunities in developing natural user interfaces based on hand gestures, and conclude with some promising directions for future research. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Modern dental imaging: a review of the current technology and clinical applications in dental practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenberghe, Bart; Jacobs, Reinhilde [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Oral Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Radiology Section, Department of Medical Diagnostic Sciences, Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-11-15

    A review of modern imaging techniques commonly used in dental practice and their clinical applications is presented. The current dental examinations consist of intraoral imaging with digital indirect and direct receptors, while extraoral imaging is divided into traditional tomographic/panoramic imaging and the more recently introduced cone beam computed tomography. Applications, limitations and current trends of these dental ''in-office'' radiographic techniques are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Health technology assessment of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT): A systematic review of current evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Arabloo, Jalal; Hamouzadeh, Pejman; Mousavinezhad, Seyedeh Maryam; Mobinizadeh, Mohammadreza; Olyaeemanesh, Alireza; Pooyandjoo, Morvarid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Image-guided radiotherapy used multiple imaging during the radiation therapy course to improve the precision and accuracy of health care provider's treatment. Objectives: This study aims to assess the safety, effectiveness and economic aspects of image-guided radiation therapy for decision-making about this technology in Iran. Methods: In this study, the most important medical databases such as PubMed and Cochrane Library were searched until November 2014. The systematic reviews, ...

  5. Current Trends in Sinonasal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Benjamin Y; Senior, Brent A; Castillo, Mauricio

    2015-11-01

    As endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) has evolved since its introduction to the United States, so has technology for imaging the sinonasal cavities. Although imaging is most frequently performed for evaluating chronic sinusitis refractory to medical therapy, its uses have expanded beyond inflammatory sinus disease. Multidetector Computed Tomography is the current workhorse for both diagnosis and preoperative planning in prospective ESS patients, while MR imaging remains a complementary tool for evaluating suspected tumors or intracranial and orbital complications of rhinosinusitis. In this article, the authors review current trends and potential future directions in the use of these modalities for sinus imaging.

  6. Measurement of bubble and pellet size distributions: past and current image analysis technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Beth

    2006-08-01

    Measurements of bubble and pellet size distributions are useful for biochemical process optimizations. The accuracy, representation, and simplicity of these measurements improve when the measurement is performed on-line and in situ rather than off-line using a sample. Historical and currently available measurement systems for photographic methods are summarized for bubble and pellet (morphology) measurement applications. Applications to cells, mycelia, and pellets measurements have driven key technological developments that have been applied for bubble measurements. Measurement trade-offs exist to maximize accuracy, extend range, and attain reasonable cycle times. Mathematical characterization of distributions using standard statistical techniques is straightforward, facilitating data presentation and analysis. For the specific application of bubble size distributions, selected bioreactor operating parameters and physicochemical conditions alter distributions. Empirical relationships have been established in some cases where sufficient data have been collected. In addition, parameters and conditions with substantial effects on bubble size distributions were identified and their relative effects quantified. This information was used to guide required accuracy and precision targets for bubble size distribution measurements from newly developed novel on-line and in situ bubble measurement devices.

  7. Positron Emission Tomography: Current Challenges and Opportunities for Technological Advances in Clinical and Preclinical Imaging Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Juan José; Kinahan, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is based on detecting two time-coincident high-energy photons from the emission of a positron-emitting radioisotope. The physics of the emission, and the detection of the coincident photons, give PET imaging unique capabilities for both very high sensitivity and accurate estimation of the in vivo concentration of the radiotracer. PET imaging has been widely adopted as an important clinical modality for oncological, cardiovascular, and neurological applications. PET imaging has also become an important tool in preclinical studies, particularly for investigating murine models of disease and other small-animal models. However, there are several challenges to using PET imaging systems. These include the fundamental trade-offs between resolution and noise, the quantitative accuracy of the measurements, and integration with X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In this article, we review how researchers and industry are addressing these challenges.

  8. Object tracking with robotic total stations: Current technologies and improvements based on image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Matthias; Lienhart, Werner

    2017-09-01

    The importance of automated prism tracking is increasingly triggered by the rising automation of total station measurements in machine control, monitoring and one-person operation. In this article we summarize and explain the different techniques that are used to coarsely search a prism, to precisely aim at a prism, and to identify whether the correct prism is tracked. Along with the state-of-the-art review, we discuss and experimentally evaluate possible improvements based on the image data of an additional wide-angle camera which is available for many total stations today. In cases in which the total station's fine aiming module loses the prism, the tracked object may still be visible to the wide-angle camera because of its larger field of view. The theodolite angles towards the target can then be derived from its image coordinates which facilitates a fast reacquisition of the prism. In experimental measurements we demonstrate that our image-based approach for the coarse target search is 4 to 10-times faster than conventional approaches.

  9. Deep imaging: how much of the proteome does current top-down technology already resolve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise P Wright

    Full Text Available Effective proteome analyses are based on interplay between resolution and detection. It had been claimed that resolution was the main factor limiting the use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Improved protein detection now indicates that this is unlikely to be the case. Using a highly refined protocol, the rat brain proteome was extracted, resolved, and detected. In order to overcome the stain saturation threshold, high abundance protein species were excised from the gel following standard imaging. Gels were then imaged again using longer exposure times, enabling detection of lower abundance, less intensely stained protein species. This resulted in a significant enhancement in the detection of resolved proteins, and a slightly modified digestion protocol enabled effective identification by standard mass spectrometric methods. The data indicate that the resolution required for comprehensive proteome analyses is already available, can assess multiple samples in parallel, and preserve critical information concerning post-translational modifications. Further optimization of staining and detection methods promises additional improvements to this economical, widely accessible and effective top-down approach to proteome analysis.

  10. Cancer Technology - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on technologies that affect cancer research and care—including new technologies for detecting cancer, testing treatments, storing/analyzing data, and improving patient care—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  11. Grating image technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Fujio

    1995-07-01

    The word 'grating image' was first named by Toppan Printing Company, Ltd. It means that an image consists of grating dots. In 1988, we presented this new technology at the Optical Security Systems Symposium, in Switzerland. Then it was improved and applied in display application. Recently, it was further applied in 3D video systems. In this report, the development history and the recent situations of grating image technology are described.

  12. Medical imaging technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iniewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The book has two intentions. First, it assembles the latest research in the field of medical imaging technology in one place. Detailed descriptions of current state-of-the-art medical imaging systems (comprised of x-ray CT, MRI, ultrasound, and nuclear medicine) and data processing techniques are discussed. Information is provided that will give interested engineers and scientists a solid foundation from which to build with additional resources. Secondly, it exposes the reader to myriad applications that medical imaging technology has enabled.

  13. Turbine imaging technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moursund, R. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging technologies for observing juvenile fish within a Kaplan turbine, and specifically that would enable scientists to determine mechanisms of fish injury within an operating turbine unit. This report documents the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. These observations were used to make modifications to dam structures and operations to improve conditions for fish passage while maintaining or improving hydropower production. The physical and hydraulic environment that fish experience as they pass through the hydroelectric plants were studied and the regions with the greatest potential for injury were defined. Biological response data were also studied to determine the probable types of injuries sustained in the turbine intake and what types of injuries are detectable with imaging technologies. The study grouped injury-causing mechanisms into two categories: fluid (pressure/cavitation, shear, turbulence) and mechanical (strike/collision, grinding/pinching, scraping). The physical constraints of the environment, together with the likely types of injuries to fish, provided the parameters needed for a rigorous imaging technology evaluation. Types of technology evaluated included both tracking and imaging systems using acoustic technologies (such as sonar and acoustic tags) and optic technologies (such as pulsed-laser videography, which is high-speed videography using a laser as the flash). Criteria for determining image data quality such as frame rate, target detectability, and resolution were used to quantify the minimum requirements of an imaging sensor.

  14. Current concepts in maxillofacial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeddinghaus, Rudolf [Perth Radiological Clinic, 127 Hamersley Road, Subiaco, Western Australia 6008 (Australia)], E-mail: rboeddinghaus@perthradclinic.com.au; Whyte, Andy [Perth Radiological Clinic, 127 Hamersley Road, Subiaco, Western Australia 6008 (Australia)], E-mail: awhyte@perthradclinic.com.au

    2008-06-15

    A review of state-of-the-art maxillofacial imaging is presented. Current imaging techniques include intra-oral radiographs, dental panoramic tomography, multidetector helical computed tomography, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The commonest conditions encountered in clinical radiological practice are reviewed, including maxillofacial deformities, complicated dental impactions, maxillofacial trauma, jaw lesions (cysts, neoplasms, fibro-osseous lesions (FOLs) and infections), and temporomandibular joint pathology. Pre-operative assessment for dental implant placement is also briefly reviewed.

  15. Molecular imaging: current status and emerging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pysz, M.A. [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Gambhir, S.S. [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Departments of Bioengineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Willmann, J.K., E-mail: willmann@stanford.ed [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use positron-emission tomography (PET) or single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research, novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multi-modality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound (US) with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and US imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies as they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and US techniques involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with US. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation, such as endoscopes and microcatheters, suggest that these molecular imaging methods have numerous potential clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future.

  16. Medical imaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Haidekker, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical imaging is a relatively young discipline that started with Conrad Wilhelm Roentgen’s discovery of the x-ray in 1885. X-ray imaging was rapidly adopted in hospitals around the world. However, it was the advent of computerized data and image processing that made revolutionary new imaging modalities possible. Today, cross-sections and three-dimensional reconstructions of the organs inside the human body is possible with unprecedented speed, detail and quality. This book provides an introduction into the principles of image formation of key medical imaging modalities: X-ray projection imaging, x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, and radionuclide imaging. Recent developments in optical imaging are also covered. For each imaging modality, the introduction into the physical principles and sources of contrast is provided, followed by the methods of image formation, engineering aspects of the imaging devices, and a discussion of strengths and limitations of the modal...

  17. Improved hyperspectral imaging technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Improved hyperspectral imaging technologies could enable lower-cost analysis for planetary science including atmospheric studies, mineralogical investigations, and...

  18. Current Trends in Higher Education Technology: Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damewood, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on how technology in use changes over time, and the current trend of simulation technology as a supported classroom technology. Simulation-based training as a learning tool is discussed within the context of adult learning theories, as is the technology used and how today's higher education technology administrators support…

  19. Current technologies in vehicular communication

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrakopoulos, George

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a concise and comprehensive overview of vehicular communication technologies. It classifies all relevant standards, protocols and applications, so as to enable the reader to gain a holistic approach towards the subject of vehicular communications. The primary methods are algorithmic processes and simulation results. First, an overview and classification of vehicular technologies is presented. Then, the book focuses on specific applications of V2V and V2I communications. Special attention is given to recent research and development results regarding R&D projects in the field, in cooperation with car manufacturing companies and universities at a global level. Designed to facilitate understanding of vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to infrastructure technologies, this textbook is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students of vehicular communications or mobile networks.

  20. Current submarine atmosphere control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, W

    1998-01-01

    Air purification in submarines was introduced towards the end of World War II and was limited to the use of soda lime for the removal of carbon dioxide and oxygen candles for the regeneration of oxygen. The next major advances came with the advent of nuclear-powered submarines. These included the development of regenerative and, sometimes, energy-intensive processes for comprehensive atmosphere revitalization. With the present development of conventional submarines using air-independent propulsion there is a requirement for air purification similar to that of the nuclear-powered submarines but it is constrained by limited power and space. Some progress has been made in the development of new technology and the adoption of air purification equipment used in the nuclear-powered submarines for this application.

  1. Turbine Imaging Technology Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-12-31

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging alternatives for observing the behavior of juvenile fish within an operating Kaplan turbine unit with a focus on methods to quantify fish injury mechanisms inside an operating turbine unit. Imaging methods are particularly needed to observe the approach and interaction of fish with turbine structural elements. This evaluation documents both the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. The information may be used to acquire the scientific knowledge to make structural improvements and create opportunities for industry to modify turbines and improve fish passage conditions.

  2. Recent advances in imaging technologies in dentistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naseem; Shah; Nikhil; Bansal; Ajay; Logani

    2014-01-01

    Dentistry has witnessed tremendous advances in all its branches over the past three decades. With these advances, the need for more precise diagnostic tools,specially imaging methods, have become mandatory.From the simple intra-oral periapical X-rays, advanced imaging techniques like computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have also found place in modern dentistry. Changing from analogue to digital radiography has not only made the process simpler and faster but also made image storage, manipulation(brightness/contrast, image cropping, etc.) and retrieval easier. The three-dimensional imaging has made the complex cranio-facial structures more accessible for examination and early and accurate diagnosis of deep seated lesions. This paper is to review current advances in imaging technology and their uses in different disciplines of dentistry.

  3. Educational Technology: Effective Leadership and Current Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courville, Keith

    2011-01-01

    (Purpose) This article describes the basis for effective educational technology leadership and a few of the current initiatives and impacts that are a result of the aforementioned effective leadership. (Findings) Topics addressed in this paper include: (1) the role of the educational technology leader in an educational setting; (2) an examination…

  4. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today's more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities.

  5. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today`s more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities.

  6. Image Sensors Enhance Camera Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, a Jet Propulsion Laboratory team led by Eric Fossum researched ways of improving complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors in order to miniaturize cameras on spacecraft while maintaining scientific image quality. Fossum s team founded a company to commercialize the resulting CMOS active pixel sensor. Now called the Aptina Imaging Corporation, based in San Jose, California, the company has shipped over 1 billion sensors for use in applications such as digital cameras, camera phones, Web cameras, and automotive cameras. Today, one of every three cell phone cameras on the planet feature Aptina s sensor technology.

  7. Pediatric imaging: Current and emerging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy-Bhangle A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging has always been an important component of the clinical evaluation of pediatric patients. Rapid technological advances in imaging are making noninvasive evaluation of a wide range of pediatric diseases possible. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are two imaging modalities that do not involve ionizing radiation and are preferred imaging modalities in the pediatric population. Computed tomography (CT remains the imaging modality with the highest increase in utilization in children due to its widespread availability and rapid image acquisition. Emerging imaging applications to be discussed include MR urography, voiding urosonography with use of ultrasound contrast agents, CT dose reduction techniques, MR enterography for inflammatory bowel disease, and MR cine airway imaging.

  8. Harnessing Ocean Energy by Tidal Current Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Mehmood

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The world is heavily dependent on fossil fuels since most of its energy requirements are fulfilled by conventional methods of burning these fuels. The energy demand is increasing by day with growing population. The energy production by fossil fuels is devastating the environment and survival of life on globe is endangered. The renewal energy technologies are vital to ensure future energy sustenance and environmental issues. Ocean is a vast resource of renewable energy. The technology today makes it possible to extract energy from tides. The growing interest in exploring tidal current technologies has compelling reasons such as security and diversity of supply, intermittent but predictable and limited social and environmental impacts. The purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive review of tidal current technologies to harness ocean energy. The ocean energy resources are presented. The author discusses tidal energy technologies. The tidal current turbines are discussed in detail. The author reviews today’s popular tidal current technologies. The present status of ocean energy development is also reported.

  9. Current Abstracts Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bales, J.D.; Hicks, S.C. [eds.

    1993-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  10. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipps, Simon P. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Bett, Andreas W. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Horowitz, Kelsey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report summarizes the status of the concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) market and industry as well as current trends in research and technology. This report is intended to guide research agendas for Fraunhofer ISE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and other R&D organizations. Version 1.1 of this report includes recent progress in CPV. The recent record module efficiency of 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve.

  11. Current and emerging techniques in gastrointestinal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McSweeney S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is devoted to current and emerging techniques in gastrointestinal (GI imaging. It is divided into three sections focusing on areas that are both interesting and challenging: imaging of the small bowel and appendix, imaging of the colon and rectum and finally liver and pancreas in the upper abdomen. The first section covers cross-sectional imaging of the small bowel using the techniques of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT (including CT enterography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The evaluation of mesenteric ischemia and GI tract bleeding using MDCT angiography is also reviewed. Current imaging practice in the evaluation of appendix is also reviewed and illustrated. The second section reviews CT and MR colonography and imaging of the rectum. It describes CT virtual colonoscopy (CTVC with emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of the technique with discussion of the role of CTVC in screening. The intriguing topic of MR colonography (MRC is also reviewed. Imaging of the rectum with emphasis on imaging of rectal cancer is described with the roles of CT, MR, endoluminal ultrasound and positron emission tomography scanning discussed. The final section reviews current and emerging techniques in liver imaging with the role of ultrasound including contrast ultrasound, MDCT and MR (including contrast agents discussed. The new developments and applications of imaging of pancreatic disease are discussed with emphasis on the role of MDCT and MRI with gadolinium. This review highlights the current role and advancement of imaging techniques with new diagnostic and prognostic information pertinent to gastrointestinal disease continuing to emerge.

  12. Imaging technologies in oilfield applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE C.G.; NORTH R.; WILT M.; ZHANG P.; DENACLARA H.; LEVESQUE C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe some recent imaging technologies developed by Schlumberger for oilfield downhole multiphase flow production logging (PL) and cross-well electromagnetic (EM) survey applications. FloScan Imager (FSITM) has been introduced as a 3-phase oil/gas/water flow PL tool for deviated and horizontal wells. FSI sensors can map fluid velocity and holdup profiles along a vertical diameter of the wellbore at every survey depth, enabling a robust estimate of the individual phase flow rates in complex flow regimes. The cross-well EM survey is based on cross-borehole induction logging technique and provides resistivity distribution at a reservoir scale. It is a useful tool for reservoir management and is most effective in dynamic fields where fluid saturations are variable in time and space. The tool can be used to identify (water or steam) flooded and bypassed regions. By monitoring changes in the resistivity spatial distribution with time, cross-well EM survey is very effective at mapping inter-well temperature and structure. Some field examples are shown for both FloScan Imager PL tool and cross-well resistivity imaging survey.

  13. Review of Current Nuclear Vacuum System Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, M.; McCracken, J.; Shope, T.

    2003-02-25

    Nearly all industrial operations generate unwanted dust, particulate matter, and/or liquid wastes. Waste dust and particulates can be readily tracked to other work locations, and airborne particulates can be spread through ventilation systems to all locations within a building, and even vented outside the building - a serious concern for processes involving hazardous, radioactive, or nuclear materials. Several varieties of vacuum systems have been proposed and/or are commercially available for clean up of both solid and liquid hazardous and nuclear materials. A review of current technologies highlights both the advantages and disadvantages of the various systems, and demonstrates the need for a system designed to address issues specific to hazardous and nuclear material cleanup. A review of previous and current hazardous/nuclear material cleanup technologies is presented. From simple conventional vacuums modified for use in industrial operations, to systems specifically engineered for such purposes, the advantages and disadvantages are examined in light of the following criteria: minimal worker exposure; minimal secondary waste generation;reduced equipment maintenance and consumable parts; simplicity of design, yet fully compatible with all waste types; and ease of use. The work effort reviews past, existing and proposed technologies in light of such considerations. Accomplishments of selected systems are presented, including identified areas where technological improvements could be suggested.

  14. Genitourinary imaging: Current and emerging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O′ Donoghue P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the current and emerging techniques in urinary tract imaging. Recent technical advances and novel discoveries make this an exciting but challenging time for urinary tract imaging. The first section describes the imaging of the adrenal gland which has made great strides in the last decade, the current major adrenal imaging modalities as well as new applications are discussed with particular attention to the role of imaging in the incidentally detected adrenal lesion. In the second section the role of ultrasound, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance (MR in evaluation of the renal tract are discussed with the new technical advances leading to earlier detection and characterization of renal lesions. Complementary to this is the emerging role of CT and MR urography in assessment of the urinary tract and bladder in contrast to the demise of plain film studies/intravenous urography. The role of CT angiography in assessment of the renal vasculature is also discussed. The third section discusses the role of prostate imaging in the diagnosis, staging and management of prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasonography, can be used to guide biopsy, CT is frequently used in staging, with bone scintigraphy and positron emission tomography having roles in advanced disease. Currently, all imaging modalities, especially MR are evolving to improve disease detection and staging. The final section discusses the recently encountered adverse reaction of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients post gadolinium-enhanced MRI and how to help prevent this adverse reaction.

  15. Genitourinary imaging: current and emerging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Donoghue, P M; McSweeney, S E; Jhaveri, K

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the current and emerging techniques in urinary tract imaging. Recent technical advances and novel discoveries make this an exciting but challenging time for urinary tract imaging. The first section describes the imaging of the adrenal gland which has made great strides in the last decade, the current major adrenal imaging modalities as well as new applications are discussed with particular attention to the role of imaging in the incidentally detected adrenal lesion. In the second section the role of ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) in evaluation of the renal tract are discussed with the new technical advances leading to earlier detection and characterization of renal lesions. Complementary to this is the emerging role of CT and MR urography in assessment of the urinary tract and bladder in contrast to the demise of plain film studies/intravenous urography. The role of CT angiography in assessment of the renal vasculature is also discussed. The third section discusses the role of prostate imaging in the diagnosis, staging and management of prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasonography, can be used to guide biopsy, CT is frequently used in staging, with bone scintigraphy and positron emission tomography having roles in advanced disease. Currently, all imaging modalities, especially MR are evolving to improve disease detection and staging. The final section discusses the recently encountered adverse reaction of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients post gadolinium-enhanced MRI and how to help prevent this adverse reaction.

  16. Biomedical Optical Imaging Technologies Design and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to design of biomedical optical imaging technologies and their applications. The main topics include: fluorescence imaging, confocal imaging, micro-endoscope, polarization imaging, hyperspectral imaging, OCT imaging, multimodal imaging and spectroscopic systems. Each chapter is written by the world leaders of the respective fields, and will cover: principles and limitations of optical imaging technology, system design and practical implementation for one or two specific applications, including design guidelines, system configuration, optical design, component requirements and selection, system optimization and design examples, recent advances and applications in biomedical researches and clinical imaging. This book serves as a reference for students and researchers in optics and biomedical engineering.

  17. Superresolution imaging: a survey of current techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, G.; Gil, E.; Šroubek, F.; Flusser, J.; Miravet, C.; Rodríguez, F. B.

    2008-08-01

    Imaging plays a key role in many diverse areas of application, such as astronomy, remote sensing, microscopy, and tomography. Owing to imperfections of measuring devices (e.g., optical degradations, limited size of sensors) and instability of the observed scene (e.g., object motion, media turbulence), acquired images can be indistinct, noisy, and may exhibit insuffcient spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, several external effects blur images. Techniques for recovering the original image include blind deconvolution (to remove blur) and superresolution (SR). The stability of these methods depends on having more than one image of the same frame. Differences between images are necessary to provide new information, but they can be almost unperceivable. State-of-the-art SR techniques achieve remarkable results in resolution enhancement by estimating the subpixel shifts between images, but they lack any apparatus for calculating the blurs. In this paper, after introducing a review of current SR techniques we describe two recently developed SR methods by the authors. First, we introduce a variational method that minimizes a regularized energy function with respect to the high resolution image and blurs. In this way we establish a unifying way to simultaneously estimate the blurs and the high resolution image. By estimating blurs we automatically estimate shifts with subpixel accuracy, which is inherent for good SR performance. Second, an innovative learning-based algorithm using a neural architecture for SR is described. Comparative experiments on real data illustrate the robustness and utilization of both methods.

  18. CT myocardial perfusion imaging: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M C; Newby, D E

    2016-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging of the heart has advanced rapidly, and it is now possible to perform a comprehensive assessment at a low radiation dose. CT myocardial perfusion imaging can provide additive information to CT coronary angiography, and is particularly useful in patients with heavily calcified coronary arteries or coronary artery stents. A number of protocols are now available for CT myocardial perfusion including static, dynamic, and dual-energy techniques. This review will discuss the current status of CT myocardial perfusion imaging, its clinical application, and future directions for this technology.

  19. Gastrointestinal tract imaging in children: current techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiorns, Melanie P. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Imaging of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in children continues to evolve, with new techniques, both radiological and non-radiological, being added to the repertoire. This article provides a summary of current imaging techniques of the GI tract (primarily the upper GI tract) and the relationship between those techniques. It covers the upper GI series and other contrast studies, US, CT and MRI. Note is also made of the contribution now made by capsule endoscopy (CE). Abdominal emergency imaging is not covered in this article. (orig.)

  20. Sensing technology current status and future trends

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun

    2014-01-01

    This book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective.  The book is intended to give a broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.  

  1. Current applications of molecular cytogenetic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, H F; Jenkins, R; Miller, W A

    1997-01-01

    This review discusses select current applications of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) which may be of utility for the average clinical cytogenetic laboratory. Owing to the large number of men and women affected, the applications chosen to illustrate the use of FISH technology in cancer focus on two diseases: breast cancer and prostate cancer. The applicability of FISH to detect common aneuploidies, such as trisomy 21, trisomy 18, trisomy 13 and the sex chromosome aneuploidies in prenatal diagnosis, is discussed, as well as FISH for the detection of microdeletions and microduplications. Quality assurance/quality control issues and standards and guidelines relating to laboratory practices in molecular cytogenetic testing are reviewed.

  2. Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Gwon, Hui Jeong

    2007-06-15

    The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able

  3. Current concepts on imaging in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecchi, Michela; Elisei, Federica; Lucignani, Giovanni [University of Milan, Institute of Radiological Sciences, Milan (Italy); San Paolo Hospital, Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Fossati, Piero [University of Milan, Institute of Radiological Sciences, Milan (Italy); CNAO Foundation, Milan (Italy); Orecchia, Roberto [University of Milan, Institute of Radiological Sciences, Milan (Italy); CNAO Foundation, Milan (Italy); European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Milan (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    New high-precision radiotherapy (RT) techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or hadrontherapy, allow better dose distribution within the target and spare a larger portion of normal tissue than conventional RT. These techniques require accurate tumour volume delineation and intrinsic characterization, as well as verification of target localisation and monitoring of organ motion and response assessment during treatment. These tasks are strongly dependent on imaging technologies. Among these, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasonography (US) and positron emission tomography (PET) have been applied in high-precision RT. For tumour volume delineation and characterization, PET has brought an additional dimension to the management of cancer patients by allowing the incorporation of crucial functional and molecular images in RT treatment planning, i.e. direct evaluation of tumour metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis, hypoxia and angiogenesis. The combination of PET and CT in a single imaging system (PET/CT) to obtain a fused anatomical and functional dataset is now emerging as a promising tool in radiotherapy departments for delineation of tumour volumes and optimization of treatment plans. Another exciting new area is image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), which focuses on the potential benefit of advanced imaging and image registration to improve precision, daily target localization and monitoring during treatment, thus reducing morbidity and potentially allowing the safe delivery of higher doses. The variety of IGRT systems is rapidly expanding, including cone beam CT and US. This article examines the increasing role of imaging techniques in the entire process of high-precision radiotherapy. (orig.)

  4. Current concepts on imaging in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecchi, Michela; Fossati, Piero; Elisei, Federica; Orecchia, Roberto; Lucignani, Giovanni

    2008-04-01

    New high-precision radiotherapy (RT) techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or hadrontherapy, allow better dose distribution within the target and spare a larger portion of normal tissue than conventional RT. These techniques require accurate tumour volume delineation and intrinsic characterization, as well as verification of target localisation and monitoring of organ motion and response assessment during treatment. These tasks are strongly dependent on imaging technologies. Among these, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasonography (US) and positron emission tomography (PET) have been applied in high-precision RT. For tumour volume delineation and characterization, PET has brought an additional dimension to the management of cancer patients by allowing the incorporation of crucial functional and molecular images in RT treatment planning, i.e. direct evaluation of tumour metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis, hypoxia and angiogenesis. The combination of PET and CT in a single imaging system (PET/CT) to obtain a fused anatomical and functional dataset is now emerging as a promising tool in radiotherapy departments for delineation of tumour volumes and optimization of treatment plans. Another exciting new area is image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), which focuses on the potential benefit of advanced imaging and image registration to improve precision, daily target localization and monitoring during treatment, thus reducing morbidity and potentially allowing the safe delivery of higher doses. The variety of IGRT systems is rapidly expanding, including cone beam CT and US. This article examines the increasing role of imaging techniques in the entire process of high-precision radiotherapy.

  5. A comparison of current prediction imaging programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. Dempsey; Thomas, Paul M.; Proffit, William R.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate perceived differences in the ability of current software to simulate the actual outcome of orthognathic surgery, we chose 10 difficult test cases with vertical discrepancies and “retreated” them using the actual surgical changes. Five programs—Dentofacial Planner Plus, Dolphin Imaging, Orthoplan, Quick Ceph Image, and Vistadent—were evaluated, by using both the default result and a refined result created with each program’s enhancement tools. Three panels (orthodontists, oral-maxillofacial surgeons, and laypersons) judged the default images and the retouched simulations by ranking the simulations in side-by-side comparisons and by rating each simulation relative to the actual outcome on a 6-point scale. For the default and retouched images, Dentofacial Planner Plus was judged the best default simulation 79% and 59% of the time, respectively, and its default images received the best (lowest) mean score (2.46) on the 6-point scale. It also scored best (2.26) when the retouched images were compared, but the scores for Dolphin Imaging (2.83) and Quick Ceph (3.03) improved. Retouching had little impact on the scores for the other programs. Although the results show differences in simulation ability, selecting a software package depends on many factors. Performance and ease of use, cost, compatibility, and other features such as image and practice management tools are all important considerations. Users concerned with operating system compatibility and practice management integration might want to consider Dolphin Imaging and Quick Ceph, the programs comprising the second tier. PMID:15127020

  6. Noninvasive imaging technologies for cutaneous wound assessment: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Dereck W; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Prindeze, Nicholas J; Moffatt, Lauren T; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    The ability to phenotype wounds for the purposes of assessing severity, healing potential and treatment is an important function of evidence-based medicine. A variety of optical technologies are currently in development for noninvasive wound assessment. To varying extents, these optical technologies have the potential to supplement traditional clinical wound evaluation and research, by providing detailed information regarding skin components imperceptible to visual inspection. These assessments are achieved through quantitative optical analysis of tissue characteristics including blood flow, collagen remodeling, hemoglobin content, inflammation, temperature, vascular structure, and water content. Technologies that have, to this date, been applied to wound assessment include: near infrared imaging, thermal imaging, optical coherence tomography, orthogonal polarization spectral imaging, fluorescence imaging, laser Doppler imaging, microscopy, spatial frequency domain imaging, photoacoustic detection, and spectral/hyperspectral imaging. We present a review of the technologies in use or development for these purposes with three aims: (1) providing basic explanations of imaging technology concepts, (2) reviewing the wound imaging literature, and (3) providing insight into areas for further application and exploration. Noninvasive imaging is a promising advancement in wound assessment and all technologies require further validation.

  7. Novel cardiac imaging technologies : implications in clinical decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis were to investigate the role of novel cardiac imaging technologies in the current clinical daily practice with the advent of novel therapies. In Part I, the role of novel imaging modalities to assess left ventricular mechanics will be discussed, focusing on 1) the

  8. Current Status of VHTR Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti; Hans Gougar; Richard Wright; William Windes; Steve Herring; Richard Schultz; Paul Humrickhouse

    2010-10-01

    Abstract – High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) featuring particle fuel reached the stage of commercial deployment in the mid-1980s with the Fort St.Vrain and Thorium HochTemperatur Reaktor feeding electricity to the grids in the United States and West Germany, respectively. The technology was then adopted by Japan and China with the operation of the High Temperature Test Reactor in Oarai, Japan and the High Temperature Reactor (HTR-10) in China. Increasing the outlet temperature of the HTGR to even higher temperatures above 900°C will improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the system and enable application of a new class of gas reactor, the very high temperature reactor, to provide process heat, electricity, and hydrogen to chemical industries with the attendant benefits of improved energy security and reduced CO2 emissions. However, the increase in coolant outlet temperature presents a number of technical challenges associated with fuel, materials, power conversion, and analysis methods for the reactor and hydrogen production. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a broad program of research and development with a goal of addressing the technical challenges over a broad range of outlet temperatures as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. This paper describes the research and development activities that are currently underway to realize the technologies needed for an HTGR that features outlet temperatures of 750 to 950°C.

  9. Current particle and nanoparticle technology in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wiwut Tanthapanichakoon

    2008-01-01

    This report gives a brief introduction to key Thai organizations, including research institutions and academic departments, active in particle technology. This is followed by a description of the latest trend of powder technology and nanoparticle technology in Thailand.

  10. Current concepts in imaging of tendinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Robert S.D.; Grainger, Andrew J

    2001-04-01

    With the rising popularity of recreational sports, radiologists are being asked to image tendons with increasing frequency. Recognition of the critical link tendons provide between muscle and bone has also led to a better understanding of the processes leading to tendon damage. While plain radiography and CT have only a limited role to play in the diagnosis of tendon abnormality, the improvements in ultrasound and MRI technology mean that tendons can now be demonstrated in exquisite detail and previously undetectable abnormalities are readily demonstrated. This article reviews the structure and pathological processes affecting tendons and discusses the role of imaging in their assessment with an emphasis on ultrasound and MRI. Campbell, R.S.D. and Grainger, A.J. (2001)

  11. Application of stereo-imaging technology to medical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Park, Jeongyun; Kim, In Young; Kim, Kwang Gi

    2012-09-01

    There has been continuous development in the area of stereoscopic medical imaging devices, and many stereoscopic imaging devices have been realized and applied in the medical field. In this article, we review past and current trends pertaining to the application stereo-imaging technologies in the medical field. We describe the basic principles of stereo vision and visual issues related to it, including visual discomfort, binocular disparities, vergence-accommodation mismatch, and visual fatigue. We also present a brief history of medical applications of stereo-imaging techniques, examples of recently developed stereoscopic medical devices, and patent application trends as they pertain to stereo-imaging medical devices. Three-dimensional (3D) stereo-imaging technology can provide more realistic depth perception to the viewer than conventional two-dimensional imaging technology. Therefore, it allows for a more accurate understanding and analysis of the morphology of an object. Based on these advantages, the significance of stereoscopic imaging in the medical field increases in accordance with the increase in the number of laparoscopic surgeries, and stereo-imaging technology plays a key role in the diagnoses of the detailed morphologies of small biological specimens. The application of 3D stereo-imaging technology to the medical field will help improve surgical accuracy, reduce operation times, and enhance patient safety. Therefore, it is important to develop more enhanced stereoscopic medical devices.

  12. Irradiated foods: current trends and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Additional demands on keeping food safe and palatable through longer distribution chains have led industry executives to reconsider irradiation and other technologies as viable processing alternatives for many foods. Other intervention technologies (precision thermal, UV, and novel sanitizer formula...

  13. Medical imaging technology reviews and computational applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dewi, Dyah

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest research findings and reviews in the field of medical imaging technology, covering ultrasound diagnostics approaches for detecting osteoarthritis, breast carcinoma and cardiovascular conditions, image guided biopsy and segmentation techniques for detecting lung cancer, image fusion, and simulating fluid flows for cardiovascular applications. It offers a useful guide for students, lecturers and professional researchers in the fields of biomedical engineering and image processing.

  14. Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

  15. Image Restoration with New Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie

    The article examines the role played by the corporate website while a company - Arla - attempted to restore an image tarnished by unethical behaviour. The company's strategy focussed on dialogue: it introduced a large number of authentic employees in their natural role as cook, dairy farmer, etc...... their image as a faceless monopoly with a humanized, personalised version. However, it should also be questioned if, in the long run, it was the image campaign rather than the visible efforts of the company to behave with consideration that brought about the desired change. Keywords: Image restoration......., and made them available to readers as experts providing inspiration and advice, or as writers blogging about the world of company, or as responsible people answering readers' frank questions about their practices in an open forum. It is argued that the electronic platform allowed the company to substitute...

  16. Polarization Imager Technology. Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    of Figure 5 shows an inten- sity image of a HMMWV entirely draped with U.S. Woodland Net Camouflage and about 30% occluded by bush vegetation on the...onto the CCD photosensing chip such that the three 00, 450, 900 states are sensed simultaneously. Figure 8 10 COMPETITION SENSITIVE AND PROPRIETARY...respectively at adjacent single columns of pixels, is deposited onto the CCD chip . The sensing rate of complete polarization images using this design is

  17. Molecular ultrasound imaging: current status and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, N. [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Needles, A. [Visualsonics, Toronto (Canada); Willmann, J.K., E-mail: willmann@stanford.ed [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (molecular ultrasound) is an emerging imaging strategy that combines ultrasound technology with novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for assessing biological processes at the molecular level. Molecular ultrasound contrast agents are nano- or micro-sized particles that are targeted to specific molecular markers by adding high-affinity binding ligands onto the surface of the particles. Following intravenous administration, these targeted ultrasound contrast agents accumulate at tissue sites overexpressing specific molecular markers, thereby enhancing the ultrasound imaging signal. High spatial and temporal resolution, real-time imaging, non-invasiveness, relatively low costs, lack of ionising irradiation and wide availability of ultrasound systems are advantages compared to other molecular imaging modalities. In this article we review current concepts and future directions of molecular ultrasound imaging, including different classes of molecular ultrasound contrast agents, ongoing technical developments of pre-clinical and clinical ultrasound systems, the potential of molecular ultrasound for imaging different diseases at the molecular level, and the translation of molecular ultrasound into the clinic.

  18. DoD Current State for Software Technology Readiness Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    DoD Current State for Software Technology Readiness Assessments Systems & Software Technology Conference April 2010 Cynthia Dion-Schwarz, Ph.D...DoD Current State for Software Technology Readiness Assessments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 22nd Systems and Software Technology Conference (SSTC), 26-29 April

  19. Rehabilitation Technology: Exploitation of R & D and Current Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Morris

    1993-01-01

    This paper highlights research, development, and applications of technology in the areas of visual perception, facilitation of human communication, prosthetics and orthotics, and robotics and signal processing. Means by which the application of promising technological developments can be expedited are also discussed. (Author/DB)

  20. Image Restoration with New Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie

    The article examines the role played by the corporate website while a company - Arla - attempted to restore an image tarnished by unethical behaviour. The company's strategy focussed on dialogue: it introduced a large number of authentic employees in their natural role as cook, dairy farmer, etc...

  1. Nanofluid technology : current status and future research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S. U.-S.

    1998-10-20

    Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R and D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

  2. Incidentalomas: a "disease" of modern imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer; Aron, David C

    2012-02-01

    The evolution of new diagnostic techniques has revolutionized the practice of medicine and in fact, the nature of medicine itself. Technology has also expanded the "visual" field of medicine: the naked eye was assisted by the light microscope and then electron microscope to see smaller and smaller features while radiology has permitted "non-invasive" identification of internal structures. However, there are unintended consequences one of which is the discovery of an anomaly during the course of looking for something else - incidental findings and incidentalomas. Technology in general and imaging specifically offer much in service to physicians and their patients. However, it behoves physicians to ensure that technology supplements but does not replace good clinical judgment. This essay aims to put the issue of incidental findings related to advancing technology (especially imaging technology) into a broader context. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. HEP technologies to address medical imaging challenges

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Developments in detector technologies aimed at solving challenges in present and future CERN experiments, particularly at the LHC, have triggered exceptional advances in the performance of medical imaging devices, allowing for a spectacular progress in in-vivo molecular imaging procedures, which are opening the way for tailored therapies of major diseases. This talk will briefly review the recent history of this prime example of technology transfer from HEP experiments to society, will describe the technical challenges being addressed by some ongoing projects, and will present a few new ideas for further developments and their foreseeable impact.

  4. Technology-based suicide prevention: current applications and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; June, Jennifer D; Kinn, Julie T

    2011-01-01

    This review reports on current and emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Technology-based programs discussed include interactive educational and social networking Web sites, e-mail outreach, and programs that use mobile devices and texting. We describe innovative applications such as virtual worlds, gaming, and text analysis that are currently being developed and applied to suicide prevention and outreach programs. We also discuss the benefits and limitations of technology-based applications and discuss future directions for their use.

  5. Adaptive optics technology for high-resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Serrao, Sebastiano; Devaney, Nicholas; Parravano, Mariacristina; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2012-12-27

    Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging. Adaptive optics is opening a new frontier for clinical research in ophthalmology, providing new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases. We have reviewed AO technology for retinal imaging, providing information on the core components of an AO retinal camera. The most commonly used wavefront sensing and correcting elements are discussed. Furthermore, we discuss current applications of AO imaging to a population of healthy adults and to the most frequent causes of blindness, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. We conclude our work with a discussion on future clinical prospects for AO retinal imaging.

  6. Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lombardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging. Adaptive optics is opening a new frontier for clinical research in ophthalmology, providing new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases. We have reviewed AO technology for retinal imaging, providing information on the core components of an AO retinal camera. The most commonly used wavefront sensing and correcting elements are discussed. Furthermore, we discuss current applications of AO imaging to a population of healthy adults and to the most frequent causes of blindness, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. We conclude our work with a discussion on future clinical prospects for AO retinal imaging.

  7. Magnetic force microscopy/current contrast imaging: A new technique for internal current probing of ICs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.N.; Cole, E.I. Jr.; Dodd, B.A.; Anderson, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    This invited paper describes recently reported work on the application of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) to image currents in IC conductors [1]. A computer model for MFM imaging of IC currents and experimental results demonstrating the ability to determine current direction and magnitude with a resolution of {approximately} 1 mA dc and {approximately} 1 {mu}A ac are presented. The physics of MFM signal generation and applications to current imaging and measurement are described.

  8. Computer vision research with new imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guangqi; Liu, Fei; Sun, Zhenan

    2015-12-01

    Light field imaging is capable of capturing dense multi-view 2D images in one snapshot, which record both intensity values and directions of rays simultaneously. As an emerging 3D device, the light field camera has been widely used in digital refocusing, depth estimation, stereoscopic display, etc. Traditional multi-view stereo (MVS) methods only perform well on strongly texture surfaces, but the depth map contains numerous holes and large ambiguities on textureless or low-textured regions. In this paper, we exploit the light field imaging technology on 3D face modeling in computer vision. Based on a 3D morphable model, we estimate the pose parameters from facial feature points. Then the depth map is estimated through the epipolar plane images (EPIs) method. At last, the high quality 3D face model is exactly recovered via the fusing strategy. We evaluate the effectiveness and robustness on face images captured by a light field camera with different poses.

  9. Current challenges and future directions in cardiac imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wann, Samuel; Tunio, Javed

    2010-07-01

    Imaging is one of the most important accomplishments of medicine during the last 1000 years. The contribution of modern imaging to progress in the delivery of health care is unquestioned. However, we need to refine our use of imaging, limiting its use to those occasions when it can contribute directly or indirectly to improving and lengthening the lives of patients. Technology prowess in imaging alone is not sufficient to deliver value to individuals or to society. Continued investment in imaging technology requires critical appraisal of its use in clinical decision making and patient outcomes.

  10. Module Technology: Current Practice and Issues (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2010-10-05

    PV modules must provide mechanical support for the cells, protect the world from the voltages inside, protect the cells, diodes and interconnects from the weather outside, couple as much light as possible into the PV cells and minimize the temperature increase of the cells. The package must continue to serve these functions for at least 25 years as that is the typical module warranty period today. Furthermore the package must do all this for as low a cost as possible since the key to large scale PV growth is a reduction in cost while retaining excellent module reliability and durability. This paper will review current module construction practices for both crystalline silicon and thin film PV with emphasis on explaining why the present designs and materials have been selected. Possible long term issues with today's designs and materials will be discussed. Several proposed solutions to these issues will be presented, highlighting the research efforts that will be necessary in order to verify that they can cost effectively solve the identified issues.

  11. Gynecologic imaging: Current and emerging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Common diagnostic challenges in gynecology and the role of imaging in their evaluation are reviewed. Etiologies of abnormal uterine bleeding identified on pelvic sonography and sonohysterography are presented. An algorithmic approach for characterizing an incidentally detected adnexal mass and use of magnetic resonance imaging for definitive diagnosis are discussed. Finally, the role of F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the management of gynecological malignancies, and pitfalls associated with their use are examined.

  12. Review of spectral imaging technology in biomedical engineering: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingli; He, Xiaofu; Wang, Yiting; Liu, Hongying; Xu, Dongrong; Guo, Fangmin

    2013-10-01

    Spectral imaging is a technology that integrates conventional imaging and spectroscopy to get both spatial and spectral information from an object. Although this technology was originally developed for remote sensing, it has been extended to the biomedical engineering field as a powerful analytical tool for biological and biomedical research. This review introduces the basics of spectral imaging, imaging methods, current equipment, and recent advances in biomedical applications. The performance and analytical capabilities of spectral imaging systems for biological and biomedical imaging are discussed. In particular, the current achievements and limitations of this technology in biomedical engineering are presented. The benefits and development trends of biomedical spectral imaging are highlighted to provide the reader with an insight into the current technological advances and its potential for biomedical research.

  13. Current and future trends in imaging informatics for oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mia A; Rubin, Daniel L

    2011-01-01

    Clinical imaging plays an essential role in cancer care and research for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response assessment. Major advances in imaging informatics to support medical imaging have been made during the last several decades. More recent informatics advances focus on the special needs of oncologic imaging, yet gaps still remain. We review the current state, limitations, and future trends in imaging informatics for oncology care including clinical and clinical research systems. We review information systems to support cancer clinical workflows including oncologist ordering of radiology studies, radiologist review and reporting of image findings, and oncologist review and integration of imaging information for clinical decision making. We discuss informatics approaches to oncologic imaging including, but not limited to, controlled terminologies, image annotation, and image-processing algorithms. With the ongoing development of novel imaging modalities and imaging biomarkers, we expect these systems will continue to evolve and mature.

  14. Current MR imaging of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sae Lin; Sung, Seuk Jae [Dept. of Radiology, Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) consists of approximately 85-90% of renal masses, and its incidence is increasing due to widespread use of modern imaging modalities such as ultrasonography or computed tomography. Computed tomography has served an important role in the diagnosis and staging of RCC; however, recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have considerably improved our ability to predict tumor biology beyond the morphologic assessment. Multiparametric MRI protocols include standard sequences tailored for the morphologic evaluation and acquisitions that provide information about the tumor microenvironment such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. The role of multiparametric MRI in the evaluation of RCC now extends to preoperative characterization of RCC subtypes, histologic grade, and quantitative assessment of tumor response to targeted therapies in patients with metastatic disease. Herein, the clinical applications and recent advances in MRI applied to RCC are reviewed along with its merits and demerits. We aimed to review MRI techniques and image analysis that can improve the management of patients with RCC. Familiarity with the advanced MRI techniques and various imaging findings of RCC would also facilitate optimal clinical recommendations for patients.

  15. Lower-Dark-Current, Higher-Blue-Response CMOS Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Hancock, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Several improved designs for complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit image detectors have been developed, primarily to reduce dark currents (leakage currents) and secondarily to increase responses to blue light and increase signal-handling capacities, relative to those of prior CMOS imagers. The main conclusion that can be drawn from a study of the causes of dark currents in prior CMOS imagers is that dark currents could be reduced by relocating p/n junctions away from Si/SiO2 interfaces. In addition to reflecting this conclusion, the improved designs include several other features to counteract dark-current mechanisms and enhance performance.

  16. Current Technology Trends for School Library Media Specialists

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Ekhaml; Joan Hubbard

    2003-01-01

    An overview of some of the current technology trends used in classroom instruction and school library media centers in provided in this article such as the use of handheld electronic organizers, CD recorders, digital video cameras, and interactive whiteboards. The article offers some suggestions or ideas on how to acquire new technologies to school library media centers that are low in budgetary funds.

  17. Current Situations and Developing Tendency of China Post's Logistic Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ru-wei; LI Xue-ping

    2004-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the construction of China Post's physical network and information network and offers some general ideas about how to develop modern postal logistics. It dwells on the sortation technology, the Chinese Character Recognition Technology and the current situations and tendencies of the Research and Development (R&D) of the Logistic Information Management System.

  18. Color imaging technologies in the prepress industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Lee

    1992-05-01

    Over much of the last half century, electronic technologies have played an increasing role in the prepress production of film and plates prepared for printing presses. The last decade has seen an explosion of technologies capable of supplementing this production. The most outstanding technology infusing this growth has been the microcomputer, but other component technologies have also diversified the capacity for high-quality scanning of photographs. In addition, some fundamental software and affordable laser recorder technologies have provided new approaches to the merging of typographic and halftoned photographic data onto film. The next decade will evolve the methods and the technologies to achieve superior text and image communication on mass distribution media used in the printed page or instead of the printed page. This paper focuses on three domains of electronic prepress classified as the input, transformation, and output phases of the production process. The evolution of the component technologies in each of these three phases is described. The unique attributes in each are defined and then follows a discussion of the pertinent technologies which overlap all three domains. Unique to input is sensor technology and analogue to digital conversion. Unique to the transformation phase is the display on monitor for soft proofing and interactive processing. The display requires special technologies for digital frame storage and high-speed, gamma- compensated, digital to analogue conversion. Unique to output is the need for halftoning and binary recording device linearization or calibration. Specialized direct digital color technologies now allow color quality proofing without the need for writing intermediate separation films, but ultimately these technologies will be supplanted by direct printing technologies. First, dry film processing, then direct plate writing, and finally direct application of ink or toner onto paper at the 20 - 30 thousand impressions per

  19. Current status of radionuclide scrotal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holder, L.E.; Melloul, M.; Chen, D.

    1981-10-01

    Scrotal imaging with technetium-99m sodium pertechnetate consists of a radionuclide angiogram and static scrotal scans. Utilization of this study in patients presenting with an acute scrotum can dramatically reduce the number of surgical explorations for acute epididymitis. It can also aid in other aspects of differential diagnosis in patients presenting with either an acutely enlarged and/or painful scrotum or a scrotal mass. Ambiguities in previous descriptions of perfusion through the spermatic and extraspermatic cord vessels are described and distinguished from scrotal perfusion. The clinical and scintigraphic spectrum of testicular torsion, including spontaneous detorsion, early acute testicular torsion, midphase testicular torsion, and late phase or ''missed testicular torsion,'' is discussed and illustrated. The variety of patterns seen in acute epididymitis, including lateral and medial epididymal location, and focal epididymitis are described, as is the appearance of hydrocele as both a primary and secondary entity. The relationship of scrotal imaging to the overall clinical presentation and evaluation of these patients is emphasized in testicular torsion, torsion of the testicular appendages, epididymitis, abscess, trauma, tumor, spermatocele, and varicocele. The techniques, clinical utility, and relationship to radionuclide imaging of Doppler ultrasound and gray scale ultrasound scanning are reviewed. Doppler ultrasound results in many false negative studies in testicular torsion. Gray scale ultrasound is useful in clarifying the nature of scrotal masses.

  20. Current Advanced Power Generation Technologies and Options for China (1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In China,electricity consumption keeps growing at a high speed and installed capacity will be doubled in the next fifteen years.As the world second CO2 producer and also a member of Kyoto Protocol,how to balance energy needs and environmental protection responsibility in the future is a serious problem for China.As such,there are a number of technology choices for today's electric power generation.After discussing the current advanced power generation technologies based on Chinese energy structure and current conditions of power industry,this paper gives a reference to the technology options for China in the future.

  1. BKSTS illustrated dictionary of moving image technology

    CERN Document Server

    Uren, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The fourth edition of the BKSTS dictionary provides clear and concise explanations of the terminology and acronyms encountered in the broadcasting and moving image industries.Convergence of these industries means that those practising within them are increasingly faced with unfamiliar terminology. Martin Uren has reflected this change in his extended choice of industry terms, acronyms and colloquialisms. He provides:- Over 3300 definitions covering film, television, sound and multimedia technologies, together with technical terms from the computing, networks and telecommunications industries.-

  2. ARRAY PULSED EDDY CURRENT IMAGING SYSTEM USED TO DETECT CORROSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Binfeng; Luo Feilu; Cao Xiongheng; Xu Xiaojie

    2005-01-01

    A theory model is established to describe the voltage-current response function. The peak amplitude and the zero-crossing time of the transient signal is extracted as the imaging features, array pulsed eddy current (PEC) imaging is proposed to detect corrosion. The test results show that this system has the advantage of fast scanning speed, different imaging mode and quantitative detection, it has a broad application in the aviation nondestructive testing.

  3. Study design for concurrent development, assessment, and implementation of new diagnostic imaging technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWith current constraints on health care resources and emphasis on value for money, new diagnostic imaging technologies must be assessed and their value demonstrated. The state of the art in the field of diagnostic imaging technology assessment advocates a hierarchical

  4. Bladder exstrophy: current management and postoperative imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, Ketsia [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Borer, Joseph [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States); Phelps, Andrew [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Pediatric Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Chow, Jeanne S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Bladder exstrophy is a rare malformation characterized by an infra-umbilical abdominal wall defect, incomplete closure of the bladder with mucosa continuous with the abdominal wall, epispadias, and alterations in the pelvic bones and muscles. It is part of the exstrophy-epispadias complex, with cloacal exstrophy on the severe and epispadias on the mild ends of the spectrum. Bladder exstrophy is the most common of these entities and is more common in boys. The goal of this paper is to describe common methods of repair and to provide an imaging review of the postoperative appearances. (orig.)

  5. Neural network technologies for image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korikov, A. M.; Tungusova, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    We analyze the classes of problems with an objective necessity to use neural network technologies, i.e. representation and resolution problems in the neural network logical basis. Among these problems, image recognition takes an important place, in particular the classification of multi-dimensional data based on information about textural characteristics. These problems occur in aerospace and seismic monitoring, materials science, medicine and other. We reviewed different approaches for the texture description: statistical, structural, and spectral. We developed a neural network technology for resolving a practical problem of cloud image classification for satellite snapshots from the spectroradiometer MODIS. The cloud texture is described by the statistical characteristics of the GLCM (Gray Level Co- Occurrence Matrix) method. From the range of neural network models that might be applied for image classification, we chose the probabilistic neural network model (PNN) and developed an implementation which performs the classification of the main types and subtypes of clouds. Also, we chose experimentally the optimal architecture and parameters for the PNN model which is used for image classification.

  6. Image Information Retrieval: An Overview of Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby A. Goodrum

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of current research in image information retrieval and provides an outline of areas for future research. The approach is broad and interdisciplinary and focuses on three aspects of image research (IR: text-based retrieval, content-based retrieval, and user interactions with image information retrieval systems. The review concludes with a call for image retrieval evaluation studies similar to TREC.

