WorldWideScience

Sample records for current human development

  1. Humanized mouse as an appropriate model for accelerated global HIV research and vaccine development: current trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeh, Bartholomew Okechukwu; Furuta, Yasuhide; Habu, Josiah Bitrus; Ogbadu, Lucy

    2016-09-23

    Humanized mouse models currently have seen improved development and have received wide applications. Its usefulness is observed in cell and tissue transplant involving basic and applied human disease research. In this article, the development of a new generation of humanized mice was discussed as well as their relevant application in HIV disease. Furthermore, current techniques employed to overcome the initial limitations of mouse model were reviewed. Highly immunodeficient mice which support cell and tissue differentiation and do not reject xenografts are indispensable for generating additional appropriate models useful in disease study, this phenomenom deserves emphases, scientific highlight and a definitive research focus. Since the early 2000s, a series of immunodeficient mice appropriate for generating humanized mice has been successively developed by introducing the IL-2Rγnull gene (e.g. NOD/SCID/γcnull and Rag2nullγcnull mice) through various genomic approaches. These mice were generated by genetically introducing human cytokine genes into NOD/SCID/γcnull and Rag2nullγcnull mouse backgrounds. The application of these techniques serves as a quick and appropriate mechanistic model for basic and therapeutic investigations of known and emerging infections.

  2. Milestones of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation – from First Human Studies to Current Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegard Theresia Greinix

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the early beginnings, in the 1950’s, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT has become an established curative treatment for an increasing number of patients with life-threatening hematological, oncological, hereditary and immunological diseases. This has become possible due to worldwide efforts of preclinical and clinical research focusing on issues of transplant immunology, reduction of transplant-associated morbidity and mortality and efficient malignant disease eradication. The latter has been accomplished by potent graft-versus-leukemia effector cells contained in the stem cell graft. Exciting insights into the genetics of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA system allowed improved donor selection , including HLA-identical related and unrelated donors. Besides bone marrow (BM other stem cell sources like G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells and cord blood stem cells have been established in clinical routine. Use of reduced-intensity or non-myeloablative conditioning regimens has been associated with a marked reduction of non-hematological toxicities and eventually, non-relapse mortality allowing older patients and individuals with comorbidities to undergo allogeneic HSCT and to benefit from graft-versus-leukemia or anti-tumour effects. Whereas in the early years malignant disease eradication by high-dose chemotherapy or radiotherapy was the ultimate goal, nowadays allogeneic HSCT has been recognized as cellular immunotherapy relying prominently on immune mechanisms and to a lesser extent on non-specific direct cellular toxicity.This chapter will summarise the key milestones of HSCT and introduce current developments.

  3. Milestones of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation – From First Human Studies to Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, Mateja Kralj; Ghimire, Sakhila; Ogonek, Justyna; Weissinger, Eva M.; Holler, Ernst; van Rood, Jon J.; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Dickinson, Anne; Greinix, Hildegard T.

    2016-01-01

    Since the early beginnings, in the 1950s, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become an established curative treatment for an increasing number of patients with life-threatening hematological, oncological, hereditary, and immunological diseases. This has become possible due to worldwide efforts of preclinical and clinical research focusing on issues of transplant immunology, reduction of transplant-associated morbidity, and mortality and efficient malignant disease eradication. The latter has been accomplished by potent graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effector cells contained in the stem cell graft. Exciting insights into the genetics of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system allowed improved donor selection, including HLA-identical related and unrelated donors. Besides bone marrow, other stem cell sources like granulocyte-colony stimulating-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells and cord blood stem cells have been established in clinical routine. Use of reduced-intensity or non-myeloablative conditioning regimens has been associated with a marked reduction of non-hematological toxicities and eventually, non-relapse mortality allowing older patients and individuals with comorbidities to undergo allogeneic HSCT and to benefit from GvL or antitumor effects. Whereas in the early years, malignant disease eradication by high-dose chemotherapy or radiotherapy was the ultimate goal; nowadays, allogeneic HSCT has been recognized as cellular immunotherapy relying prominently on immune mechanisms and to a lesser extent on non-specific direct cellular toxicity. This chapter will summarize the key milestones of HSCT and introduce current developments. PMID:27881982

  4. Human rights; health and resource development in Alberta: A summary of current and emerging law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlavianos, N.

    2004-12-31

    The growing concern of Albertans about the environmental impacts of oil and gas operations and the extent to which these developments infringe upon human health and under some circumstances upon human rights, are discussed. The concern about human rights being infringed are formulated in terms of a positive right to health, right to clean air, or a right to a safe and healthy environment, and conversely, as a negative right, i. e. to be free from exposure to toxic and harmful substances. The article reviews existing Canadian human rights law in an effort to determine the extent to which such laws provide protection from exposure to environmental contamination that impacts upon human health. The review provides a general overview of the nature of human rights, human rights law in Canada, protection afforded by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, international human rights law, and the right to health under international and regional laws. The author concludes that it is difficult to point to existing domestic and international law that provides clear-cut remedies for people suffering health impacts from environmental pollution, despite some evidence of movement in this direction, especially at the international level. In Canada, Section 7 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, in particular the 'security of the person' aspect, appears to offer some protection, although there is as yet no case law under Section 7 dealing with health impacts from environmental degradation. 30 refs.

  5. Current Status and Development of Vaccines and Other Biologics for Human Rabies Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Charles E; Nagarajan, Thirumeni; Ertl, Hildegund

    2016-06-01

    Rabies is a neglected viral zoonosis with the highest case fatality of any infectious disease. Pasteur's historical accomplishments during the late 19(th) century began the process of human vaccine development, continuing to evolve into the 21(st) century. Over the past 35 years, great improvements occurred in the production of potent tissue culture vaccines and the gradual removal from the market of unsafe nerve tissue products. Timely and appropriate administration of modern biologics virtually assures survivorship, even after severe exposures. Nevertheless, in the developing world, if not provided for free nationally, the cost of a single course of human prophylaxis exceeds the average monthly wage of the common worker. Beyond traditional approaches, recombinant, sub-unit and other novel methods are underway to improve the availability of safe, effective and more affordable rabies biologics.

  6. Surface-seeking radionuclides in the skeleton: current approach and recent developments in biokinetic modelling for humans and beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luciani, A. [ENEA, Radiation Protection Institute, via dei Colli Ne 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Polig, E. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, HS/KES, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In the last decade, the biokinetics of surface-seeking radionuclides in the skeleton has been the object of several studies. Investigations were carried out to determine the kinetics of plutonium and americium in the skeleton of humans and beagles. As a result of these investigations, in recent years the models presented by ICRP in Publication 67 for humans were partially revised, particularly the skeletal part. The aim of the present work is to present recent developments in the biokinetic modelling of surface-seeking radionuclides (plutonium and americium) in beagles and humans. Various assumptions and physiological interpretations of the different approaches to the biokinetic modelling of the skeleton are discussed. Current ICRP concepts and skeleton modelling of plutonium and americium in humans are compared to the latest developments in biokinetic modelling in beagles. (authors)

  7. Human Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2009-01-01

    textabstract‘Human development’ language spread gradually in circles of national and international development policy and planning from the 1970s and acquired a definitive form in the 1990s in the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Reports (HDRs). Human development was defined

  8. Human reproduction: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Carlos Roberto; Monteleone, Pedro Augusto Araújo; Serafini, Paulo C

    2015-01-01

    The concern about the maintenance of the human species has existed since the earliest civilizations. Progress in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility has led to the development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) which, along with the evolution of genetics and molecular biology studies, have contributed in a concrete way to the management of infertile couples. Classic in vitro fertilization was initially developed 35 years ago for the treatment of women with tubal blockage, however, it remains inaccessible to a significant proportion of infertile couples around the world. This can be explained by the lack of specialized clinics in some countries and by the high cost of the procedures. Efforts have been employed to increase the number of treatment cycles for assisted reproduction, as for example, the creation of low-cost programs. Even today, infertility remains a problem of global proportions, affecting millions of couples. The estimate of the incidence of infertility is uncertain, mainly because of the criteria used for its definition. This article aims to review the most important aspects, succinctly, regarding the incidence, etiology, and treatment options available to infertile couples.

  9. Contaminated Human Remains: Transportable Decontamination - 1. Technical Readiness Level Estimate. 2. Vaccinia Virus Ionizing Radiation Inactivation in a Human Phantom. 3. Current State of Technology Relevant to Development of a Transportable System for Treatment of Contaminated Human Remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-30

    microbial pathogens , including putative biological threat agents, are available. 2. The technological base is well developed for commercial irradiation ...2005, Effective use of optimized, high‐ dose (50 kGy) gamma irradiation for pathogen inactivation of human bone allografts, Biomaterials 26 2033...current applications are irradiation of spices to eliminate both insect and bacterial contamination, irradiation of ground meats, particularly beef

  10. Representation of authors and editors from countries with different human development indexes in the leading literature on tropical medicine: survey of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg; Tanner, Marcel; Singer, Burton H

    2004-05-22

    To assess the current international representation of members of editorial and advisory boards and authors in the leading peer reviewed literature on tropical medicine. Systematic review. Country affiliations, as classified by the human development index, of editorial and advisory board members of all tropical medicine journals referenced by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) as of late 2003 and of all contributing authors of full articles published in the six leading journals on tropical medicine in 2000-2. Sixteen (5.1%) of the 315 editorial and advisory board members from the 12 ISI referenced journals on tropical medicine are affiliated to countries with a low human development index and 223 (70.8%) to countries with a high index. Examination of the 2384 full articles published in 2000-2 in the six highest ranking tropical medicine journals showed that 48.1% of contributing authors are affiliated to countries with a high human development index, whereas the percentage of authors from countries with a low index was 13.7%. Articles written exclusively by authors from low ranked countries accounted for 5.0%. Our data indicate that research collaborations between a country with a high human development index and one that has either a medium or a low index are common and account for 26.5% and 16.1% of all full articles, respectively. Current collaborations should be transformed into research partnerships, with the goals of mutual learning and institutional capacity strengthening in the developing world.

  11. Sinoprobe Datacenter Development: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Y.; Dong, S.; Chen, Z.; Chen, G.; Cheng, M.

    2011-12-01

    The project of the Sinoprobe datacenter development is to build new IT infrastructures needed to store, visualize and manage all the data acquired by SinoProbe program.The SinoProbe data center is designed using service-oriented architecture (SOA) principles. More specifically, service component architecture (SCA) is used to implement sinoprobe data services. It also uses various advanced technologies such as Java/JEE for the platform, PostgresSQL/PostGIS for the data storage, ApacheDS for LDAP, CoachDB for the medadata storage, GeoServer for the GIS services, ExtJs and OpenLayer for the Ajax framework, and Apache Shiro for the security framework. Through the integration and development of various technologies used, the major services of the datacenter system are implemented including the security infrastructure services (user authentication and authorization), metadata services, data warehouse stores, data services, GIS services, and web portal. There are also visualization components including the development of a virtual globe to replace the currently used Google Earth. This poster presents the current status of the SinoProbe data center development, and the detailed discussion of the system.

  12. Developing Human Performance Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Joe; Bruce Hallbert; Larry Blackwood; Donald Dudehoeffer; Kent Hansen

    2006-05-01

    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC’s risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: 1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, 2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a

  13. Human Development Report 2000: Human Rights and Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    United Nations Development Programme, UNDP

    2000-01-01

    The Human Development Report 2000 looks at human rights as an intrinsic part of development—and at development as a means to realizing human rights. It shows how human rights bring principles of accountability and social justice to the process of human development.

  14. Current developments in canine genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Yvonne; Distl, Ottmar

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, canine genetics had made huge progress. In 1999 the first complete karyotype and ideogram of the dog was published. Several linkage and RH maps followed. Using these maps, sets of microsatellite markers for whole genome scans were compiled. In 2003 the sequencing of the DNA of a female Boxer began. Now the second version of the dog genome assembly has been put online, and recently, a microchip SNP array became available. Parallel to these developments, some causal mutations for different traits have been identified. Most of the identified mutations were responsible for monogenic canine hereditary diseases. With the tools available now, it is possible to use the advantages of the population structure of the various dog breeds to unravel complex genetic traits. Furthermore, the dog is a suitable model for the research of a large number of human hereditary diseases and particularly for cancer genetics, heart and neurodegenerative diseases. There are some examples where it was possible to benefit from the knowledge of canine genetics for human research. The search for quantitative trait loci (QTL), the testing of candidate genes and genome-wide association studies can now be performed in dogs. QTL for skeletal size variations and for canine hip dysplasia have been already identified and for these complex traits the responsible genes and their possible interactions can now be identified.

  15. [Development of current smallpox vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksiutov, R A; Gavrilova, E V; Shchelkunov, S N

    2011-01-01

    The review gives data on the history of smallpox vaccination and shows the high topicality of designing the current safe vaccines against orthopoxviruses. Four generations of live smallpox, protein subunit, and DNA vaccines are considered. Analysis of the data published leads to the conclusion that it is promising to use the up-to-date generations of safe smallpox subunit or DNA vaccines for mass primary immunization with possible further revaccination with classical live vaccine.

  16. Research in Humans: Current Perspectives in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Célia Alcantara Cunha Lima

    2016-01-01

    This work addressed the norms of ethics for human experimentation in Brazil, operationalized by the National Research Ethics Commission (CONEP) of the National Health Council (CNS). It analyzed international principles of bioethics as a theoretical framework for the Brazilian regulation. National and international publications were reviewed, by Capes periodicals, relating to historical ethical infractions, such as reflection to the current day. It analyzed the law (PL) 200/2015 of the Senate,...

  17. Human pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-09-15

    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  19. Research in Humans: Current Perspectives in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Alcantara Cunha Lima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work addressed the norms of ethics for human experimentation in Brazil, operationalized by the National Research Ethics Commission (CONEP of the National Health Council (CNS. It analyzed international principles of bioethics as a theoretical framework for the Brazilian regulation. National and international publications were reviewed, by Capes periodicals, relating to historical ethical infractions, such as reflection to the current day. It analyzed the law (PL 200/2015 of the Senate, which proposes flexibilities in Brazilian legislation and concluded that the requested changes should be discussed in depth by bioethicists, scientists and Brazilian lawyers with extended discussion to society.

  20. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  1. Aquantis Ocean Current Turbine Development Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alex J.

    2014-08-23

    The Aquantis® Current Plane (“C-Plane”) technology developed by Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) and Aquantis, Inc. is an ocean current turbine designed to extract kinetic energy from ocean currents. The technology is capable of achieving competitively priced base-load, continuous, and reliable power generation from a source of renewable energy not before possible in this scale or form.

  2. Developing a novel comprehensive framework for the investigation of cellular and whole heart electrophysiology in the in situ human heart: historical perspectives, current progress and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Peter; Orini, Michele; Hanson, Ben; Hayward, Martin; Clayton, Richard; Dobrzynski, Halina; Yanni, Joseph; Boyett, Mark; Lambiase, Pier D

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of fatal ventricular arrhythmias is of great importance. In view of the many electrophysiological differences that exist between animal species and humans, the acquisition of basic electrophysiological data in the intact human heart is essential to drive and complement experimental work in animal and in-silico models. Over the years techniques have been developed to obtain basic electrophysiological signals directly from the patients by incorporating these measurements into routine clinical procedures which access the heart such as cardiac catheterisation and cardiac surgery. Early recordings with monophasic action potentials provided valuable information including normal values for the in vivo human heart, cycle length dependent properties, the effect of ischaemia, autonomic nervous system activity, and mechano-electric interaction. Transmural recordings addressed the controversial issue of the mid myocardial "M" cell. More recently, the technique of multielectrode mapping (256 electrodes) developed in animal models has been extended to humans, enabling mapping of activation and repolarisation on the entire left and right ventricular epicardium in patients during cardiac surgery. Studies have examined the issue of whether ventricular fibrillation was driven by a "mother" rotor with inhomogeneous and fragmented conduction as in some animal models, or by multiple wavelets as in other animal studies; results showed that both mechanisms are operative in humans. The simpler spatial organisation of human VF has important implications for treatment and prevention. To link in-vivo human electrophysiological mapping with cellular biophysics, multielectrode mapping is now being combined with myocardial biopsies. This technique enables region-specific electrophysiology changes to be related to underlying cellular biology, for example: APD alternans, which is a precursor of VF and sudden death. The mechanism is incompletely understood but related

  3. Human Capital and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo E. Manuelli

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps no question has attracted as much attention in the economics literature as “Why are some countries richer than others?” In this article, the author revisits the “development problem” and provides some estimates of the importance of human capital in accounting for cross-country differences in output per worker. His results suggest that human capital has a central role in determining the wealth of nations and that the quality of human capital varies systematically with the level of deve...

  4. Development of optoelectronic-based pulsed current sensor to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil S Nayak

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... the poor laser discharge condition. ANIL S NAYAK*, RAJASREE VIJAYAN, ... Abstract. A current transformer (CT)-based sensor has been developed to detect poor discharge conditions in copper vapour laser. ..... the system is currently underway to ensure no human intervention during such abnormal ...

  5. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  6. Ambient Air Quality and Human Health: Current Concepts, Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Guidotti, Tee L.

    1996-01-01

    This second of two parts continues with the development of a framework for understanding air quality issues and their relationship to human health. Recognized health effects associated with air pollution are described and current controversies regarding ozone and PM10 are briefly outlined. Epidemiological methods of investigating air quality effects are discussed, comparing recent landmark studies in Canada. Comparative prevalence studies do not reflect the state of the art in air pollution e...

  7. Ambient Air Quality and Human Health: Current Concepts, Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEE L Guidotti

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This second of two parts continues with the development of a framework for understanding air quality issues and their relationship to human health. Recognized health effects associated with air pollution are described and current controversies regarding ozone and PM10 are briefly outlined. Epidemiological methods of investigating air quality effects are discussed, comparing recent landmark studies in Canada. Comparative prevalence studies do not reflect the state of the art in air pollution epidemiology but are frequently cited and conducted in Canada as if they were definitive. The implications of setting air quality standards and objectives on this basis or to meet arbitrary levels of risk of health effects are examined. The current state of the art does not support risk-based air quality standards. A policy of continuous improvement is most protective of both human health and the environment.

  8. Organizational Development of Russian SMEs: Current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Velinov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research paper sheds a light on Russian SMEs transition and specifically on their current development and evolution. The paper attempts to explain what are the main drivers and antecedents on SMEs during the period 2010-2015. Along with it, it is applied detailed analysis of Russian SMEs in terms of key performance indicators, turnover and volume of sales. Further, are given potential developments and trends within SMEs in Russia. The paper draws attention to socio-economic and political factors influencing SMEs development.

  9. Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2012-11-01

    Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China.

  10. Presynaptic miniature GABAergic currents in developing interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Federico F; Bouhours, Brice; Rostaing, Philippe; Papageorgiou, George; Corrie, John E T; Triller, Antoine; Ogden, David; Marty, Alain

    2010-04-29

    Miniature synaptic currents have long been known to represent random transmitter release under resting conditions, but much remains to be learned about their nature and function in central synapses. In this work, we describe a new class of miniature currents ("preminis") that arise by the autocrine activation of axonal receptors following random vesicular release. Preminis are prominent in gabaergic synapses made by cerebellar interneurons during the development of the molecular layer. Unlike ordinary miniature postsynaptic currents in the same cells, premini frequencies are strongly enhanced by subthreshold depolarization, suggesting that the membrane depolarization they produce belongs to a feedback loop regulating neurotransmitter release. Thus, preminis could guide the formation of the interneuron network by enhancing neurotransmitter release at recently formed synaptic contacts. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Deformable human body model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has been incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.

  12. Human Genetics of Diabetic Retinopathy: Current Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. K. Ng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a most severe microvascular complication which, if left unchecked, can be sight-threatening. With the global prevalence of diabetes being relentlessly projected to rise to 438 million subjects by 2030, DR will undoubtedly pose a major public health concern. Efforts to unravel the human genetics of DR have been undertaken using the candidate gene and linkage approaches, while GWAS efforts are still lacking. Aside from evidence for a few genes including aldose reductase and vascular endothelial growth factor, the genetics of DR remain poorly elucidated. Nevertheless, the promise of impactful scientific discoveries may be realized if concerted and collaborative efforts are mounted to identify the genes for DR. Harnessing new genetic technologies and resources such as the upcoming 1000 Genomes Project will help advance this field of research, and potentially lead to a rich harvest of insights into the biological mechanisms underlying this debilitating complication.

  13. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  14. Human development index as a measure of human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Bojana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human development is “a process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy” (Sen 1999: 3. Therefore, widening of people’s choices should be the goal of the public policies aiming at human development promotion. In order to assess the level of human development, to compare it with other countries’ achievements, or to evaluate different policy proposals, decision-makers have to rely on an accurate indicator of human development. Since gross national product (GNP and gross domestic product (GDP could not serve this function, the human development index (HDI has been introduced as a more adequate measure. The aim of this paper is to discuss whether human development index reflects the basic tenets of human development. The arguments presented lead to the conclusion that the HDI does not fully reflect the ideas of human development. Since human development is much broader concept than any individual indicator could capture, country’s level of development should be assessed by the combination of different indicators.

  15. Current understanding of mdig/MINA in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Chitra; Chen, Fei

    2015-07-01

    Mineral dust-induced gene, mdig has recently been identified and is known to be overexpressed in a majority of human cancers and holds predictive power in the poor prognosis of the disease. Mdig is an environmentally expressed gene that is involved in cell proliferation, neoplastic transformation and immune regulation. With the advancement in deciphering the prognostic role of mdig in human cancers, our understanding on how mdig renders a normal cell to undergo malignant transformation is still very limited. This article reviews the current knowledge of the mdig gene in context to human neoplasias and its relation to the clinico-pathologic factors predicting the outcome of the disease in patients. It also emphasizes on the promising role of mdig that can serve as a potential candidate for biomarker discovery and as a therapeutic target in inflammation and cancers. Considering the recent advances in understanding the underlying mechanisms of tumor formation, more preclinical and clinical research is required to validate the potential of using mdig as a novel biological target of therapeutic and diagnostic value. Expression level of mdig influences the prognosis of several human cancers especially cancers of the breast and lung. Evaluation of mdig in cancers can offer novel biomarker with potential therapeutic interventions for the early assessment of cancer development in patients.

  16. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  17. CURRENT ANSTO RESEARCH ON WASTEFORM DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, E.R.; Perera, D.S.; Stewart, M.W.A.; Begg, B.D.; Carter, M.L.; Day, R.A.; Moricca, S.; Smith, K.L.; Lumpkin, G.R.; Hanna, J.V.

    2003-02-27

    Current ANSTO scientific research on wasteform development for mainly high-level radioactive waste is directed towards practical applications. Titanate wasteform products we have developed or are developing are aimed at immobilization of: (a) tank wastes and sludges; (b) U-rich wastes from radioisotope production from reactor irradiation of UO2 targets; (c) Al-rich wastes arising from reprocessing of Al-clad fuels; (d) 99Tc; (e) high- Mo wastes arising from reprocessing of U-Mo fuels and (f) partitioned Cs-rich wastes. Other wasteforms include encapsulated zeolites or silica/alumina beads for immobilization of 129I. Wasteform production techniques cover hot isostatic and uniaxial pressing, sintering, and cold-crucible melting. In addition, building on previous work on speciation and leach resistance of Cs in cementitious products, we are studying geopolymers. Although we have a strong focus on candidate wasteforms for actual wastes, we have a considerable program directed at basic understanding of the wasteforms in regard to crystal chemistry, their dissolution behavior in aqueous media, radiation damage effects and processing techniques.

  18. Current development of biorefinery in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Shang, Fei; Zhang, Xu

    2010-01-01

    To meet the demand of its fast growing economy, China has become already the second largest buyer of crude oil. China is facing critical problems of energy shortage and environment deterioration. Rational and efficient energy use and environment protection are both getting more attention in China. Biomass energy is renewable energy made from biological sources. China's biomass resources are abundant, which could provide energy for future social and economic development. However technologies for biomass resource conversion in China are still just beginning. In this paper, current biomass resource distribution and technologies of biomass energy, including power generation, biofuel production and biomass-based chemical production are reviewed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An overview of human papillomaviruses and current vaccine strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanamony M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The viral origin of cervical cancer has been proven beyond any reasonable doubt. Persistent infection with certain subsets of human papillomaviruses is recognized as a necessary cause for the development of cervical cancer. Persistence of oncogenic HPVs, immunodeficiency, high HPV viral load and cofactors like smoking, multiple sex partners and poor nutrition predispose to cervical cancer. Prophylactic vaccines using HPV virus-like particles containing capsid protein L1 have shown protection against disease in animals and are currently undergoing clinical trials. Therapeutic vaccines using HPV E6 and E7 proteins are also being investigated for their ability to remove residual infection.

  20. DNA Methylation Landscapes of Human Fetal Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slieker, Roderick C; Roost, Matthias S; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Suchiman, H Eka D; Tobi, Elmar W; Carlotti, Françoise; de Koning, Eelco J P; Slagboom, P Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M

    2015-01-01

    Remodelling the methylome is a hallmark of mammalian development and cell differentiation. However, current knowledge of DNA methylation dynamics in human tissue specification and organ development largely stems from the extrapolation of studies in vitro and animal models. Here, we report on the DNA

  1. Human papillomavirus: current status and issues of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Heena; Khan, Fahim H; Ahsan, Haseeb

    2014-02-01

    An association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical cancer was initially suggested over 30 years ago, and today there is clear evidence that certain subtypes of HPV are the causative agents of such malignancies. Papillomaviruses make up a vast family that comprises hundreds of different viruses. These viruses infect epithelia in humans and animals and cause benign hyperproliferative lesions, commonly called warts or papillomas, which can occasionally progress to squamous cell cancer. HPV infections are considered the most common among sexually transmitted diseases. One of the most prevalent cancer types induced by HPV (mostly types 16 and 18) is cervical cancer. Vaccination is the most effective means of preventing this infectious disease. These prophylactic vaccines, based on virus-like particles (VLPs), are extremely effective in providing protection from infection in almost 100 % of cases. VLP vaccines of HPV are subunit vaccines consisting only of the major viral capsid protein of HPV. There are two types of vaccine available: bivalent vaccine (against HPV-16/18) and quadrivalent vaccine (against HPV-6/11/16/18). Second-generation prophylactic HPV vaccines, currently in clinical trials, may hold several merits over the current bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines, such as protection against additional oncogenic HPV types, less dependence on cold-chain storage and distribution, and non-invasive methods of delivery.

  2. [Development and current status of atmospheric pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elichegaray, C; Bouallala, S; Maitre, A; Ba, M

    2009-02-01

    Air quality is a public health issue and this article includes a reminder of the related causes and issues and a description of the monitoring of ambient air quality in France. It also provides a review of major developments in recent years of the pollutants measured. Emissions of major air pollutants have declined significantly since the 1970s, and this is reflected in an overall improvement in the quality of ambient air. Nevertheless, various forms of air pollution remain a concern (in the case of photochemical pollution) and health data show that air pollution is still a cause of morbidity and mortality. The fight against air pollution must remain a priority and requires multi-pollutant and multi-effect approaches. The National Health and Environment Program adopted during the Grenelle environment stakeholder consultation processes includes targets for reducing human exposure to air pollution, especially particulate matter, as well as measures to improve indoor air quality. In a context dominated by the struggle against the emission of greenhouse gases, problems of air quality should not be underestimated and policies relating to climate protection must be taken into account.

  3. The Current Developments of Agricultural Biotechnologies Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Shkolyarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Population growth in the context of limited land resources makes the global scientific society research new ways to increase the agricultural yields. Over the past 20 years, biotechnology and GM crops have become widely spread and now are cultivated in 28 countries. The total area of crops has tripled, and it suggests the further vertical and horizontal integration in short term. In 2015, the US Department of Agriculture authorized the commercial use of GM farm animals. The development of agricultural biotechnology market is constrained by opponents of GM crops in more than 160 countries, which include Russia and the European Union, where the production of GM crops is banned due to economic, ethical, ideological and biological reasons. Currently, the EU is seeking to reduce the imports of GM crops and products; Russia's GM imports and exports are prohibited, and the deadline of designing a consolidated position on agricultural biotechnology has been moved to 2017. The author seeks to analyze the volume of production and international trade of agricultural products based on biotechnologies and to describe the main trends in the global market, which could be integrated into the food value chain in Russia. In the context of the worsening economic indicators, the article proposes the possibility of extending the use of GM crops in Russia non-food sector.

  4. CURRENT TRENDS IN DEVELOPING URBAN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Yıldız

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The synergy of architecture and other disciplines in studies of developing tourism is  significant in terms of continuity of past and future. Now architects and urban designers are working in collaboration with social sciences disciplines in the field of urban tourism. Some examples of cultural, artistic and social activities can be listed as: re-transformation of port districts, opening of new museums, new additions to the fabric of the historic city, theme parks, coastal regulations, re-use of historic structures, innovative approaches to accommodation services, production of the metropolitan centers, architectural competitions organized by central and local governments, prestige landscapes, innovative, technological and ecological approaches in architecture, festivals, design and fashion weeks, guided tours, city walks, local meetings, lectures, courses in art education, concerts, sport events, fairs , the cultural capitals. The paper analyses these works companion to tourism in detail and in a holistic sese, questions these studies in urban,  economic, cultural and social movement axes. This inquiry aims to discuss current  projects being carried out in Istanbul which is an important city in the world, also to offer a wide range of tips for conducting a collaborative, multi-dimensional perspective studies carried out in the field of tourism.

  5. Review: New Vaccine Against Tuberculosis: Current Developments and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun

    2009-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a global health threat. BCG was developed as an attenuated live vaccine for tuberculosis control nearly a century ago. Despite being the most widely used vaccine in human history, BCG is not an ideal vaccine and has two major limitations: its poor efficacy against adult pulmonary TB and its disconcerting safety in immunocompromised individuals. A safer and more effective TB vaccine is urgently needed. This review article discusses current strategies to develop the next generation of TB vaccines to replace BCG. While some progresses have been made in the past decade, significant challenges lie ahead.

  6. ECLAIRs detection plane: current state of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, K.; Pons, R.; Amoros, C.; Atteia, J.-L.; Barret, D.; Billot, M.; Bordon, S.; Cordier, B.; Gevin, O.; Godet, O.; Gonzalez, F.; Houret, B.; Mercier, K.; Mandrou, P.; Marty, W.; Nasser, G.; Rambaud, D.; Ramon, P.; Rouaix, G.; Waegebaert, V.