  7. Image Information Retrieval: An Overview of Current Research

    OpenAIRE

    Abby A. Goodrum

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current research in image information retrieval and provides an outline of areas for future research. The approach is broad and interdisciplinary and focuses on three aspects of image research (IR): text-based retrieval, content-based retrieval, and user interactions with image information retrieval systems. The review concludes with a call for image retrieval evaluation studies similar to TREC.

  8. Current Status of Imaging Physics and Instrumentation In Nuclear Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Joung [Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Diagnostic and functional imaging device have been developed independently. The recognition that combining of these two devices can provide better diagnostic outcomes by fusing anatomical and functional images. The representative examples of combining devices would be PET/CT and SPECT/CT. Development and their applications of animal imaging and instrumentation have been very active, as new drug development with advanced imaging device has been increased. The development of advanced imaging device resulted in researching and developing for detector technology and imaging systems. It also contributed to develop a new software, reconstruction algorithm, correction methods for physical factors, image quantitation, computer simulation, kinetic modeling, dosimetry, and correction for motion artifacts. Recently, development of MRI and PET by combining them together was reported. True integration of MRI and PET has been making the progress and their results were reported. The recent status of imaging and instrumentation in nuclear medicine is reported in this paper.

  9. Failure Analysis of CCD Image Sensors Using SQUID and GMR Magnetic Current Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Frederick S.

    2005-01-01

    During electrical testing of a Full Field CCD Image Senor, electrical shorts were detected on three of six devices. These failures occurred after the parts were soldered to the PCB. Failure analysis was performed to determine the cause and locations of these failures on the devices. After removing the fiber optic faceplate, optical inspection was performed on the CCDs to understand the design and package layout. Optical inspection revealed that the device had a light shield ringing the CCD array. This structure complicated the failure analysis. Alternate methods of analysis were considered, including liquid crystal, light and thermal emission, LT/A, TT/A SQUID, and MP. Of these, SQUID and MP techniques were pursued for further analysis. Also magnetoresistive current imaging technology is discussed and compared to SQUID.

  10. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: current concepts and scintigraphic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intenzo, Charles; Jabbour, Serge; Miller, Jeffrey L; Ahmed, Intekhab; Furlong, Kevin; Kushen, Medina; Kim, Sung M; Capuzzi, David M

    2011-09-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined as normal serum free thyroxine and a free triiodothyronine level, with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and is usually undetectable. Although patients with this diagnosis have no or few signs and symptoms of overt thyrotoxicosis, there is sufficient evidence that it is associated with a relatively higher risk of supraventricular arrhythmias as well as the acceleration or the development of osteoporosis. Consequently, the approach to the patient with subclinical hyperthyroidism is controversial, that is, therapeutic intervention versus watchful waiting. Regardless, it is imperative for the referring physician to identify the causative thyroid disorder. This is optimally accomplished by a functional study, namely scintigraphy. Recognition of the scan findings of the various causes of subclinical hyperthyroidism enables the imaging specialist to help in diagnosing the underlying condition causing thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression thereby facilitating the workup and management of this thyroid disorder.

  11. Research on fast Fourier transforms algorithm of huge remote sensing image technology with GPU and partitioning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Li, Xue-You; Li, Jia-Guo; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Li; Yang, Jan; Du, Quan-Ye

    2014-02-01

    Fast Fourier transforms (FFT) is a basic approach to remote sensing image processing. With the improvement of capacity of remote sensing image capture with the features of hyperspectrum, high spatial resolution and high temporal resolution, how to use FFT technology to efficiently process huge remote sensing image becomes the critical step and research hot spot of current image processing technology. FFT algorithm, one of the basic algorithms of image processing, can be used for stripe noise removal, image compression, image registration, etc. in processing remote sensing image. CUFFT function library is the FFT algorithm library based on CPU and FFTW. FFTW is a FFT algorithm developed based on CPU in PC platform, and is currently the fastest CPU based FFT algorithm function library. However there is a common problem that once the available memory or memory is less than the capacity of image, there will be out of memory or memory overflow when using the above two methods to realize image FFT arithmetic. To address this problem, a CPU and partitioning technology based Huge Remote Fast Fourier Transform (HRFFT) algorithm is proposed in this paper. By improving the FFT algorithm in CUFFT function library, the problem of out of memory and memory overflow is solved. Moreover, this method is proved rational by experiment combined with the CCD image of HJ-1A satellite. When applied to practical image processing, it improves effect of the image processing, speeds up the processing, which saves the time of computation and achieves sound result.

  12. Current Technology Trends for School Library Media Specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Ekhaml

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview of some of the current technology trends used in classroom instruction and school library media centers in provided in this article such as the use of handheld electronic organizers, CD recorders, digital video cameras, and interactive whiteboards. The article offers some suggestions or ideas on how to acquire new technologies to school library media centers that are low in budgetary funds.

  13. Advanced technologies for remote sensing imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, L.L.

    1993-06-07

    Generating and returning imagery from great distances has been generally associated with national security activities, with emphasis on reliability of system operation. (While the introduction of such capabilities was usually characterized by high levels of innovation, the evolution of such systems has followed the classical track of proliferation of ``standardized items`` expressing ever more incremental technological advances.) Recent focusing of interest on the use of remote imaging systems for commercial and scientific purposes can be expected to induce comparatively rapid advances along the axes of efficiency and technological sophistication, respectively. This paper reviews the most basic reasons for expecting the next decade of advances to dwarf the impressive accomplishments of the past ten years. The impact of these advances clearly will be felt in all major areas of large-scale human endeavor, commercial, military and scientific.

  14. Current Trend in Furnace Technology in the Melting Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Ighodalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to presents some of the current trend in Furnace technology as it pertains to the melting industries. Furnaces are applied in various industries for material processing. Large amounts of energy are usually consumed in the melting industries. The current trend in furnace technology is towards energy conservation, enhanced efficiency and productivity. The reduction of pollutant emissions are also taken into consideration due to their environmental impact. The various materials and processes for furnaces are discussed. The various strategies being employed towards furnace energy conservation, efficiency and productivity, and reduction of pollutant emissions are also discussed. Such strategies include the use of better fuel types such as natural gas; improved insulation and refractory materials; advanced burner designs such as high velocity, regenerative and recuperative burners; new combustion technologies such as air and fuel staging, flue gas recirculation technique. Mathematical modeling is also being employed for analysis and design purpose.

  15. Current Advanced Power Generation Technologies and Options for China (2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Nubo; Mohsen Assadi; Yang Cheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ In China,electricity consumption keeps growing at a high speed and installed capacity will be doubled in the next fifteen years.As the world second CO2 producer and also a member of Kyoto Protocol,how to balance energy needs arid environmental protection responsibility in the future is a serious problem for China.As such,there are a number of technology choices for today's electric power generation.After discussing the current advanced power generation technologies based on Chinese energy structure and current conditions of power industry,this paper gives a reference to the technology options for China in the future.Here published is the second part of the paper.

  16. Image guided robotic surgery: Current evidence for effectiveness in urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Pervez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Discussion of the evolution of image guided surgery (IGS and its fundamental components and current evidence for effectiveness of IGS in clinical urology. Methods: Literature search for image-guided robotic urology. Results: Current literature in image-guided robotic urology with its use in robot assisted radical prostatectomy and robot assisted partial nephrectomy are shown. Conclusions: Image guided surgery can be a useful aid to improve visualisation of anatomy and subsurface structures during minimally invasive surgery. Soft-tissue deformation makes it difficult to implement IGS in urology but current studies have shown an attempt to address this issue. The feasibility of IGS requires randomised control trials assessing in particular its accuracy and affect on clinical outcome.

  17. Advance of Molecular Imaging Technology and Targeted Imaging Agent in Imaging and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yi Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging is an emerging field that integrates advanced imaging technology with cellular and molecular biology. It can realize noninvasive and real time visualization, measurement of physiological or pathological process in the living organism at the cellular and molecular level, providing an effective method of information acquiring for diagnosis, therapy, and drug development and evaluating treatment of efficacy. Molecular imaging requires high resolution and high sensitive instruments and specific imaging agents that link the imaging signal with molecular event. Recently, the application of new emerging chemical technology and nanotechnology has stimulated the development of imaging agents. Nanoparticles modified with small molecule, peptide, antibody, and aptamer have been extensively applied for preclinical studies. Therapeutic drug or gene is incorporated into nanoparticles to construct multifunctional imaging agents which allow for theranostic applications. In this review, we will discuss the characteristics of molecular imaging, the novel imaging agent including targeted imaging agent and multifunctional imaging agent, as well as cite some examples of their application in molecular imaging and therapy.

  18. Trends in Health Information Technology Safety: From Technology-Induced Errors to Current Approaches for Ensuring Technology Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Borycki,Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Health information technology (HIT) research findings suggested that new healthcare technologies could reduce some types of medical errors while at the same time introducing classes of medical errors (i.e., technology-induced errors). Technology-induced errors have their origins in HIT, and/or HIT contribute to their occurrence. The objective of this paper is to review current trends in the published literature on HIT safety. Methods A review and synthesis of the medical and life s...

  19. Cardiac magnetic source imaging based on current multipole model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Fa-Kuan; Wang Qian; Hua Ning; Lu Hong; Tang Xue-Zheng; Ma Ping

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the heart current source can be reduced into a current multipole. By adopting three linear inverse methods, the cardiac magnetic imaging is achieved in this article based on the current multipole model expanded to the first order terms. This magnetic imaging is realized in a reconstruction plane in the centre of human heart, where the current dipole array is employed to represent realistic cardiac current distribution. The current multipole as testing source generates magnetic fields in the measuring plane, serving as inputs of cardiac magnetic inverse problem. In the heart-torso model constructed by boundary element method, the current multipole magnetic field distribution is compared with that in the homogeneous infinite space, and also with the single current dipole magnetic field distribution.Then the minimum-norm least-squares (MNLS) method, the optimal weighted pseuDOInverse method (OWPIM), and the optimal constrained linear inverse method (OCLIM) are selected as the algorithms for inverse computation based on current multipole model innovatively, and the imaging effects of these three inverse methods are compared. Besides,two reconstructing parameters, residual and mean residual, are also discussed, and their trends under MNLS, OWPIM and OCLIM each as a function of SNR are obtained and compared.

  20. Imaging of lumbar degenerative disk disease: history and current state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emch, Todd M. [Cleveland Clinic, Division of Neuroradiology, Imaging Institute, Neuroradiology L-10, Cleveland, OH (United States); Modic, Michael T. [Cleveland Clinic, Division of Neuroradiology, Imaging Institute, Neurological Institute T-13, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2011-09-15

    One of the most common indications for performing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the lumbar spine is the symptom complex thought to originate as a result of degenerative disk disease. MR imaging, which has emerged as perhaps the modality of choice for imaging degenerative disk disease, can readily demonstrate disk pathology, degenerative endplate changes, facet and ligamentous hypertrophic changes, and the sequelae of instability. Its role in terms of predicting natural history of low back pain, identifying causality, or offering prognostic information is unclear. As available modalities for imaging the spine have progressed from radiography, myelography, and computed tomography to MR imaging, there have also been advances in spine surgery for degenerative disk disease. These advances are described in a temporal context for historical purposes with a focus on MR imaging's history and current state. (orig.)

  1. An efficient adaptive arithmetic coding image compression technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Yun Jiao-Jiao; Zhang Yong-Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient lossless image compression scheme for still images based on an adaptive arithmetic coding compression algorithm.The algorithm increases the image coding compression rate and ensures the quality of the decoded image combined with the adaptive probability model and predictive coding.The use of adaptive models for each encoded image block dynamically estimates the probability of the relevant image block.The decoded image block can accurately recover the encoded image according to the code book information.We adopt an adaptive arithmetic coding algorithm for image compression that greatly improves the image compression rate.The results show that it is an effective compression technology.

  2. Robotic technology in surgery: current status in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Declan G; Hall, Rohan; Tong, Raymond; Goel, Rajiv; Costello, Anthony J

    2008-12-01

    There is increasing patient and surgeon interest in robotic-assisted surgery, particularly with the proliferation of da Vinci surgical systems (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) throughout the world. There is much debate over the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of these systems. The currently available robotic surgical technology is described. Published data relating to the da Vinci system are reviewed and the current status of surgical robotics within Australia and New Zealand is assessed. The first da Vinci system in Australia and New Zealand was installed in 2003. Four systems had been installed by 2006 and seven systems are currently in use. Most of these are based in private hospitals. Technical advantages of this system include 3-D vision, enhanced dexterity and improved ergonomics when compared with standard laparoscopic surgery. Most procedures currently carried out are urological, with cardiac, gynaecological and general surgeons also using this system. The number of patients undergoing robotic-assisted surgery in Australia and New Zealand has increased fivefold in the past 4 years. The most common procedure carried out is robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Published data suggest that robotic-assisted surgery is feasible and safe although the installation and recurring costs remain high. There is increasing acceptance of robotic-assisted surgery, especially for urological procedures. The da Vinci surgical system is becoming more widely available in Australia and New Zealand. Other surgical specialties will probably use this technology. Significant costs are associated with robotic technology and it is not yet widely available to public patients.

  3. Current trends in endodontic practice: emergency treatments and technological armamentarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle; Winkler, Johnathon; Hartwell, Gary; Stewart, Jeffrey; Caine, Rufus

    2009-01-01

    The current clinical practice of endodontics includes the utilization of a variety of new technological advances and materials. The last comprehensive survey that compared treatment modalities used in endodontic practices was conducted in 1990. The purpose of the current survey was to determine the frequency with which these new endodontic technologies and materials are being used in endodontic practices today. An e-mail questionnaire was sent to the 636 active diplomates of the American Board of Endodontics with current e-mail addresses. Two hundred thirty-two diplomates responded for a response rate of 35%. Calcium hydroxide was found to be the most frequently used intracanal medicament for all cases diagnosed with necrotic pulps. Ibuprofen was the most frequently prescribed medication for pain, and penicillin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic when an active infection was present. Eighty-two percent of the respondents are still incorporating hand files in some fashion during the cleansing and shaping phase of treatment. Lateral condensation and continuous wave were the most common methods used for obturation. Digital radiography was reported as being used by 72.5% of the respondents, whereas 45.3% reported using the microscope greater than 75% of the patient treatment. Ultrasonics was used by 97.8% of the respondents. It appears from the results that new endodontic technology is currently being used in the endodontic offices of those who responded to the survey.

  4. Imaging of HCC—Current State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Schraml

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is crucial for optimizing treatment outcome. Ongoing advances are being made in imaging of HCC regarding detection, grading, staging, and also treatment monitoring. This review gives an overview of the current international guidelines for diagnosing HCC and their discrepancies as well as critically summarizes the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT techniques for imaging in HCC. The diagnostic performance of MRI with nonspecific and hepatobililiary contrast agents and the role of functional imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging will be discussed. On the other hand, CT as a fast, cheap and easily accessible imaging modality plays a major role in the clinical routine work-up of HCC. Technical advances in CT, such as dual energy CT and volume perfusion CT, are currently being explored for improving detection, characterization and staging of HCC with promising results. Cone beam CT can provide a three-dimensional analysis of the liver with tumor and vessel characterization comparable to cross-sectional imaging so that this technique is gaining an increasing role in the peri-procedural imaging of HCC treated with interventional techniques.

  5. Lorentz effect imaging of ionic currents in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Trong-Kha; Avram, Alexandru; Song, Allen W.

    2008-03-01

    Current functional MRI techniques relying on hemodynamic modulations are inherently limited in their ability to accurately localize neural activity in space and time. To address these limitations, we previously proposed a novel technique based on the Lorentz effect and demonstrated its ability to directly image minute electrical activity with a millisecond temporal resolution in gel phantoms containing conductive wires as well as in the human median nerve in vivo. To better characterize its contrast mechanism and ultimately further improve its sensitivity for in vivo applications, we now apply this technique to image ionic currents in solution, which serve as a better model for neural conduction in biological systems than the electronic currents in conductive wires used in previous phantom studies. Our results demonstrate that ionic currents with durations and current densities on the same order of magnitude as those induced by neuroelectric activity in nerve fibers and in the brain can be detected.

  6. Comparative performance of image fusion methodologies in eddy current testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thirunavukkarasu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Image fusion methodologies have been studied for improving the detectability of eddy current Nondestructive Testing (NDT. Pixel level image fusion has been performed on C-scan eddy current images of a sub-surface defect at two different frequencies. Multi-resolution analysis based Laplacian pyramid and wavelet fusion methodologies, statistical inference based Bayesian fusion and Principal Component Analysis (PCA based fusion methodologies have been studied towards improving the detectability of defects. The performance of the fusion methodologies has been compared using image metrics such as SNR and entropy. Bayesian based fusion methodology has shown better performance as compared to other methodologies with 33.75 dB improvement in the SNR and an improvement of 3.22 in the entropy.

  7. Document image representation using XML technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kwae, Essam A.; Atmakuri, Kusuma H.

    2001-12-01

    Electronic documents have gained wide acceptance due to the ease of editing and sharing of information. However, paper documents are still widely used in many environments. Moving into a paperless and distributed office has become a major goal for document image research. A new approach for form document representation is presented. This approach allows for electronic document sharing over the World Wide Web (WWW) using Extensible Markup Language (XML) technologies. Each document is mapped into three different views, an XML view to represent the preprinted and filled-in data, an XSL (Extensible style Sheets) view to represent the structure of the document, and a DTD (Document Type Definition) view to represent the document grammar and field constraints. The XML and XSL views are generated from a document template, either automatically using image processing techniques, or semi-automatically with minimal user interaction. The DTD representation may be fixed for general documents or may be generated semi-automatically by mining a number of filled-in document examples. Document templates need to be entered once to create the proposed representation. Afterwards, documents may be displayed, updated, or shared over the web. The merits of this approach are demonstrated using a number of examples of widely used forms.

  8. Geothermal Energy Technology: a current-awareness bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.B. (ed.)

    1983-01-15

    This bulletin announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use either directly or for production of electric power. The subject content encompasses: resource status and assessment, geology and hydrology of geothermal systems, geothermal exploration, legal and institutional aspects, economic and final aspects, environmental aspects and waste disposal, by-products, geothermal power plants, geothermal engineering, direct energy utilization, and geothermal data and theory.

  9. Part 2 -- current program integrating strategies and lubrication technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is the second of two that describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machinery at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The Predictive Maintenance program has been enhanced through organizational changes and improved interdisciplinary usage of technology. This paper will discuss current program strategies that have improved the interaction between the Vibration and Lube Oil programs. The {open_quotes}Lube Oil{close_quotes} view of the combined program along with case studies will then be presented.

  10. CMOS technology and current-feedback op-amps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1993-01-01

    Some of the problems related to the application of CMOS technology to current-feedback operational amplifiers (CFB op-amps) are identified. Problems caused by the low device transconductance and by the absence of matching between p-channel and n-channel transistors are examined, and circuit...... poor performance compared to the bipolar designs, but CMOS has a potential for CFB op-amp design if more ingenious circuit configurations are applied...

  11. The Current Awareness of Radio Frequency Identification Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janák, Erik

    2012-12-01

    The article can be divided into two constituent parts. In the first part is introduced the RFID reference model, which categorizes RFID applications into eight groups. In the second part are thereafter presented the results of the survey of the use of information and communication technologies in Slovak enterprises, which was conducted by the Slovak Statistical Office, as well as the results of own questionnaire survey, which was aimed to determine the level of current awareness of RFID use in Slovakia.

  12. Current situation and development of solar heating technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Ruicheng

    2009-01-01

    It is introduced the current situation and development for solar heating technology including passive solar heat-ing and solar heating combisystems in China in this paper. Combined with the engineering application projects, the au-thor gave the technical and economic analysis of the passive solar and solar heating combisystems in China and summa-rized the developing obstacle and the spreading tactics for raising marketing of the solar heating in China.

  13. Spray drying technique: II. Current applications in pharmaceutical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollohub, Krzysztof; Cal, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    This review presents current applications of spray drying in pharmaceutical technology. The topics discussed include the obtention of excipients and cospray dried composites, methods for increasing the aqueous solubility and bioavailability of active substances, and modified release profiles from spray-dried particles. This review also describes the use of the spray drying technique in the context of biological therapies, such as the spray drying of proteins, inhalable powders, and viable organisms, and the modification of the physical properties of dry plant extracts.

  14. SYRUPS: COMPOSITION, TECHNOLOGY, CURRENT STATE OF RESEARCH (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overview data for the syrups formulation, including syrups for children, with synthetic substances were represented: assortment, composition, technological approach. The advantages and disadvantages of this dosage form were described. Details considered flavoring agents and other auxiliaries (stabilizers, preservatives, thickeners comprising syrups were closely examined. The issues of current research state of syrups for children were described.

  15. The current state of FPGA technology in the nuclear domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, J.

    2012-07-01

    Field programmable gate arrays are a form of programmable electronic device used in various applications including automation systems. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of FPGA-based systems also for safety automation of nuclear power plants. The interest is driven by the need for reliable new alternatives to replace, on one hand, the aging technology currently in use and, on the other hand, microprocessor and software-based systems, which are seen as overly complex from the safety evaluation point of view. This report presents an overview of FPGA technology, including hardware aspects, the application development process, risks and advantages of the technology, and introduces some of the current systems. FPGAs contain an interesting combination of features from software-based and fully hardware-based systems. Application development has a great deal in common with software development, but the final product is a hardware component without the operating system and other platform functions on which software would execute. Currently the number of FPGA-based applications used for safety functions of nuclear power plants is rather limited, but it is growing. So far there is little experience or common solid understanding between different parties on how FPGAs should be evaluated and handled in the licensing process. (orig.)

  16. Modern imaging technologies in toxicologic pathology: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiaoyou; Monticello, Thomas M

    2006-01-01

    Modern imaging technology, now utilized in most biomedical research areas (bioimaging), enables the detection and visualization of biological processes at various levels of the molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ and/or whole body. In toxicologic pathology, the impact of modern imaging technology is becoming apparent from digital histopathology to novel molecular imaging for in vivo studies. This overview summarizes recent progresses in digital microscopy imaging and newly developed digital slide techniques. Applications of virtual microscopy imaging are discussed and compared to traditional optical microscopy reading. New generation digital pathology approaches, including automatic slide inspection, digital slide databases and image management are briefly introduced. Commonly used in vivo preclinical imaging technologies are also summarized. While most of these new imaging techniques are still undergoing rapid development, it is important that toxicologic pathologists embrace and utilize these technologies as advances occur.

  17. Study on analysis technology of the leakage current from Power facilities by using the laser technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Bin; Lee, Bok Kyu; Ohk, Young Hwan [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Han, Min Koo; Seung, Hwang Bo; Kwack, Hee Ro; Kim, Jae Chul [Electrical Engineering and Science Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    In order to apply the laser technology to the power systems, we widely investigated and analyzed optic fiber technology for signal transmissions, optic-sensor technology for detecting the physical quantum such as mechanical and electrical, and the base technology of laser application. The prototype was designed to detect the whole and the third harmonic current, for the analysis of the leakage current from gapless arrester. Also, the device was designed for portable use and for on-line checking. This prototype enables us to store and analyze the data easily by using the computer. Those stored data can be used as the reference data for estimating the extent of badness by analyzing and evaluating the trend of the leakage current with time. (author). 36 refs., 78 figs.

  18. Radionuclide Imaging Technologies for Biological Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Calvin R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Reid, Chantal D. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Weisenberger, Andrew G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-05-14

    The main objective of this project is to develop technologies and experimental techniques for studying the dynamics of physiological responses of plants to changes in their interface with the local environment and to educate a new generation of scientists in an interdisciplinary environment of biology, physics and engineering. Also an important goal is to perform measurements to demonstrate the new data that can be produced and made available to the plant-biology community using the imaging technologies and experimental techniques developed in this project. The study of the plant-environment interface includes a wide range of topics in plant physiology, e.g., the root-soil interface, resource availability, impact of herbivores, influence of microbes on root surface, and responses to toxins in the air and soil. The initial scientific motivation for our work is to improve understanding of the mechanisms for physiological responses to abrupt changes in the local environment, in particular, the responses that result in short-term adjustments in resource (e.g., sugars, nutrients and water) allocations. Data of time-dependent responses of plants to environmental changes are essential in developing mechanistic models for substance intake and resource allocation. Our approach is to use radioisotope tracing techniques to study whole-plant and plant organ (e.g., leaves, stems, roots) dynamical responses to abrupt changes in environmental conditions such as concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, nutrient availability and lighting. To this aim we are collaborating with the Radiation Detector and Imaging Group at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory Facility (JLab) to develop gamma-ray and beta particle imaging systems optimized for plant studies. The radioisotope tracing measurements are conducted at the Phytotron facility at Duke University. The Phytotron is a controlled environment plant research facility with a variety of plant growth chambers. One chamber

  19. Adrenal lesions encountered in current medical practice − a review of their radiological imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesha Naidu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern radiological technology has transformed the way that adrenal lesions are currently investigated. The contemporary radiologist has been catapulted to the forefront in the management of adrenal disease. With the increasing use of cross-sectional imaging, adrenal lesions are being serendipitously discovered in radiological studies undertaken for non-adrenal-related conditions – the so-called adrenal ‘incidentaloma’. This review discusses the imaging modalities available for characterising these lesions, highlighting current concepts and controversies in differentiating benign from malignant pathology. The article also provides a brief overview of the spectrum of adrenal pathology commonly encountered in the adult population.

  20. Current trends in medical image registration and fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma El-Zahraa Ahmed El-Gamal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, medical image registration and fusion processes are considered as a valuable assistant for the medical experts. The role of these processes arises from their ability to help the experts in the diagnosis, following up the diseases’ evolution, and deciding the necessary therapies regarding the patient’s condition. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to focus on medical image registration as well as medical image fusion. In addition, the paper presents a description of the common diagnostic images along with the main characteristics of each of them. The paper also illustrates most well-known toolkits that have been developed to help the working with the registration and fusion processes. Finally, the paper presents the current challenges associated with working with medical image registration and fusion through illustrating the recent diseases/disorders that were addressed through such an analyzing process.

  1. Multimodal backside imaging of a microcontroller using confocal laser scanning and optical-beam-induced current imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkeldey, Markus; Göring, Lena; Schellenberg, Falk; Brenner, Carsten; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Microscopy imaging with a single technology is usually restricted to a single contrast mechanism. Multimodal imaging is a promising technique to improve the structural information that could be obtained about a device under test (DUT). Due to the different contrast mechanisms of laser scanning microscopy (LSM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and optical beam induced current microscopy (OBICM), a combination could improve the detection of structures in integrated circuits (ICs) and helps to reveal their layout. While OBIC imaging is sensitive to the changes between differently doped areas and to semiconductor-metal transitions, CLSM imaging is mostly sensitive to changes in absorption and reflection. In this work we present the implementation of OBIC imaging into a CLSM. We show first results using industry standard Atmel microcontrollers (MCUs) with a feature size of about 250nm as DUTs. Analyzing these types of microcontrollers helps to improve in the field of side-channel attacks to find hardware Trojans, possible spots for laser fault attacks and for reverse engineering. For the experimental results the DUT is placed on a custom circuit board that allows us to measure the current while imaging it in our in-house built stage scanning microscope using a near infrared (NIR) laser diode as light source. The DUT is thinned and polished, allowing backside imaging through the Si-substrate. We demonstrate the possibilities using this optical setup by evaluating OBIC, LSM and CLSM images above and below the threshold of the laser source.

  2. Dental laboratory technology education in China: current situation and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liwei; Yue, Li; Zhou, Min; Yu, Haiyang

    2013-03-01

    Modern dentistry and dental education in China were first introduced from abroad by Dr. Lindsay in 1907. However, advancements in the field of dental laboratory technology did not occur to the same degree in specialties such as prosthodontics and orthodontics. Since the 1990s, orders from abroad demanding dental appliances surged as the image of China as the "world's factory" strengthened. The assembly line model, in which technicians work like simple procedure workers, was rapidly applied to denture production, while the traditional education system and apprenticeship systems demonstrated little progress in these years. The lack of advancement in dental laboratory technology education caused insufficient development in China's dental technology industry. In order to alter the situation, a four-year dental laboratory technology undergraduate educational program was established in 2005 by West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University (WCSS, SCU). This program was based on SCU's undergraduate education and WCSS's junior college education systems. The program introduced scientific methods in relevant subjects into laboratory technicians' training and made many improvements in the availability of trained faculty, textbooks, laboratory facilities, and curriculum.

  3. The paradox of imaging technology: A review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, F.J. [School of Radiography, University of Wales, Bangor Archimedes Centre, Technology Park, Wrexham LL13 7YP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: f.murphy@bangor.ac.uk

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review the social scientific literature associated with medical imaging technology. Methods: An extensive search of published studies in nursing, psychology and anthropology was undertaken to support the radiography specific literature. Results: Following a broad definition of technology and its profound influence on society, an analysis of imaging literature revealed a complex relationship between technology and human interactions. Examples are cited for CT, MRI and ultrasound. Conclusion: It is suggested that any attempt to understand imaging technology must place at its centre the perspectives of patients and radiographers. Scientific descriptors must be balanced with equal deliberation given to 'soft technology'.

  4. Imaging the pancreas: from ex vivo to non-invasive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, D; Ahlgren, U

    2008-01-01

    While many recently published reviews have covered non-invasive nuclear imaging techniques, the aim of this review is to focus on current developments in optical imaging technologies for investigating the pancreas. Several of these modalities are being developed into non-invasive, real...

  5. Image-Based Vehicle Identification Technology for Homeland Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G A

    2002-10-08

    The threat of terrorist attacks against US civilian populations is a very real, near-term problem that must be addressed, especially in response to possible use of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Several programs are now being funded by the US Government to put into place means by which the effects of a terrorist attack could be averted or limited through the use of sensors and monitoring technology. Specialized systems that detect certain threat materials, while effective within certain performance limits, cannot generally be used efficiently to track a mobile threat such as a vehicle over a large urban area. The key elements of an effective system are an image feature-based vehicle identification technique and a networked sensor system. We have briefly examined current uses of image and feature recognition techniques to the urban tracking problem and set forth the outlines of a proposal for application of LLNL technologies to this critical problem. The primary contributions of the proposed work lie in filling important needs not addressed by the current program: (1) The ability to create vehicle ''fingerprints,'' or feature information from images to allow automatic identification of vehicles. Currently, the analysis task is done entirely by humans. The goal is to aid the analyst by reducing the amount of data he/she must analyze and reduce errors caused by inattention or lack of training. This capability has broad application to problems associated with extraction of useful features from large data sets. (2) Improvements in the effectiveness of LLNL's WATS (Wide Area Tracking System) by providing it accurate threat vehicle location and velocity. Model predictability is likely to be enhanced by use of more information related to different data sets. We believe that the LLNL can accomplish the proposed tasks and enhance the effectiveness of the system now under development.

  6. APPLICATIONS OF CURRENT TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF SPENT FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drayer, R.

    2013-06-09

    Advancements in technology have opened many opportunities to improve upon the current infrastructure surrounding the nuclear fuel cycle. Embedded devices, very small sensors, and wireless technology can be applied to Security, Safety, and Nonproliferation of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Security, separate of current video monitoring systems, can be improved by integrating current wireless technology with a variety of sensors including motion detection, altimeter, accelerometer, and a tagging system. By continually monitoring these sensors, thresholds can be set to sense deviations from nominal values. Then alarms or notifications can be activated as needed. Safety can be improved in several ways. First, human exposure to ionizing radiation can be reduced by using a wireless sensor package on each spent fuel cask to monitor radiation, temperature, humidity, etc. Since the sensor data is monitored remotely operator stay-time is decreased and distance from the spent fuel increased, so the overall radiation exposure is reduced as compared to visual inspections. The second improvement is the ability to monitor continuously rather than periodically. If changes occur to the material, alarm thresholds could be set and notifications made to provide advanced notice of negative data trends. These sensor packages could also record data to be used for scientific evaluation and studies to improve transportation and storage safety. Nonproliferation can be improved for spent fuel transportation and storage by designing an integrated tag that uses current infrastructure for reporting and in an event; tracking can be accomplished using the Iridium satellite system. This technology is similar to GPS but with higher signal strength and penetration power, but lower accuracy. A sensor package can integrate all or some of the above depending on the transportation and storage requirements and regulations. A sensor package can be developed using off the shelf technology and applying it to each

  7. Clinical application of brain imaging for the diagnosis of mood disorders: the current state of play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, J B; Rauch, S L; Drevets, W C

    2013-05-01

    In response to queries about whether brain imaging technology has reached the point where it is useful for making a clinical diagnosis and for helping to guide treatment selection, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recently written a position paper on the Clinical Application of Brain Imaging in Psychiatry. The following perspective piece is based on our contribution to this APA position paper, which specifically emphasized the application of neuroimaging in mood disorders. We present an introductory overview of the challenges faced by researchers in developing valid and reliable biomarkers for psychiatric disorders, followed by a synopsis of the extant neuroimaging findings in mood disorders, and an evidence-based review of the current research on brain imaging biomarkers in adult mood disorders. Although there are a number of promising results, by the standards proposed below, we argue that there are currently no brain imaging biomarkers that are clinically useful for establishing diagnosis or predicting treatment outcome in mood disorders.

  8. Lessons from the masters current concepts in astronomical image processing

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    There are currently thousands of amateur astronomers around the world engaged in astrophotography at increasingly sophisticated levels. Their ranks far outnumber professional astronomers doing the same and their contributions both technically and artistically are the dominant drivers of progress in the field today. This book is a unique collaboration of individuals, all world-renowned in their particular area, and covers in detail each of the major sub-disciplines of astrophotography. This approach offers the reader the greatest opportunity to learn the most current information and the latest techniques directly from the foremost innovators in the field today.   The book as a whole covers all types of astronomical image processing, including processing of eclipses and solar phenomena, extracting detail from deep-sky, planetary, and widefield images, and offers solutions to some of the most challenging and vexing problems in astronomical image processing. Recognized chapter authors include deep sky experts su...

  9. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloska, Stephan P; Wintermark, Max; Engelhorn, Tobias; Fiebach, Jochen B

    2010-03-01

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed.

  10. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloska, Stephan P. [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Engelhorn, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Fiebach, Jochen B. [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed. (orig.)

  11. A Survey of Current Rotorcraft Propulsion Health Monitoring Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    A brief review is presented on the state-of-the-art in rotorcraft engine health monitoring technologies including summaries on current practices in the area of sensors, data acquisition, monitoring and analysis. Also, presented are guidelines for verification and validation of Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) and specifically for maintenance credits to extend part life. Finally, a number of new efforts in HUMS are summarized as well as lessons learned and future challenges. In particular, gaps are identified to supporting maintenance credits to extend rotorcraft engine part life. A number of data sources were consulted and include results from a survey from the HUMS community, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) documents, American Helicopter Society (AHS) papers, as well as references from Defence Science & Technology Organization (DSTO), Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  12. A Vision of Quantitative Imaging Technology for Validation of Advanced Flight Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Kerns, Robert V.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Grinstead, Jay H.; Schwartz, Richard J.; Gibson, David M.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Tack, Steve; Dantowitz, Ronald F.

    2011-01-01

    Flight-testing is traditionally an expensive but critical element in the development and ultimate validation and certification of technologies destined for future operational capabilities. Measurements obtained in relevant flight environments also provide unique opportunities to observe flow phenomenon that are often beyond the capabilities of ground testing facilities and computational tools to simulate or duplicate. However, the challenges of minimizing vehicle weight and internal complexity as well as instrumentation bandwidth limitations often restrict the ability to make high-density, in-situ measurements with discrete sensors. Remote imaging offers a potential opportunity to noninvasively obtain such flight data in a complementary fashion. The NASA Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements Project has demonstrated such a capability to obtain calibrated thermal imagery on a hypersonic vehicle in flight. Through the application of existing and accessible technologies, the acreage surface temperature of the Shuttle lower surface was measured during reentry. Future hypersonic cruise vehicles, launcher configurations and reentry vehicles will, however, challenge current remote imaging capability. As NASA embarks on the design and deployment of a new Space Launch System architecture for access beyond earth orbit (and the commercial sector focused on low earth orbit), an opportunity exists to implement an imagery system and its supporting infrastructure that provides sufficient flexibility to incorporate changing technology to address the future needs of the flight test community. A long term vision is offered that supports the application of advanced multi-waveband sensing technology to aid in the development of future aerospace systems and critical technologies to enable highly responsive vehicle operations across the aerospace continuum, spanning launch, reusable space access and global reach. Motivations for development of an Agency level imagery

  13. The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator: current technology and evolving indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reek, Sven; Burri, Haran; Roberts, Paul R; Perings, Christian; Epstein, Andrew E; Klein, Helmut U

    2016-10-04

    The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator has been available for over a decade and now is frequently prescribed for patients deemed at high arrhythmic risk in whom the underlying pathology is potentially reversible or who are awaiting an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. The use of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator is included in the new 2015 ESC guidelines for the management of ventricular arrhythmias and prevention of sudden cardiac death. The present review provides insight into the current technology and an overview of this approach.

  14. Computational methods in molecular imaging technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gunjan, Vinit Kumar; Venkatesh, C; Amarnath, M

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the experimental investigations that have been carried out on magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (MRI & CT) images using state-of-the-art Computational Image processing techniques, and tabulates the statistical values wherever necessary. In a very simple and straightforward way, it explains how image processing methods are used to improve the quality of medical images and facilitate analysis. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, medical doctors and bioinformatics experts alike.

  15. Radiotracers for SPECT imaging. Current scenario and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adak, S.; Vijaya Raj, K.K.; Mandal, S. [GE Healthcare Medical Diagnostics, John F. Welch Technology Center, Bangalore (India).; Bhalla, R.; Pickett, R.; Luthra, S.K. [GE Healthcare Medical Diagnostics, The Grove Centre, Amersham (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been the cornerstone of nuclear medicine and today it is widely used to detect molecular changes in cardiovascular, neurological and oncological diseases. While SPECT has been available since the 1980s, advances in instrumentation hardware, software and the availability of new radiotracers that are creating a revival in SPECT imaging are reviewed in this paper. The biggest change in the last decade has been the fusion of CT with SPECT, which has improved attenuation correction and image quality. Advances in collimator design, replacement of sodium iodide crystals in the detectors with cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors as well as advances in software and reconstruction algorithms have all helped to retain SPECT as a much needed and used technology. Today, a wide spectrum of radiotracers is available for use in cardiovascular, neurology and oncology applications. The development of several radiotracers for neurological disorders is briefly described in this review, including [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN trademark) available for Parkinson's disease. In cardiology, while technetium-99m labeled tetrofosmin and technetium-99m labeled sestamibi have been well known for myocardial perfusion imaging, we describe a recently completed multicenter clinical study on the use of [{sup 123}I]mIBG (AdreView trademark) for imaging in chronic heart failure patients. For oncology, while bone scanning has been prevalent, newer radiotracers that target cancer mechanisms are being developed. Technetium-99m labeled RGD peptides have been reported in the literature that can be used for imaging angiogenesis, while technetium-99m labeled duramycin has been used to image apoptosis. While PET/CT is considered to be the more advanced technology particularly for oncology applications, SPECT continues to be the modality of choice and the workhorse in many hospitals and nuclear medicine centers. The cost of SPECT instruments also

  16. Aircraft corrosion and crack inspection using advanced magneto-optic imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, David K.; Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.; Skaugset, Richard L.; Shih, William C.

    1996-11-01

    A next generation magneto-optic imaging system, the MOI 303, has recently been introduced with the ability to generate real-time, complete, 2D eddy current images of cracks and corrosion in aircraft. The new imaging system described features advanced, digital remote control operation and on- screen display of setup parameters for ease of use. This instrument gives the inspector the capability to more rapidly scan large surfaces areas. The magneto-optic/eddy current imaging technology has already been formally approved for inspection of surface cracking on an aircraft fuselage. The improved magneto-optic imager is now poised to aid rapid inspection for corrosion and subsurface cracking. Previous magneto-optic imaging systems required the inspector to scan the surface twice for complete inspection coverage: a second scan was necessary with the imager rotated about 90 degrees from the orientation of the first pass. However, by providing eddy current excitation simultaneously from two orthogonal directions, complete, filled-in magneto-optic images are now generated regardless of the orientation of the imager. THese images are considerably easier to interpret and evaluate. In addition, there is a synergism obtained in applying eddy current excitation simultaneously in multiple directions: better penetration is obtained and the resulting images have better signal to noise levels compared to those produced with eddy current excitation applied only in one direction. Examples of these improved images are presented.

  17. Current and Emerging Technology for Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has become a leading cause of death worldwide. Although there is no cure for diabetes, blood glucose monitoring combined with appropriate medication can enhance treatment efficiency, alleviate the symptoms, as well as diminish the complications. For point-of-care purposes, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM devices are considered to be the best candidates for diabetes therapy. This review focuses on current growth areas of CGM technologies, specifically focusing on subcutaneous implantable electrochemical glucose sensors. The superiority of CGM systems is introduced firstly, and then the strategies for fabrication of minimally-invasive and non-invasive CGM biosensors are discussed, respectively. Finally, we briefly outline the current status and future perspective for CGM systems.

  18. Creation of positive image in small business as social technology

    OpenAIRE

    Bokareva V. B.

    2011-01-01

    Article purpose is the analysis of creation of positive image in small-scale business as social technology. Problems: to make definition of small-scale business and social technologies; to allocate intrinsic characteristics of social technologies; to define technolozation process of formation of image. The practical importance of article consists in possibility of application of the resulted recommendations in practice of social management by small-scale business.

  19. Current status of radionuclide imaging in valvular heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Pohost, G.M.

    1980-12-18

    The current state-of-the-art in radionuclide imaging of valvular heart disease is based on different angiographic patterns in three left-sided valve abnormalities: pressure overload, volume overload, and inflow obstruction. In pressure overload, the left ventricle has normal dimensions or is minimally dilated the volume overload involves a left ventricular dilatation with a normal or reduced ejection fraction at rest the left ventricular function in inflow obstruction is normal, but in some cases may be depressed. Radionuclide angiography evaluates the effect of a valve abnormality on cardiac chamber and function thallium-201 imaging diagnoses regional myocardial blood flow and cell integrity and can evaluate the associated coronary artery disease.

  20. Current Status on Resource and Recycling Technology for Rare Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Osamu; Okabe, Toru H.

    2014-06-01

    The development of recycling technologies for rare earths is essential for resource security and supply stability because high-quality rare earth mines are concentrated in China and the demand for rare earth metals such as neodymium and dysprosium, used as raw materials in permanent magnets (neodymium magnet), is expected to increase rapidly in the near future. It is also important to establish a recycling-based society from the perspective of the conservation of finite and valuable mineral resources and the reduction of the environmental load associated with mining and smelting. In this article, the current status of rare earth resource as well as that of recycling technology for the magnets is reviewed. The importance of establishing an efficient recycling process for rare earths is discussed from the characteristics of supply chain of rare earths, and the technological bases of the recycling processes for the magnet are introduced. Further, some fundamental researches on the development of new recycling processes based on pyrometallurgical process are introduced, and the features of the recycling processes are evaluated.

  1. Image analysis technique applied to lock-exchange gravity currents

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Helena; Adduce, Claudia; Alves, Elsa; Franca, Rodrigues Pereira Da; Jorge, Mario

    2013-01-01

    An image analysis technique is used to estimate the two-dimensional instantaneous density field of unsteady gravity currents produced by full-depth lock-release of saline water. An experiment reproducing a gravity current was performed in a 3.0 m long, 0.20 m wide and 0.30 m deep Perspex flume with horizontal smooth bed and recorded with a 25 Hz CCD video camera under controlled light conditions. Using dye concentration as a tracer, a calibration procedure was established for each pixel in th...

  2. Current status and potential perspectives in classical radiotherapy technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabić-Stanković Kata M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and potentials of classical radiotherapy After purchase of radiotherapy equipment in 2003, classic radiation therapy in Serbia will reach the highest world level. In order to define the highest standards in radiation technology, we analyzed the current status and potential perspectives of radiation therapy. Technological levels of radiotherapy in developed countries An analysis of present situation in the USA, assumed as the most developed in the world, was done. Available data, collected in the last 3 years (equipment assortment, therapy modalities, workload and manpower for 284 radiotherapy centers, out of potential 2050, were analyzed. Results were presented as crude percentage and mached to point current status. Results of analysis and discussion The analysis showed that CLINAC accelerators are the most popular (82.7%, as well as, ADAC (43.7% and Focus (CMS (27.4% systems for therapy planning. Movement towards virtual simulation is evident (59.3%, although classic ”simulation” is not fully eliminated from the radiotherapy chain. The most popular brachytherapy afterloader is Microselectron HDR (71%. About 64.4% centers use IMPAC communication/verification/record system that seems more open than Varis. All centers practice modern radiotherapy modalities and techniques (CFRT, IMRT, SRS/SRT, TBI, IORT, IVBHRT, HDR BHRT, etc.. CT and MRI availability is out of question, but PET is available in 3% of centers, however this percentage is rapidly growing. Up to 350 new patients per year are treated by one accelerator (about 35 pts. a day. Centers are relatively small and utilize 2-3 accelerators on average. Average FTE staffing norm is 4 radiation oncologists, 2-3 medical radiotherapy physicists, about 3 certified medical dosimetrists and about 6 radiotherapy technologists. Technological aspects and conclusion In the past 5 years relative stagnation in classic radiotherapy has been observed. In spite of substantial investments in

  3. Autonomous vision networking: miniature wireless sensor networks with imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Gioia; Goldberg, Giora

    2006-09-01

    The recent emergence of integrated PicoRadio technology, the rise of low power, low cost, System-On-Chip (SOC) CMOS imagers, coupled with the fast evolution of networking protocols and digital signal processing (DSP), created a unique opportunity to achieve the goal of deploying large-scale, low cost, intelligent, ultra-low power distributed wireless sensor networks for the visualization of the environment. Of all sensors, vision is the most desired, but its applications in distributed sensor networks have been elusive so far. Not any more. The practicality and viability of ultra-low power vision networking has been proven and its applications are countless, from security, and chemical analysis to industrial monitoring, asset tracking and visual recognition, vision networking represents a truly disruptive technology applicable to many industries. The presentation discusses some of the critical components and technologies necessary to make these networks and products affordable and ubiquitous - specifically PicoRadios, CMOS imagers, imaging DSP, networking and overall wireless sensor network (WSN) system concepts. The paradigm shift, from large, centralized and expensive sensor platforms, to small, low cost, distributed, sensor networks, is possible due to the emergence and convergence of a few innovative technologies. Avaak has developed a vision network that is aided by other sensors such as motion, acoustic and magnetic, and plans to deploy it for use in military and commercial applications. In comparison to other sensors, imagers produce large data files that require pre-processing and a certain level of compression before these are transmitted to a network server, in order to minimize the load on the network. Some of the most innovative chemical detectors currently in development are based on sensors that change color or pattern in the presence of the desired analytes. These changes are easily recorded and analyzed by a CMOS imager and an on-board DSP processor

  4. Current imaging strategies for the evaluation of uterine cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgioti, Charis; Chatoupis, Konstantinos; Moulopoulos, Lia Angela

    2016-04-28

    Uterine cervical cancer still remains an important socioeconomic issue because it largely affects women of reproductive age. Prognosis is highly depended on extent of the disease at diagnosis and, therefore, accurate staging is crucial for optimal management. Cervical cancer is clinically staged, according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics guidelines, but, currently, there is increased use of cross sectional imaging modalities [computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT)] for the study of important prognostic factors like tumor size, parametrial invasion, endocervical extension, pelvic side wall or adjacent/distal organs involvement and lymph node status. Imaging indications also include cervical cancer follow-up, evaluation of tumor response to treatment and selection of suitable candidates for less radical surgeries like radical trachelectomy for fertility preservation. The preferred imaging method for local cervical cancer evaluation is MRI; CT is equally effective for evaluation of extrauterine spread of the disease. PET-CT shows high diagnostic performance for the detection of tumor relapse and metastatic lymph nodes. The aim of this review is to familiarize radiologists with the MRI appearance of cervical carcinoma and to discuss the indications of cross sectional imaging during the course of the disease in patients with cervical carcinoma.

  5. Current imaging strategies for the evaluation of uterine cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charis Bourgioti; Konstantinos Chatoupis; Lia Angela Moulopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer still remains an important socioeconomic issue because it largely affects women of reproductive age.Prognosis is highly depended on extent of the disease at diagnosis and,therefore,accurate staging is crucial for optimal management.Cervical cancer is clinically staged,according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics guidelines,but,currently,there is increased use of cross sectional imaging modalities [computed tomography(CT),magnetic resonance imaging(MRI),positron emission tomography-CT(PET-CT)] for the study of important prognostic factors like tumor size,parametrial invasion,endocervical extension,pelvic side wall or adjacent/distal organs involvement and lymph node status.Imaging indications also include cervical cancer follow-up,evaluation of tumor response to treatment and selection of suitable candidates for less radical surgeries like radical trachelectomy for fertility preservation.The preferred imaging method for local cervical cancer evaluation is MRI;CT is equally effective for evaluation of extrauterine spread of the disease.PETCT shows high diagnostic performance for the detection of tumor relapse and metastatic lymph nodes.The aim of this review is to familiarize radiologists with the MRI appearance of cervical carcinoma and to discuss the indications of cross sectional imaging during the course of the disease in patients with cervical carcinoma.

  6. Current and future assisted reproductive technologies for mammalian farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction in domestic animals is under control by man and the technologies developed to facilitate that control have a major impact on the efficiency of food production. Reproduction is an energy-intensive process. In beef cattle, for example, over 50 % of the total feed consumption required to produce a unit of meat protein is consumed by the dam of the meat animal (Anim Prod 27:367-379, 1978). Sows are responsible for about 20 % of the total feed needed to produce animals for slaughter (Adv Pork Prod 19:223-237, 2008). Accordingly, energy input to produce food from animal sources is reduced by increasing number of offspring per unit time a breeding female is in the herd. Using beef cattle as an example again, life-cycle efficiency for production of weaned calves is positively related to early age at puberty and short calving intervals (J Anim Sci 57:852-866, 1983). Reproductive technologies also dictate the strategies that can be used to select animals genetically for traits that improve production. Of critical importance has been artificial insemination (AI) (Anim Reprod Sci 62:143-172, 2000; Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci 38:411-441, 2007; Reprod Domest Anim 43:379-385, 2008; J Dairy Sci 92:5814-5833, 2009) and, as will be outlined in this chapter, emerging technologies offer additional opportunities for improvements in genetic selection. Given the central role of reproduction as a determinant of production efficiency and in genetic selection, improvements in reproductive technologies will be crucial to meeting the challenges created by the anticipated increases in world population (from seven billion people in 2011 to an anticipated nine billion by 2050; World population prospects: the 2010 revision, highlights and advance tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.220, New York) and by difficulties in livestock production wrought by climate change (SAT eJournal 4:1-23, 2007).The purpose of this chapter will be to highlight current and emerging reproductive

  7. Beyond the image machine a history of visual technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, David

    2004-01-01

    Beyond the Image Machine is an eloquent and stimulating argument for an alternative history of scientific and technological imaging systems. Drawing on a range of hitherto and marginalised examples from the world of visual representation and the work of key theorists and thinkers, such as Latour, de Certeau, McLuhan and Barthes, David Tomas offers a disarticulated and deviant view of the relationship between archaic and new representations, imaging technologies and media induced experience. Rejecting the possibility of absolute forms of knowledge, Tomas shows how new media technologies have ch

  8. Current state-of-the-art and future perspectives of robotic technology in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Tobias A; Rodriguez, Abraham Hafiz; Sambhara, Deepak; Mendel, Ehud

    2014-07-01

    Neurosurgery is one of the most demanding surgical specialties in terms of precision requirements and surgical field limitations. Recent advancements in robotic technology have generated the possibility of incorporating advanced technological tools to the neurosurgical operating room. Although previous studies have addressed the specific details of new robotic systems, there is very little literature on the strengths and drawbacks of past attempts, currently available platforms and prototypes in development. In this review, the authors present a critical historical analysis of the development of robotic technology in neurosurgery as well as a comprehensive summary of the currently available systems that can be expected to be incorporated to the neurosurgical armamentarium in the near future. Finally, the authors present a critical analysis of the main technical challenges in robotic technology development at the present time (such as the design of improved systems for haptic feedback and the necessity of incorporating intraoperative imaging data) as well as the benefits which robotic technology is expected to bring to specific neurosurgical subspecialties in the near future.

  9. CURRENT TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATIONS IN FREEZE SHAFT SINKING IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铭; 翁家杰; 夏正明

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives a brief review of the development of shaft sinking by artificial ground freezing since 1949 when new China was founded. Several shaft freezing schemes which have been successfully applied from the economic and safe viewpoints are presented. Current technology and some innovative techniques,especially the shah lining which have experienced major improvements over the last four decades,are briefly reviewed. The technique of the in-situ pour concrete incorporating ailica fume with higher early strength under low temperature curing conditions is described. The temperature field in shah freezing and its finite difference solution are given in this paper. A recently developed method combining freeze wall model test with back analysis technique based on numerical simulation is also described.

  10. Indian fast reactor technology: Current status and future programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Chetal; P Chellapandi

    2013-10-01

    The paper brings out the advantages of fast breeder reactor and importance of developing closed nuclear fuel cycle for the large scale energy production, which is followed by its salient safety features. Further, the current status and future strategy of the fast reactor programme since the inception through 40 MWt/13 MWe Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), is highlighted. The challenges and achievements in science and technology of FBRs focusing on safety are described with the particular reference to 500 MWe capacity Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), being commissioned at Kalpakkam. Roadmap with comprehensive R&D for the large scale deployment of Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFRs) and timely introduction of metallic fuel reactors with emphasis on breeding gain and enhanced safety are being brought out in this paper.

  11. Robotic technology in spine surgery: current applications and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stüer, Carsten; Ringel, Florian; Stoffel, Michael; Reinke, Andreas; Behr, Michael; Meyer, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Medical robotics incrementally appears compelling in nowadays surgical work. The research regarding an ideal interaction between physician and computer assistance has reached a first summit with the implementation of commercially available robots (Intuitive Surgical's® da Vinci®). Moreover, neurosurgery--and herein spine surgery--seems an ideal candidate for computer assisted surgery. After the adoption of pure navigational support from brain surgery to spine surgery a meanwhile commercially available miniature robot (Mazor Surgical Technologies' The Spine Assist®) assists in drilling thoracic and lumbar pedicle screws. Pilot studies on efficacy, implementation into neurosurgical operating room work flow proved the accuracy of the system and we shortly outline them. Current applications are promising, and future possible developments seem far beyond imagination. But still, medical robotics is in its infancy. Many of its advantages and disadvantages must be delicately sorted out as the patients safety is of highest priority. Medical robots may achieve a physician's supplement but not substitute.

  12. Current Technological Improvements in Enzymes toward Their Biotechnological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baweja, Mehak; Nain, Lata; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes from extremophiles are creating interest among researchers due to their unique properties and the enormous power of catalysis at extreme conditions. Since community demands are getting more intensified, therefore, researchers are applying various approaches viz. metagenomics to increase the database of extremophilic species. Furthermore, the innovations are being made in the naturally occurring enzymes utilizing various tools of recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering, which allows redesigning of the enzymes for its better fitment into the process. In this review, we discuss the biochemical constraints of psychrophiles during survival at the lower temperature. We summarize the current knowledge about the sources of such enzymes and their in vitro modification through mutagenesis to explore their biotechnological potential. Finally, we recap the microbial cell surface display to enhance the efficiency of the process in cost effective way. PMID:27379087

  13. Current and future trends in marine image annotation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Pereira, Jose Nuno; Auger, Vincent; Beisiegel, Kolja; Benjamin, Robert; Bergmann, Melanie; Bowden, David; Buhl-Mortensen, Pal; De Leo, Fabio C.; Dionísio, Gisela; Durden, Jennifer M.; Edwards, Luke; Friedman, Ariell; Greinert, Jens; Jacobsen-Stout, Nancy; Lerner, Steve; Leslie, Murray; Nattkemper, Tim W.; Sameoto, Jessica A.; Schoening, Timm; Schouten, Ronald; Seager, James; Singh, Hanumant; Soubigou, Olivier; Tojeira, Inês; van den Beld, Inge; Dias, Frederico; Tempera, Fernando; Santos, Ricardo S.

    2016-12-01

    Given the need to describe, analyze and index large quantities of marine imagery data for exploration and monitoring activities, a range of specialized image annotation tools have been developed worldwide. Image annotation - the process of transposing objects or events represented in a video or still image to the semantic level, may involve human interactions and computer-assisted solutions. Marine image annotation software (MIAS) have enabled over 500 publications to date. We review the functioning, application trends and developments, by comparing general and advanced features of 23 different tools utilized in underwater image analysis. MIAS requiring human input are basically a graphical user interface, with a video player or image browser that recognizes a specific time code or image code, allowing to log events in a time-stamped (and/or geo-referenced) manner. MIAS differ from similar software by the capability of integrating data associated to video collection, the most simple being the position coordinates of the video recording platform. MIAS have three main characteristics: annotating events in real time, posteriorly to annotation and interact with a database. These range from simple annotation interfaces, to full onboard data management systems, with a variety of toolboxes. Advanced packages allow to input and display data from multiple sensors or multiple annotators via intranet or internet. Posterior human-mediated annotation often include tools for data display and image analysis, e.g. length, area, image segmentation, point count; and in a few cases the possibility of browsing and editing previous dive logs or to analyze the annotations. The interaction with a database allows the automatic integration of annotations from different surveys, repeated annotation and collaborative annotation of shared datasets, browsing and querying of data. Progress in the field of automated annotation is mostly in post processing, for stable platforms or still images

  14. Clinical applications of choroidal imaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chhablani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroid supplies the major blood supply to the eye, especially the outer retinal structures. Its understanding has significantly improved with the advent of advanced imaging modalities such as enhanced depth imaging technique and the newer swept source optical coherence tomography. Recent literature reports the findings of choroidal changes, quantitative as well as qualitative, in various chorioretinal disorders. This review article describes applications of choroidal imaging in the management of common diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, high myopia, central serous chorioretinopathy, chorioretinal inflammatory diseases, and tumors. This article briefly discusses future directions in choroidal imaging including angiography.

  15. Current and long-term technologies of laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulashcyk, Vladimir S.; Volotovskaya, Anna V.

    2007-06-01

    Laser therapy, using low-energy laser radiation, is being more and more applied. The most applied technology is transcutaneous radiation of tissues by laser radiation. Originally, a direct action on a pathological site was mostly used, but recently more attention is given to reflexogenic areas, acupuncture points, and endocrine organ projection sites. The development of light-conductive engineering made it possible to practically apply intraorgan laser therapy. This technology is widely spread in gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, urology, gastroenterology, etc. Close to it are different versions of intratissue laser therapy (intraosteal, periosteal, myofascial). A special kind of laser therapy is laser hemotherapy. Depending on the techniques and protocol of its application, there are extracorporeal, intravascular, and supravenous ways of action. According to our comparative investigations, supravenous hemotherapy by its therapeutic efficacy and major medicinal effects can be well compared with intravascular laser hemotherapy. With good prospects and efficiency is laser therapy as a combination of laser and other physical factors. Magnetolaser therapy has been scientifically substantiated and practically applied so far. Theoretically and experimentally substantiated is a combined application of laser radiation and physical factors such as ultrasound, direct current field, vacuum, cryotherapy, etc. Experimental research and few so far clinical observations are indicative of prospects of a complex application of laser radiation and drugs. To improve light absorption, laser radiation is combined with different dyes. Photodynamic therapy, originally used in oncology, is applied today in treating different diseases. We showed a possibility of using a number of drugs possessing simultaneously photosensitizing properties to this end. Laser radiation significantly influences pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, which gives reason to practically implement laser

  16. Additive Technology: Update on Current Materials and Applications in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazanchi, Abdullah; Li, Kai Chun; Al-Amleh, Basil; Lyons, Karl; Waddell, J Neil

    2017-02-01

    Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is becoming an alternative to subtractive manufacturing or milling in the area of computer-aided manufacturing. Research on material for use in additive manufacturing is ongoing, and a wide variety of materials are being used or developed for use in dentistry. Some materials, however, such as cobalt chromium, still lack sufficient research to allow definite conclusions about the suitability of their use in clinical dental practice. Despite this, due to the wide variety of machines that use additive manufacturing, there is much more flexibility in the build material and geometry when building structures compared with subtractive manufacturing. Overall additive manufacturing produces little material waste and is energy efficient when compared to subtractive manufacturing, due to passivity and the additive layering nature of the build process. Such features make the technique suitable to be used with fabricating structures out of hard to handle materials such as cobalt chromium. The main limitations of this technology include the appearance of steps due to layering of material and difficulty in fabricating certain material generally used in dentistry for use in 3D printing such as ceramics. The current pace of technological development, however, promises exciting possibilities. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  17. Exact temporal eddy current compensation in magnetic resonance imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morich, M A; Lampman, D A; Dannels, W R; Goldie, F D

    1988-01-01

    A step-response method has been developed to extract the properties (amplitudes and decay time constants) of intrinsic-eddy-current-sourced magnetic fields generated in whole-body magnetic resonance imaging systems when pulsed field gradients are applied. Exact compensation for the eddy-current effect is achieved through a polynomial rooting procedure and matrix inversion once the 2 N properties of the N-term decay process are known. The output of the inversion procedure yields the required characteristics of the filter for spectrum magnitude and phase equalization. The method is described for the general case along with experimental results for one-, two-, and three-term inversions. The method's usefulness is demonstrated for the usually difficult case of long-term (200-1000-ms) eddy-current compensation. Field-gradient spectral flatness measurements over 30 mHz-100 Hz are given to validate the method.

  18. Wind turbines: current status, obstacles, trends and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, E. I.; Botsaris, P. N.

    2016-11-01

    The last decade the installation of wind farms around the world is spreading rapidly and wind energy has become a significant factor for promoting sustainable development. The scope of the present study is to indicate the present status of global wind power expansion as well as the current state of the art in the field of wind turbine technology. The RAM (reliability/availability/maintenance) section is also examined and the Levelized Cost of Energy for onshore/ offshore electricity production is presented. Negative consequences that go with the rapid expansion of wind power like accidents, environmental effects, etc. are highlighted. Especially visual impact to the landscape and noise pollution are some factors that provoke social reactions. Moreover, the complicated and long permitted process of a wind power plant, the high capital cost of the investment and the grid instability due to the intermittent nature of wind, are also significant obstacles in the development of the wind energy production. The current trends in the field of research and development of onshore and offshore wind power production are analyzed. Finally the present study is trying to achieve an estimation of where the wind industry targets for the years to come.

  19. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  20. Spectroscopic imaging technologies for online food safety and sanitation inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, ARS, USDA is one of the leading groups for the development of optoelectronic sensing technologies and methodologies for food quality, safety, and sanitation inspection. High throughput hyperspectral and multispectral imaging techniques use Ram...

  1. A survey of passive technology for digital image forensics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Weiqi; QU Zhenhua; PAN Feng; HUANG Jiwu

    2007-01-01

    Over the past years,digital images have been widely used in the Internet and other applications.Whilst image processing techniques are developing at a rapid speed,tampering with digital images without leaving any obvious traces becomes easier and easier.This may give rise to some problems such as image authentication.A new passive technology for image forensics has evolved quickly during the last few years.Unlike the signature-based or watermark-based methods,the new technology does not need any signature generated or watermark embedded in advance,it assumes that different imaging devices or processing would introduce different inherent patterns into the output images.These underlying patterns are consistent in the original untampered images and would be altered after some kind of manipulations.Thus,they can be used as evidence for image source identification and alteration detection.In this paper,we will discuss this new forensics technology and give an overview of the prior literatures.Some concluding remarks are made about the state of the art and the challenges in this novel technology.

  2. Image Restoration Technology Based on Discrete Neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Duoying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of computer science and technology, the development of artificial intelligence advances rapidly in the field of image restoration. Based on the MATLAB platform, this paper constructs a kind of image restoration technology of artificial intelligence based on the discrete neural network and feedforward network, and carries out simulation and contrast of the restoration process by the use of the bionic algorithm. Through the application of simulation restoration technology, this paper verifies that the discrete neural network has a good convergence and identification capability in the image restoration technology with a better effect than that of the feedforward network. The restoration technology based on the discrete neural network can provide a reliable mathematical model for this field.

  3. Imaging fast calcium currents beyond the limitations of electrode techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafari, Nadia; De Waard, Michel; Canepari, Marco

    2014-09-16

    The current understanding of Ca(2+) channel function is derived from the use of the patch-clamp technique. In particular, the measurement of fast cellular Ca(2+) currents is routinely achieved using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings. However, this experimental approach is not applicable to the study of local native Ca(2+) channels during physiological changes of membrane potential in complex cells, since the voltage-clamp configuration constrains the membrane potential to a given value. Here, we report for the first time to our knowledge that Ca(2+) currents from individual cells can be quantitatively measured beyond the limitations of the voltage-clamp approach using fast Ca(2+) imaging with low-affinity indicators. The optical measurement of the Ca(2+) current was correlated with the membrane potential, simultaneously measured with a voltage-sensitive dye to investigate the activation of Ca(2+) channels along the apical dendrite of the CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neuron during the back-propagation of an action potential. To validate the method, we analyzed the voltage dependence of high- and low-voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. In particular, we measured the Ca(2+) current component mediated by T-type channels, and we investigated the mechanisms of recovery from inactivation of these channels. This method is expected to become a reference approach to investigate Ca(2+) channels in their native physiological environment.

  4. VTT's Fabry-Perot interferometer technologies for hyperspectral imaging and mobile sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Anna; Guo, Bin; Saari, Heikki; Näsilä, Antti; Mannila, Rami; Akujärvi, Altti; Ojanen, Harri

    2017-02-01

    VTT's Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPI) technology enables creation of small and cost-efficient microspectrometers and hyperspectral imagers - these robust and light-weight sensors are currently finding their way into a variety of novel applications, including emerging medical products, automotive sensors, space instruments and mobile sensing devices. This presentation gives an overview of our core FPI technologies with current advances in generation of novel sensing applications including recent mobile technology demonstrators of a hyperspectral iPhone and a mobile phone CO2 sensor, which aim to advance mobile spectroscopic sensing.

  5. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyu Sup; Choi, Young Min

    2015-03-01

    Great advances have been made in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby was born in Korea. This study was designed to report on the current status of ART therapy in South Korea between January 1 and December 31 of 2010. A revised survey, originally developed by the International Committee Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies, was sent to all available ART centers via email in 2013. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized into standard IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injections. These cases, the thawing embryo transfer (TET) cases, and other related procedures were surveyed. Data from 30,785 ART procedures were provided by 78 clinics. Of the 28,200 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, 92.2% of these cycles were completely transferred. In addition, 8,075 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, which represent a pregnancy rate of 28.6% per oocyte pick-up and 31.1% per embryo transfer. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET was three embryos (37.3%) followed by two embryos (36.3%) and one embryo (14.0%). Of the 6,648 TET cycles transferred, 2,356 clinical pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography. The most common number of embryos in the TET group was two embryos (43.4%) followed by three embryos (25.4%) and one embryo (18.9%). The clinical pregnancy rate per transfer in the FET cycles was similar in 2009 and 2010. Among the FET cycles where one or two embryos were transferred, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer slightly increased from 2009 (28.7%) to 2010 (32.9%).

  6. Magnetic particle imaging: current developments and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotopoulos N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos,1 Robert L Duschka,1 Mandy Ahlborg,2 Gael Bringout,2 Christina Debbeler,2 Matthias Graeser,2 Christian Kaethner,2 Kerstin Lüdtke-Buzug,2 Hanne Medimagh,2 Jan Stelzner,2 Thorsten M Buzug,2 Jörg Barkhausen,1 Florian M Vogt,1 Julian Haegele1 1Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Lübeck, 2Institute of Medical Engineering, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany Abstract: Magnetic particle imaging (MPI is a novel imaging method that was first proposed by Gleich and Weizenecker in 2005. Applying static and dynamic magnetic fields, MPI exploits the unique characteristics of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs. The SPIONs’ response allows a three-dimensional visualization of their distribution in space with a superb contrast, a very high temporal and good spatial resolution. Essentially, it is the SPIONs’ superparamagnetic characteristics, the fact that they are magnetically saturable, and the harmonic composition of the SPIONs’ response that make MPI possible at all. As SPIONs are the essential element of MPI, the development of customized nanoparticles is pursued with the greatest effort by many groups. Their objective is the creation of a SPION or a conglomerate of particles that will feature a much higher MPI performance than nanoparticles currently available commercially. A particle’s MPI performance and suitability is characterized by parameters such as the strength of its MPI signal, its biocompatibility, or its pharmacokinetics. Some of the most important adjuster bolts to tune them are the particles’ iron core and hydrodynamic diameter, their anisotropy, the composition of the particles’ suspension, and their coating. As a three-dimensional, real-time imaging modality that is free of ionizing radiation, MPI appears ideally suited for applications such as vascular imaging and interventions as well as cellular and targeted imaging. A number

  7. Image Currents in Azimuthally Inhomogeneous Metallic Beam Pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Palumbo, L; Ruggiero, F

    2001-01-01

    We consider an ultra-relativistic particle travelling on-axis in an infinitely long cylindrical metallic beam pipe with azimuthally varying conductivity. A semi-analytical solution, obtained by applying approximate boundary conditions, predicts an image current distribution on the pipe walls practically independent of the azimuth, at least in the frequency range relevant for future machines such as the LHC. We discuss numerical simulations and bench measurements which confirm the theoretical predictions. Implications for the beam-induced ohmic losses in the copper coated, welded LHC beam screen are also addressed.

  8. Image currents in azimuthally inhomogeneous metallic beam pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mostacci

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider an ultrarelativistic particle traveling on axis in an infinitely long cylindrical metallic beam pipe with azimuthally varying conductivity. For a circular geometry, a semianalytical solution is obtained using the Green functions and applying approximate boundary conditions for conductors. The theory predicts an image current distribution on the pipe walls practically independent of the azimuth, at least in the frequency range relevant for future machines such as the LHC. Numerical electromagnetic simulations and bench measurements confirm the theoretical predictions. Implications for the beam-induced heating in the copper-coated, welded LHC beam screen are also addressed.

  9. Current status of health technology reassessment of non-drug technologies: survey and key informant interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leggett Laura E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Technology Reassessment (HTR is a structured, evidence-based assessment of the clinical, social, ethical and economic effects of a technology currently used in the health care system, to inform optimal use of that technology in comparison to its alternatives. Little is known about current international HTR practices. The objective of this research was to summarize experience-based information gathered from international experts on the development, initiation and implementation of a HTR program. Methods A mixed methods approach, using a survey and in-depth interviews, was adopted. The survey covered 8 concepts: prioritization/identification of potentially obsolete technologies; program development; implementation; mitigation; program championing; stakeholder engagement; monitoring; and reinvestment. Members of Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi and the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA formed the sampling frame. Participation was solicited via email and the survey was administered online using SurveyMonkey. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. To gather more in-depth knowledge, semi-structured interviews were conducted among organizations with active HTR programs. Interview questions were developed using the same 8 concepts. The hour-long interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Results Ninety-five individuals responded to the survey: 49 were not discussing HTR, 21 were beginning to discuss HTR, nine were imminently developing a program, and 16 participants had programs and were completing reassessments. The survey results revealed that methods vary widely and that although HTR is a powerful tool, it is currently not being used to its full potential. Of the 16 with active programs, nine agreed to participate in follow-up interviews. Interview participants identified early and extensive stakeholder

  10. Advanced digital image archival system using MPEG technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wo

    2009-08-01

    Digital information and records are vital to the human race regardless of the nationalities and eras in which they were produced. Digital image contents are produced at a rapid pace from cultural heritages via digitalization, scientific and experimental data via high speed imaging sensors, national defense satellite images from governments, medical and healthcare imaging records from hospitals, personal collection of photos from digital cameras. With these mass amounts of precious and irreplaceable data and knowledge, what standards technologies can be applied to preserve and yet provide an interoperable framework for accessing the data across varieties of systems and devices? This paper presents an advanced digital image archival system by applying the international standard of MPEG technologies to preserve digital image content.

  11. Nanoscale Imaging of Current Density with a Single-Spin Magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K; Eichler, A; Rhensius, J; Lorenzelli, L; Degen, C L

    2017-03-24

    Charge transport in nanostructures and thin films is fundamental to many phenomena and processes in science and technology, ranging from quantum effects and electronic correlations in mesoscopic physics, to integrated charge- or spin-based electronic circuits, to photoactive layers in energy research. Direct visualization of the charge flow in such structures is challenging due to their nanometer size and the itinerant nature of currents. In this work, we demonstrate noninvasive magnetic imaging of current density in two-dimensional conductor networks including metallic nanowires and carbon nanotubes. Our sensor is the electronic spin of a diamond nitrogen-vacancy center attached to a scanning tip and operated under ambient conditions. Using a differential measurement technique, we detect DC currents down to a few μA with a current density noise floor of ∼2 × 10(4) A/cm(2). Reconstructed images have a spatial resolution of typically 50 nm, with a best-effort value of 22 nm. Current density imaging offers a new route for studying electronic transport and conductance variations in two-dimensional materials and devices, with many exciting applications in condensed matter physics and materials science.

  12. Authentication of digital medical images with digital signature technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J P

    1995-03-01

    To determine whether digital signature technology (DST) can authenticate digital medical images to the same level of authenticity required for interbank electronic transfer of funds. Message digests were computed for two magnetic resonance images that differed only by the value of a single bit. RSA (Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman) public key cryptography was used to encrypt each message digest to form a digital signature for each image, a process analogous to the established use of RSA DST for electronic funds transfer. The process was then reversed to authenticate the original image from its digital signature. Although the images differed by less than 0.000095%, their message digests differed at 94% of their characters. The digital signature of the original image proved that it was authentic and that the altered image was not authentic. RSA DST can establish the authenticity of images to at least the level of confidence required for interbank electronic transfer of funds.

  13. Imaging morphogenesis: technological advances and biological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Philipp J

    2013-06-01

    Morphogenesis, the development of the shape of an organism, is a dynamic process on a multitude of scales, from fast subcellular rearrangements and cell movements to slow structural changes at the whole-organism level. Live-imaging approaches based on light microscopy reveal the intricate dynamics of this process and are thus indispensable for investigating the underlying mechanisms. This Review discusses emerging imaging techniques that can record morphogenesis at temporal scales from seconds to days and at spatial scales from hundreds of nanometers to several millimeters. To unlock their full potential, these methods need to be matched with new computational approaches and physical models that help convert highly complex image data sets into biological insights.

  14. A preliminary study of current multimedia information technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.C.

    1997-03-01

    This paper surveys more than 70 articles published in the IEEE Multimedia journal and other journals. The survey summarizes aspects of multimedia information technology and categorizes application areas of multimedia information technology and interesting research areas related to it.

  15. Terahertz endoscopic imaging for colorectal cancer detection: Current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Joseph, Cecil; Giles, Robert H

    2017-08-16

    Terahertz (THz) imaging is progressing as a robust platform for myriad applications in the field of security, health, and material science. The THz regime, which comprises wavelengths spanning from microns to millimeters, is non-ionizing and has very low photon energy: Making it inherently safe for biological imaging. Colorectal cancer is one of the most common causes of death in the world, while the conventional screening and standard of care yet relies exclusively on the physician's experience. Researchers have been working on the development of a flexible THz endoscope, as a potential tool to aid in colorectal cancer screening. This involves building a single-channel THz endoscope, and profiling the THz response from colorectal tissue, and demonstrating endogenous contrast levels between normal and diseased tissue when imaging in reflection modality. The current level of contrast provided by the prototype THz endoscopic system represents a significant step towards clinical endoscopic application of THz technology for in-vivo colorectal cancer screening. The aim of this paper is to provide a short review of the recent advances in THz endoscopic technology and cancer imaging. In particular, the potential of single-channel THz endoscopic imaging for colonic cancer screening will be highlighted.

  16. Current and Emerging Cell Culture Manufacturing Technologies for Influenza Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Milián

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Annually, influenza virus infects millions of people worldwide. Vaccination programs against seasonal influenza infections require the production of hundreds of million doses within a very short period of time. The influenza vaccine is currently produced using a technology developed in the 1940s that relies on replicating the virus in embryonated hens’ eggs. The monovalent viral preparation is inactivated and purified before being formulated in trivalent or tetravalent influenza vaccines. The production process has depended on a continuous supply of eggs. In the case of pandemic outbreaks, this mode of production might be problematic because of a possible drastic reduction in the egg supply and the low flexibility of the manufacturing process resulting in a lack of supply of the required vaccine doses in a timely fashion. Novel production systems using mammalian or insect cell cultures have emerged to overcome the limitations of the egg-based production system. These industrially well-established production systems have been primarily selected for a faster and more flexible response to pandemic threats. Here, we review the most important cell culture manufacturing processes that have been developed in recent years for mass production of influenza vaccines.

  17. Computed tomography: acquisition process, technology and current state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Javier Espitia Mendoza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography is a noninvasive scan technique widely applied in areas such as medicine, industry, and geology. This technique allows the three-dimensional reconstruction of the internal structure of an object which is lighted with an X-rays source. The reconstruction is formed with two-dimensional cross-sectional images of the object. Each cross-sectional is obtained from measurements of physical phenomena, such as attenuation, dispersion, and diffraction of X-rays, as result of their interaction with the object. In general, measurements acquisition is performed with methods based on any of these phenomena and according to various architectures classified in generations. Furthermore, in response to the need to simulate acquisition systems for CT, software dedicated to this task has been developed. The objective of this research is to determine the current state of CT techniques, for this, a review of methods, different architectures used for the acquisition and some of its applications is presented. Additionally, results of simulations are presented. The main contributions of this work are the detailed description of acquisition methods and the presentation of the possible trends of the technique.

  18. Eddy current imaging for electrical characterization of silicon solar cells and TCO layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Byungguk; Hillmann, Susanne; Schulze, Martin; Klein, Marcus; Heuer, Henning

    2015-03-01

    Eddy Current Testing has been mainly used to determine defects of conductive materials and wall thicknesses in heavy industries such as construction or aerospace. Recently, high frequency Eddy Current imaging technology was developed. This enables the acquirement of information of different depth level in conductive thin-film structures by realizing proper standard penetration depth. In this paper, we summarize the state of the art applications focusing on PV industry and extend the analysis implementing achievements by applying spatially resolved Eddy Current Testing. The specific state of frequency and complex phase angle rotation demonstrates diverse defects from front to back side of silicon solar cells and characterizes homogeneity of sheet resistance in Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) layers. In order to verify technical feasibility, measurement results from the Multi Parameter Eddy Current Scanner, MPECS are compared to the results from Electroluminescence.

  19. Alien vision exploring the electromagnetic spectrum with imaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Austin A

    2011-01-01

    Austin Richards takes readers on a visual tour of the electromagnetic spectrum beyond the range of human sight, using imaging technology as the means to ""see"" invisible light. Dozens of colorful images and clear, concise descriptions make this an intriguing, accessible technical book. Richards explains the light spectrum, including visible light, and describes the advanced imaging technologies that enable humans to synthesize our own version of ""alien"" vision at different wavelengths, with applications ranging from fire fighting and law enforcement to botany and medicine. The second editio

  20. Advances in fntd technology: Instrumentation, image processing and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, James Andrew

    Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (FNTDs), based on Al2O 3:C,Mg single crystal material, enable diffraction limited imaging of ionization patterns. This fast, luminescent material is thermally and optically stable. This work expands and assesses the capability of FNTD technology to measure radiation dose quickly and accurately, especially neutron radition. Developments in FNTD instrumentation, software, image reconstruction, image processing and data processing improved ease of use, productivity and reliability and brought the technology into commercial viability. Descriptions of these developments are presented. Additionally, these developments were assessed and were found to comply with ANSI and ISO standards for personnel neutron dosimetry. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  1. Current State and Development Strategy of CNPC Engineering Technology Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Challenges to CNPC engineering technology service Internal contraction and problems (1) Pricing mechanism for technology service. CNPC engineering technology companies have been under deficit for many years after restructuring, and eight subordinate companies lost 239 million RMB in 2008 and even 770 million RMB in 2009.

  2. AUTOMATED TECHNOLOGY FOR CURRENT MAINTENANCE OF RAILWAY TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychev Vyacheslav Petrovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors consider the possibility and provide specific solutions to create the automated system of track maintenance on the example of automation of technological operations to restore the equal elasticity of the undersleeper foundation. The relevance of the work stems from the fact that the modern and perspective requirements to the track maintenance in the conditions of the transition to high-speed, high-speed, high-tonnage traffic can be implemented only by switching to a new system of track maintenance based on the performance of work of specialized high-performance machines and on the new system with maximum opportunity for automation technology. More than half of the volume of works on the current maintenance of the tracks are the works on the removal of splashes, straightening and tamping of track, the technology of which can be divided into two components: calculation-evaluation and the generation of control actions on the railway track. Track machines are used extensively at the local bearing places of the occurrence of splashes on track sections or for continuous bearing plot ways to restore the equal elasticity of the undersleeper base and reduce the degree of non-uniformity deviations in rails’ position on level and in plan, as well as track subsidence. The bunker for filling the ballast may be mounted on additional frame or on offset brackets of the machine. The device for measuring the position of a railway track includes the means for measuring the deflections of the road, bending rise the track in the longitudinal profile and the position of the track on level (elevation of one rail in relation to another and the adjacent block determining the actual position of a railway track in plan, in longitudinal profile and on level. The block of determining the amount of ballast consists of interconnected devices for determining the value of shifts and raise of the track and the block of comparing the track raise values

  3. Current status and future perspectives of in vivo small animal imaging using radiolabeled nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loudos, George, E-mail: gloudos@teiath.gr [Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, AG. Spyridonos 28, Egaleo 12210 (Greece); Kagadis, George C., E-mail: gkagad@gmail.com [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, P.O. Box 13273, GR-265 04 Rion (Greece); Psimadas, Dimitris, E-mail: dpsimad@chem.uoa.gr [Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, AG. Spyridonos 28, Egaleo 12210 (Greece); Institute of Radioisotopes and Radiodiagnostic Products, National Center of Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , P.O. 60228, 153 10 Agia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece)

    2011-05-15

    Small animal molecular imaging is a rapidly expanding efficient tool to study biological processes non-invasively. The use of radiolabeled tracers provides non-destructive, imaging information, allowing time related phenomena to be repeatedly studied in a single animal. In the last decade there has been an enormous progress in related technologies and a number of dedicated imaging systems overcome the limitations that the size of small animal possesses. On the other hand, nanoparticles (NPs) gain increased interest, due to their unique properties, which make them perfect candidates for biological applications. Over the past 5 years the two fields seem to cross more and more often; radiolabeled NPs have been assessed in numerous pre-clinical studies that range from oncology, till HIV treatment. In this article the current status in the tools, applications and trends of radiolabeled NPs reviewed.

  4. Segmentation and Image Analysis of Abnormal Lungs at CT: Current Approaches, Challenges, and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Awais; Foster, Brent; Xu, Ziyue; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Folio, Les R.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    The computer-based process of identifying the boundaries of lung from surrounding thoracic tissue on computed tomographic (CT) images, which is called segmentation, is a vital first step in radiologic pulmonary image analysis. Many algorithms and software platforms provide image segmentation routines for quantification of lung abnormalities; however, nearly all of the current image segmentation approaches apply well only if the lungs exhibit minimal or no pathologic conditions. When moderate to high amounts of disease or abnormalities with a challenging shape or appearance exist in the lungs, computer-aided detection systems may be highly likely to fail to depict those abnormal regions because of inaccurate segmentation methods. In particular, abnormalities such as pleural effusions, consolidations, and masses often cause inaccurate lung segmentation, which greatly limits the use of image processing methods in clinical and research contexts. In this review, a critical summary of the current methods for lung segmentation on CT images is provided, with special emphasis on the accuracy and performance of the methods in cases with abnormalities and cases with exemplary pathologic findings. The currently available segmentation methods can be divided into five major classes: (a) thresholding-based, (b) region-based, (c) shape-based, (d) neighboring anatomy–guided, and (e) machine learning–based methods. The feasibility of each class and its shortcomings are explained and illustrated with the most common lung abnormalities observed on CT images. In an overview, practical applications and evolving technologies combining the presented approaches for the practicing radiologist are detailed. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26172351

  5. Cardiac activation mapping using ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, Ragnar; Witte, Russell S; Jia, Congxian; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Kim, Kang; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2009-03-01

    We describe the first mapping of biological current in a live heart using ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI). Ablation procedures that treat severe heart arrhythmias require detailed maps of the cardiac activation wave. The conventional procedure is time-consuming and limited by its poor spatial resolution (5-10 mm). UCSDI can potentially improve on existing mapping procedures. It is based on a pressure-induced change in resistivity known as the acousto-electric (AE) effect, which is spatially confined to the ultrasound focus. Data from 2 experiments are presented. A 540 kHz ultrasonic transducer (f/# = 1, focal length = 90 mm, pulse repetition frequency = 1600 Hz) was scanned over an isolated rabbit heart perfused with an excitation-contraction decoupler to reduce motion significantly while retaining electric function. Tungsten electrodes inserted in the left ventricle recorded simultaneously the AE signal and the low-frequency electrocardiogram (ECG). UCSDI displayed spatial and temporal patterns consistent with the spreading activation wave. The propagation velocity estimated from UCSDI was 0.25 +/- 0.05 mm/ms, comparable to the values obtained with the ECG signals. The maximum AE signal-to-noise ratio after filtering was 18 dB, with an equivalent detection threshold of 0.1 mA/ cm(2). This study demonstrates that UCSDI is a potentially powerful technique for mapping current flow and biopotentials in the heart.

  6. [Hyperspectral image compression technology research based on EZW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun-Xia; Xiangli, Bin; Duan, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Zhao-Hui; Xue, Li-Jun

    2011-08-01

    Along with the development of hyperspectral remote sensing technology, hyperspectral imaging technology has been applied in the aspect of aviation and spaceflight, which is different from multispectral imaging, and with the band width of nanoscale spectral imaging the target continuously, the image resolution is very high. However, with the increasing number of band, spectral data quantity will be more and more, and these data storage and transmission is the problem that the authors must face. Along with the development of wavelet compression technology, in field of image compression, many people adopted and improved EZW, the present paper used the method in hyperspectral spatial dimension compression, but does not involved the spectrum dimension compression. From hyperspectral image compression reconstruction results, whether from the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and spectral curve or from the subjective comparison of source and reconstruction image, the effect is well. If the first compression of image from spectrum dimension is made, then compression on space dimension, the authors believe the effect will be better.

  7. Beam combination schemes and technologies for the Planet Formation Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardi, Stefano; Lacour, Sylvestre; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Labadie, Lucas; Thomson, Robert R.; Haniff, Chris; Ireland, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The Planet Formation Imager initiative aims at developing the next generation large scale facility for imaging astronomical optical interferometry operating in the mid-infrared. Here we report on the progress of the Planet Formation Imager Technical Working Group on the beam-combination instruments. We will discuss various available options for the science and fringe-tracker beam combination instruments, ranging from direct imaging, to non-redundant fiber arrays, to integrated optics solutions. Besides considering basic characteristics of the schemes, we will investigate the maturity of the available technological platforms at near- and mid-infrared wavelengths.

  8. Ocean Bottom Seismometers technology: current state and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinskiy, Dmitry; Ganzha, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The beginning of 2000s was marked by a significant progress in the development and use of self-pop-up sea-bottom seismic recorders (Ocean Bottom Seismometers). In Russia it was a novel solution developed by the Russian Academy of Sciences Experimental Design Bureau of Oceanological Engineering. This recorder and its clones have been widely used not only for the Earth crust studies, but also for investigations of sub-basalt structures and gas hydrate exploration. And what has happened over the last 10 years? Let us look closely at the second generation of ocean bottom stations developed by Geonodal Solutions (GNS) as an illustration of the next step forward in the sea-bottom acquisition technology. First of all, hardware components have changed dramatically. The electronic components became much smaller, accordingly, the power consumption and electronic self-noise were dropped down significantly. This enabled development of compact station 330 mm in diameter instead of previous 450mm. The weight fell by half, while the autonomy increased up to 90 days due to both decreased energy consumption and increased capacity of the batteries. The dynamic range of recorded seismic data has expended as a result of decreased set noise and the application of 24-bit A/D converters. The instruments dimensions have been reduced, power consumption decreased, clock accuracy was significantly improved. At the same time, development of advanced time reference algorithms enabled to retain instrument accuracy around 1 ms during all the autonomous recording period. The high-speed wireless data transfer technology offered a chance to develop "maintenance-free" station throughout its operation time. The station can be re-used at the different sea bottom locations without unsealing of the deep-water container for data download, battery re-charge, clock synchronization. This noticeably reduces the labor efforts of the personnel working with the stations. This is critically important in field

  9. Current status of PET imaging in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Gennaro; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios

    2016-06-01

    To review the developments of recent decades and the current status of PET molecular imaging in Huntington's disease (HD). A systematic review of PET studies in HD was performed. The MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane and Scopus databases were searched for articles in all languages published up to 19 August 2015 using the major medical subject heading "Huntington Disease" combined with text and key words "Huntington Disease", "Neuroimaging" and "PET". Only peer-reviewed, primary research studies in HD patients and premanifest HD carriers, and studies in which clinical features were described in association with PET neuroimaging results, were included in this review. Reviews, case reports and nonhuman studies were excluded. A total of 54 PET studies were identified and analysed in this review. Brain metabolism ([(18)F]FDG and [(15)O]H2O), presynaptic ([(18)F]fluorodopa, [(11)C]β-CIT and [(11)C]DTBZ) and postsynaptic ([(11)C]SCH22390, [(11)C]FLB457 and [(11)C]raclopride) dopaminergic function, phosphodiesterases ([(18)F]JNJ42259152, [(18)F]MNI-659 and [(11)C]IMA107), and adenosine ([(18)F]CPFPX), cannabinoid ([(18)F]MK-9470), opioid ([(11)C]diprenorphine) and GABA ([(11)C]flumazenil) receptors were evaluated as potential biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and for assessing the development and efficacy of novel disease-modifying drugs in premanifest HD carriers and HD patients. PET studies evaluating brain restoration and neuroprotection were also identified and described in detail. Brain metabolism, postsynaptic dopaminergic function and phosphodiesterase 10A levels were proven to be powerful in assessing disease progression. However, no single technique may be currently considered an optimal biomarker and an integrative multimodal imaging approach combining different techniques should be developed for monitoring potential neuroprotective and preventive treatment in HD.

  10. Imaging radars: System architectures and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre, Andrea [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., Via Saccomuro 24, 00131 Roma (Italy); Angino, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.angino@thalesaleniaspace.com [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., Via Saccomuro 24, 00131 Roma (Italy)

    2013-08-21

    The potentiality of multichannel SAR to provide wide swath and high resolution at the same time has been described in many papers in the last past years. The scope of this paper is to address some of the architectural and technological aspects related to the implementation of a multichannel receiver for a multibeam SAR, with the objective to provide some solutions for different configurations with increased complexity. A further point is the exploitation of the multichannel configuration for the implementation of very high resolution modes.

  11. Passive microwave imaging by aperture synthesis technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Liang; Zhang, Zuyin; Guo, Wei; Gui, Liangqi

    2007-11-01

    In order to verify the theory of aperture synthesis at low expense, two-channel ka-band correlation radiometer which is basic part of synthetic aperture radiometer is designed firstly before developing the multi-channel synthetic aperture radiometer. The performance of two-channel correlation radiometer such as stability and coherence of visibility phase are tested in the digital correlation experiment. Subsequently all required baselines are acquired by moving the antenna pair sequentially, corresponding samples of the visibility function are measured and the image of noise source is constructed using an inverse Fourier transformation.

  12. [Mobile phone based wireless microscopy imaging technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yucheng; Liu, Jing

    2011-03-01

    This article proposes a new device named "Wireless Cellscope" that combining mobile phone and optical microscope together. The established wireless microscope platform consists of mobile phone, network monitor, miniaturized microscope or high resolution microscope etc. A series of conceptual experiments were performed on microscopic observation of ordinary objects and mice tumor tissue slices. It was demonstrated that, the new method could acquire microscopy images via a wireless way, which is spatially independent. With small size and low cost, the device thus developed has rather wide applicability in non-disturbing investigation of cell/tissue culture and long distance observation of dangerous biological sample etc.

  13. Current state of OLED technology relative to military avionics requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchon, Joseph L.; Barnidge, Tracy J.; Hufnagel, Bruce D.; Bahadur, Birendra

    2014-06-01

    The paper will review optical and environmental performance thresholds required for OLED technology to be used on various military platforms. Life study results will be summarized to highlight trends while identifying remaining performance gaps to make this technology viable for future military avionics platforms.

  14. Are Optical Gas Imaging Technologies Effective For Methane Leak Detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Arvind P; Wang, Jingfan; Brandt, Adam R

    2017-01-03

    Concerns over mitigating methane leakage from the natural gas system have become ever more prominent in recent years. Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed regulations requiring use of optical gas imaging (OGI) technologies to identify and repair leaks. In this work, we develop an open-source predictive model to accurately simulate the most common OGI technology, passive infrared (IR) imaging. The model accurately reproduces IR images of controlled methane release field experiments as well as reported minimum detection limits. We show that imaging distance is the most important parameter affecting IR detection effectiveness. In a simulated well-site, over 80% of emissions can be detected from an imaging distance of 10 m. Also, the presence of "superemitters" greatly enhance the effectiveness of IR leak detection. The minimum detectable limits of this technology can be used to selectively target "superemitters", thereby providing a method for approximate leak-rate quantification. In addition, model results show that imaging backdrop controls IR imaging effectiveness: land-based detection against sky or low-emissivity backgrounds have higher detection efficiency compared to aerial measurements. Finally, we show that minimum IR detection thresholds can be significantly lower for gas compositions that include a significant fraction nonmethane hydrocarbons.

  15. Magnetostatic image current and its application to an analytic identification of a current dipole inside a conducting sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S; Norgren, M

    2000-02-01

    The image solution for the static magnetic field outside a conducting sphere with an internal current dipole is considered. The image current, which is a linear distribution of magnetic dipoles on the line segment between the dipole point and the center of the sphere, is derived by using the fact that the induced current does not have any contribution to the radial component of the magnetic field outside the sphere. The image is then used to obtain some explicit formulas for identifying the location and tangential moment of the primary current dipole. This explicit identification method is also tested with a real model for a patient's brain.

  16. NON-TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION: CURRENT ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Saraiva Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTInnovationcan be considered to be a complex phenomenon including technical andnon-technical aspects. A remarkable increase in the interdisciplinary attention devoted to innovation has been noticed over the recent decades but the formal technological and economic aspects of innovation have received much more attention and have been taken into account in a far greater number of analyses, despite the great importance of the non-technological dimension of innovation.This paper attempts a review on the important subject of non-technological innovation. The main ideas on the non-technological dimension of innovation research will be highlighted, followed by an attempt to integrate diverse and disparate perspectives on the subject, to present evidence on possible generalizations and to discuss eventual research gaps and opportunities for further studies. The relationship between technological and non-technological innovation is complex and not fully understood. Among several aspects that will be covered in this paper, two specific ones will receive special attention in this brief analysis: the evidence on the impacts of non-technological innovation, and the measurements efforts that have been made concerning this phenomenon.

  17. Using hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Zhao, Xueguan; Meng, Zhijun; Zou, Wei

    2016-11-01

    In the process of tomato plants growth, due to the effect of plants genetic factors, poor environment factors, or disoperation of parasites, there will generate a series of unusual symptoms on tomato plants from physiology, organization structure and external form, as a result, they cannot grow normally, and further to influence the tomato yield and economic benefits. Hyperspectral image usually has high spectral resolution, not only contains spectral information, but also contains the image information, so this study adopted hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves, and developed a simple hyperspectral imaging system, including a halogen lamp light source unit, a hyperspectral image acquisition unit and a data processing unit. Spectrometer detection wavelength ranged from 400nm to 1000nm. After hyperspectral images of tomato leaves being captured, it was needed to calibrate hyperspectral images. This research used spectrum angle matching method and spectral red edge parameters discriminant method respectively to identify diseased tomato leaves. Using spectral red edge parameters discriminant method produced higher recognition accuracy, the accuracy was higher than 90%. Research results have shown that using hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves is feasible, and provides the discriminant basis for subsequent disease control of tomato plants.

  18. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate: current concepts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittencourt, L.K.; Hausmann, D.; Sabaneeff, N.; Gasparetto, E.L.; Barentsz, J.O.

    2014-01-01

    Multiparametric MR (mpMR) imaging is rapidly evolving into the mainstay in prostate cancer (PCa) imaging. Generally, the examination consists of T2-weighted sequences, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) evaluation, and less often proton MR spectroscopy imaging (MRSI).

  19. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate: current concepts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittencourt, L.K.; Hausmann, D.; Sabaneeff, N.; Gasparetto, E.L.; Barentsz, J.O.

    2014-01-01

    Multiparametric MR (mpMR) imaging is rapidly evolving into the mainstay in prostate cancer (PCa) imaging. Generally, the examination consists of T2-weighted sequences, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) evaluation, and less often proton MR spectroscopy imaging (MRSI).

  20. EVALUATION OF CURRENT SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT OF BIOBASED TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable technology is driven by economic competitiveness, government policies and public pressure. The claim of inherent cleanliness for biotechnology is too simplistic. Each application of biotechnology must be evaluated for suitable characteristics of sustainability. The ...

  1. The image of the public institutions and new technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela PĂUN; Coman, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    During the recent past decades, a new technology and a new kind of media emerged: the social media. It created a huge communication area that houses the interactions and debate between creators of social images and messages. In public relations, the emergence of social media challenges the traditional instruments of government public relations. Responding to development of information and communication technology (ICT), social media is considered as an alternative communication channel of gov...

  2. Advanced technologies in image-guided radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, James M; Cao, Yue

    2007-10-01

    In addition to rapid developments in the use of stationary radiographs and computed tomography scans in treatment rooms, a variety of additional technologies is on the horizon to aid in guided treatment. Some of these (fluoroscopy and tomosynthesis) are variations on the use of existing hardware, whereas others (electromagnetic localization, magnetic resonance imaging) represent significant departures from recently adopted technologic concepts. This review introduces these methods and explores their potential for initial use in guidance.

  3. Review of the current wind energy technologies and global market

    OpenAIRE

    Komarov, Dragan; Stupar, Slobodan; Posteljnik, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    The modern wind energy technologies and recent global wind energy market trends are reviewed in the paper. Basic principles of conversion of wind energy to electricity are described with brief overview of the state-of-the-art technologies for subassemblies such as wind turbine blades and drive trains. Global wind energy market was reviewed in order to attain notion of wind power market developments in the future. The most developed countries in terms of wind energy utilization such as Denmark...

  4. Arabidopsis Growth Simulation Using Image Processing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a method to represent the virtual Arabidopsis plant at each growth stage. It includes simulating the shape and providing growth parameters. The shape is described with elliptic Fourier descriptors. First, the plant is segmented from the background with the chromatic coordinates. With the segmentation result, the outer boundary series are obtained by using boundary tracking algorithm. The elliptic Fourier analysis is then carried out to extract the coefficients of the contour. The coefficients require less storage than the original contour points and can be used to simulate the shape of the plant. The growth parameters include total area and the number of leaves of the plant. The total area is obtained with the number of the plant pixels and the image calibration result. The number of leaves is derived by detecting the apex of each leaf. It is achieved by using wavelet transform to identify the local maximum of the distance signal between the contour points and the region centroid. Experiment result shows that this method can record the growth stage of Arabidopsis plant with fewer data and provide a visual platform for plant growth research.

  5. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kouzes, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peerani, P. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Aspinall, M. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Baird, K. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Bakel, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Borella, M. [SCK.CEN, Mol (Belgium); Bourne, M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bourva, L. [Canberra Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Cave, F. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Chandra, R. [Arktis Radiation Detectors Ltd., Zurich (Sweden); Chernikova, D. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dermody, G. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Dougan, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Ely, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fanchini, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Finocchiaro, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Gavron, Victor [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kureta, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ishiyama, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Lee, T. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Martin, Ch. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); McKinny, K. [GE Reuter-Stokes, Twinsburg, OH (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Orton, Ch. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Pappalardo, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Peranteau, D. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Plenteda, R. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Pozzi, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schear, M. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Seya, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Siciliano, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stave, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, L. [Proportional Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tagziria, H. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Vaccaro, S. [DG Energy (Luxembourg); Takamine, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Weber, A. -L. [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Yamaguchi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Zhu, H. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency {IAEA}, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3

  6. Photoacoustic imaging system for peripheral small-vessel imaging based on clinical ultrasound technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisawa, Kaku; Hirota, Kazuhiro; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Murakoshi, Dai; Ishii, Hiroyasu; Tada, Takuji; Wada, Takatsugu; Hayakawa, Toshiro; Azuma, Ryuichi; Otani, Naoki; Itoh, Kenji; Ishihara, Miya

    2016-03-01

    One of the features of photoacoustic (PA) imaging is small-vessel visualization realized without injection of a contrast agent or exposure to X-rays. For carrying out clinical studies in this field, a prototype PA imaging system has been developed. The PA imaging system utilizes a technological platform of FUJIFILM's clinical ultrasound (US) imaging system mounting many-core MPU for enhancing the image quality of US B-mode and US Doppler mode, which can be superposed onto PA images. By evaluating the PA and US Doppler images of the prototyped system, the applicability of the prototype system to small-vessel visualization has been discussed. The light source for PA imaging was on a compact cart of a US unit and emitted 750 nm wavelength laser pulses. The laser light was transferred to illumination optics in a handheld US transducer, which was connected to the US unit. Obtained PA rf data is reconstructed into PA images in the US unit. 3D images were obtained by scanning a mechanical stage, which the transducer is attached to. Several peripheral parts such as fingers, palms and wrists were observed by PA and US Doppler imaging. As for small arteries, US Doppler images were able to visualize the bow-shaped artery in the tip of the finger. Though PA images cannot distinguish arteries and veins, it could visualize smaller vessels and showed good resolution and vascular connectivity, resulting in a complementary image for the US Doppler images. Therefore, superposed images of the PA, US B-mode and US Doppler can visualize from large to small vessels without a contrast agent, which should be a differentiating feature of US/PA combined technology from other clinical vascular imaging modalities.

  7. CURRENT SCENARIO OF HERBAL TECHNOLOGY WORLD WIDE: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Agarwal*, Shashi Alok , Amreen Fatima and Amita Verma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the basic concepts of herbal technology which is used worldwide. 21st century is the century of Biology mechanical and propelled by scientific knowledge and hi-tech expertise. Herbal technology, are going to be the most influential elements that are fundamental for success and welfare for the people of nations. Information on the herbal technology was collected via electronic search (using pub med, scifinder, Google Scholar and web of science and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. Nutraceutical are food or part of the food that grant medical or health benefits together with the prevention or cure of the disease. Cosmaceuticals are the largest accumulation to the health trade and are described as cosmetic products with drug; they are the fastest increased segment in the skin care market. Biopesticides are cost effective, safer, readily available, and ecological and therefore more environment- friendly and will offer substitute to conventional pesticides. Herbal drugs represent a major contribute to all the formally recognized systems of health in India. An upward trend has been experimental in the research on herbals. Export–Import reports reveal that the global trade of herbal technology and plant originated products is around US $250 billion. In the present article, an attempt has been made to present an overview of the herbal technology in the international market and intends to throw in the knowledge about Herbal drugs, Nutraceuticals, Cosmaceuticals, and Biopesticides which comes under herbal technology.

  8. Ultrafast optical imaging technology: principles and applications of emerging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Hideharu; Gao, Liang; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-09-01

    High-speed optical imaging is an indispensable technology for blur-free observation of fast transient dynamics in virtually all areas including science, industry, defense, energy, and medicine. High temporal resolution is particularly important for microscopy as even a slow event appears to occur "fast" in a small field of view. Unfortunately, the shutter speed and frame rate of conventional cameras based on electronic image sensors are significantly constrained by their electrical operation and limited storage. Over the recent years, several unique and unconventional approaches to high-speed optical imaging have been reported to circumvent these technical challenges and achieve a frame rate and shutter speed far beyond what can be reached with the conventional image sensors. In this article, we review the concepts and principles of such ultrafast optical imaging methods, compare their advantages and disadvantages, and discuss an entirely new class of applications that are possible using them.

  9. Current cardiac imaging techniques for detection of left ventricular mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celebi Aksuyek S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Estimation of left ventricular (LV mass has both prognostic and therapeutic value independent of traditional risk factors. Unfortunately, LV mass evaluation has been underestimated in clinical practice. Assessment of LV mass can be performed by a number of imaging modalities. Despite inherent limitations, conventional echocardiography has fundamentally been established as most widely used diagnostic tool. 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE is now feasible, fast and accurate for LV mass evaluation. 3DE is also superior to conventional echocardiography in terms of LV mass assessment, especially in patients with abnormal LV geometry. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR and cardiovascular computed tomography (CCT are currently performed for LV mass assessment and also do not depend on cardiac geometry and display 3-dimensional data, as well. Therefore, CMR is being increasingly employed and is at the present standard of reference in the clinical setting. Although each method demonstrates advantages over another, there are also disadvantages to receive attention. Diagnostic accuracy of methods will also be increased with the introduction of more advanced systems. It is also likely that in the coming years new and more accurate diagnostic tests will become available. In particular, CMR and CCT have been intersecting hot topic between cardiology and radiology clinics. Thus, good communication and collaboration between two specialties is required for selection of an appropriate test.

  10. The current progress of the ALICE Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Davenport, M; Mauro, A D; Franco, A; Gallas, A; Hoedlmoser, H; Martinengo, P; Nappi, E; Paic, G; Piuz, François; Peskov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the last two modules (out of seven) of the ALICE High Momentum Particle Identification detector (HMPID) were assembled and tested. The full detector, after a pre-commissioning phase, has been installed in the experimental area, inside the ALICE solenoid, at the end of September 2006. In this paper we review the status of the ALICE/HMPID project and we present a summary of the series production of the CsI photo-cathodes. We describe the key features of the production procedure which ensures high quality photo-cathodes as well as the results of the quality assessment performed by means of a specially developed 2D scanner system able to produce a detailed map of the CsI photo-current over the entire photo-cathode surface. Finally we present our recent R&D efforts toward the development of a novel generation of imaging Cherenkov detectors with the aim to identify, in heavy ions collisions, hadrons up to 30 GeV/c.

  11. 78 FR 18287 - Passenger Screening Using Advanced Imaging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... wave technology bounces electromagnetic waves off of the human body to detectors in the machine, which... removed pursuant to statute, as well as the non-ionizing electromagnetic waves from the millimeter wave... millimeter wave spectrum to generate a three-dimensional image based on the energy reflected from the body...

  12. CRISPR technologies for bacterial systems: Current achievements and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Kyeong Rok; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the decades of its history, the advances in bacteria-based bio-industries have coincided with great leaps in strain engineering technologies. Recently unveiled clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) systems are now revolution......Throughout the decades of its history, the advances in bacteria-based bio-industries have coincided with great leaps in strain engineering technologies. Recently unveiled clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) systems are now...... revolutionizing biotechnology as well as biology. Diverse technologies have been derived from CRISPR/Cas systems in bacteria, yet the applications unfortunately have not been actively employed in bacteria as extensively as in eukaryotic organisms. A recent trend of engineering less explored strains in industrial...... microbiology-metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and other related disciplines-is demanding facile yet robust tools, and various CRISPR technologies have potential to cater to the demands. Here, we briefly review the science in CRISPR/Cas systems and the milestone inventions that enabled numerous CRISPR...

  13. Drone Class: Keeping Coursework Current as Technology Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Today's students prioritize employment; they want to be sure that there will be work for them upon graduation. Film and media students, in particular, need a long list of computer software and film equipment skills on their resumes, especially newer technologies that professionals in the workforce have not yet mastered. Consider, in this regard,…

  14. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: ELECTRO-PURE ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTROCOAGULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program was authorized as part of the 1986 amendments to the Superfund legislation. It represents a joint effort between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development and Office of Solid W...