    2014-07-01

    ECLAIRs, a 2-D coded-mask imaging camera on-board the Sino-French SVOM space mission, will detect and locate Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in near real time in the 4-150 keV energy band. The design of ECLAIRs has been mainly driven by the objective of achieving a low-energy threshold of 4 keV, unprecedented for this type of instrument. The detection plane is an assembly of 6400 Schottky CdTe semiconductor detectors of size 4x4x1 mm3 organized on elementary hybrid matrices of 4x8 detectors. The detectors will be polarized from -300V to -500V and operated at -20°C to reduce both the leakage current and the polarization effect induced by the Schottky contact. The remarkable low-energy threshold homogeneity required for the detection plane has been achieved thanks to: i) an extensive characterization and selection of the detectors, ii) the development of a specific low-noise 32-channel ASIC, iii) the realization of an innovative hybrid module composed of a thick film ceramic (holding 32 CdTe detectors with their high voltage grid), associated to an HTCC ceramic (housing the ASIC chip within an hermetic enclosure). In this paper, we start describing a complete hybrid matrix, and then the manufacturing of a first set of 50 matrices (representing 1600 detectors, i.e. a quarter of ECLAIRs detector's array). We show how this manufacturing allowed to validate the different technologies used for this hybridization, as well as the industrialization processes. During this phase, we systematically measured the leakage current on Detector Ceramics after an outgassing, and the Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) for each of the 32 channels on ASIC Ceramics, in order to optimize the coupling of the two ceramics. Finally, we performed on each hybrid module, spectral measurements at -20°C in our vacuum chamber, using several calibrated radioactive sources (241Am and 55Fe), to check the performance homogeneity of the 50 modules. The results demonstrated that the 32-detector hybrid matrices

  7. Academic Freedom, Critique and the Humanities: some current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents some of the current challenges facing academic freedom and the humanities in South Africa as well as across the world. It focuses first on the shifting fortunes of academic freedom in South Africa, contrasting the pride of place given to it in the pre-1994 social imaginary with its current undermining in ...

  8. Gender equity & human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepa, Swarna S

    2007-10-01

    The welfare of both women and men constitutes the human welfare. At the turn of the century amidst the glory of unprecedented growth in national income, India is experiencing the spread of rural distress. It is mainly due to the collapse of agricultural economy. Structural adjustments and competition from large-scale enterprises result in loss of rural livelihoods. Poor delivery of public services and safety nets, deepen the distress. The adverse impact is more on women than on men. This review examines the adverse impact of the events in terms of endowments, livelihood opportunities and nutritional outcomes on women in detail with the help of chosen indicators at two time-periods roughly representing mid nineties and early 2000. The gender equality index computed and the major indicators of welfare show that the gender gap is increasing in many aspects. All the aspects of livelihoods, such as literacy, unemployment and wages now have larger gender gaps than before. Survival indicators such as juvenile sex ratio, infant mortality, child labour have deteriorated for women, compared to men, though there has been a narrowing of gender gaps in life expectancy and literacy. The overall gender gap has widened due to larger gaps in some indicators, which are not compensated by the smaller narrowing in other indicators both in the rural and urban context.

  9. Health, Human Capital, and Development*

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyt Bleakley

    2010-01-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results and suggest a reinterpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because o...

  10. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  11. [Rabies vaccines: Current status and prospects for development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubova, E S; Preobrazhenskaia, O V; Kuzmenko, Y V; Latanova, A A; Yarygina, E I; Karpov, V L

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is an infectious disease among humans and animals that remains incurable, despite its longstanding research history. The only way to prevent the disease is prompt treatment, including vaccination as an obligatory component and administration of antirabies immunoglobulin as a supplement. Since the first antirabies vaccination performed in the 19th century, a large number of different rabies vaccines have been developed. Progress in molecular biology and biotechnology enabled the development of effective and safe technologies of vaccine production. Currently, new-generation vaccines are being developed based on recombinant rabies virus strains or on the production of an individual recombinant rabies antigen-glycoprotein (G protein), either as a component of nonpathogenic viruses, or in plants, or in the form of DNA vaccines. In this review, the main modern trends in the development of rabies vaccines have been discussed.

  12. Water- and foodborne viruses: current developments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the major advances made in preventive health care and food technology, water and foodborne transmission of human enteric viruses is a well-recognised widespread public health problem.1-3. Factors such as changing lifestyles and demographics, faster and more frequent travel, decreasing water supplies and ...

  13. Circular Migration and Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Newland, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the human development implications of circular migration — both where it occurs naturally and where governments work to create it. The paper discusses various conceptions and definitions of circular migration, and concludes that circular migration is not intrinsically positive or negative in relation to human development; its impact depends upon the circumstances in which it occurs, the constraints that surround it and—above all—the degree of choice that individuals can ex...

  14. Hepatocellular Carcinoma - A synopsis of current developments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review highlights the burden associated with hepatocellular carcinoma and the progress made so far in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of the disease. It is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant and current publications. Subject headings and ...

  15. Digital library research : current developments and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Shiri, Ali

    2003-01-01

    This column gives an overview of current trends in digital library research under the following headings: digital library architecture, systems, tools and technologies; digital content and collections; metadata; interoperability; standards; knowledge organisation systems; users and usability; legal, organisational, economic, and social issues in digital libraries.

  16. New Humanism and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han d'Orville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The call for a new humanism in the 21st century roots in the conviction that the moral, intellectual and political foundations of globalization and international cooperation have to be rethought. Whilst the historic humanism was set out to resolve tensions between tradition and modernity and to reconcile individual rights with newly emerging duties of citizenship, the new humanism approach goes beyond the level of the nation state in seeking to unite the process of globalization with its complex and sometimes contradictory manifestations. The new humanism therefore advocates the social inclusion of every human being at all levels of society and underlines the transformative power of education, sciences, culture and communications. Therefore, humanism today needs to be perceived as a collective effort that holds governments, civil society, the private sector and human individuals equally responsible to realize its values and to design creatively and implement a humanist approach to a sustainable society, based on economic, social and environmental development. New humanism describes the only way forward for a world that accounts for the diversity of identities and the heterogeneity of interests and which is based on inclusive, democratic, and, indeed, humanist values. Humanism did evolve into the grand movement of human spiritual and creative liberation, which enabled an unparalleled acceleration of prosperity and transformation of civilizations. In line with humanist ethics, the material growth was understood as a collective good, which was to serve all participants of a community and meant to enable the socio-economic progress of society. The exact definition of humanism has historically fluctuated in accordance with successive and diverse strands of intellectual thought. The underlying concept rests on the universal ideas of human emancipation, independence and social justice. Humanism can hence be understood as a moral inspiration for

  17. Human development, heredity and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Takasato, Minoru

    2017-06-15

    From March 27-29 2017, the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology held a symposium entitled 'Towards Understanding Human Development, Heredity, and Evolution' in Kobe, Japan. Recent advances in technologies including stem cell culture, live imaging, single-cell approaches, next-generation sequencing and genome editing have led to an expansion in our knowledge of human development. Organized by Yoshiya Kawaguchi, Mitinori Saitou, Mototsugu Eiraku, Tomoya Kitajima, Fumio Matsuzaki, Takashi Tsuji and Edith Heard, the symposium covered a broad range of topics including human germline development, epigenetics, organogenesis and evolution. This Meeting Review provides a summary of this timely and exciting symposium, which has convinced us that we are moving into the era of science targeted on humans. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Angel of human health: current research updates in toad medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Meng; Bi, Linlin; Miao, Shan; Cao, Wei; Xie, Yanhua; Sun, Jiyuan; Tang, Haifeng; Li, Ying; Miao, Qing; Wang, Siwang

    2015-01-01

    There are currently 34 genera and 410 species of toads in the world. The medicinal parts of toads mainly include their venom, skin, and clothing. The toad's venom and skin possess the same chemical components, mainly the toad venom lactone class, and their pharmacological effects primarily include the maintenance of strong heart, antitumor, antivirus, anti-infection, and analgesic effects. So far, the produces from the medicinal raw materials of the toad are widely used clinically around the world, especially in China, Japan, and South Korea. About 50 varieties of medicines are used in the clinical treatment of various complicated diseases in China, such as "Liushen pills" which was popular in the whole world. Toads are mainly used in treating malignant tumors (e.g., liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, among others), and some major diseases such as hepatitis B. Despite the therapeutic effects of toad-derived medicines on human health, there is insufficient research and development of toad-derived medicines by leading drug companies. In order to harness the beneficial effects of the resources of the toad species, it is the responsibility of global pharmaceutical researchers to develop and generate economically feasible toad-derived therapeutic products, while promoting maximum protection to the resources of the toad species.

  19. Current Capabilities and Development Potential in Surgical Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Hoeckelmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercial surgical robots have been in clinical use since the mid-1990s, supporting surgeons in various tasks. In the past decades, many systems emerged as research platforms, and a few entered the global market. This paper summarizes the currently available surgical systems and research directions in the broader field of surgical robotics. The widely deployed teleoperated manipulators aim to enhance human cognitive and physical skills and provide smart tools for surgeons, while image-guided robotics focus on surpassing human limitations by introducing automated targeting and treatment delivery methods. Both concepts are discussed based on prototypes and commercial systems. Through concrete examples the possible future development paths of surgical robots are illustrated. While research efforts are taking different approaches to improve the capacity of such systems, the aim of this survey is to assess their maturity from the commercialization point of view.

  20. Carbon trading: Current schemes and future developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdan, Slobodan, E-mail: slobodan.perdan@manchester.ac.uk [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, Room F30, The Mill, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Azapagic, Adisa [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, Room F30, The Mill, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    This paper looks at the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading schemes and examines the prospects of carbon trading. The first part of the paper gives an overview of several mandatory GHG trading schemes around the world. The second part focuses on the future trends in carbon trading. It argues that the emergence of new schemes, a gradual enlargement of the current ones, and willingness to link existing and planned schemes seem to point towards geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading. However, such expansion would need to overcome some considerable technical and non-technical obstacles. Linking of the current and emerging trading schemes requires not only considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems, but also necessitates clear regulatory and policy signals, continuing political support and a more stable economic environment. Currently, the latter factors are missing. The global economic turmoil and its repercussions for the carbon market, a lack of the international deal on climate change defining the Post-Kyoto commitments, and unfavourable policy shifts in some countries, cast serious doubts on the expansion of emissions trading and indicate that carbon trading enters an uncertain period. - Highlights: > The paper provides an extensive overview of mandatory emissions trading schemes around the world. > Geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading are identified as future trends. > The expansion requires considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems. > Clear policy signals, political support and a stable economic environment are needed for the expansion. > A lack of the post-Kyoto commitments and unfavourable policy shifts indicate an uncertain future for carbon trading.

  1. Current Status of Pyroprocessing Development at KAERI

    OpenAIRE

    Hansoo Lee; Geun-IL Park; Jae-Won Lee; Kweon-Ho Kang; Jin-Mok Hur; Jeong-Guk Kim; Seungwoo Paek; In-Tae Kim; IL-Je Cho

    2013-01-01

    Pyroprocessing technology has been actively developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to meet the necessity of addressing spent fuel management issue. This technology has advantages over aqueous process such as less proliferation risk, treatment of spent fuel with relatively high heat and radioactivity, and compact equipments. This paper describes the pyroprocessing technology development at KAERI from head-end process to waste treatment. The unit process with various scales...

  2. Academic Freedom and the Humanities: some current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Higgins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some of the current challenges facing academic freedom and the humanities in South Africa as well as across the world.  It focuses first on the shifting fortunes of academic freedom in South Africa, contrasting the pride of place given to it in the pre-1994 social imaginary with its current undermining in higher education policy.  It further examines how this undermining is related to a general trend in a global higher education policy which privileges STEM disciplines, and argues that a fuller understanding of the contribution of the NAIL disciplines to the public good is essential to help counter current challenges.

  3. Apamin does not inhibit human cardiac Na+ current, L-type Ca2+ current or other major K+ currents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chieh Yu

    Full Text Available Apamin is commonly used as a small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK current inhibitor. However, the specificity of apamin in cardiac tissues remains unclear.To test the hypothesis that apamin does not inhibit any major cardiac ion currents.We studied human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells that expressed human voltage-gated Na+, K+ and Ca2+ currents and isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes. Whole-cell patch clamp techniques were used to determine ionic current densities before and after apamin administration.Ca2+ currents (CACNA1c+CACNB2b were not affected by apamin (500 nM (data are presented as median [25th percentile;75th percentile] (from -16 [-20;-10] to -17 [-19;-13] pA/pF, P = NS, but were reduced by nifedipine to -1.6 [-3.2;-1.3] pA/pF (p = 0.008. Na+ currents (SCN5A were not affected by apamin (from -261 [-282;-145] to -268 [-379;-132] pA/pF, P = NS, but were reduced by flecainide to -57 [-70;-47] pA/pF (p = 0.018. None of the major K+ currents (IKs, IKr, IK1 and Ito were inhibited by 500 nM of apamin (KCNQ1+KCNE1, from 28 [20]; [37] to 23 [18]; [32] pA/pF; KCNH2+KCNE2, from 28 [24]; [30] to 27 [24]; [29] pA/pF; KCNJ2, from -46 [-48;-40] to -46 [-51;-35] pA/pF; KCND3, from 608 [505;748] to 606 [454;684]. Apamin did not inhibit the INa or ICaL in isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes (INa, from -67 [-75;-59] to -68 [-71;-59] pA/pF; ICaL, from -16 [-17;-14] to -14 [-15;-13] pA/pF, P = NS for both.Apamin does not inhibit human cardiac Na+ currents, L-type Ca2+ currents or other major K+ currents. These findings indicate that apamin is a specific SK current inhibitor in hearts as well as in other organs.

  4. The current crisis in human resources for health in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overview. The current crisis in human resources for health in. Africa has reached a serious level in many countries. A complex set of reasons has contributed to this problem, some exogenous, such as the severe economic measures introduced by structural adjustment, which often result in cutbacks in the number of health ...

  5. Is sodium current present in human sinoatrial node cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Arie O.; Wilders, Ronald; van Borren, Marcel M. G. J.; Tan, Hanno L.

    2009-01-01

    Pacemaker activity of the sinoatrial node has been studied extensively in various animal species, but is virtually unexplored in man. As such, it is unknown whether the fast sodium current (I-Na) plays a role in the pacemaker activity of the human sinoatrial node. Recently, we had the unique

  6. Current Status of Pyroprocessing Development at KAERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansoo Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing technology has been actively developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI to meet the necessity of addressing spent fuel management issue. This technology has advantages over aqueous process such as less proliferation risk, treatment of spent fuel with relatively high heat and radioactivity, and compact equipments. This paper describes the pyroprocessing technology development at KAERI from head-end process to waste treatment. The unit process with various scales has been tested to produce the design data associated with scale-up. Pyroprocess integrated inactive demonstration facility (PRIDE was constructed at KAERI and it began test operation in 2012. The purpose of PRIDE is to test the process regarding unit process performance, remote operation of equipments, integration of unit processes, scale-up of process, process monitoring, argon environment system operation, and safeguards-related activities. The test of PRIDE will be promising for further pyroprocessing technology development.

  7. Current developments concerning medial tibial stress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Debbie I

    2009-12-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common lower leg injuries in athletes who run. Studies have reported MTSS to occur in 4% to 20% of this population. It can be defined as an overuse injury that creates pain over an area covering the distal to middle third of the posteriomedial tibial border, which occurs during exercise and creates cyclic loading. Differential diagnosis includes ischemic disorders and stress fractures. Although the pathology of this injury is understood, the etiology is less agreed upon. This makes it difficult for clinicians to diagnose and treat this common injury. The purpose of this article is to present health care practitioners with the most current information regarding MTSS so they can better diagnose and treat this common injury. To this end, a literature review was conducted, with the most current results presented. The areas of etiological theories, imaging techniques, and treatment options for MTSS were searched. Five of the most prevalent etiological theories are presented with supporting evidence. Of the imaging tools available to the clinician, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scintigraphy have comparable specificity and sensitivity. Clinicians should first make the clinical diagnosis of MTSS, however, because of high percentages of positive MRI scans in asymptomatic patients. There have been few randomized controlled trials investigating treatment options for athletes with MTSS. Those that have been performed rendered no significant findings, leading researchers to conclude that rest is equal to or better than other treatment options. Given the evidence, treatment suggestions for practitioners caring for athletes with MTSS are provided.

  8. Current developments in silicene and germanene

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, T. P.

    2016-01-18

    Exploration of the unusual properties of the two-dimensional materials silicene and germanene is a very active research field in recent years. This paper therefore reviews the latest developments, focusing both on the fundamental materials properties and on possible applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Energy-conserving development regulations: current practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    Almost every aspect of land development has an effect on energy use, from minute architectural details to broad considerations of urban density. Energy-efficiency depends in part on how development is planned and carried out. Conventional development regulations, such as zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations, can be adapted in many ways to promote energy conservation at the community level. This report is about energy-efficient site and neighborhood design. It examines recent experiences of local governments that have adopted new development regulations or amended existing ones to promote energy conservation, more efficient generation and distribution, or a switch to alternative, renewable sources. Although much has been written in recent years about saving energy through community design, actual experience in applying these new ideas is still limited. To date, most communities have focused their efforts on studying the problem, documenting consumption patterns, and writing reports and plans. Only a handful have amended their land-use controls for the express purpose of saving energy. This study identifies 13 of these pioneering communities, after undertaking a survey of over 1400 local, regional, and state planning agencies. It takes a look at their experiences, to learn what has been done, how well it has worked, and what problems have been encountered.

  10. Current developments in clinical multiphoton tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten; Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Gregory, Axel; Fischer, Peter; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer

    2010-02-01

    Two-photon microscopy has been introduced in 1990 [1]. 13 years later, CE-marked clinical multiphoton systems for 3D imaging of human skin with subcellular resolution have been launched by the JenLab company with the tomograph DermaInspectTM. In 2010, the second generation of clinical multiphoton tomographs was introduced. The novel mobile multiphoton tomograph MPTflexTM, equipped with a flexible articulated optical arm, provides an increased flexibility and accessibility especially for clinical and cosmetical examinations. The multiphoton excitation of fluorescent biomolecules like NAD(P)H, flavins, porphyrins, elastin, and melanin as well as the second harmonic generation of collagen is induced by picojoule femtosecond laser pulses from an tunable turn-key near infrared laser system. The ability for rapid highquality image acquisition, the user-friendly operation of the system, and the compact and flexible design qualifies this system to be used for melanoma detection, diagnostics of dermatological disorders, cosmetic research, and skin aging measurements as well as in situ drug monitoring and animal research. So far, more than 1,000 patients and volunteers have been investigated with the multiphoton tomographs in Europe, Asia, and Australia.

  11. Current development of liver transplantation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Shusen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the only effective way for the treatment of end-stage liver disease, liver transplantation has been developed rapidly in China over recent years. The latest developments of liver transplantation in China are reviewed, including establishment of selection criteria for the liver cancer recipients of liver transplantation——Hangzhou Criteria; latest application of salvage liver transplantation and downstaging therapy in liver transplantation for liver cancer; progress in liver transplantation combined with artificial liver support system for treatment of severe acute liver failure; breakthrough in technology innovation of living donor liver transplantation and organ donation and transplantation after cardiac death in China. Facing the problem of organ shortage, a scientific and standardized organ donation system should be established in line with the national conditions of China, so as to benefit the people and further improve the reputation of China in the international organ transplant community.

  12. Forecasting Performance in Organizations: An Application of Current-Value Human Resources Accounting. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorella, Patricia A.; And Others

    A methodology to describe current-value human resources accounting (HRA) was developed to aid management in decision making and provide information about the effects of organizational policies and practices on the value of the organizations' human resources. A two-phase activity was designed to investigate the nature of the relationship between…

  13. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA MARIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The phrase "human settlements system" is a concern for researchers in various fields as geography, economics, regional planning and for those responsible for formulating and implementing spatial development policies. The research covers various aspects of human settlements and is a meeting place of many disciplines and humanities. It is natural, as human settlements, either as isolated or in territorial systems they belong, are where manifests are transformed and develop human communities and societies as a whole. Problems national system of settlements in Romania are varied and complex. The evolution and consolidation of a stable and balanced is a continuous and dynamic process that goes through a series of steps, some characterized by profound transformations that can be called critical. One such step is the present one, where the influence of the changes in the economy and social and political life, the very development of settlements, be they urban or rural, knows a turning point, a certain vulnerability when the progressive or regressive of evolution is may change at any time. Industry restructuring on the one hand and reîmproprietărirea owners, are factors that can create shock effects unchecked urban and rural areas. On the other hand the development of trade, multiplying special services, urban (banks, insurers, etc. and can foster diversity of choices population compared to a net urban areas where living conditions and financial incentives for farmers are still far to be attractive

  14. Malformations of cortical development: current concepts and advanced neuroimaging review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celi Santos Andrade

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Malformations of cortical development (MCD result from disruptions in the complex process of the human brain cortex formation and are highly associated to severe epilepsy, neurodevelopmental delay and motor dysfunction. Nowadays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the cornerstone of the work-up of patients with epilepsy and modern advanced imaging techniques have improved not only our ability to detect and characterize cortical malformations, but also in identifying associated functional abnormalities that are far beyond the structural visualized lesions. Herein, we address the most currently used classifications of MCD and make a concise review of the embryological process of cortical development. Our main goal is to summarize recent advances and new trends in diagnostic imaging techniques concerning MCD. Thereafter, follows a brief discussion of specific disorders and their radiological features.

  15. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  16. Current developments in composite materials and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietschi, D; Dietschi, J M

    1996-09-01

    General reduction of dental caries and patient interest in dental aesthetics have resulted in the development of new restorative materials and techniques. Composite materials and adhesive techniques have become the foundation of modern restorative dentistry. Mechanical performance, wear resistance, and aesthetic potential of composite resins have been significantly improved, and the material is now used in cases ranging from the restoration of initial decays and cosmetic corrections to the veneering in extended prosthetic rehabilitation. Polymerization shrinkage of the resin matrix remains a challenge and still imposes limitations in the application of direct techniques. The learning objective of this article is to review the most significant advances of composite materials and the importance of utilizing the available treatment options with discretion, selecting those which preserve the tooth structure and require the least maintenance.

  17. Current Developments of Sparse Microwave Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yi-rong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sparse microwave imaging combines the sparse signal processing theory with radar imaging to obtain new theory, new system, and new methodology of microwave imaging. In this paper, a brief review of fundamental issues in applying sparse signal processing to radar imaging is provided, including sparse representation, measurement matrix construction, unambiguity reconstruction, and so on. The developments of sparse signal processing in microwave imaging are discussed, and the initial airborne experiments on the prototype Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR framework with sparse constraints are introduced. The results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the principle and methodology of sparse microwave imaging. Besides, we also provide an overview of sparse signal processing in various radar applications, including Tomographic SAR (TomoSAR, Inverse SAR (ISAR, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR as well.

  18. Human development recruiting and selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Marijana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of trends towards internationalization and globalization, human resource management and, especially, international human resource management, attracted overall theoretical and practical interest. International environment is complex, made of numerous elements like social organization, laws, education, values and attitudes, religion language, politics, material and technological culture. In multicultural environment, strategic activities could be multiplied through economical political, cultural, social and technological spheres of action, making the recruitment, selection and successful resource allocation in the international human resource management a real challenge for top management. In international human resource management practice, several approaches to the recruitment have differentiated, playing the key roles in hiring talented individuals and retaining efficient workforce KW resources, labor force, recruiting, managers, education

  19. Phloem development: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jung-Ok; Roszak, Pawel; Furuta, Kaori M; Helariutta, Ykä

    2014-09-01

    Phloem, as a major tissue mediating long-distance communication, has been an object of extensive research ever since its structure was first reported in 1837. Functional phloem consists of sieve elements (SEs) and companion cells (CCs). While SEs are enucleated conducting cells in the phloem, CCs are cells with intact cellular components and are known to support the functioning of SEs. CCs are closely linked to SEs by symplastic connections mediated by plasmodesmata (PD). Sieve elements are notoriously sensitive to manipulation, which has hampered efforts to investigate their structure using microscopy or histology; phloem thus remains a mysterious tissue almost 200 yr after its discovery. Nevertheless, consistent efforts have overcome many of the technical barriers and generated considerable amounts of data about the structure and function of phloem. Advances in the 1950s and 1960s significantly improved our understanding of phloem anatomy and function. A major function of the phloem is to establish symplastic connections throughout the plant body, delivering nutrients and various signaling molecules, which play pivotal roles in growth and development. Despite the importance of phloem, details about the molecular mechanisms responsible for the establishment and maintenance of phloem continuity remain elusive. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  20. Human factors in software development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents an overview of ergonomics/human factors in software development, recent research, and classic papers. Articles are drawn from the following areas of psychological research on programming: cognitive ergonomics, cognitive psychology, and psycholinguistics. Topics examined include: theoretical models of how programmers solve technical problems, the characteristics of programming languages, specification formats in behavioral research and psychological aspects of fault diagnosis.

  1. Population and human resources development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G W

    1992-06-01

    The concern of this discourse on social development planning was that individuals be part of human resources development. Population growth is an obstacle to social development, but so is national expenditures on the military rather than diverting funds for social improvements. There are important benefits for society in social development: a valued consumption good, increased productivity, and reduced fertility. Dissatisfaction with an economic growth model of development occurred during the 1960s, and by the mid-1980s, human resource development was capsuled in Asia and the Pacific Region in the Jakarta Plan of Action on Human Resources Development and adopted in 1988. Earlier approaches favored the supply side. This article emphasizes "human" development which considers people as more than inputs to productivity. The quality of human resources is dependent on the family and society, the educational system, and individual levels of health and nutrition. Differences in income levels between East and South Asia have been attributed by Oshima to full use of the labor force and mechanization and training of workers. Ogawa, Jones, and Williamson contend that huge investment in infrastructure, efficient absorption of advanced technology, a stable political environment, and commitment to human capital formation are key to development. Demographic transition and decline in fertility at one point reflect growth and engagement in the labor force and resource accumulation. Although East Asia had higher levels of literacy and educational attainment than many developing countries, South Asia still has high fertility. Human resource development is dependent on reduced population growth rates, but rapid population growth is not an insurmountable obstacle to achieving higher levels of education. Rapid population growth is a greater obstacle in poorer countries. The impact can be reflected in increased costs of attaining educational targets of universal primary education or in

  2. Current and novel approaches to vaccine development against tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayabyab, Mark J.; Macovei, Lilia; Campos-Neto, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics and vaccines are the two most successful medical countermeasures that humans have created against a number of pathogens. However a select few e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) have evaded eradication by vaccines and therapeutic approaches. TB is a global public health problem that kills 1.4 million people per year. The past decade has seen significant progress in developing new vaccine candidates, but the most fundamental questions in understanding disease progression and protective host responses that are responsible for controlling Mtb infection still remain poorly resolved. Current TB treatment requires intense chemotherapy with several antimicrobials, while the only approved vaccine is the classical viable whole-cell based Bacille-Calmette-Guerin (BCG) that protects children from severe forms of TB, but fails to protect adults. Taken together, there is a growing need to conduct basic and applied research to develop novel vaccine strategies against TB. This review is focused on the discussion surrounding current strategies and innovations being explored to discover new protective antigens, adjuvants, and delivery systems in the hopes of creating an efficacious TB vaccine. PMID:23230563

  3. Health, Human Capital, and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2010-09-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health's effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health.

  4. Health, Human Capital, and Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187

  5. Persistent human cardiac Na+ currents in stably transfected mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ging Kuo; Russell, Gabriella; Wang, Sho-Ya

    2013-01-01

    Miniature persistent late Na+ currents in cardiomyocytes have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The goals of this study are to establish a stable cell line expressing robust persistent cardiac Na+ currents and to test Class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs for selective action against resting and open states. After transient transfection of an inactivation-deficient human cardiac Na+ channel clone (hNav1.5-CW with L409C/A410W double mutations), transfected mammalian HEK293 cells were treated with 1 mg/ml G-418. Individual G-418-resistant colonies were isolated using glass cylinders. One colony with high expression of persistent Na+ currents was subjected to a second colony selection. Cells from this colony remained stable in expressing robust peak Na+ currents of 996 ± 173 pA/pF at +50 mV (n = 20). Persistent late Na+ currents in these cells were clearly visible during a 4-second depolarizing pulse albeit decayed slowly. This slow decay is likely due to slow inactivation of Na+ channels and could be largely eliminated by 5 μM batrachotoxin. Peak cardiac hNav1.5-CW Na+ currents were blocked by tetrodotoxin with an IC50 value of 2.27 ± 0.08 μM (n = 6). At clinic relevant concentrations, Class 1 antiarrhythmics are much more selective in blocking persistent late Na+ currents than their peak counterparts, with a selectivity ratio ranging from 80.6 (flecainide) to 3 (disopyramide). We conclude that (1) Class 1 antiarrhythmics differ widely in their resting- vs. open-channel selectivity, and (2) stably transfected HEK293 cells expressing large persistent hNav1.5-CW Na+ currents are suitable for studying as well as screening potent open-channel blockers. PMID:23695971

  6. Human microbiota-associated swine: current progress and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Donovan, Sharon M

    2015-01-01

    Gnotobiotic (GN) rodent models have provided insight into the contributions of the gut microbiota to host health and preventing disease. However, rodent models are limited by several important physiological and metabolic differences from humans, and many rodent models do not dependably replicate the clinical manifestations of human diseases. Due to the high degree of similarity in anatomy, physiology, immunology and brain growth, the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) is considered a clinically relevant model to study factors influencing human gastrointestinal, immune, and brain development. Gnotobiotic piglet models have been developed and shown to recapitulate key aspects of GN rodent models. Human microbiota-associated (HMA) piglets have been established using inocula from infants, children, and adults. The gut microbiota of recipient HMA piglets was more similar to that of the human donor than that of conventionally reared piglets harboring a pig microbiota. Moreover, Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides, two predominant bacterial groups of infant gut, were successfully established in the HMA piglets. Thus, the HMA pig model has the potential to be a valuable model for investigating how the gut microbiota composition changes in response to environmental factors, such as age, diet, vaccination, antibiotic use and infection. The HMA also represents a robust model for screening the efficacy of pre- and probiotic interventions. Lastly, HMA piglets can be an ideal model with which to elucidate microbe-host interactions in human health and disease due to the similarities to humans in anatomy, physiology, developmental maturity at birth, and the pathophysiology of many human diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Educational Solutions for Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Kisil Miskalo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge for education in Brazil is not only to popularize school access, but also to provide conditions for students to remain at school successfully. Therefore, it is necessary to invest in teachers qualification and in the adoption of efficient and effective public policies based on managerial patterns designed to cater to human resources articulations, equipment, finance and, mainly, to methodologies focused on results. Quality reorganization of public policy will only be possible through a triplet effort involving political will from public government, cooperation from the private sector and contribution from civil society. These partnerships assure public sphere the development of essential projects to enable the country to grow. They also allow Education to occupy the important place it deserves in the national agenda as a tool to foster human development. It is essential to guarantee to people knowledge and abilities that enable them to make sensible choices, have their health improved and thus, take part in the society actively. This essay intends to provide information on Instituto Ayrton Senna´s mission to boost quality education for new Brazilian generations as a precondition for human development. Its education programs supply managerial praxes to state and municipal public school systems that warrant conceptual changes and alter the school failure vicious cycle.