  15. Drone Class: Keeping Coursework Current as Technology Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Today's students prioritize employment; they want to be sure that there will be work for them upon graduation. Film and media students, in particular, need a long list of computer software and film equipment skills on their resumes, especially newer technologies that professionals in the workforce have not yet mastered. Consider, in this regard,…

  16. [Current problems of information technologies application for forces medical service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V V; Korneenkov, A A; Bogomolov, V D; Borisov, D N; Rezvantsev, M V

    2013-06-01

    The modern information technologies are the key factors for the upgrading of forces medical service. The aim of this article is the analysis of prospective information technologies application for the upgrading of forces medical service. The authors suggested 3 concepts of information support of Russian military health care on the basis of data about information technologies application in the foreign armed forces, analysis of the regulatory background, prospects of military-medical service and gathered experience of specialists. These three concepts are: development of united telecommunication network of the medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation medical service, working out and implementation of standard medical information systems for medical units and establishments, monitoring the military personnel health state and military medical service resources. It is noted that on the assumption of sufficient centralized financing and industrial implementation of the military medical service prospective information technologies, by the year 2020 the united information space of the military medical service will be created and the target information support effectiveness will be achieved.

  17. Low-Resolution Vehicle Image Recognition Technology by Frame-Composition of Moving Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzawa, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Hiroki; Ohkawa, Takenao; Ito, Toshio

    Developing on-board automotive driver assistance systems aiming to alert drivers about driving environments, and possible collision with other vehicles has attracted a lot of attention lately. Especially, many researchers have suggested the forward vehicle recognition technology by a camera on vehicle. In the forward vehicle recognition, however, it is difficult to detect the features of vehicle from a distant vehicle image by conventional methods because the image is too low-resolution (LR). This paper presents vehicle image recognition technology for detecting of the features of a distant vehicle by frame-composition of moving images. To detect the vehicle features of a distant LR vehicle image, we use the moving images obtained from the camera on the vehicle, and utilize super-resolution (SR) image reconstruction. SR image reconstruction is to use signal processing techniques to obtain a high-resolution (or sequence) image from observed multiple LR images. Use of this technique on real road image, we show the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  18. Current status of technology development for fabrication of Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, T., E-mail: tjk@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Rajendra Kumar, E. [TBM Division, Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Status of technology developments for Indian TBM to be installed in ITER is presented. • Procedure development for EB, laser and laser-hybrid welding of RAFM steel presented. • Filler wires for RAFM steel for TIG, NG-TIG and laser-hybrid welding have been developed. • Feasibility of production of channel plate by HIP technology has been demonstrated. - Abstract: Ever since India decided to install its Lead-Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) TBM in ITER, various technologies for fabrication of Indian TBM are being pursued by IPR and IGCAR, in collaboration with various research laboratories in India. Welding consumables for joining India specific RAFM steels (IN-RAFMS), procedures for hot isostatic pressing, electron beam welding, laser and laser-hybrid welding have been developed. Considering the complex nature and limited access available for inspection, innovative inspection procedures that involved use of phased array ultrasonic and C-scan imaging are also being pursued. This paper presents the current status of these developments and provides a roadmap for the future activities planned in realizing Indian TBM for testing in ITER.

  19. Technological advances in perioperative monitoring: Current concepts and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilkoti, Geetanjali; Wadhwa, Rachna; Saxena, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Minimal mandatory monitoring in the perioperative period recommended by Association of Anesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and American Society of Anesthesiologists are universally acknowledged and has become an integral part of the anesthesia practice. The technologies in perioperative monitoring have advanced, and the availability and clinical applications have multiplied exponentially. Newer monitoring techniques include depth of anesthesia monitoring, goal-directed fluid therapy, transesophageal echocardiography, advanced neurological monitoring, improved alarm system and technological advancement in objective pain assessment. Various factors that need to be considered with the use of improved monitoring techniques are their validation data, patient outcome, safety profile, cost-effectiveness, awareness of the possible adverse events, knowledge of technical principle and ability of the convenient routine handling. In this review, we will discuss the new monitoring techniques in anesthesia, their advantages, deficiencies, limitations, their comparison to the conventional methods and their effect on patient outcome, if any.

  20. Clean Coal Technologies in China: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyan Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the dominant primary energy source in China and the major source of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. To facilitate the use of coal in an environmentally satisfactory and economically viable way, clean coal technologies (CCTs are necessary. This paper presents a review of recent research and development of four kinds of CCTs: coal power generation; coal conversion; pollution control; and carbon capture, utilization, and storage. It also outlines future perspectives on directions for technology research and development (R&D. This review shows that China has made remarkable progress in the R&D of CCTs, and that a number of CCTs have now entered into the commercialization stage.

  1. Overview of current additive manufacturing technologies and selected applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Timothy J; Harrysson, Ola L A

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing or rapid prototyping are processes by which components are fabricated directly from computer models by selectively curing, depositing or consolidating materials in successive layers. These technologies have traditionally been limited to the fabrication of models suitable for product visualization but, over the past decade, have quickly developed into a new paradigm called additive manufacturing. We are now beginning to see additive manufacturing used for the fabrication of a range of functional end use components. In this review, we briefly discuss the evolution of additive manufacturing from its roots in accelerating product development to its proliferation into a variety of fields. Here, we focus on some of the key technologies that are advancing additive manufacturing and present some state of the art applications.

  2. Medical photography: current technology, evolving issues and legal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, M T; DeWees, J M; Vela, K M; Khirallah, R T

    2015-04-01

    Medical photographic image capture and data management has undergone a rapid and compelling change in complexity over the last 20 years. This is because of multiple factors, including significant advances in ease of photograph capture, alongside an evolution of mechanisms of data portability/dissemination, combined with governmental focus on health information privacy. Literature to guide medical, legal, governmental and business professionals when dealing with issues related to medical photography is virtually nonexistent. Herein, we will address the breadth of uses of medical photography, device properties/specific devices utilised for image capture, methods of data transfer and dissemination and patient perceptions and attitudes regarding photography in a medical setting. In addition, we will address the legal implications, including legal precedent, copyright and privacy law, informed consent, protected health information and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), as they pertain to medical photography.

  3. Towards a semantic PACS: Using Semantic Web technology to represent imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Soest, Johan; Lustberg, Tim; Grittner, Detlef; Marshall, M Scott; Persoon, Lucas; Nijsten, Bas; Feltens, Peter; Dekker, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The DICOM standard is ubiquitous within medicine. However, improved DICOM semantics would significantly enhance search operations. Furthermore, databases of current PACS systems are not flexible enough for the demands within image analysis research. In this paper, we investigated if we can use Semantic Web technology, to store and represent metadata of DICOM image files, as well as linking additional computational results to image metadata. Therefore, we developed a proof of concept containing two applications: one to store commonly used DICOM metadata in an RDF repository, and one to calculate imaging biomarkers based on DICOM images, and store the biomarker values in an RDF repository. This enabled us to search for all patients with a gross tumor volume calculated to be larger than 50 cc. We have shown that we can successfully store the DICOM metadata in an RDF repository and are refining our proof of concept with regards to volume naming, value representation, and the applications themselves.

  4. Decontamination and decommissioning technology tree and the current status of the technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Won, H.J.; Kim, G.N.; Lee, K.W.; Chol, W.K.; Jung, C.H.; Kim, C.J.; Kim, S.H.; Kwon, S.O.; Chung, C.M

    2001-03-01

    A technology tree diagram was developed on the basis of the necessary technologies applicable to the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The technology tree diagram is consist of 6 main areas such as characterization, decontamination, decommissioning and remote technology, radwaste management, site restoration, and decommissioning plan and engineering. Characterization is divided into 4 regions such as sampling and data collection, general characterization, chemical analysis and radiological analysis. Decontamination is also divided into 4 regions such as chemical decontamination, mechanical decontamination, the other decontamination technologies and new decontamination technologies. Decommissioning and remote technology area is divided into 4 regions such as cutting techniques, decommissioning technologies, new developing technologies and remote technologies. Radwaste management area is divided into 5 regions such as solid waste treatment, sludge treatment, liquid waste treatment, gas waste treatment and thermal treatment. Site restoration area is divided into 3 regions such as the evaluation of site contamination, soil decontamination and ground water decontamination. Finally, permission, decommissioning process, cost evaluation, quality assurance and the estimation of radionuclide inventory were mentioned in the decommissioning plan and engineering area. The estimated items for each technology are applicable domestic D and D facilities, D and D problem area and contamination/requirement, classification of D and D technology, similar technology, principle and overview of technology, status, science technology needs, implementation needs, reference and contact point.

  5. Analysis of Electric Vehicle DC High Current Conversion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Bai, Jing-fen; Lin, Fan-tao; Lu, Da

    2017-05-01

    Based on the background of electric vehicles, it is elaborated the necessity about electric energy accurate metering of electric vehicle power batteries, and it is analyzed about the charging and discharging characteristics of power batteries. It is needed a DC large current converter to realize accurate calibration of power batteries electric energy metering. Several kinds of measuring methods are analyzed based on shunts and magnetic induction principle in detail. It is put forward power batteries charge and discharge calibration system principle, and it is simulated and analyzed ripple waves containing rate and harmonic waves containing rate of power batteries AC side and DC side. It is put forward suitable DC large current measurement methods of power batteries by comparing different measurement principles and it is looked forward the DC large current measurement techniques.

  6. MIST Final Report: Multi-sensor Imaging Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Michael A.; Medvick, Patricia A.; Foley, Michael G.; Foote, Harlan P.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Nuffer, Lisa L.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Barr, Jonathan L.; Renholds, Andrea S.

    2008-03-15

    The Multi-sensor Imaging Science and Technology (MIST) program was undertaken to advance exploitation tools for Long Wavelength Infra Red (LWIR) hyper-spectral imaging (HSI) analysis as applied to the discovery and quantification of nuclear proliferation signatures. The program focused on mitigating LWIR image background clutter to ease the analyst burden and enable a) faster more accurate analysis of large volumes of high clutter data, b) greater detection sensitivity of nuclear proliferation signatures (primarily released gasses) , and c) quantify confidence estimates of the signature materials detected. To this end the program investigated fundamental limits and logical modifications of the more traditional statistical discovery and analysis tools applied to hyperspectral imaging and other disciplines, developed and tested new software incorporating advanced mathematical tools and physics based analysis, and demonstrated the strength and weaknesses of the new codes on relevant hyperspectral data sets from various campaigns. This final report describes the content of the program and the outlines the significant results.

  7. Novel medical imaging technologies for disease diagnosis and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olego, Diego

    2009-03-01

    New clinical approaches for disease diagnosis, treatment and monitoring will rely on the ability of simultaneously obtaining anatomical, functional and biological information. Medical imaging technologies in combination with targeted contrast agents play a key role in delivering with ever increasing temporal and spatial resolution structural and functional information about conditions and pathologies in cardiology, oncology and neurology fields among others. This presentation will review the clinical motivations and physics challenges in on-going developments of new medical imaging techniques and the associated contrast agents. Examples to be discussed are: *The enrichment of computer tomography with spectral sensitivity for the diagnosis of vulnerable sclerotic plaque. *Time of flight positron emission tomography for improved resolution in metabolic characterization of pathologies. *Magnetic particle imaging -a novel imaging modality based on in-vivo measurement of the local concentration of iron oxide nano-particles - for blood perfusion measurement with better sensitivity, spatial resolution and 3D real time acquisition. *Focused ultrasound for therapy delivery.

  8. Is there a technological fix for the current global stagnation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2016-01-01

    Daniele Archibugi asks whether the 2007–8 financial and economic crisis was brought about by the exhaustion of the current techno-economic paradigm, and whether a new paradigm will lead to eventual recovery. My answer to both questions is ‘No’. Whilst it is useful to think in terms of techno...

  9. Chest trauma in children: current imaging guidelines and techniques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    Given the heterogeneous nature of pediatric chest trauma, the optimal imaging approach is tailored to the specific patient. Chest radiography remains the most important imaging modality for initial triage. The decision to perform a chest computed tomography scan should be based on the nature of the trauma, the child\\'s clinical condition, and the initial radiographic findings, taking the age-related pretest probabilities of serious injury into account. The principles of as low as reasonably achievable and Image Gently should be followed. The epidemiology and pathophysiology, imaging techniques, characteristic findings, and evidence-based algorithms for pediatric chest trauma are discussed.

  10. DIAGNOcam--a Near Infrared Digital Imaging Transillumination (NIDIT) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Marwa; Krejci, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, clinical manifestation of carious lesions is changing: instead of dentists being confronted with wide-open cavities, more and more hidden caries are seen. For a long time, the focus of the research community was on finding a method for the detection of carious lesions without the need for radiographs. The research on Digital Imaging Fiber-Optic Transillumination (DIFOTI) has been an active domain. The scope of the present article is to describe a novel technology for caries diagnostics based on Near Infrared Digital Imaging Transillumination (NIDIT), and to give first examples of its clinical indications. In addition, the coupling of NIDIT with a head-mounted retinal image display (RID) to improve clinical workflow is presented. The novel NIDIT technology was shown to be useful as a diagnostic tool in several indications, including mainly the detection of proximal caries and, less importantly, for occlusal caries, fissures, and secondary decay around amalgam and composite restorations. The coupling of this technology with a head-mounted retinal image system allows for its very efficient implementation into daily practice.

  11. Implementation of technologies for image-bildingu cities local authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yuriivna Bobrovska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article constituents and maintenance of technologies are analysed image-bildingu of cities and their value for forming of attractiveness of city.Іmage of bildingu is examined as a factor of socio-economic development of cities. It is carried out review and given description of features and differences of forming of technology image of bildingu in a municipal management. Distinguished necessity of new innovative type of самоврядної activity that would create the system of organization of forming and advancement of image of territorial communities and municipal formations on the whole and bridge in particular with in good time certain positive descriptionsю On the basis of analysis of approaches to forming of image it is offered them functional integration in composition the special function of local self-government is functions of imidzhetvorennya. Certain and exposed it organizationally technological aspects and methodical tools of its realization.

  12. The current status of cone beam computed tomography imaging in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapila, S; Conley, R S; Harrell, W E

    2011-01-01

    Cone beam CT (CBCT) has become an increasingly important source of three dimensional (3D) volumetric data in clinical orthodontics since its introduction into dentistry in 1998. The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight the current understanding of, and evidence for, the clinical use of CBCT in orthodontics, and to review the findings to answer clinically relevant questions. Currently available information from studies using CBCT can be organized into five broad categories: 1, the assessment of CBCT technology; 2, its use in craniofacial morphometric analyses; 3, incidental and missed findings; 4, analysis of treatment outcomes; and 5, efficacy of CBCT in diagnosis and treatment planning. The findings in these topical areas are summarized, followed by current indications and protocols for the use of CBCT in specific cases. Despite the increasing popularity of CBCT in orthodontics, and its advantages over routine radiography in specific cases, the effects of information derived from these images in altering diagnosis and treatment decisions has not been demonstrated in several types of cases. It has therefore been recommended that CBCT be used in select cases in which conventional radiography cannot supply satisfactory diagnostic information; these include cleft palate patients, assessment of unerupted tooth position, supernumerary teeth, identification of root resorption and for planning orthognathic surgery. The need to image other types of cases should be made on a case-by-case basis following an assessment of benefits vs risks of scanning in these situations.

  13. The current status of cone beam computed tomography imaging in orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapila, S; Conley, R S; Harrell, W E

    2011-01-01

    Cone beam CT (CBCT) has become an increasingly important source of three dimensional (3D) volumetric data in clinical orthodontics since its introduction into dentistry in 1998. The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight the current understanding of, and evidence for, the clinical use of CBCT in orthodontics, and to review the findings to answer clinically relevant questions. Currently available information from studies using CBCT can be organized into five broad categories: 1, the assessment of CBCT technology; 2, its use in craniofacial morphometric analyses; 3, incidental and missed findings; 4, analysis of treatment outcomes; and 5, efficacy of CBCT in diagnosis and treatment planning. The findings in these topical areas are summarized, followed by current indications and protocols for the use of CBCT in specific cases. Despite the increasing popularity of CBCT in orthodontics, and its advantages over routine radiography in specific cases, the effects of information derived from these images in altering diagnosis and treatment decisions has not been demonstrated in several types of cases. It has therefore been recommended that CBCT be used in select cases in which conventional radiography cannot supply satisfactory diagnostic information; these include cleft palate patients, assessment of unerupted tooth position, supernumerary teeth, identification of root resorption and for planning orthognathic surgery. The need to image other types of cases should be made on a case-by-case basis following an assessment of benefits vs risks of scanning in these situations. PMID:21159912

  14. Space Science &Technology in Mauritius: Current Status and Future Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughooputh, S. D. D. V.; Beeharry, G. K.; Golap, K.; Issur, N. H.; Somanah, R.; Rughooputh, H. C. S.; Udayashankar, N.; Mueller, K.

    Space research (with either direct or indirect spin-offs) has been instrumental in leading to accomplishments that are meant to improve our quality of life in its broadest perspective. But are we all acquainted of the now proven-use of these findings and their capabilities? What do these mean to a remote small insular developing state like Mauritius? This paper explores the recent developments in this field in Mauritius and how we intend to optimize the use of the emerging technologies. Initiatives of the University of Mauritius are highlighted.

  15. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Frank, E-mail: frank.jansen@dlr.de [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Behrens, Joerg [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Pospisil, Stanislav [Czech Technical University, IEAP, 12800 Prague 2, Horska 3a/22 (Czech Republic); Kudela, Karel [Slovak Academy of Sciences, IEP, 04001 Kosice, Watsonova 47 (Slovakia)

    2011-05-15

    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  16. Design of Current steering DAC using 250nm CMOS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Tiwari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To build a digital to analog converter, that only receives digital signal that can only receives digital signal and produces only analog signal. A converter in which digital input signals are changed to essentially proportional analog signals. Abbreviated DAC a device for converting information in the forms of combination of discrete(usually binary states or signal to information in the form of combinations of discrete(usually binary states or signal to information in the form of value or magnitude of some characteristics of signal, in relation to standard or reference signal. Digital-toanalog (D/A converters (sometimes called DACs are used to present the results of digital computation, storage, or transmission, typically for graphical display or for the control of devices that operate with continuously varying quantities. D/A converter circuits are also used in the design of analog-to-digital converters that employ feedback techniques, such as successive-approximation and counter-comparator types. In such applications, the D/A converter may not necessarily appear as a separately identifiable entity. The fundamental circuit of most D/A converters involves a voltage or current reference; a resistive “ladder network” that derives weighted currents or voltages, usually as discrete fractions of the reference; and a set of switches, operated by the digital input, that determines which currents or voltages will be summed to constitute the output. The output of the D/A converter is proportional to the product of the digital input value and the reference. In many applications, the reference is fixed, and the output bears a fixed proportion to the digital input. In other applications, the reference, as well as the digital input, can vary; a D/A converter that is used in these applications is thus called a multiplying D/A converter. It is principally used for imparting a digitally controlled scale factor, or “gain,” to an analog input signal

  17. Safeguards Technology Factsheet - Unattended Dual Current Monitor (UDCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The UDCM is a low-current measurement device designed to record sub-nano-amp to micro-amp currents from radiation detectors. The UDCM is a two-channel device that incorporates a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) processor enabling both serial over USB as well as Ethernet communications. The instrument includes microSD and USB flash memory for data storage as well as a programmable High Voltage (HV) power supply for detector bias. The UDCM is packaged in the same enclosure, employs the same processor and has a similar user interface as the UMSR. A serial over USB communication line to the UDCM allows the use of existing versions of MIC software, while the Ethernet port is compatible with the new IAEA RAINSTORM communication protocol.

  18. Survey of Hyperspectral and Multispectral Imaging Technologies (Etude sur les technologies d’imagerie hyperspectrale et multispectrale)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Prism-Grating-Prism Imaging Spectrograph 3-4 Figure 5 Basic Principle of the IMSS 3-5 Figure 6 Optical Scheme of Sagnac and Michelson Imaging...the dispersive techniques in imaging spectrometers applications is the Image Multi- Spectral Sensing ( IMSS ) technology, developed and patented by...Pacific Advanced Technology since 1992.The IMSS is based on the principle of diffractive optics; as such it is a combination of a diffractive imaging

  19. [Identification of green tea brand based on hyperspectra imaging technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Liang; Liu, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Feng-Le; He, Yong

    2014-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technology was developed to identify different brand famous green tea based on PCA information and image information fusion. First 512 spectral images of six brands of famous green tea in the 380 approximately 1 023 nm wavelength range were collected and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed with the goal of selecting two characteristic bands (545 and 611 nm) that could potentially be used for classification system. Then, 12 gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features (i. e., mean, covariance, homogeneity, energy, contrast, correlation, entropy, inverse gap, contrast, difference from the second-order and autocorrelation) based on the statistical moment were extracted from each characteristic band image. Finally, integration of the 12 texture features and three PCA spectral characteristics for each green tea sample were extracted as the input of LS-SVM. Experimental results showed that discriminating rate was 100% in the prediction set. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) assessment methods were used to evaluate the LS-SVM classification algorithm. Overall results sufficiently demonstrate that hyperspectral imaging technology can be used to perform classification of green tea.

  20. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merino D

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available David Merino, Pablo Loza-Alvarez The Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Adaptive optics (AO retinal imaging has become very popular in the past few years, especially within the ophthalmic research community. Several different retinal techniques, such as fundus imaging cameras or optical coherence tomography systems, have been coupled with AO in order to produce impressive images showing individual cell mosaics over different layers of the in vivo human retina. The combination of AO with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy has been extensively used to generate impressive images of the human retina with unprecedented resolution, showing individual photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, as well as microscopic capillary vessels, or the nerve fiber layer. Over the past few years, the technique has evolved to develop several different applications not only in the clinic but also in different animal models, thanks to technological developments in the field. These developments have specific applications to different fields of investigation, which are not limited to the study of retinal diseases but also to the understanding of the retinal function and vision science. This review is an attempt to summarize these developments in an understandable and brief manner in order to guide the reader into the possibilities that AO scanning laser ophthalmoscopy offers, as well as its limitations, which should be taken into account when planning on using it. Keywords: high-resolution, in vivo retinal imaging, AOSLO

  1. APEX; current status of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieke, J.; Itten, K.I.; Kaiser, J.W.; Schlapfer, D.; Brazile, J.; Debruyn, W.; Meuleman, K.; Kempeneers, P.; Neukom, A.; Feusi, H.; Adolph, P.; Moser, R.; Schilliger, T.; Kohler, P.; Meng, M.; Piesbergen, J.; Strobl, P.; Schaepman, M.E.; Gavira, J.; Ulbrich, G.J.; Meynart, R.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a joint Swiss/Belgian initiative started a project to build a new generation airborne imaging spectrometer, namely APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) under the ESA funding scheme named PRODEX. APEX is a dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the spectral range between 380 - 2

  2. Imaging the male reproductive tract: current trends and future directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Futterer, J.J.; Heijmink, S.W.T.P.J.; Spermon, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The male reproductive system encompasses several organs: the testes, ejaculatory ducts, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis. The function of this system is to accomplish reproduction. Diagnostic imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, CT, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET), are inc

  3. Current and future technological trends in positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, J S; Freifelder, R

    1992-04-01

    Current trends in positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation are examined, with an emphasis on providing information suitable to the prospective PET user. Basic principles underlying PET are explained and information on performance measurements, techniques, and quantitation are given in order to allow the user to compare and contrast different types of PET scanners. These scanner designs are described. Specific examples are given and the combination of PET with other modalities is discussed.

  4. Soulful Technologies. Everyday Aesthetics and Images in New Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

     Samsung introduced last year a mobile phone called "Soul" made with a human touch and including itself a "magic touch". Through the analysis of Nokia mobile phone TV commercials I want to examine the function and form of digital technology in everyday images.  The mobile phone, its digital camer...... commercials and internet commercials for mobile phones from Nokia, or handheld computers, as Sony-Ericsson prefers to call them. Digital technology points towards not only a post-human condition, but also a forgotten pre-human condition.     ...

  5. Scene projection technology development for imaging sensor testing at AEDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, H.; Fedde, M.; Crider, D.; Horne, H.; Bynum, K.; Steely, S.; Labello, J.

    2012-06-01

    Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is tasked with visible-to-LWIR imaging sensor calibration and characterization, as well as hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing with high-fidelity complex scene projection to validate sensor mission performance. They are thus involved in the development of technologies and methodologies that are used in space simulation chambers for such testing. These activities support a variety of program needs such as space situational awareness (SSA). This paper provides an overview of pertinent technologies being investigated and implemented at AEDC.

  6. Development of tools, technologies, and methodologies for imaging sensor testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, H.; Bynum, K.; Steely, S.; Nicholson, R.; Horne, H.

    2013-05-01

    Ground testing of space- and air-borne imaging sensor systems is supported by Vis-to-LWIR imaging sensor calibration and characterization, as well as hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation with high-fidelity complex scene projection to validate sensor mission performance. To accomplish this successfully, there must be the development of tools, technologies, and methodologies that are used in space simulation chambers for such testing. This paper provides an overview of such efforts being investigated and implemented at Arnold Engineering Development Complex (AEDC).

  7. Digital image processing using parallel computing based on CUDA technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnevskiy, I. P.; Pustovit, A. V.; Abdrashitova, M. O.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes expediency of using a graphics processing unit (GPU) in big data processing in the context of digital images processing. It provides a short description of a parallel computing technology and its usage in different areas, definition of the image noise and a brief overview of some noise removal algorithms. It also describes some basic requirements that should be met by certain noise removal algorithm in the projection to computer tomography. It provides comparison of the performance with and without using GPU as well as with different percentage of using CPU and GPU.

  8. Low Temperature Heat Source Utilization Current and Advanced Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, James H. Jr.; Dambly, Benjamin W.

    1992-06-01

    Once a geothermal heat source has been identified as having the potential for development, and its thermal, physical, and chemical characteristics have been determined, a method of utilization must be decided upon. This compendium will touch upon some of these concerns, and hopefully will provide the reader with a better understanding of technologies being developed that will be applicable to geothermal development in East Africa, as well as other parts of the world. The appendices contain detailed reports on Down-the-Well Turbo Pump, The Vapor-Turbine Cycle for Geothermal Power Generation, Heat Exchanger Design for Geothermal Power Plants, and a Feasibility Study of Combined Power and Water Desalting Plant Using Hot Geothermal Water. [DJE-2005

  9. Offline Chinese handwriting recognition :an assessment of current technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sargur N.Srihari; Xuanshen Yang; Gregory R.Ball

    2007-01-01

    Offline Chinese handwriting recognition (OCHR)is a typically difficult pattern recognition problem.Many authors have presented various approaches to recognizing its different aspects.We present a survey and an assessment of relevant papers appearing in recent publications of relevant conferences and journals,including those appearing in ICDAR,SDIUT,IWFHR,ICPR,PAMI,PR,PRL,SPIE-DRR,and IJDAR.The methods are assessed in the sense that we document their technical approaches,strengths,and weaknesses,as well as the data sets on which they were reportedly tested and on which results were generated.We also identify a list of technology gaps with respect to Chinese handwriting recognition and identify technical approaches that show promise in these areas as well as identify the leading researchers for the applicable topics,discussing difficulties associated with any given approach.

  10. Current approaches in SELEX: An update to aptamer selection technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmostuk, Mariia; Rimpelova, Silvie; Gbelcova, Helena; Ruml, Tomas

    2015-11-01

    Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) is a well-established and efficient technology for the generation of oligonucleotides with a high target affinity. These SELEX-derived single stranded DNA and RNA molecules, called aptamers, were selected against various targets, such as proteins, cells, microorganisms, chemical compounds etc. They have a great potential in the use as novel antibodies, in cancer theragnostics and in biomedical research. Vast interest in aptamers stimulated continuous development of SELEX, which underwent numerous modifications since its first application in 1990. Novel modifications made the selection process more efficient, cost-effective and significantly less time-consuming. This article brings a comprehensive and up-to-date review of recent advances in SELEX methods and pinpoints advantages, main obstacles and limitations. The post-SELEX strategies and examples of application are also briefly outlined in this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MicroRNA Detection: Current Technology and Research Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Eric A.; Broyles, David; Head, Trajen; Deo, Sapna K.

    2015-07-01

    The relatively new field of microRNA (miR) has experienced rapid growth in methodology associated with its detection and bioanalysis as well as with its role in -omics research, clinical diagnostics, and new therapeutic strategies. The breadth of this area of research and the seemingly exponential increase in number of publications on the subject can present scientists new to the field with a daunting amount of information to evaluate. This review aims to provide a collective overview of miR detection methods by relating conventional, established techniques [such as quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), microarray, and Northern blotting (NB)] and relatively recent advancements [such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), highly sensitive biosensors, and computational prediction of microRNA/targets] to common miR research strategies. This should guide interested readers toward a more focused study of miR research and the surrounding technology.

  12. Immobilized cell technology in beer brewing: Current experience and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leskošek-Čukalov Ida J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized cell technology (ICT has been attracting continual attention in the brewing industry over the past 30 years. Some of the reasons are: faster fermentation rates and increased volumetric productivity, compared to those of traditional beer production based on freely suspended cells, as well as the possibility of continuous operation. Nowadays, ICT technology is well established in secondary fermentation and alcohol- free and low-alcohol beer production. In main fermentation, the situation is more complex and this process is still under scrutiny on both the lab and pilot levels. The paper outlines the most important ICT processes developed for beer brewing and provides an overview of carrier materials, bioreactor design and examples of their industrial applications, as well as some recent results obtained by our research group. We investigated the possible applications of polyvinyl alcohol in the form of LentiKats®, as a potential porous matrices carrier for beer fermentation. Given are the results of growth studies of immobilized brewer's yeast Saccharomyces uvarum and the kinetic parameters obtained by using alginate microbeads with immobilized yeast cells and suspension of yeast cells as controls. The results indicate that the immobilization procedure in LentiKat® carriers has a negligible effect on cell viability and growth. The apparent specific growth rate of cells released in medium was comparable to that of freely suspended cells, implying preserved cell vitality. A series of batch fermentations performed in shaken flasks and an air-lift bioreactor indicated that the immobilized cells retained high fermentation activity. The full attenuation in green beer was reached after 48 hours in shaken flasks and less than 24 hours of fermentation in gas-lift bioreactors.

  13. Current Status on Stress Diagnostic Kit and Detection Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Mi Hee; Ko, Kyong Cheol

    2008-06-15

    The accurate measurement of a stress level is one of the most important issues in a stress diagnosis and its measurement could be of great value in clinical medicine. Stress has a potent effect on the spirit and physical condition of an individual. There are various methods available for its measurement. Some of the commonly used techniques for the diagnosis of a stress level include analysis of the body fluids, questionnaire assessments, psychophysiological evaluations and by determining heart rate variability (HRV) of subjects. However, the existing diagnostic methods have several defects like, a low sensitivity, inaccuracy and long of operation time. In this report, we present a diagnostic technology to detect a stress level which is the origin of various diseases. This method can be of great help in providing an early diagnosis through a biosensor and might play a vital role in preventing diseases like hypochondria and hypertension. Majority of the human population is exposed to stress in one way or another and hence developing a convenient stress diagnosis kit will be of great use to all. This stress diagnostic kit and detection technology dose not involve simple a mechanical measurement or questionnaires, but is based on developing a detection kit with a high sensitivity, which will mean an easy use for common man. Individuals can undergo regular check ups and can personally diagnose their present situation of health by determining their stress levels, thus enabling them to diagnose the early onset of several stress disorders. This might help them take precautionary measures and thereby lead to a healthy life.

  14. A Summary of Change Detection Technology of Remotely-Sensed Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Shilun

    2013-01-01

      ABSRACT:This paper will describe three aspects of change detection technology of remotely-sensed images. At first, the process of change detection is presented. Then, the author makes a summary of several common change detection methods and a brief review of the advantages and disadvantages of them. At the end of this paper, the applications and difficulty of current change detection techniques are discussed.

  15. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  16. Reprocessing semicritical items: Current issues and new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-05-02

    Semicritical medical devices are defined as items that come into contact with mucous membranes or nonintact skin (eg, gastrointestinal endoscopes, endocavitary probes). Such medical devices minimally require high-level disinfection. Because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods are usually used rather than steam sterilization. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because more outbreaks have been linked to inadequately cleaned or disinfected endoscopes and other semicritical items undergoing high-level disinfection than any other reusable medical device.

  17. Photo acoustic imaging: technology, systems and market trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, Marc; d'Humières, Benoît; Cochard, Jacques

    2017-03-01

    Although the Photo Acoustic effect was observed by Graham Bell in 1880, the first applications (gas analysis) occurred in 1970's using the required energetic light pulses from lasers. During mid 1990's medical imaging research begun to use Photo Acoustic effect and in vivo images were obtained in mid-2000. Since 2009, the number of patent related to Photo Acoustic Imaging (PAI) has dramatically increased. PAI machines for pre-clinical and small animal imaging have been being used in a routine way for several years. Based on its very interesting features (non-ionizing radiation, noninvasive, high depth resolution ratio, scalability, moderate price) and because it is able to deliver not only anatomical, but functional and molecular information, PAI is a very promising clinical imaging modality. It penetrates deeper into tissue than OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography) and provides a higher resolution than ultrasounds. The PAI is one of the most growing imaging modality and some innovative clinical systems are planned to be on market in 2017. Our study analyzes the different approaches such as photoacoustic computed tomography, 3D photoacoustic microscopy, multispectral photoacoustic tomography and endoscopy with the recent and tremendous technological progress over the past decade: advances in image reconstruction algorithms, laser technology, ultrasound detectors and miniaturization. We analyze which medical domains and applications are the most concerned and explain what should be the forthcoming medical system in the near future. We segment the market in four parts: Components and R&D, pre-clinical, analytics, clinical. We analyzed what should be, quantitatively and qualitatively, the PAI medical markets in each segment and its main trends. We point out the market accessibility (patents, regulations, clinical evaluations, clinical acceptance, funding). In conclusion, we explain the main market drivers and challenges to overcome and give a road map for medical

  18. Fast MR Spectroscopic Imaging Technologies and Data Reconstruction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGMin; LUSong-tao; LINJia-rui; ZHANYing-jian

    2004-01-01

    MRSI plays a more and more important role in clinical application. In this paper, we compare several fast MRSI technologies and data reconstruction methods. For the conventional phase encoding MRSI, the data reconstruction using FFT is simple. But the data acquisition is very time consuming and thus prohibitive in clinical settings. Up to now, the MRSI technologies based on echo-planar, spiral trajectories and sensitivity encoding are the fastest in data acquisition, but their data reconstruction is complex. EPSI reconstruction uses shift of odd and even echoes. Spiral SI uses gridding FFT. SENSE-SI, a new approach to reducing the acquisition time, uses the distinct spatial sensitivities of the individual coil elements to recover the missing encoding information. These improvements in data acquisition and image reconstruction provide a potential value of metabolic imaging as a clinical tool.

  19. Reconstruction of conductivity and current density images using only one component of magnetic field measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin Keun; Yoon, Jeong-Rock; Woo, Eung Je; Kwon, Ohin

    2003-09-01

    Magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI) is to provide current density images of a subject using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner with a current injection apparatus. The injection current generates a magnetic field that we can measure from MR phase images. We obtain internal current density images from the measured magnetic flux densities via Ampere's law. However, we must rotate the subject to acquire all of the three components of the induced magnetic flux density. This subject rotation is impractical in clinical MRI scanners when the subject is a human body. In this paper, we propose a way to eliminate the requirement of subject rotation by careful mathematical analysis of the MRCDI problem. In our new MRCDI technique, we need to measure only one component of the induced magnetic flux density and reconstruct both cross-sectional conductivity and current density images without any subject rotation.

  20. Lymph node-positive prostate cancer: current issues, emerging technology and impact on clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Julia; Cheng, Liang

    2011-09-01

    Lymph node metastasis in patients with prostate cancer indicates a poorer prognosis compared with patients without lymph node metastasis; however, some patients with node-positive disease have long-term survival. Many studies have attempted to discern what characteristics of lymph node metastasis are prognostically significant. These characteristics include nodal tumor volume, number of positive lymph nodes, lymph node density, extranodal extension, lymphovascular invasion and tumor dedifferentiation. Favorable characteristics of regional lymph node involvement included a smaller tumor size and smaller tumor volume. However, the current staging system for prostate cancer does not provide different subclassifications for patients with node-positive prostate cancer. In recent years numerous advanced technologies for the detection of lymph node metastasis have been developed, including molecular imaging techniques and the CellSearch Circulating Tumor Cell System. With the increased detection of patients with prostate cancer, emergence of new technology to identify lymph node metastasis and the number of radical prostatectomies being performed on the rise, subclassifying patients with lymph node-positive disease is imperative. Subclassification would provide a better picture of patient prognosis and allow for a better understanding of targeted therapies to treat patients with lymph node metastasis.

  1. Thermal imaging for current D&S priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Robert; Parsons, John F.

    2012-11-01

    Supplying thermal imagers for today's operational needs requires flexibility, responsiveness and ever reducing costs. This paper will use the latest thermal imager development in the Catherine range from Thales UK to address the technical interactions with such issues as modularity, re-use, regions of deployment and supply chain management. All this is in the context of the increasingly public operations and the pressures on validating performance especially when weapon aiming is involved.

  2. Current and Future Lymphatic Imaging Modalities for Tumor Staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Murtaza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor progression is supported by the lymphatic system which should be scanned efficiently for tumor staging as well as the enhanced therapeutic outcomes. Poor resolution and low sensitivity is a limitation of traditional lymphatic imaging modalities; thus new noninvasive approaches like nanocarriers, magnetic resonance imaging, positron-emission tomography, and quantum dots are advantageous. Some newer modalities, which are under development, and their potential uses will also be discussed in this review.

  3. HD Photo: a new image coding technology for digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sridhar; Tu, Chengjie; Regunathan, Shankar L.; Sullivan, Gary J.

    2007-09-01

    This paper introduces the HD Photo coding technology developed by Microsoft Corporation. The storage format for this technology is now under consideration in the ITU-T/ISO/IEC JPEG committee as a candidate for standardization under the name JPEG XR. The technology was developed to address end-to-end digital imaging application requirements, particularly including the needs of digital photography. HD Photo includes features such as good compression capability, high dynamic range support, high image quality capability, lossless coding support, full-format 4:4:4 color sampling, simple thumbnail extraction, embedded bitstream scalability of resolution and fidelity, and degradation-free compressed domain support of key manipulations such as cropping, flipping and rotation. HD Photo has been designed to optimize image quality and compression efficiency while also enabling low-complexity encoding and decoding implementations. To ensure low complexity for implementations, the design features have been incorporated in a way that not only minimizes the computational requirements of the individual components (including consideration of such aspects as memory footprint, cache effects, and parallelization opportunities) but results in a self-consistent design that maximizes the commonality of functional processing components.

  4. CMOS Imaging Sensor Technology for Aerial Mapping Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Klaus; Welzenbach, Martin; Timm, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In June 2015 Leica Geosystems launched the first large format aerial mapping camera using CMOS sensor technology, the Leica DMC III. This paper describes the motivation to change from CCD sensor technology to CMOS for the development of this new aerial mapping camera. In 2002 the DMC first generation was developed by Z/I Imaging. It was the first large format digital frame sensor designed for mapping applications. In 2009 Z/I Imaging designed the DMC II which was the first digital aerial mapping camera using a single ultra large CCD sensor to avoid stitching of smaller CCDs. The DMC III is now the third generation of large format frame sensor developed by Z/I Imaging and Leica Geosystems for the DMC camera family. It is an evolution of the DMC II using the same system design with one large monolithic PAN sensor and four multi spectral camera heads for R,G, B and NIR. For the first time a 391 Megapixel large CMOS sensor had been used as PAN chromatic sensor, which is an industry record. Along with CMOS technology goes a range of technical benefits. The dynamic range of the CMOS sensor is approx. twice the range of a comparable CCD sensor and the signal to noise ratio is significantly better than with CCDs. Finally results from the first DMC III customer installations and test flights will be presented and compared with other CCD based aerial sensors.

  5. Industrial applications and current trends in supercritical fluid technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamse Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluids have a great potential for wide fields of processes Although CO2 is still one of the most used supercritical gases, for special purposes propane or even fluorinated-chlorinated fluids have also been tested. The specific characteristics of supercritical fluids behaviour were analyzed such as for example the solubilities of different components and the phase equilibria between the solute and solvent. The application at industrial scale (decaffeinating of tea and coffee, hop extraction or removal of pesticides from rice, activity in supercritical extraction producing total extract from the raw material or different fractions by using the fractionated separation of beverages (rum, cognac, whisky, wine, beer cider, of citrus oils and of lipids (fish oils, tall oil were also discussed. The main interest is still for the extraction of natural raw materials producing food ingredients, nutraceuticals and phytopharmaceuticals but also cleaning purposes were tested such as the decontamination of soils the removal of residual solvents from pharmaceutical products, the extraction of flame retardants from electronic waste or precision degreasing and cleaning of mechanical and electronic parts. An increasing interest obviously exists for impregnation purposes based on supercritical fluids behaviour, as well as for the dying of fibres and textiles. The production of fine particles in the micron and submicron range, mainly for pharmaceutical products is another important application of supercritical fluids. Completely new products can be produced which is not possible under normal conditions. Supercritical fluid technology has always had to compete with the widespread opinion that these processes are very expensive due to very high investment costs in comparison with classical low-pressure equipment. Thus the opinion is that these processes should be restricted to high-added value products. A cost estimation for different plant sizes and

  6. Silicon and Plants: Current Knowledge and Technological Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Marie; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Lutts, Stanley; Guerriero, Gea

    2017-01-01

    Elemental silicon (Si), after oxygen, is the second most abundant element in the earth’s crust, which is mainly composed of silicates. Si is not considered essential for plant growth and development, however, increasing evidence in the literature shows that this metalloid is beneficial to plants, especially under stress conditions. Indeed Si alleviates the toxic effects caused by abiotic stresses, e.g., salt stress, drought, heavy metals, to name a few. Biogenic silica is also a deterrent against herbivores. Additionally, Si ameliorates the vigor of plants and improves their resistance to exogenous stresses. The protective role of Si was initially attributed to a physical barrier fortifying the cell wall (e.g., against fungal hyphae penetration), however, several studies have shown that the action of this element on plants is far more complex, as it involves a cross-talk with the cell interior and an effect on plant metabolism. In this study the beneficial role of Si on plants will be discussed, by reviewing the available data in the literature. Emphasis will be given to the protective role of Si during (a)biotic stresses and in this context both priming and the effects of Si on endogenous phytohormones will be discussed. A whole section will be devoted to the use of silica (SiO2) nanoparticles, in the light of the interest that nanotechnology has for agriculture. The paper also discusses the potential technological aspects linked to the use of Si in agriculture and to modify/improve the physical parameters of plant fibers. The study indeed provides perspectives on the use of Si to increase the yield of fiber crops and to improve the thermal stability and tensile strength of natural fibers.

  7. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyu Sup; Choi, Young Min

    2016-03-01

    The number of assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinics, ART cycles, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), and number of newborns conceived using ART have steadily increased in South Korea. This aim of this study was to describe the status of ART in South Korea between January 1 and December 31, 2011. A localized online survey was created and sent to all available ART centers via email in 2015. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized depending on whether standard in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or half-ICSI procedures were used. Thawed embryo transfer (TET) and other related procedures were surveyed. Data from 36,990 ART procedures were provided by 74 clinics. Of the 30,410 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, a complete transfer was performed in 91.0% (n=27,683). In addition, 9,197 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, representing a pregnancy rate of 30.2% per oocyte pick-up and 33.2% per ET. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET procedures was three (38.1%), followed by two (34.7%) and one (14.3%). Of the 8,826 TET cycles, 3,137 clinical pregnancies (31.1%) were confirmed by ultrasonography. While the overall clinical pregnancy rate for the TET cycles performed was lower than the rate reported in 2010 (31.1% vs. 35.4%), the overall CPR for the FET cycles was higher than in 2010 (33.2% in 2011 and 32.9% in 2010). The most common number of embryos transferred in FET cycles was three, as was the case in 2010.

  8. Application of Particle Image Velocimetry Technology in Water Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A display and analysis system for hermetical flow field in water tunnel is developed based on the particle image velocimetry(PIV) technology. It consists of some subsystems, such as lamp-house, imaging, image processing and analyzing, control and particles putting. Taking the flow fields around a sphere and a cylinder model as an example under higher Renolds number 5.8 × 105 in water tunnel, we inquired into the application of the system to water tunnel experiment by cross correlation algorithm. The measure error is less than 2 %. The test results show that the developed system can measure and display the flow field accurately in complex flow field without touching and disturbing. The research work indicates that PIV has lots of potential applications in the underwater flow field measurement.

  9. Imaging technologies for preclinical models of bone and joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremoleda, Jordi L; Khalil, Magdy; Gompels, Luke L; Wylezinska-Arridge, Marzena; Vincent, Tonia; Gsell, Willy

    2011-07-29

    Preclinical models for musculoskeletal disorders are critical for understanding the pathogenesis of bone and joint disorders in humans and the development of effective therapies. The assessment of these models primarily relies on morphological analysis which remains time consuming and costly, requiring large numbers of animals to be tested through different stages of the disease. The implementation of preclinical imaging represents a keystone in the refinement of animal models allowing longitudinal studies and enabling a powerful, non-invasive and clinically translatable way for monitoring disease progression in real time. Our aim is to highlight examples that demonstrate the advantages and limitations of different imaging modalities including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and optical imaging. All of which are in current use in preclinical skeletal research. MRI can provide high resolution of soft tissue structures, but imaging requires comparatively long acquisition times; hence, animals require long-term anaesthesia. CT is extensively used in bone and joint disorders providing excellent spatial resolution and good contrast for bone imaging. Despite its excellent structural assessment of mineralized structures, CT does not provide in vivo functional information of ongoing biological processes. Nuclear medicine is a very promising tool for investigating functional and molecular processes in vivo with new tracers becoming available as biomarkers. The combined use of imaging modalities also holds significant potential for the assessment of disease pathogenesis in animal models of musculoskeletal disorders, minimising the use of conventional invasive methods and animal redundancy.

  10. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  11. Computational structures technology at Grumman: Current practice/future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Eidinoff, Harvey

    1992-05-01

    The current practice for the design analysis of new airframe structural systems is to construct a master finite element model of the vehicle in order to develop internal load distributions. The inputs to this model include the geometry which is taken directly from CADAM and CATIA structural layout and aerodynamic loads and mass distribution computer models. This master model is sufficiently detailed to define major load paths and for the computation of dynamic mode shapes and structural frequencies, but not detailed enough to define local stress gradients and notch stresses. This master model is then used to perform structural optimization studies that will provide minimum weights for major structural members. The post-processed output from the master model, load, stress, and strain analysis is then used by structural analysts to perform detailed stress analysis of local regions in order to design local structure with all its required details. This local analysis consists of hand stress analysis and life prediction analysis with the assistance of manuals, design charts, computer stress and structural life analysis and sometimes finite element or boundary element analysis. The resulting design is verified by fatigue tests.

  12. Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds technology: current use and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacchi G

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Giacchi, Luis Ortega-Paz, Salvatore Brugaletta, Kohki Ishida, Manel Sabaté Cardiology Department, Clinic Cardiovascular Institute, Hospital Clinic, August Pi and Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Coronary bioresorbable vascular scaffolds are a new appealing therapeutic option in interventional cardiology. The most used and studied is currently the Absorb BVS™. Its backbone is made of poly-l-lactide and coated by a thin layer of poly-d,l-lactide, it releases everolimus and is fully degraded to H2O and CO2 in 2–3 years. Absorb BVS™ seems to offer several theoretical advantages over metallic stent, as it gives temporary mechanical support to vessel wall without permanently caging it. Therefore, long-term endothelial function and structure are not affected. A possible future surgical revascularization is not compromised. Natural vasomotion in response to external stimuli is also recovered. Several observational and randomized trials have been published about BVS clinical outcomes. The main aim of this review is to carry out a systematic analysis about Absorb BVS™ studies, evaluating also the technical improvements of the Absorb GT1 BVS™. Keywords: Absorb GT1, Absorb BVS™, bioresorbable vascular scaffold, BRS, coronary scaffold

  13. Beyond the current noise limit in imaging through turbulent medium

    CERN Document Server

    Popowicz, A; Pollo, A; Smolka, B

    2015-01-01

    Shift-and-add is an approach employed to mitigate the phenomenon of resolution degradation in images acquired through a turbulent medium. Using this technique, a large number of consecutive short exposures is registered below the coherence time of the atmosphere or other blurring medium. The acquired images are shifted to the position of the brightest speckle and stacked together to obtain high-resolution and high signal-to-noise frame. In this paper we present a highly efficient method for determination of frames shifts, even if in a single frame the object cannot be distinguished from the background noise. The technique utilizes our custom genetic algorithm, which iteratively evolves a set of image shifts. We used the maximal energy of stacked images as an objective function for shifts estimation and validate the efficiency of the method on simulated and real images of simple and complex sources. Obtained results confirmed, that our proposed method allows for the recovery of spatial distribution of objects ...

  14. Imaging in primary penile cancer: current status and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochhar, Rohit; Taylor, Ben [Christie, NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sangar, Vijay [Christie, NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Urology, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Penile cancer is a rare neoplasm in the developed world. Clinical assessment often results in inaccurate staging and radiological techniques have a key role in staging and postoperative assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicts penile anatomy in detail and is the most accurate technique for local staging and postoperative follow-up. MRI and ultrasound (US), although helpful for assessment of lymph nodes, are not reliable enough for accurate nodal staging. US-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), however, remains a valuable tool to confirm metastases in suspicious inguinal nodes. Lymphoscintigraphy with dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB) is a promising technique used to predict occult lymph node metastases. Novel imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) and nanoparticle enhanced MRI have high sensitivity and specificity for lymph node metastases but their availability is limited and clinical utility is not fully established. The radiologist needs to be familiar with the normal penile anatomy, imaging appearances of pre- and post-treatment penile cancer, and the advantages and limitations of the available imaging techniques. This review highlights the above points and presents a systematic approach to make the best use of imaging in the management of patients with penile cancer. (orig.)

  15. Three-dimensional imaging technologies: a priority for the advancement of tissue engineering and a challenge for the imaging community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodori, Laura; Crupi, Annunziata; Costa, Alessandra; Diaspro, Alberto; Melzer, Susanne; Tarnok, Attila

    2017-01-01

    Tissue engineering/regenerative medicine (TERM) is an interdisciplinary field that applies the principle of engineering and life sciences to restore/replace damaged tissues/organs with in vitro artificially-created ones. Research on TERM quickly moves forward. Today newest technologies and discoveries, such as 3D-/bio-printing, allow in vitro fabrication of ex-novo made tissues/organs, opening the door to wide and probably never-ending application possibilities, from organ transplant to drug discovery, high content screening and replacement of laboratory animals. Imaging techniques are fundamental tools for the characterization of tissue engineering (TE) products at any stage, from biomaterial/scaffold to construct/organ analysis. Indeed, tissue engineers need versatile imaging methods capable of monitoring not only morphological but also functional and molecular features, allowing three-dimensional (3D) and time-lapse in vivo analysis, in a non-destructive, quantitative, multidimensional analysis of TE constructs, to analyze their pre-implantation quality assessment and their fate after implantation. This review focuses on the newest developments in imaging technologies and applications in the context of requirements of the different steps of the TERM field, describing strengths and weaknesses of the current imaging approaches.

  16. Particle Image Velocimetry Study of Density Current Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Juan Ezequiel

    2009-01-01

    Gravity currents are flows that occur when a horizontal density difference causes fluid to move under the action of gravity; density currents are a particular case, for which the scalar causing the density difference is conserved. Flows with a strong effect of the horizontal density difference, even if only partially driven by it--such as the…

  17. Role of diffusion weighted imaging in musculoskeletal infections: Current perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Yogesh [Yale New Haven Health System at Bridgeport Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bridgeport, CT (United States); Khaleel, Mohammad [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States); Boothe, Ethan; Awdeh, Haitham [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Wadhwa, Vibhor [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Little Rock, AR (United States); Chhabra, Avneesh [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Accurate diagnosis and prompt therapy of musculoskeletal infections are important prognostic factors. In most cases, clinical history, examination and laboratory findings help one make the diagnosis, and routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to identify the extent of the disease process. However, in many situations, a routine MRI may not be specific enough especially if the patient cannot receive contrast intravenously, thereby delaying the appropriate treatment. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can help in many such situations by providing additional information, accurate characterization and defining the extent of the disease, so that prompt treatment can be initiated. In this article, we illustrate the imaging findings of the spectrum of musculoskeletal infections, emphasizing the role of DWI in this domain. (orig.)

  18. Use of Digital Image Technology to 'Clearly' Depict Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, B. F.; Carbo, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Earth is dynamic and beautiful. Understanding why, when, how, and how fast its surface changes yields information and serves as a source of inspiration. The artistic use of geoscience information can inform the public about what is happening to their planet in a non-confrontational and apolitical way. While individual images may clearly depict a landscape, photographic comparisons are necessary to clearly capture and display annual, decadal, or century-scale impacts of climate and environmental change on Earth's landscapes. After years of effort to artistically communicate geoscience concepts with unenhanced individual photographs or pairs of images, the authors have partnered to maximize this process by using digital image enhancement technology. This is done, not to manipulate the inherent artistic content or information content of the photographs, but to insure that the comparative photo pairs produced are geometrically correct and unambiguous. For comparative photography, information-rich historical photographs are selected from archives, websites, and other sources. After determining the geographic location from which the historical photograph was made, the original site is identified and eventually revisited. There, the historical photos field of view is again photographed, ideally from the original location. From nearly 250 locations revisited, about 175 pairs have been produced. Every effort is made to reoccupy the original historical site. However, vegetation growth, visibility reduction, and co-seismic level change may make this impossible. Also, inherent differences in lens optics, camera construction, and image format may result in differences in the geometry of the new photograph when compared to the old. Upon selection, historical photos are cleaned, contrast stretched, brightness adjusted, and sharpened to maximize site identification and information extraction. To facilitate matching historical and new images, digital files of each are overlain in

  19. From Science History and Applications Developments of Life System to Bio-Imaging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Li-min; LOU Wei; HE Guo-sen

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents brief science history and application developments of imaging technology,and discusses the bio-imaging technology. Real-time image measurement techniques and parallel processing of a realistic example is given. Finally coming converging technology of nano-bio-Info-cgno (NBIC) is extended for future trend.

  20. Osteomyelitis: a review of currently used imaging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammak, B.; Abd El Bagi, M; Al Shahed, M.; Al Nabulsi, J.; Youssef, B.; Al Thagafi, M. [Department of Radiology, Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Hamilton, D. [Department of Medical Physics, Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital (Saudi Arabia)

    1999-06-01

    Conventional radiographs remain the initial imaging modality involved in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Bone scintigraphy and its specific agents did not only eliminate the problems of inherent low sensitivity of conventional radiographs, but also increased the specificity to higher degrees. Spiral CT, on the other hand, has solved several diagnostic problems, such as osteomyelitis of the sterno-clavicular junction and hidden areas in the pelvic bones. Magnetic resonance imaging with its multiplanar capability, greater anatomic details and excellent soft tissue bone marrow contrast resolution has a significant role in surgical planning and limb preservation. Ultrasound and US-guided aspiration has recently been involved in the diagnosis and management of osteomyelitis with several advantages particularly in children. Our goal in this review is to outline the ability of various imaging techniques by comparing their strengths and weaknesses in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Finally, we suggest various imaging algorithms for specific clinical scenarios. Spondylitis and septic arthritis are not discussed in this review. (orig.) With 7 figs., 43 refs.

  1. Ultrasonic medical imaging: past, current, and future (Keynote Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, John M.

    2005-04-01

    Ultrasonic imaging began, like life, in the sea, with the development of sonar for detecting submarines after World-War 1. However, to begin to image soft tissues the ranging time of ocean sonars needed to be reduced, and the electronics speeded up, by a factor of about the ratio between nautical miles and centimeters. This was only possible after the electronic developments made for radar in World-War 2. The rest of our technical history closely follows the developments in semiconductors and fabrication methods that led to modern electronics. This is a largely personal story of a recently graduated engineer with radar experience, who began with fabricating equipment to be used in the hospital to diagnose breast cancer, and continued with involvement the development of echocardiography and Doppler devices. Along the way many others have contributed to the field, including work in other countries that is not covered here. In future, ultrasonic imaging may hold the key to understanding some fundamental questions in human health if adopted for screening studies. It alone offers a relatively inexpensive imaging method that is free of known hazards.

  2. Spine imaging after lumbar disc replacement: pitfalls and current recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandén Bengt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most lumbar artificial discs are still composed of stainless steel alloys, which prevents adequate postoperative diagnostic imaging of the operated region when using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Thus patients with postoperative radicular symptoms or claudication after stainless steel implants often require alternative diagnostic procedures. Methods Possible complications of lumbar total disc replacement (TDR are reviewed from the available literature and imaging recommendations given with regard to implant type. Two illustrative cases are presented in figures. Results Access-related complications, infections, implant wear, loosening or fracture, polyethylene inlay dislodgement, facet joint hypertrophy, central stenosis, and ankylosis of the operated segment can be visualised both in titanium and stainless steel implants, but require different imaging modalities due to magnetic artifacts in MRI. Conclusion Alternative radiographic procedures should be considered when evaluating patients following TDR. Postoperative complications following lumbar TDR including spinal stenosis causing radiculopathy and implant loosening can be visualised by myelography and radionucleotide techniques as an adjunct to plain film radiographs. Even in the presence of massive stainless steel TDR implants lumbar radicular stenosis and implant loosening can be visualised if myelography and radionuclide techniques are applied.

  3. Current Density Imaging through Acoustically Encoded Magnetometry: A Theoretical Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Sheltraw, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    The problem of determining a current density confined to a volume from measurements of the magnetic field it produces exterior to that volume is known to have non-unique solutions. To uniquely determine the current density, or the non-silent components of it, additional spatial encoding of the electric current is needed. In biological systems such as the brain and heart, which generate electric current associated with normal function, a reliable means of generating such additional encoding, on a spatial and temporal scale meaningful to the study of such systems, would be a boon for research. This paper explores a speculative method by which the required additional encoding might be accomplished, on the time scale associated with the propagation of sound across the volume of interest, by means of the application of a radially encoding pulsed acoustic spherical wave.

  4. Problems forming innovative-technological image of russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Markovna Golova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, actual problems of innovative-technological image as a key element of the mechanism of the healing sources of socioeconomic development of the Russian regionsare considered. The author gives an assessment of the level of differentiation of subjects of the Russian Federation on the potential for innovative development. Trends in spatial transformations of thescientific and technical and innovation capacities of the country are analyzedand reasons of low innovational activity of Russian enterprises are disclosed. Basic conditions for the success of actions to create an attractive image of innovative-technological territory are formulated. Special attention is paid to the position of regions as participants in the innovational processes, creating preconditions for creativity, harmonization of spatial priorities of innovation, technological and socio-economic development, support for the development of new high-tech industries, improvement of inter-budgetary relations. There are proved priority areas of state policy to reduce barriers to the realization of an innovative paradigm for development of Russian society and effective inclusion of local communities in the implementation of innovative changes.

  5. Medical image digital archive: a comparison of storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunn, Timothy; Hutchings, Matt

    1998-07-01

    A cost effective, high capacity digital archive system is one of the remaining key factors that will enable a radiology department to eliminate film as an archive medium. The ever increasing amount of digital image data is creating the need for huge archive systems that can reliably store and retrieve millions of images and hold from a few terabytes of data to possibly hundreds of terabytes. Selecting the right archive solution depends on a number of factors: capacity requirements, write and retrieval performance requirements, scaleability in capacity and performance, conformance to open standards, archive availability and reliability, security, cost, achievable benefits and cost savings, investment protection, and more. This paper addresses many of these issues. It compares and positions optical disk and magnetic tape technologies, which are the predominant archive mediums today. New technologies will be discussed, such as DVD and high performance tape. Price and performance comparisons will be made at different archive capacities, plus the effect of file size on random and pre-fetch retrieval time will be analyzed. The concept of automated migration of images from high performance, RAID disk storage devices to high capacity, NearlineR storage devices will be introduced as a viable way to minimize overall storage costs for an archive.

  6. The technology of generating infrared image based on electric heating film technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan; Feng, Yun-song; Qiao, Ya

    2011-08-01

    The technology of generating infrared image based on electric heating film technology by its resistance per unit area was studied. A Lifgt-off-road vehicle was used as an object to be simulated. An infrared thermograph was used to photography the light-off-road vehicle from a specific corner. As a result several infrared images of the light-off-road vehicle were obtained and the thermal distribution of the vehicle was also obtained at the same time. A matlab program was used to process the image. The image was divided into several areas according to its grey level. Each area has its own temperature range. The average temperature of each area was calculated. A thermal balance equation was established according to the average temperature of each area and the environment temperature. By solving these equations, the radiant existances of these areas were gotten. The heating power per unit area of these areas was calculated. The electric heating film was preparation accordingly. The power was applied on the film and the infrared thermograph was used to observe it. The infrared image of the film has a high similarity with the true light-off-road vehicle's.

  7. Advances in biomedical imaging using THz technology with applications to burn-wound assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Priyamvada; Kealey, Colin; Sung, Jun; Maccabi, Ashkan; Bajwa, Neha; Singh, Rahul; Culjat, Martin; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2012-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) hydration sensing and image has been a topic of increased interest recently due largely to improvements in source and detector technology and the identification of applications where current hydration sensing techniques are insufficient. THz medical imaging is an expanding field of research and tissue hydration plays a key role in the contrast observed in THz tissue reflectance and absorbance maps. This paper outlines the most recent results in burn and corneal imaging where hydration maps were used to assess tissue status. A 3 day study was carried out in rat models where a THz imaging system was used to assess the severity and extent of burn throughout the first day of injury and at the 24, 48, and 72 hour time points. Marked difference in tissue reflectance were observed between the partial and full thickness burns and image features were identified that may be used as diagnostic markers for burn severity. Companion histological analysis performed on tissue excised on Day 3 confirms hypothesized burn severity. The results of these preliminary animal trials suggest that THz imaging may be useful in burn wound assessment where current clinical modalities have resolution and/or sensitivity insufficient for accurate diagnostics.

  8. Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma: Current Functional and Future Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise M Blanchet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paragangliomas are neural crest-derived tumors, arising either from chromaffin sympathetic tissue (in adrenal, abdominal, intra-pelvic or thoracic paraganglia or from parasympathetic tissue (in head and neck paraganglia. They have a specific cellular metabolism, with the ability to synthesize, store and secrete catecholamines (although most head and neck paragangliomas do not secrete any catecholamines. This disease is rare and also very heterogeneous, with various presentations (e.g., in regards to localization, multifocality, potential to metastasize, biochemical phenotype, and genetic background. With growing knowledge, notably about the pathophysiology and genetic background, guidelines are evolving rapidly. In this context, functional imaging is a challenge for the management of paragangliomas.Nuclear imaging has been used for exploring paragangliomas for the last three decades, with MIBG historically as the first-line exam. Tracers used in paragangliomas can be grouped in three different categories. Agents that specifically target catecholamine synthesis, storage, and secretion pathways include: 123 and 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123/131I-MIBG, 18F-fluorodopamine (18F-FDA, and 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-FDOPA. Agents that bind somatostatin receptors include 111In-pentetreotide and 68Ga-labelled somatostatin analog peptides. The non-specific agent most commonly used in paragangliomas is 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG. This review will first describe conventional scintigraphic exams that are used for imaging paragangliomas. In the second part we will emphasize the interest in new PET approaches (specific and non-specific, considering the growing knowledge about genetic background and pathophysiology, with the aim of understanding how tumors behave, and optimally adjusting imaging technique for each tumor type.

  9. Amyloid plaque imaging in vivo: current achievement and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Agneta [Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-03-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a very complex neurodegenerative disorder, the exact cause of which is still not known. The major histopathological features, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, already described by Alois Alzheimer, have been the focus in research for decades. Despite a probable whole cascade of events in the brain leading to impairment of cognition, amyloid is still the target for diagnosis and treatment. The rapid development of molecular imaging techniques now allows imaging of amyloid plaques in vivo in Alzheimer patients by PET amyloid ligands such as Pittsburgh compound B (PIB). Studies so far have revealed high {sup 11}C-PIB retention in brain at prodromal stages of AD and a possibility to discriminate AD from other dementia disorders by {sup 11}C-PIB. Ongoing studies are focussing to understand the relationship between brain and CSF amyloid processes and cognitive processes. In vivo imaging of amyloid will be important for early diagnosis and evaluation of new anti-amyloid therapies in AD. (orig.)

  10. EHV systems technology - A look at the principles and current status. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the basic principles and practices of systems engineering is undertaken in the context of their application to the component and subsystem technologies involved in electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) development. The limitations of purely electric vehicles are contrasted with hybrid, heat engine-incorporating vehicle technology, which is inherently more versatile. A hybrid vehicle concept assessment methodology is presented which employs current technology and yet fully satisfies U.S. Department of Energy petroleum displacement goals.

  11. Technologies Required to Image Earth 2.0 with a Space Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) guides the development of technology that enables the direct imaging and characterization of exo-Earths in the habitable zone of their stars for future space observatories. Here we present the coronagraph portion of the 2017 ExEP Technology Gap List, an annual update to ExEP's list of of technologies, to be advanced in the next 1-5 years. A coronagraph is an internal occulter that allows a space telescope to achieve exo-Earth imaging contrast requirements (more than 10 billion) by blocking on-axis starlight while allowing the reflected light of off-axis exoplanets be detected. Building and operating a space coronagraph capable of imaging an exo-Earth will require new technologies beyond those of WFIRST, the first high-contrast conronagraph in space. We review the current state-of-the-art performance of space coronagraphs and the performance level that must be achieved for a coronagraph..

  12. Current Challenges in Integrating Educational Technology into Elementary and Middle School Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Sandra Y.; Jamalian, Azadeh

    2011-01-01

    Developing curriculum and instruction for mathematics education and designing technologically enhanced learning environments are often pursued separately, but may need to be addressed together to effectively link the strengths of technology to performance in mathematics and conceptual understanding. This paper addresses current challenges with…

  13. Current Technology Trends and Issues among Health and Physical Education Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jennifer M.; Franks, Hillary; Lynch, Brandy

    2017-01-01

    Health and physical education professionals who implement technology appropriately can contribute to helping students become physically educated individuals (NASPE, 2009). It is imperative that professionals be knowledgeable and resourceful in how to integrate technology effectively, but it is unclear what current challenges professionals face in…

  14. Large geospatial images discovery: metadata model and technological framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Brůha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The advancements in geospatial web technology triggered efforts for disclosure of valuable resources of historical collections. This paper focuses on the role of spatial data infrastructures (SDI in such efforts. The work describes the interplay between SDI technologies and potential use cases in libraries such as cartographic heritage. The metadata model is introduced to link up the sources from these two distinct fields. To enhance the data search capabilities, the work focuses on the representation of the content-based metadata of raster images, which is the crucial prerequisite to target the search in a more effective way. The architecture of the prototype system for automatic raster data processing, storage, analysis and distribution is introduced. The architecture responds to the characteristics of input datasets, namely to the continuous flow of very large raster data and related metadata. Proposed solutions are illustrated on the case study of cartometric analysis of digitised early maps and related metadata encoding.

  15. A novel rain removal technology based on video image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Piao, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Due to the effect of bad weather conditions, it often conducts visual distortions on images for outdoor vision systems. Rain is one specific example of bad weather. Generally, rain streak is small and falls at high velocity. Traditional rain removal methods often cause blued visual effect. In addition, there is high time complexity. Moreover, some rain streaks are still in the de-rained image. Based on the characteristics of rain streak, a novel rain removal technology is proposed. The proposed method is not only removing the rain streak effectively, but also retaining much detail information. The experiments show that the proposed method outperform traditional rain removal methods. It can be widely used in intelligent traffic, civilian surveillance and national security so on.

  16. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging: technology update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) retinal imaging has become very popular in the past few years, especially within the ophthalmic research community. Several different retinal techniques, such as fundus imaging cameras or optical coherence tomography systems, have been coupled with AO in order to produce impressive images showing individual cell mosaics over different layers of the in vivo human retina. The combination of AO with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy has been extensively used to generate impressive images of the human retina with unprecedented resolution, showing individual photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, as well as microscopic capillary vessels, or the nerve fiber layer. Over the past few years, the technique has evolved to develop several different applications not only in the clinic but also in different animal models, thanks to technological developments in the field. These developments have specific applications to different fields of investigation, which are not limited to the study of retinal diseases but also to the understanding of the retinal function and vision science. This review is an attempt to summarize these developments in an understandable and brief manner in order to guide the reader into the possibilities that AO scanning laser ophthalmoscopy offers, as well as its limitations, which should be taken into account when planning on using it.

  17. Identification of Alfalfa Leaf Diseases Using Image Recognition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feng; Liu, Dongxia; Sun, Bingda; Ruan, Liu; Ma, Zhanhong; Wang, Haiguang

    2016-01-01

    Common leaf spot (caused by Pseudopeziza medicaginis), rust (caused by Uromyces striatus), Leptosphaerulina leaf spot (caused by Leptosphaerulina briosiana) and Cercospora leaf spot (caused by Cercospora medicaginis) are the four common types of alfalfa leaf diseases. Timely and accurate diagnoses of these diseases are critical for disease management, alfalfa quality control and the healthy development of the alfalfa industry. In this study, the identification and diagnosis of the four types of alfalfa leaf diseases were investigated using pattern recognition algorithms based on image-processing technology. A sub-image with one or multiple typical lesions was obtained by artificial cutting from each acquired digital disease image. Then the sub-images were segmented using twelve lesion segmentation methods integrated with clustering algorithms (including K_means clustering, fuzzy C-means clustering and K_median clustering) and supervised classification algorithms (including logistic regression analysis, Naive Bayes algorithm, classification and regression tree, and linear discriminant analysis). After a comprehensive comparison, the segmentation method integrating the K_median clustering algorithm and linear discriminant analysis was chosen to obtain lesion images. After the lesion segmentation using this method, a total of 129 texture, color and shape features were extracted from the lesion images. Based on the features selected using three methods (ReliefF, 1R and correlation-based feature selection), disease recognition models were built using three supervised learning methods, including the random forest, support vector machine (SVM) and K-nearest neighbor methods. A comparison of the recognition results of the models was conducted. The results showed that when the ReliefF method was used for feature selection, the SVM model built with the most important 45 features (selected from a total of 129 features) was the optimal model. For this SVM model, the

  18. Fetal imaging and therapy for CDH-Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluyomi-Obi, Titilayo; Van Mieghem, Tim; Ryan, Greg

    2017-06-01

    In congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), herniation of the abdominal organs into the fetal chest causes pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension, the main causes of neonatal mortality. As antenatal ultrasound screening improves, the risk of postnatal death can now be better predicted, allowing for the identification of fetuses that might most benefit from a prenatal intervention. Fetoscopic tracheal occlusion is being evaluated in a large international randomized controlled trial. We present the antenatal imaging approaches that can help identify fetuses that might benefit from antenatal therapy, and review the evolution of fetal surgery for CDH to date. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The current state and future of fetal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Romy; Kasprian, Gregor; Brugger, Peter C; Prayer, Daniela

    2009-09-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may add important diagnostic information to prenatal sonography and has the power to confirm or change decisions at critical points in clinical care. Recent studies have shown MRI to be a critical clinical adjunct in the evaluation of the developing central nervous system (CNS), especially at early gestational ages, and MRI has been used in three significant ways: (1) for the quantification of brain growth and structural abnormalities using biometry, (2) for the qualitative evaluation of CNS microstructure, and (3) for the qualitative assessment of dynamic fetal movements in utero.

  20. Current Concepts and Future Perspectives on Intraoperative Fluorescence Imaging in Cancer : Clinical Need

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    Progress with technology and regulatory approvals has recently allowed the successful clinical translation of fluorescence molecular imaging to intra-operative applications. Initial studies have demonstrated a promising outlook for imaging cancer micro-foci, margins and lymph-nodes. However, not all

  1. Optical coherence tomography—current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Sander, Birgit; Mogensen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides real-time two- and three-dimensional images of scattering samples with micrometer resolution. By mapping the local reflectivity, OCT visualizes the morphology of the sample. In addition, functional properties such...... biology. The number of companies involved in manufacturing OCT systems has increased substantially during the last few years (especially due to its success in opthalmology), and this technology can be expected to continue to spread into various fields of application....

  2. Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Sander, Birgit; Mogensen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides real-time two- and three-dimensional images of scattering samples with micrometer resolution. By mapping the local reflectivity, OCT visualizes the morphology of the sample. In addition, functional properties such...... biology. The number of companies involved in manufacturing OCT systems has increased substantially during the last few years (especially due to its success in opthalmology), and this technology can be expected to continue to spread into various fields of application....

  3. Current Imaging Modalities for assessing Ocular Blood Flow in Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mohindroo, Chirayu; Ichhpujani, Parul; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma may be caused by an interplay of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), vascular, genetic, anatomical, brain, and immune factors. The direct assessment of ocular hemodynam-ics offers promise for glaucoma detection, differentiation, and possibly new treatment modalities. All the methods currently in use to measure ocular blood flow have inherent limitations and measure different aspects of ocular blood flow. This review article attempts to provide detailed information on ocular perfu-si...

  4. Development of Noncontact Imaging Technology for the Detection of Internal Defects of a Nuclear Fuel Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. K.; Baik, S. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Cheong, Y. M.

    2012-01-15

    The object of the research is to develop a new imaging inspection technology for the quality testing of plate-type nuclear fuel whose demanding is currently increasing in nuclear research reactors. A new noncontact imaging inspection technique is developed for the detection of internal defects in plate-type nuclear fuel. To develop the imaging inspection technique, a hardware system based on active optical interference is configured. An operating software for the developed nondestructive inspection system is developed after designing an advanced signal processing algorithm to improve the detection capability of the system. The developed system is optimized through experiments and optimal heating condition is studied. The performance of a lock-in thermography is also evaluated to see the possibility of the plate-type nuclear fuel application.

  5. Pectus excavatum: current imaging techniques and opportunities for dose reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Zahir U; DeFlorio, Robert; O'Connor, Stephen C

    2014-08-01

    Pectus excavatum (PE) is the most common congenital chest wall deformity in children. It affects 1 in every 300-1000 live births with a male to female ratio of 5:1. Most of the patients present in their first year of life. During the teenage years, patients may have exercise intolerance and psychological strain because of their chest wall deformity. The Nuss and Ravitch procedures are established methods of surgical correction of PE. An index of severity known best as the Haller index, typically evaluated with computed tomography scan, when measuring greater than 3.2 is considered to indicate moderate or severe PE and is a prerequisite for third-party insurance reimbursement for these corrective procedures. This article reviews the clinical features of PE, the role of imaging, and the opportunities for radiation dose reduction.

  6. Distributed source x-ray tube technology for tomosynthesis imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, F.; Calderon-Colon, X.; Cheng, Y.; Englestad, K.; Lu, J.; Maltz, J.; Paidi, A.; Qian, X.; Spronk, D.; Sultana, S.; Yang, G.; Zhou, O.

    2010-04-01

    Tomosynthesis imaging requires projection images from different viewing angles. Conventional systems use a moving xray source to acquire the individual projections. Using a stationary distributed x-ray source with a number of sources that equals the number of required projections, this can be achieved without any mechanical motion. Advantages are a potentially faster image acquisition speed, higher spatial and temporal resolution and simple system design. We present distributed x-ray sources based on carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission cathodes. The field emission cathodes deliver the electrons required for x-ray production. CNT emitters feature a stable emission at high current density, a cold emission, excellent temporal control of the emitted electrons and good configurability. We discuss the use of stationary sources for two applications: (i) a linear tube for stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (sDBT), and (ii) a square tube for on-board tomosynthesis image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Results from high energy distributed sources up to 160kVp are also presented.

  7. Fluorescence lifetime imaging in biosciences: technologies and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raluca NIESNER; Karl-Heinz GERICKE

    2008-01-01

    The biosciences require the development of methods that allow a non-invasive and rapid investigation of biological systems. In this aspect, high-end imaging tech-niques allow intravital microscopy in real-time, providing information on a molecular basis. Far-field fluorescence imaging techniques are some of the most adequate methods for such investigations. However, there are great differences between the common fluorescence imaging techniques, i.e., wide-field, confocal one-photon and two-photon microscopy, as far as their applicability in diverse bioscientific research areas is concerned. In the first part of this work, we briefly compare these techniques. Standard methods used in the biosciences, i.e., steady-state techniques based on the analy-sis of the total fluorescence signal originating from the sam-ple, can successfully be employed in the study of cell, tissue and organ morphology as well as in monitoring the macro-scopic tissue function. However, they are mostly inadequate for the quantitative investigation of the cellular function at the molecular level. The intrinsic disadvantages of steady-state techniques are countered by using time-resolved tech-niques. Among these fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) is currently the most common. Different FLIM principles as well as applications of particular relevance for the biosci-ences, especially for fast intravital studies are discussed in this work.

  8. X-ray imaging of spin currents and magnetisation dynamics at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    Understanding how spins move in time and space is the aim of both fundamental and applied research in modern magnetism. Over the past three decades, research in this field has led to technological advances that have had a major impact on our society, while improving the understanding of the fundamentals of spin physics. However, important questions still remain unanswered, because it is experimentally challenging to directly observe spins and their motion with a combined high spatial and temporal resolution. In this article, we present an overview of the recent advances in x-ray microscopy that allow researchers to directly watch spins move in time and space at the microscopically relevant scales. We discuss scanning x-ray transmission microscopy (STXM) at resonant soft x-ray edges, which is available at most modern synchrotron light sources. This technique measures magnetic contrast through the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) effect at the resonant absorption edges, while focusing the x-ray radiation at the nanometre scale, and using the intrinsic pulsed structure of synchrotron-generated x-rays to create time-resolved images of magnetism at the nanoscale. In particular, we discuss how the presence of spin currents can be detected by imaging spin accumulation, and how the magnetisation dynamics in thin ferromagnetic films can be directly imaged. We discuss how a direct look at the phenomena allows for a deeper understanding of the the physics at play, that is not accessible to other, more indirect techniques. Finally, we present an overview of the exciting opportunities that lie ahead to further understand the fundamentals of novel spin physics, opportunities offered by the appearance of diffraction limited storage rings and free electron lasers.

  9. Influence of total beam current on HRTEM image resolution in differentially pumped ETEM with nitrogen gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, A N; Yoshida, K; Tanaka, N

    2013-01-01

    Environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) enables the study of catalytic and other reaction processes as they occur with Angstrom-level resolution. The microscope used is a dedicated ETEM (Titan ETEM, FEI Company) with a differential pumping vacuum system and apertures, allowing aberration corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging to be performed with gas pressures up to 20 mbar in the sample area and with significant advantages over membrane-type E-cell holders. The effect on image resolution of varying the nitrogen gas pressure, electron beam current density and total beam current were measured using information limit (Young's fringes) on a standard cross grating sample and from silicon crystal lattice imaging. As expected, increasing gas pressure causes a decrease in HRTEM image resolution. However, the total electron beam current also causes big changes in the image resolution (lower beam current giving better resolution), whereas varying the beam current density has almost no effect on resolution, a result that has not been reported previously. This behavior is seen even with zero-loss filtered imaging, which we believe shows that the drop in resolution is caused by elastic scattering at gas ions created by the incident electron beam. Suitable conditions for acquiring high resolution images in a gas environment are discussed. Lattice images at nitrogen pressures up to 16 mbar are shown, with 0.12 nm information transfer at 4 mbar.

  10. A rapid automatic analyzer and its methodology for effective bentonite content based on image recognition technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Long

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast and accurate determination of effective bentonite content in used clay bonded sand is very important for selecting the correct mixing ratio and mixing process to obtain high-performance molding sand. Currently, the effective bentonite content is determined by testing the ethylene blue absorbed in used clay bonded sand, which is usually a manual operation with some disadvantages including complicated process, long testing time and low accuracy. A rapid automatic analyzer of the effective bentonite content in used clay bonded sand was developed based on image recognition technology. The instrument consists of auto stirring, auto liquid removal, auto titration, step-rotation and image acquisition components, and processor. The principle of the image recognition method is first to decompose the color images into three-channel gray images based on the photosensitive degree difference of the light blue and dark blue in the three channels of red, green and blue, then to make the gray values subtraction calculation and gray level transformation of the gray images, and finally, to extract the outer circle light blue halo and the inner circle blue spot and calculate their area ratio. The titration process can be judged to reach the end-point while the area ratio is higher than the setting value.

  11. Application of Fourier Domain OCT Imaging Technology to the Anterior Segment of the Human Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtkowski, Maciej; Marcos, Susana; Ortiz, Sergio; Grulkowski, Ireneusz

    The anterior segment is the front part of the human eye, which forms the optical system and hence directly impacts vision. Traumatic or pathological changes in the anterior segment may lead to vision loss and, in some cases, even blindness. Since the eighteenth century, optical instrumentation for measuring and imaging the anterior segment of the human eye has been developing along with modern ophthalmology. The application of OCT to the anterior segment imaging is particularly of interest, since this could potentially provide substantial complementary information regarding the large-scale architecture of the cornea and the crystalline lens, or on small portions of tissue imaged with high spatial resolutions comparable to regular microscopy. Especially an introduction of Fourier domain detection in OCT has opened new frontiers in OCT ophthalmic applications. The resultant substantial speed improvement enables rapid image acquisition, helping to reduce artifacts due to patient motion. Thus, it is currently possible to perform high-speed, in vivo, three-dimensional volumetric imaging over large scales within a reasonable time limit and without reducing system sensitivity. This chapter describes the state-of the art OCT technology dedicated to anterior segment imaging and indicates all important parameters which are required for optimization of the performance of OCT instrument.

  12. Technologies of image guidance and the development of advanced linear accelerator systems for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Vincent W C; Law, Maria Y Y; Star-Lack, Josh; Cheung, Fion W K; Ling, C Clifton

    2011-01-01

    As advanced radiotherapy approaches for targeting the tumor and sparing the normal tissues have been developed, the image guidance of therapy has become essential to directing and confirming treatment accuracy. To approach these goals, image guidance devices now include kV on-board imagers, kV/MV cone-beam CT systems, CT-on-rails, and mobile and in-room radiographic/fluoroscopic systems. Nonionizing sources, such as ultrasound and optical systems, and electromagnetic devices have been introduced to monitor or track the patient and/or tumor positions during treatment. In addition, devices have been designed specifically for monitoring and/or controlling respiratory motion. Optimally, image-guided radiation therapy systems should possess 3 essential elements: (1) 3D imaging of soft tissues and tumors, (2) efficient acquisition and comparison of the 3D images, and (3) an efficacious process for clinically meaningful intervention. Understanding and using these tools effectively is central to current radiotherapy practice. The implementation and integration of these devices continue to carry practical challenges, which emphasize the need for further development of the technologies and their clinical applications.

  13. A 3-D fluorescence imaging system incorporating structured illumination technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antos, L.; Emord, P.; Luquette, B.; McGee, B.; Nguyen, D.; Phipps, A.; Phillips, D.; Helguera, M.

    2010-02-01

    A currently available 2-D high-resolution, optical molecular imaging system was modified by the addition of a structured illumination source, OptigridTM, to investigate the feasibility of providing depth resolution along the optical axis. The modification involved the insertion of the OptigridTM and a lens in the path between the light source and the image plane, as well as control and signal processing software. Projection of the OptigridTM onto the imaging surface at an angle, was resolved applying the Scheimpflug principle. The illumination system implements modulation of the light source and provides a framework for capturing depth resolved mages. The system is capable of in-focus projection of the OptigridTM at different spatial frequencies, and supports the use of different lenses. A calibration process was developed for the system to achieve consistent phase shifts of the OptigridTM. Post-processing extracted depth information using depth modulation analysis using a phantom block with fluorescent sheets at different depths. An important aspect of this effort was that it was carried out by a multidisciplinary team of engineering and science students as part of a capstone senior design program. The disciplines represented are mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and imaging science. The project was sponsored by a financial grant from New York State with equipment support from two industrial concerns. The students were provided with a basic imaging concept and charged with developing, implementing, testing and validating a feasible proof-of-concept prototype system that was returned to the originator of the concept for further evaluation and characterization.

  14. Current imaging of nasal sinuses; Moderne Bildgebung der Nasennebenhoehlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie der Kliniken fuer Radiologie, Homburg (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    Depending on the problems, CT or MRI should be used in the differential diagnosis of conditions affecting the nasal sinuses. In particular, when chronic sinusitis is present, computed tomography should be performed before surgery to ascertain the condition of the bones. In most cases spiral CT with a decidedly lowered tube voltage and power (MAS product) is now used for this purpose. This means that the patient is exposed to about 70% less radiation than in other CT investigations. To avoid artefacts attributable to dental fillings, whenever possible the spiral should be tilted in such a way that the dental artefacts are not within the mass imaged. When an isotropic voxel is selected secondary reformatting is possible with no loss of quality. Diagnostic MRI should include both T1- and T2-weighted sequences before and after the administration of contrast agent. For the differential diagnosis of a space-occupying tumour coronal cuts about 2 mm apart are advised, whether the spiral or the conventional technique is used. A T2-weighted and fat-suppressed sequence or a STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequence can also be helpful in the recognition and visualization of lymph nodes. If orbital involvement seems possible it is advisable to use a T1-weighted and fat-suppressed sequence in the coronal plane in addition to check this. (orig.) [German] Bei der differenzialdiagnostischen Evaluierung der Nasennebenhoehlen sollte je nach Fragestellung neben der klinischen Evaluierung die Computertomographie (CT) oder Magnetresonanztomographie eingesetzt werden. Dabei sollte zur Abklaerung einer chronischen Sinusitis praeoperativ zur Erhebung der knoechernen Situation auf die Computertomographie zurueckgegriffen werden. Heutzutage wird man hier zumeist eine Spiral-CT mit deutlich reduzierte Roehrenspannung und Strom (MAS-Produkt) zurueckgreifen. So koennen bis zu 70% Strahlung gespart werden. Um Artefakte durch Zahnfuellungen zu vermeiden sollte die Spirale, wenn moeglich, so

  15. A low-noise current preamplifier in 120 nm CMOS technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Uhrmann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the impact of deep sub-micron CMOS technology on analog circuit design with a special focus on the noise performance and the ability to design low-noise preamplifiers. To point out, why CMOS technology can grow to a key technology in low-noise and high-speed applications, various amplifier stages, applied in literature, are compared. One, that fits as a current preamplifier for low-noise applications, is the current mirror. Starting from the basic current mirror, an enhanced current preamplifier is developed, that offers low-noise and high-speed operation. The suggested chip is realized in 0.12 μm CMOS technology and needs a chip area of 100 μm×280 μm. It consumes about 15 mW at a supply voltage of 1.5 V. The presented current preamplifier has a bandwidth of 750 MHz and a gain of 36 dB. The fields of application for current preamplifiers are, for instance, charge amplifiers, amplifiers for low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS based point-to-point data links or preamplifiers for photodetectors.

  16. Secure Biometric Multi-Logon System Based on Current Authentication Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Bobby L.

    The need for accurate authentication in the current IT world is of utmost importance. Users rely on current IT technologies to facilitate in day to day interactions with nearly all environments. Strong authentication technologies like the various biometric technologies have been in existence for many years. Many of these technologies, for instance fingerprint biometrics, have reached maturity. However, passwords and pins are still the most commonly used authentication mechanisms at this stage. An average user has to be authenticated in various situations during daily interaction with his or her environment, by means of a pin or a password. This results in many different passwords and pins that the user has to remember. The user will eventually either start documenting these passwords and pins, or often, simply use the same password and pin for all authentication situations.

  17. Study on the Investigation of the Current Situation of Students' Professional Identity Image Technology in Vocational Colleges-Taking Langfang health Career Academy as an example%卫生高职院校影像技术专业学生的专业认同现状调查研究--以廊坊卫生职业学院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹翠洁; 马杰; 张玉

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析廊坊卫生职业学院高职影像技术专业学生专业认同的现状,提出强化学生专业认同的策略,为深化教学改革提供依据。方法对该校76名高职影像技术专业学生专业认同情况进行问卷调查,运用SPSS 19.0软件对调查数据进行描述性统计。结果廊坊卫生职业学院高职影像技术专业二年级学生在专业认识、专业意志、专业技能、专业期望四个方面评分高于一年级学生。在专业技能方面(t=0.678,P=0.018,P<0.05),有统计学意义。在专业情感、专业价值观两个方面二年级学生评分略低。结论加强影像技术专业教师建设,提高学生专业认同感。%Objective From the professional cognition, professional emotion, professional will, professional values, professional skills, professional expectation status six dimensions described students in Langfang health Career Academy vocational image technology professional identity, puts forward to strengthen the students professional identity strategy, provide the basis for deepen-ing the teaching reform. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among 76 students of higher vocational technical image professional identity to me, the use of SPSS software for descriptive statistics of survey data. Results The second grade health higher vocational students in Langfang Career Academy imaging technology in professional knowledge, professional skills, profes-sional, professional expectations will score higher than four aspects of the first grade students. In the aspects of professional skills (t=0.678, P=0.018, P<0.05), there is statistical significance. In the professional value view of professional emotion, the second grade two aspects of student score slightly lower. Conclusion Strengthening the image technology professional teachers construc-tion, improve the students' professional identity.

  18. The impact on CT dose of the variability in tube current modulation technology: a theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-08-01

    Body CT scans are routinely performed using tube-current-modulation (TCM) technology. There is notable variability across CT manufacturers in terms of how TCM technology is implemented. Some manufacturers aim to provide uniform image noise across body regions and patient sizes, whereas others aim to provide lower noise for smaller patients. The purpose of this study was to conduct a theoretical investigation to understand how manufacturer-dependent TCM scheme affects organ dose, and to develop a generic approach for assessing organ dose across TCM schemes. The adult reference female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used for this study. A ray-tracing method was developed to calculate the attenuation of the phantom for a given projection angle based on phantom anatomy, CT system geometry, x-ray energy spectrum, and bowtie filter filtration. The tube current (mA) for a given projection angle was then calculated as a log-linear function of the attenuation along that projection. The slope of this function, termed modulation control strength, α, was varied from 0 to 1 to emulate the variability in TCM technology. Using a validated Monte Carlo program, organ dose was simulated for five α values (α = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1) in the absence and presence of a realistic system mA limit. Organ dose was further normalized by volume-weighted CT dose index (CTDIvol) to obtain conversion factors (h factors) that are relatively independent of system specifics and scan parameters. For both chest and abdomen-pelvis scans and for 24 radiosensitive organs, organ dose conversion factors varied with α, following second-order polynomial equations. This result suggested the need for α-specific organ dose conversion factors (i.e., conversion factors specific to the modulation scheme used). On the other hand, across the full range of α values, organ dose in a TCM scan could be derived from the conversion factors established for a fixed-mA scan (hFIXED). This was possible by

  19. Image auto-zoom technology for AFM automation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-liang; QIAN Jian-qiang; LI Yuan

    2009-01-01

    For the case of atomic force microscope (AFM) automation, we extract the most valuable sub-region of a given AFM image automatically for succeeding scanning to get the higher resolution of interesting region. Two objective functions are sum-marized based on the analysis of evaluation of the information of a sub-region, and corresponding algorithm principles based on standard deviation and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) compression are determined from math. Algorithm realizations are analyzed and two select patterns of sub-region: fixed grid mode and sub-region walk mode are compared. To speed up the algorithm of DCT compression which is too slow to practical applied, a new algorithm is proposed based on analysis of DCT's block computing feature, and it can perform hundreds times faster than original. Implementation result of the algorithms proves that this technology can be applied to the AFM automatic operation. Finally the difference between the two objective functions is discussed with detail computations.

  20. Neutron Ghost Imaging Technology Research on CARR Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ghost imaging is also known as quantum imaging. Different from the classical imaging, the neutron ghost imaging is based on the quantum mechanics properties of light field and its intrinsic parallel characteristic, and developed by new optical

  1. Matrix phased array (MPA) imaging technology for resistance spot welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Jeong K.; Gleeson, Sean T. [Edison Welding Institute, 1250 Arthur E. Adams Drive, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    A three-dimensional MPA probe has been incorporated with a high speed phased array electronic board to visualize nugget images of resistance spot welds. The primary application area of this battery operated portable MPA ultrasonic imaging system is in the automotive industry which a conventional destructive testing process is commonly adopted to check the quality of resistance spot welds in auto bodies. Considering an average of five-thousand spot welds in a medium size passenger vehicle, the amount of time and effort given to popping the welds and measuring nugget size are immeasurable in addition to the millions of dollars' worth of scrap metals recycled per plant per year. This wasteful labor intensive destructive testing process has become less reliable as auto body sheet metal has transitioned from thick and heavy mild steels to thin and light high strength steels. Consequently, the necessity of developing a non-destructive inspection methodology has become inevitable. In this paper, the fundamental aspects of the current 3-D probe design, data acquisition algorithms, and weld nugget imaging process are discussed.

  2. Analysis of reliability metrics and quality enhancement measures in current density imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foomany, F H; Beheshti, M; Magtibay, K; Masse, S; Foltz, W; Sevaptsidis, E; Lai, P; Jaffray, D A; Krishnan, S; Nanthakumar, K; Umapathy, K

    2013-01-01

    Low frequency current density imaging (LFCDI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique which enables calculation of current pathways within the medium of study. The induced current produces a magnetic flux which presents itself in phase images obtained through MRI scanning. A class of LFCDI challenges arises from the subject rotation requirement, which calls for reliability analysis metrics and specific image registration techniques. In this study these challenges are formulated and in light of proposed discussions, the reliability analysis of calculation of current pathways in a designed phantom and a pig heart is presented. The current passed is measured with less than 5% error for phantom, using CDI method. It is shown that Gauss's law for magnetism can be treated as reliability metric in matching the images in two orientations. For the phantom and pig heart the usefulness of image registration for mitigation of rotation errors is demonstrated. The reliability metric provides a good representation of the degree of correspondence between images in two orientations for phantom and pig heart. In our CDI experiments this metric produced values of 95% and 26%, for phantom, and 88% and 75% for pig heart, for mismatch rotations of 0 and 20 degrees respectively.

  3. Repeat scanning technology for laser ultrasonic propagation imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ryul; Yenn Chong, See; Sunuwar, Nitam; Park, Chan Yik

    2013-08-01

    Laser ultrasonic scanning in combination with contact or non-contact sensors provides new paradigms in structural health management (SHM) and non-destructive in-process quality control (IPQC) for large composite structures. Wave propagation imaging technology based on laser ultrasonic scanning and fixed-point sensing shows remarkable advantages, such as minimal need for embedded sensors in SHM, minimum invasive defect visualization in IPQC and general capabilities of curved and complex target inspection, and temporal reference-free inspection. However, as with other SHM methods and non-destructive evaluation based on ultrasound, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is a prevalent issue in real structural applications, especially with non-contact thin-composite sensing or with thick and heterogeneous composites. This study proposes a high-speed repeat scanning technique for laser ultrasonic propagation imaging (UPI) technology, which is realized with the scanning speed of 1 kHz of a Q-switched continuous wave laser, and precise control of the laser beam pulses for identical point scanning. As a result, the technique enables the achievement of significant improvement in the SNR to inspect real-world composite structures. The proposed technique provides enhanced results for impact damage detection in a 2 mm thick wing box made of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic, despite the low sensitivity of non-contact laser ultrasonic sensing. A field-applicable pure laser UPI system has been developed using a laser Doppler vibrometer as the non-contact ultrasonic sensor. The proposed technique enables the visualization of the disbond defect in a 15 mm thick wind blade specimen made of glass-fiber-reinforced plastic, despite the high dissipation of ultrasound in the thick composite.

  4. Technology Commercialisation in a Developing Country: Current Condition and Its Challenge in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Dhewanto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is considered the main engine of economic growth in both developed and developing countries. Despite the important role of innovation, little has been understood about technology transfer becoming a commercial success in developing countries, especially in the Indonesian context. The purpose of this paper is to identify technology commercialisation activities in Indonesia. Based on secondary data sources, an analysis of the current state regarding the issue is constructed. The findings in this paper suggest that technology commercialisation in Indonesia is initiated at the levels of university, government research institution, and corporate. This study provides insights for policy makers, business leaders, and university administrators into the appropriate roles of institutions and organisations in promoting and assisting technology commercialisation activities of their respective inventors.Key words: Technology commercialisation, developing country, university, government research institution, corporate

  5. Current Status and Future Development of Integrated Geophysical Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeZhanxiang

    2003-01-01

    The gap between China''s integrated geophysical technology and the world''s advanced technologies has been significantly narrowed as the result of developments in the last decade.The new technology has played a very important role in oil and gas exploration in China, especially for the purposes of targeting seismically opaque zones, decreasing exploration risk, and improving exploration efficiency in the western territories and complex areas in China. The current status and future development of non-seismic integrated geophysical teams in China is discussed.

  6. DC Vs AC - War Of Currents For Future Power Systems A HVDC Technology Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Rai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available DC vs AC discussion began in 1880s with development of first commercial power transmission in Wall Street New York. Later when AC technology came into notice by efforts of inventor and researcher Sir Nicola Tesla soon the advantages of AC transmission and AC devices overtook the DC technology. It was hoped that DC technology had lost battle of currents. Today with researches going on FACTS devices and bulk power transmission HVDC has again gained a reputation in power sector. Solution of this centuries old debate is to develop HVDC systems that assists HVAC systems for better performance stability and control

  7. The age of alternative energies: the current status of new energy technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper outlines Japan's Sunshine Project and presents the current status of the principal research and development programs involved. These are as follows: 1) solar energy (solar photovoltaic power generation, solar energy systems for industrial use); 2) geothermal energy (technology for geothermal exploration and excavation, hydrothermal power generation, discovery of high-temperature rock); 3) coal energy (coal liquefaction and gasification technology); 4) hydrogen energy (technology for production, transport, storage and utilization of hydrogen); 5) others (wind power and ocean thermal power generation). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Joystick control for powered mobility: current state of technology and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicianno, Brad E; Cooper, Rory A; Coltellaro, John

    2010-02-01

    Recent advancements in control interface technology have made the use of end devices such as power wheelchairs easier for individuals with disabilities, especially persons with movement disorders. In this article, we discuss the current state of control interface technology and the devices available clinically for power wheelchair control. We also discuss our research on novel hardware and software approaches that are revolutionizing joystick interface technology and allowing more customizability for individual users with special needs and abilities. Finally, we discuss the future of control interfaces and what research gaps remain.

  9. Current Research Activities in Drive System Technology in Support of the NASA Rotorcraft Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    2006-01-01

    Drive system technology is a key area for improving rotorcraft performance, noise/vibration reduction, and reducing operational and manufacturing costs. An overview of current research areas that support the NASA Rotorcraft Program will be provided. Work in drive system technology is mainly focused within three research areas: advanced components, thermal behavior/emergency lubrication system operation, and diagnostics/prognostics (also known as Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS)). Current research activities in each of these activities will be presented. Also, an overview of the conceptual drive system requirements and possible arrangements for the Heavy Lift Rotorcraft program will be reviewed.

  10. Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Observations of Field-Aligned Currents: Temporal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guan

    2010-01-01

    Space Technology 5 (ST-5) is a three micro-satellite constellation deployed into a 300 x 4500 km, dawn-dusk, sun-synchronous polar orbit from March 22 to June 21, 2006, for technology validations. In this paper, we present a study of the temporal variability of field-aligned currents using multi-point magnetic field measurements from STS. The data demonstrate that masoscale current structures are commonly embedded within large-scale field-aligned current sheets. The meso-scale current structures are very dynamic with highly variable current density and/or polarity in time scales of about 10 min. They exhibit large temporal variations during both quiet and disturbed times in such time scales. On the other hand, the data also shown that the time scales for the currents to be relatively stable are about I min for meso-scale currents and about 10 min for large scale current sheets. These temporal features are obviously associated with dynamic variations of their particle carriers (mainly electrons) as they respond to the variations of the parallel electric field in auroral acceleration region. The characteristic time scales for the temporal variability of meso-scale field-aligned currents are found to be consistent with those of auroral parallel electric field.

  11. Space Technology 5 Multi-Point Observations of Temporal Variability of Field-Aligned Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guan; Wang, Yongli; Slavin, James A.; Strangeway, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Space Technology 5 (ST5) is a three micro-satellite constellation deployed into a 300 x 4500 km, dawn-dusk, sun-synchronous polar orbit from March 22 to June 21, 2006, for technology validations. In this paper, we present a study of the temporal variability of field-aligned currents using multi-point magnetic field measurements from ST5. The data demonstrate that meso-scale current structures are commonly embedded within large-scale field-aligned current sheets. The meso-scale current structures are very dynamic with highly variable current density and/or polarity in time scales of approximately 10 min. They exhibit large temporal variations during both quiet and disturbed times in such time scales. On the other hand, the data also shown that the time scales for the currents to be relatively stable are approximately 1 min for meso-scale currents and approximately 10 min for large scale current sheets. These temporal features are obviously associated with dynamic variations of their particle carriers (mainly electrons) as they respond to the variations of the parallel electric field in auroral acceleration region. The characteristic time scales for the temporal variability of meso-scale field-aligned currents are found to be consistent with those of auroral parallel electric field.

  12. Biometric iris image acquisition system with wavefront coding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Huang, Shao-Hung; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Biometric signatures for identity recognition have been practiced for centuries. Basically, the personal attributes used for a biometric identification system can be classified into two areas: one is based on physiological attributes, such as DNA, facial features, retinal vasculature, fingerprint, hand geometry, iris texture and so on; the other scenario is dependent on the individual behavioral attributes, such as signature, keystroke, voice and gait style. Among these features, iris recognition is one of the most attractive approaches due to its nature of randomness, texture stability over a life time, high entropy density and non-invasive acquisition. While the performance of iris recognition on high quality image is well investigated, not too many studies addressed that how iris recognition performs subject to non-ideal image data, especially when the data is acquired in challenging conditions, such as long working distance, dynamical movement of subjects, uncontrolled illumination conditions and so on. There are three main contributions in this paper. Firstly, the optical system parameters, such as magnification and field of view, was optimally designed through the first-order optics. Secondly, the irradiance constraints was derived by optical conservation theorem. Through the relationship between the subject and the detector, we could estimate the limitation of working distance when the camera lens and CCD sensor were known. The working distance is set to 3m in our system with pupil diameter 86mm and CCD irradiance 0.3mW/cm2. Finally, We employed a hybrid scheme combining eye tracking with pan and tilt system, wavefront coding technology, filter optimization and post signal recognition to implement a robust iris recognition system in dynamic operation. The blurred image was restored to ensure recognition accuracy over 3m working distance with 400mm focal length and aperture F/6.3 optics. The simulation result as well as experiment validates the proposed code

  13. SU-E-I-79: Correction of Dark Current and Image Lag in Multi-Source Carbon Nanotube Imaging Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, C; Lalush, D; Chang, S

    2012-06-01

    To correct for dark current and detector image lag in multi-source carbon nanotube (CNT) based imaging systems. CNTs can be used as a novel electron source for X-ray generation. Here a small (∼2 kV) gate voltage induces a large electric field at the CNT tip that causes field emission as opposed to thermionic emission. This enables faster switching times and allows miniaturization which aids in the development of stationary multi-source systems. These systems may encounter two key problems: dark current in non-active sources and detector lag. In damaged and perhaps end-of-life devices, sources may develop significant electron output without gate voltage, interfering with images from non-active sources. Although the output is small, it is constant, and continuous integration of detectors compared with small X-ray exposure time magnifies its contribution to the signal. A method based on binary multiplexing is developed to mitigate the dark current contributions possibly extending device lifetime. Having discrete sources, these multi-source systems have coarser angular sampling than rotating systems. This coarser sampling means that the detector signal changes more in adjacent projections than rotating systems exacerbating the effect of detector lag. Since flat panel detectors have a capacitive behavior, readout only removes some charge from pixels. As a result, a device dependent amount (6.6% in our device) of the signal from the current image contributes to the subsequent image. A fast, stable inverse filter separating detector lag has been developed. Projection data were simulated based on parameters measured from a multi-source CNT system. Incorporating dark current and image lag phenomena into reconstruction improves contrast to noise ratio. These correction methods can be easily implemented on clinical multi-source systems to improve image quality and extend the device's usable lifetime. Supported in part by Siemens Medical. © 2012 American Association of

  14. Cost comparison modeling between current solder sphere attachment technology and solder jetting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R.N.

    1996-10-01

    By predicting the total life-cycle cost of owning and operating production equipment, it becomes possible for processors to make accurate and intelligent decisions regarding major capitol equipment investments as well as determining the most cost effective manufacturing processes and environments. Cost of Ownership (COO) is a decision making technique based on inputting the total costs of acquiring, operating and maintaining production equipment. All quantitative economic and production data can be modeled and processed using COO software programs such as the Cost of Ownership Luminator program TWO COOL{trademark}. This report investigated the Cost of Ownership differences between the current state-of-the-art solder ball attachment process and a prototype solder jetting process developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The prototype jetting process is a novel and unique approach to address the anticipated high rate ball grid array (BGA) production requirements currently forecasted for the next decade. The jetting process, which is both economically and environmentally attractive eliminates the solder sphere fabrication step, the solder flux application step as well as the furnace reflow and post cleaning operations.

  15. Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging: technology and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Bradford C

    2007-07-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a valuable method for use by clinical investigators to study task-related brain activation in patients with neurological or neuropsychiatric illness. Despite the relative infancy of the field, the rapid adoption of this functional neuroimaging technology has resulted from, among other factors, its ready availability, its relatively high spatial and temporal resolution, and its safety as a noninvasive imaging tool that enables multiple repeated scans over the course of a longitudinal study, and thus may lend itself well as a measure in clinical drug trials. Investigators have used fMRI to identify abnormal functional brain activity during task performance in a variety of patient populations, including those with neurodegenerative, demyelinating, cerebrovascular, and other neurological disorders that highlight the potential utility of fMRI in both basic and clinical spheres of research. In addition, fMRI studies reveal processes related to neuroplasticity, including compensatory hyperactivation, which may be a universally-occurring, adaptive neural response to insult. Functional MRI is being used to study the modulatory effects of genetic risk factors for neurological disease on brain activation; it is being applied to differential diagnosis, as a predictive biomarker of disease course, and as a means to identify neural correlates of neurotherapeutic interventions. Technological advances are rapidly occurring that should provide new applications for fMRI, including improved spatial resolution, which promises to reveal novel insights into the function of fine-scale neural circuitry of the human brain in health and disease.

  16. Conductivity and current density image reconstruction using harmonic Bz algorithm in magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Suk Hoon; Lee, Byung Il; Woo, Eung Je; Lee, Soo Yeol; Cho, Min Hyoung; Kwon, Ohin; Seo, Jin Keun

    2003-10-07

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is to provide cross-sectional images of the conductivity distribution sigma of a subject. While injecting current into the subject, we measure one component Bz of the induced magnetic flux density B = (Bx, By, Bz) using an MRI scanner. Based on the relation between (inverted delta)2 Bz and inverted delta sigma, the harmonic Bz algorithm reconstructs an image of sigma using the measured Bz data from multiple imaging slices. After we obtain sigma, we can reconstruct images of current density distributions for any given current injection method. Following the description of the harmonic Bz algorithm, this paper presents reconstructed conductivity and current density images from computer simulations and phantom experiments using four recessed electrodes injecting six different currents of 26 mA. For experimental results, we used a three-dimensional saline phantom with two polyacrylamide objects inside. We used our 0.3 T (tesla) experimental MRI scanner to measure the induced Bz. Using the harmonic Bz algorithm, we could reconstruct conductivity and current density images with 82 x 82 pixels. The pixel size was 0.6 x 0.6 mm2. The relative L2 errors of the reconstructed images were between 13.8 and 21.5% when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the corresponding MR magnitude images was about 30. The results suggest that in vitro and in vivo experimental studies with animal subjects are feasible. Further studies are requested to reduce the amount of injection current down to less than 1 mA for human subjects.