  8. Human Capital: Current Status in the Fortune 500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Teresa M.

    An exploratory study examined what the largest and most successful manufacturing and service companies in the United States are doing to address human capital needs through training and development. A questionnaire was sent to 168 firms from the service sector and 165 from the manufacturing sector, as identified by "Fortune"; 81 responded.…

  9. Are the Currently Existing Anti‑Human Papillomavirus Vaccines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, the subtypes of HPV involved in cervical pathology, their associations, and natural history (clearance and persistence rates) differ from the industrialized world. Therefore, the current bivalent and quadrivalent anti‑HPV vaccines are unlikely to achieve their target in the developing world. It follows from published ...

  10. Development and regulation of biosimilars: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiftsoglou, Asterios S; Ruiz, Sol; Schneider, Christian K

    2013-06-01

    Biologic medicinal products developed via rDNA technology as recombinant protein-based medicines that have been in clinical use since the early 1980s as original biopharmaceuticals have greatly contributed to the therapy of severe metabolic and degenerative diseases. The recent expiration of the data protection or patents for most of them created opportunities for the development of copy versions of original biopharmaceuticals with similar biologic activity (termed biosimilars). Production of these new products is expected to meet worldwide demand, promote market competition, maintain the incentives for innovation, and sustain the healthcare systems. The licencing of these products, however, relies on the experience gained with the original biopharmaceuticals. Critical issues related to this class of medicinal products include their terminology (to avoid confusion with generics and non-innovator copy versions that have not been tested according to the biosimilar guidelines), manufacturing, and regulation. The European Union (EU) has been the first to establish a regulatory framework for marketing authorization application (MAA) and has named these products biosimilars, a term also recently adopted by the US FDA. Unlike the conventional, more common small molecular weight human medicines and chemical generics, protein-based medicines exhibit higher molecular weight, complexity in structure and function that can be affected by changes in the manufacturing process. Therefore, biosimilars represent a relatively heterogeneous class of medicinal products that make their regulation quite challenging. According to the current understanding in the EU, a biosimilar is a copy version of an already authorized biopharmaceutical (or reference product) with similar biologic activity, physicochemical characteristics, efficacy, and safety, based on a full comparability exercise at quality, preclinical and clinical level to ensure similar efficacy and safety. Guidance has been

  11. Potassium currents in cultured human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, W; Karwande, S V; Hoidal, J R; Farrukh, I S

    1996-04-01

    In this study, using whole cell and single-channel configurations of the patch-clamp technique, we characterized K+ currents (IK) in cultured human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. The net whole cell outward membrane current (IKo) was activated at potentials positive to -60 mV. One component of IKo, IK(dr), was inhibited by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and high concentrations of tetraethylammonium (TEA) but was Ca2+ and charybdotoxin (CTX) insensitive. The other component of IKo, IK(Ca), was voltage and Ca2+ dependent and was inhibited by CTX and low concentrations of TEA. Activation of IKo in single-channel recordings was voltage dependent and demonstrated a high-conductance channel (245 +/- 2 pS) that was Ca2+ and CTX sensitive [IK(Ca)] and a low-conductance channel (109 +/- 2 pS) that was inhibited by 4-AP [IK(dr)] but was insensitive to low concentrations of TEA or to an increase in intracellular [Ca2+]. In isolated pulmonary arterial rings, TEA and 4-AP caused an additive increase in arterial tension. To our knowledge these data provide the first characterization of the IK in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and indicate that IK(Ca) and IK(dr) play an important role in maintaining pulmonary vascular tone. The data confirm previous observations in pulmonary smooth muscle cells of animal models.

  12. Human Resource Development Issues in the Implementation of the Western China Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mingzheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper systematically illustrates the value and role of human resource development in the implementation of the Western China development strategy. It analyzes in details some current human resource issues constraining the implementation of the Western China development strategy and those on the sustainable development process of economic…

  13. Current pathogenic Escherichia coli foodborne outbreak cases and therapy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Chun; Lin, Chih-Hung; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Fang, Jia-You

    2017-08-01

    Food contamination by pathogenic microorganisms has been a serious public health problem and a cause of huge economic losses worldwide. Foodborne pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination, such as that with E. coli O157 and O104, is very common, even in developed countries. Bacterial contamination may occur during any of the steps in the farm-to-table continuum from environmental, animal, or human sources and cause foodborne illness. To understand the causes of the foodborne outbreaks by E. coli and food-contamination prevention measures, we collected and investigated the past 10 years' worldwide reports of foodborne E. coli contamination cases. In the first half of this review article, we introduce the infection and symptoms of five major foodborne diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes: enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli/enterohemorrhagic E. coli (STEC/EHEC), Shigella/enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). In the second half of this review article, we introduce the foodborne outbreak cases caused by E. coli in natural foods and food products. Finally, we discuss current developments that can be applied to control and prevent bacterial food contamination.

  14. Human-Automation Allocations for Current Robotic Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Chang, Mai L.; Beard, Bettina L.; Kim, Yun Kyung; Karasinski, John A.

    2018-01-01

    Within the Human Research Program, one risk delineates the uncertainty surrounding crew working with automation and robotics in spaceflight. The Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is concerned with the detrimental effects on crew performance due to ineffective user interfaces, system designs and/or functional task allocation, potentially compromising mission success and safety. Risk arises because we have limited experience with complex automation and robotics. One key gap within HARI, is the gap related to functional allocation. The gap states: We need to evaluate, develop, and validate methods and guidelines for identifying human-automation/robot task information needs, function allocation, and team composition for future long duration, long distance space missions. Allocations determine the human-system performance as it identifies the functions and performance levels required by the automation/robotic system, and in turn, what work the crew is expected to perform and the necessary human performance requirements. Allocations must take into account each of the human, automation, and robotic systems capabilities and limitations. Some functions may be intuitively assigned to the human versus the robot, but to optimize efficiency and effectiveness, purposeful role assignments will be required. The role of automation and robotics will significantly change in future exploration missions, particularly as crew becomes more autonomous from ground controllers. Thus, we must understand the suitability of existing function allocation methods within NASA as well as the existing allocations established by the few robotic systems that are operational in spaceflight. In order to evaluate future methods of robotic allocations, we must first benchmark the allocations and allocation methods that have been used. We will present 1) documentation of human-automation-robotic allocations in existing, operational spaceflight systems; and 2) To

  15. Education and Human Capital Development through Appropriate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    literature consulted revealed that government contribution to education and human capital development is ..... developed human capital, entrepreneurship abilities and successes would not develop and grow and Nigeria ... From the review of literature, it was obvious that education and human resource development is at ...

  16. Future Performance Trend Indicators: A Current Value Approach to Human Resources Accounting. Report V: The Value Attribution Process. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Jean B.; And Others

    The development of future performance trend indicators is based on the current value approach to human resource accounting. The value attribution portion of the current value approach is used to estimate the dollar value of observed changes in the state of the human organization. The procedure for value attribution includes: prediction of changes…

  17. The Current of Continuing Professional Development for Product Designers

    OpenAIRE

    山内, 勉; Yamauchi, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    Product Designers are required some skills and knowledge in the product development. Based on my professional career, I presumed three skills, they are, Technical skills, Conceptual skills and Human skills. In this study, I interviewed some Product Designers to make sure what skills are needed in the product development process. It emerged that Product Designers are expected to improve their Conceptual and Human skills besides Technical skills for playing a part at the upper and lower stage o...

  18. Development and Testing of Infrared Water Current Meter | Ezenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuous monitoring of the river flow is essential for assessing water availability. River flow velocity is crucial to simulate discharge hydrographs of water in the hydrological system.This study developed a digital water current meter with infrared. The infrared current meter was tested using Ebonyi River at Obollo-Etiti and ...

  19. Iodine Deficiency and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Sviridonova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is а vital microelements that are essential for the normal human development and functions. Iodine deficiency is a global problem: about 2 billion individuals worldwide suffer from a lack of iodine. Despite goiter is the most visually noticeable manifestation of iodine deficiency, the most significant consequence of the iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. Moreover, moderate to severe iodine deficiency increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, low birth weight and infant mortality. Babies in utero affected by iodine deficiency are at increased risk of mental developmental disorders, cretinism is their extreme degree. In addition, moderate to severe iodine deficiency in childhood negatively affects somatic growth. Iodine deficiency compensation improves cognitive and motor function in children. Iodine prophylaxis of deficient populations is an extremely effective approach to reduce the substantial adverse effects of iodine deficiency throughout the life cycle.

  20. Globalization: economic development and human rights crossroad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses the problem of corporate human rights violations in Africa. The factors that promote corporate impunity for human rights violations as identified by current scholarship are the mismatch between the current corporate structure and the rules of corporate law, the insensitivity of African governments and the ...

  1. The effects of human resource flexibility on human resources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeidMehdi Veise

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human resources are the primary factor for development of competitiveness and innovation and reaching competitive advantage and they try to improve corporate capabilities through various characteristics such as value creation, scarcity and difficulty of imitation. This paper investigates the effect of human resource flexibility and its dimensions on human resource development and its dimensions. The survey was conducted using descriptive-correlation method that intended to describe how human resource flexibility was effective on human resource development. Questionnaire was tool of data collection. The statistical population included one hundred employees of the Electric Company in Ilam province, thus census method was used. Reliability of the questionnaire was measured via Cronbach's alpha equal to 0.96. The findings revealed that flexibility and its dimensions were effective on human resource development and dimensions of it. As a result, human resource flexibility should be considered for development of human resources and employees with the highest flexibility should be selected.

  2. Bulgarian-Polish Language Resources (Current State and Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulgarian-Polish Language Resources (Current State and Future Development The paper briefly reviews the first Bulgarian-Polish digital bilingual resources: corpora and dictionaries, which are currently developed under bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS: joint research project “Semantics and contrastive linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary”, coordinated by L. Dimitrova (IMI-BAS and V. Koseska (ISS-PAS.

  3. FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... July 2017. FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF FRENCH IN NIGERIA--------------. Scholastica Ezeodili. 110. FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF FRENCH IN. NIGERIA. Scholastica Ezeodili. Department of Modern European Languages.

  4. Human health problems associated with current agricultural food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ramesh V

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technological developments in the agricultural sectors in the recent past has resulted in increased food production and at the same time led to certain public health concerns. Unseasonal rains at the time of harvest and improper post harvest technology often results in agricultural commodities being contaminated with certain fungi and results in the production of mycotoxins. Consumption of such commodities has resulted in human disease outbreaks. Naturally occurring toxins, inherently present in foods and either consumed as such or mixed up with grains, had been responsible for disease outbreaks. Other possible causes of health concern include the application of various agrochemicals such as pesticides and the use of antibiotics in aquaculture and veterinary practices. Foodborne pathogens entering the food chain during both traditional and organic agriculture pose a challenge to public health. Modern biotechnology, producing genetically modified foods, if not regulated appropriately could pose dangers to human health. Use of various integrated food management systems like the Hazard Analysis and critical control system approach for risk prevention, monitoring and control of food hazards are being emphasized with globalization to minimise the danger posed to human health from improper agricultural practices.

  5. Molecular basis of human cerebral malaria development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Saw Thu; Hananantachai, Hathairad; Kerdpin, Usanee; Plabplueng, Chotiros; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nuchnoi, Pornlada

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is still a deleterious health problem in tropical countries. The wide spread of malarial drug resistance and the lack of an effective vaccine are obstacles for disease management and prevention. Parasite and human genetic factors play important roles in malaria susceptibility and disease severity. The malaria parasite exerted a potent selective signature on the human genome, which is apparent in the genetic polymorphism landscape of genes related to pathogenesis. Currently, much genomic data and a novel body of knowledge, including the identification of microRNAs, are being increasingly accumulated for the development of laboratory testing cassettes for cerebral malaria prevention. Therefore, understanding of the underlying complex molecular basis of cerebral malaria is important for the design of strategy for cerebral malaria treatment and control.

  6. Human Security versus Human Development - Behavioristic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duralia Oana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent terrorist attacks in Brussels, Paris and Istanbul, are shaking a world bewildered of daily fear of violence, while the contemporary consumer has to deal with the “new wars” emerging in the context of the current socio-economic and political context. The issue is especially thorny since, most of the times, the “enemy” the citizens must face is unknown, not only when it comes to terrorist attacks, but also when dealing with the question of the “enemy” in foods purchased for consumption (food security or the security of personal data when accessing and using the Internet (cyber security. Consequently, this paper attempts to highlight the way in which the safety and security needs of the contemporary consumer have diversified over time, often becoming determinants of social behavior in general, and of the buying and consumption behavior, in particular.

  7. Current issues of RNAi therapeutics delivery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussecker, D

    2014-12-10

    12 years following the discovery of the RNAi mechanism in Man, a number of RNAi therapeutics development candidates have emerged with profiles suggesting that they could become drugs of significant medical importance for diseases like TTR amyloidosis, HBV, solid cancers, and hemophilia. Despite this robust progress, the perception of RNAi therapeutics has been on a roller-coaster ride driven not only by science, but also regulatory trends, the stock markets, and Big Pharma business development decisions [1]. This presentation provides an update on the current state of RNAi therapeutics development with a particular focus on what RNAi delivery can achieve today and key challenges to be overcome to expand therapeutic opportunities. The delivery of RNAi triggers to disease-relevant cell types clearly represents the rate-limiting factor in broadly expanding the applicability of RNAi therapeutics. Today, with at least 3 delivery options (lipid nanoparticles/LNPs, GalNAc-siRNA conjugates, Dynamic PolyConjugates/DPCs) for which profound gene knockdowns have been demonstrated in non-human primates and in the clinic, RNAi therapeutics should in principle be able to address most diseases related to gene expression in the liver. Given the central importance of the liver in systemic physiology, this already represents a significant therapeutic and commercial opportunity rivaling that of e.g. monoclonal antibodies. Beyond the liver, there is a reason to believe that current RNAi therapeutics technologies can address a number of solid tumors (e.g. LNPs), diseases of the eye (e.g. self-delivering RNAi triggers) as well as diseases involving the respiratory epithelium (e.g. aerosolized LNPs), certain phagocytic cells (LNPs), hematopoietic stem cells and their progeny (lentiviral DNA-directed RNAi), vascular endothelial cells (cationic lipoplexes), and certain cell types in the kidney (self-delivering RNAi triggers, DPCs; Table 1). Despite this success, there has been a sense that

  8. Macroeconomics and Human Development, by Deepak Nayyar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Ioana ŞERBĂNEL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microeconomics and Human Development pursue to tackle both negative and positive effects of macroeconomics on human development and vice-versa through a series of external and internal factors. The book consists in a series of articles published in a prestigious publication: Journal of Human Development and Capabilities. The authors have a perennial echo in the economic field.

  9. Current trends and future directions in flower development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutt, Charlie P; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  10. Current knowledge of the aetiology of human tubal ectopic pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J.L.V.; Dey, S.K.; Critchley, H.O.D.; Horne, A.W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy which occurs outside of the uterine cavity, and over 98% implant in the Fallopian tube. Tubal ectopic pregnancy remains the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester of pregnancy. The epidemiological risk factors for tubal ectopic pregnancy are well established and include: tubal damage as a result of surgery or infection (particularly Chlamydia trachomatis), smoking and in vitro fertilization. This review appraises the data to date researching the aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. METHODS Scientific literature was searched for studies investigating the underlying aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. RESULTS Existing data addressing the underlying cause of tubal ectopic pregnancy are mostly descriptive. There are currently few good animal models of tubal ectopic pregnancy. There are limited data explaining the link between risk factors and tubal implantation. CONCLUSIONS Current evidence supports the hypothesis that tubal ectopic pregnancy is caused by a combination of retention of the embryo within the Fallopian tube due to impaired embryo-tubal transport and alterations in the tubal environment allowing early implantation to occur. Future studies are needed that address the functional consequences of infection and smoking on Fallopian tube physiology. A greater understanding of the aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy is critical for the development of improved preventative measures, the advancement of diagnostic screening methods and the development of novel treatments. PMID:20071358

  11. [Development of antituberculous drugs: current status and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Haruaki; Namba, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) remains the most frequent and important infectious disease causing morbidity and death. One-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the etiologic agent of TB. The World Health Organization estimates that about eight to ten million new TB cases occur annually worldwide and the incidence of TB is currently increasing. In this context, TB is in the top three, with malaria and HIV being the leading causes of death from a single infectious agent, and approximately two million deaths are attributable to TB annually. In particular, pulmonary TB, the most common form of TB, is a highly contagious and life-threatening infection. Moreover, enhanced susceptibility to TB in HIV-infected populations is another serious health problem throughout the world. In addition, multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) has been increasing in incidence in many areas, not only in developing countries but industrialized countries as well, during the past decade. These situations, particularly the global resurgence of TB and the rapid emergence of MDR-TB, underscore the importance of the development of new antituberculous drugs and new protocols for efficacious clinical control of TB patients using ordinary antimycobacterial drugs. Concerning the development of new antituberculous drugs, the following points are of particular importance. (1) Development of drugs which display lasting antimycobacterial activity in vivo is desirable, since they can be administered with long intervals and consequently facilitate directly observed therapy and enhance patient compliance. (2) Development of novel antituberculosis compounds to combat MDR-TB is urgently needed. (3) The eradication of slowly metabolizing and, if possible, dormant populations of MTB organisms that cause relapse, using new classes of anti-TB drugs is very promising for prevention of TB incidence, because it will markedly reduce the incidence of active TB from persons who are

  12. CURRENT STATUS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF TACTILE CARTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Poshivailo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a brief survey of the current state and prospects of tactile cartography development. Some types of adaptive cognitive aids for blind people are considered. The authors share their experience in developing innovative form of cartographic products – tactile audiovisual device.

  13. Current Capabilities and Development Potential in Surgical Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias Hoeckelmann; Rudas, Imre J.; Paolo Fiorini; Frank Kirchner; Tamas Haidegger

    2015-01-01

    Commercial surgical robots have been in clinical use since the mid-1990s, supporting surgeons in various tasks. In the past decades, many systems emerged as research platforms, and a few entered the global market. This paper summarizes the currently available surgical systems and research directions in the broader field of surgical robotics. The widely deployed teleoperated manipulators aim to enhance human cognitive and physical skills and provide smart tools for surgeons, while image-guided...

  14. Time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Two different approaches, referred to as Bu and Ej, can be used to examine the time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas based on the fundamental laws of physics. From the Bu approach, the required equation involves the generalized Ohm's law with some simplifying assumptions. From the Ej approach, the required equation can be derived from the equation of particle motion, coupled self-consistently with Maxwell's equation, and the definition of electric current density. Recently, some strong statements against the Ej approach have been made. In this paper, we evaluate these statements by discussing (1 some limitations of the Bu approach in solving the time development of electric fields and currents, (2 the procedure in calculating self-consistently the time development of the electric current in space plasmas without taking the curl of the magnetic field in some cases, and (3 the dependency of the time development of magnetic field on electric current. It is concluded that the Ej approach can be useful to understand some magnetospheric problems. In particular, statements about the change of electric current are valid theoretical explanations of change in magnetic field during substorms.

  15. Time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Two different approaches, referred to as Bu and Ej, can be used to examine the time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas based on the fundamental laws of physics. From the Bu approach, the required equation involves the generalized Ohm's law with some simplifying assumptions. From the Ej approach, the required equation can be derived from the equation of particle motion, coupled self-consistently with Maxwell's equation, and the definition of electric current density. Recently, some strong statements against the Ej approach have been made. In this paper, we evaluate these statements by discussing (1 some limitations of the Bu approach in solving the time development of electric fields and currents, (2 the procedure in calculating self-consistently the time development of the electric current in space plasmas without taking the curl of the magnetic field in some cases, and (3 the dependency of the time development of magnetic field on electric current. It is concluded that the Ej approach can be useful to understand some magnetospheric problems. In particular, statements about the change of electric current are valid theoretical explanations of change in magnetic field during substorms.

  16. An interdisciplinary review of current and future approaches to improving human-predator relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, S; Barua, M; Beinart, W; Dickman, A; Holmes, G; Lorimer, J; Loveridge, A J; Macdonald, D W; Marvin, G; Redpath, S; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Zimmermann, A; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2017-06-01

    In a world of shrinking habitats and increasing competition for natural resources, potentially dangerous predators bring the challenges of coexisting with wildlife sharply into focus. Through interdisciplinary collaboration among authors trained in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences, we reviewed current approaches to mitigating adverse human-predator encounters and devised a vision for future approaches to understanding and mitigating such encounters. Limitations to current approaches to mitigation include too much focus on negative impacts; oversimplified equating of levels of damage with levels of conflict; and unsuccessful technical fixes resulting from failure to engage locals, address hidden costs, or understand cultural (nonscientific) explanations of the causality of attacks. An emerging interdisciplinary literature suggests that to better frame and successfully mitigate negative human-predator relations conservation professionals need to consider dispensing with conflict as the dominant framework for thinking about human-predator encounters; work out what conflicts are really about (they may be human-human conflicts); unravel the historical contexts of particular conflicts; and explore different cultural ways of thinking about animals. The idea of cosmopolitan natures may help conservation professionals think more clearly about human-predator relations in both local and global context. These new perspectives for future research practice include a recommendation for focused interdisciplinary research and the use of new approaches, including human-animal geography, multispecies ethnography, and approaches from the environmental humanities notably environmental history. Managers should think carefully about how they engage with local cultural beliefs about wildlife, work with all parties to agree on what constitutes good evidence, develop processes and methods to mitigate conflicts, and decide how to monitor and evaluate these. Demand for

  17. Sizing Performance of the Newly Developed Eddy Current System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chan Hee; Lee, Hee Jong; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Moon, Gyoon Young; Lee, Tae Hoon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper describes the comparison results of sizing performance for two systems. The KHNP developed a new eddy current testing system for the inspection of steam generator tubing in domestic nuclear power plants. The equivalency assessment of the newly developed system with the EPRI-qualified system was already carried out. In this paper, the comparisons of depth-sizing performance for the artificial flaws between two systems were performed. The results show that the newly developed system is in good agreement with the qualified system. Therefore, it is expected that the newly developed eddy current system can be used for the inspection of steam generator tubing in nuclear power plants. There are some non-destructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of components in nuclear power plants, such as ultrasonic, radiographic, eddy current testing, etc. The eddy current testing is widely used for the inspection of steam generator (SG) tubing because it offers a relatively low cost approach for high speed, large scale testing of metallic materials in high pressure and temperature engineering systems. The Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) developed an eddy current testing system for the inspection of steam generator tubing in nuclear power plants. This system includes not only hardware but software such as the frequency generator and data acquisition-analysis program. The foreign eddy current system developed by ZETEC is currently used for the inspection of steam generator tubing in domestic nuclear power plants. The equivalency assessment between two systems was already carried out in accordance with the EPRI steam generator examination guidelines.

  18. Development of Humane Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleptsova, Elena Yuryevna; Balabanov, Anton Anatolyevich

    2016-01-01

    The article reflects some theoretical aspects of humanization of interpersonal relationships in the sphere of education. The notion "humanization of interpersonal relationships" is being analyzed. The authors offer a characterization of some parameters of relationships: orientation, modality, valence, intensity, awareness,…

  19. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methodsUse was made of 38 human embryos and

  20. Achieving Human Development in Nigeria through Philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of human development conveys the thought of progressive unfolding of the entirety of the human person. It has as its end the attainment of the total well-being of an individual. However, often times, the end of human development appears truncated due to some existential circumstances surrounding the ...

  1. Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development: Evolution and Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Research agrees that a high performance organization (HPO) cannot exist without an elevated value placed on human resource management (HRM) and human resource development (HRD). However, a complementary pairing of HRM and HRD has not always existed. The evolution of HRD from its roots in human knowledge transference to HRM and present day HRD…

  2. Experimental primates and non-human primate (NHP) models of human diseases in China: current status and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Pang, Wei; Hu, Xin-Tian; Li, Jia-Li; Yao, Yong-Gang; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2014-11-18

    Non-human primates (NHPs) are phylogenetically close to humans, with many similarities in terms of physiology, anatomy, immunology, as well as neurology, all of which make them excellent experimental models for biomedical research. Compared with developed countries in America and Europe, China has relatively rich primate resources and has continually aimed to develop NHPs resources. Currently, China is a leading producer and a major supplier of NHPs on the international market. However, there are some deficiencies in feeding and management that have hampered China's growth in NHP research and materials. Nonetheless, China has recently established a number of primate animal models for human diseases and achieved marked scientific progress on infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases, endocrine diseases, reproductive diseases, neurological diseases, and ophthalmic diseases, etc. Advances in these fields via NHP models will undoubtedly further promote the development of China's life sciences and pharmaceutical industry, and enhance China's position as a leader in NHP research. This review covers the current status of NHPs in China and other areas, highlighting the latest developments in disease models using NHPs, as well as outlining basic problems and proposing effective countermeasures to better utilize NHP resources and further foster NHP research in China.

  3. Correlation Between Human Development Index and Infant Mortality Rate Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alijanzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births is a vital index to monitor the standard of health and social inequality which is related to human development dimensions worldwide. Human development index (HDI includes basic social indicators such as life expectancy, education and income. Objectives The current study aimed to find the correlation between human development index and infant mortality rate. Patients and Methods This descriptive study that represents the relationship of infant mortality rate with human development index and human development index dimensions was performed on the profiles of 135 countries worldwide [Africa (35 countries, America (26 countries, Asia (30 countries, the Pacific (2 countries and Europe (42 countries]. Two databases were used in the study: the world health organization (WHO database (2010 and human development database (2010. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test by SPSS software. Results The study found that socio-economic factors or human development dimensions are significantly correlated with risk of chance mortality in the world. The per capita income (r = -0.625, life expectancy (r = -0.925 and education (r = -0.843 were negatively correlated with the infant mortality rate; human development index (r = -0.844 was also negatively correlated with the infant mortality rate (P < 0.01. Conclusions Human development index is one of the best indicators and predictors to perceive healthcare inequities. Worldwide improvement of these indicators, especially the education level, might promote infant life expectancy and decrease infant mortality.

  4. Development of optoelectronic-based pulsed current sensor to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 42; Issue 10. Development of optoelectronic-based pulsed current sensor to detect the poor laser discharge condition. ANIL S NAYAK RAJASREE VIJAYAN DEEPAK NAPHADE V S RAWAT K G MANOHAR. Volume 42 Issue 10 October ...

  5. current status and outlook of renewable energy development in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a critical review of the available renewable energy resources in Nigeria, namely; biomass, hydropower, solar and wind energy. It examines the current energy situation in the country and equally discusses the various energy policy documents developed by the government. Using the scenario-based ...

  6. Education and Human Capital Development through Appropriate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    Abstract. The study examines education and human capital development through appropriate utilisation of information services. The paper is essentially a descriptive analysis of the state of education and human development in. Delta state and assesses the readiness of Delta state government on the development of ...

  7. Integrated Human Development Programme in Angola

    OpenAIRE

    UNDP - UNOPS EDINFODEC Project - Cooperazione italiana,

    2004-01-01

    This report is an excerpt from the sixth UNDP-UNOPS-Cooperazione Italiana Report on Multilateral Human Development Programmes (2004). The Integrated Human Development Programme in Angola began in 1999 and ended in 2003. It focused on the maintenance and consolidation of the Local Economic Development Agencies (LEDAs). The PDHI helped set up the LEDAs in the Provinces of Bengo, Benguela and Kwanza Sul.

  8. A Calibrated Index of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The weightings of the four component indicators of the UNDP's Human Development Index HDI appear to be arbitrary and have not been given justification. This paper develops a variant of the HDI, calculated to reflect peoples' revealed evaluations of education and the productivity of work. The resulting Calibrated human Development Index CDI has a…

  9. Human resources, physical resources and economic development: A foundation of human resource economics

    OpenAIRE

    FURUOKA, Fumitaka

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies on production inputs, such labour and capital, there is still a lack of systematic analysis on the crucial interaction between the human resources (HR) and physical resources (PR) in the process of economic development. Thus, the current paper aims to describe how these production resources would jointly determine the dynamics process of economic development. This holistic role of the HR in the economic development can be a foundation for the human resource economics.

  10. Human Resource Development in Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Behnam Neyerstani

    2014-01-01

    Human Resource Development (HRD) is the domain that performs core function in an organization for the advancement of personal and professional skills, knowledge and abilities of employees. Human resource development includes such opportunities as employee training, employee career development, performance management and development, coaching, mentoring, succession planning, key employee identification and organization development. HRD has the key role in improving knowledge and skills on huma...

  11. Currently developing opportunities in food irradiation and modern irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, R. [Director Business Development. SteriGenics International Inc. 17901 East Warren Avenue No. 4, Detroit, Michigan 48224-1333 (United States)

    1997-12-31

    I. Factor currently influencing advancing opportunities for food irradiation include: heightened incidence and awareness of food borne illnesses and causes. Concerns about ensuring food safety in international as well as domestic trade. Regulatory actions regarding commonly used fumigants/pesticides e.g. Me Br. II. Modern irradiator design: the SteriGenics {sup M}ini Cell{sup .} A new design for new opportunities. Faster installation of facility. Operationally and space efficient. Provides local {sup o}nsite control{sup .} Red meat: a currently developing opportunity. (Author)

  12. Family Therapy in Poland: Development and Current Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefik, Barbara; de Barbaro, Bogdan; Iniewicz, Grzegorz; Namysłowska, Irena

    2013-06-01

    The authors of the present article describe the historical context of family therapy in Poland and current issues in the field. They highlight the fact that Polish therapists first began to develop the field after coming into contact with family therapy leaders from the United States and Western Europe. With the political breakthrough of 1989, there were new opportunities for multilateral cooperation, attendance at international conferences, and the exchange of experiences. Currently, the work of Polish family therapists, the place of family therapy among other forms of psychotherapy, and the related problems and challenges do not differ from other European nations.

  13. HIV-1, human interaction database: current status and new features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako-Adjei, Danso; Fu, William; Wallin, Craig; Katz, Kenneth S; Song, Guangfeng; Darji, Dakshesh; Brister, J Rodney; Ptak, Roger G; Pruitt, Kim D

    2015-01-01

    The 'Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1), Human Interaction Database', available through the National Library of Medicine at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/retroviruses/hiv-1/interactions, serves the scientific community exploring the discovery of novel HIV vaccine candidates and therapeutic targets. Each HIV-1 human protein interaction can be retrieved without restriction by web-based downloads and ftp protocols and includes: Reference Sequence (RefSeq) protein accession numbers, National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene identification numbers, brief descriptions of the interactions, searchable keywords for interactions and PubMed identification numbers (PMIDs) of journal articles describing the interactions. In addition to specific HIV-1 protein-human protein interactions, included are interaction effects upon HIV-1 replication resulting when individual human gene expression is blocked using siRNA. A total of 3142 human genes are described participating in 12,786 protein-protein interactions, along with 1316 replication interactions described for each of 1250 human genes identified using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Together the data identifies 4006 human genes involved in 14,102 interactions. With the inclusion of siRNA interactions we introduce a redesigned web interface to enhance viewing, filtering and downloading of the combined data set. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Humane Education: The Status of Current Research and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vockell, Edward L.; Hodal, Frank

    1984-01-01

    Reviews research on: (1) measuring humane attitudes; (2) American attitudes toward animal life; (3) strategies of humane education; and (4) attitude improvement. Indicates there is reliable evidence that attitudes of Americans toward animal life are strongly negative and that this negativeness increases as children grow older. (JN)

  15. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana Palmer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Chana; Bik, Elisabeth M; DiGiulio, Daniel B; Relman, David A; Brown, Patrick O

    2007-07-01

    Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  17. Approaching Development Projects from a Human Development and Capability Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Frediani (Alexandre); A. Boni (Alejandro); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper discusses the relevance of the human development and capability approach for development project planning, management and evaluation. With reference to the set of five other studies that it introduces, the paper suggests in which areas insights from human development and

  18. Children's Spiritual Development in Forced Displacement: A Human Rights Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojalehto, Bethany; Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis of current research and theories of spiritual development in forced displacement from a human rights perspective. Spirituality, understood as a cognitive-cultural construct, has shown positive impact on children's development through both collective and individual processes and across ecological domains of the…

  19. Child human model development: a hybrid validation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a

  20. The use of functional human tissues in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunton, David

    2010-12-01

    Drug development currently depends on animal models to provide an accurate prediction of human physiology and pathophysiology. However, as is clear from clinical trial failures during phases II and III, such in vivo models do not always predict the effects that a drug can elicit in humans. Tests with human tissues, which are obviously considered to be the closest model of human in vivo function, could fill the gap between animal-based tests and trials in patients. Despite clear advantages, logistical and ethical barriers prevent fresh human tissues from being widely used during drug development. Biopta is aiming to make human tissue testing a regular element of drug development, and works to lower the barriers surrounding the availability of tissue and practicalities of experimental work. 2010 FRAME.

  1. Development and validation of the current concept of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The operational diagnostic criteria for major depression have remained more or less the same in the past 40 years. However, the threshold for the diagnosis fixed by operational definitions has been criticized for either being too high, excluding many depressive states which do not differ from currently defined major depression on several variables, or too low, so that the milder cases receiving the diagnosis do not respond to antidepressants better than to placebo. Furthermore, it has been stated that current operational criteria do not convey anymore the gestalt of the depressive syndrome, and that they lead to the inclusion under the heading of depression of several homeostatic responses to adverse life events. This paper reviews the development and validation of the current concept of major depression and identifies priorities for future research. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Current and Novel Approaches to Vaccine Development Against Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mark eCayabyab; Lilia eMacovei; Antonio eCampos-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics and vaccines are the two most successful medical countermeasures that humans have created against a number of pathogens. However a select few e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) have evaded eradication by vaccines and therapeutic approaches. TB is a global public health problem that kills 1.4 million people per year. The past decade has seen significant progress in developing new vaccine candidates, but the most fundamental questions in under...

  3. Current development of saliva/oral fluid-based diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chih-Ko; Christodoulides, Nicolaos J; Floriano, Pierre N; Miller, Craig S; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Weigum, Shannon E; McDevitt, John; Redding, Spencer W

    2010-07-01

    Saliva can be easily obtained in medical and non-medical settings, and contains numerous bio-molecules, including those typically found in serum for disease detection and monitoring. In the past two decades, the achievements of high-throughput approaches afforded by biotechnology and nanotechnology allow for disease-specific salivary biomarker discovery and establishment of rapid, multiplex, and miniaturized analytical assays. These developments have dramatically advanced saliva-based diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the current consensus on development of saliva/oral fluid-based diagnostics and provide a summary of recent research advancements of the Texas-Kentucky Saliva Diagnostics Consortium. In the foreseeable future, current research on saliva based diagnostic methods could revolutionize health care.

  4. Current trends and future development in pharmacologic stress testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jin Ho; Lee, Jae Tae [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-02-15

    Pharmacologic stress testing for myocardial perfusion imaging is a widely used noninvasive method for the evaluation of known or suspected coronary artery disease. The use of exercise for cardiac stress has been practiced for over 60 years and clinicians are familiar with its using. However, there are inevitable situations in which exercise stress is inappropriate. A large number of patients with cardiac problems are unable to exercise to their full potential due to comorbidity such as osteoarthritis, vascular disease and pulmonary disease and a standard exercise stress test for myocardial perfusion imaging is suboptimal means for assessment of coronary artery disease. This problem has led to the development of the pharmacologic stress test and to a great increase in its popularity. All of the currently used pharmacologic agents have well-documented diagnostic value. This review deals the physiological actions, clinical protocols, safety, nuclear imaging applications of currently available stress agents and future development of new vasodilating agents.

  5. Current needs for further development of Serbian labour legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current needs for further development of Serbian legislation relate to the field of collective employee-employer relations and their collective rights and obligations. These are the relations established by the workers' and employers' mutually, but also the relationship between them, on the one hand and the state on the other. In other words, this is the need to strengthen the industrial democracies (including the improvement of labour legislation in the field of collective rights of employees and employers, which is actually still in stagnation. The fact is that trade union movement in Serbia, social dialogue, collective bargaining on working conditions, employees participation in management are weakening, which is where one should seek current needs for further development of labour law in order to strengthen and provide normatively the legal platform to stop these negative tendencies.

  6. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE CURRENT DIMENSIONS OF HUMAN TRAFFICK IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Caunic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on realizing a better understanding of the aspects and the conditions that facilitate human traffick in a full transition society, such as the Romanian society. To highlight the characteristics of human trafficking and the actual dimensions of this phenomenon in Romania, the paper used both quantitative methods involving interpretation of statistics compiled by the competent institutions and the qualitative research methods, involving the analysis of reports, articles or case studies presented in the literature.

  7. The human gut microbiome: current knowledge, challenges, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Maneesh; Higgins, Peter D; Middha, Sumit; Rioux, Kevin P

    2012-10-01

    The Human Genome Project was completed a decade ago, leaving a legacy of process, tools, and infrastructure now being turned to the study of the microbes that reside in and on the human body as determinants of health and disease, and has been branded "The Human Microbiome Project." Of the various niches under investigation, the human gut houses the most complex and abundant microbial community and is an arena for important host-microbial interactions that have both local and systemic impact. Initial studies of the human microbiome have been largely descriptive, a testing ground for innovative molecular techniques and new hypotheses. Methods for studying the microbiome have quickly evolved from low-resolution surveys of microbial community structure to high-definition description of composition, function, and ecology. Next-generation sequencing technologies combined with advanced bioinformatics place us at the doorstep of revolutionary insight into the composition, capability, and activity of the human intestinal microbiome. Renewed efforts to cultivate previously "uncultivable" microbes will be important to the overall understanding of gut ecology. There remain numerous methodological challenges to the effective study and understanding of the gut microbiome, largely relating to study design, sample collection, and the number of predictor variables. Strategic collaboration of clinicians, microbiologists, molecular biologists, computational scientists, and bioinformaticians is the ideal paradigm for success in this field. Meaningful interpretation of the gut microbiome requires that host genetic and environmental influences be controlled or accounted for. Understanding the gut microbiome in healthy humans is a foundation for discovering its influence in various important gastrointestinal and nutritional diseases (eg, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, and obesity), and for rational translation to human health gains. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights

  8. Current Applications of Chromatographic Methods in the Study of Human Body Fluids for Diagnosing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwik, Jagoda; Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Currently, analysis of various human body fluids is one of the most essential and promising approaches to enable the discovery of biomarkers or pathophysiological mechanisms for disorders and diseases. Analysis of these fluids is challenging due to their complex composition and unique characteristics. Development of new analytical methods in this field has made it possible to analyze body fluids with higher selectivity, sensitivity, and precision. The composition and concentration of analytes in body fluids are most often determined by chromatography-based techniques. There is no doubt that proper use of knowledge that comes from a better understanding of the role of body fluids requires the cooperation of scientists of diverse specializations, including analytical chemists, biologists, and physicians. This article summarizes current knowledge about the application of different chromatographic methods in analyses of a wide range of compounds in human body fluids in order to diagnose certain diseases and disorders.

  9. The Development and Current State of Translation Process Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2014-01-01

    The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer to a spe...... itself, into regions like cognitive psychology, psycho- and neurolinguistics, and neuroscience, where the interest in what goes on in our heads is also very strong....

  10. [The current state and development prospectives of military nephrology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagibovich, O A; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B

    2014-05-01

    This article is dedicated to the current state and prospectives of military nephrology. Using as examples the nephrology services of the armed forces of Serbia, France, Great Britain and USA it is shown that this branch of military healthcare plays an important role abroad. The brief review of military nephrology formation and development history demonstrates the growing significance of military nephrology in the general system of medical care at the battlefield.

  11. Learning Human Aspects of Collaborative Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Irit; Sherman, Sofia; Hazzan, Orit

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration has become increasingly widespread in the software industry as systems have become larger and more complex, adding human complexity to the technological complexity already involved in developing software systems. To deal with this complexity, human-centric software development methods, such as Extreme Programming and other agile…

  12. Linking Career Development and Human Resource Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteridge, Thomas G.

    When organizations integrate their career development and human resources planning activities into a comprehensive whole, it is the exception rather than the rule. One reason for the frequent dichotomy between career development and human resource planning is the failure to recognize that they are complements rather than synonyms or substitutes.…

  13. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

  14. Philosophy, Human Development and National Question | Ekei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the solution to this dilemma is still being sought, Socrates shifted the attention of philosophy (with obvious reasons) from nature to ethical-political question, that is, to the issue of human development. It interests this essay, to find out, what exactly is human development, and why philosophy after Socrates considers ...

  15. Academic Freedom, Critique and the Humanities: some current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-03-08

    Mar 8, 1996 ... imaginary with its current undermining in higher education policy. ..... Just as Mathematics provides the ground for the STEM disciplines, so Literacy – or .... Bounds of Democracy: epistemological access in higher education.

  16. Academic Freedom and the Humanities: some current challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John Higgins

    2015-01-01

    .... It focuses first on the shifting fortunes of academic freedom in South Africa, contrasting the pride of place given to it in the pre-1994 social imaginary with its current undermining in higher education policy...

  17. Developing Global Human Resource Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Hans-Erich

    2001-01-01

    A few years ago it was typical to give one’s subsidiaries a free rein and send managers overseas from headquarters only. But today a great deal depends on overcoming this one-way street and in looking for and employing the best-suited managers, regardless of their origins. What contribution can human resource management make towards a company’s global orientation – an area in which local scope and latitude are traditionally very high? Our study shows that in recent years large US and German i...

  18. Behavioral medicine in China: history, current status, and future development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bo; Ji, Feng

    2014-08-01

    Behavioral medicine in China has developed quickly in the last three decades. We briefly summarized the history, the main scope and achievements, and the future development of behavioral medicine in China. We did a literature search and discussed with senior scholars in behavioral medicine in China. The concept and main scope of behavioral medicine in China have been developed largely in accordance with the international perspective. Research in behavioral medicine in China significantly contributed to the better understanding of the relationship between various health behavioral factors and psychosomatic disorders and possible mechanisms of this relationship. The following aspects will be the main areas to be further developed in behavioral medicine in China: (1) Basic theories of behavioral medicine and theoretical mechanisms of higher nervous activities in human behavior regulation. (2) Etiology, pathogenesis, and mechanisms of common diseases that are closely related to human lifestyle behaviors. (3) Assessment criteria for unhealthy and disease-related behaviors. (4) Behavioral therapy of psychosomatic disorders, and rehabilitation technologies of disability. (5) Application of major findings from research of behavioral medical science in clinical practice and in health promotion of the whole society. Behavioral medicine in China, as a multidisciplinary subject, plays a relevant role in preventing behavior-related psychosomatic diseases and in promoting health of the public.

  19. Are Underlying Assumptions of Current Animal Models of Human Stroke Correct: from STAIRs to High Hurdles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Renée J; Jickling, Glen C; Sharp, Frank R

    2011-06-01

    Animal models of acute ischemic stroke have been criticized for failing to translate to human stroke. Nevertheless, animal models are necessary to improve our understanding of stroke pathophysiology and to guide the development of new stroke therapies. The rabbit embolic clot model is one animal model that has led to an effective therapy in human acute ischemic stroke, namely tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). We propose that potential compounds that demonstrate efficacy in non-rabbit animal models of acute ischemic stroke should also be tested in the rabbit embolic blood clot model and, where appropriate, compared to tPA prior to investigation in humans. Furthermore, the use of anesthesia needs to be considered as a major confounder in animal models of acute ischemic stroke, and death should be included as an outcome measure in animal stroke studies. These steps, along with the current STAIRs recommendations, may improve the successful translation of experimental therapies to clinical stroke treatments.

  20. Molecular Anatomy of the Developing Human Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Akina; Ratnapriya, Rinki; Brooks, Matthew J; Chaitankar, Vijender; Wilken, Matthew S; Zhang, Chi; Starostik, Margaret R; Gieser, Linn; La Torre, Anna; Nishio, Mario; Bates, Olivia; Walton, Ashley; Bermingham-McDonogh, Olivia; Glass, Ian A; Wong, Rachel O L; Swaroop, Anand; Reh, Thomas A

    2017-12-18

    Clinical and genetic heterogeneity associated with retinal diseases makes stem-cell-based therapies an attractive strategy for personalized medicine. However, we have limited understanding of the timing of key events in the developing human retina, and in particular the factors critical for generating the unique architecture of the fovea and surrounding macula. Here we define three key epochs in the transcriptome dynamics of human retina from fetal day (D) 52 to 136. Coincident histological analyses confirmed the cellular basis of transcriptional changes and highlighted the dramatic acceleration of development in the fovea compared with peripheral retina. Human and mouse retinal transcriptomes show remarkable similarity in developmental stages, although morphogenesis was greatly expanded in humans. Integration of DNA accessibility data allowed us to reconstruct transcriptional networks controlling photoreceptor differentiation. Our studies provide insights into human retinal development and serve as a resource for molecular staging of human stem-cell-derived retinal organoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Immunology of tuberculosis and current status of vaccine development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrichs, T

    2008-03-01

    Even 125 year after the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the aetiological agent of tuberculosis by Robert Koch, tuberculosis is still a global health emergency according to WHO. The high infection rate with M. tuberculosis that persists in the human host until a weakened host immune system allows a reactivation and complicated and expensive antituberculous chemotherapy urgently demand the development of new vaccines. Increasing numbers of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, especially in the successor states of the former Soviet Union and China, further complicate an efficient tuberculosis control. For decades, there was no new release of an antituberculous drug to efficiently fight tuberculosis. Hence, also drug development has to keep up with the development of resistance by the pathogen. The following review describes the immune response to M. tuberculosis infection and the deduction of strategies for novel vaccines. Thanks to international financial support, several new vaccine candidates are already in the pipeline and close to clinical testing phases.

  2. HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT IN THE CURRENT RUSSIAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya I. Rodin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present state of human capital management (HCM in Russia is considered in the article. A statistical data is provided. The author examines Russian government policy concerning HCM and describes its methods and tools. The strategies and tactics of HCM are investigated considering a certain select organization.

  3. Current status of technology development on remote monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wan Ki; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, Y. D.; Na, W. W

    1997-03-01

    IAEA is planning to perform the remote monitoring system in nuclear facility in order to reinforce the economical and efficient inspection. National lab. in U.S. is developing the corresponding core technology and field trial will be done to test the remote monitoring system by considering the case that it replace the current safeguards system. U.S. setup the International Remote Monitoring Project to develop the technology. IAEA makes up remote monitoring team and setup the detail facility to apply remote monitoring system. Therefore, early participation in remote monitoring technology development will make contribution in international remote monitoring system and increase the transparency and confidence in domestic nuclear activities. (author). 12 refs., 20 figs

  4. Temperamental Factors in Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jerome; Snidman, Nancy

    1991-01-01

    The development of two temperamental characteristics--the tendency to approach (uninhibited) and the tendency to avoid (inhibited) unfamiliar events--may be partially controlled by genetic predisposition. Discusses the results of a study indicating that the level of motor responses and crying in response to unfamiliar stimuli in four month olds…

  5. Molecular basis of human cerebral malaria development

    OpenAIRE

    Wah, Saw Thu; Hananantachai, Hathairad; Kerdpin, Usanee; Plabplueng, Chotiros; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nuchnoi, Pornlada

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is still a deleterious health problem in tropical countries. The wide spread of malarial drug resistance and the lack of an effective vaccine are obstacles for disease management and prevention. Parasite and human genetic factors play important roles in malaria susceptibility and disease severity. The malaria parasite exerted a potent selective signature on the human genome, which is apparent in the genetic polymorphism landscape of genes related to pathogenesis. Currently, m...

  6. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, P Holland; Doggett, Joseph Stone

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis.

  7. The development of monolithic alternating current light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Wen-Yung; Yen, Hsi-Hsuan; Chan, Yi-Jen

    2011-02-01

    The monolithic alternating current light emitting diode (ACLED) has been revealed for several years and was regarded as a potential device for solid state lighting. In this study, we will discuss the characteristics, development status, future challenges, and ITRI's development strategy about ACLED, especially focusing on the development progress of the monolithic GaN-based Schottky barrier diodes integrated ACLED (SBD-ACLED). The SBD-ACLED design can not only improve the chip area utilization ratio but also provide much higher reverse breakdown voltage by integrating four SBDs with the micro-LEDs array in a single chip, which was regarded as a good on-chip ACLED design. According to the experimental results, higher chip efficiency can be reached through SBD-ACLED design since the chip area utilization ratio was increased. Since the principle and the operation condition of ACLED is quite different from those of the typical DCLED, critical issues for ACLED like the current droops, the flicker phenomenon, the safety regulations, the measurement standards and the power fluctuation have been studied for getting a practical and reliable ACLED design. Besides, the "AC LED application and research alliance" (AARA) lead by ITRI in Taiwan for the commercialization works of ACLED has also been introduced.

  8. Transcranial alternating current stimulation enhances individual alpha activity in human EEG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaehle, Tino; Rach, Stefan; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2010-01-01

    .... Recently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been introduced to directly modulate the ongoing rhythmic brain activity by the application of oscillatory currents on the human scalp...

  9. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    OpenAIRE

    Chana Palmer; Elisabeth M Bik; DiGiulio, Daniel B.; David A. Relman; Brown, Patrick O.

    2007-01-01

    Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward s...

  10. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development

    OpenAIRE

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Measuring gender inequality and women’s empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries’ progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic ...

  11. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  12. Current status of outcome measure development in vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Peter A; Aydin, Sibel Z; Boers, Maarten; Cornell, Christina; Direskeneli, Haner; Gebhart, Don; Hatemi, Gulen; Luqmani, Raashid; Matteson, Eric L; Milman, Nataliya; Robson, Joanna; Seo, Philip; Tomasson, Gunnar

    2014-03-01

    The conduct of randomized controlled trials for vasculitis, especially for the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides [AAV, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) and microscopic polyangiitis], has been greatly advanced by the development, use, and acceptance of validated outcome measures. Trials have subsequently provided the opportunity to validate and refine reliable, valid outcome measures for these multisystemic and relapsing rare diseases. The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Vasculitis Working Group was formed in 2004 to foster development of validated and widely accepted outcomes in vasculitis using data-driven analyses, a dedication to building consensus, and adherence to, and guidance by, the principles of the OMERACT approach. This work led to the endorsement by OMERACT of the core set of domains and associated outcome measures for AAV. Next steps for the study of existing outcome tools in AAV include better definition of response criteria through development of more data-driven weighting of the elements of activity and damage assessment. The Working Group is now also embarking on a series of linked projects to develop validated patient-reported outcomes for use in clinical research in vasculitis. Additionally, the Working Group is studying how current methods of disease assessment and plans for new outcomes can be informed by the conceptual framework of the International Classification of Function of the World Health Organization. The success of the Group's work in AAV has also led to a formal process for developing outcomes for the large vessel vasculitides (Takayasu arteritis and giant cell arteritis) and Behçet disease.

  13. Social Pedagogy in North America: historical background and current developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schugurensky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In North America, the use of the term ‘social pedagogy’ is a relatively new phenomenon, but social pedagogical practices have been used for a long time. The recent interest in the field of social pedagogy can be explained in part by the publication of an unprecedented volume of books and articles in English language, the creation of a new international journal, the simultaneous development of graduate programs in social pedagogy in the UK and the USA, and the establishment of a social pedagogy association that brings together academics and practitioners. In North America, social pedagogy thinking is influenced by the history of the field, by current social pedagogy theory and practice in other parts of the world, and by several traditions that connect education with social change. The paper discusses ten of them: indigenous education, progressive education, social movement learning, community development, public pedagogy, popular education, participatory action research, social economy, participatory democracy, and critical theory. 

  14. Current developments and future perspectives for TB diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    TB persists as a global epidemic with high morbidity and mortality, especially in low-income countries. It is the only infectious disease ever declared as a global emergency by the WHO. The HIV pandemic and the emergence of drug resistance represent two additional obstacles to better control of the disease. Important progress has been made in the last decade in TB diagnostics. Major needs still exist, such as the availability of a real point-of-care test, a better diagnosis of TB in immune-compromised populations and in children, and the possibility to predict progression to disease in latently infected people. This review will summarize the current developments in TB diagnostics and the perspectives for future developments in the field.

  15. Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Current Progress in Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudraraju, Rajeev; Jones, Bart G.; Sealy, Robert; Surman, Sherri L.; Hurwitz, Julia L.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the etiological agent for a serious lower respiratory tract disease responsible for close to 200,000 annual deaths worldwide. The first infection is generally most severe, while re-infections usually associate with a milder disease. This observation and the finding that re-infection risks are inversely associated with neutralizing antibody titers suggest that immune responses generated toward a first RSV exposure can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality throughout life. For more than half a century, researchers have endeavored to design a vaccine for RSV that can mimic or improve upon natural protective immunity without adverse events. The virus is herein described together with the hurdles that must be overcome to develop a vaccine and some current vaccine development approaches. PMID:23385470

  16. Human-Animal Trust as an Analog for Human-Robot Trust: A Review of Current Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    A.; Owens, C. W.; Dolezal, M. J.; Shumaker, R.; Finkelstein, N. Those A- maze -ing Robots : Attributions of Ability are Based on Form, not Behavior...Human-Animal Trust as an Analog for Human- Robot Trust: A Review of Current Evidence by Deborah R. Billings, Kristin E. Schaefer, Jessie Y. C...Analog for Human- Robot Trust: A Review of Current Evidence Deborah R. Billings, Kristin E. Schaefer, Vivien Kocsis, Maria Barrera, Jacquelyn Cook

  17. Sustainable human development: a concept for the transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alberto Rendón Acevedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mistakes and misunderstanding on the development of adjectives have filled a concept that to be true to human beings in harmony with the planet and future generations. That is, one can not understand the development if this is not human, if not better be referred to humanity in society. It is impossible to talk about development without having a connotation with the present responsibility of the ecological balance of the planet. However, the evolution of thought and the concept has forced the intent or understanding of their integrity, sustainable human development (SHD is a just claim to the manipulation that has made economics, the dominant theory, and its implications for humanity. For this it is necessary to show that even before the redundant adjectives, there is the historical necessity of the use of the DHS concept. Then this article is intended to clarify the concept of the DHS as the result of a comprehensive understanding of development. For this work three parts: In the first, theoretically contextualize the currents of thought that development as an academic and political exercise in the second half of the twentieth century were raised. Chains that led to the conceptual inaccuracies of development after World War II are set in the second. Finally, a summary is made to emphasize the importance of the concept in the current historical moment.

  18. Pakistan's Water Challenges: A Human Development Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Shezad (Shafqat); K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper gives an overview of the human and social dimensions of Pakistan’s water policies to provide the basis for water-related policy interventions that contribute to the country’s human development, with special attention being given to the concerns of women and the

  19. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  20. LTS and HTS high current conductor development for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzone, Pierluigi, E-mail: pierluigi.bruzzone@psi.ch [EPFL-CRPP, Fusion Technology, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Sedlak, Kamil; Uglietti, Davide; Bykovsky, Nikolay [EPFL-CRPP, Fusion Technology, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Muzzi, Luigi; De Marzi, Gainluca; Celentano, Giuseppe; Della Corte, Antonio; Turtù, Simonetta [ENEA, Superconductivity Division, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Seri, Massimo [TRATOS Cavi Spa, I-52036 Pieve Santo Stefano (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Design and R&D for DEMO TF conductors. • Wind&react vs. react&wind options for Nb{sub 3}Sn high grade TF conductors. • Progress in the manufacture of short length Nb{sub 3}Sn proptotypes. • Design and prototype manufacture for high current HTS cabled conductors. - Abstract: The large size of the magnets for DEMO calls for very large operating current in the forced flow conductor. A plain extrapolation from the superconductors in use for ITER is not adequate to fulfill the technical and cost requirements. The proposed DEMO TF magnets is a graded winding using both Nb{sub 3}Sn and NbTi conductors, with operating current of 82 kA @ 13.6 T peak field. Two Nb{sub 3}Sn prototypes are being built in 2014 reflecting the two approaches suggested by CRPP (react&wind method) and ENEA (wind&react method). The Nb{sub 3}Sn strand (overall 200 kg) has been procured at technical specification similar to ITER. Both the Nb{sub 3}Sn strand and the high RRR, Cr plated copper wire (400 kg) have been delivered. The cabling trials are carried out at TRATOS Cavi using equipment relevant for long length production. The completion of the manufacture of the two 20 m long prototypes is expected in the end of 2014 and their test is planned in 2015 at CRPP. In the scope of a long term technology development, high current HTS conductors are built at CRPP and ENEA. A DEMO-class prototype conductor is developed and assembled at CRPP: it is a flat cable composed of 20 twisted stacks of coated conductor tape soldered into copper shells. The 10 kA conductor developed at ENEA consists of stacks of coated conductor tape inserted into a slotted and twisted Al core, with a central cooling channel. Samples have been manufactured in industrial environment and the scalability of the process to long production lengths has been proven.

  1. Evolution and current development of Transversal Themes: possibilities and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rosales López

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the evolution and current development of transversal themes in education, considering them basically as important social cuestions with great influence in the overall education of the student. Specifically it seeks to clarify the level of preparation and dedication of teachers and schools to teach them. To do this, legislation used in our country (organics laws and decrees curriculum were analyzed and also the contribution of outstanding educators, institutions and researchers. We analyzed the characteristics of transversal themes in the educational project and the teaching program, its development in the clasroom and its projection out of it through the help of family and community. Conclusions about their current status (possibilities and limitations are derived and future proposals are made on the improvement of initial and ongoing training of teachers, to increase their collegiate or cooperative work of planning, intervention and evaluation, increased media and counseling in use, the need for increased communication and collaboration with families and other community institutions.How to reference this articleRosales López, C. (2015. Evolución y desarrollo actual de los Temas Transversales: posibilidades y límites. Foro de Educación, 13(18, pp. 143-160. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2015.013.018.008

  2. EVOLUTION OF KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT IN HUMAN RESUSCITATION

    OpenAIRE

    O. Zabolotina

    2010-01-01

    Study of human resuscitation development history is the first step in understanding modern approaches to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A significant increase in survival parameters is driven by accumulation of knowledge, expertise, improvement in resuscitation technologies. Development of cardiopulmonary resuscitation structure, development of recommendations approved for study and practical use, addressing these issues at the state level are accompanied with a significant reduction in morta...

  3. Hegel's Hold on Conceptions of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulryan, Seamus

    2008-01-01

    The use of "development" is ubiquitous in everyday language, and theories regarding it can be found in the social sciences and humanities. Although much work has been done to examine the meaning of development and its history, little attention has been paid to Hegel's role as the philosophical anchor for the modern life of "development". By…

  4. Towards Improved Human Resource Development In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of society is the major preoccupation of most governments in the third world countries. As a result, human resource has been identified as one of the most important catalyst in the nation\\'s development. Infact it is the major propeller for development. In Nigeria, this important and critical resource has not been ...

  5. Current and Potential Treatments for Reducing Campylobacter Colonization in Animal Hosts and Disease in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tylor J.; Shank, Janette M.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacteria-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. In the developed world, Campylobacter is usually acquired by consuming under-cooked poultry, while in the developing world it is often obtained through drinking contaminated water. Once consumed, the bacteria adhere to the intestinal epithelium or mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inhibition of fluid reabsorption from the intestine and invasion-induced inflammation and diarrhea. Traditionally, severe or prolonged cases of campylobacteriosis have been treated with antibiotics; however, overuse of these antibiotics has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. As the incidence of antibiotic resistance, emergence of post-infectious diseases, and economic burden associated with Campylobacter increases, it is becoming urgent that novel treatments are developed to reduce Campylobacter numbers in commercial poultry and campylobacteriosis in humans. The purpose of this review is to provide the current status of present and proposed treatments to combat Campylobacter infection in humans and colonization in animal reservoirs. These treatments include anti-Campylobacter compounds, probiotics, bacteriophage, vaccines, and anti-Campylobacter bacteriocins, all of which may be successful at reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans and/or colonization loads in poultry. In addition to reviewing treatments, we will also address several proposed targets that may be used in future development of novel anti-Campylobacter treatments. PMID:28386253

  6. Planning Human Resource Development through Equal Opportunities. A Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Jill

    This handbook is intended for managers who wish to develop human resources in their organizations, particularly where women are currently underrepresented. It provides a positive model for the successful equal opportunities manager and a checklist of activities that will lead to the successful implementation of equal opportunities. The handbook…

  7. Reflections and Future Prospects for Evaluation in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung; Boulay, David

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) evaluation has often been criticized for its limited function in organizational decision making. This article reviews evaluation studies to uncover the current status of HRD evaluation literature. The authors further discuss general evaluation theories in terms of value, use, and evaluator role to extend the…

  8. DETERMINANTS OF GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT IN HUMAN MOTIVATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ŢÂMPU DIANA LARISA

    2015-01-01

    ...) in countries where ICT Development Index reaches the highest values in the last 2 years. In this way, we want to verify if ICT has different predictors and different possible consequence that depend on human motivation...