  17. Millimeter-wave imaging of magnetic fusion plasmas: technology innovations advancing physics understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Tobias, B.; Chang, Y.-T.; Yu, J.-H.; Li, M.; Hu, F.; Chen, M.; Mamidanna, M.; Phan, T.; Pham, A.-V.; Gu, J.; Liu, X.; Zhu, Y.; Domier, C. W.; Shi, L.; Valeo, E.; Kramer, G. J.; Kuwahara, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Mase, A.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.

    2017-07-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging is a passive radiometric technique that measures electron temperature fluctuations; and microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) is an active radar imaging technique that measures electron density fluctuations. Microwave imaging diagnostic instruments employing these techniques have made important contributions to fusion science and have been adopted at major fusion facilities worldwide including DIII-D, EAST, ASDEX Upgrade, HL-2A, KSTAR, LHD, and J-TEXT. In this paper, we describe the development status of three major technological advancements: custom mm-wave integrated circuits (ICs), digital beamforming (DBF), and synthetic diagnostic modeling (SDM). These have the potential to greatly advance microwave fusion plasma imaging, enabling compact and low-noise transceiver systems with real-time, fast tracking ability to address critical fusion physics issues, including ELM suppression and disruptions in the ITER baseline scenario, naturally ELM-free states such as QH-mode, and energetic particle confinement (i.e. Alfvén eigenmode stability) in high-performance regimes that include steady-state and advanced tokamak scenarios. Furthermore, these systems are fully compatible with today’s most challenging non-inductive heating and current drive systems and capable of operating in harsh environments, making them the ideal approach for diagnosing long-pulse and steady-state tokamaks.

  18. Advances in Tumor Screening, Imaging, and Avatar Technologies for High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders eOhman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma cases are detected in advanced stages when treatment options are limited. Surgery is less effective at eradicating the disease when it is widespread, resulting in high rates of disease relapse and chemoresistance. Current screening techniques are ineffective for early tumor detection and consequently, BRCA mutations carriers, with an increased risk for developing high-grade serous ovarian cancer, elect to undergo risk-reducing surgery. While prophylactic surgery is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of cancer development, it also results in surgical menopause and significant adverse side effects. The development of efficient early-stage screening protocols and imaging technologies is critical to improving the outcome and quality of life for current patients and women at increased risk. In addition, more accurate animal models are necessary in order to provide relevant in vivo testing systems and advance our understanding of the disease origin and progression. Moreover, both genetically engineered and tumor xenograft animal models enable the preclinical testing of novel imaging techniques and molecularly targeted therapies as they become available. Recent advances in xenograft technologies have made possible the creation of avatar mice, personalized tumorgrafts, which can be used as therapy testing surrogates for individual patients prior to or during treatment. High-grade serous ovarian cancer may be an ideal candidate for use with avatar models based on key characteristics of the tumorgraft platform. This review explores multiple strategies, including novel imaging and screening technologies in both patients and animal models, aimed at detecting cancer in the early stages and improving the disease prognosis.

  19. [Possibilities of modern imaging technologies in early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unschuld, Paul G

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging technology and image analysis algorithms have significantly contributed to a better understanding of spatial and temporal aspects of brain change associated with Alzheimer Disease. The current review will demonstrate how functional (fMRI) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques may be used to identify distinct patterns of brain change associated with disease progression and also increased risk for Alzheimer Disease. Moreover, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) based measures of glucosemetabolism (Fluorodeoxyglucose, FDG) and Amyloid-beta plaque density (11-C-Pittsburgh Compound B, PiB and 18-F) will be reviewed regarding their diagnostic value for assessing the individual degree of Alzheimer -pathology and thus complement the information provided by MRI and other clinical measures.

  20. Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT): conductivity and current density imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin Keun; Kwon, Ohin; Woo, Eung Je

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the latest impedance imaging technique called Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) providing information on electrical conductivity and current density distributions inside an electrically conducting domain such as the human body. The motivation for this research is explained by discussing conductivity changes related with physiological and pathological events, electromagnetic source imaging and electromagnetic stimulations. We briefly summarize the related technique of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) that deals with cross-sectional image reconstructions of conductivity distributions from boundary measurements of current-voltage data. Noting that EIT suffers from the ill-posed nature of the corresponding inverse problem, we introduce MREIT as a new conductivity imaging modality providing images with better spatial resolution and accuracy. MREIT utilizes internal information on the induced magnetic field in addition to the boundary current-voltage measurements to produce three-dimensional images of conductivity and current density distributions. Mathematical theory, algorithms, and experimental methods of current MREIT research are described. With numerous potential applications in mind, future research directions in MREIT are proposed.

  1. Body image disturbance in children and adolescents with eating disorders. Current evidence and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Thiemann, Pia; Vocks, Silja

    2014-01-01

    Body image is multifaceted and incorporates perceptual, affective, and cognitive components as well as behavioral features. Only few studies have examined the character of body-image disturbance in children/adolescents with eating disorders. It is unknown whether body-image disturbances in children/adolescent with eating disturbances are comparable to those of adult patients with eating disorders. Body-image disturbance might differ quantitatively and qualitatively according to the cognitive developmental status and the age of the individual. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence for body-image disturbance in children/adolescents with eating disorders, and how they compare with those adults with eating disorders. Current evidence indicates that older adolescent patients show similar deficits as adult patients with eating disorders, in particular for the attitudinal body-image component. However, evidence for a perceptual body-image disturbance in adolescent patients, in particular anorexia nervosa, is not conclusive. Reliable statements for childhood can hardly be made because clinical studies are not available. Investigations of body-image disturbance in children have focused on the predictive value for eating disorders. Limitations of the current evidence are discussed, and future directions for research and therapy are indicated.

  2. Imaging evaluation of complications of hip arthroplasty: review of current concepts and imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Omer; Chen, Lina; Resnik, Charles S

    2013-11-01

    Total hip arthroplasty has evolved along with improvements in component materials and design. The radiologist must accurately diagnose associated complications with imaging methods and stay informed about newer complications associated with innovations in surgical technique, prosthetic design, and novel materials. This pictorial essay presents clinical and imaging correlation of modern hip arthroplasty complications, with an emphasis on the most common complications of instability, aseptic loosening, and infection as well as those complications associated with contemporary metal-on-metal arthroplasty.

  3. Role of imaging in testicular cancer: current and future practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrisford, Glen W; Kreydin, Evgeniy I; Preston, Mark A; Rodriguez, Dayron; Harisighani, Mukesh G; Feldman, Adam S

    2015-09-01

    The article provides a summary of the epidemiologic and clinical aspects of testicular malignancy. Current standard imaging and novel techniques are reviewed. Present data and clinical treatment trends have favored surveillance protocols over adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy for low-stage testicular malignancy. This has resulted in increasing numbers of imaging studies and the potential for increased long-term exposure risks. Understanding imaging associated risks as well as strategies to minimize these risks is of increasing importance. The development, validation and incorporation of alternative lower risk highly efficacious and cost-effective imaging techniques is essential.

  4. Analysis of Current Information Education in Mainland China for Science and Technology Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijian, Liang

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the current state of affairs in the field of library and information science in China highlights the specialty of science and technology information science. The information education system and curriculum are described, illiteracy and attitudes toward information are discussed, and the need for continuing education is suggested.…

  5. Capturing Nanotechnology's Current State of Development via Analysis of Patents. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2007/4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igami, Masatsura; Okazaki, Teruo

    2007-01-01

    This analysis aims at capturing current inventive activities in nanotechnologies based on the analysis of patent applications to the European Patent Office (EPO). Reported findings include: (1) Nanotechnology is a multifaceted technology, currently consisting of a set of technologies on the nanometre scale rather than a single technological field;…

  6. Health Technology Assessment of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueze Liu; Jianwen Cao; Zuxun Lu

    2004-01-01

    Assess the current status of MRI in Shanxi province by health technology assessment method to provide suggestion and guidelines for future government decisions on the procurement and installation of new high-tech medical equipments. All of the 21 hospitals installed MRIs were surveyed.The results showed that 1 ) Diffusion of MRI is consistent with the economic development in different regional districts and hospital levels in Shanxi province. 2) There are better monetary returns of MRI in higher level hospitals than lower level hospitals. 3) Most MRIs in Shanxi province had been running at a loss, and the first class tertiary level hospitals had been making profit from providing MRI services to patients. 4) Better cost-benefit accorded with higher hospital level, more patients serviced etc. 5 ) The biggest investment risk is the initial purchase and installation of MRI. 6) Positive rates and veracity of MRI diagnosis were higher. 7) MRI is a safe equipment.

  7. Advances in two photon scanning and scanless microscopy technologies for functional neural circuit imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Simon R; Copeland, Caroline S; Foust, Amanda J; Quicke, Peter; Schuck, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen substantial developments in technology for imaging neural circuits, raising the prospect of large scale imaging studies of neural populations involved in information processing, with the potential to lead to step changes in our understanding of brain function and dysfunction. In this article we will review some key recent advances: improved fluorophores for single cell resolution functional neuroimaging using a two photon microscope; improved approaches to the problem of scanning active circuits; and the prospect of scanless microscopes which overcome some of the bandwidth limitations of current imaging techniques. These advances in technology for experimental neuroscience have in themselves led to technical challenges, such as the need for the development of novel signal processing and data analysis tools in order to make the most of the new experimental tools. We review recent work in some active topics, such as region of interest segmentation algorithms capable of demixing overlapping signals, and new highly accurate algorithms for calcium transient detection. These advances motivate the development of new data analysis tools capable of dealing with spatial or spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity, that scale well with pattern size.

  8. Security inspection in ports by anomaly detection using hyperspectral imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Javier; Valverde, Fernando; Saldaña, Manuel; Manian, Vidya

    2013-05-01

    Applying hyperspectral imaging technology in port security is crucial for the detection of possible threats or illegal activities. One of the most common problems that cargo suffers is tampering. This represents a danger to society because it creates a channel to smuggle illegal and hazardous products. If a cargo is altered, security inspections on that cargo should contain anomalies that reveal the nature of the tampering. Hyperspectral images can detect anomalies by gathering information through multiple electromagnetic bands. The spectrums extracted from these bands can be used to detect surface anomalies from different materials. Based on this technology, a scenario was built in which a hyperspectral camera was used to inspect the cargo for any surface anomalies and a user interface shows the results. The spectrum of items, altered by different materials that can be used to conceal illegal products, is analyzed and classified in order to provide information about the tampered cargo. The image is analyzed with a variety of techniques such as multiple features extracting algorithms, autonomous anomaly detection, and target spectrum detection. The results will be exported to a workstation or mobile device in order to show them in an easy -to-use interface. This process could enhance the current capabilities of security systems that are already implemented, providing a more complete approach to detect threats and illegal cargo.

  9. Implicit prosody mining based on the human eye image capture technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pei-pei; Liu, Feng

    2013-08-01

    The technology of eye tracker has become the main methods of analyzing the recognition issues in human-computer interaction. Human eye image capture is the key problem of the eye tracking. Based on further research, a new human-computer interaction method introduced to enrich the form of speech synthetic. We propose a method of Implicit Prosody mining based on the human eye image capture technology to extract the parameters from the image of human eyes when reading, control and drive prosody generation in speech synthesis, and establish prosodic model with high simulation accuracy. Duration model is key issues for prosody generation. For the duration model, this paper put forward a new idea for obtaining gaze duration of eyes when reading based on the eye image capture technology, and synchronous controlling this duration and pronunciation duration in speech synthesis. The movement of human eyes during reading is a comprehensive multi-factor interactive process, such as gaze, twitching and backsight. Therefore, how to extract the appropriate information from the image of human eyes need to be considered and the gaze regularity of eyes need to be obtained as references of modeling. Based on the analysis of current three kinds of eye movement control model and the characteristics of the Implicit Prosody reading, relative independence between speech processing system of text and eye movement control system was discussed. It was proved that under the same text familiarity condition, gaze duration of eyes when reading and internal voice pronunciation duration are synchronous. The eye gaze duration model based on the Chinese language level prosodic structure was presented to change previous methods of machine learning and probability forecasting, obtain readers' real internal reading rhythm and to synthesize voice with personalized rhythm. This research will enrich human-computer interactive form, and will be practical significance and application prospect in terms of

  10. Technology images and concepts of technology in transition. An analysis in the philosophy of technology and general technology; Technikbilder und Technikkonzepte im Wandel. Eine technikphilosophische und allgemeintechnische Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banse, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (DE). Inst. fuer Technikfolgen-Abschaetzung und Systemanalyse (ITAS); Meier, B. [Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Arbeitslehre/Technik; Wolffgramm, H. (eds.)

    2002-02-01

    This volume contains contributions resulting from an expert discussion on 'Technology Images and Concepts of Technology in Transition - an analysis in the philosophy of technology and general technology. This expert discussion took place on 6 October 2000 at the State Pedagogical Institute Brandenburg in Ludwigsfelde-Struveshof and was conceived and organized co-operatively by the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis, the University of Potsdam, Institute for the Theory of Work/Technology and Professor Horst Wolffgramm, Frankfurt (Oder). It was the aim of the expert discussion to compile, compare and relate the various positions in the philosophy of technology, general technology science, the history of technology and the didactics of technology of the 'conceptualisation' of technology as a basis for generally understanding technology or for a scientifically based 'image of technology' to each other, and then to make them accessible for curricula within a framework of conceiving general technical education at all school levels. The contributions are grouped according to the two main foci of the event: On the one hand they are concerned with determining a contemporary concept of technology ('Image of technology'). One of the aims is to characterize technological change from the historical-genetic perspective and in this way to access technology as a work of mankind, as an important element of our culture. At the same time it is necessary to forecast future developments or to make future paths of development visible to enable the indication of change by basic innovations. Second, on this basis and supported by educational theory, conclusions are drawn for future-oriented technical general education for all students. The main focus in this is on the linkage between goals, content and subject-specific methods. In order to enable the determination of competence of any individual

  11. MO-PIS-Exhibit Hall-01: Imaging: CT Dose Optimization Technologies I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denison, K; Smith, S [GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Report (RDSR) generates a dose report at the conclusion of every examination. Dose Check preemptively notifies CT operators when scan parameters exceed user-defined dose thresholds. DoseWatch is an information technology application providing vendor-agnostic dose tracking and analysis for CT (and all other diagnostic x-ray modalities) SnapShot Pulse improves coronary CTA dose management. VolumeShuttle uses two acquisitions to increase coverage, decrease dose, and conserve on contrast administration. Color-Coding for Kids applies the Broselow-Luten Pediatric System to facilitate pediatric emergency care and reduce medical errors. FeatherLight achieves dose optimization through pediatric procedure-based protocols. Adventure Series scanners provide a child-friendly imaging environment promoting patient cooperation with resultant reduction in retakes and patient motion. Philips CT Dose Optimization Tools and Advanced Reconstruction Presentation Time: 11:45 ‘ 12:15 PM The first part of the talk will cover “Dose Reduction and Dose Optimization Technologies” present in Philips CT Scanners. The main Technologies to be presented include: DoseRight and tube current modulation (DoseRight, Z-DOM, 3D-DOM, DoseRight Cardiac) Special acquisition modes Beam filtration and beam shapers Eclipse collimator and ClearRay collimator NanoPanel detector DoseRight will cover automatic tube current selection that automatically adjusts the dose for the individual patient. The presentation will explore the modulation techniques currently employed in Philips CT scanners and will include the algorithmic concepts as well as illustrative examples. Modulation and current selection technologies to be covered include the Automatic Current Selection component of DoseRight, ZDOM longitudinal dose modulation, 3D-DOM (combination of longitudinal and rotational dose modulation), Cardiac Dose right (an ECG based dose modulation scheme), and the DoseRight Index (DRI) IQ

  12. Advances for prosthetic technology from historical perspective to current status to future application

    CERN Document Server

    LeMoyne, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the advances in transtibial prosthetic technology and targets research in the evolution of the powered prosthesis such as the BiOM, which was derived from considerable research and development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The concept of the book spans the historical evolution of prosthetic applications from passive to new and futuristic robotic prosthetic technologies.  The author describes the reasons for amputation, surgical procedures, and an historical perspective of the prosthesis for the lower limb. He also addresses the phases and sub-phases of gait and compensatory mechanisms arising for a transtibial prosthesis and links the compensatory mechanisms to long-term morbidities.  The general technologies for gait analysis central to prosthetic design and the inherent biomechanics foundations for analysis are also explored.  The book reports on recent-past to current-term applications with passive elastic prostheses.  The core of the book deals with futuristic robo...

  13. High resolution laser beam induced current images under trichromatic laser radiation: approximation to the solar irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, F J; Alcántara, R; Fernández-Lorenzo, C; Martín-Calleja, J

    2010-03-01

    A laser beam induced current (LBIC) map of a photoactive surface is a very useful tool when it is necessary to study the spatial variability of properties such as photoconverter efficiency or factors connected with the recombination of carriers. Obtaining high spatial resolution LBIC maps involves irradiating the photoactive surface with a photonic beam with Gaussian power distribution and with a low dispersion coefficient. Laser emission fulfils these characteristics, but against it is the fact that it is highly monochromatic and therefore has a spectral distribution different to solar emissions. This work presents an instrumental system and procedure to obtain high spatial resolution LBIC maps in conditions approximating solar irradiation. The methodology developed consists of a trichromatic irradiation system based on three sources of laser excitation with emission in the red, green, and blue zones of the electromagnetic spectrum. The relative irradiation powers are determined by either solar spectrum distribution or Planck's emission formula which provides information approximate to the behavior of the system if it were under solar irradiation. In turn, an algorithm and a procedure have been developed to be able to form images based on the scans performed by the three lasers, providing information about the photoconverter efficiency of photovoltaic devices under the irradiation conditions used. This system has been checked with three photosensitive devices based on three different technologies: a commercial silicon photodiode, a commercial photoresistor, and a dye-sensitized solar cell. These devices make it possible to check how the superficial quantum efficiency has areas dependent upon the excitation wavelength while it has been possible to measure global incident photon-to-current efficiency values approximating those that would be obtained under irradiation conditions with sunlight.

  14. Measuring currents in submarine canyons: technological and scientific progress in the past 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The development and application of acoustic and optical technologies and of accurate positioning systems in the past 30 years have opened new frontiers in the submarine canyon research communities. This paper reviews several key advancements in both technology and science in the field of currents in submarine canyons since the1979 publication of Currents in Submarine Canyons and Other Sea Valleys by Francis Shepard and colleagues. Precise placements of high-resolution, high-frequency instruments have not only allowed researchers to collect new data that are essential for advancing and generalizing theories governing the canyon currents, but have also revealed new natural phenomena that challenge the understandings of the theorists and experimenters in their predictions of submarine canyon flow fields. Baroclinic motions at tidal frequencies, found to be intensified both up canyon and toward the canyon floor, dominate the flow field and control the sediment transport processes in submarine canyons. Turbidity currents are found to frequently occur in active submarine canyons such as Monterey Canyon. These turbidity currents have maximum speeds of nearly 200 cm/s, much smaller than the speeds of turbidity currents in geological time, but still very destructive. In addition to traditional Eulerian measurements, Lagrangian flow data are essential in quantifying water and sediment transport in submarine canyons. A concerted experiment with multiple monitoring stations along the canyon axis and on nearby shelves is required to characterize the storm-trigger mechanism for turbidity currents.

  15. Imaging and image management: A survey on current outlook and awareness in pathology practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Indu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexibility of digital photography enables it to be an integral part of pathology practice. An assessment of guidelines of imaging is essential for proper usage of photographs. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess awareness of oral pathologists about various aspects of medical photography. Methods: Questionnaire based on the availability of facilities, usage, technical details and ethical issues of medical photography was sent to postgraduate students and teaching faculties of Oral Pathology in various localities in India. Results: Photographs were taken mostly for the purposes of publication, medical documentation and education. Significant number of postgraduate students and faculties of Oral Pathology didn′t receive any training or hadn′t gone through any publications/books (P = 0.000 about medical photography. Consent for patient photography was taken by significant number of respondents (P = 0.000 but in a verbal form. Majority of people used image editing software, but 19.0% of faculties and 21.1% of postgraduate students were unaware of deleterious effect of image editing. Firm and sensible instructions concerning image storage, sharing and accessibility were not yet created. Conclusion: This survey drew attention towards lack of proper understanding about the technical details, medical protocols and ethical issues related to medical photography. These findings recommend implementation of basic training for medical photography and policy for image management for students and faculties in every health care institution.

  16. Comparing the Zeiss Callisto Eye and the Alcon Verion Image Guided System Toric Lens Alignment Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hura, Arjan S; Osher, Robert H

    2017-07-01

    To compare the alignment meridian generated by the Zeiss Callisto Eye (Carl Zeiss AG, Dublin, CA) and the Alcon Verion Image Guided System (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX). In this retrospective comparative evaluation of technology, intraoperative images were captured at different steps in the same surgery, allowing the comparison of the guidance lines generated by the Verion system to the parallel guidance lines generated by the Callisto Eye system. Measurements of each hemi-meridian were quantified using Adobe Photoshop 2015 CC software (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA). The numbers of degrees separating these alignment meridians were calculated, entered into a database, and analyzed. The authors found that of 98 captured images of 16 eyes, the two technologies were identical in 0 eyes (θ1 = θ2 = 0), similar by 3° in 52 (53%) captured images (θ1 ≠ θ2 ≠ 0), and different by at least 3° in 46 (47%) captured images (θ1 ≠ θ2 ≠ 0). The target meridians were superimposed, the target lines were minimally separated, and the target lines were dissimilar. It was noted that some intraoperative variation occurred from measurement to measurement. Within the small group of 16 cases of routine toric lens implantation in this study, the absolute average number of degrees of misalignment between the Verion and Callisto Eye systems was 3.355 for θ1 and 3.838 for θ2. On average, the intraoperative variation termed "drift" was noted to be 3.963° for θ1, and 4.557° for θ2. The authors found that small deviations were frequent when comparing two sophisticated technologies. Although deviations greater than 3° occurred in less than 47% of captured images from 16 eyes, smaller but significant variations of less than 3° occurred in 53% of captured images from 16 eyes. It was rare to identify a large deviation. However, the authors identified "drift" in the same eye when measurements were taken at different times. The results indicate that the two systems are

  17. Resistive wall heating due to image current on the beam chamber for a superconducting undulator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. H. (Accelerator Systems Division (APS))

    2012-03-27

    The image-current heating on the resistive beam chamber of a superconducting undulator (SCU) was calculated based on the normal and anomalous skin effects. Using the bulk resistivity of copper for the beam chamber, the heat loads were calculated for the residual resistivity ratios (RRRs) of unity at room temperature to 100 K at a cryogenic temperature as the reference. Then, using the resistivity of the specific aluminum alloy 6053-T5, which will be used for the SCU beam chamber, the heat loads were calculated. An electron beam stored in a storage ring induces an image current on the inner conducting wall, mainly within a skin depth, of the beam chamber. The image current, with opposite charge to the electron beam, travels along the chamber wall in the same direction as the electron beam. The average current in the storage ring consists of a number of bunches. When the pattern of the bunched beam is repeated according to the rf frequency, the beam current may be expressed in terms of a Fourier series. The time structure of the image current is assumed to be the same as that of the beam current. For a given resistivity of the chamber inner wall, the application ofthe normal or anomalous skin effect will depend on the harmonic numbers of the Fourier series of the beam current and the temperature of the chamber. For a round beam chamber with a ratius r, much larger than the beam size, one can assume that the image current density as well as the density square, may be uniform around the perimeter 2{pi}r. For the SCU beam chamber, which has a relatively narrow vertical gap compared to the width, the effective perimeter was estimated since the heat load should be proportional to the inverse of the perimeter.

  18. Resistive wall heating due to image current on the beam chamber for a superconducting undulator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. H. (Accelerator Systems Division (APS))

    2012-03-27

    The image-current heating on the resistive beam chamber of a superconducting undulator (SCU) was calculated based on the normal and anomalous skin effects. Using the bulk resistivity of copper for the beam chamber, the heat loads were calculated for the residual resistivity ratios (RRRs) of unity at room temperature to 100 K at a cryogenic temperature as the reference. Then, using the resistivity of the specific aluminum alloy 6053-T5, which will be used for the SCU beam chamber, the heat loads were calculated. An electron beam stored in a storage ring induces an image current on the inner conducting wall, mainly within a skin depth, of the beam chamber. The image current, with opposite charge to the electron beam, travels along the chamber wall in the same direction as the electron beam. The average current in the storage ring consists of a number of bunches. When the pattern of the bunched beam is repeated according to the rf frequency, the beam current may be expressed in terms of a Fourier series. The time structure of the image current is assumed to be the same as that of the beam current. For a given resistivity of the chamber inner wall, the application ofthe normal or anomalous skin effect will depend on the harmonic numbers of the Fourier series of the beam current and the temperature of the chamber. For a round beam chamber with a ratius r, much larger than the beam size, one can assume that the image current density as well as the density square, may be uniform around the perimeter 2{pi}r. For the SCU beam chamber, which has a relatively narrow vertical gap compared to the width, the effective perimeter was estimated since the heat load should be proportional to the inverse of the perimeter.

  19. Applying information and communications technologies to collect health data from remote settings: a systematic assessment of current technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashar, Raj; Lewis, Sheri; Blazes, David L; Chretien, J P

    2010-04-01

    Modern information and communications technologies (ICTs) are now so feature-rich and widely available that they can be used to "capture," or collect and transmit, health data from remote settings. Electronic data capture can reduce the time necessary to notify public health authorities, and provide important baseline information. A number of electronic health data capture systems based on specific ICTs have been developed for remote areas. We expand on that body of work by defining and applying an assessment process to characterize ICTs for remote-area health data capture. The process is based on technical criteria, and assesses the feasibility and effectiveness of specific technologies according to the resources and constraints of a given setting. Our characterization of current ICTs compares different system architectures for remote-area health data capture systems. Ultimately, we believe that our criteria-based assessment process will remain useful for characterizing future ICTs.

  20. Current research in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: highlights of the 23rd Annual EANM Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrió, Ignasi

    2011-02-01

    The most recent research developments in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging were presented at the 2010 Annual Congress of the EANM. This review summarizes some of the most relevant contributions made in the fields of oncology, cardiovascular science, neurology and psychiatry, technological innovation and novel tracers. Presentations covered basic and clinical research in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, and diagnostic and therapeutic applications of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals on a global scale. The results reported demonstrate that investigative strategies using nuclear medicine techniques facilitate effective diagnosis and management of patients with most prevalent disease states. At the same time novel tracers and technologies are being explored, which hold promise for future new applications of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging in research and clinical practice.

  1. Current status of paediatric post-mortem imaging: an ESPR questionnaire-based survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Pathology, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    The use of post-mortem imaging, including skeletal radiography, CT and MRI, is increasing, providing a minimally invasive alternative to conventional autopsy techniques. The development of clinical guidelines and national standards is being encouraged, particularly for cross-sectional techniques. To outline the current practice of post-mortem imaging amongst members of the European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR). We e-mailed an online questionnaire of current post-mortem service provisions to members of the ESPR in January 2013. The survey included direct questions about what services were offered, the population imaged, current techniques used, imaging protocols, reporting experience and intended future involvement. Seventy-one percent (47/66) of centres from which surveys were returned reported performing some form of post-mortem imaging in children, of which 81 % perform radiographs, 51% CT and 38% MRI. Eighty-seven percent of the imaging is performed within the radiology or imaging departments, usually by radiographers (75%), and 89% is reported by radiologists, of which 64% is reported by paediatric radiologists. Overall, 72% of positive respondents have a standardised protocol for radiographs, but only 32% have such a protocol for CT and 27% for MRI. Sixty-one percent of respondents wrote that this is an important area that needs to be developed. Overall, the majority of centres provide some post-mortem imaging service, most of which is performed within an imaging department and reported by a paediatric radiologist. However, the populations imaged as well as the details of the services offered are highly variable among institutions and lack standardisation. We have identified people who would be interested in taking this work forwards. (orig.)

  2. Space Technology 5 Multipoint Observations of Temporal and Spatial Variability of Field-Aligned Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G.; Wang, Y.; Slavin, J. A.; Strangeway, R. L.

    2009-01-01

    Space Technology 5 (ST5) is a constellation mission consisting of three microsatellites. It provides the first multipoint magnetic field measurements in low Earth orbit, which enables us to separate spatial and temporal variations. In this paper, we present a study of the temporal variability of field-aligned currents using the ST5 data. We examine the field-aligned current observations during and after a geomagnetic storm and compare the magnetic field profiles at the three spacecraft. The multipoint data demonstrate that mesoscale current structures, commonly embedded within large-scale current sheets, are very dynamic with highly variable current density and/or polarity in approx.10 min time scales. On the other hand, the data also show that the time scales for the currents to be relatively stable are approx.1 min for mesoscale currents and approx.10 min for large-scale currents. These temporal features are very likely associated with dynamic variations of their charge carriers (mainly electrons) as they respond to the variations of the parallel electric field in auroral acceleration region. The characteristic time scales for the temporal variability of mesoscale field-aligned currents are found to be consistent with those of auroral parallel electric field.

  3. Survey on utility technology of a tidal and ocean current energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Manabu; Kadoyu, Masataka; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi

    1987-06-01

    A study is made to show the current technological levels in Japan and other nations regarding the conversion of tidal current or ocean current energy to electric power and to determine the latent energy quantities and energy-related characteristics of tidal and ocean currents. In Japan, relatively large-scale experiments made so far mostly used one of the following three types of devices: Savonius-wheel type, Darrieus-wheel type, and cross-flow-wheel type. Field experiments of tidal energy conversion have been performed at the Naruto and Kurushima Straits. The energy in the Kuroshio current is estimated at about 170 billion kWh per year. Ocean current energy does not undergo large seasonal variations. The total energy in major straits and channels in the Inland Sea and other sea areas to the west is estimated at about 124 billion kWh per year. Tidal current energy shows large seasonal variations, but it is possible to predict the changes. A survey is made to determine energy-related characteristics of a tidal current at Chichino-seto, Kagoshima Prefecture. At Chichino-seto, the flow velocity ranges from 0 to 2.2m/s, with a latent tidal current energy of about 70 kW, of which about 20 kW can actually be utilized.

  4. Intraductal biliopancreatic imaging: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) technology review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Andrea; Lemmers, Arnaud; Meves, Volker; Terheggen, Grischa; Pohl, Jürgen; Manfredi, Guido; Häfner, Michael; Costamagna, Guido; Devière, Jacques; Neuhaus, Horst; Caillol, Fabrice; Giovannini, Marc; Hassan, Cesare; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc

    2015-08-01

    This technology review expresses the current view of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) on the available techniques for intraductal biliopancreatic imaging. The three cholangioscopy techniques are described: the "dual-operator" and " single-operator" mother-baby approaches using dedicated instruments, and the "direct" technique using currently available ultrathin gastroscopes. The mother-baby method is standardized and reproducible, while direct cholangioscopy is technically demanding and its safety requires further evaluation. As well as direct visualization of the bile ducts, cholangioscopy has the further advantage of allowing targeted biopsy. Image quality is still suboptimal for single-operator cholangioscopy, while the other techniques have achieved adequately detailed imaging. The costs of mother-baby cholangioscopy are high and its application in clinical practice should be restricted to selected cases (i.e. indeterminate biliary strictures/intraluminal lesions, difficult biliary stones) and to the setting of tertiary care centers. Peroral pancreatoscopy may find an indication in situations where other imaging modalities (mainly EUS) are inconclusive (i.e. delineation of main duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia extension, sampling of indeterminate main pancreatic duct strictures). Intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) has a poorer performance than EUS in the staging of pancreatic malignancies and can increase the risk of pancreatitis. A promising indication for IDUS could be the evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures and ampullary tumors. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) of the bile ducts is a difficult and expensive technique. Appropriate training needs to be established, since interpretation of images is challenging. pCLE can be an important diagnostic tool in the setting of indeterminate biliary strictures.

  5. Ultra-filtration measurement using CT imaging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Junfeng [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.2 Beiyitiao Street, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing, 100190 (China); Lu Wenqiang, E-mail: junfenglu@mail.ipc.ac.c [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19A Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, 100049 (China)

    2009-02-01

    As a functional unit in the hemodialysis process, dialyzer captured quite a few medical research interests since 1980s. In the design of dialyzer or in the ongoing hemodialysis process, to estimate the ultra-filtration amount of a dialyzer, the sideway loss of the running blood flow through hollow fibers or filtration channels should be measured. This further leads to the measurement of the blood flow inside the dialyzer. For this measurement, a non-invasive method is highly desired because of the high-dense bundled hollow fibers or packed channels inside the dialyzer. As non-invasive measurement tools, CT (Computed Tomography) technologies were widely used for tissue, bone, and cancerous clinical analyses etc .... Thus, in this paper, a CT system is adopted to predict the blood flow inside a hollow fiber dialyzer. In view of symmetric property of the hollow fiber dialyzer, the largest cutting plane that parallels to the cylindrical dialyzer was analyzed by the CT system dynamically. And then, a noninvasive image analysis method used to predict the ultra-filtration amount is proposed.

  6. Optical Coherence Tomography: An Emerging Technology for Biomedical Imaging and Optical Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto, James G.; Pitris, Costas; Boppart, Stephen A.; Brezinski, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technology for performing high-resolution cross-sectional imaging. OCT is analogous to ultrasound imaging, except that it uses light instead of sound. OCT can provide cross-sectional images of tissue structure on the micron scale in situ and in real time. Using OCT in combination with catheters and endoscopes enables high-resolution intraluminal imaging of organ systems. OCT can function as a type of optical biopsy and is a powerful imaging te...

  7. Digital data management for CAD/CAM technology. An update of current systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreiotelli, M; Kamposiora, P; Papavasiliou, G

    2013-03-01

    Abstract - Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology continues to rapidly evolve in the dental community. This review article provides an overview of the operational components and methodologies used with some of the CAD/CAM systems. Future trends are also discussed. While these systems show great promise, the quality of performance varies among systems. No single system currently acquires data directly in the oral cavity and produces restorations using all materials available. Further refinements of these CAD/CAM technologies may increase their capabilities, but further special training will be required for effective use.

  8. CO2 capture technologies: current status and new directions using supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolding, Helene; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art techniques for CO2 capture are presented and discussed. Post-combustion capture of CO2 by absorption is the technology most easily retrofitted to existing installations, but at present this is not economically viable to install and run. Using ionic liquids instead...... candidate for CO2 absorption using SILP technology. Thus a solid SILP absorber comprised of 40 wt% [N6666][Pro] loaded on precalcined silica quantitatively takes up about 1.2 mole CO2 per mole of ionic liquid in consecutive absorption-desorption cycles in a flow-experiment performed with 0.09 bar of CO2 (9......% CO2 in He)....

  9. CO2 capture technologies: current status and new directions using supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolding, Helene; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art techniques for CO2 capture are presented and discussed. Post-combustion capture of CO2 by absorption is the technology most easily retrofitted to existing installations, but at present this is not economically viable to install and run. Using ionic liquids instead...... candidate for CO2 absorption using SILP technology. Thus a solid SILP absorber comprised of 40 wt% [N6666][Pro] loaded on precalcined silica quantitatively takes up about 1.2 mole CO2 per mole of ionic liquid in consecutive absorption-desorption cycles in a flow-experiment performed with 0.09 bar of CO2 (9......% CO2 in He)....

  10. Mapping the ECG in the live rabbit heart using Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging with coded excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yexian; Li, Qian; Ingram, Pier; Witte, Russell S

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI) is a noninvasive technique for mapping electric current fields in 4D (space + time) with the resolution of ultrasound imaging. This approach can potentially overcome limitations of conventional electrical mapping procedures often used during treatment of cardiac arrhythmia or epilepsy. However, at physiologic currents, the detected acoustoelectric (AE) interaction signal in tissue is very weak. In this work, we evaluated coded ultrasound excitation (chirps) for improving the sensitivity of UCSDI for mapping the electrocardiogram (ECG) in a live rabbit heart preparation. Results confirmed that chirps improved detection of the AE signal by as much as 6.1 dB compared to a square pulse. We further demonstrated mapping the ECG using a clinical intracardiac catheter, 1 MHz ultrasound transducer and coded excitation. B-mode pulse echo and UCSDI revealed regions of high current flow in the heart wall during the peak of the ECG. These improvements to UCSDI are important steps towards translation of this new technology to the clinic for rapidly mapping the cardiac activation wave.

  11. [Current status and progress of medical imaging in diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingjie; Zhang, Ruiping; Li, Jianding

    2015-04-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are derived from non-directed differentiation of gastrointestinal mesenchymal tissue, which lack of typical clinical symptoms, and many asymptomatic GISTs are often found on physical examination. The tumor is primarily through implantation metastasis and blood metastasis. Currently, conventional medical imaging methods, such as X-ray barium meal, US, CT, MRI, PET/CT and ES, are still the main means of diagnosis of GISTs. Early diagnosis and early treatment are key factors of the prognosis in GISTs. Therefore, we need to be proficient in various medical imaging methods, then apply them to the diagnosis of GISTs, and to provide comprehensive and valuable information for clinical practice. Through retrieving and consulting literature of medical imaging associated with GISTs, this paper reviews the current status and progress of medical imaging in diagnosis of GISTs.

  12. Architecture design study and technology road map for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, John D.; Ireland, Michael J.; Kraus, Stefan; Baron, Fabien; Creech-Eakman, Michelle; Dong, Ruobing; Isella, Andrea; Merand, Antoine; Michael, Ernest; Minardi, Stefano; Mozurkewich, David; Petrov, Romain; Rinehart, Stephen; ten Brummelaar, Theo; Vasisht, Gautam; Wishnow, Ed; Young, John; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2016-08-01

    of PFI, including the potential to resolve protoplanetary disks in emission lines to measure planet masses using position-velocity diagrams. We advocate for a specific technology road map in order to reduce the current cost driver (telescopes) and to validate high accuracy fringe tracking and high dynamic range imaging at L, M band. In conclusion, no technology show-stoppers have been identified for PFI to date, however there is high potential for breakthroughs in medium-aperture (4-m class) telescopes architecture that could reduce the cost of PFI by a factor of 2 or more.

  13. Superconducting technology for overcurrent limiting in a 25 kA current injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Hossein; Faghihi, Faramarz; Sharifi, Reza; Poursoltanmohammadi, Amir Hossein

    2008-09-01

    Current injection transformer (CIT) systems are within the major group of the standard type test of high current equipment in the electrical industry, so their performance becomes very important. When designing high current systems, there are many factors to be considered from which their overcurrent protection must be ensured. The output of a CIT is wholly dependent on the impedance of the equipment under test (EUT). Therefore current flow beyond the allowable limit can occur. The present state of the art provides an important guide to developing current limiters not only for the grid application but also in industrial equipment. This paper reports the state of the art in the technology available that could be developed into an application of superconductivity for high current equipment (CIT) protection with no test disruption. This will result in a greater market choice and lower costs for equipment protection solutions, reduced costs and improved system reliability. The paper will also push the state of the art by using two distinctive circuits, closed-core and open-core, for overcurrent protection of a 25 kA CIT system, based on a flux-lock-type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) and magnetic properties of high temperature superconducting (HTS) elements. An appropriate location of the HTS element will enhance the rate of limitation with the help of the magnetic field generated by the CIT output busbars. The calculation of the HTS parameters for overcurrent limiting is also performed to suit the required current levels of the CIT.

  14. An Algorithm for Surface Current Retrieval from X-band Marine Radar Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxi Shen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel current inversion algorithm from X-band marine radar images is proposed. The routine, for which deep water is assumed, begins with 3-D FFT of the radar image sequence, followed by the extraction of the dispersion shell from the 3-D image spectrum. Next, the dispersion shell is converted to a polar current shell (PCS using a polar coordinate transformation. After removing outliers along each radial direction of the PCS, a robust sinusoidal curve fitting is applied to the data points along each circumferential direction of the PCS. The angle corresponding to the maximum of the estimated sinusoid function is determined to be the current direction, and the amplitude of this sinusoidal function is the current speed. For validation, the algorithm is tested against both simulated radar images and field data collected by a vertically-polarized X-band system and ground-truthed with measurements from an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP. From the field data, it is observed that when the current speed is less than 0.5 m/s, the root mean square differences between the radar-derived and the ADCP-measured current speed and direction are 7.3 cm/s and 32.7°, respectively. The results indicate that the proposed procedure, unlike most existing current inversion schemes, is not susceptible to high current speeds and circumvents the need to consider aliasing. Meanwhile, the relatively low computational cost makes it an excellent choice in practical marine applications.

  15. Conductive shield for ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging: Theory and measurements of eddy currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevenhoven, Koos C. J.; Busch, Sarah; Hatridge, Michael; Öisjöen, Fredrik; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.; Clarke, John

    2014-03-01

    Eddy currents induced by applied magnetic-field pulses have been a common issue in ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging. In particular, a relatively large prepolarizing field—applied before each signal acquisition sequence to increase the signal—induces currents in the walls of the surrounding conductive shielded room. The magnetic-field transient generated by the eddy currents may cause severe image distortions and signal loss, especially with the large prepolarizing coils designed for in vivo imaging. We derive a theory of eddy currents in thin conducting structures and enclosures to provide intuitive understanding and efficient computations. We present detailed measurements of the eddy-current patterns and their time evolution in a previous-generation shielded room. The analysis led to the design and construction of a new shielded room with symmetrically placed 1.6-mm-thick aluminum sheets that were weakly coupled electrically. The currents flowing around the entire room were heavily damped, resulting in a decay time constant of about 6 ms for both the measured and computed field transients. The measured eddy-current vector maps were in excellent agreement with predictions based on the theory, suggesting that both the experimental methods and the theory were successful and could be applied to a wide variety of thin conducting structures.

  16. Conductive shield for ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging: Theory and measurements of eddy currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevenhoven, Koos C J; Busch, Sarah; Hatridge, Michael; Oisjöen, Fredrik; Ilmoniemi, Risto J; Clarke, John

    2014-03-14

    Eddy currents induced by applied magnetic-field pulses have been a common issue in ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging. In particular, a relatively large prepolarizing field-applied before each signal acquisition sequence to increase the signal-induces currents in the walls of the surrounding conductive shielded room. The magnetic-field transient generated by the eddy currents may cause severe image distortions and signal loss, especially with the large prepolarizing coils designed for in vivo imaging. We derive a theory of eddy currents in thin conducting structures and enclosures to provide intuitive understanding and efficient computations. We present detailed measurements of the eddy-current patterns and their time evolution in a previous-generation shielded room. The analysis led to the design and construction of a new shielded room with symmetrically placed 1.6-mm-thick aluminum sheets that were weakly coupled electrically. The currents flowing around the entire room were heavily damped, resulting in a decay time constant of about 6 ms for both the measured and computed field transients. The measured eddy-current vector maps were in excellent agreement with predictions based on the theory, suggesting that both the experimental methods and the theory were successful and could be applied to a wide variety of thin conducting structures.

  17. Revisiting renovascular imaging for renal sympathetic denervation: current techniques and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pua, Uei; Tan, Cher Heng [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore (Singapore); Ho, Hee Hwa; Tan, Julian Ko Beng; Ong, Paul Jau Leong [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-08-28

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) is an emerging technique in the treatment of resistant hypertension, most commonly performed using an endovascular approach. Clinical and anatomical criteria for RDN are well established and imaging plays an integral role in selecting patients with suitable anatomy, procedural planning and device selection. Nevertheless, the current body of literature surrounding imaging related to RDN remains limited. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the expectations and limitations of various imaging techniques, including Doppler ultrasound, CT angiography, MR angiography and newer techniques such as non-contrast MR angiography, in the context of RDN. (orig.)

  18. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry: statistical data analysis and current computational challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrov Theodore

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF imaging mass spectrometry, also called MALDI-imaging, is a label-free bioanalytical technique used for spatially-resolved chemical analysis of a sample. Usually, MALDI-imaging is exploited for analysis of a specially prepared tissue section thaw mounted onto glass slide. A tremendous development of the MALDI-imaging technique has been observed during the last decade. Currently, it is one of the most promising innovative measurement techniques in biochemistry and a powerful and versatile tool for spatially-resolved chemical analysis of diverse sample types ranging from biological and plant tissues to bio and polymer thin films. In this paper, we outline computational methods for analyzing MALDI-imaging data with the emphasis on multivariate statistical methods, discuss their pros and cons, and give recommendations on their application. The methods of unsupervised data mining as well as supervised classification methods for biomarker discovery are elucidated. We also present a high-throughput computational pipeline for interpretation of MALDI-imaging data using spatial segmentation. Finally, we discuss current challenges associated with the statistical analysis of MALDI-imaging data.

  19. Lymphoma: current status of clinical and preclinical imaging with radiolabeled antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Christopher G. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Rui, Lixin [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); Cai, Weibo [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Lymphoma is a complex disease that arises from cells of the immune system with an intricate pathology. While lymphoma may be classified as Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin, each type of tumor is genetically and phenotypically different and highly invasive tissue biopsies are the only method to investigate these differences. Noninvasive imaging strategies, such as immunoPET, can provide a vital insight into disease staging, monitoring treatment response in patients, and dose planning in radioimmunotherapy. ImmunoPET imaging with radiolabeled antibody-based tracers may also assist physicians in optimizing treatment strategies and enhancing patient stratification. Currently, there are two common biomarkers for molecular imaging of lymphoma, CD20 and CD30, both of which have been considered for investigation in preclinical imaging studies. In this review, we examine the current status of both preclinical and clinical imaging of lymphoma using radiolabeled antibodies. Additionally, we briefly investigate the role of radiolabeled antibodies in lymphoma therapy. As radiolabeled antibodies play critical roles in both imaging and therapy of lymphoma, the development of novel antibodies and the discovery of new biomarkers may greatly affect lymphoma imaging and therapy in the future. (orig.)

  20. [Current audiovisual technologies are a constituent of the continuing professional development concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukova, E Iu; Zatsepa, S A

    2009-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the topical problems of using innovation, information and communication technologies (ICT) in the higher medical education system, including in postgraduate professional education. The paper shows the key principles for organizing an audiovisual technology-based educational process and gives numerous practical examples of the real use of ICT in the education of not only medical, but also other specialists and the results of studies of applying the current technical aids of innovation professional education. Since each area of manpower training has its specificity and unique goals, the authors propose the highly effective decisions to organize an educational process, which fully take into consideration of the specific features of professional education. These technologies substantially expand access to educational resources, which is of great importance for a strategy of continuing professional development.

  1. Unmanned aircraft systems in wildlife research: Current and future applications of a transformative technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Katherine S.; Gilbert, Sophie L.; Brown, Casey L.; Hatfield, Michael; Hanson, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) – also called unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones – are an emerging tool that may provide a safer, more cost-effective, and quieter alternative to traditional research methods. We review examples where UAS have been used to document wildlife abundance, behavior, and habitat, and illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of this technology with two case studies. We summarize research on behavioral responses of wildlife to UAS, and discuss the need to understand how recreational and commercial applications of this technology could disturb certain species. Currently, the widespread implementation of UAS by scientists is limited by flight range, regulatory frameworks, and a lack of validation. UAS are most effective when used to examine smaller areas close to their launch sites, whereas manned aircraft are recommended for surveying greater distances. The growing demand for UAS in research and industry is driving rapid regulatory and technological progress, which in turn will make them more accessible and effective as analytical tools.

  2. Human factors and ergonomics in home care: Current concerns and future considerations for health information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Calvin K L; Valdez, Rupa S; Casper, Gail R; Carayon, Pascale; Burke, Laura J; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2009-01-01

    Sicker patients with greater care needs are being discharged to their homes to assume responsibility for their own care with fewer nurses available to aid them. This situation brings with it a host of human factors and ergonomic (HFE) concerns, both for the home care nurse and the home dwelling patient, that can affect quality of care and patient safety. Many of these concerns are related to the critical home care tasks of information access, communication, and patient self-monitoring and self-management. Currently, a variety of health information technologies (HITs) are being promoted as possible solutions to those problems, but those same technologies bring with them a new set of HFE concerns. This paper reviews the HFE considerations for information access, communication, and patients self-monitoring and self-management, discusses how HIT can potentially mitigate current problems, and explains how the design and implementation of HIT itself requires careful HFE attention.

  3. Progress of MCT Detector Technology at AIM Towards Smaller Pitch and Lower Dark Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich, D.; Schirmacher, W.; Hanna, S.; Mahlein, K. M.; Fries, P.; Figgemeier, H.

    2017-09-01

    We present our latest results on cooled p-on- n planar mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) photodiode technology. Along with a reduction in dark current for raising the operating temperature ( T op), AIM INFRAROT-MODULE GmbH (AIM) has devoted its development efforts to shrinking the pixel size. Both are essential requirements to meet the market demands for reduced size, weight and power and high-operating temperature applications. Detectors based on the p-on- n technology developed at AIM now span the spectrum from the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) to the very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) with cut-off wavelengths from 5 μm to about 13.5 μm at 80 K. The development of the p-on- n technology for VLWIR as well as for MWIR is mainly implemented in a planar photodetector design with a 20- μm pixel pitch. For the VLWIR, dark currents significantly reduced as compared to `Tennant's Rule 07' are demonstrated for operating temperatures between 30 K and 100 K. This allows for the same dark current performance at a 20 K higher operating temperature than with previous AIM technology. For MWIR detectors with a 20- μm pitch, noise equivalent temperature differences of less than 30 mK are obtained up to 170 K. This technology has been transferred to our small pixel pitch high resolution (XGA) MWIR detector with 1024 × 768 pixels at a 10- μm pitch. Excellent performance at an operating temperature of 160 K is demonstrated.

  4. The Current Status of Usability Studies of Information Technologies in China: A Systematic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. Methods. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Results. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found ...

  5. Improving regional health care in West Africa using current space systems and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemison, Mae C.; Thomas, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues involved with establishing an integrated satellite health network in West Africa based on currently available technology. The system proposed makes use of a central national facility capable of transmitting and receiving voice/data and video signals from the entire country. Regional, field and local facilities provides timely epidemiologic information, sharing of medical expertise through telemedical consultations, enhances optimized resource distribution and builds a framework for telecommunications for the entire country.

  6. Analysis of the Mechanism and the Current Situation of the Plasma Purification Technology for Diesel Exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Guo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the mechanism and the current situation of the plasma purification technology for diesel exhaust is introduced. Research indicates that cleaning the diesel exhaust with the plasma produced by corona discharge or dielectric barrier discharge has too high energy consumption to direct use without catalyst. To solve this problem, the study gives some new ways about cleaning diesel exhaust with arc discharge.

  7. Image current heating on a metal surface due to charged bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xintian E. Lin

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available When charged particles pass through a metal pipe, they are accompanied by an image current on the metal surface. With intense short bunches passing near or even into the metal surface, the peak image current density can be very high. This current may result in substantial temperature rise on the surface, especially in high peak current, multibunch operation. In this paper, we derive an explicit formula for the surface temperature rise due to this previously unrecognized pulsed heating effect and show that this effect dominates the proposed linear coherent light source collimator spoiler and wire scanner heating. Without proper account, it can result in component and instrument failures. The result also applies to optical transition radiation screens, profile screens, wire scanners, exit windows, and targets, which the beam crosses.

  8. Modelling and Simulation of ERTMS for Current and Future Mobile Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pinedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, train control in-lab simulation tools play a crucial role in reducing extensive and expensive on-site railway testing activities. In this paper, we present our contribution in this arena by detailing the internals of our European Railway Train Management System in-lab demonstrator. This demonstrator is built over a general-purpose simulation framework, Riverbed Modeler, previously Opnet Modeler. Our framework models both ERTMS subsystems, the Automatic Train Protection application layer based on movement authority message exchange and the telecommunication subsystem based on GSM-R communication technology. We provide detailed information on our modelling strategy. We also validate our simulation framework with real trace data. To conclude, under current industry migration scenario from GSM-R legacy obsolescence to IP-based heterogeneous technologies, our simulation framework represents a singular tool to railway operators. As an example, we present the assessment of related performance indicators for a specific railway network using a candidate replacement technology, LTE, versus current legacy technology. To the best of our knowledge, there is no similar initiative able to measure the impact of the telecommunication subsystem in the railway network availability.

  9. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of current oil sands technologies: GHOST model development and illustrative application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Alex D; Kofoworola, Oyeshola; Bergerson, Joule A; MacLean, Heather L

    2011-11-01

    A life cycle-based model, GHOST (GreenHouse gas emissions of current Oil Sands Technologies), which quantifies emissions associated with production of diluted bitumen and synthetic crude oil (SCO) is developed. GHOST has the potential to analyze a large set of process configurations, is based on confidential oil sands project operating data, and reports ranges of resulting emissions, improvements over prior studies, which primarily included a limited set of indirect activities, utilized theoretical design data, and reported point estimates. GHOST is demonstrated through application to a major oil sands process, steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). The variability in potential performance of SAGD technologies results in wide ranges of "well-to-refinery entrance gate" emissions (comprising direct and indirect emissions): 18-41 g CO(2)eq/MJ SCO, 9-18 g CO(2)eq/MJ dilbit, and 13-24 g CO(2)eq/MJ synbit. The primary contributor to SAGD's emissions is the combustion of natural gas to produce process steam, making a project's steam-to-oil ratio the most critical parameter in determining GHG performance. The demonstration (a) illustrates that a broad range of technology options, operating conditions, and resulting emissions exist among current oil sands operations, even when considering a single extraction technology, and (b) provides guidance about the feasibility of lowering SAGD project emissions.