  9. Orphan drugs in development for urea cycle disorders: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häberle J

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Johannes Häberle,1 Shawn E McCandless2 1Division of Metabolism and Children's Research Center, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Center for Human Genetics, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, and Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: The urea cycle disorders are caused by deficiency of one of the six hepatic enzymes or two transporters involved in detoxification of ammonia. The resulting hyperammonemia causes severe brain injury unless aggressive steps are taken to reduce the accumulation of ammonia, which is thought to be the most toxic metabolite. This review describes the current state of chronic management of urea cycle disorders, focusing on new and emerging therapies. Management strategies include the mainstay of treatment, namely dietary protein restriction and supplementation with l-arginine or l-citrulline. Several currently approved medications utilize and enhance alternative pathways of waste nitrogen excretion (sodium benzoate, sodium phenylacetate, sodium phenylbutyrate in several formulations, and glycerol phenylbutyrate, working through conjugation of the drug to either glycine (in the case of benzoate or glutamine, the products of which are excreted in the urine. Carglumic acid activates the first committed step of conversion of ammonia to urea, carbamoylphosphate synthetase, and thus effectively treats defective synthesis of the endogenous activator, N-acetylglutamate, whether due to genetic defects or biochemical inhibition of the N-acetylglutamate synthase enzyme. Approaches to neuroprotection during episodes of hyperammonemia are discussed, including the use of controlled hypothermia (brain cooling, as well as proposed, but as yet untested, pharmacologic therapies. Finally, cell-based therapies, including liver transplantation, infusion of fresh or cryopreserved hepatocytes, use of stem cells, and new approaches to gene

  10. EU Policies and African Human Capital Development

    OpenAIRE

    Nyarko, Yaw

    2010-01-01

    European Report on Development Brain Circulation between the European Union (EU) and Sub-Saharan Africa is a crucial ingredient in Human Capital formation in the latter. A major constraint to African development is the very low base of skilled and highly educated workers and professionals. The production of skilled workers has been low, and only recently has seen a dramatic increase. Recent papers by many authors have indicated that a channel for human capital growth has been, ...

  11. Rock grouting. Current competence and development for the final repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmelin, Ann (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Brantberger, Martin (Ramboell (SE)); Eriksson, Magnus (Vattenfall Power Consultant (SE)); Gustafson, Gunnar (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)); Stille, Haakan (Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-06-15

    The report aims at presenting the overall state of grouting competence and development relating to the final repository and at motivating and giving detail to the grouting sections presented in the 2007 version of the overall SKB report 'Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste' that is presented to the government every three years. The report offers suggestions for principles for planning, design and execution of grouting and describes the further work thought to be necessary in order to meet the requirements of the final repository, that are currently given as working premises. This report does not aim to, and cannot, describe the grouting processes in detail. For details of current concepts, experience and development work, a list of references is provided. In Chapter 2, the task of sealing the underground repository is examined and an overall approach presented. Although the requirements related to this task are preliminary, it is made evident that they concern both the actual grouting results and the process leading to the achievement of these results. Chapter 3 is a conceptual description of grouting and the factors that govern the spreading of grout in the rock mass. It is intended as an introduction to Chapters 4-6, which describe the state of grouting competence and the tools available for the sealing of the final repository facility. Both common practice and cutting-edge research are dealt with in these chapters, mainly relying on references where available. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on the system consisting of the fundamental components the rock mass, the grout materials and the grouting technology, and how these system components interact whilst, in Chapter 6, the rock/grout technical system is viewed in a brief organizational context. Based on the requirements on results and the overall grouting process on the one hand and the current competence in grouting theory and

  12. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy in the UK: current status and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A; Distefano, G; Scott, A J D; Webster, G J; Hatton, M Q

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has developed from the principles and techniques used in the stereotactic radiosurgery treatment of brain metastases. Advances in computer technology, imaging, planning and treatment delivery and evidence from retrospective analysis of single- and multi-institutional early-phase studies have established SABR in the treatment of medically inoperable early lung cancer. Effective multidisciplinary team working is crucial to safe delivery of SABR. The variation in patient selection, radiotherapy planning and delivery techniques has led to a collective approach to SABR implementation across the UK. Centres developing the technique are represented in the UK SABR Consortium, which is supported by the relevant UK professional bodies and represents a platform to develop extracranial SABR across the UK. The uptake of SABR in the UK has been slowed by workforce issues, but at least 15 centres are currently delivering treatment with over 500 patients treated using UK SABR Consortium guidance. A mentoring program is being piloted helping new centres to develop their programs, and over 30 UK centres are expected to be offering SABR treatment by the end of 2014. The use of consistent guidance for patient selection, treatment planning and delivery in the UK gives the opportunity to collect and audit toxicity and outcome across the centres, contributing to the internationally reported SABR experience. Having established this service in the UK, the development of SABR through clinical research is a priority, and with input from the Radiotherapy Trials Quality Assurance Group, the UK is developing a national study program that includes participation in international trials. PMID:23873906

  13. Current Trends in West Nile Virus Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanna, Ian J.; Slifka, Mark K.

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has become endemic in the United States. From 1999-2012, there have been 37,088 reported cases of WNV and 1,549 deaths, resulting in a 4.2% case-fatality rate. Despite development of effective WNV vaccines for horses, there is no vaccine to prevent human WNV infection. Several vaccines have been tested in preclinical studies and to date there have been 8 clinical trials, with promising results in terms of safety and induction of antiviral immunity. Although mass vaccination is unlikely to be cost-effective, implementation of a targeted vaccine program may be feasible if a safe and effective vaccine can be brought to market. Further evaluation of new and advanced vaccine candidates is strongly encouraged. PMID:24689659

  14. Are the Currently Existing Anti‑Human Papillomavirus Vaccines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and 58 are prevalent in pre‑invasive lesions in Japan.[34] The. 16 subtype is more prevalent in European than sub‑Saharan. African women.[26] Although the 16 and 18 subtypes are found worldwide to be associated with cervical cancer, a higher than average presence of subtypes 45 and 31 is found in the developing ...

  15. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  16. Status report on Corsica modeling for current drive scenario development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casper, T. A.; Crotinger, J.; Moller, J.M.; Pearlstein, L.D.

    1996-09-01

    This milestone report covers the progress and status of Corsica modeling for DIII-D experiments over the past year, since our previous report in September, 1995. During this time, we have concentrated on improvements to the code in support of our ability to do self-consistent, predictive modeling of DIII-D discharges. Our interest is in obtaining a tool, benchmarked with experimental data, for developing advanced tokamak operations scenarios including simulation and analysis of high performance negative central shear (NCS) discharges and control of the current profile evolution. Our major focus has been on installing and improving the neutral beam current drive mode in Corsica; this element is critical to modeling the evolution of DIII-D discharges. The NFREYA neutral beam deposition code was installed (starting with a version consistent with GA`s ONETWO code) and the capability for following particle orbits, including the effects of drifts, was added for determining the current driven by neutral beam -injection. In addition, improved methods for more easily integrating experimental profile measurements into the code operation and for calculating Z{sub eff} either from models or from impurity density measurements have been added. We have recently begun to turn on various transport models in our simulation of discharge evolution. We have concentrated on the NCS configuration and have simulated the evolution of two different high neutron reactivity discharges; an NCS discharge with L-mode edge and a single- null, weak NCS discharge from the JET/ITER/DIII-D equivalent shape experiments. Corsica simulation results for these discharges were presented at the EPS meeting in Kiev, Ukraine in June, 1996.

  17. Gender development and the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Convincing evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to the gonadal hormone, testosterone, influences the development of children's sex-typical toy and activity interests. In addition, growing evidence shows that testosterone exposure contributes similarly to the development of other human behaviors that show sex differences, including sexual orientation, core gender identity, and some, though not all, sex-related cognitive and personality characteristics. In addition to these prenatal hormonal influences, early infancy and puberty may provide additional critical periods when hormones influence human neurobehavioral organization. Sex-linked genes could also contribute to human gender development, and most sex-related characteristics are influenced by socialization and other aspects of postnatal experience, as well. Neural mechanisms underlying the influences of gonadal hormones on human behavior are beginning to be identified. Although the neural mechanisms underlying experiential influences remain largely uninvestigated, they could involve the same neural circuitry as that affected by hormones.

  18. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current options and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-Kuang; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Liu, Chung-Jung; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wang, Sophie SW; Wu, Jeng-Yih; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Huang, Yao-Kang; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2015-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a crucial part in the effective management of many gastroduodenal diseases. Several invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests are available for the detection of H. pylori and each test has its usefulness and limitations in different clinical situations. Although none can be considered as a single gold standard in clinical practice, several techniques have been developed to give the more reliable results. Invasive tests are performed via endoscopic biopsy specimens and these tests include histology, culture, rapid urease test as well as molecular methods. Developments of endoscopic equipment also contribute to the real-time diagnosis of H. pylori during endoscopy. Urea breathing test and stool antigen test are most widely used non-invasive tests, whereas serology is useful in screening and epidemiological studies. Molecular methods have been used in variable specimens other than gastric mucosa. More than detection of H. pylori infection, several tests are introduced into the evaluation of virulence factors and antibiotic sensitivity of H. pylori, as well as screening precancerous lesions and gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to review the current options and novel developments of diagnostic tests and their applications in different clinical conditions or for specific purposes. PMID:26523098

  19. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever and the current state of vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joo Eun; Hong, Kee-Jong; Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Won-Ja; Choi, Yeon Hwa; Jeong, Chung-Hyeon; Cho, Kwang-Il

    2014-12-01

    Current Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa already reached the total number of 1,323 including 729 deaths by July 31st. the fatality is around 55% in the southeastern area of Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria. The number of patients with Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF) was continuously increasing even though the any effective therapeutics or vaccines has not been developed yet. The Ebola virus in Guinea showed 98% homology with Zaire Ebola Virus. Study of the pathogenesis of Ebola virus infection and assess of the various candidates of vaccine have been tried for a long time, especially in United States and some European countries. Even though the attenuated live vaccine and DNA vaccine containing Ebola viral genes were tested and showed efficacy in chimpanzees, those candidates still need clinical tests requiring much longer time than the preclinical development to be approved for the practical treatment. It can be expected to eradicate Ebola virus by a safe and efficient vaccine development similar to the case of smallpox virus which was extinguished from the world by the variola vaccine.

  20. Current Situations and Countermeasures of Organic Tobacco Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current situations of organic tobacco development at both home and abroad,indicating that organic tobacco is one of the innovation directions for sustainable,healthy,environmental protection and low carbon development of modern tobacco industry.On the basis of foreign cultivation technical system for organic agriculture,the cultivation technical system for organic tobacco is summed up as follows:first,keep the diversity and continuity of space and time;second,ensure closeness of nutrient cycle;third,improve self-regulatory system and protection ability of crops.Then,the development trend of organic tobacco is analyzed and corresponding measures are put forward:establish production base and assessment system for organic tobacco;establish technical system for production of organic tobacco;establish and perfect evaluation system for management,production and supervision of organic tobacco;strengthen popularization of production and concept of organic tobacco;improve management of organic tobacco purchase,industry commerce handover,and redrying.

  1. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. E-learning as a veritable human resource development strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-learning as the current best human development innovative tool as well as the vision and strategy for human resources development in a digital economy through e-learning is further discussed. The paper concludes with a call on developing countries like Nigeria to emphasize a change to e-learning for her human ...

  3. The IASB and FASB Convergence Process: Current Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher Aqel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of harmonization of accounting atandards is now widely accepted all over the world. The increased international movement of investments has strongly forces the harmonization of the various national accounting standards in a uniform financial reporting system accepted worldwide. Recently the Securities and Exchange Commission has agreed to remove the requirement international firms reporting under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and listed in the U.S to provide reconciliation to U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP. This recent move of the Securities and Exchange Commission indicate that U.S. financial reporting is likely to converge with IFRS in the near future. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB are currently working together so as to converge their existing accounting standards into a common set of international accounting standards. The objective of this paper is to discuss the FASB and IASB convergence process by addressing current developments regarding significant topics that were deemed critical to this convergence. The convergence of GAAP and IFRS seems inevitable. Mixed opinions have been voiced about this convergence process. Many have begun to consider obstacles that is possible to lay ahead as well as the possible costs and benefits of such a move to the IFRS .

  4. Current status and future developments of endohedral metallofullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xing; Feng, Lai; Akasaka, Takeshi; Nagase, Shigeru

    2012-12-07

    Endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs), a new class of hybrid molecules formed by encapsulation of metallic species inside fullerene cages, exhibit unique properties that differ distinctly from those of empty fullerenes because of the presence of metals and their hybridization effects via electron transfer. This critical review provides a balanced but not an exhaustive summary regarding almost all aspects of EMFs, including the history, the classification, current progress in the synthesis, extraction, isolation, and characterization of EMFs, as well as their physiochemical properties and applications in fields such as electronics, photovoltaics, biomedicine, and materials science. Emphasis is assigned to experimentally obtained results, especially the X-ray crystallographic characterizations of EMFs and their derivatives, rather than theoretical calculations, although the latter has indeed enhanced our knowledge of metal-cage interactions. Finally, perspectives related to future developments and challenges in the research of EMFs are proposed. (381 references).

  5. Telerehabilitation in Scotland: Current Initiatives and Recommendations for Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hill

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation services are set to become central to modern health care systems as they strive to support an increasingly ageing population to live as independently as possible, while maintaining quality services. Alternative service delivery options such as telerehabilitation may assist in meeting the growing demand for services and many countries are exploring the potential use of telerehabilitation within their health care systems. The Scottish Centre for Telehealth commissioned an independent scoping study and subsequent report into the potential development and realisation of telerehabilitation services across Scotland. The scope of the report was restricted to adult rehabilitation services and aimed to identify opportunities for the use of telerehabilitation and to recommend clear and achievable steps towards implementation of telerehabilitation. This article outlines some of the telerehabilitation initiatives currently underway in Scotland and discusses some of the key recommendations made in the report to the Scottish Centre for Telehealth for the future advancement and application of telerehabilitation across Scotland.

  6. Current developments in pharmacological therapeutics for chronic constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhuan Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation is a common gastrointestinal disease severely affecting the patient׳s quality of life. The traditional treatment of constipation is the use of laxatives. Recently, several new drugs including lubiprostone, linaclotide and prucalopride have been approved for treatment of chronic constipation. However, a significant unmet medical need still remains, particularly among those patients achieving poor results by current therapies. The 5-HT4 receptor modulators velusetrag and naronapride, the guanylate cyclase C agonist plecanatide and the ileal bile acid transporter inhibitor elobixibat are recognized as the most promising drugs under investigation. Herein, we give a comprehensive review on the pharmacological therapeutics for the treatment of chronic constipation, with the purpose of reflecting the drug development trends in this field.

  7. Development of high temperature superconductors having high critical current density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Gye Wong; Kim, C. J.; Lee, H.G.; Kwon, S. C.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, K. B.; Park, J. Y.; Jung, C. H

    2000-08-01

    Fabrication of high T{sub c} superconductors and its applications for electric power device were carried out for developing superconductor application technologies. High quality YBCO superconductors was fabricated by melt texture growth, top-seeded melt growth process and multi-seeded melt growth process and the properties was compared. The critical current density of the melt processed YBCO superconductors was about few 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} and the levitation force was 50 N. The processing time needed for the growth of the 123 single grain was greatly reduced by applying multi-seeding without no significant degradation of the levitation force. The multi-seeded melt growth process was confirmed as a time-saving and cost-effective method for the fabrication of bulk superconductors with controlled crystallographic orientation.

  8. Current models of care for disorders of sex development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakou, Andreas; Dessens, Arianne; Bryce, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    of 78 (63 %) clinicians, in 75 centres, from 38 countries responded to the survey. A formal national network for managing DSD was reported to exist in 12 (32 %) countries. The paediatric specialists routinely involved in the initial evaluation of a newborn included: endocrinologist (99 %), surgeon......BACKGROUND: To explore the current models of practice in centres delivering specialist care for children with disorders of sex development (DSD), an international survey of 124 clinicians, identified through DSDnet and the I-DSD Registry, was performed in the last quarter of 2014. RESULTS: A total...... hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency by 50 and 55 % clinicians, respectively. CONCLUSION: DSD centres report a high level of interaction at an international level, have access to specialist staff and are increasingly relying on molecular genetics for routine diagnostics. The quality of care provided...

  9. Immunotherapy and lung cancer: current developments and novel targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Duarte; Turner, Alice; Silva, Maria Dília; Marques, Dânia Sofia; Mellidez, Juan Carlos; Wannesson, Luciano; Mountzios, Giannis; de Mello, Ramon Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a highly prevalent and aggressive disease. In the metastatic setting, major advances include the incorporation of immunotherapy and targeted therapies into the clinician's therapeutic armamentarium. Standard chemotherapeutic regimens have long been reported to interfere with the immune response to the tumor; conversely, antitumor immunity may add to the effects of those therapies. The aim of immunotherapy is to specifically enhance the immune response directed to the tumor. Recently, many trials addressed the role of such therapies for metastatic NSCLC treatment: ipilimumab, tremelimumab, nivolumab and lambrolizumab are immunotherapeutic agents of main interest in this field. In addition, anti-tumor vaccines, such as MAGE-A3, Tecetomide, TG4010, CIMAvax, ganglioside vaccines, tumor cell vaccines and dendritic cell vaccines, emerged as potent inducers of immune response against the tumor. The current work aims to address the most recent developments regarding these innovative immunotherapies and their implementation in the treatment of metastatic NSCLC.

  10. The Dortmund low background facility. Current status and recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessling, Claus; Kroeninger, Kevin; Nitsch, Christian [Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Dortmund Low Background Facility (DLB) is a low-background gamma ray spectrometry system with an artificial overburden. The overburden of ten meters of water equivalent, in combination with a multi-layer lead castle and an active muon veto are shielding a high-purity germanium detector of 60 % relative efficiency. The background level is remarkably low compared to a conventional spectrometer system without special shielding and enables sensitivities well below 1 Bq/kg. Thus, material screening measurements as well as environmental monitoring measurements are possible on an easy-accessible location above ground at the campus of the Technische Universitaet Dortmund. The integral background count rate between 40 keV and 2700 keV is 2.528±0.004 counts/kg/min, which is comparable to systems that are situated below ground. In the talk, an overview of the current status of the DLB is given and recent developments are presented.

  11. Current progress on understanding the impact of mercury on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Eunhee; Basu, Niladri; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Dórea, José G; McSorley, Emeir; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-01-01

    Mercury pollution and its impacts on human health is of global concern. The authors of this paper were members of the Plenary Panel on Human Health in the 12th International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant held in Korea in June 2015. The Panel was asked by the conference organizers to address two questions: what is the current understanding of the impacts of mercury exposure on human health and what information is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Minamata Convention in lowering exposure and preventing adverse effects. The authors conducted a critical review of the literature published since January 2012 and discussed the current state-of-knowledge in the following areas: environmental exposure and/or risk assessment; kinetics and biomonitoring; effects on children development; effects on adult general populations; effects on artisanal and small-scale gold miners (ASGM); effects on dental workers; risk of ethylmercury in thimerosal-containing vaccines; interactions with nutrients; genetic determinants and; risk communication and management. Knowledge gaps in each area were identified and recommendations for future research were made. The Panel concluded that more knowledge synthesis efforts are needed to translate the research results into management tools for health professionals and policy makers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Current status of syphilis vaccine development: need, challenges, prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Caroline E; Lukehart, Sheila A

    2014-03-20

    Syphilis is a multistage disease caused by the invasive spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. Despite inexpensive and effective antibiotic therapy, syphilis remains a prevalent disease in developing countries and has re-emerged as a public health threat in developed nations. In addition to the medical burden imparted by infectious syphilis, congenital syphilis is considered the most significant infectious disease affecting fetuses and newborns worldwide, and individuals afflicted with syphilis have an enhanced risk for HIV transmission and acquisition. The global disease burden of syphilis and failure of decades of public health efforts to stem the incidence of disease highlight the need for an effective syphilis vaccine. Although challenges associated with T. pallidum research have impeded understanding of this pathogen, the existence of a relevant animal model has enabled insight into the correlates of disease protection. Complete protection against infection has been achieved in the animal model using an extended immunization regimen of γ-irradiated T. pallidum, demonstrating the importance of treponemal surface components in generation of protective immunity and the feasibility of syphilis vaccine development. Syphilis is a prime candidate for development of a successful vaccine due to the (1) research community's accumulated knowledge of immune correlates of protection; (2) existence of a relevant animal model that enables effective pre-clinical analyses; (3) universal penicillin susceptibility of T. pallidum which enhances the attractiveness of clinical vaccine trials; and (4) significant public health benefit a vaccine would have on reduction of infectious/congenital syphilis and HIV rates. Critical personnel, research and market gaps need to be addressed before the goal of a syphilis vaccine can be realized, including recruitment of additional researchers to the T. pallidum research field with a proportional increase in research funding

  13. Human Resources Development Programmes in Nigerian Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Resources Development Programmes in Nigerian Academic Libraries: A Comparative Study of Universities in Imo State. ... In Imo State University, librarians and para-professionals sponsored themselves for training and development programmes while in FUTO they were sponsored by the university management.

  14. Human resources development indicators for software project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nowadays, organizations cannot afford maintaining people who evidently are not contributing to fulfill the objectives of the project. Project Manager not only must know in a subjective way the development of the staff, but he/she should perform a monitoring what permit him/she knows the human resources development in ...

  15. The Development of A Human Systems Simulation Laboratory: Strategic Direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; Katya le Blanc; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    The Human System Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) at the Idaho National Laboratory is one of few facilities of its kind that allows human factors researchers to evaluate various aspects of human performance and human system interaction for proposed reactor designs and upgrades. A basic system architecture, physical configuration and simulation capability were established to enable human factors researchers to support multiple, simultaneous simulations and also different power plant technologies. Although still evolving in terms of its technical and functional architecture, the HSSL is already proving its worth in supporting current and future nuclear industry needs for light water reactor sustainability and small modular reactors. The evolution of the HSSL is focused on continual physical and functional refinement to make it a fully equipped, reconfigurable facility where advanced research, testing and validation studies can be conducted on a wider range of reactor technologies. This requires the implementation of additional plant models to produce empirical research data on human performance with emerging human-system interaction technologies. Additional beneficiaries of this information include system designers and HRA practitioners. To ensure that results of control room crew studies will be generalizable to the existing and evolving fleet of US reactors, future expansion of the HSSL may also include other SMR plant models, plant-specific simulators and a generic plant model aligned to the current generation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and future advanced reactor designs. Collaboration with industry partners is also proving to be a vital component of the facility as this helps to establish a formal basis for current and future human performance experiments to support nuclear industry objectives. A long-range Program Plan has been developed for the HSSL to ensure that the facility will support not only the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor

  16. Current and Under Development Treatment Modalities of Psoriasis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaghdadi, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic and complex autoimmune inflammatory skin disease that affects over 125 million people worldwide. It can exhibit at any age, in spite of the fact that children are less normally influenced than adults. It is characterized by distinct erythematous plaques shielded with conspicuous silvery scales that shows up in different areas of the skin. Knowledge of pathophysiology, especially the pathogenesis of psoriasis, has significantly progressed in the recent decade. Advancement in molecular knowledge leads to better understanding of the disease, thus influencing the development of efficient treatment modalities. However, even with the availability of various options of treatment most of the efficient treatment modalities are costly. Expenses of health care bring about major financial weight to the patients as well as to health care systems. Thus, it was important to review the available current treatment options and those which are under development, in terms of efficacy, safety and cost to assist in selecting the most appropriate treatment for psoriasis patients. Literatures were searched by using key words psoriasis, topical treatment, systemic treatment, biologics and phototherapies, on Embase, Medline, Jstor, Cochrane and Merck Index databases. Life-style choices such as smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and stress are recognised as risk factors and triggers associated with psoriasis. Psoriasis poses psycho-social and economic burden on affected patients that sometimes leads to depression, reduced social interaction and suicidal tendencies in patients. Depending on the type, severity and extent of the disease, comorbidities, patient preference, efficacy and safety profile, numerous treatment modalities and therapeutic agents are available such as topical, systemic, biologic and phototherapeutic treatments. However, it was found that among all the current available treatments for psoriasis, biologic agents and phototherapeutic modalities are

  17. Saturation in Phosphene Size with Increasing Current Levels Delivered to Human Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosking, William H; Sun, Ping; Ozker, Muge; Pei, Xiaomei; Foster, Brett L; Beauchamp, Michael S; Yoshor, Daniel

    2017-07-26

    Electrically stimulating early visual cortex results in a visual percept known as a phosphene. Although phosphenes can be evoked by a wide range of electrode sizes and current amplitudes, they are invariably described as small. To better understand this observation, we electrically stimulated 93 electrodes implanted in the visual cortex of 13 human subjects who reported phosphene size while stimulation current was varied. Phosphene size increased as the stimulation current was initially raised above threshold, but then rapidly reached saturation. Phosphene size also depended on the location of the stimulated site, with size increasing with distance from the foveal representation. We developed a model relating phosphene size to the amount of activated cortex and its location within the retinotopic map. First, a sigmoidal curve was used to predict the amount of activated cortex at a given current. Second, the amount of active cortex was converted to degrees of visual angle by multiplying by the inverse cortical magnification factor for that retinotopic location. This simple model accurately predicted phosphene size for a broad range of stimulation currents and cortical locations. The unexpected saturation in phosphene sizes suggests that the functional architecture of cerebral cortex may impose fundamental restrictions on the spread of artificially evoked activity and this may be an important consideration in the design of cortical prosthetic devices.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the neural basis for phosphenes, the visual percepts created by electrical stimulation of visual cortex, is fundamental to the development of a visual cortical prosthetic. Our experiments in human subjects implanted with electrodes over visual cortex show that it is the activity of a large population of cells spread out across several millimeters of tissue that supports the perception of a phosphene. In addition, we describe an important feature of the production of phosphenes by

  18. Another Approach to Measuring Human Development: The Composite Dynamic Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao-Ubillos, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks mainly to contribute to the debate on how the relative degree of development of a country should be measured by proposing an indicator to build on the valuable starting point provided by the Human Development Index (HDI). The indicator proposed is called the "Composite, Dynamic Human Development Index". It incorporates in a simple…

  19. Developing a xenograft human tumor model in immunocompetent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basel, Matthew T; Narayanan, Sanjeev; Ganta, Chanran; Shreshta, Tej B; Marquez, Alejandro; Pyle, Marla; Hill, Jennifer; Bossmann, Stefan H; Troyer, Deryl L

    2018-01-01

    Animal models are essential to cancer research, but current xenograft models are limited in their utility especially due to the lack of an immune system. Here we demonstrate that a xenograft tumor model can be developed in immunocompetent mice by tolerizing murine fetuses to human tumor cells. A375 human melanoma cells were injected into day E14 fetuses and after birth mice were challenged with A375 cells to determine their ability to develop tumors. Intravenous injections of cells resulted in metastatic-like lung tumors, which were verified to be human in origin by immunohistochemistry and PCR. These results were replicated with several other human tumor types: BxPC3 (human pancreatic adenocarcinoma), MDA-MB-231 (human breast adenocarcinoma), M21 (human melanoma), and HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma). Development of an immunocompetent xenograft tumor model would allow the further elucidation of the interaction of the immune system with therapy in both preclinical research and patient derived xenografts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Recombinant human thyrotropin in veterinary medicine: current use and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, M; van Hoek, I; Peremans, K; Daminet, S

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) was developed after bovine thyrotropin (bTSH) was no longer commercially available. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) as an aid to diagnostic follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in humans and for thyroid remnant ablation with radioiodine. In addition, rhTSH is used in human medicine to evaluate thyroid reserve capacity and to enhance radioiodine uptake in patients with metastatic thyroid cancer and multinodular goiter. Likewise, rhTSH has been used in veterinary medicine over the last decade. The most important veterinary use of rhTSH is thyroidal functional reserve testing for the diagnosis of canine hypothyroidism. Recent pilot studies performed at Ghent University in Belgium have investigated the use of rhTSH to optimize radioiodine treatment of canine thyroid carcinoma and feline hyperthyroidism. Radioiodine treatment optimization may allow a decreased therapeutic dosage of radioiodine and thus may improve radioprotection. This review outlines the current uses of rhTSH in human and veterinary medicine, emphasizing research performed in dogs and cats, as well as potential future applications. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Biomonitoring of Mycotoxins in Human Breast Milk: Current State and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Benedikt; Braun, Dominik; Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Turner, Paul C; Degen, Gisela H; Marko, Doris

    2016-07-18

    Human breast milk is considered as the best and ideal form of nutrition for infants. However, food contaminants such as mycotoxins, which may be transferred from maternal blood to milk, are poorly described. Mycotoxins are a major group of natural toxins frequently detected in foods. Here, we review the current state-of-the-art in the monitoring of mycotoxins in human breast milk, i.e., knowledge on occurrence, metabolism, and analytical assays utilized for their quantification. We highlight that most of the data captured to date have not been verified with the precision now capable utilizing LC-MS/MS and LC-HRMS approaches. One concern is that some studies may overestimate individual measures, and most cannot capture the patterns and levels of mycotoxin mixtures. We propose accurate assessment as a priority, especially for aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, and deoxynivalenol as well as their major metabolites. However, also so-called emerging toxins such as citrinin, the enniatins, beauvericin, aurofusarin, or Alternaria toxins should be considered to evaluate their potential relevance. Key requirements for analytical quality assurance are identified and discussed to guide future developments in this area. Moreover, research needs including investigations of lactational transfer rates, the role of human metabolism for bioactivation or detoxification, and an evaluation of potential combinatory effects of different mycotoxins are pointed out. It is hoped that LC-MS based multianalyte methods will enable more accurate, rapid and affordable human biomonitoring approaches that support informed decisions for maternal and infant health.

  2. Electronic money in russia: current state and problems of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Bondarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to urgent problems of non-cash methods of calculation development by using electronic money – as one of the modern economically developed state strategic tasks. On modern economic science strong influence appears informatization process. The control expansion tendency, influence and distribution of commerce due to informatization of society led to emergence of the new phenomenon – information economy. Information economy brought new economic events which owing to their novelty are insufficiently studied to life. It is possible to carry electronic money to such phenomena of modern network economy Relevance and, in our opinion, timeliness of this scientific work, consisting in novelty of this non-cash payment method, its prospects and innovation within non-cash methods of calculations. Authors set as the purpose – studying of problems and the prospects of development of electronic money in the Russian Federation. In article theoretical bases of electronic money functioning are described. Determinations and classifications dismissed non-cash a method, and also the principles of electronic money functioning are considered, the questions of their historical development are raised.Authors analyzed statistical data on development of electronic services and channels of their using. Features, benefits and shortcomings of the current state of the market of electronic money are studied. The emphasis on that fact that in modern conditions considerable number of economic actors perform the activities, both in the real environment of economy, and within the virtual environment that promotes expansion of methods of their customer interaction by means of technical devices of personal computers, mobile phones is placed. In article common problems and tendencies of payments with using an electronic money are designated, the research on assessment of the current state and the prospects of electronic money

  3. Integration of culture and biology in human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of integrating biology and culture is addressed in this chapter by emphasizing human development as involving mutually constitutive, embodied, and epigenetic processes. Heuristically rich constructs extrapolated from cultural psychology and developmental science, such as embodiment, action, and activity, are presented as promising approaches to the integration of cultural and biology in human development. These theoretical notions are applied to frame the nascent field of cultural neuroscience as representing this integration of culture and biology. Current empirical research in cultural neuroscience is then synthesized to illustrate emerging trends in this body of literature that examine the integration of biology and culture.

  4. Human Leptospirosis on Reunion Island: Past and Current Burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Pagès

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1953, leptospirosis has been recognized as a public health problem on Reunion Island. In 2004, was implemented a specific surveillance system that included systematic reporting and the realization of environmental investigations around hospitalized cases. Here, we present the synthesis of historical data and the assessment of 9 years of leptospirosis surveillance. From 2004 to 2012, 414 hospitalized cases were reported. Cases of leptospirosis occurred mostly during the rainy season from December to May. Approximately 41% of infections occurred at home, 12% of infections occurred during aquatic leisure and 5% of cases were linked to professional activities. Furthermore, for 41% of cases, the place of infection could not be determined due to the accumulation of residential and non-residential exposure. Most of the cases of leptospirosis were linked to rural areas or traditional, rural occupations. We did not observe a shift to recreational leptospirosis as described in some developed countries. According to the new surveillance system, the number of reported cases has regularly increased since 2004. This situation is in part due to the improvement of the system in the first years but also to a real increase in the number of detected cases due to the introduction of molecular methods and to increased biological investigation into the Dengue-like syndrome by medical practitioners on the island since the Chikungunya crisis in 2006. This increase is probably due to surveillance and diagnosis biases but need to be carefully monitored. Nevertheless, the possibility of an outbreak is always present due to climatic events, such as after the “hyacinth” hurricane in 1980.

  5. Human Leptospirosis on Reunion Island: Past and Current Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, Frédéric; Polycarpe, Dominique; Dehecq, Jean-Sébastien; Picardeau, Mathieu; Caillère, Nadège; Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie-Christine; Michault, Alain; Filleul, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Since 1953, leptospirosis has been recognized as a public health problem on Reunion Island. In 2004, was implemented a specific surveillance system that included systematic reporting and the realization of environmental investigations around hospitalized cases. Here, we present the synthesis of historical data and the assessment of 9 years of leptospirosis surveillance. From 2004 to 2012, 414 hospitalized cases were reported. Cases of leptospirosis occurred mostly during the rainy season from December to May. Approximately 41% of infections occurred at home, 12% of infections occurred during aquatic leisure and 5% of cases were linked to professional activities. Furthermore, for 41% of cases, the place of infection could not be determined due to the accumulation of residential and non-residential exposure. Most of the cases of leptospirosis were linked to rural areas or traditional, rural occupations. We did not observe a shift to recreational leptospirosis as described in some developed countries. According to the new surveillance system, the number of reported cases has regularly increased since 2004. This situation is in part due to the improvement of the system in the first years but also to a real increase in the number of detected cases due to the introduction of molecular methods and to increased biological investigation into the Dengue-like syndrome by medical practitioners on the island since the Chikungunya crisis in 2006. This increase is probably due to surveillance and diagnosis biases but need to be carefully monitored. Nevertheless, the possibility of an outbreak is always present due to climatic events, such as after the “hyacinth” hurricane in 1980. PMID:24434593

  6. Development of the NRC`s Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP). Volume 3, Development documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L. [System Improvements, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Haas, P.; Terranova, M. [Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume III, is a detailed documentation of the development effort and the pilot training program.

  7. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  8. Non-State Preschool Education: Current Practices of Territorial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Valentinovna Leonidova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the problem of preschool education in Russia and the Vologda region. It shows that in the current context of shortage of places in state nurseries it is necessary to develop private care service providers. Day-care is in great demand among parents having children at the ages from 1 to 3. The paper analyses the main characteristics of preschool educational organi-zations. It shows that in the Vologda region, particularly in Vologda, private demand for preschool education service is to a wide extent unsatisfied. In Vologda more than ten thousand children are on waiting lists for preschool educational organizations. In total, in the Vologda region the list numbers about 28.9 thousand children, 34% of them are registered in Vologda. The paper provides the results of the study into Vologda private nurseries and day-care carried out in May-June 2015 by using the method of involved observation. It reveals key factors hampering growth of private nurseries.It is noted that one of the factors is the lack of license for educational activities and motivation for most entrepreneurs to obtain it. The results show that unlicensed gardens are not controlled by the authorities and public organizations. Interaction between the private institutions of pre-school education is not provided as well. We can observe that some private sector organizations do not meet the requirement of health and safety standards and impose limiting measures for the sake of children health such as organization of walks due to the absence of a secure walking site. High amount of parental fee is also found out.It offers directions for the development of private preschool education service

  9. Hallmarks of Human Small Antral Follicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine G; Mamsen, Linn S; Jeppesen, Janni V

    2018-01-01

    Regulation of human ovarian steroidogenesis differs from other species and precise knowledge on how human small antral follicles (hSAF) develop and acquire competence for continued growth and steroid output is still incomplete. The present study has characterized almost 1,000 normal hSAF collected...... increased steroid output profoundly. Furthermore, the highly significant association between FSHR and AR mRNA gene expression enforces important functions of androgens in follicular development. Collectively, these data reintroduce the understanding of the follicular phase as two parted in which regulation...

  10. Current Developments in Prokaryotic Single Cell Whole Genome Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudeau, Danielle; Nath, Nandita; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Malmstrom, Rex

    2014-03-14

    Our approach to prokaryotic single-cell Whole Genome Amplification at the JGI continues to evolve. To increase both the quality and number of single-cell genomes produced, we explore all aspects of the process from cell sorting to sequencing. For example, we now utilize specialized reagents, acoustic liquid handling, and reduced reaction volumes eliminate non-target DNA contamination in WGA reactions. More specifically, we use a cleaner commercial WGA kit from Qiagen that employs a UV decontamination procedure initially developed at the JGI, and we use the Labcyte Echo for tip-less liquid transfer to set up 2uL reactions. Acoustic liquid handling also dramatically reduces reagent costs. In addition, we are exploring new cell lysis methods including treatment with Proteinase K, lysozyme, and other detergents, in order to complement standard alkaline lysis and allow for more efficient disruption of a wider range of cells. Incomplete lysis represents a major hurdle for WGA on some environmental samples, especially rhizosphere, peatland, and other soils. Finding effective lysis strategies that are also compatible with WGA is challenging, and we are currently assessing the impact of various strategies on genome recovery.

  11. Clinical pharmacology in Russia-historical development and current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodnikova Goryachkina, Ksenia; Burbello, Aleksandra; Sychev, Dmitry; Frolov, Maxim; Kukes, Vladimir; Petrov, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    Clinical pharmacology in Russia has long history and is currently active, but rather unrecognized internationally. It is governmentally approved as a teaching/scientific specialty since 1983 and as a medical specialty since 1997. Courses of clinical pharmacology are included in the undergraduate curricula in the 5th and/or 6th year of education at all medical schools in the Russian Federation. Postgraduate education includes initial specialization in internal medicine with further residency in clinical pharmacology. Governmental legislation recommends that every healthcare institution has either a department or a single position of clinical pharmacologist. Major routine duties include information about and monitoring of medication use, consultations in difficult clinical situations, pharmacogenetic counseling, therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacovigilance, and participation in drug and therapeutics (formulary) committees. There are official experts in clinical pharmacology in Russia responsible for coordinating relevant legislative issues. The chief expert clinical pharmacologist represents the discipline directly at the Ministry of Health. Research in clinical pharmacology in Russia is extensive and variable, but only some of it is published internationally. Russia is a participant of international societies of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics and collaboration is actively ongoing. There are still certain problems related to the development of the discipline in Russia-some healthcare institutions do not see the need for clinical pharmacology. However, the number of clinical pharmacologists in Russia is increasing as well as their role in physicians' education, national healthcare, and research.

  12. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S; Swan, Shanna H

    2009-07-27

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  13. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  14. Interleukin-6 and prostate cancer: Current developments and unsolved questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culig, Zoran; Puhr, Martin

    2017-03-16

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is expressed in prostate tumors and in the stromal tumor micro-enviroment. It is known to regulate proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and differentiation. The signaling pathway of Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, which is activated by IL-6, is in the focus of scientific investigations for improved treatment approaches. Different effects of IL-6 and/or STAT3 on tumor cell growth have been observed in human and murine prostate cancer (PCa) models. Experimental therapies have been proposed in order to block the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. In this context, the anti-IL-6 antibody siltuximab (CNTO 328) has been demonstrated to inhibit growth of prostate tumors in vitro and in vivo and delays progression towards castration resistance. However, clinically, the anti-IL-6 antibody was not successful as a monotherapy in phase II studies in patients with metastatic PCa. IL-6 is implicated in regulation of cellular stemness by increasing phosphorylation of STAT3. The cytokine has also a role in development of resistance to the non-steroidal anti-androgen enzalutamide. Endogenous inhibitors of IL-6 are suppressors of cytokine signaling and protein inhibitors of activated STAT. Although they inhibit signal transduction through STAT3, they may also exhibit anti-apoptotic effects. On the basis of complexity of IL-6 action in PCa, an individualized approach is needed to identify patients who will benefit from anti-IL-6 therapy in combination with standard treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Human Papillomavirus: Current and Future RNAi Therapeutic Strategies for Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Soon Jung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are small DNA viruses; some oncogenic ones can cause different types of cancer, in particular cervical cancer. HPV-associated carcinogenesis provides a classical model system for RNA interference (RNAi based cancer therapies, because the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 that cause cervical cancer are expressed only in cancerous cells. Previous studies on the development of therapeutic RNAi facilitated the advancement of therapeutic siRNAs and demonstrated its versatility by siRNA-mediated depletion of single or multiple cellular/viral targets. Sequence-specific gene silencing using RNAi shows promise as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of a variety of diseases that currently lack effective treatments. However, siRNA-based targeting requires further validation of its efficacy in vitro and in vivo, for its potential off-target effects, and of the design of conventional therapies to be used in combination with siRNAs and their drug delivery vehicles. In this review we discuss what is currently known about HPV-associated carcinogenesis and the potential for combining siRNA with other treatment strategies for the development of future therapies. Finally, we present our assessment of the most promising path to the development of RNAi therapeutic strategies for clinical settings.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT TRENDS OF THE MARKET NANOCOSMETICS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Korzh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, nanotechnology has become one of the strategic directions of economic development of the leading countries. According to literary sources, it is established that more than 50 countries of the world are adopting national programs in this field of new knowledge, and various methods of nanotechnology have received the greatest development and application in microelectronics, aerospace, chemical, medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. It should be noted, that beauty is the most represented products with the use of nanotechnologies in the world. On the evaluation of the European Commission in 2009, the specific weight of cosmetics with nanoparticles amounted to 5%. The aim of the work was to assess the current trends of the market nanocosmetic photoprotectors development. In the last years in Ukraine the market of cosmetics is developing dynamically. Manufacturers of medical cosmetics invest heavily in scientific researches, patents, improvement of existing technologies. To determine the status of the security of the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine, we have analyzed the volume of sales and range of medical cosmetics, presented at the domestic market. In terms of sales volume in money terms of therapeutic cosmetics every year loses its position. Thus, the volume of sales in 2011, has decreased on 1,1 % in comparison with 2009. In Ukraine cosmetics of native production occupies 8% of the total volume of sales, cosmetics of foreign production - 92%. At the next stage of the research we have analyzed the medical cosmetic means, which are used for the prevention of photo-aging of the skin. In General, the Ukrainian market of medicinal cosmetics contains 125 trademarks of foreign and native manufacture. The largest share in the market of Ukraine belongs to the French medical cosmetics - 48,6 % of the total number of medical cosmetic means. It is represented by the various lines of medical cosmetics brands such: Vichy, Avene, RoC, Uriage

  17. EVOLUTION OF KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT IN HUMAN RESUSCITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zabolotina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of human resuscitation development history is the first step in understanding modern approaches to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A significant increase in survival parameters is driven by accumulation of knowledge, expertise, improvement in resuscitation technologies. Development of cardiopulmonary resuscitation structure, development of recommendations approved for study and practical use, addressing these issues at the state level are accompanied with a significant reduction in mortality both at the hospital and pre-hospital levels. Key words: children, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, development stages, training of pediatricians. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:25-27

  18. Puberty and structural brain development in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period of physical and behavioral development between childhood and adulthood. Puberty is a distinct period of sexual maturation that occurs during adolescence. Since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), human studies have largely examined neurodevelopment in the context of age. A breadth of animal findings suggest that sex hormones continue to influence the brain beyond the prenatal period, with both organizational and activational effects occurring during puberty. Given the animal evidence, human MRI research has also set out to determine how puberty may influence otherwise known patterns of age-related neurodevelopment. Here we review structural-based MRI studies and show that pubertal maturation is a key variable to consider in elucidating sex- and individual- based differences in patterns of human brain development. We also highlight the continuing challenges faced, as well as future considerations, for this vital avenue of research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Development and application of Human Genome Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiology is a science that studies distribution of diseases and health in population and its influencing factors, it also studies how to prevent and cure disease and promote health strategies and measures. Epidemiology has developed rapidly in recent years and it is an intercross subject with various other disciplines to form a series of branch disciplines such as Genetic epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, drug epidemiology and tumor epidemiology. With the implementation and completion of Human Genome Project (HGP), Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) has emerged at this historic moment. In this review, the development of Human Genome Epidemiology, research content, the construction and structure of relevant network, research standards, as well as the existing results and problems are briefly outlined.

  20. Human autonomy effectiveness and development projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Muñiz Castillo (Mirtha); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDevelopment is about people’s lives and their opportunities to use and enlarge their desirable human potentials. This article aims to switch the focus in design, implementation and evaluation of projects, from only an abstracted conception of ‘the project’ and the goods which it is meant

  1. Human rights and sustainable spatial development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallemaerts, M.

    2009-01-01

    What is the relationship between spatial planning and human rights? Though this question may seem highly theoretical at first glance, closer analysis will reveal that there are in fact a number of ways in which public policies in the area of territorial planning and development and the imperative of

  2. Governance and Human Development: Empirical Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study empirically investigates the effects of governance on human development in Nigeria. Using annual time series data covering the period 1998 to 2010, obtained from various sources, and employing the classical least squares estimation technique, the study finds that corruption, foreign aid and government ...

  3. Human Capital Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hooi Lan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…

  4. Human Resource Development for International Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Colin J.

    A 1990 questionnaire and interview survey identified requirements for programs and courses relating to human resource development for international operation. The survey was designed to seek the views of United Kingdom (UK) and European and international companies, professional associations, and accounting firms. Of 540 organizations, 91 returned…

  5. Current state of development of the European Drought Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, S.; de Jager, A.; Kurnik, B.; Laguardia, G.; Magni, D.; Nitcheva, O.; Rossi, S.; Weissteiner, C.

    2009-04-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC) is developing the prototype of the European Drought Observatory (EDO) for drought forecasting, detection, and monitoring in Europe. EDO is conceived as a web-based information system (http://edo.jrc.ec.europa.eu), integrating information from various sources and disciplines relevant to monitor and detect droughts throughout Europe. The prototype is currently performing the pre-operational production of drought indices using meteorological information, modelled hydrological parameters, and remote sensing data. In particular, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) shows the general precipitation status according to the historical average in the predefined period. SPI in monthly step is calculated for the 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months averaging periods. Soil moisture estimations are produced daily by the LISFLOOD hydrological model, along with their anomalies and seven days forecasts. Two satellite remote sensing drought indicators are produced: Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetic Active Radiation (fAPAR) anomalies. NDWI 10-day composites are obtained daily from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, while fAPAR anomalies are calculated from 10-day composites delivered by the European Space Agency (ESA) and estimated from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MERIS) data. All these drought indicators are made available online for visualization and querying by means of a map viewer based on University of Minnesota MapServer and Oracle. The tool generates maps of the different indicators and provides functionalities to browse the maps, query the data, produce graphs, and output the maps in various formats.

  6. Economic evaluations of personalized medicine: existing challenges and current developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabaruddin FH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatiha H Shabaruddin,1 Nigel D Fleeman,2 Katherine Payne3 1Department of Pharmacy, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group (LRiG, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; 3Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Personalized medicine, with the aim of safely, effectively, and cost-effectively targeting treatment to a prespecified patient population, has always been a long-time goal within health care. It is often argued that personalizing treatment will inevitably improve clinical outcomes for patients and help achieve more effective use of health care resources. Demand is increasing for demonstrable evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness to support the use of personalized medicine in health care. This paper begins with an overview of the existing challenges in conducting economic evaluations of genetics- and genomics-targeted technologies, as an example of personalized medicine. Our paper illustrates the complexity of the challenges faced by these technologies by highlighting the variations in the issues faced by diagnostic tests for somatic variations, generally referring to genetic variation in a tumor, and germline variations, generally referring to inherited genetic variation in enzymes involved in drug metabolic pathways. These tests are typically aimed at stratifying patient populations into subgroups on the basis of clinical effectiveness (response or safety (avoidance of adverse events. The paper summarizes the data requirements for economic evaluations of genetics and genomics-based technologies while outlining that the main challenges relating to data requirements revolve around the availability and quality of existing data. We conclude by discussing current developments aimed to address the challenges of assessing the cost-effectiveness of genetics and genomics-based technologies, which revolve around two central issues that are

  7. Involuntary Euthanasia and Current Attempts to Define Persons with Mental Retardation as Less Than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusthaus, Evelyn W.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines current attempts to define mentally retarded persons as less than human and suggests that these ideologies are being used to justify euthanasia practices and to formulate euthanasia policies. (CL)

  8. INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina MOCUTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development in Romania can be achieved only through consensus orchestrated prioritizing people's attitudes and values. In order to achieve a maximum performance, cultural change must precede structural and functional changes, such an approach leading to a lasting transformation. Cultural change is not about social traditions, history, language, art, etc.., But those on the behavior, mentality, attitude towards work, economy and society. Sustainable development have to mean quality and achieve only limited natural capital, social and anthropogenic own or attracted. A drawing resources must be addressed by cost and their global rarity. Sustainable development for Romania, represents the effective management of resources in the national competitiveness and national foreign goods and services. Human health suppliers, health organizations that offer health services and those who need these services, meet on a market, called health services market, whose mechanism has features different from the other markets, not only from the point of view of the two forces, demand and supply, but also from the third party who pays. In the context of globalization, human development, defined as a process of people’s expanding possibilities to choose, cannot exist without an appropriate health. People often make choices in the economic, social and political fields, situated in the centre of development policies. From the human health perspective, attention is aimed at quality of the economic development, and not quantity, in three critical domains: expectation and quality of life, educational level and access to all the necessary economic resources in order to lead a decent life.

  9. Development of Human System Integration at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; McGuire, Kerry; Thompson, Shelby; Vos, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Human Systems Integration seeks to design systems around the capabilities and limitations of the humans which use and interact with the system, ensuring greater efficiency of use, reduced error rates, and less rework in the design, manufacturing and operational deployment of hardware and software. One of the primary goals of HSI is to get the human factors practitioner involved early in the design process. In doing so, the aim is to reduce future budget costs and resources in redesign and training. By the preliminary design phase of a project nearly 80% of the total cost of the project is locked in. Potential design changes recommended by evaluations past this point will have little effect due to lack of funding or a huge cost in terms of resources to make changes. Three key concepts define an effective HSI program. First, systems are comprised of hardware, software, and the human, all of which operate within an environment. Too often, engineers and developers fail to consider the human capacity or requirements as part of the system. This leads to poor task allocation within the system. To promote ideal task allocation, it is critical that the human element be considered early in system development. Poor design, or designs that do not adequately consider the human component, could negatively affect physical or mental performance, as well as, social behavior. Second, successful HSI depends upon integration and collaboration of all the domains that represent acquisition efforts. Too often, these domains exist as independent disciplines due to the location of expertise within the service structure. Proper implementation of HSI through participation would help to integrate these domains and disciplines to leverage and apply their interdependencies to attain an optimal design. Via this process domain interests can be integrated to perform effective HSI through trade-offs and collaboration. This provides a common basis upon which to make knowledgeable decisions. Finally

  10. Inflammatory mediator-induced modulation of GABAA currents in human sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-L; Lee, K-Y; Priest, B T; Belfer, I; Gold, M S

    2015-12-03

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the properties of A-type GABA receptor (GABAA receptor) currents in human sensory neurons. Neurons were obtained from adult organ donors. GABAA currents were recorded in isolated neurons. Both large inactivating low-affinity currents and smaller persistent high-affinity currents were present in all of the 129 neurons studied from 15 donors. The kinetics of human GABAA currents were slower than those in rat sensory neurons. GABA currents were completely blocked by bicuculline (10 μM), and persistent currents were activated by the δ-subunit-preferring agonist, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol (THIP). The GABA current equilibrium potential was ∼ 20 mV more hyperpolarized than in rat neurons. Both low- and high-affinity currents were increased by inflammatory mediators but via different second messenger pathways. These results highlight potentially important species differences in the properties of ion channels present in their native environment and suggest the use of human sensory neurons may be a valuable tool to test compounds prior to use in humans. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. IN_FOCUS COLLECTION Mini-websites on current development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Through Children's Eyes. Sarah McCans grew up in Montreal and earned an undergraduate degree in human geography at Queen's University in Kingston, Ont., and a Master's. View moreThrough Children's Eyes ...

  12. The Impact of Vocational Schooling on Human Capital Development in Developing Countries: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyalka, Prashant; Huang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Linxiu; Wei, Jianguo; Yi, Hongmei; Song, Yingquan; Ren, Baoping; Shi, Yaojiang; Chu, James; Maani, May; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-01-01

    A number of developing countries currently identify vocational education and training (VET) as a key approach to building human capital. For example, the promotion of VET at the high school level ("vocational high school", which is used here interchangeably with VET throughout the paper) has become a policy priority among emerging…

  13. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-03-01

    Measuring gender inequality and women's empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries' progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic model of the interdependence between human development and gender inequality. We then introduce a biometric indicator, based on the ratio of female to male body mass index, to measure women's empowerment at the country level. Finally, by using the latest available data, we examine the ability of this biometric indicator to capture countries' performance in achieving gender equality. We obtain five main results: 1) we provide a theoretical framework to explain the joint determination of human development and gender inequality; 2) we show how to use this framework to simulate the impact of exogenous shocks or policy changes; 3) we demonstrate that exogenous changes have a direct and a multiplier effect on human development and gender inequality; 4) we find that the distribution of obesity between the female and male populations represents a useful proxy variable for measuring gender equality at the country level; 5) finally, we use these results to integrate and develop existing knowledge on the 'ecological' approach to the overweight and obesity pandemic.

  14. Autonomy of human mind and personality development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemczyński Adam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A psychology of human individual development is proposed which argues against its reduction to the description and control of human behavior or to cognitive psychology in the model of information and communication technology. Instead the author’s earlier conceptualization of the autonomy of human individual development is now elaborated further. The foundational premise to this end rests in Macnamara’s (1999 explication of Brentano’s (1874 notion of intentionality, i.e., referring to something as an object. It reveals the access of the mind to the ideal objects and to the kinds which provide for identity and individuation of the objects of human cognition (Macnamara and Reyes, 1994. It converges with the anti-irrationalism postulate which was put forward by Ajdukiewicz (1934. The reduction of the mind in psychology to something else proves unable to meet the anti-irrationalism postulate, regards perception and cognition to be of one piece, and it excludes intuition and ideals. In contrast to this, the notions of the spontaneous and self-sustainable perception and the self-determined mind open a way for psychology without the reduction of it to anything else. The same route has been taken earlier (Niemczyński, 2007 with a study of personality development from adolescence to the late ages.

  15. Human Work Interaction Design Meets International Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil; Barricelli, Barbara Rita

    2017-01-01

    opportunity to observe technology-mediated innovative work practices in informal settings that may be related to the notion of International Development. In this unique context, this workshop proposes to analyze findings related to opportunities for design research in this type of work domains: a) human......Over the last decade, empirical relationships between work domain analysis and HCI design have been identified by much research in the field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) across five continents. Since this workshop takes place at the Interact Conference in Mumbai, there is a unique...

  16. Human Work Interaction Design Meets International Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil; Barricelli, Barbara Rita

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, empirical relationships between work domain analysis and HCI design have been identified by much research in the field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) across five continents. Since this workshop takes place at the Interact Conference in Mumbai, there is a unique...... opportunity to observe technology-mediated innovative work practices in informal settings that may be related to the notion of International Development. In this unique context, this workshop proposes to analyze findings related to opportunities for design research in this type of work domains: a) human...

  17. [Service robots in elderly care. Possible application areas and current state of developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, B; Heyer, T; Klein, B; Wallhoff, F

    2013-08-01

    The term "Service robotics" describes semi- or fully autonomous technical systems able to perform services useful to the well-being of humans. Service robots have the potential to support and disburden both persons in need of care as well as nursing care staff. In addition, they can be used in prevention and rehabilitation in order to reduce or avoid the need for help. Products currently available to support people in domestic environments are mainly cleaning or remote-controlled communication robots. Examples of current research activities are the (further) development of mobile robots as advanced communication assistants or the development of (semi) autonomous manipulation aids and multifunctional household assistants. Transport robots are commonly used in many hospitals. In nursing care facilities, the first evaluations have already been made. So-called emotional robots are now sold as products and can be used for therapeutic, occupational, or entertainment activities.

  18. Engineering Education Development to Enhance Human Skill in DENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, Emiko; Nuka, Takeji

    Importance of human skills such as communication or instruction capability to their staff members has recently been highlighted in a workplace, due to decreasing opportunity of face-to-face communication between supervisors and their staff, or Instruction capability through OJT (On the Job Training) . Currently, communication skills are being reinforced mainly through OJT at DENSO. Therefore, as part of supplemental support tools, DENSO has established comprehensive engineers training program on off-JT basis for developing human skills, covering from newly employeed enginners up to managerial class since 2003. This paper describes education activities and reports the results.

  19. Human Resource Development in the Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Lehmann

    . In this line of thinking, the aim is to propose a model for analysing the progress of knowledge improvements in developing countries as an outcome of the management of human, social and organisational capital. In this regard, the paper considers relevant practices and strategies in the context of developing......This paper addresses the crucial call for upgrading to more value-added production in developing country firms in the light of increased global competition and suggests that such upgrading demands a shift in focus from investment in technology to investment in people, knowledge and learning...

  20. Comparative developmental psychology: how is human cognitive development unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Wobber, Victoria; Hughes, Kelly; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-04-29

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  1. Comparative Developmental Psychology: How is Human Cognitive Development Unique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G. Rosati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  2. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  3. Notes on Human Trials of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation between 1960 and 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilpour, Zeinab; Schestatsky, Pedro; Bikson, Marom; Brunoni, André R; Pellegrinelli, Ada; Piovesan, Fernanda X; Santos, Mariana M S A; Menezes, Renata B; Fregni, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is investigated to modulate neuronal function including cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychiatric therapies. While cases of human stimulation with rudimentary batteries date back more than 200 years, clinical trials with current controlled stimulation were published intermittently since the 1960s. The modern era of tDCS only started after 1998. Objectives: To review methods and outcomes of tDCS studies from old literature (between 1960 and 1998) with intention of providing new insight for ongoing tDCS trials and development of tDCS protocols especially for the purpose of treatment. Methods: Articles were identified through a search in PubMed and through the reference list from its selected articles. We included only non-invasive human studies that provided controlled direct current and were written in English, French, Spanish or Portuguese before the year of 1998, the date in which modern stimulation paradigms were implemented. Results: Fifteen articles met our criteria. The majority were small-randomized controlled clinical trials that enrolled a mean of approximately 26 subjects (Phase II studies). Most of the studies (around 83%) assessed the role of tDCS in the treatment of psychiatric conditions, in which the main outcomes were measured by means of behavioral scales and clinical observation, but the diagnostic precision and the quality of outcome monitoring, including adverse events, were deficient by modern standards. Compared to modern tDCS dose, the stimulation intensities used (0.1-1 mA) were lower, however as the electrodes were typically smaller (e.g., 1.26 cm(2)), the average electrode current density (0.2 mA/cm(2)) was approximately 4× higher. The number of sessions ranged from one to 120 (median 14). Notably, the stimulation session durations of several minutes to 11 h (median 4.5 h) could markedly exceed modern tDCS protocols. Twelve studies out of 15 showed positive results. Only mild

  4. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, (2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, (3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, (4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, (5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). (6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: (1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, (2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, (3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, (4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, (5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, (6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  5. Current State and Prospects for Development of Tourism in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyana V. Laktionova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism in Russia is a developing complex, capable of resolving a lot of social and economic issues if developed correctly. Week and strong points of Russian tourism, ways to address arising problems.

  6. Development of the human fetal testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Peter J; Fowler, Paul A

    2014-05-01

    Masculinisation and adult fertility in the male are dependent on appropriate fetal endocrine programming. There is also now increasing evidence to indicate that the same mechanisms which regulate masculinisation also affect the general wellbeing of males throughout their life and, particularly, during ageing. Testosterone, secreted by the fetal testes, is the main factor regulating these processes and an understanding of fetal testis development in the human male is essential if we are to prevent adult reproductive disorders. This review focuses on what is known about human testis development and describes the effects of maternal smoking, a surrogate of possible xenotoxicant exposure on fetal testis and fetal liver function. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Current insights in the development of children's motor imagery ability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S.; Kamp, J. van der; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these

  8. Current insights in the development of children's motor imagery ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S.; Kamp, J. van der; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these

  9. Early Childhood Professionalism in Serbia: Current Issues and Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankovic, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    This article explores early childhood professionalism in the Republic of Serbia. The concept of professionalism in this context is examined in light of current international debates about professionalism. More specifically, how the use of specific nomenclature, the existence of multi-professional teams of practitioners and state-regulated but…

  10. Neuropsychological Assessment and Rehabilitation: Historical Development and Current Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Amer Cavalheiro Hamdan; Ana Paula Almeida de Pereira; Tatiana Izabele Jaworski de Sá Riechi

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aimed to briefly present a historical view of Neuropsychology and later, to propose research topics in Brazil. Neuropsychology history encompassed at least three major themes: the cardiac hypothesis versus the brain hypothesis, localizationism versus holism and functionalism versus cognitivism. These themes influenced research in neuropsychology and based current practice. Furthermore, two important aspects of neuropsychology are discussed: neuropsychological assessment in d...