  10. Imaging the zebrafish dentition: from traditional approaches to emerging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneel, Bart; Mathä, Markus; Paesen, Rik; Ameloot, Marcel; Weninger, Wolfgang J; Huysseune, Ann

    2015-02-01

    The zebrafish, a model organism for which a plethora of molecular and genetic techniques exists, has a lifelong replacing dentition of 22 pharyngeal teeth. This is in contrast to the mouse, which is the key organism in dental research but whose teeth are never replaced. Employing the zebrafish as the main organism to elucidate the mechanisms of continuous tooth replacement, however, poses at least one major problem, related to the fact that all teeth are located deep inside the body. Investigating tooth replacement thus relies on conventional histological methods, which are often laborious, time-consuming and can cause tissue deformations. In this review, we investigate the advantages and limitations of adapting current visualization techniques to dental research in zebrafish. We discuss techniques for fast sectioning, such as vibratome sectioning and high-resolution episcopic microscopy, and methods for in toto visualization, such as Alizarin red staining, micro-computed tomography, and optical projection tomography. Techniques for in vivo imaging, such as two-photon excitation fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy, are also covered. Finally, the possibilities of light sheet microscopy are addressed.

  11. Elastic-Wavefield Seismic Stratigraphy: A New Seismic Imaging Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bob A. Hardage; Milo M. Backus; Michael V. DeAngelo; Sergey Fomel; Khaled Fouad; Robert J. Graebner; Paul E. Murray; Randy Remington; Diana Sava

    2006-07-31

    The purpose of our research has been to develop and demonstrate a seismic technology that will provide the oil and gas industry a better methodology for understanding reservoir and seal architectures and for improving interpretations of hydrocarbon systems. Our research goal was to expand the valuable science of seismic stratigraphy beyond the constraints of compressional (P-P) seismic data by using all modes (P-P, P-SV, SH-SH, SV-SV, SV-P) of a seismic elastic wavefield to define depositional sequences and facies. Our objective was to demonstrate that one or more modes of an elastic wavefield may image stratal surfaces across some stratigraphic intervals that are not seen by companion wave modes and thus provide different, but equally valid, information regarding depositional sequences and sedimentary facies within that interval. We use the term elastic wavefield stratigraphy to describe the methodology we use to integrate seismic sequences and seismic facies from all modes of an elastic wavefield into a seismic interpretation. We interpreted both onshore and marine multicomponent seismic surveys to select the data examples that we use to document the principles of elastic wavefield stratigraphy. We have also used examples from published papers that illustrate some concepts better than did the multicomponent seismic data that were available for our analysis. In each interpretation study, we used rock physics modeling to explain how and why certain geological conditions caused differences in P and S reflectivities that resulted in P-wave seismic sequences and facies being different from depth-equivalent S-wave sequences and facies across the targets we studied.

  12. Approach for removing ghost-images in remote field eddy current testing of ferromagnetic pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Q. W.; Shi, Y. B.; Wang, Z. G.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-10-01

    In the non-destructive testing of ferromagnetic pipes based on remote field eddy currents, an array of sensing coils is often used to detect local defects. While testing, the image that is obtained by sensing coils exhibits a ghost-image, which originates from both the transmitter and sensing coils passing over the same defects in pipes. Ghost-images are caused by transmitters and lead to undesirable assessments of defects. In order to remove ghost-images, two pickup coils are coaxially set to each other in remote field. Due to the time delay between differential signals tested by the two pickup coils, a Wiener deconvolution filter is used to identify the artificial peaks that lead to ghost-images. Because the sensing coils and two pickup coils all receive the same signal from one transmitter, they all contain the same artificial peaks. By subtracting the artificial peak values obtained by the two pickup coils from the imaging data, the ghost-image caused by the transmitter is eliminated. Finally, a relatively highly accurate image of local defects is obtained by these sensing coils. With proposed method, there is no need to subtract the average value of the sensing coils, and it is sensitive to ringed defects.

  13. Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging in live rabbit hearts using clinical intracardiac catheter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian

    Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging (UCSDI) is a noninvasive modality for mapping electrical activities in the body (brain and heart) in 4-dimensions (space + time). Conventional cardiac mapping technologies for guiding the radiofrequency ablation procedure for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias have certain limitations. UCSDI can potentially overcome these limitations and enhance the electrophysiology mapping of the heart. UCSDI exploits the acoustoelectric (AE) effect, an interaction between ultrasound pressure and electrical resistivity. When an ultrasound beam intersects a current path in a material, the local resistivity of the material is modulated by the ultrasonic pressure, and a change in voltage signal can be detected based on Ohm's Law. The degree of modulation is determined by the AE interaction constant K. K is a fundamental property of any type of material, and directly affects the amplitude of the AE signal detected in UCSDI. UCSDI requires detecting a small AE signal associated with electrocardiogram. So sensitivity becomes a major challenge for transferring UCSDI to the clinic. This dissertation will determine the limits of sensitivity and resolution for UCSDI, balancing the tradeoff between them by finding the optimal parameters for electrical cardiac mapping, and finally test the optimized system in a realistic setting. This work begins by describing a technique for measuring K, the AE interaction constant, in ionic solution and biological tissue, and reporting the value of K in excised rabbit cardiac tissue for the first time. K was found to be strongly dependent on concentration for the divalent salt CuSO4, but not for the monovalent salt NaCl, consistent with their different chemical properties. In the rabbit heart tissue, K was determined to be 0.041 +/- 0.012 %/MPa, similar to the measurement of K in physiologic saline: 0.034 +/- 0.003 %/MPa. Next, this dissertation investigates the sensitivity limit of UCSDI by quantifying the relation

  14. Technology and Technique Standards for Camera-Acquired Digital Dermatologic Images: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Elizabeth A; Tokay, Barbara A; Jewell, Sarah T; Marchetti, Michael A; Halpern, Allan C

    2015-08-01

    Photographs are invaluable dermatologic diagnostic, management, research, teaching, and documentation tools. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standards exist for many types of digital medical images, but there are no DICOM standards for camera-acquired dermatologic images to date. To identify and describe existing or proposed technology and technique standards for camera-acquired dermatologic images in the scientific literature. Systematic searches of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were performed in January 2013 using photography and digital imaging, standardization, and medical specialty and medical illustration search terms and augmented by a gray literature search of 14 websites using Google. Two reviewers independently screened titles of 7371 unique publications, followed by 3 sequential full-text reviews, leading to the selection of 49 publications with the most recent (1985-2013) or detailed description of technology or technique standards related to the acquisition or use of images of skin disease (or related conditions). No universally accepted existing technology or technique standards for camera-based digital images in dermatology were identified. Recommendations are summarized for technology imaging standards, including spatial resolution, color resolution, reproduction (magnification) ratios, postacquisition image processing, color calibration, compression, output, archiving and storage, and security during storage and transmission. Recommendations are also summarized for technique imaging standards, including environmental conditions (lighting, background, and camera position), patient pose and standard view sets, and patient consent, privacy, and confidentiality. Proposed standards for specific-use cases in total body photography, teledermatology, and dermoscopy are described. The literature is replete with descriptions of obtaining photographs of skin disease, but universal imaging standards have not been developed

  15. Study of ultrasonic phased array inspection imaging technology for NDT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Baohua; Duan Zhongdong; Ou Jinping

    2006-01-01

    A research about the ultrasonic phased array imaging principle from A-scan signal to B-scan image for nondestructive testing (NDT) was conducted in this paper, the ultrasonic phased array inspection imaging system used in industrial field was developed and the experiment was performed on the steel testing block by the system with 64 elements, 5MHz phased array transducer.Experimental results show that the flaws could be accurately detected and the flaws size could be estimated from the B-scan images, and the B-scan images could clearly show the location of the flaws, but the quality of Bscan images needs to be enhanced by digital signal processing and controlling dynamic focusing for improving the image resolution.

  16. Particle image velocimetry measurements and numerical modeling of a saline density current

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, G

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Particle image velocimetry scalar measurements were carried out on the body of a stably stratified density current with an inlet Reynolds number of 2,300 and bulk Richardson number of 0.1. These measurements allowed the mass and momentum transport...

  17. A new method of CCD dark current correction via extracting the dark information from scientific images

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Bin; Hu, Yi; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Lifan; Wei, Peng

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a new method to correct dark current at relatively high temperatures for Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) images when dark frames cannot be obtained on the telescope. For images taken with the Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3) in 2012, due to the low cooling efficiency, the median CCD temperature was -46$^\\circ$C, resulting in a high dark current level of about 3$e^-$/pix/sec, even comparable to the sky brightness (10$e^-$/pix/sec). If not corrected, the nonuniformity of the dark current could even overweight the photon noise of the sky background. However, dark frames could not be obtained during the observing season because the camera was operated in frame-transfer mode without a shutter, and the telescope was unattended in winter. Here we present an alternative, but simple and effective method to derive the dark current frame from the scientific images. Then we can scale this dark frame to the temperature at which the scientific images were taken, and apply the dark frame corrections to the s...

  18. Imaging of current distributions in superconducting thin film structures; Abbildung von Stromverteilungen in supraleitenden Duennfilmstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doenitz, D.

    2006-10-31

    Local analysis plays an important role in many fields of scientific research. However, imaging methods are not very common in the investigation of superconductors. For more than 20 years, Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscopy (LTSEM) has been successfully used at the University of Tuebingen for studying of condensed matter phenomena, especially of superconductivity. In this thesis LTSEM was used for imaging current distributions in different superconducting thin film structures: - Imaging of current distributions in Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer, also known as SIFS junctions, showed inhomogeneous current transport over the junctions which directly led to an improvement in the fabrication process. An investigation of improved samples showed a very homogeneous current distribution without any trace of magnetic domains. Either such domains were not present or too small for imaging with the LTSEM. - An investigation of Nb/YBCO zigzag Josephson junctions yielded important information on signal formation in the LTSEM both for Josephson junctions in the short and in the long limit. Using a reference junction our signal formation model could be verified, thus confirming earlier results on short zigzag junctions. These results, which could be reproduced in this work, support the theory of d-wave symmetry in the superconducting order parameter of YBCO. Furthermore, investigations of the quasiparticle tunneling in the zigzag junctions showed the existence of Andreev bound states, which is another indication of the d-wave symmetry in YBCO. - The LTSEM study of Hot Electron Bolometers (HEB) allowed the first successful imaging of a stable 'Hot Spot', a self-heating region in HEB structures. Moreover, the electron beam was used to induce an - otherwise unstable - hot spot. Both investigations yielded information on the homogeneity of the samples. - An entirely new method of imaging the current distribution in superconducting interference

  19. Advanced imaging approaches for regenerative medicine: Emerging technologies for monitoring stem cell fate in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Molly E; Ogle, Brenda M

    2015-10-01

    The future of regenerative medicine relies on our ability to control stem cell fate in order to produce functional tissues. Stem cells are the preferred cell source for tissue engineering endeavors and regenerative medicine therapies due to their high potency and capacity for expansion. However, their potency also makes them very difficult to control, as they are in a constant state of flux. Therefore, in order to advance research in regenerative medicine, it is necessary to be able to monitor cell state and phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. This review will detail the imaging technologies currently in use to monitor stem cell phenotype, migration, and differentiation. In addition to providing examples of the most recent work in this area, we will also discuss the future of imaging technologies for regenerative medicine, and how current imaging modalities might be utilized to image specific cell functionality in order to track stem cell fate. The research area of imaging stem cells is progressing toward identifying mature and differentiating cells not only by phenotypic markers, but also by visualizing cell function. Many of the cutting-edge modalities detailed in this review have the potential to be harnessed toward this goal.

  20. Current technological advances in magnetic resonance with critical impact for clinical diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Val M

    2013-12-01

    The last 5 years of technological advances with major impact on clinical magnetic resonance (MR) are discussed, with greater emphasis on those that are most recent. These developments have already had a critical positive effect on clinical diagnosis and therapy and presage continued rapid improvements for the next 5 years. This review begins with a discussion of 2 topics that encompass the breadth of MR, in terms of anatomic applications, contrast media, and MR angiography. Subsequently, innovations are discussed by anatomic category, picking the areas with the greatest development, starting with the brain, moving forward to the liver and kidney, and concluding with the musculoskeletal system, breast, and prostate. Two final topics are then considered, which will likely, with time, become independent major fields in their own right, interventional MR and MR positron emission tomography (PET).The next decade will bring a new generation of MR contrast media, with research focused on substantial improvements (>100-fold) in relaxivity (contrast effect), thus providing greater efficacy, safety, and tissue targeting. Magnetic resonance angiography will see major advances because of the use of compressed sensing, in terms of spatial and temporal resolution, with movement away from nondynamic imaging. The breadth of available techniques and tissue contrast has greatly expanded in brain imaging, benefiting both from the introduction of new basic categories of imaging techniques, such as readout-segmented echo planar imaging and 3D fast spin echo imaging with variable flip angles, and from new refinements specific to anatomic areas, such as double inversion recovery and MP2RAGE. Liver imaging has benefited from the development of techniques to easily and rapidly assess lipid, and will see, overall, a marked improvement in the next 5 years from new techniques on the verge of clinical introduction, such as controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration

  1. A new concept for medical imaging centered on cellular phone technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Granot

    Full Text Available According to World Health Organization reports, some three quarters of the world population does not have access to medical imaging. In addition, in developing countries over 50% of medical equipment that is available is not being used because it is too sophisticated or in disrepair or because the health personnel are not trained to use it. The goal of this study is to introduce and demonstrate the feasibility of a new concept in medical imaging that is centered on cellular phone technology and which may provide a solution to medical imaging in underserved areas. The new system replaces the conventional stand-alone medical imaging device with a new medical imaging system made of two independent components connected through cellular phone technology. The independent units are: a a data acquisition device (DAD at a remote patient site that is simple, with limited controls and no image display capability and b an advanced image reconstruction and hardware control multiserver unit at a central site. The cellular phone technology transmits unprocessed raw data from the patient site DAD and receives and displays the processed image from the central site. (This is different from conventional telemedicine where the image reconstruction and control is at the patient site and telecommunication is used to transmit processed images from the patient site. The primary goal of this study is to demonstrate that the cellular phone technology can function in the proposed mode. The feasibility of the concept is demonstrated using a new frequency division multiplexing electrical impedance tomography system, which we have developed for dynamic medical imaging, as the medical imaging modality. The system is used to image through a cellular phone a simulation of breast cancer tumors in a medical imaging diagnostic mode and to image minimally invasive tissue ablation with irreversible electroporation in a medical imaging interventional mode.

  2. A new concept for medical imaging centered on cellular phone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Yair; Ivorra, Antoni; Rubinsky, Boris

    2008-04-30

    According to World Health Organization reports, some three quarters of the world population does not have access to medical imaging. In addition, in developing countries over 50% of medical equipment that is available is not being used because it is too sophisticated or in disrepair or because the health personnel are not trained to use it. The goal of this study is to introduce and demonstrate the feasibility of a new concept in medical imaging that is centered on cellular phone technology and which may provide a solution to medical imaging in underserved areas. The new system replaces the conventional stand-alone medical imaging device with a new medical imaging system made of two independent components connected through cellular phone technology. The independent units are: a) a data acquisition device (DAD) at a remote patient site that is simple, with limited controls and no image display capability and b) an advanced image reconstruction and hardware control multiserver unit at a central site. The cellular phone technology transmits unprocessed raw data from the patient site DAD and receives and displays the processed image from the central site. (This is different from conventional telemedicine where the image reconstruction and control is at the patient site and telecommunication is used to transmit processed images from the patient site). The primary goal of this study is to demonstrate that the cellular phone technology can function in the proposed mode. The feasibility of the concept is demonstrated using a new frequency division multiplexing electrical impedance tomography system, which we have developed for dynamic medical imaging, as the medical imaging modality. The system is used to image through a cellular phone a simulation of breast cancer tumors in a medical imaging diagnostic mode and to image minimally invasive tissue ablation with irreversible electroporation in a medical imaging interventional mode.

  3. Image-guided ultrasound phased arrays are a disruptive technology for non-invasive therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, Kullervo; Jones, Ryan M.

    2016-09-01

    Focused ultrasound offers a non-invasive way of depositing acoustic energy deep into the body, which can be harnessed for a broad spectrum of therapeutic purposes, including tissue ablation, the targeting of therapeutic agents, and stem cell delivery. Phased array transducers enable electronic control over the beam geometry and direction, and can be tailored to provide optimal energy deposition patterns for a given therapeutic application. Their use in combination with modern medical imaging for therapy guidance allows precise targeting, online monitoring, and post-treatment evaluation of the ultrasound-mediated bioeffects. In the past there have been some technical obstacles hindering the construction of large aperture, high-power, densely-populated phased arrays and, as a result, they have not been fully exploited for therapy delivery to date. However, recent research has made the construction of such arrays feasible, and it is expected that their continued development will both greatly improve the safety and efficacy of existing ultrasound therapies as well as enable treatments that are not currently possible with existing technology. This review will summarize the basic principles, current statures, and future potential of image-guided ultrasound phased arrays for therapy.

  4. Field Aligned Currents Derived from Pressure Profiles Obtained from TWINS ENA Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, K.; Perez, J. D.; McComas, D. J.; Goldstein, J.; Valek, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    Field aligned currents (FACs) that flow from the Earth's magnetosphere into the ionosphere are an important coupling mechanism in the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere. Assuming pressure balance along with charge conservation yields an expression for the FACs in terms of plasma pressure gradients and pressure anisotropy. The Two Wide-Angle Imaging Neutral Atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission, the first stereoscopic ENA magnetospheric imager, provides global images of the inner magnetosphere from which ion pressure distributions and pressure anisotropies can be obtained. Following the formulations in Heineman [1990] and using results from TWINS observations, we calculate the distribution of field aligned currents for the 17-18 March 2015 geomagnetic storm in which extended ionospheric precipitation was observed. Initial results for the field aligned currents will be generated assuming an isotropic pitch angle distribution. Global maps of field aligned currents during the main and recovery phase of the storm will be presented. Heinemann, H. (1990), Representations of Currents and Magnetic Fields in Anisotropic Magnetohydrostatic Plasma, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 7789.

  5. Operational prediction of rip currents using numerical model and nearshore bathymetry from video images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, L.; Van Ormondt, M.; Van Dongeren, A. R.; Roelvink, J. A.

    2017-07-01

    Rip currents are one of the most dangerous coastal hazards for swimmers. In order to minimize the risk, a coastal operational-process based-model system can be utilized in order to provide forecast of nearshore waves and currents that may endanger beach goers. In this paper, an operational model for rip current prediction by utilizing nearshore bathymetry obtained from video image technique is demonstrated. For the nearshore scale model, XBeach1 is used with which tidal currents, wave induced currents (including the effect of the wave groups) can be simulated simultaneously. Up-to-date bathymetry will be obtained using video images technique, cBathy 2. The system will be tested for the Egmond aan Zee beach, located in the northern part of the Dutch coastline. This paper will test the applicability of bathymetry obtained from video technique to be used as input for the numerical modelling system by comparing simulation results using surveyed bathymetry and model results using video bathymetry. Results show that the video technique is able to produce bathymetry converging towards the ground truth observations. This bathymetry validation will be followed by an example of operational forecasting type of simulation on predicting rip currents. Rip currents flow fields simulated over measured and modeled bathymetries are compared in order to assess the performance of the proposed forecast system.

  6. Optical Coherence Tomography: An Emerging Technology for Biomedical Imaging and Optical Biopsy1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, James G; Pitris, Costas; Boppart, Stephen A; Brezinski, Mark E

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technology for performing high-resolution cross-sectional imaging. OCT is analogous to ultrasound imaging, except that it uses light instead of sound. OCT can provide cross-sectional images of tissue structure on the micron scale in situ and in real time. Using OCT in combination with catheters and endoscopes enables high-resolution intraluminal imaging of organ systems. OCT can function as a type of optical biopsy and is a powerful imaging technology for medical diagnostics because unlike conventional histopathology which requires removal of a tissue specimen and processing for microscopic examination, OCT can provide images of tissue in situ and in real time. OCT can be used where standard excisional biopsy is hazardous or impossible, to reduce sampling errors associated with excisional biopsy, and to guide interventional procedures. In this paper, we review OCT technology and describe its potential biomedical and clinical applications. PMID:10933065

  7. Current State of Technology of Fuel Cell Power Systems for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mendez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs are vehicles that are primarily used to accomplish oceanographic research data collection and auxiliary offshore tasks. At the present time, they are usually powered by lithium-ion secondary batteries, which have insufficient specific energies. In order for this technology to achieve a mature state, increased endurance is required. Fuel cell power systems have been identified as an effective means to achieve this endurance but no implementation in a commercial device has yet been realized. This paper summarizes the current state of development of the technology in this field of research. First, the most adequate type of fuel cell for this application is discussed. The prototypes and design concepts of AUVs powered by fuel cells which have been developed in the last few years are described. Possible commercial and experimental fuel cell stack options are analyzed, examining solutions adopted in the analogous aerial vehicle applications, as well as the underwater ones, to see if integration in an AUV is feasible. Current solutions in oxygen and hydrogen storage systems are overviewed and energy density is objectively compared between battery power systems and fuel cell power systems for AUVs. A couple of system configuration solutions are described including the necessary lithium-ion battery hybrid system. Finally, some closing remarks on the future of this technology are given.

  8. Food waste-to-energy conversion technologies: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kaushik, Rajni; Parshetti, Ganesh K; Mahmood, Russell; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-04-01

    Food waste represents a significantly fraction of municipal solid waste. Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste are required to reduce its environmental burdens and to minimize risks to human health. Food waste is indeed an untapped resource with great potential for energy production. Utilization of food waste for energy conversion currently represents a challenge due to various reasons. These include its inherent heterogeneously variable compositions, high moisture contents and low calorific value, which constitute an impediment for the development of robust, large scale, and efficient industrial processes. Although a considerable amount of research has been carried out on the conversion of food waste to renewable energy, there is a lack of comprehensive and systematic reviews of the published literature. The present review synthesizes the current knowledge available in the use of technologies for food-waste-to-energy conversion involving biological (e.g. anaerobic digestion and fermentation), thermal and thermochemical technologies (e.g. incineration, pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal oxidation). The competitive advantages of these technologies as well as the challenges associated with them are discussed. In addition, the future directions for more effective utilization of food waste for renewable energy generation are suggested from an interdisciplinary perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Application possibilities of chemical imaging in pharmaceutical technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajna, Balázs; Nagy, Zsombor; Patyi, Gergo; Zsigmond, Zsolt; Antal, István; Marosi, György

    2009-01-01

    Chemical imaging is a novel analytical method that simultaneously delivers spatial, chemical, structural, and functional information on the dosage forms. Both infrared and Raman spectroscopic imaging may serve as useful nondestructive analytical techniques in the pharmaceutical product development and quality control. Most important application possibilities are reviewed and some studies demonstrate the advantages of the structure exploration. Raman imaging is suitable to understand and control the quality attributes of different dosage forms.

  10. Tipping solutions: emerging 3D nano-fabrication/ -imaging technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Seniutinas Gediminas; Balčytis Armandas; Reklaitis Ignas; Chen Feng; Davis Jeffrey; David Christian; Juodkazis Saulius

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of optical microscopy from an imaging technique into a tool for materials modification and fabrication is now being repeated with other characterization techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam (FIB) milling/imaging, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Fabrication and in situ imaging of materials undergoing a three-dimensional (3D) nano-structuring within a 1−100 nm resolution window is required for future manufacturing of devices. This level of ...

  11. Current opportunities and challenges of magnetic resonance spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, and mass spectrometry imaging for mapping cancer metabolism in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gigin; Chung, Yuen-Li

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is known to have unique metabolic features such as Warburg effect. Current cancer therapy has moved forward from cytotoxic treatment to personalized, targeted therapies, with some that could lead to specific metabolic changes, potentially monitored by imaging methods. In this paper we addressed the important aspects to study cancer metabolism by using image techniques, focusing on opportunities and challenges of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-MRS, positron emission tomography (PET), and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) for mapping cancer metabolism. Finally, we highlighted the future possibilities of an integrated in vivo PET/MR imaging systems, together with an in situ MSI tissue analytical platform, may become the ultimate technologies for unraveling and understanding the molecular complexities in some aspects of cancer metabolism. Such comprehensive imaging investigations might provide information on pharmacometabolomics, biomarker discovery, and disease diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response monitoring for clinical medicine.

  12. Non-invasive imaging of microcirculation: a technology review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sam Eriksson,1,2 Jan Nilsson,1,2 Christian Sturesson1,2 1Department of Surgery, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, 2Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden Abstract: Microcirculation plays a crucial role in physiological processes of tissue oxygenation and nutritional exchange. Measurement of microcirculation can be applied on many organs in various pathologies. In this paper we aim to review the technique of non-invasive methods for imaging of the microcirculation. Methods covered are: videomicroscopy techniques, laser Doppler perfusion imaging, and laser speckle contrast imaging. Videomicroscopy techniques, such as orthogonal polarization spectral imaging and sidestream dark-field imaging, provide a plentitude of information and offer direct visualization of the microcirculation but have the major drawback that they may give pressure artifacts. Both laser Doppler perfusion imaging and laser speckle contrast imaging allow non-contact measurements but have the disadvantage of their sensitivity to motion artifacts and that they are confined to relative measurement comparisons. Ideal would be a non-contact videomicroscopy method with fully automatic analysis software. Keywords: laser speckle contrast imaging, sidestream dark-field, orthogonal polarization spectral imaging, laser Dopplerimaging

  13. Recent advances in imaging technologies in implant dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Sahai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental implants have become a part of routine treatment plans in oral rehabilitation. Diagnostic imaging is critical to presurgical treatment planning and the success of implants. Various imaging modalities may aid the placing of implants in an appropriate location with relative ease and also obtain a predictable outcome. Cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT and, more recently, cone beam-computed tomography (CBCT are invaluable during preoperative planning for endosseous dental implantation procedures. An understanding of geometric and software parameters, and image formatting options to maximize image display is necessary to optimize diagnostic yield while maintaining minimal patient radiation dose. Multiplanar CT or CBCT images contain far more detailed information of the maxillofacial region than do panoramic or other bidimensional (2D images and necessitate a thorough knowledge of the tridimensional (3D anatomy of the region and considerations of variability in the range of the anatomically normal. This article provides: (1 an overview of the fundamental principles of operation of maxillofacial CT and CBCT; (2 an understanding of image processing and display protocols specific to pre-implant bone assessment; (3 the basics of qualitative and quantitative bone evaluation; and (4 an introduction to image-guided implant surgery using custom or computer-generated surgical guides.

  14. Microelectronics technologies for new detectors in medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M

    2007-01-01

    The use of silicon chips for instrumentation developments in elementary particle physics serves as an example for other applications and digital imaging detectors could find use in medical and molecular imaging. Attractive features are direct quantum conversion in a semiconductor matrix, innovative three-dimensional modular detector construction, multilayer devices, very fast signal processing, on-line data pre-processing and massive parallelism at the system level. Cost aspects of such semiconductor imager options have to be taken into account in the R&D phase. With the integrated electronics and high density interconnects in the Medipix development as an example, the ultimate aim of single photon imaging comes within reach.

  15. The operation technology of realtime image processing system (Datacube)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, Nam Ho; Choi, Young Soo; Park, Soon Yong; Park, Jin Seok

    1997-02-01

    In this project, a Sparc VME-based MaxSparc system, running the solaris operating environment, is selected as the dedicated image processing hardware for robot vision applications. In this report, the operation of Datacube maxSparc system, which is high performance realtime image processing hardware, is systematized. And image flow example programs for running MaxSparc system are studied and analyzed. The state-of-the-arts of Datacube system utilizations are studied and analyzed. For the next phase, advanced realtime image processing platform for robot vision application is going to be developed. (author). 19 refs., 71 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. The application of camera calibration in range-gated 3D imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-quan; Wang, Xian-wei; Zhou, Yan

    2013-09-01

    Range-gated laser imaging technology was proposed in 1966 by LF Gillespiethe in U.S. Army Night Vision Laboratory(NVL). Using pulse laser and intensified charge-coupled device(ICCD) as light source and detector respectively, range-gated laser imaging technology can realize space-slice imaging while restraining the atmospheric backs-catter, and in turn detect the target effectively, by controlling the delay between the laser pulse and strobe. Owing to the constraints of the development of key components such as narrow pulse laser and gated imaging devices, the research has been progressed slowly in the next few decades. Until the beginning of this century, as the hardware technology continues to mature, this technology has developed rapidly in fields such as night vision, underwater imaging, biomedical imaging, three-dimensional imaging, especially range-gated three-dimensional(3-D) laser imaging field purposing of access to target spatial information. 3-D reconstruction is the processing of restoration of 3-D objects visible surface geometric structure from three-dimensional(2-D) image. Range-gated laser imaging technology can achieve gated imaging of slice space to form a slice image, and in turn provide the distance information corresponding to the slice image. But to inverse the information of 3-D space, we need to obtain the imaging visual field of system, that is, the focal length of the system. Then based on the distance information of the space slice, the spatial information of each unit space corresponding to each pixel can be inversed. Camera calibration is an indispensable step in 3-D reconstruction, including analysis of the internal structure of camera parameters and the external parameters . In order to meet the technical requirements of the range-gated 3-D imaging, this paper intends to study the calibration of the zoom lens system. After summarizing the camera calibration technique comprehensively, a classic calibration method based on line is

  17. Big Data and Big Data Management (BDM with current Technologies –Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The emerging phenomenon called ―Big Data‖ is pushing numerous changes in businesses and several other organizations, Domains, Fields, areas etc. Many of them are struggling just to manage the massive data sets. Big data management is about two things - ―Big data‖ and ―Data Management‖ and these terms work together to achieve business and technology goals as well. In previous few years data generation have tremendously enhanced due to digitization of data. Day by day new computer tools and technologies for transmission of data among several computers through Internet is been increasing. It‗s relevance and importance in the context of applicability, usefulness for decision making, performance improvement etc in all areas have emerged very fast to be relevant in today‗s era. Big data management also has numerous challenges and common complexities include low organizational maturity relative to big data, weak business support, and the need to learn new technology approaches. This paper will discuss the impacts of Big Data and issues related to data management using current technologies

  18. Where Is Current Research on Blockchain Technology?—A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Huumo, Jesse; Ko, Deokyoon; Park, Sooyong; Smolander, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Blockchain is a decentralized transaction and data management technology developed first for Bitcoin cryptocurrency. The interest in Blockchain technology has been increasing since the idea was coined in 2008. The reason for the interest in Blockchain is its central attributes that provide security, anonymity and data integrity without any third party organization in control of the transactions, and therefore it creates interesting research areas, especially from the perspective of technical challenges and limitations. In this research, we have conducted a systematic mapping study with the goal of collecting all relevant research on Blockchain technology. Our objective is to understand the current research topics, challenges and future directions regarding Blockchain technology from the technical perspective. We have extracted 41 primary papers from scientific databases. The results show that focus in over 80% of the papers is on Bitcoin system and less than 20% deals with other Blockchain applications including e.g. smart contracts and licensing. The majority of research is focusing on revealing and improving limitations of Blockchain from privacy and security perspectives, but many of the proposed solutions lack concrete evaluation on their effectiveness. Many other Blockchain scalability related challenges including throughput and latency have been left unstudied. On the basis of this study, recommendations on future research directions are provided for researchers. PMID:27695049

  19. Where Is Current Research on Blockchain Technology?-A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Huumo, Jesse; Ko, Deokyoon; Choi, Sujin; Park, Sooyong; Smolander, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Blockchain is a decentralized transaction and data management technology developed first for Bitcoin cryptocurrency. The interest in Blockchain technology has been increasing since the idea was coined in 2008. The reason for the interest in Blockchain is its central attributes that provide security, anonymity and data integrity without any third party organization in control of the transactions, and therefore it creates interesting research areas, especially from the perspective of technical challenges and limitations. In this research, we have conducted a systematic mapping study with the goal of collecting all relevant research on Blockchain technology. Our objective is to understand the current research topics, challenges and future directions regarding Blockchain technology from the technical perspective. We have extracted 41 primary papers from scientific databases. The results show that focus in over 80% of the papers is on Bitcoin system and less than 20% deals with other Blockchain applications including e.g. smart contracts and licensing. The majority of research is focusing on revealing and improving limitations of Blockchain from privacy and security perspectives, but many of the proposed solutions lack concrete evaluation on their effectiveness. Many other Blockchain scalability related challenges including throughput and latency have been left unstudied. On the basis of this study, recommendations on future research directions are provided for researchers.

  20. A social-technological epistemology of clinical decision-making as mediated by imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baalen, Sophie; Carusi, Annamaria; Sabroe, Ian; Kiely, David G

    2016-10-03

    In recent years there has been growing attention to the epistemology of clinical decision-making, but most studies have taken the individual physicians as the central object of analysis. In this paper we argue that knowing in current medical practice has an inherently social character and that imaging plays a mediating role in these practices. We have analyzed clinical decision-making within a medical expert team involved in diagnosis and treatment of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), a rare disease requiring multidisciplinary team involvement in diagnosis and management. Within our field study, we conducted observations, interviews, video tasks, and a panel discussion. Decision-making in the PH clinic involves combining evidence from heterogeneous sources into a cohesive framing of a patient, in which interpretations of the different sources can be made consistent with each other. Because pieces of evidence are generated by people with different expertise and interpretation and adjustments take place in interaction between different experts, we argue that this process is socially distributed. Multidisciplinary team meetings are an important place where information is shared, discussed, interpreted, and adjusted, allowing for a collective way of seeing and a shared language to be developed. We demonstrate this with an example of image processing in the PH service, an instance in which knowledge is distributed over multiple people who play a crucial role in generating an evaluation of right heart function. Finally, we argue that images fulfill a mediating role in distributed knowing in 3 ways: first, as enablers or tools in acquiring information; second, as communication facilitators; and third, as pervasively framing the epistemic domain. With this study of clinical decision-making in diagnosis and treatment of PH, we have shown that clinical decision-making is highly social and mediated by technologies. The epistemology of clinical decision-making needs

  1. Current progress and future prospect of microalgal biomass harvest using various flocculation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chun; Alam, Md Asraful; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Yue; Guo, Suo-Lian; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chang, Jo-Shu; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae have been extensively studied for the production of various valuable products. Application of microalgae for the production of renewable energy has also received increasing attention in recent years. However, high cost of microalgal biomass harvesting is one of the bottlenecks for commercialization of microalgae-based industrial processes. Considering harvesting efficiency, operation economics and technological feasibility, flocculation is a superior method to harvest microalgae from mass culture. In this article, the latest progress of various microalgal cell harvesting methods via flocculation is reviewed with the emphasis on the current progress and prospect in environmentally friendly bio-based flocculation. Harvesting microalgae through bio-based flocculation is a promising component of the low-cost microalgal biomass production technology.

  2. Advanced Technology Demonstrator for IR Imaging Missile Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    13 Figure 9: Paraglider ...but also mountains, towers, other flying platform and e.g. paratroopers/ paragliders . Some of these objects have no plume, this excludes UV-devices for...Figure 9: Paraglider - The device also has to have the ability to recognize these a.m. objects, so it has to be an imaging device with intelligent image

  3. Mass Spectrometry Imaging, an Emerging Technology in Neuropsychopharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza; Svenningsson, Per; Andrén, Per E

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging is a powerful tool for directly determining the distribution of proteins, peptides, lipids, neurotransmitters, metabolites and drugs in neural tissue sections in situ. Molecule-specific imaging can be achieved using various ionization techniques that are suited to different applications but which all yield data with high mass accuracies and spatial resolutions. The ability to simultaneously obtain images showing the distributions of chemical species ranging from metal ions to macromolecules makes it possible to explore the chemical organization of a sample and to correlate the results obtained with specific anatomical features. The imaging of biomolecules has provided new insights into multiple neurological diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Mass spectrometry imaging can also be used in conjunction with other imaging techniques in order to identify correlations between changes in the distribution of important chemical species and other changes in the properties of the tissue. Here we review the applications of mass spectrometry imaging in neuroscience research and discuss its potential. The results presented demonstrate that mass spectrometry imaging is a useful experimental method with diverse applications in neuroscience. PMID:23966069

  4. Self-amplified CMOS image sensor using a current-mode readout circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Patrick M.; de Lima Monteiro, Davies W.; Pittet, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The feature size of the CMOS processes decreased during the past few years and problems such as reduced dynamic range have become more significant in voltage-mode pixels, even though the integration of more functionality inside the pixel has become easier. This work makes a contribution on both sides: the possibility of a high signal excursion range using current-mode circuits together with functionality addition by making signal amplification inside the pixel. The classic 3T pixel architecture was rebuild with small modifications to integrate a transconductance amplifier providing a current as an output. The matrix with these new pixels will operate as a whole large transistor outsourcing an amplified current that will be used for signal processing. This current is controlled by the intensity of the light received by the matrix, modulated pixel by pixel. The output current can be controlled by the biasing circuits to achieve a very large range of output signal levels. It can also be controlled with the matrix size and this permits a very high degree of freedom on the signal level, observing the current densities inside the integrated circuit. In addition, the matrix can operate at very small integration times. Its applications would be those in which fast imaging processing, high signal amplification are required and low resolution is not a major problem, such as UV image sensors. Simulation results will be presented to support: operation, control, design, signal excursion levels and linearity for a matrix of pixels that was conceived using this new concept of sensor.

  5. Robot Vision to Monitor Structures in Invisible Fog Environments Using Active Imaging Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seungkyu; Park, Nakkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Choi, Youngsoo; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Active vision is a direct visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Range-gated imaging (RGI) technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The RGI technique extracts vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, objects are illuminated for ultra-short time by a high intensity illuminant and then the light reflected from objects is captured by a highly sensitive image sensor with the exposure of ultra-short time. The RGI system provides 2D and 3D image data from several images and it moreover provides clear images from invisible fog and smoke environment by using summing of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays, more and more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies, such as highly sensitive imaging sensor and ultra-short pulse laser light. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been demonstrated 3D imaging based on range-gated imaging. In this paper, a robot system to monitor structures in invisible fog environment is developed using an active range-gated imaging technique. The system consists of an ultra-short pulse laser device and a highly sensitive imaging sensor. The developed vision system is carried out to monitor objects in invisible fog environment. The experimental result of this newly approach vision system is described in this paper. To see invisible objects in fog

  6. Ultra-fast dynamic imaging: an overview of current techniques, their capabilities and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altucci, C.; Velotta, R.; Marangos, J. P.

    2010-06-01

    In this review we attempt to sketch an overview of the various methods currently being used or under development to enable ultra-fast dynamic imaging of matter. We concentrate on those techniques which combine atomic scale spatial resolution and femtosecond or even sub-femtosecond temporal resolution. In part this review was inspired and informed by the material presented at the 'Ultrafast Dynamic Imaging II' workshop held in Ischia, Italy in April 2009, but we also have drawn on a wider background of material especially when discussing the emerging laser-based methods.

  7. Imaging Techniques in Psoriatic Arthritis: Update 2012-2014 on Current Status and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleo, Elena; Migone, Stefania; Prono, Valentina; Barbieri, Francesca; Garlaschi, Giacomo; Cimmino, Marco A

    2015-11-01

    By providing additional and more sensitive information over clinical examination, imaging techniques are useful in the assessment of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and have been increasingly used to obtain additional clues to its pathogenesis. This review describes the current status and future development of conventional radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and other novel techniques in the evaluation of PsA, with a focus on their use in diagnosing, monitoring, and predicting disease course and followup treatment response. The role and applications of ultrasonography are outside the scope and are reviewed elsewhere in these proceedings.

  8. The lucky image-motion prediction for simple scene observation based soft-sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Su, Yun; Hu, Bin

    2015-08-01

    High resolution is important to earth remote sensors, while the vibration of the platforms of the remote sensors is a major factor restricting high resolution imaging. The image-motion prediction and real-time compensation are key technologies to solve this problem. For the reason that the traditional autocorrelation image algorithm cannot meet the demand for the simple scene image stabilization, this paper proposes to utilize soft-sensor technology in image-motion prediction, and focus on the research of algorithm optimization in imaging image-motion prediction. Simulations results indicate that the improving lucky image-motion stabilization algorithm combining the Back Propagation Network (BP NN) and support vector machine (SVM) is the most suitable for the simple scene image stabilization. The relative error of the image-motion prediction based the soft-sensor technology is below 5%, the training computing speed of the mathematical predication model is as fast as the real-time image stabilization in aerial photography.

  9. Technological and physics assessments on heating and current drive systems for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.franke@efda.org [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Barbato, E. [Unità Tecnica Fusione ENEA, C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Bosia, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Cardinali, A.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Cesario, R. [Unità Tecnica Fusione ENEA, C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Van Eester, D. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, LPP-ERM/KMS, TEC & Belgian EUROfusion Consortium Partner, Brussels (Belgium); Federici, G. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Gantenbein, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Association EURATOM-KIT, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Helou, W.; Hillairet, J. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Jenkins, I. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX143DB (United Kingdom); Kazakov, Ye.O. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, LPP-ERM/KMS, TEC & Belgian EUROfusion Consortium Partner, Brussels (Belgium); Kemp, R. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX143DB (United Kingdom); Lerche, E. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, LPP-ERM/KMS, TEC & Belgian EUROfusion Consortium Partner, Brussels (Belgium); Mirizzi, F. [Unità Tecnica Fusione ENEA, C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Poli, E. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Porte, L. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 13, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ravera, G.L. [Unità Tecnica Fusione ENEA, C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Basic physics requirements of H&CD systems in DEMO have been captured. • The four H&CD systems NBI, EC, IC and LH were analysed to optimize performance. • Novel solutions were studied to overcome the limitations of the present H&CD systems. • RAMI as well as efficiency and optimized design of H&CD systems have been assessed. • Further constraints by remote maintenance or breeding blanket interactions were considered. - Abstract: The physics requirements of the heating and current (H&CD) systems in a Demonstration Fusion Power Plant (DEMO) are often beyond the actual level of design maturity and technology readiness required. The recent EU fusion roadmap advocates a pragmatic approach and favours, for the initial design integration studies, systems to be as much as possible, extrapolated from the ITER experience. To reach the goal of demonstrating the production of electricity in DEMO with a closed fuel cycle by 2050, one must ensure reliability, availability, maintainability, inspectability (RAMI) as well as performance, efficiency and optimized design for the H&CD systems. In the recent Power Plant Physics & Technology (PPP&T) Work Programme, a number of H&CD studies were performed. The four H&CD systems Neutral Beam (NB) Injection, Electron Cyclotron (EC), Ion Cyclotron (IC) and Lower Hybrid (LH) were considered. First, a physics optimization study was made assuming all technologies are available and identifying which parameters are needed to optimize the performance for given plasma parameters. Separately, the (i) technological maturity was considered (e.g. 240 GHz gyrotrons for EC) and (ii) technologies were adapted (e.g. multi-stage depressed collector for EC) or (iii) novel solutions (e.g. photo-neutralization for NB or new antennae concepts for IC) were studied to overcome the limitations of the present H&CD systems with respect to DEMO requirements. Further constraints imposed by remote maintenance or breeding blanket interactions

  10. Role of imaging in current acute ischemic stroke workflow for endovascular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Bijoy K; Campbell, Bruce C V; Levi, Christopher; Goyal, Mayank

    2015-06-01

    Ischemic stroke is caused by a thrombus that blocks an intracranial artery. Brain tissue beyond the blocked artery survives for a variable period of time because of blood and nutrients received through tiny vessels called collaterals. Imaging the brain and the vasculature that supplies it is therefore a vital first step in treating patients with acute ischemic stroke. In this review, we focus on current evidence for imaging selection of patients for endovascular therapy in the context of the recently positive clinical trials, such as Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN), Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Anterior Circulation Proximal Occlusion With Emphasis on Minimizing Computed Tomography to Recanalization Times (ESCAPE), Solitaire With the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment (SWIFT PRIME), and Extending the Time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits-Intra-Arterial (EXTEND-IA). We discuss evidence for and use of the various imaging paradigms available. We discuss how to set up quick and efficient imaging protocols for patient selection and address common concerns about the use of imaging, including time spent, contrast, radiation, and other advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we briefly comment on how imaging can integrate itself within various health systems of care in the future, thereby potentially improving patient outcomes further. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. DATA PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF AIRBORNE 3D IMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Airborne 3D image which integrates GPS,attitude measurement unit (AMU),sca nning laser rangefinder (SLR) and spectral scanner has been developed successful ly.The spectral scanner and SLR use the same optical system which ensures laser point to match pixel seamlessly.The distinctive advantage of 3D image is that it can produce geo_referenced images and DSM (digital surface models) images wi thout any ground control points (GCPs).It is no longer necessary to sur vey GCPs and with some softwares the data can be processed and produce digital s urface models (DSM) and geo_referenced images in quasi_real_time,therefore,the efficiency of 3 D image is 10~100 times higher than that of traditional approaches.The process ing procedure involves decomposing and checking the raw data,processing GPS dat a,calculating the positions of laser sample points,producing geo_referenced im age,producing DSM and mosaicing strips.  The principle of 3D image is first introduced in this paper,and then we focus on the fast processing technique and algorithm.The flight tests and processed r esults show that the processing technique is feasible and can meet the requireme nt of quasi_real_time applications.

  12. Current Laser Resurfacing Technologies: A Review that Delves Beneath the Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissig, Jason; Hamilton, Kristy; Markus, Ramsey

    2012-01-01

    Numerous laser platforms exist that rejuvenate the skin by resurfacing its upper layers. In varying degrees, these lasers improve the appearance of lentigines and rhytides, eliminate photoaging, soften scarring due to acne and other causes, and treat dyspigmentation. Five major classes of dermatologic lasers are currently in common use: ablative and nonablative lasers in both fractionated and unfractionated forms as well as radiofrequency technologies. The gentler nonablative lasers allow for quicker healing, whereas harsher ablative lasers tend to be more effective. Fractionating either laser distributes the effect, increasing the number of treatments but minimizing downtime and complications. In this review article, the authors seek to inform surgeons about the current laser platforms available, clarify the differences between them, and thereby facilitate the identification of the most appropriate laser for their practice. PMID:23904818

  13. Living Brain Optical Imaging: Technology, Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Bernardelli, Chad; Maslov, Konstantin I.

    2017-01-01

    Within the last few decades, optical imaging methods have yielded revolutionary results when applied to all parts of the central nervous system. The purpose of this review is to analyze research possibilities and limitations of several novel imaging techniques and show some of the most interesting achievements obtained by these methods. Here we covered intrinsic optical imaging, voltage-sensitive dye, photoacoustic, optical coherence tomography, near-infrared spectroscopy and some other techniques. All of them are mainly applicable for experimental neuroscience but some of them also suitable for the clinical studies.

  14. Effect of Joule heating and current crowding on electromigration in mobile technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, K. N.; Liu, Yingxia; Li, Menglu

    2017-03-01

    In the present era of big data and internet of things, the use of microelectronic products in all aspects of our life is manifested by the ubiquitous presence of mobile devices as i-phones and wearable i-products. These devices are facing the need for higher power and greater functionality applications such as in i-health, yet they are limited by physical size. At the moment, software (Apps) is much ahead of hardware in mobile technology. To advance hardware, the end of Moore's law in two-dimensional integrated circuits can be extended by three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs). The concept of 3D ICs has been with us for more than ten years. The challenge in 3D IC technology is dense packing by using both vertical and horizontal interconnections. Mass production of 3D IC devices is behind schedule due to cost because of low yield and uncertain reliability. Joule heating is serious in a dense structure because of heat generation and dissipation. A change of reliability paradigm has advanced from failure at a specific circuit component to failure at a system level weak-link. Currently, the electronic industry is introducing 3D IC devices in mainframe computers, where cost is not an issue, for the purpose of collecting field data of failure, especially the effect of Joule heating and current crowding on electromigration. This review will concentrate on the positive feedback between Joule heating and electromigration, resulting in an accelerated system level weak-link failure. A new driving force of electromigration, the electric potential gradient force due to current crowding, will be reviewed critically. The induced failure tends to occur in the low current density region.

  15. A primer of economic methods of assessment of medical imaging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, C. [Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston, QLD (Australia). Department of Radiological Sciences

    1997-12-01

    A number of methods of economic assessment that can be applied to medical technology are described. Two, in particular Cost-Benefit Analysis and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis - are applied to medical imaging technology. An outline of a Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and the cost effectiveness of Magnetic Resonance Imaging is given. Copyright (1997) Australian Institute of Radiography 17 refs.

  16. SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN NATURAL FRACTURES BASED ON DIGITAL IMAGE TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ye-fei; ZHOU Zhi-fang; HUANG Yong

    2009-01-01

    A method of fracture boundary extraction was developed using the Gaussian template and Canny boundary detection on the basis of the collected digital images of natural fractures. The roughness and apertures of the fractures were briefly discussed from the point of view of digital image analysis. The extracted fractured image was translated into a lattice image which can be directly used in numerical simulation. The lattice Boltzmann and modified moment propagation mixed method was then applied to the simulation of solute transport in a natural single fracture, and this mixed method could take the advantages of the lattice Boltzmann method in dealing with complex physical boundaries. The obtained concentrations was fitted with the CXTFIT2.1 code and compared with the results obtained with the commercial software Feflow. The comparison indicates that the simulation using the mixed method is sound.

  17. Fingerprint Image Segmentation Algorithm Based on Contourlet Transform Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly introduces two classic algorithms for fingerprint image processing, which include the soft threshold denoise algorithm of wavelet domain based on wavelet domain and the fingerprint image enhancement algorithm based on Gabor function. Contourlet transform has good texture sensitivity and can be used for the segmentation enforcement of the fingerprint image. The method proposed in this paper has attained the final fingerprint segmentation image through utilizing a modified denoising for a high-frequency coefficient after Contourlet decomposition, highlighting the fingerprint ridge line through modulus maxima detection and finally connecting the broken fingerprint line using a value filter in direction. It can attain richer direction information than the method based on wavelet transform and Gabor function and can make the positioning of detailed features more accurate. However, its ridge should be more coherent. Experiments have shown that this algorithm is obviously superior in fingerprint features detection.

  18. An advanced phantom study assessing the feasibility of neuronal current imaging by ultra-low-field NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, Rainer; Nieminen, Jaakko O.; Höfner, Nora; Jazbinšek, Vojko; Scheer, Hans-Jürgen; Kim, Kiwoong; Burghoff, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In ultra-low-field (ULF) NMR/MRI, a common scheme is to magnetize the sample by a polarizing field of up to hundreds of mT, after which the NMR signal, precessing in a field on the order of several μT, is detected with superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). In our ULF-NMR system, we polarize with up to 50 mT and deploy a single-stage DC-SQUID current sensor with an integrated input coil which is connected to a wire-wound Nb gradiometer. We developed this system (white noise 0.50 fT/√{Hz}) for assessing the feasibility of imaging neuronal currents by detecting their effect on the ULF-NMR signal. Magnetoencephalography investigations of evoked brain activity showed neuronal dipole moments below 50 nAm. With our instrumentation, we have studied two different approaches for neuronal current imaging. In the so-called DC effect, long-lived neuronal activity shifts the Larmor frequency of the surrounding protons. An alternative strategy is to exploit fast neuronal activity as a tipping pulse. This so-called AC effect requires the proton Larmor frequency to match the frequency of the neuronal activity, which ranges from near-DC to ∼kHz. We emulated neuronal activity by means of a single dipolar source in a physical phantom, consisting of a hollow sphere filled with an aqueous solution of CuSO4 and NaCl. In these phantom studies, with physiologically relevant dipole depths, we determined resolution limits for our set-up for the AC and the DC effect of ∼10 μAm and ∼50 nAm, respectively. Hence, the DC effect appears to be detectable in vivo by current ULF-NMR technology.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging in psoriatic arthritis -- update on current status and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Poggenborg, René Panduro

    2012-01-01

    Measures in Rheumatology) may contribute to facilitating research, identifying appropriate areas for use, and reaching consensus on the optimal examination technique. Accordingly, GRAPPA, a primary driver of international research in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), has focused on the current use......The potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for use in clinical practice and research has gained increasing interest over the last decade. International collaborative initiatives from GRAPPA (Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis) and/or OMERACT (Outcome...... and future development of MRI and other modern imaging modalities in PsA. This review, presented at the GRAPPA 2010 annual meeting, describes the current status of MRI in PsA, with a focus on its use in diagnosis, monitoring, and prediction of the disease course and treatment response. Important areas...

  20. Digital image processing for the earth resources technology satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, P. M.; Bakis, R.; Wesley, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems of digital processing of the large volumes of multispectral image data that are expected to be received from the ERTS program. Correction of geometric and radiometric distortions are discussed and a byte oriented implementation is proposed. CPU timing estimates are given for a System/360 Model 67, and show that a processing throughput of 1000 image sets per week is feasible.

  1. Independent Validation and Verification of Process Design and Optimization Technology Diagnostic and Control of Natural Gas Fired Furnaces via Flame Image Analysis Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL

    2009-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program has invested in emerging Process Design and Optimizations Technologies (PDOT) to encourage the development of new initiatives that might result in energy savings in industrial processes. Gas fired furnaces present a harsh environment, often making accurate determination of correct air/fuel ratios a challenge. Operation with the correct air/fuel ratio and especially with balanced burners in multi-burner combustion equipment can result in improved system efficiency, yielding lower operating costs and reduced emissions. Flame Image Analysis offers a way to improve individual burner performance by identifying and correcting fuel-rich burners. The anticipated benefit of this technology is improved furnace thermal efficiency, and lower NOx emissions. Independent validation and verification (V&V) testing of the FIA technology was performed at Missouri Forge, Inc., in Doniphan, Missouri by Environ International Corporation (V&V contractor) and Enterprise Energy and Research (EE&R), the developer of the technology. The test site was selected by the technology developer and accepted by Environ after a meeting held at Missouri Forge. As stated in the solicitation for the V&V contractor, 'The objective of this activity is to provide independent verification and validation of the performance of this new technology when demonstrated in industrial applications. A primary goal for the V&V process will be to independently evaluate if this technology, when demonstrated in an industrial application, can be utilized to save a significant amount of the operating energy cost. The Seller will also independently evaluate the other benefits of the demonstrated technology that were previously identified by the developer, including those related to product quality, productivity, environmental impact, etc'. A test plan was provided by the technology developer and is included as an appendix to the summary report

  2. Novel SPECT Technologies and Approaches in Cardiac Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Slomka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent novel approaches in myocardial perfusion single photon emission CT (SPECT have been facilitated by new dedicated high-efficiency hardware with solid-state detectors and optimized collimators. New protocols include very low-dose (1 mSv stress-only, two-position imaging to mitigate attenuation artifacts, and simultaneous dual-isotope imaging. Attenuation correction can be performed by specialized low-dose systems or by previously obtained CT coronary calcium scans. Hybrid protocols using CT angiography have been proposed. Image quality improvements have been demonstrated by novel reconstructions and motion correction. Fast SPECT acquisition facilitates dynamic flow and early function measurements. Image processing algorithms have become automated with virtually unsupervised extraction of quantitative imaging variables. This automation facilitates integration with clinical variables derived by machine learning to predict patient outcome or diagnosis. In this review, we describe new imaging protocols made possible by the new hardware developments. We also discuss several novel software approaches for the quantification and interpretation of myocardial perfusion SPECT scans.