  11. Entrepreneurship and human capital development in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Kasper; Rutasitara, Longinus; Selejio, Onesmo

    This paper explores the link between entrepreneurship and child human capital development. We specifically examine how operating a non-farm enterprise (NFE) as opposed to working in agriculture relates to child labour and schooling outcomes. Accounting for timeinvariant unobservable characteristics...... for girls. Given these findings, it appears that household entrepreneurship may contribute to decreasing the severe child labour problem in Tanzania, but resolving the problem of low school attendance rates will require a different strategy....

  12. Standard development at the Human Variome Project.

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy D Smith; Vihinen, Mauno

    2015-01-01

    The Human Variome Project (HVP) is a world organization working towards facilitating the collection, curation, interpretation and free and open sharing of genetic variation information. A key component of HVP activities is the development of standards and guidelines. HVP Standards are systems, procedures and technologies that the HVP Consortium has determined must be used by HVP-affiliated data sharing infrastructure and should be used by the broader community. HVP guidelines are considered t...

  13. A review of current and possible future human-water dynamics in Myanmar's river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Linda; Evers, Mariele

    2016-12-01

    river flows, the sediment loads and also the still rich biodiversity in the river basins, to an unknown extent. Probably, these natural and anthropogenically induced developments will also impact a special type of farming; we call it alluvial farming in the river floodplains and on sandbars in the Ayeyarwady River basin in Myanmar, which is called Kaing and Kyun, respectively. Relevant aspects for future development of Myanmar's river basins combine environment-water-related factors, climate, economic and social development, water management and land use changes. Research on these interplays needs to capture the spatial and temporal dynamics of these drivers. However, it is only possible to gain a full understanding of all these complex interrelationships if multi-scale spatiotemporal information is analysed in an inter- and trans-disciplinary approach. This paper gives a structured overview of the current scientific knowledge available and reveals the relevance of this information with regard to human-environment and particularly to human-water interactions in Myanmar's river basins. By applying the eDPSIR framework, it identifies key indicators in the Myanmar human-water system, which has been shown to be exemplary by giving an example of use related to alluvial farming in the central dry zone.

  14. Cancer immunotherapy in veterinary medicine: Current options and new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Daniel; Guth, Amanda; Coy, Jonathan; Dow, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Excitement in the field of tumor immunotherapy is being driven by several remarkable breakthroughs in recent years. This review will cover recent advances in cancer immunotherapy, including the use of T cell checkpoint inhibitors, engineered T cells, cancer vaccines, and anti-B cell and T cell antibodies. Inhibition of T cell checkpoint molecules such as PD-1 and CTLA-4 using monoclonal antibodies has achieved notable success against advanced tumors in humans, including melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and non-small cell lung cancer. Therapy with engineered T cells has also demonstrated remarkable tumor control and regression in human trials. Autologous cancer vaccines have recently demonstrated impressive prolongation of disease-free intervals and survival times in dogs with lymphoma. In addition, caninized monoclonal antibodies targeting CD20 and CD52 just recently received either full (CD20) or conditional (CD52) licensing by the United States Department of Agriculture for clinical use in the treatment of canine B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, respectively. Thus, immunotherapy for cancer is rapidly moving to the forefront of cancer treatment options in veterinary medicine as well as human medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Current Situation and the Development Strategies of Rubber

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Zhang, Xizhu; HUANG, Haolun

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the distribution, member structure and industrial operation structure of the rubber farmer cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out some problems in the cooperatives, such as small member scale, unbalanced regional development, lack of standardization in operation, and industrial operation structure imbalance. Finally some development strategies are put forward as follows: building large-scale cooperatives; attaching importance to the development of rubber farmer...

  16. Human iPS Cell-Derived Germ Cells: Current Status and Clinical Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Ishii

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, fertile spermatozoa and oocytes were generated from mouse induced pluripotent (iPS cells using a combined in vitro and in vivo induction system. With regard to germ cell induction from human iPS cells, progress has been made particularly in the male germline, demonstrating in vitro generation of haploid, round spermatids. Although iPS-derived germ cells are expected to be developed to yield a form of assisted reproductive technology (ART that can address unmet reproductive needs, genetic and/or epigenetic instabilities abound in iPS cell generation and germ cell induction. In addition, there is still room to improve the induction protocol in the female germline. However, rapid advances in stem cell research are likely to make such obstacles surmountable, potentially translating induced germ cells into the clinical setting in the immediate future. This review examines the current status of the induction of germ cells from human iPS cells and discusses the clinical potential, as well as future directions.

  17. Human Rights and Development. The Discourse in the Humanities and Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Gloppen, Siri; Rakner, Lise

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review central debates on human rights within the social sciences and humanities with a view to enumerating the present state of knowledge about human rights and development. The central topics discussed in the report are: The development of human rights norms; cultural relativism versus universal human rights; human rights and economic development trade-offs; conflicts between different categories of rights, relations between human rights and political development...

  18. Human development assessment through the human-scale development approach: integrating different perspectives in the contribution to a sustainable human development theory.

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Barreiro, Ivonne Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Since the first Human Development Report (HDRs) was published in 1990, the Human Development (HD) paradigm has become a relevant conceptual framework as well as an intrinsic instrument to measure human progress. Yet, critics on the Reports for oversimplifying development have been pointed out as they do not take into account the myriad complex social, cultural, political and historical aspects of a country or a particular society. The United Nations Human Development Programme (UNDP) has howe...

  19. Current industrial practice of managing risks in product development project portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weng, R.; Oehmen, Josef; Ben-Daya, M.

    2013-01-01

    Managing portfolios of development and engineering projects currently presents significant challenges to companies. This is even more the case in the management of portfolio risks, where both industry and academia currently lack a clear conceptual understanding of what portfolio risks are and what...... of interdependencies in PD project portfolios (Technology, Budget, Objectives and Requirements, Infrastructure and Equipment, Skillset and Human Resources, Process and Schedule, Supplier, Legal and Regulatory, and finally Market and Customer). Second, we investigate how risk management on the portfolio level...... influences them. The objective of this paper is two-fold: First, based on a literature review and industry focus group discussions, we introduce a new model for describing portfolio-level risks. It consists of three types of risks (escalated risks, common cause risks, and cascading risks) based on 9 types...

  20. HDL infusion for the management of atherosclerosis: current developments and new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kang H; Stroes, Erik S G

    2016-12-01

    Because human genetic studies and large clinical trials have demonstrated that HDL-cholesterol levels are not causally related to cardiovascular disease risk, attention has shifted toward the functional properties of HDL. Infusion of HDL mimetics containing apolipoprotein A-I remains a potential strategy to exploit the atheroprotective effects of HDL. Three HDL mimetic drugs are under development and currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Upon infusion, these drugs increase cholesterol efflux capacity. Although proof-of-concept studies are promising, large outcome studies are awaited. Alternatively, HDL particles may be used for targeted drug delivery in a nanomedicine approach. Finally, links between cholesterol efflux and myelopoeisis may prove to be a target for HDL infusion in the future. Clinical studies are currently ongoing to evaluate the potential of several HDL mimetic drugs. Novel nanomedicinal approaches and emerging pathophysiological insights may further expand the relevance of HDL infusion.

  1. Human development: from conception to maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemiro Carlos Sgarbieri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of this review was to describe and emphasize the care that a woman must have in the period prior to pregnancy, as well as throughout pregnancy and after the birth of the baby, cares and duties that should continue to be followed by mother and child throughout the first years of the child’s life. Such cares are of nutritional, behavioral and lifestyle natures, and also involve the father and the whole family. Human development, from conception to maturity, consists of a critical and important period due to the multitude of intrinsic genetic and environmental factors that influence, positively or negatively, the person's entire life. The human being, who originated and passed his/her first phase of development in the womb, receives influence from different factors: a of parental origin (father and mother, including health and lifestyle of the father and mother, genetic inheritance, nutrition of the mother prior to and during pregnancy; b events that affected the mother and hence the child under development in intrauterine life, at birth (delivery, during perinatal period, and throughout the early years of life. The fragility of development continues throughout the preschool, school and adolescent periods during which proper nutrition with a balanced lifestyle is essential and depends on guidance from the parents, caregivers and teachers.

  2. Simulation of developing human neuronal cell networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kerstin; Priwitzer, Barbara; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Tietz, Lukas H B; Narkilahti, Susanna; Hyttinen, Jari A K

    2016-08-30

    Microelectrode array (MEA) is a widely used technique to study for example the functional properties of neuronal networks derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-NN). With hESC-NN, we can investigate the earliest developmental stages of neuronal network formation in the human brain. In this paper, we propose an in silico model of maturating hESC-NNs based on a phenomenological model called INEX. We focus on simulations of the development of bursts in hESC-NNs, which are the main feature of neuronal activation patterns. The model was developed with data from developing hESC-NN recordings on MEAs which showed increase in the neuronal activity during the investigated six measurement time points in the experimental and simulated data. Our simulations suggest that the maturation process of hESC-NN, resulting in the formation of bursts, can be explained by the development of synapses. Moreover, spike and burst rate both decreased at the last measurement time point suggesting a pruning of synapses as the weak ones are removed. To conclude, our model reflects the assumption that the interaction between excitatory and inhibitory neurons during the maturation of a neuronal network and the spontaneous emergence of bursts are due to increased connectivity caused by the forming of new synapses.

  3. Current Research and Development of Chemotherapeutic Agents for Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Minn Hsan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and an increasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and in most cases non-curative. This review focuses on conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for melanoma treatment, by a single or combinational agent approach, but also summarizes some potential novel phytoagents discovered from dietary vegetables or traditional herbal medicines as alternative options or future medicine for melanoma prevention. We explore the mode of actions of these natural phytoagents against metastatic melanoma.

  4. A critique of current developments in simultaneous localization and mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoudong Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of research publications dealing with the simultaneous localization and mapping problem has grown significantly over the past 15 years. Many fundamental and practical aspects of simultaneous localization and mapping have been addressed, and some efficient algorithms and practical solutions have been demonstrated. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical review of current theoretical understanding of the fundamental properties of the SLAM problem, such as observability, convergence, achievable accuracy and consistency. Recent research outcomes associated with these topics are briefly discussed together with potential future research directions.

  5. Current trends in the clinical development of peptide therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Pauline M; Zhang, Bodi D; Reichert, Janice M

    2009-12-01

    The development of peptides as drugs is attracting increasing attention from the pharmaceutical industry. This interest is at least partially a consequence of the widespread acceptance of therapeutic proteins by physicians and patients, and because of improvements to problems such as a short half-life and delivery issues. The markets for peptide-based compounds can be substantial, with six peptide drugs attaining global sales of more than US $750 million in 2008. To track trends in the clinical development and marketing approval of peptides, Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development and Ferring Research Institute compiled publically available data for peptides that entered clinical trials sponsored by commercial firms, with a focus on peptide therapeutics, but also including peptide vaccines and diagnostics. The results provide an historical overview of the development of peptide therapeutics, and may inform strategic planning in this area.

  6. Dengue human infection models supporting drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorn, James; Van, Vinh Chau Nguyen; Simmons, Cameron P

    2014-06-15

    Dengue is a arboviral infection that represents a major global health burden. There is an unmet need for effective dengue therapeutics to reduce symptoms, duration of illness and incidence of severe complications. Here, we consider the merits of a dengue human infection model (DHIM) for drug development. A DHIM could allow experimentally controlled studies of candidate therapeutics in preselected susceptible volunteers, potentially using smaller sample sizes than trials that recruited patients with dengue in an endemic country. In addition, the DHIM would assist the conduct of intensive pharmacokinetic and basic research investigations and aid in determining optimal drug dosage. Furthermore, a DHIM could help establish proof of concept that chemoprophylaxis against dengue is feasible. The key challenge in developing the DHIM for drug development is to ensure the model reliably replicates the typical clinical and laboratory features of naturally acquired, symptomatic dengue. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  7. Human Sustainable Development in the Context of Europa 2020 Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Mihaela Ion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human development is a constant concern at European level. Thus, various programs have been proposed with the main objective of developing skills of citizens and informing them about training courses as part of lifelong learning and of employment in the labour market. The article highlights the evolution of European Union through the investments in human capital. The objective of this paper is represented by the analysis of the impact of sustainable human development through trans-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary education in the context of the European Union strategy proposed for the following period up to 2020. Europe 2020 represents a strategic plan for European Union development until 2020, having as main objective raising the standard of living and the quality of life for European citizens. Europe 2020 strategy promotes a new vision for the economy of European Union. For the following period until 2020 there is a major concern for creating favourable conditions for development of a sustainable intelligent economy that promotes inclusion. Some of the main activities with a major impact on creating such conditions are investments in education, research and innovation. The article analyses the current and recent past years’ situation in terms of sustainable development from educational and economic perspectives at European Union level. The analysis was done based on Eurostat data, using specific statistical methods.

  8. Telehealth in the developing world: current status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott RE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Richard E Scott,1,2 Maurice Mars11Department of TeleHealth, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; 2NT Consulting - Global e-Health Inc., Calgary, AB, CanadaAbstract: In a setting of constant change and confusing terminology, telehealth continues to gain ground in both developed and developing countries within the overarching milieu of e-health. Evidence shows telehealth has been used in essentially all countries of the world, but is embedded in few. Uses and needs of telehealth vary between the developed and developing world; the latter struggles with both communicable diseases and noncommunicable diseases, and with very few resources. Common clinical applications include teleconsultation, telecardiology (transmission of ECGs, teleradiology, and teledermatology. Many telehealth projects exist throughout Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia, and Africa, but there is little published evidence and only isolated examples of sustained programs, although several sustained humanitarian networks exist. Application of mobile solutions (m-health is on the rise in many developing countries. Telehealth is still not integrated into existing health care systems globally. Reasons vary: lack of proven large-scale operations, poor evidence base, inadequate implementation, lack of attention to the “soft side” of implementation (readiness, change management, and many others. For the developing world, reasons can be more pragmatic, including limited resources, unreliable power, poor connectivity, and high cost for the poverty stricken – those most in need. Telehealth is poised to improve health and health care in the developing world, driven by both altruistic and profit motives. But to have the desired effect, telehealth must address very specific and evidence-based health “needs” of each facility, region, or country; the shortage of health workers and specialist services; and the required skills upgrading and training

  9. Denervated muscles in humans: limitations and problems of currently used functional electrical stimulation training protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Helmut; Hofer, Christian; Mödlin, Michaela; Forstner, Claudia; Raschka-Högler, Doris; Mayr, Winfried; Stöhr, Hans

    2002-03-01

    Prior clinical work showed that electrical stimulation therapy with exponential current is able to slow down atrophy and maintain the muscle during nonpermanent flaccid paralysis. However, exponential currents are not sufficient for long-term therapy of denervated degenerated muscles (DDMs). We initiated a European research project investigating the rehabilitation strategies in humans, but also studying the underlying basic scientific knowledge of muscle regeneration from satellite cells or myoblast activity in animal experiments. In our prior study, we were able to show that high-intensity stimulation of DDMs is possible. At the beginning of training, only single muscle twitches can be elicited by biphasic pulses with durations of 120-150 ms. Later, tetanic contraction of the muscle with special stimulation parameters (pulse duration of 30-50 ms, stimulation frequency of 16-25 Hz, pulse amplitudes of up to 250 mA) can improve the structural and metabolic state of the DDMs. Because there are no nerve endings for conduction of stimuli, large-size, anatomically shaped electrodes are used. This ensures an even contraction of the whole muscle. Contrary to the current clinical knowledge, we were able to stimulate and train denervated muscle 15-20 years after denervation. The estimated amount of muscle fibers that have to be restored is about 2-4 million fibers in each m. quadriceps. To rebuild such a large number of muscle fibers takes up to 3-4 years. Despite constant stimulation parameters and training protocols, there is a high variation in the developed contraction force and fatigue resistance of the muscle during the first years of functional electrical stimulation.

  10. [Current progress in the development of mucosal vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyama, Natsumi; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Mucosal vaccination has several advantages compared with that of injection-type vaccination. Secretory IgA(SIgA) produced at mucosal surface plays a key role for inactivation of toxins and inhibition of pathogen invasion. Although oral or nasal vaccination with attenuated live microorganisms have been shown to be effective in the induction of protective immunity, these types of vaccine have the ability to infect transiently to the host. For the development of safe and effective mucosal vaccine, an obvious strategy is the preparation of inactivated subunit-type mucosal vaccine. Here we introduce our frontier technology for the development of rice-based oral vaccines, as a new generation of mucosal vaccine. Further, we also discuss recent progress in the development of other types of mucosal vaccine and adjuvant.

  11. Current development in genetic engineering strategies of Bacillus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The complete sequencing and annotation of the genomes of industrially-important Bacillus species has enhanced our understanding of their properties, and allowed advances in genetic manipulations in other Bacillus species. Post-genomic studies require simple and highly efficient tools to enable genetic manipulation. Here, we summarize the recent progress in genetic engineering strategies for Bacillus species. We review the available genetic tools that have been developed in Bacillus species, as well as methods developed in other species that may also be applicable in Bacillus. Furthermore, we address the limitations and challenges of the existing methods, and discuss the future research prospects in developing novel and useful tools for genetic modification of Bacillus species. PMID:24885003

  12. Current development in genetic engineering strategies of Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huina; Zhang, Dawei

    2014-05-03

    The complete sequencing and annotation of the genomes of industrially-important Bacillus species has enhanced our understanding of their properties, and allowed advances in genetic manipulations in other Bacillus species. Post-genomic studies require simple and highly efficient tools to enable genetic manipulation. Here, we summarize the recent progress in genetic engineering strategies for Bacillus species. We review the available genetic tools that have been developed in Bacillus species, as well as methods developed in other species that may also be applicable in Bacillus. Furthermore, we address the limitations and challenges of the existing methods, and discuss the future research prospects in developing novel and useful tools for genetic modification of Bacillus species.

  13. Development and Current Practice in Using R at Statistics Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Templ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of R is increasing in national statistical offices not only for simulation tasks. Nowadays R is also used in the production process. A lot of new features for various tasks in official statistics have been developed over the last years and these features are freely available in the form of add-on package. In this contribution we first give an outline of the use of R at Statistics Austria. Discussed is the necessary infrastructure according to the R-installation, the teaching of employees and the support provided to the staff who use R in their daily work. In the second part, the R developments from the methods unit at Statistics Austria are summarised. The developed packages include methods for data pre-processing (e.g imputation up to packages for the final dissemination of data including packages for statistical disclosure control, estimation of indicators and the visualisation of results.

  14. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcito, Kendyl, E-mail: kendyl.salcito@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Utzinger, Jürg, E-mail: juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Weiss, Mitchell G., E-mail: Mitchell-g.Weiss@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Münch, Anna K., E-mail: annak.muench@gmail.com [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Singer, Burton H., E-mail: bhsinger@epi.ufl.edu [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Krieger, Gary R., E-mail: gkrieger@newfields.com [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Wielga, Mark, E-mail: wielga@nomogaia.org [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation.

  15. A Trial to Detect for Human Locomotion Based on Measurement of Current Generated by Electrostatic Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Koichi; Imai, Kazumasa; Ike, Tatsumi; Nonaka, Toru

    In this study, an effective noncontact technique for the detection of free-living human locomotion is proposed. The technique involves the measurement of the electrostatic induction current flowing through a measurement electrode. Further, an occurrence model for the electrostatic induction current generated due to a change in the electric potential of the human body is proposed. This model effectively explains the behavior of the waveform of the electrostatic induction current flowing through the measurement electrode. The obtained results show that the presence of a gait cycle is directly reflected in the electrostatic induction current generated due to walking motion. This suggests that subtle differences in the walking condition can be detected using the proposed technique.

  16. Electric bicycles in The Netherlands: Current developments and future possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van

    2010-01-01

    Developments with electric bicycles in the Netherlands are progressing rapidly. The number of electric bicycles sold is rises every year. Cycling is a very popular mode of transport in The Netherlands. In 2008 more than one million bicycles were sold. At the moment one out of ten bicycles sold is

  17. current status and outlook of renewable energy development in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reacholaibrahim@hotmail.com

    presented in this paper is a crucial eye-opener for relevant government agencies towards developing these energy resources in tackling the present energy crisis in Nigeria. Keywords: renewable energy, per capita energy, Nigeria, biomass, fossil fuels, growth scenario. 1. INTRODUCTION. Energy is a vital ingredient for ...

  18. Current Research on Moral Education and Development in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Neil

    2006-01-01

    The Moral and Social Action Interdisciplinary Colloquium (MOSAIC) is an international multidisciplinary network of scholars working within the fields of the philosophy, psychology and sociology of moral development, moral education and moral thought. MOSAIC runs an annual conference, traditionally in June or July. This conference attracts an…

  19. Effects of thymol on calcium and potassium currents in canine and human ventricular cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, János; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Bányász, Tamás; Fülöp, László; Varró, András; Nánási, Péter P

    2002-01-01

    Concentration-dependent effects of thymol (1–1000 μM) was studied on action potential configuration and ionic currents in isolated canine ventricular cardiomyocytes using conventional microelectrode and patch clamp techniques.Low concentration of thymol (10 μM) removed the notch of the action potential, whereas high concentrations (100 μM or higher) caused an additional shortening of action potential duration accompanied by progressive depression of plateau and reduction of Vmax.In the canine cells L-type Ca current (ICa) was decreased by thymol in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50: 158±7 μM, Hill coeff.: 2.96±0.43). In addition, thymol (50–250 μM) accelerated the inactivation of ICa, increased the time constant of recovery from inactivation, shifted the steady-state inactivation curve of ICa leftwards, but voltage dependence of activation remained unaltered. Qualitatively similar results were obtained with thymol in ventricular myocytes isolated from healthy human hearts.Thymol displayed concentration-dependent suppressive effects on potassium currents: the transient outward current, Ito (EC50: 60.6±11.4 μM, Hill coeff.: 1.03±0.11), the rapid component of the delayed rectifier, IKr (EC50: 63.4±6.1 μM, Hill coeff.: 1.29±0.15), and the slow component of the delayed rectifier, IKs (EC50: 202±11 μM, Hill coeff.: 0.72±0.14), however, K channel kinetics were not much altered by thymol. These effects on Ca and K currents developed rapidly (within 0.5 min) and were readily reversible.In conclusion, thymol suppressed cardiac ionic channels in a concentration-dependent manner, however, both drug-sensitivities as well as the mechanism of action seems to be different when blocking calcium and potassium channels. PMID:12010783

  20. New and Traditional Multilateral Development Banks: Current and Potential Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Shelepov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Most experts on multilateral development banks (MDBs mention the possibility of large-scale co-financing in their forecasts concerning their future operations. However, interaction between MDBs and other actors, including co-financing, is rarely considered as a research problem for analytical and scientific papers. Yet this type of cooperation is one of the most important factors of effectiveness for the entire system of MDB financing. Thus, working in partnership with governmental institutions (development assistance agencies, export credit agencies, etc., MDBs help attract additional financial resources and expertise in the countries where they are active. Working on state, regional and global levels, multilateral banks cooperate not only with governmental institutions, but also with private sector and civil society representatives. Such cooperation benefits both parties. In addition to mobilizing additional financial resources, it improves project preparation and implementation, taking into account national peculiarities, while partner institutions get a chance to use their experience and expertise. Given the recent establishment of the New Development Bank (NDB and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB, they are unlikely to achieve their main goal of narrowing the infrastructure financing deficit in developing countries without active cooperation with other institutions. This article discusses the results and examines the prospects of the NDB and AIIB cooperating with traditional MDBs. It also focuses on the new banks’ engagement with other financial institutions, including commercial banks and national development banks. The author analyzes interbank memorandums and agreements as a formal basis for cooperation between various institutions, and examines in detail the examples of co-financing infrastructure projects by the new and traditional MDBs, as well as new multilateral cooperation mechanisms established by development banks. The

  1. The current status and trend of clinical pharmacology in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Several international forums for promoting clinical pharmacology in developing countries have been held since 1980, and several clinical pharmacology programmes targeting developing countries were instituted such that the status of clinical pharmacology in developing countries is not where it was 50 years ago. Therefore, a survey and an appraisal of the literature on the current status of clinical pharmacology in developing countries were undertaken with a hope that it would enable development of appropriate strategies for further promotion of clinical pharmacology in these countries. Methods First, nine determinants (or enabling factors) for running a successful clinical pharmacology programme were identified, i.e., disease burden, drug situation, economic growth, clinical pharmacology activities, recognition, human capital, government support, international collaboration, and support for traditional/alternative medicines. These factors were then evaluated with regard to their current status in the developing countries that responded to an electronic questionnaire, and their historical perspective, using the literature appraisal. From these, a projected trend was constructed with recommendations on the way forward. Results Clinical pharmacology services, research and teaching in developing countries have improved over the past 50 years with over 90% of countries having the appropriate policies for regulation and rational use of medicines in place. Unfortunately, policy implementation remains a challenge, owing to a worsening disease burden and drug situation, versus fewer clinical pharmacologists and other competing priorities for the national budgets. This has led to a preference for training ‘a physician clinical pharmacologist’ in programmes emphasizing local relevancy and for a shorter time, and the training of other professionals in therapeutics for endemic diseases (task shifting), as the most promising strategies of ensuring rational use of

  2. Computation of induced electric field and temperature elevation in human due to lightning current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, T.; Hirata, A.

    2010-05-01

    The present study investigated induced electric field and temperature elevation in specific tissues/organs of an anatomically based human body model for the lightning current. The threshold amplitude of the current inducing ventricular fibrillation and skin burning are estimated from computed induced electric field and temperature elevation with formulas for electrical stimulation and thermal damage. The computational results obtained herein were reasonably consistent with clinical observation.

  3. The Human Resource function contribution to human development in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Abbott

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article discusses the extent to which human under-development in South Africa and the consequent societal problems of poverty and inequality are addressed by the work of HR practitioners. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence of the appropriateness of current HR practice in South African socio-economic conditions and to make suggestions for improvement. Motivation for the study: Societal problems caused by human under-development are impacting more and more on organisations in South Africa. It is currently not known to what extent and in what way HR work contributes to the improvement of this situation. Research design and method: An interpretive approach was adopted. Qualitative methods within a basic qualitative study strategy were used, including interviewing and a focus group. A sample of 50 individual HR practitioners at various organisational levels was interviewed. Data were analysed by means of thematic analysis. Main findings: Societal problems caused by human under-development impact tremendously on the daily work of HR practitioners. Many HR practitioners do play an Employee Advocate role within the workplace but do not see this role as extending further to any degree. Some role models of more strategic responses were found. Practical/managerial implications: HR practitioners would better fulfil their mandate to work for the success of their organisation if they took pro-active steps to accelerate human development outside their organisations. Contribution/value-add: Empirical evidence is presented to support efforts to broaden the focus of HR work to human development. This linkage has not previously been researched.

  4. Human factors and health information technology: current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V L; Kannampallil, T G

    2014-08-15

    Recent federal mandates and incentives have spurred the rapid growth, development and adoption of health information technology (HIT). While providing significant benefits for better data integration, organization, and availability, recent reports have raised questions regarding their potential to cause medication errors, decreased clinician performance, and lowered efficiency. The goal of this survey article is to (a) examine the theoretical and foundational models of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) that are being advocated for achieving patient safety and quality, and their use in the evaluation of healthcare systems; (b) and the potential for macroergonomic HFE approaches within the context of current research in biomedical informatics. We reviewed literature (2007-2013) on the use of HFE approaches in healthcare settings, from databases such as Pubmed, CINAHL, and Cochran. Based on the review, we discuss the systems-oriented models, their use in the evaluation of HIT, and examples of their use in the evaluation of EHR systems, clinical workflow processes, and medication errors. We also discuss the opportunities for better integrating HFE methods within biomedical informatics research and its potential advantages. The use of HFE methods is still in its infancy - better integration of HFE within the design lifecycle, and quality improvement efforts can further the ability of informatics researchers to address the key concerns regarding the complexity in clinical settings and develop HIT solutions that are designed within the social fabric of the considered setting.

  5. Jesus and human development: An interrogation of the gospel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jesus and human development: An interrogation of the gospel tradition. ... The paper is an analysis of Jesus and human development in the gospel tradition. It argues that while human ... Through this analysis the paper contributes to the body of knowledge on the relevance of Jesus' message to human development.

  6. Current developments in food additive toxicology in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattan, David G; Kahl, Linda S

    2002-12-27

    A recently published proposal (Fed. Reg. 66 (2001) 4706) for mandatory submission of information on all plant-derived bioengineered foods fed to humans or animals will be reviewed. Under this proposal, information such as data on identity, level and function of the introduced substance(s); an estimate of dietary exposure; allergenic potential of the protein; data relevant to other safety issues that may be associated with the substance; selection of a comparable food; historic uses of comparable food; composition and characteristics of bioengineered food versus those of the comparable food should be provided. In addition, characterization of the parent plant; construction of the transformation vector and introduced genetic material along with number of insertion sites and genes; data on the genetic material and any newly inserted genes for antibiotic resistance should be submitted with the notification. The Interagency Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) was identified by the U.S. Congress as the organization to review and validate new alternative toxicological test methods for 14 U.S. government agencies. Validated and accepted alternative toxicity tests will be incorporated into toxicity testing recommendations for regulatory agencies.

  7. Physical biology of human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBudday

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view towards surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level towards form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  8. Current Situation Development of Lightweight Ablation Materials for Thermal Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XUE Hua- fei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In view of demand of lighter thermal protection system for our national space vehicle,recent development of investigation and practical application of lightweight thermal protection ablation materials are summarized systematically at home and abroad,in which the silicon or resin reinforced with honeycomb structural reinforcement and resin impregnated fibrous substrate ablators are included,focuses On silicone resin reinforced with glass,silica or carbon fiber/phenolic honeycomb as well as silicon,phenolic and Silicone Impregnated Reusable tendency Ceramic Ablator(SIRCA and Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator( in the future of aboard lightweight ablators is proposed,which can PICA,finally the development directly borrow or simply draw inspiration for our country in this field.

  9. Optical tecnology developments in biomedicine: history, current and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nioka, Shoko; Chen, Yu

    2011-09-01

    Biomedical optics is a rapidly emerging field for medical imaging and diagnostics. This paper reviews several biomedical optical technologies that have been developed and translated for either clinical or pre-clinical applications. Specifically, we focus on the following technologies: 1) near-infrared spectroscopy and tomography, 2) optical coherence tomography, 3) fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging, and 4) optical molecular imaging. There representative biomedical applications are also discussed here.