  3. Event visualisation in ATLAS: current software technologies, future prospects and trends

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; The ATLAS collaboration; Moyse, Edward

    2016-01-01

    At the beginning, HEP experiments made use of photographical images both to record and store experimental data and to illustrate their findings. Then the experiments evolved and needed to find ways to visualize their data. With the availability of computer graphics, software packages to display event data and the detector geometry started to be developed. Here a brief history of event displays is presented, with an overview of the different event display tools used today in HEP experiments in general, and in the LHC experiments in particular. Then the case of the ATLAS experiment is considered in more detail and two widely used event display packages are presented, Atlantis and VP1, focusing on the software technologies they employ, as well as their strengths, differences and their usage in the experiment: from physics analysis to detector development, and from online monitoring to outreach and communication. Future development plans and improvements in the ATLAS event display packages will also be discussed,...

  4. Assessment of knowledge and awareness among radiology personnel regarding current computed tomography technology and radiation dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bradley, D. A.; Bahruddin, N. A.; Ang, W. C.; Salehhon, N.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness among 120 radiology personnel working in 7 public hospitals in Johor, Malaysia, concerning Computed Tomography (CT) technology and radiation doses based on a set of questionnaires. Subjects were divided into two groups (Medical profession (Med, n=32) and Allied health profession (AH, n=88). The questionnaires are addressed: (1) demographic data (2) relative radiation dose and (3) knowledge of current CT technology. One-third of respondents from both groups were able to estimate relative radiation dose for routine CT examinations. 68% of the allied health profession personnel knew of the Malaysia regulations entitled ‘Basic Safety Standard (BSS) 2010’, although notably 80% of them had previously attended a radiation protection course. No significant difference (p < 0.05) in mean scores of CT technology knowledge detected between the two groups, with the medical professions producing a mean score of (26.7 ± 2.7) and the allied health professions a mean score of (25.2 ± 4.3). This study points to considerable variation among the respondents concerning their understanding of knowledge and awareness of risks of radiation and CT optimization techniques.

  5. Recycling of waste printed circuit boards: a review of current technologies and treatment status in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kui; Guo, Jie; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-05-30

    From the use of renewable resources and environmental protection viewpoints, recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) receives wide concerns as the amounts of scrap PCBs increases dramatically. However, treatment for waste PCBs is a challenge due to the fact that PCBs are diverse and complex in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Recycle technology for waste PCBs in China is still immature. Previous studies focused on metals recovery, but resource utilization for nonmetals and further separation of the mixed metals are relatively fewer. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a proper recycle technology for waste PCBs. In this paper, current status of waste PCBs treatment in China was introduced, and several recycle technologies were analyzed. Some advices against the existing problems during recycling process were presented. Based on circular economy concept in China and complete recycling and resource utilization for all materials, a new environmental-friendly integrated recycling process with no pollution and high efficiency for waste PCBs was provided and discussed in detail.

  6. Possibilities and limitations of current technologies for quantification of biological extracellular vesicles and synthetic mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Sybren L.N.; de Vrij, Jeroen; van der Vlist, Els J.; Geragousian, Biaina; van Bloois, Louis; Mastrobattista, Enrico; Schiffelers, Raymond M.; Wauben, Marca H.M.; Broekman, Marike L.D.; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Nano-sized extracelullar vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types play important roles in a plethora of (patho)physiological processes and are increasingly recognized as biomarkers for disease. In addition, engineered EV and EV-inspired liposomes hold great potential as drug delivery systems. Major technologies developed for high-throughput analysis of individual EV include nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), tunable resistive pulse sensing (tRPS) and high-resolution flow cytometry (hFC). Currently, there is a need for comparative studies on the available technologies to improve standardization of vesicle analysis in diagnostic or therapeutic settings. We investigated the possibilities, limitations and comparability of NTA, tRPS and hFC for analysis of tumor cell-derived EVs and synthetic mimics (i.e. differently sized liposomes). NTA and tRPS instrument settings were identified that significantly affected the quantification of these particles. Furthermore, we detailed the differences in absolute quantification of EVs and liposomes using the three technologies. This study increases our understanding of possibilities and pitfalls of NTA, tRPS and hFC, which will benefit standardized and large-scale clinical application of (engineered) EVs and EV-mimics in the future. PMID:25555362

  7. Clarification technologies for monoclonal antibody manufacturing processes: Current state and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nripen; Arunkumar, Abhiram; Chollangi, Srinivas; Tan, Zhijun George; Borys, Michael; Li, Zheng Jian

    2016-04-01

    Considerable progress has been made increasing productivity of cell cultures to meet the rapidly growing demand for antibody biopharmaceuticals through increased cell densities and longer culture times. This in turn has dramatically increased the burden of process and product related impurities on the purification processes. In addition, current trends in the biopharmaceutical industry point toward both increased productivity and targeting smaller patient populations for new indications. Taken together, these developments are driving the industry to explore alternative separation technologies as a future manufacturing strategy. Clarification technologies well established in other industries, such as flocculation and precipitation are increasingly considered as a viable solution to address this bottleneck in antibody processes. However, several technical issues need to be fully addressed including suitability as a platform application, robustness, process cost, toxicity, and clearance. This review will focus on recent efforts to incorporate new generation clarification technologies for mammalian cell cultures producing monoclonal antibodies as well as challenges to their implementation supported by a case study. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Current Fluctuation Measurements of Amperometric Gas Sensors Constructed with Three Different Technology Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlak Petr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical amperometric gas sensors represent a well-established and versatile type of devices with unique features: good sensitivity and stability, short response/recovery times, and low power consumption. These sensors operate at room temperature, and therefore have been applied in monitoring air pollutants and detection of toxic and hazardous gases in a number of areas. Some drawbacks of classical electrochemical sensors are overcome by the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE based on ionic liquids. This work presents evaluation of an SPE-based amperometric sensor from the point of view of current fluctuations. The sensor is based on a novel three-electrode sensor platform with solid polymer electrolytes containing ionic liquid for detection of nitrogen dioxide − a highly toxic gas that is harmful to the environment and presenting a possible threat to human health even at low concentrations. The paper focuses on using noise measurement (electric current fluctuation measurement for evaluation of electrochemical sensors which were constructed by different fabrication processes: (i lift-off and drop-casting technology, (ii screen printing technology on a ceramic substrate and (iii screen printing on a flexible substrate.

  9. Life cycle Greenhouse gas emissions of current Oil Sands Technologies: surface mining and in situ applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergerson, Joule A; Kofoworola, Oyeshola; Charpentier, Alex D; Sleep, Sylvia; Maclean, Heather L

    2012-07-17

    Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with two major recovery and extraction processes currently utilized in Alberta's oil sands, surface mining and in situ, are quantified. Process modules are developed and integrated into a life cycle model-GHOST (GreenHouse gas emissions of current Oil Sands Technologies) developed in prior work. Recovery and extraction of bitumen through surface mining and in situ processes result in 3-9 and 9-16 g CO(2)eq/MJ bitumen, respectively; upgrading emissions are an additional 6-17 g CO(2)eq/MJ synthetic crude oil (SCO) (all results are on a HHV basis). Although a high degree of variability exists in well-to-wheel emissions due to differences in technologies employed, operating conditions, and product characteristics, the surface mining dilbit and the in situ SCO pathways have the lowest and highest emissions, 88 and 120 g CO(2)eq/MJ reformulated gasoline. Through the use of improved data obtained from operating oil sands projects, we present ranges of emissions that overlap with emissions in literature for conventional crude oil. An increased focus is recommended in policy discussions on understanding interproject variability of emissions of both oil sands and conventional crudes, as this has not been adequately represented in previous studies.

  10. Current perspectives on biomedical waste management: Rules, conventions and treatment technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini R Capoor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unregulated biomedical waste management (BMWM is a public health problem. This has posed a grave threat to not only human health and safety but also to the environment for the current and future generations. Safe and reliable methods for handling of biomedical waste (BMW are of paramount importance. Effective BMWM is not only a legal necessity but also a social responsibility. This article reviews the current perspectives on BMWM and rules, conventions and the treatment technologies used worldwide. BMWM should ideally be the subject of a national strategy with dedicated infrastructure, cradle-to-grave legislation, competent regulatory authority and trained personnel. Improving the management of biomedical waste begins with waste minimisation. These standards, norms and rules on BMWM in a country regulate the disposal of various categories of BMW to ensure the safety of the health-care workers, patients, public and environment. Furthermore, developing models for the monitoring of hospital health-care waste practices and research into non-burn eco-friendly sustainable technologies, recycling and polyvinyl chloride-free devices will go in long way for safe carbon environment. Globally, greater research in BMWM is warranted to understand its growing field of public health importance.

  11. Technological insights: Combined impedance manometry for esophageal motility testing-current results and further implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Nam Nguyen; Gerson Ricardo Souza Domingues; Frank Lammert

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on current aspects of the novel technology of combined impedance manometry for esophageal motility testing. It presents methodological features, summarizes current results and discusses implications for further research. The combined technique assesses simultaneously bolus transport and associated peristalsis, thus allowing detailed analysis of the relationships between bolus transit and esophageal motility. Recent studies demonstrate that combined impedance manometry provides important additional information about esophageal motility as compared to conventional manometry: (1) monitoring of bolus transport patterns, (2) calculation of bolus transit parameters, (3) evaluation of bolus clearance,(4) monitoring of swallow associated events such as air movement and reflux, and (5) investigation of the relationships between bolus transit and LES relaxation.Studies with healthy subjects have identified several useful parameters for comprehensive assessment of eosphageal function. These parameters were found to be pathological in patients with classical achalasia,mild GERD, and ineffective esophageal motility. The technology of combined impedance manometry provides an important new tool for esophageal function testing,advancing both clinical and basic research. However,several important issues remain to be standardized to make the technique suitable for widely clinical use.

  12. Current implementation of site-specific technologies in U.S. cotton production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Edward M.

    2004-11-01

    The initial adoption of site-specific management for cotton production was slower than by commodities grown in the mid-west. Part of the delayed adoption can be explained by the lack of functional cotton yield monitors. Now that yield monitors are commercially available, cotton producers are beginning to find many applications for geospatial technologies. The emphasis of this paper is on applications that are being implemented at some level on commercial farms. Traditional grid-based soil sampling has found some use for pre-plant application of fertilizer, and soil conductivity mapping has been used to apply variable rate soil amendments in the west. During the growing season, vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) have been used as a tool to direct scouting for insect infestations. The scouting information and NDVI are combined to create variable rate insecticide application maps. A catalyst to this approach has been the recent development of aerial variable rate application technology. In some production regions, it is necessary to control cotton's vegetative development rate with plant growth regulators (PGRs). Vegetation indices are very useful for defining areas of the field where PGRs are needed. Research is also being conducted on the use of imagery for the development of defoliation application maps before harvest. In the short-term, simple vegetation indices can meet many of management information needs for cotton when combined with directed scouting of the field. However, to be ultimately successful, dependable and frequent sources of imagery will be required. Near-real time delivery is essential, as a majority of the management decisions are often made on a daily basis. Most producer-based applications of these data have been from airborne platforms managed by local image providers where flexible image acquisition schedules are possible.

  13. In Vivo Imaging of Tissue Physiological Function using EPR Spectroscopy | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is a technique for studying chemical species that have one or more unpaired electrons.  The current invention describes Echo-based Single Point Imaging (ESPI), a novel EPR image formation strategy that allows in vivo imaging of physiological function.  The National Cancer Institute's Radiation Biology Branch is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in in-licensing an in vivo imaging using Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to measure active oxygen species.

  14. The Application of the Technology of 3D Satellite Cloud Imaging in Virtual Reality Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-fang Xie

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Using satellite cloud images to simulate clouds is one of the new visual simulation technologies in Virtual Reality (VR. Taking the original data of satellite cloud images as the source, this paper depicts specifically the technology of 3D satellite cloud imaging through the transforming of coordinates and projection, creating a DEM (Digital Elevation Model of cloud imaging and 3D simulation. A Mercator projection was introduced to create a cloud image DEM, while solutions for geodetic problems were introduced to calculate distances, and the outer-trajectory science of rockets was introduced to obtain the elevation of clouds. For demonstration, we report on a computer program to simulate the 3D satellite cloud images.

  15. An Overview of Current and Past W-UO[2] CERMET Fuel Fabrication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas E. Burkes; Daniel M. Wachs; James E. Werner; Steven D. Howe

    2007-06-01

    CERMET fuel fabrication technology as related to the GE 710 and ANL Nuclear Rocket Programs, in addition to discussing future plans, viable alternatives and preliminary investigations for W-UO2 CERMET fuel fabrication. The intention of the talk is to provide the brief history and tie in an overview of current programs and investigations as related to NTP based W-UO2 CERMET fuel fabrication, and hopefully peak interest in advanced fuel fabrication technologies.

  16. Current and future imaging modalities for multiple myeloma and its precursor states

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAN, ESTHER; WEISS, BRENDAN M.; MENA, ESTHER; KORDE, NEHA; CHOYKE, PETER L.; LANDGREN, OLA

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, the skeletal survey has been the standard modality for the detection of osteolytic bone disease in multiple myeloma. In addition to its poor sensitivity for the detection of osteolytic lesions, this modality is not able to identify extramedullary lesions and focal bone marrow involvement, nor measure response to therapy. The application of novel imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and molecular imaging such as fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography CT (18F-FDG PET/CT) and fluorine-18 sodium fluoride positron emission tomography CT (18F-NaF PET/CT) has the potential to overcome these limitations as well as provide prognostic information in precursor states and multiple myeloma. Also promising is the use of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) to measure vascular permeability, an important feature of myelomagenesis. This review summarizes the current status and possible future role of novel imaging modalities in multiple myeloma and its precursor states. PMID:21649546

  17. Imaging of the gastrointestinal tract-novel technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jens Brφndum Frφkjφr; Asbjφrn Mohr Drewes; Hans Gregersen

    2009-01-01

    Imaging of the gastrointestinal tract is very useful for research and clinical studies of patients with symptoms arising from the gastrointestinal tract and in visualising anatomy and pathology. Traditional radiological techniques played a leading role in such studies for a long time. However, advances in non-invasive modalities including ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), etc, have in the last decades revolutionised the way in which the gastrointestinal tract is studied. The resolution of imaging data is constantly being improved and 3D acquisition, tools for filtering, enhancement, segmentation and tissue classification are continually being developed. Additional co-registration techniques allow multimodal data acquisition with improved classification of tissue pathology. Furthermore, new functional imaging techniques have become available. Altogether, the future of gastrointestinal imaging looks very promising which will be of great benefit in clinical and research studies of gastrointestinal diseases. The purpose of this review is to highlight the capabilities of the newest techniques to explore the detailed morphology, biomechanical properties, function and pathology of the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Application of ceramic phosphors for near infrared biomedical imaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Kohei; Tokuzen, Kimikazu; Tsuji, Kosuke; Yamano, Tomoyoshi; Venkatachalam, Nallusamy; Hyodo, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hidehiro

    2010-02-01

    Near infrared wavelength region between 0.8 and 2 μm is an attractive region for biomedical imaging due to the low loss in biomedical objects in the region. Rare-earth doped ceramic phosphors are known to emit efficient fluorescence in the same wavelength region. The authors have developed micro fluorescence bioimaging system for cellular or tissue imaging and macro one for in vivo imaging. This paper will review the materials synthesis for the near infrared fluorescence probes as well as the system development and demonstrative works. Er-doped or Yb/Er-doped ceramic phosphors were synthesized with required particle size. The phosphors were partly modified with polyethylene glycol to give dispersion and controlled interaction with the biological objects. By using the micro imaging system, nematodes, mouse tissue and M1 cells were observed by detecting 1.5 μm emission from Er doped in the ceramic phosphor. in vivo imaging with the same fluorescence scheme was also performed for the digestive organs of live mouse.

  19. The application of surgical navigation system using optical molecular imaging technology in orthotopic breast cancer and metastasis studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chongwei; Zhang, Qian; Kou, Deqiang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Qiu, Jingdan; Wang, Jiandong; Yang, Xin; Du, Yang; Tian, Jie

    2014-02-01

    Currently, it has been an international focus on intraoperative precise positioning and accurate resection of tumor and metastases. The methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played an important role in preoperative accurate diagnosis. However, most of them are inapplicable for intraoperative surgery. We have proposed a surgical navigation system based on optical molecular imaging technology for intraoperative detection of tumors and metastasis. This system collects images from two CCD cameras for real-time fluorescent and color imaging. For image processing, the template matching algorithm is used for multispectral image fusion. For the application of tumor detection, the mouse breast cancer cell line 4T1-luc, which shows highly metastasis, was used for tumor model establishment and a model of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expressing breast cancer. The tumor-bearing nude mice were given tail vein injection of MMP 750FAST (PerkinElmer, Inc. USA) probe and imaged with both bioluminescence and fluorescence to assess in vivo binding of the probe to the tumor and metastases sites. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed to confirm the presence of tumor and metastasis. As a result, one tumor can be observed visually in vivo. However liver metastasis has been detected under surgical navigation system and all were confirmed by histology. This approach helps surgeons to find orthotopic tumors and metastasis during intraoperative resection and visualize tumor borders for precise positioning. Further investigation is needed for future application in clinics.

  20. Driving into the future: how imaging technology is shaping the future of cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Buyue

    2015-03-01

    Fueled by the development of advanced driver assistance system (ADAS), autonomous vehicles, and the proliferation of cameras and sensors, automotive is becoming a rich new domain for innovations in imaging technology. This paper presents an overview of ADAS, the important imaging and computer vision problems to solve for automotive, and examples of how some of these problems are solved, through which we highlight the challenges and opportunities in the automotive imaging space.

  1. SU-E-P-10: Imaging in the Cardiac Catheterization Lab - Technologies and Clinical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterly, K [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease in the cardiac catheterization laboratory is often aided by a multitude of imaging technologies. The purpose of this work is to highlight the contributions to patient care offered by the various imaging systems used during cardiovascular interventional procedures. Methods: Imaging technologies used in the cardiac catheterization lab were characterized by their fundamental technology and by the clinical applications for which they are used. Whether the modality is external to the patient, intravascular, or intracavity was specified. Specific clinical procedures for which multiple modalities are routinely used will be highlighted. Results: X-ray imaging modalities include fluoroscopy/angiography and angiography CT. Ultrasound imaging is performed with external, trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE), and intravascular (IVUS) transducers. Intravascular infrared optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is used to assess vessel endothelium. Relatively large (>0.5 mm) anatomical structures are imaged with x-ray and ultrasound. IVUS and IVOCT provide high resolution images of vessel walls. Cardiac CT and MRI images are used to plan complex cardiovascular interventions. Advanced applications are used to spatially and temporally merge images from different technologies. Diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease frequently utilizes angiography and intra-vascular imaging, and treatment of complex structural heart conditions routinely includes use of multiple imaging modalities. Conclusion: There are several imaging modalities which are routinely used in the cardiac catheterization laboratory to diagnose and treat both coronary artery and structural heart disease. Multiple modalities are frequently used to enhance the quality and safety of procedures. The cardiac catheterization laboratory includes many opportunities for medical physicists to contribute substantially toward advancing patient care.

  2. Computer-aided diagnosis in radiological imaging: current status and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Kunio

    2009-10-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has become one of the major research subjects in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. Many different types of CAD schemes are being developed for detection and/or characterization of various lesions in medical imaging, including conventional projection radiography, CT, MRI, and ultrasound imaging. Commercial systems for detection of breast lesions on mammograms have been developed and have received FDA approval for clinical use. CAD may be defined as a diagnosis made by a physician who takes into account the computer output as a "second opinion". The purpose of CAD is to improve the quality and productivity of physicians in their interpretation of radiologic images. The quality of their work can be improved in terms of the accuracy and consistency of their radiologic diagnoses. In addition, the productivity of radiologists is expected to be improved by a reduction in the time required for their image readings. The computer output is derived from quantitative analysis of radiologic images by use of various methods and techniques in computer vision, artificial intelligence, and artificial neural networks (ANNs). The computer output may indicate a number of important parameters, for example, the locations of potential lesions such as lung cancer and breast cancer, the likelihood of malignancy of detected lesions, and the likelihood of various diseases based on differential diagnosis in a given image and clinical parameters. In this review article, the basic concept of CAD is first defined, and the current status of CAD research is then described. In addition, the potential of CAD in the future is discussed and predicted.

  3. Application of real-time single camera SLAM technology for image-guided targeting in neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Hou, Jung-Fu; Tsao, Yi Hsiang; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an application of augmented reality technology for targeting tumors or anatomical structures inside the skull. The application is a combination of the technologies of MonoSLAM (Single Camera Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) and computer graphics. A stereo vision system is developed to construct geometric data of human face for registration with CT images. Reliability and accuracy of the application is enhanced by the use of fiduciary markers fixed to the skull. The MonoSLAM keeps track of the current location of the camera with respect to an augmented reality (AR) marker using the extended Kalman filter. The fiduciary markers provide reference when the AR marker is invisible to the camera. Relationship between the markers on the face and the augmented reality marker is obtained by a registration procedure by the stereo vision system and is updated on-line. A commercially available Android based tablet PC equipped with a 320×240 front-facing camera was used for implementation. The system is able to provide a live view of the patient overlaid by the solid models of tumors or anatomical structures, as well as the missing part of the tool inside the skull.

  4. Advancing Cardiovascular, Neurovascular, and Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Small Rodents Using Cryogenic Radiofrequency Coil Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niendorf, Thoralf; Pohlmann, Andreas; Reimann, Henning M; Waiczies, Helmar; Peper, Eva; Huelnhagen, Till; Seeliger, Erdmann; Schreiber, Adrian; Kettritz, Ralph; Strobel, Klaus; Ku, Min-Chi; Waiczies, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Research in pathologies of the brain, heart and kidney have gained immensely from the plethora of studies that have helped shape new methods in magnetic resonance (MR) for characterizing preclinical disease models. Methodical probing into preclinical animal models by MR is invaluable since it allows a careful interpretation and extrapolation of data derived from these models to human disease. In this review we will focus on the applications of cryogenic radiofrequency (RF) coils in small animal MR as a means of boosting image quality (e.g., by supporting MR microscopy) and making data acquisition more efficient (e.g., by reducing measuring time); both being important constituents for thorough investigational studies on animal models of disease. This review attempts to make the (bio)medical imaging, molecular medicine, and pharmaceutical communities aware of this productive ferment and its outstanding significance for anatomical and functional MR in small rodents. The goal is to inspire a more intense interdisciplinary collaboration across the fields to further advance and progress non-invasive MR methods that ultimately support thorough (patho)physiological characterization of animal disease models. In this review, current and potential future applications for the RF coil technology in cardiovascular, neurovascular, and renal disease will be discussed.

  5. Advancing Cardiovascular, Neurovascular and Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Small Rodents Using Cryogenic Radiofrequency Coil Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoralf eNiendorf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research in pathologies of the brain, heart and kidney have gained immensely from the plethora of studies that have helped shape new methods in magnetic resonance (MR for characterizing preclinical disease models. Methodical probing into preclinical animal models by MR is invaluable since it allows a careful interpretation and extrapolation of data derived from these models to human disease. In this review we will focus on the applications of cryogenic radiofrequency (RF coils in small animal MR as a means of boosting image quality (e.g. by supporting MR microscopy and making data acquisition more efficient (e.g. by reducing measuring time; both being important constituents for thorough investigational studies on animal models of disease. This review attempts to make the (biomedical imaging, molecular medicine and pharmaceutical communities aware of this productive ferment and its outstanding significance for anatomical and functional MR in small rodents. The goal is to inspire a more intense interdisciplinary collaboration across the fields to further advance and progress non-invasive MR methods that ultimately support thorough (pathophysiological characterization of animal disease models. In this review, current and potential future applications for the RF coil technology in cardiovascular, neurovascular and renal disease will be discussed.

  6. Advancing Cardiovascular, Neurovascular, and Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Small Rodents Using Cryogenic Radiofrequency Coil Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niendorf, Thoralf; Pohlmann, Andreas; Reimann, Henning M.; Waiczies, Helmar; Peper, Eva; Huelnhagen, Till; Seeliger, Erdmann; Schreiber, Adrian; Kettritz, Ralph; Strobel, Klaus; Ku, Min-Chi; Waiczies, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Research in pathologies of the brain, heart and kidney have gained immensely from the plethora of studies that have helped shape new methods in magnetic resonance (MR) for characterizing preclinical disease models. Methodical probing into preclinical animal models by MR is invaluable since it allows a careful interpretation and extrapolation of data derived from these models to human disease. In this review we will focus on the applications of cryogenic radiofrequency (RF) coils in small animal MR as a means of boosting image quality (e.g., by supporting MR microscopy) and making data acquisition more efficient (e.g., by reducing measuring time); both being important constituents for thorough investigational studies on animal models of disease. This review attempts to make the (bio)medical imaging, molecular medicine, and pharmaceutical communities aware of this productive ferment and its outstanding significance for anatomical and functional MR in small rodents. The goal is to inspire a more intense interdisciplinary collaboration across the fields to further advance and progress non-invasive MR methods that ultimately support thorough (patho)physiological characterization of animal disease models. In this review, current and potential future applications for the RF coil technology in cardiovascular, neurovascular, and renal disease will be discussed. PMID:26617515

  7. The High Energy X-ray Imager Technology (HEXITEC) for Solar Hard X-ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    High angular resolution HXR optics require detectors with a large number of fine pixels in order to adequately sample the telescope point spread function (PSF) over the entire field of view. Excessively over-sampling the PSF will increase readout noise and require more processing with no appreciable increase in image quality. An appropriate level of over-sampling is to have 3 pixels within the HPD. For current high resolution X-ray mirrors, the HPD is about 25 arcsec. Over a 6-m focal length this converts to 750 µm, the optimum pixel size is around 250 µm. Annother requirement are that the detectors must also have high efficiency in the HXR region, good energy resolution, low background, low power requirements, and low sensitivity to radiation damage. For solar observations, the ability to handle high counting rates is also extremely desirable. The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK has been developing the electronics for such a detector. Dubbed HEXITEC, for High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology, this Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), can be bonded to 1- or 2- mm-thick Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) or Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), to create a fine (250 µm pitch) HXR detector. The NASA Marshall Space Flight CenterMSFC and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been working with RAL over the past few years to develop these detectors to be used with HXR focusing telescopes. We present on recent results and capabilities as applied to solar observations.

  8. Tipping solutions: emerging 3D nano-fabrication/ -imaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniutinas, Gediminas; Balčytis, Armandas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Chen, Feng; Davis, Jeffrey; David, Christian; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of optical microscopy from an imaging technique into a tool for materials modification and fabrication is now being repeated with other characterization techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam (FIB) milling/imaging, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Fabrication and in situ imaging of materials undergoing a three-dimensional (3D) nano-structuring within a 1-100 nm resolution window is required for future manufacturing of devices. This level of precision is critically in enabling the cross-over between different device platforms (e.g. from electronics to micro-/nano-fluidics and/or photonics) within future devices that will be interfacing with biological and molecular systems in a 3D fashion. Prospective trends in electron, ion, and nano-tip based fabrication techniques are presented.

  9. Implementation of aeronautic image compression technology on DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujing; Gao, Xueqiang; Wang, Mei

    2007-11-01

    According to the designed characteristics and demands of aeronautic image compression system, lifting scheme wavelet and SPIHT algorithm was selected as the key part of software implementation, which was introduced with details. In order to improve execution efficiency, border processing was simplified reasonably and SPIHT (Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees) algorithm was also modified partly. The results showed that the selected scheme has a 0.4dB improvement in PSNR(peak-peak-ratio) compared with classical Shaprio's scheme. To improve the operating speed, the hardware system was then designed based on DSP and many optimization measures were then applied successfully. Practical test showed that the system can meet the real-time demand with good quality of reconstruct image, which has been used in an aeronautic image compression system practically.

  10. Tipping solutions: emerging 3D nano-fabrication/ -imaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seniutinas Gediminas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of optical microscopy from an imaging technique into a tool for materials modification and fabrication is now being repeated with other characterization techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, focused ion beam (FIB milling/imaging, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Fabrication and in situ imaging of materials undergoing a three-dimensional (3D nano-structuring within a 1−100 nm resolution window is required for future manufacturing of devices. This level of precision is critically in enabling the cross-over between different device platforms (e.g. from electronics to micro-/nano-fluidics and/or photonics within future devices that will be interfacing with biological and molecular systems in a 3D fashion. Prospective trends in electron, ion, and nano-tip based fabrication techniques are presented.

  11. Three-dimensional ventricular activation imaging by means of equivalent current source modeling and estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Liu, C; He, B

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel electrocardiographic inverse approach for imaging the 3-D ventricular activation sequence based on the modeling and estimation of the equivalent current density throughout the entire myocardial volume. The spatio-temporal coherence of the ventricular excitation process is utilized to derive the activation time from the estimated time course of the equivalent current density. At each time instant during the period of ventricular activation, the distributed equivalent current density is noninvasively estimated from body surface potential maps (BSPM) using a weighted minimum norm approach with a spatio-temporal regularization strategy based on the singular value decomposition of the BSPMs. The activation time at any given location within the ventricular myocardium is determined as the time point with the maximum local current density estimate. Computer simulation has been performed to evaluate the capability of this approach to image the 3-D ventricular activation sequence initiated from a single pacing site in a physiologically realistic cellular automaton heart model. The simulation results demonstrate that the simulated "true" activation sequence can be accurately reconstructed with an average correlation coefficient of 0.90, relative error of 0.19, and the origin of ventricular excitation can be localized with an average localization error of 5.5 mm for 12 different pacing sites distributed throughout the ventricles.

  12. Analysis and Research for the Technology of Remote Transaction Mirror Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian-hua; ZHU Xiao-jun

    2004-01-01

    The technology of remote transaction mirror image is a feasible, low-investment and well-effect disaster backup scheme in finance business system. The basic idea, construction, working principles and characteristic of remote transaction mirror image are presented in this paper. We analyze and compare similarities and differences among this disaster backup scheme and others usually used. The technology of remote transaction mirror image have the advantages such as less requiring of software and hardware system platform, low-investment, being able to control and restore lost data, insuring the data consistency and integrity.

  13. Novel X-ray image noise reduction technology reduces patient radiation dose while maintaining image quality in coronary angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cate, T.J. ten; Wely, M.H. van; Gehlmann, H.R.; Mauti, M.; Camaro, C.; Reifart, N.; Suryapranata, H.; Boer, M.J. de

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The consequences of high radiation dose for patient and staff demand constant improvements in X-ray dose reduction technology. This study assessed non-inferiority of image quality and quantified patient dose reduction in interventional cardiology for an anatomy-specific optimised cine

  14. Investigation of the characteristics of GIDL current in 90nm CMOS technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hai-Feng; Hao Yue; Ma Xiao-Hua; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Li Kang; Cao Yan-Rong; Zhang Jin-Feng; Zhou Peng-Ju

    2006-01-01

    A specially designed experiment is performed for investigating gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) current in 90nm CMOS technology using lightly-doped drain (LDD) NMOSFET. This paper shows that the drain bias VD has a strong effect on GIDL current as compared with the gate bias VG at the same drain-gate voltage VDG-It is found that the difference between ID in the off-state ID-VG characteristics and the corresponding one in the off-state ID-VD characteristics, which is defined as /DIFF, versus VDG shows a peak. The difference between the influences of VD and VG on GIDL current is shown quantitatively by /DIFF, especially in 90nm scale. The difference is due to different hole tunnellings. Furthermore, the maximum /DIFF(IDIFF.MAX) varies linearly with VDG in logarithmic coordinates and also VDG at IDIFF.MAX with VF which is the characteristic voltage of /DIFF- The relations are studied and some related expressions are given.

  15. Digital Image Correlation of Flapping Wings for Micro-Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    and have served as a tutor for grade school students. I enjoy playing the tuba in the Georgia Tech Pep Band, playing classical piano , reading science...alternative that can be temporary, faster, and less expensive. DIC is a displacement measuring technique that uses a large number of images that are taken

  16. Color management systems: methods and technologies for increased image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caretti, Maria

    1997-02-01

    All the steps in the imaging chain -- from handling the originals in the prepress to outputting them on any device - - have to be well calibrated and adjusted to each other, in order to reproduce color images in a desktop environment as accurate as possible according to the original. Today most of the steps in the prepress production are digital and therefore it is realistic to believe that the color reproduction can be well controlled. This is true thanks to the last years development of fast, cost effective scanners, digital sources and digital proofing devices not the least. It is likely to believe that well defined tools and methods to control this imaging flow will lead to large cost and time savings as well as increased overall image quality. Until now, there has been a lack of good, reliable, easy-to- use systems (e.g. hardware, software, documentation, training and support) in an extent that has made them accessible to the large group of users of graphic arts production systems. This paper provides an overview of the existing solutions to manage colors in a digital pre-press environment. Their benefits and limitations are discussed as well as how they affect the production workflow and organization. The difference between a color controlled environment and one that is not is explained.

  17. Floating image device with autostereoscopic display and viewer-tracking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Ying; Tseng, Kun-Lung; Wang, Chy-Lin; Tsai, Chao-Hsu

    2012-03-01

    Now, numerous types of 3D display have been developed or under-developing. However, most of them present stereoscopic images in a space with limited distance from the physical screen. A display which can deliver stereoscopic images in the free space and satisfies the touching sense of viewers is always expected. As a result, we proposed a floating image device with auto-stereoscopic display and viewer tracking technology. The key technology includes that the optical projected lenses with wide view angle which exceeds 30 degrees, the optimized parameters of 2 views auto-stereoscopic display which fits the viewing specifications and the viewer tracking technology which can update the corresponding image of the particular view angle in real time. The novel display is the other choice for consumers especially for product exhibition, user interface of kiosk and a kind of apparatus of video conference, etc.

  18. Reach on laser imaging technology to terminal guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xue-chun; Jin, Guang-yong; Wu, Zhi-chao; Ling, Ming; Liang, Zhu

    2009-07-01

    The development of range-imaging devices is motivated by various ground and space applications. Tasks in space missions include docking, rendezvous, manipulating robotic arms, landing and autonomous rover applications, sample identification and surface mapping. The ground applications include the guidance of vehicles, robotic and manipulator arms, and other autonomous or teleoperated machines, as well as surface or construction model generation. Without the scanner devices, scannerless imaging lidars have the characteristic of high frame rate, wide field of view and high reliability,which can be successful used in terminal guidance. Diode pumped laser radar with high repetition rate is studied in this paper. A bistatic system is set up and a high speed signal processor for the system is researched. In a conceptual sense, the imaging lidar has two parts, a transmitter and a receiver. Their field of views overlap throughout the measuring range.The imaging lidar operates as follows. Based on principle of pulsed time-of-flight (TOF) laser range finding, the solid-state laser diode-pumped laser produces short laser pulses, which though the expanded lens, then reach the target. The back reflected light is collected with a receiver lens and fed through optical fibres to discrete avalanche photo diodes (APDs). When a received pulse is detected by the comparator a time to digital converter (TDC) stops counting and a time interval, corresponding to the range, is produced. The precision of a single measurement is about +/-4.0cm, but better precision is achieved by averaging. Information about the reflectivity of the target is gathered by recording the amplitude of the received pulse. Range images with the lidar prototype were taken indoors, the measuring distance was about 14m.

  19. Pushing CT and MR Imaging to the Molecular Level for Studying the “Omics”: Current Challenges and Advancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Ming Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, medical imaging has made the transition from anatomical imaging to functional and even molecular imaging. Such transition provides a great opportunity to begin the integration of imaging data and various levels of biological data. In particular, the integration of imaging data and multiomics data such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and pharmacogenomics may open new avenues for predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. However, to promote imaging-omics integration, the practical challenge of imaging techniques should be addressed. In this paper, we describe key challenges in two imaging techniques: computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and then review existing technological advancements. Despite the fact that CT and MRI have different principles of image formation, both imaging techniques can provide high-resolution anatomical images while playing a more and more important role in providing molecular information. Such imaging techniques that enable single modality to image both the detailed anatomy and function of tissues and organs of the body will be beneficial in the imaging-omics field.

  20. Current Clinical Applications and Future Potential of Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Sara; Hulkower, Miriam; Gulko, Edwin; Zampolin, Richard L; Gutman, David; Chitkara, Munish; Zughaft, Malka; Lipton, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    In the setting of acute central nervous system (CNS) emergencies, computed tomography (CT) and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play an important role in the identification of life-threatening intracranial injury. However, the full extent or even presence of brain damage frequently escapes detection by conventional CT and MRI. Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are emerging as important adjuncts in the diagnosis of microstructural white matter injury in the acute and postacute brain-injured patient. Although DTI aids in detection of brain injury pathology, which has been repeatedly associated with typical adverse clinical outcomes, the evolution of acute changes and their long-term prognostic implications are less clear and the subject of much active research. A major aim of current research is to identify imaging-based biomarkers that can identify the subset of TBI patients who are at risk for adverse outcome and can therefore most benefit from ongoing care and rehabilitation as well as future therapeutic interventions.The aim of this study is to introduce the current methods used to obtain DTI in the clinical setting, describe a set of common interpretation strategies with their associated advantages and pitfalls, as well as illustrate the clinical utility of DTI through a set of specific patient scenarios. We conclude with a discussion of future potential for the management of TBI.

  1. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneuski, D.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Doonan, K.; Eklund, L.; Gimenez, E. N.; Hynds, D.; Kachkanov, S.; Kalliopuska, J.; McMullen, T.; O'Shea, V.; Tartoni, N.; Plackett, R.; Vahanen, S.; Wraight, K.

    2015-03-01

    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects.

  2. Exploiting molecular methods to explore endodontic infections: Part 1--current molecular technologies for microbiological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, J F; Rôças, I N

    2005-06-01

    Endodontic infections have been traditionally studied by culture-dependent methods. However, as with other areas of clinical microbiology, culture-based investigations are plagued by significant problems, including the probable involvement of viable but uncultivable micro-organisms with disease causation and inaccurate microbial identification. Innumerous molecular technologies have been used for microbiological diagnosis in clinical microbiology, but only recently some of these techniques have been applied in endodontic microbiology research. This paper intended to review the main molecular methods that have been used or have the potential to be used in the study of endodontic infections. Moreover, advantages and limitations of current molecular techniques when compared to conventional methods for microbial identification are also discussed.

  3. Magnetic Field Sensors Based on Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR Technology: Applications in Electrical Current Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Càndid Reig

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics can be understood as a global recognition to the rapid development of the Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR, from both the physics and engineering points of view. Behind the utilization of GMR structures as read heads for massive storage magnetic hard disks, important applications as solid state magnetic sensors have emerged. Low cost, compatibility with standard CMOS technologies and high sensitivity are common advantages of these sensors. This way, they have been successfully applied in a lot different environments. In this work, we are trying to collect the Spanish contributions to the progress of the research related to the GMR based sensors covering, among other subjects, the applications, the sensor design, the modelling and the electronic interfaces, focusing on electrical current sensing applications.

  4. Carrier Current Line Systems Technologies in M2M Architecture for Wireless Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Ching Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the Carrier Current Line Systems (CCLS technologies of Machine to Machine (M2M architecture which applied for mobile station coverage working with metro, high speed railway, and subway such as analysis for public transport of an indoor transition system. It is based on the theory and practical engineering principle which provide guidelines and formulas for link budget design to help designers fully control and analyze the single output power of uplink and downlink between Fiber Repeaters (FR and mobile station as well as base station. Finally, the results of this leakage cable system are successfully applied to indoor coverage design for metro rapid transit system which are easily installed cellular over fiber solutions for WCDMA/LTE access is becoming Ubiquitous Network to Internet of Thing (IOT real case hierarchy of telecommunication.

  5. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimple, C., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

  6. Advanced ceramic matrix composite materials for current and future propulsion technology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Beyer, S.; Knabe, H.; Immich, H.; Meistring, R.; Gessler, A.

    2004-08-01

    Current rocket engines, due to their method of construction, the materials used and the extreme loads to which they are subjected, feature a limited number of load cycles. Various technology programmes in Europe are concerned, besides developing reliable and rugged, low cost, throwaway equipment, with preparing for future reusable propulsion technologies. One of the key roles for realizing reusable engine components is the use of modern and innovative materials. One of the key technologies which concern various engine manufacturers worldwide is the development of fibre-reinforced ceramics—ceramic matrix composites. The advantages for the developers are obvious—the low specific weight, the high specific strength over a large temperature range, and their great damage tolerance compared to monolithic ceramics make this material class extremely interesting as a construction material. Over the past years, the Astrium company (formerly DASA) has, together with various partners, worked intensively on developing components for hypersonic engines and liquid rocket propulsion systems. In the year 2000, various hot-firing tests with subscale (scale 1:5) and full-scale nozzle extensions were conducted. In this year, a further decisive milestone was achieved in the sector of small thrusters, and long-term tests served to demonstrate the extraordinary stability of the C/SiC material. Besides developing and testing radiation-cooled nozzle components and small-thruster combustion chambers, Astrium worked on the preliminary development of actively cooled structures for future reusable propulsion systems. In order to get one step nearer to this objective, the development of a new fibre composite was commenced within the framework of a regionally sponsored programme. The objective here is to create multidirectional (3D) textile structures combined with a cost-effective infiltration process. Besides material and process development, the project also encompasses the development of

  7. Nanomaterials and synergistic low-intensity direct current (LIDC) stimulation technology for orthopedic implantable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirwaiker, Rohan A; Samberg, Meghan E; Cohen, Paul H; Wysk, Richard A; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A

    2013-01-01

    Nanomaterials play a significant role in biomedical research and applications because of their unique biological, mechanical, and electrical properties. In recent years, they have been utilized to improve the functionality and reliability of a wide range of implantable medical devices ranging from well-established orthopedic residual hardware devices (e.g., hip implants) that can repair defects in skeletal systems to emerging tissue engineering scaffolds that can repair or replace organ functions. This review summarizes the applications and efficacies of these nanomaterials that include synthetic or naturally occurring metals, polymers, ceramics, and composites in orthopedic implants, the largest market segment of implantable medical devices. The importance of synergistic engineering techniques that can augment or enhance the performance of nanomaterial applications in orthopedic implants is also discussed, the focus being on a low-intensity direct electric current (LIDC) stimulation technology to promote the long-term antibacterial efficacy of oligodynamic metal-based surfaces by ionization, while potentially accelerating tissue growth and osseointegration. While many nanomaterials have clearly demonstrated their ability to provide more effective implantable medical surfaces, further decisive investigations are necessary before they can translate into medically safe and commercially viable clinical applications. The article concludes with a discussion about some of the critical impending issues with the application of nanomaterials-based technologies in implantable medical devices, and potential directions to address these.

  8. Fingerprinting food: current technologies for the detection of food adulteration and contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David I; Brewster, Victoria L; Dunn, Warwick B; Allwood, J William; Golovanov, Alexander P; Goodacre, Royston

    2012-09-07

    Major food adulteration and contamination events seem to occur with some regularity, such as the widely publicised adulteration of milk products with melamine and the recent microbial contamination of vegetables across Europe for example. With globalisation and rapid distribution systems, these can have international impacts with far-reaching and sometimes lethal consequences. These events, though potentially global in the modern era, are in fact far from contemporary, and deliberate adulteration of food products is probably as old as the food processing and production systems themselves. This review first introduces some background into these practices, both historically and contemporary, before introducing a range of the technologies currently available for the detection of food adulteration and contamination. These methods include the vibrational spectroscopies: near-infrared, mid-infrared, Raman; NMR spectroscopy, as well as a range of mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, amongst others. This subject area is particularly relevant at this time, as it not only concerns the continuous engagement with food adulterers, but also more recent issues such as food security, bioterrorism and climate change. It is hoped that this introductory overview acts as a springboard for researchers in science, technology, engineering, and industry, in this era of systems-level thinking and interdisciplinary approaches to new and contemporary problems.

  9. The current status of usability studies of information technologies in China: a systematic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993) have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. China's usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. More human and material resources need to be invested in China's usability research, particularly in HIT.

  10. The Current Status of Usability Studies of Information Technologies in China: A Systematic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Lei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. Methods. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Results. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993 have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. Discussions. China’s usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. Conclusions. More human and material resources need to be invested in China’s usability research, particularly in HIT.

  11. Image Science Technology Forecasting on offset printing:A Patent Analysis Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yaojen

    2004-01-01

    Technology forecasting is a important approach which can help researcher to point out what will be of technology in the future. There are many well-developed approaches and methodologies can do technology forecasting well, for example S-curve analysis. Patent analysis is another way to analyze technology development trend. Patent is a kind of intellectual property right can help researcher avoid to infringe patent owned by competitor. Patent analysis can help researcher and corporate find out what are major technology trends and point out what field has low patent infringement risk.It will describe what patent analysis is briefly and how to process, and use patent analysis to analysis image reproduction technology trend. Offset printing technology is the main field discussed. When running analysis will follow the international patent classification (IPC) category and use USPTO patent database.

  12. Enhanced depth imaging-OCT of the choroid: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviers, H; Zambarakji, H

    2014-12-01

    With the advent of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), detailed visualisation of the choroid in vivo is now possible. Measurements of choroidal thickness (CT) have also enabled new directions in research to study normal and pathological processes within the choroid. The aim of the present study is to review the current literature on choroidal imaging using EDI-OCT. Studies were identified by a systematic search using Medline ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed ). Papers were also identified based on the reference lists of relevant publications. Papers were included in the review if the focus of the study involved imaging of the choroid using EDI-OCT. Recent studies have demonstrated successful imaging of the choroid and high reproducibility of measurements of CT using EDI-OCT. There are much data confirming that abnormalities in choroidal structure and function contribute to major ocular diseases and patterns of CT variation may be observed in certain disease states and may be influenced by treatment. However, it is not clear whether these variations are a contributing factor or a consequence of the disease. While more invasive methods such as indocyanine green (ICG) angiography remain the gold standard for detecting abnormalities of the choroidal vasculature in normal eyes and disease states, EDI-OCT has become an important adjunctive clinical tool in providing three-dimensional anatomical information of the choroid.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers in patients with progressive ataxia: current status and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Stuart; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Craven, Ian J; Wilkinson, Iain D; Griffiths, Paul D; Hoggard, Nigel

    2013-04-01

    A diagnostic challenge commonly encountered in neurology is that of an adult patient presenting with ataxia. The differential is vast and clinical assessment alone may not be sufficient due to considerable overlap between different causes of ataxia. Magnetic resonance (MR)-based biomarkers such as voxel-based morphometry, MR spectroscopy, diffusion-weighted and diffusion-tensor imaging and functional MR imaging are gaining great attention for their potential as indicators of disease. A number of studies have reported correlation with clinical severity and underlying pathophysiology, and in some cases, MR imaging has been shown to allow differentiation of conditions causing ataxia. However, despite recent advances, their sensitivity and specificity vary. In addition, questions remain over their validity and reproducibility, especially when applied in routine clinical practice. This article extensively reviews the current literature regarding MR-based biomarkers for the patient with predominantly adult-onset ataxia. Imaging features characteristic of a particular ataxia are provided and features differentiating ataxia groups and subgroups are discussed. Finally, discussion will turn to the feasibility of applying these biomarkers in routine clinical practice.

  14. Micro-computed tomography for small animal imaging: Technological details

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Li; Hui Zhang; Zhiwei Tang; Guangshu Hu

    2008-01-01

    The high-resolution micro-computed tomography(micro-CT)system has now become an important tool for biological research.The micro-CT system enables a non-invasive inspection to screen anatomical changes in small animals.The promising advantages include high-spatial resolution,high sensitivity to bone and lung,short scan time and cost-effectiveness.The dose received by the small animal might be a critical concern in the research.In this article,the choice of the components,fundamental physical problems,the image reconstruction algorithm and the representative applications of micro-CT are summarized.Some results from our research group are also presented to show high-resolution images obtained by the micro-CT system.

  15. New solutions and technologies for uncooled infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Joël.; Diaz, Frédéric; Fontaine, Christophe; Loiseaux, Brigitte; Lee, Mane-Si Laure; Clienti, Christophe; Lemonnier, Fabrice; Zhang, Xianghua; Calvez, Laurent

    2013-06-01

    The military uncooled infrared market is driven by the continued cost reduction of the focal plane arrays whilst maintaining high standards of sensitivity and steering towards smaller pixel sizes. As a consequence, new optical solutions are called for. Two approaches can come into play: the bottom up option consists in allocating improvements to each contributor and the top down process rather relies on an overall optimization of the complete image channel. The University of Rennes I with Thales Angénieux alongside has been working over the past decade through French MOD funding's, on low cost alternatives of infrared materials based upon chalcogenide glasses. A special care has been laid on the enhancement of their mechanical properties and their ability to be moulded according to complex shapes. New manufacturing means developments capable of better yields for the raw materials will be addressed, too. Beyond the mere lenses budget cuts, a wave front coding process can ease a global optimization. This technic gives a way of relaxing optical constraints or upgrading thermal device performances through an increase of the focus depths and desensitization against temperature drifts: it combines image processing and the use of smart optical components. Thales achievements in such topics will be enlightened and the trade-off between image quality correction levels and low consumption/ real time processing, as might be required in hand-free night vision devices, will be emphasized. It is worth mentioning that both approaches are deeply leaning on each other.

  16. New pathways to medicare coverage for innovative PET radiopharmaceuticals: report of a medical imaging & technology alliance (MITA) workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Bruce J; Frank, Richard A; Rodriguez, Gail M

    2012-02-01

    PET and PET/CT have revolutionized the diagnosis, staging, and monitoring of treatment effect or recurrence for a wide range of cancers and shown promise for improving health outcomes for patients with cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. However, this technology is challenged by insurance coverage policies that hinder patients' access to PET and discourage technologic innovation. Recently, the Medical Imaging & Technology Alliance (MITA), a Washington-based industry association, convened a workshop to consider new pathways for making decisions on Medicare coverage of new PET radiopharmaceuticals and imaging procedures that are currently subject to a national noncoverage decision, or "exclusionary rule." Stakeholders from the government, medical professional societies, academia, patient groups, and industry gathered to brainstorm alternatives to the national noncoverage decision and evaluate their potential to improve access and enhance innovation. Ultimately, MITA, on behalf of the PET community, expects to use the outcomes of the workshop to propose that the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services reconsider this current national noncoverage decision for PET and adopt a new framework for coverage.

  17. Current density imaging using directly measured harmonic Bz data in MREIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chunjae; Kwon, Oh In

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) measures magnetic flux density signals through the use of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to visualize the internal conductivity and/or current density. Understanding the reconstruction procedure for the internal current density, we directly measure the second derivative of Bz data from the measured k-space data, from which we can avoid a tedious phase unwrapping to obtain the phase signal of Bz . We determine optimal weighting factors to combine the derivatives of magnetic flux density data, [Symbol: see text](2) Bz , measured using the multi-echo train. The proposed method reconstructs the internal current density using the relationships between the induced internal current and the measured [Symbol: see text](2) Bz data. Results from a phantom experiment demonstrate that the proposed method reduces the scanning time and provides the internal current density, while suppressing the background field inhomogeneity. To implement the real experiment, we use a phantom with a saline solution including a balloon, which excludes other artifacts by any concentration gradient in the phantom.

  18. Beam combination schemes and technologies for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI)

    CERN Document Server

    Minardi, Stefano; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Labadie, Lucas; Thomson, Robert R; Haniff, Chris; Ireland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Planet Formation Imager (PFI) initiative aims at developing the next generation large scale facility for imaging astronomical optical interferometry operating in the mid-infrared. Here we report on the progress of the Planet Formation Imager Technical Working Group on the beam-combination instruments. We will discuss various available options for the science and fringe-tracker beam combination instruments, ranging from direct imaging, to non-redundant fiber arrays, to integrated optics solutions. Besides considering basic characteristics of the schemes, we will investigate the maturity of the available technological platforms at near- and mid-infrared wavelengths.

  19. Optical image encryption based on binary Fourier transform computer-generated hologram and pixel scrambling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Ying; Wang, Yu-Rong; Wang, Yong; Li, Hui-Juan; Sun, Wen-Jia

    2007-07-01

    A new method of optical image encryption with binary Fourier transform computer-generated hologram (CGH) and pixel-scrambling technology is presented. In this method, the orders of the pixel scrambling, as well as the encrypted image, are used as the keys to decrypt the original image. Therefore, higher security is achieved. Furthermore, the encrypted image is binary, so it is easy to be fabricated and robust against noise and distortion. Computer simulation results are given to verify the feasibility of this method and its robustness against occlusion and additional noise.

  20. Reproductive technology and the life course: current debates and research in social egg freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kylie; Culley, Lorraine; Hudson, Nicky; Mitchell, Helene

    2014-09-01

    While there are currently few confirmed births from previously frozen eggs in the UK, the improved outcomes of new technologies of vitrification and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) have led to the marketing of egg freezing for non-medical reasons, whereby women are offered the possibility of preserving their eggs until such time as they wish to have a child. Non-academic commentary on this phenomenon has commonly constructed it within a neo-liberal discourse of 'choice', whereby women are positioned as choosing to 'delay motherhood,' often for reasons relating to their careers. However, there have been relatively few research studies which explore either women's awareness and understandings of social egg freezing or the reasons why women consider or undertake egg freezing. This paper summarises the current academic discussion surrounding social egg freezing and outlines the limited body of empirical literature identified from a systematic search of relevant databases. The potential benefits and harms of social egg freezing and the ethical issues it raises are well rehearsed in existing literature, but there is limited empirical evidence about who is accessing social egg freezing, why they are taking this option and what their experiences and future intentions are.