  10. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    for the timely replacement of the Los Alamos plutonium research and development and analytical chemistry facility, the uranium facilities at the Oak...most recently in December 2012, to study how plutonium behaves under pressures generated by explosives. It asserts these experiments do not violate...hypotheses are that the device reduced the amount of plutonium used in order to conserve that material, or engineers sought to test the

  11. Current Development of Saliva/Oral fluid-based Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Chih-Ko; Christodoulides, Nicolaos J.; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Weigum, Shannon E.; McDevitt, John; Redding, Spencer W.

    2010-01-01

    Saliva can be easily obtained in medical and non-medical settings, and contains numerous bio-molecules, including those typically found in serum for disease detection and monitoring. In the past two decades, the achievements of high-throughput approaches afforded by biotechnology and nanotechnology allow for disease-specific salivary biomarker discovery and establishment of rapid, multiplex, and miniaturized analytical assays. These developments have dramatically advanced saliva-based diagnos...

  12. World chicken meat market – its development and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vladimirovna Belova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global meat market and primarily the chicken meat market represents a very dynamically developing area. The objective of the present article is the analysis of the chicken meat market in the world in order to identify the basic development trends associated with the development of production of and trade in chicken meat, and also in order to identify the individual entities controlling the global chicken meat market. In methodological terms, the article analyzes the development of production of, consumption of and trade (export and import in chicken meat in the years 1961–2009. The main sources of data necessary for the processing of the individual analyses are the FAOSTAT and UN COMTRADE databases. The results of the conducted analysis show the following findings. World production of poultry meat increased from 7.5 million tons to more than 86 million tons. The global market reacted in a flexible manner, in which there was an increase in volumes of executed trade from 271 thousand tons/year in the year 1961 to more than 10.7 million tons/year in the year 2010. Further, the value of world trade in chicken meat within the analyzed period increased from approximately USD 169 million to approximately USD 16 billion. If we analyze the global chicken meat market, it may be stated that it is very concentrated. The analysis of the global market further shows that Brazil, the USA and China represent, in terms of global production, consumption and trade, the main driving force on the chicken meat market. These three countries have a share in global production of approximately 46%, their share in global consumption ranges at a level of over 40%. The share of these countries in global export ranges at a level exceeding 50%.

  13. European radiological emergency information exchange systems developed at EC-JRC/IES: current status future developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cort, M.; Vries, G. de; Galmarini, S. [European Comission, Ispra (Italy). Inst. for Environment and Sustainability

    2003-07-01

    Shortly after the Chernobyl accident the European Commission initiated various activities with the scope to make early notification and reliable radiological information available to the EU member states in case of nuclear accidents. JRC-IES/REM in Ispra, Italy, is responsible for the scientific and technical development of three closely related projects that should be a source of valuable information to support decision support in European during major radiological accidents: ECURIE (European Community Urgent Radiological Information Exchange) notifies the competent authorities and continuously informs them about the current status of the accident and its consequences; EURDEP (European Radiological Data Exchange Platform) makes radiological monitoring data from most European countries available in real-time. Currently 23 European countries exchange on a daily basis gamma dose-rates; ENSEMBLE produces a comprehensive overview and comparison of the contamination predictions calculated by world-leading long-range dispersion models. Starting from the legal background these information systems are further described in detail, with an emphasis on their current status, our experience and the planned future developments. (orig.)

  14. The Current State and Future Development of Epigenetic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Katsuhide; Ideta-Otsuka, Maky; Narita, Minoru

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetics has drawn much attention as a mechanism of transcriptional regulation involving modifications to genomic DNA and histone, without changes to nucleotide sequences. Epigenetics is related to various biological phenomena. We defined one of these phenomena as "epigenetic toxicity", in which chemicals affect epigenetic regulation and result in undesirable effects on living organisms. We then detailed the importance of epigenetics and the need for intensive research. Epigenetics is a mechanism that might explain the long-lasting effects of chemicals in an organism, and the formation of a predisposition to various diseases. Recent significant technological advancement in the study of epigenetics could break through the barrier of the mysterious black box of epigenetic toxicity. However, at present it is difficult to say whether the epigenetic point of view is being fully utilized in the evaluation of chemical safety. In this review, we will first summarize the epigenetic toxicity research field, with examples of epigenetic toxicities and technologies for epigenetic analysis. Following that, we will point out some challenges in which an epigenetic viewpoint may be essential for the evaluation of chemical safety, and we will show some current approaches. We hope this review will trigger a discussion about epigenetic toxicity that will lead to encouraging research advancements.

  15. Juvenile fibromyalgia: current status of research and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Ting, Tracy V.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive–behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study. PMID:24275966

  16. Epigenetic mechanisms in microbial members of the human microbiota: current knowledge and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Natacha; AlJahdali, Nesreen; Vo, Nguyen; Carbonero, Franck

    2016-09-01

    The human microbiota and epigenetic processes have both been shown to play a crucial role in health and disease. However, there is extremely scarce information on epigenetic modulation of microbiota members except for a few pathogens. Mainly DNA adenine methylation has been described extensively in modulating the virulence of pathogenic bacteria in particular. It would thus appear likely that such mechanisms are widespread for most bacterial members of the microbiota. This review will present briefly the current knowledge on epigenetic processes in bacteria, give examples of known methylation processes in microbial members of the human microbiota and summarize the knowledge on regulation of host epigenetic processes by the human microbiota.

  17. DETERMINANTS OF GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT IN HUMAN MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŢÂMPU DIANA LARISA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world were manner of use of information is crucial in determining the level of performance. Each country around the globe uses a proper way of spreading information and communication. Studies present the Information and Communication Technology (ICT indicator the proper tool to provide an objective evaluation of the countries performance. The question that this research wants to answer is what are the main ways of motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic in countries where ICT Development Index reaches the highest values in the last 2 years. In this way, we want to verify if ICT has different predictors and different possible consequence that depend on human motivation. Thus relying on calculations made by the International Telecommunication Union for ICT and key factors of motivation this paper will present if there is any relationship between citizens motivation and ICT. This hypothesized model will be illustrated with data from thirty developed countries.

  18. Current Status of Dengue Therapeutics Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jenny G H; Ooi, Eng Eong; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2017-03-01

    Dengue is a significant global health problem. Even though a vaccine against dengue is now available, which is a notable achievement, its long-term protective efficacy against each of the 4 dengue virus serotypes remains to be definitively determined. Consequently, drugs directed at the viral targets or critical host mechanisms that can be used safely as prophylaxis or treatment to effectively ameliorate disease or reduce disease severity and fatalities are still needed to reduce the burden of dengue. This review will provide a brief account of the status of therapeutics research and development for dengue. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. Current state and recent developments of child psychiatry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yi; Zheng, Xixi

    2015-01-01

    China has a population of 1.3 billion, of which 238 million are children under age 15. The rapid economic development and social reforms that have taken place in recent years all had a great influence on child and adolescent mental health. Though a nationwide prevalence study for child and adolescent mental disorders in China is lacking, several regional studies have shown the prevalence of mental disorders in children to be close to the worldwide prevalence of 20%. This article reviews the c...

  20. Clinical toxicology in China: current situation and future development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Sun, Chenye; Qiu, Zewu; Ma, Sui; Yu, Xuezhong; Wang, Zhong; Eddleston, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Recent global estimates of deaths from poisoning suggest that more than 150,000 deaths occur each year in China from pesticide poisoning alone. One response from the Chinese government has been to set up Poison Control Centers in each province to improve management. Unfortunately, the epidemiology of poisoning in China is still unclear and there are no specialist clinical toxicologists to take the lead in dealing with the massive loss of life. The objective of this article is to survey the situation of clinical toxicology in China and give some suggestions for its development.

  1. Current possibilities for developing nuclear medicine in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Markova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Focus in this article is placed on the areas of application of nuclear medicine methods, the existing structure of the nuclear medicine market in the world and the scope of implementation of these methods into practice of the Russian health care. Some criteria for selecting the regions and medical institutions to be taking part in the implementation of the national program on the development of nuclear medicine are determined. The existing experience is pooled and the conclusions drawn by experts on the challenges and opportunities of training highly qualified non-medical specialists for nuclear medicine are given.

  2. The Mutual Investments in Romania - Current Developments and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana VIRLANUTA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutual fund industry in Romania has undergone significant growth in recent years in the number of investors and the net assets managed, but still very small compared to other European countries. Capital market development in Romania, the emergence of new investment instruments provides a greater variety of mutual funds investments. Managers decide on the structure of the portfolio by selecting categories of assets in accordance with the rules set out in the Prospectus and according to the degree of risk. In this paper we propose to realize an analysis of mutual investments system in Romania, the progress and their efficiency.

  3. The Contributions of Human Resource Development Research across Disciplines: A Citation and Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeung, Chang-Wook; Yoon, Hea Jun; Park, Sunyoung; Jo, Sung Jun

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of the current study is to identify how human resource development (HRD) research has contributed to the knowledge base across social science disciplines during the past two decades. We identified the top 20 Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) journal articles that have been most frequently cited in research articles…

  4. Community mental health care worldwide: current status and further developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornicroft, Graham; Deb, Tanya; Henderson, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to give an overview of the key issues facing those who are in a position to influence the planning and provision of mental health systems, and who need to address questions of which staff, services and sectors to invest in, and for which patients. The paper considers in turn: a) definitions of community mental health care; b) a conceptual framework to use when evaluating the need for hospital and community mental health care; c) the potential for wider platforms, outside the health service, for mental health improvement, including schools and the workplace; d) data on how far community mental health services have been developed across different regions of the world; e) the need to develop in more detail models of community mental health services for low‐ and middle‐income countries which are directly based upon evidence for those countries; f) how to incorporate mental health practice within integrated models to identify and treat people with comorbid long‐term conditions; g) possible adverse effects of deinstitutionalization. We then present a series of ten recommendations for the future strengthening of health systems to support and treat people with mental illness. PMID:27717265

  5. Community mental health care worldwide: current status and further developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornicroft, Graham; Deb, Tanya; Henderson, Claire

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to give an overview of the key issues facing those who are in a position to influence the planning and provision of mental health systems, and who need to address questions of which staff, services and sectors to invest in, and for which patients. The paper considers in turn: a) definitions of community mental health care; b) a conceptual framework to use when evaluating the need for hospital and community mental health care; c) the potential for wider platforms, outside the health service, for mental health improvement, including schools and the workplace; d) data on how far community mental health services have been developed across different regions of the world; e) the need to develop in more detail models of community mental health services for low- and middle-income countries which are directly based upon evidence for those countries; f) how to incorporate mental health practice within integrated models to identify and treat people with comorbid long-term conditions; g) possible adverse effects of deinstitutionalization. We then present a series of ten recommendations for the future strengthening of health systems to support and treat people with mental illness. © 2016 World Psychiatric Association.

  6. Human dimensions in cyber operations research and development priorities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, James Chris; Silva, Austin Ray; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Bradshaw, Jeffrey [Institute for Human and Machine Cognition

    2012-11-01

    Within cyber security, the human element represents one of the greatest untapped opportunities for increasing the effectiveness of network defenses. However, there has been little research to understand the human dimension in cyber operations. To better understand the needs and priorities for research and development to address these issues, a workshop was conducted August 28-29, 2012 in Washington DC. A synthesis was developed that captured the key issues and associated research questions. Research and development needs were identified that fell into three parallel paths: (1) human factors analysis and scientific studies to establish foundational knowledge concerning factors underlying the performance of cyber defenders; (2) development of models that capture key processes that mediate interactions between defenders, users, adversaries and the public; and (3) development of a multi-purpose test environment for conducting controlled experiments that enables systems and human performance measurement. These research and development investments would transform cyber operations from an art to a science, enabling systems solutions to be engineered to address a range of situations. Organizations would be able to move beyond the current state where key decisions (e.g. personnel assignment) are made on a largely ad hoc basis to a state in which there exist institutionalized processes for assuring the right people are doing the right jobs in the right way. These developments lay the groundwork for emergence of a professional class of cyber defenders with defined roles and career progressions, with higher levels of personnel commitment and retention. Finally, the operational impact would be evident in improved performance, accompanied by a shift to a more proactive response in which defenders have the capacity to exert greater control over the cyber battlespace.

  7. Early androgen exposure and human gender development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Spencer, Debra

    2015-01-01

    During early development, testosterone plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and has enduring influences on behavior. Testosterone exerts these influences at times when the testes are active, as evidenced by higher concentrations of testosterone in developing male than in developing female animals. This article critically reviews the available evidence regarding influences of testosterone on human gender-related development. In humans, testosterone is elevated in males from about weeks 8 to 24 of gestation and then again during early postnatal development. Individuals exposed to atypical concentrations of testosterone or other androgenic hormones prenatally, for example, because of genetic conditions or because their mothers were prescribed hormones during pregnancy, have been consistently found to show increased male-typical juvenile play behavior, alterations in sexual orientation and gender identity (the sense of self as male or female), and increased tendencies to engage in physically aggressive behavior. Studies of other behavioral outcomes following dramatic androgen abnormality prenatally are either too small in their numbers or too inconsistent in their results, to provide similarly conclusive evidence. Studies relating normal variability in testosterone prenatally to subsequent gender-related behavior have produced largely inconsistent results or have yet to be independently replicated. For studies of prenatal exposures in typically developing individuals, testosterone has been measured in single samples of maternal blood or amniotic fluid. These techniques may not be sufficiently powerful to consistently detect influences of testosterone on behavior, particularly in the relatively small samples that have generally been studied. The postnatal surge in testosterone in male infants, sometimes called mini-puberty, may provide a more accessible opportunity for measuring early androgen exposure during typical development. This

  8. Hydrogels for Therapeutic Delivery: Current Developments and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buwalda, Sytze J; Vermonden, Tina; Hennink, Wim E

    2017-02-13

    Hydrogels are attractive materials for the controlled release of therapeutics because of their capacity to embed biologically active agents in their water-swollen network. Recent advances in organic and polymer chemistry, bioengineering and nanotechnology have resulted in several new developments in the field of hydrogels for therapeutic delivery. In this Perspective, we present our view on the state-of-the-art in the field, thereby focusing on a number of exciting topics, including bioorthogonal cross-linking methods, multicomponent hydrogels, stimuli-responsive hydrogels, nanogels, and the release of therapeutics from 3D printed hydrogels. We also describe the challenges that should be overcome to facilitate translation from academia to the clinic and last, we share our ideas about the future of this rapidly evolving area of research.

  9. DATA MINING IN EDUCATION: CURRENT STATE AND PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurii O. Kovalchuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main tasks (classification and regression, association rules, clustering and the basic principles of the Data Mining algorithms in the context of their use for a variety of research in the field of education which are the subject of a relatively new independent direction Educational Data Mining are considered. The findings about the most popular topics of research within this area as well as the perspectives of its development are presented. Presentation of the material is illustrated by simple examples. This article is intended for readers who are engaged in research in the field of education at various levels, especially those involved in the use of e-learning systems, but little familiar with this area of data analysis.

  10. Development of speech prostheses: current status and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, Jonathan S; Guenther, Frank H

    2010-09-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been developed over the past decade to restore communication to persons with severe paralysis. In the most severe cases of paralysis, known as locked-in syndrome, patients retain cognition and sensation, but are capable of only slight voluntary eye movements. For these patients, no standard communication method is available, although some can use BCIs to communicate by selecting letters or words on a computer. Recent research has sought to improve on existing techniques by using BCIs to create a direct prediction of speech utterances rather than to simply control a spelling device. Such methods are the first steps towards speech prostheses as they are intended to entirely replace the vocal apparatus of paralyzed users. This article outlines many well known methods for restoration of communication by BCI and illustrates the difference between spelling devices and direct speech prediction or speech prosthesis.

  11. Current Log-Periodic View on Future World Market Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drożdż, S.; Kwapień, J.; Oświęcimka, P.; Speth, J.

    2008-09-01

    Applicability of the concept of financial log-periodicity is discussed and encouragingly verified for various phases of the world stock markets development in the period 2000-2010. In particular, a speculative forecasting scenario designed in the end of 2004, that properly predicted the world stock market increases in 2007, is updated by setting some more precise constraints on the time of duration of the present long-term equity market bullish phase. A termination of this phase is evaluated to occur in around November 2009. In particular, on the way towards this dead-line, a Spring-Summer 2008 increase is expected. On the precious metals market a forthcoming critical time signal is detected at the turn of March/April 2008 which marks a tendency for at least a serious correction to begin.

  12. Prenatal screening: current practice, new developments, ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Antina; Maya, Idit; van Lith, Jan M M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening pathways, as nowadays offered in most Western countries consist of similar tests. First, a risk-assessment test for major aneuploides is offered to pregnant women. In case of an increased risk, invasive diagnostic tests, entailing a miscarriage risk, are offered. For decades, only conventional karyotyping was used for final diagnosis. Moreover, several foetal ultrasound scans are offered to detect major congenital anomalies, but the same scans also provide relevant information for optimal support of the pregnancy and the delivery. Recent developments in prenatal screening include the application of microarrays that allow for identifying a much broader range of abnomalities than karyotyping, and non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) that enables reducing the number of invasive tests for aneuploidies considerably. In the future, broad NIPT may become possible and affordable. This article will briefly address the ethical issues raised by these technological developments. First, a safe NIPT may lead to routinisation and as such challenge the central issue of informed consent and the aim of prenatal screening: to offer opportunity for autonomous reproductive choice. Widening the scope of prenatal screening also raises the question to what extent 'reproductive autonomy' is meant to expand. Finally, if the same test is used for two different aims, namely detection of foetal anomalies and pregnancy-related problems, non-directive counselling can no longer be taken as a standard. Our broad outline of the ethical issues is meant as an introduction into the more detailed ethical discussions about prenatal screening in the other articles of this special issue. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Late Sodium Current in Human Atrial Cardiomyocytes from Patients in Sinus Rhythm and Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulet, Claire; Wettwer, Erich; Grunnet, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Slowly inactivating Na+ channels conducting "late" Na+ current (INa,late) contribute to ventricular arrhythmogenesis under pathological conditions. INa,late was also reported to play a role in chronic atrial fibrillation (AF). The objective of this study was to investigate INa,late in human right...

  14. The pristine rain forest? Remnants of historical human impacts on current tree species composition and diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, Barend S. van; Olff, Han; Parren, Marc P.E.; Bongers, Frans

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Tropical rain forests are often regarded as pristine and undisturbed by humans. In Central Africa, community-wide disturbances by natural causes are rare and therefore current theory predicts that natural gap phase dynamics structure tree species composition and diversity. However, the dominant

  15. The pristine rain forest? Remnants of historical human impacts on current tree species composition and diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, van B.S.; Olff, H.; Parren, M.P.E.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Aim Tropical rain forests are often regarded as pristine and undisturbed by humans. In Central Africa, community-wide disturbances by natural causes are rare and therefore current theory predicts that natural gap phase dynamics structure tree species composition and diversity. However, the dominant

  16. Interaction of pyroclastic density currents with human settlements: Evidence from ancient Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurioli, Lucia; Pareschi, M. Teresa; Zanella, Elena; Lanza, Roberto; Deluca, Enrico; Bisson, Marina

    2005-06-01

    Integrating field observations and rock-magnetic measurements, we report how a turbulent pyroclastic density current interacted with and moved through an urban area. The data are from the most energetic, turbulent pyroclastic density current of the A.D. 79 eruption of Vesuvius, Italy, which partially destroyed the Roman city of Pompeii. Our results show that the urban fabric was able to divide the lower portion of the current into several streams that followed the city walls and the intracity roads. Vortices, revealed by upstream particle orientations and decreases in deposit temperature, formed downflow of obstacles or inside cavities. Although these perturbations affected only the lower part of the current and were localized, they could represent, in certain cases, cooler zones within which chances of human survival are increased. Our integrated field data for pyroclastic density current temperature and flow direction, collected for the first time across an urban environment, enable verification of coupled thermodynamic numerical models and their hazard simulation abilities.

  17. Current views on the potential for development of a HIV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kristen W; Frahm, Nicole

    2017-03-01

    Despite many recent advances in the HIV prevention landscape, an effective vaccine remains the most promising tool to end the HIV-1 pandemic. Areas covered: This review summarizes past HIV vaccine efficacy trials and current vaccine strategies as well as new approaches about to move into first-in-human trials. Expert opinion: Despite many setbacks in early HIV vaccine efficacy trials, the success of RV144 has provided the glimmer of hope necessary to invigorate the vaccine field, and has led to the development of a large number of vaccine strategies aiming at inducing an array of different immune responses. The follow-up pox-protein trials, developed to replicate and enhance the polyfunctional antibody responses induced by the RV144 regimen, are already reaching efficacy trials, while a large body of work providing a more complete understanding of the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies is now being translated into immunogen design using several different strategies. T-cell based vaccines, fallen out of favor after Ad5-based trials showed increased infection rates in Ad5 seropositive vaccine recipients, are experiencing a comeback based in part on the promising results from non-human primate challenge studies using rhCMV-based immunogens. This diverse array of vaccine candidates may finally allow us to identify a broadly effective HIV vaccine able to contain the epidemic.

  18. Current Developments in Basic Space Science in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, P. N.

    Astronomy is important to developing African countries. In this paper, a brief review of the situation of astronomical research in Africa before 1991 is given. During that period only South Africa and Egypt were carrying out observational research in astronomy. In other African countries astronomy research was in its infancy, except the University of Nigeria Space Research Centre (UNNSRC) in theoretical areas. A summary of the important recommendations for Africa at the United Nations/ European Space Agency (UN/ESA) series of workshops on basic space science were itemized to help identify those which have now been accomplished. Additionally, UNNSRC has now embarked on further observational programmes through the establishment of strong collaborative ventures with two observatories in South Africa, the Hartesbeesthoek Radio Astronomical Observatory (Hart RAO) and the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). UNNSRC has also made permanent arrangements with HartRAO, SAAO, and the Jodrell Bank for collaborations in data analysis. A new interest in astronomy appears to have awakened in Nigeria with three more universities joining this area of basic space science. It is recommended that the time has come for all African countries to contribute towards a common facility such as the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The efforts of UN/ESA which resulted in tremendous achievements are commended.

  19. Solar and Space Weather Radiophysics Current Status and Future Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Gary, Dale E

    2005-01-01

    The book explores what can be learned about the Sun and interplanetary space using present-day and future radio observations and techniques. The emphasis is on interpretation of radio data with high spatial and spectral resolution, motivated by the planned construction of a new, powerful, solar-dedicated radio array called the Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR). The book is unique in exploring a broad frequency range, which corresponds to heights ranging from the low solar atmosphere out to the Earth. The book contains a thorough review of the entire field of solar and Space Weather radio research; gives background information suitable for advanced undergraduates, graduates, and researchers in solar and Space Weather research and related fields; and looks at what new results may be expected in the next two decades with FASR and other new instruments now under development. The individual chapters are written by international experts in each topic, and although each chapter may be read as a stand-alone...

  20. Curative treatment of oesophageal carcinoma: current options and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruns Christiane

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the 1980s major advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have established multimodal approaches as curative treatment options for oesophageal cancer. In addition the introduction of functional imaging modalities such as PET-CT created new opportunities for a more adequate patient selection and therapy response assessment. The majority of oesophageal carcinomas are represented by two histologies: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. In recent years an epidemiological shift towards the latter was observed. From a surgical point of view, adenocarcinomas, which are usually located in the distal third of the oesophagus, may be treated with a transhiatal resection, whereas squamous cell carcinomas, which are typically found in the middle and the upper third, require a transthoracic approach. Since overall survival after surgery alone is poor, multimodality approaches have been developed. At least for patients with locally advanced tumors, surgery alone can no longer be advocated as routine treatment. Nowadays, scientific interest is focused on tumor response to induction radiochemotherapy. A neoadjuvant approach includes the early and accurate assessment of clinical response, optimally performed by repeated PET-CT imaging and endoscopic ultrasound, which may permit early adaption of the therapeutic concept. Patients with SCC that show clinical response by PET CT are considered to have a better prognosis, regardless of whether surgery will be performed or not. In non-responding patients salvage surgery improves survival, especially if complete resection is achieved.

  1. Overview of robotic colorectal surgery: Current and future practical developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sudipta; Evans, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Minimal access surgery has revolutionised colorectal surgery by offering reduced morbidity and mortality over open surgery, while maintaining oncological and functional outcomes with the disadvantage of additional practical challenges. Robotic surgery aids the surgeon in overcoming these challenges. Uptake of robotic assistance has been relatively slow, mainly because of the high initial and ongoing costs of equipment but also because of limited evidence of improved patient outcomes. Advances in robotic colorectal surgery will aim to widen the scope of minimal access surgery to allow larger and more complex surgery through smaller access and natural orifices and also to make the technology more economical, allowing wider dispersal and uptake of robotic technology. Advances in robotic endoscopy will yield self-advancing endoscopes and a widening role for capsule endoscopy including the development of motile and steerable capsules able to deliver localised drug therapy and insufflation as well as being recharged from an extracorporeal power source to allow great longevity. Ultimately robotic technology may advance to the point where many conventional surgical interventions are no longer required. With respect to nanotechnology, surgery may eventually become obsolete. PMID:26981188

  2. Invasive FFR — Current Applications and New Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiţu Monica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial ischemia caused by coronary atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular mortality, which is the first cause of death in developed countries. Inducible myocardial ischemia is a negative prognostic factor for coronary artery disease patients, and it represents a major risk stratification marker for predicting mortality. The evolution of these patients depends largely on the extension of the ischemic myocardial mass and the severity of the inducible ischemia. Most patients do not show angiographically significant coronary stenosis. Therefore, such patients do not undergo coronary revascularization therapies, even though they present functional stenoses that trigger myocardial ischemia under stress conditions, which subsequently lead to a high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. We performed a review that aims to pinpoint invasive techniques used for evaluating the functional impact of a coronary lesion that is considered non-significant upon angiographic examination, but which triggers episodes of myocardial ischemia under stress conditions, and to describe the functional markers that show the highest specificity for predicting ischemic risk, in order to recommend invasive coronary revascularization.

  3. Current Developments and Best Practice in Open and Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Rocha Trinidade

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the many documents regularly emitted by those dedicated to this activity, it is comparatively easy to describe factual developments in the field of open and distance education in different places in the world. However, it is much more difficult to produce judgements of value about their quality. Quality is a subjective rather than an absolute concept and may be examined from different analytical perspectives: consumers' satisfaction level, intrinsic value of scientific and technical content of learning materials, soundness of learning strategies, efficiency of organisation and procedures, adequate use of advanced technologies, reliability of student support mechanisms, etc.These parameters should be put into the context of specific objectives, nature of target populations and availability of different kinds of resources. In a specific geographic, social, economic and cultural situation a given set of solutions might be judged as adequate and deserving the qualification of "good practice," while in a different context it could be considered of rather poor quality.The selection of examples in this article is the sole responsibility of the authors: neither should the chosen cases be considered as clearly better than any other one, nor missing cases be interpreted as lack of appreciation or a negative judgement.Finally, the authors are aware of the risks of interpreting trends and trying to extrapolate them into the near future: readers should use their own judgement in accepting (or forcefully rejecting these projections.

  4. Growth, human development, and trade: the Asian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa,Ghulam; Rizov, Marian; Kernohan, David

    2017-01-01

    This study looks at the three-way relationship between economic growth, human development, and openness to trade in a large panel of developing Asian economies. Using a theoretically motivated simultaneous equations system, we find that although human development contributes positively to economic growth, in the case of our Asian sample growth does not appear to have had a positive influence on human development. Uneven growth accompanied by lagging institutional development, preventing human...

  5. Current Developments in Antimicrobial Surface Coatings for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartjes, J J T M; Sharma, P K; van Kooten, T G; van der Mei, H C; Mahmoudi, M; Busscher, H J; Rochford, E T J

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation on material surfaces represent a serious problem in society from both an economical and health perspective. Surface coating approaches to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are of increased importance due to the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains. Effective antimicrobial surface coatings can be based on an anti-adhesive principle that prevents bacteria to adhere, or on bactericidal strategies, killing organisms either before or after contact is made with the surface. Many strategies, however, implement a multifunctional approach that incorporates both of these mechanisms. For anti-adhesive strategies, the use of polymer chains, or hydrogels is preferred, although recently a new class of super-hydrophobic surfaces has been described which demonstrate improved anti-adhesive activity. In addition, bacterial killing can be achieved using antimicrobial peptides, antibiotics, chitosan or enzymes directly bound, tethered through spacer-molecules or encased in biodegradable matrices, nanoparticles and quaternary ammonium compounds. Notwithstanding the ubiquitous nature of the problem of microbial colonization of material surfaces, this review focuses on the recent developments in antimicrobial surface coatings with respect to biomaterial implants and devices. In this biomedical arena, to rank the different coating strategies in order of increasing efficacy is impossible, since this depends on the clinical application aimed for and whether expectations are short- or long term. Considering that the era of antibiotics to control infectious biofilms will eventually come to an end, the future for biofilm control on biomaterial implants and devices is likely with surface-associated modifications that are non-antibiotic related.

  6. Human Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: An Update on NASA's Current Status and Proposed Activities for Small Body Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Larman, K. T.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. Dynamical Assessment: The current near-term NASA human spaceflight capability is in the process of being defined while the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and Space Launch System (SLS) are still in development. Hence, those NEAs in more accessible heliocentric orbits relative to a minimal interplanetary exploration capability will be considered for the first missions. If total mission durations for the first voyages to NEAs are to be kept to less than one year, with minimal velocity changes, then NEA rendezvous missions ideally will take place within 0.1 AU of Earth (approx about 5 million km or 37 lunar distances). Human Exploration Considerations: These missions would be the first human expeditions to inter-planetary bodies beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars, Phobos and Deimos, and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting detailed scientific investigations of these primitive objects. Current analyses of operational concepts suggest that stay times of 15 to 30 days may be possible at these destinations. In addition, the

  7. A human development framework for CO2 reductions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Costa

    Full Text Available Although developing countries are called to participate in CO(2 emission reduction efforts to avoid dangerous climate change, the implications of proposed reduction schemes in human development standards of developing countries remain a matter of debate. We show the existence of a positive and time-dependent correlation between the Human Development Index (HDI and per capita CO(2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Employing this empirical relation, extrapolating the HDI, and using three population scenarios, the cumulative CO(2 emissions necessary for developing countries to achieve particular HDI thresholds are assessed following a Development As Usual approach (DAU. If current demographic and development trends are maintained, we estimate that by 2050 around 85% of the world's population will live in countries with high HDI (above 0.8. In particular, 300 Gt of cumulative CO(2 emissions between 2000 and 2050 are estimated to be necessary for the development of 104 developing countries in the year 2000. This value represents between 20 % to 30 % of previously calculated CO(2 budgets limiting global warming to 2 °C. These constraints and results are incorporated into a CO(2 reduction framework involving four domains of climate action for individual countries. The framework reserves a fair emission path for developing countries to proceed with their development by indexing country-dependent reduction rates proportional to the HDI in order to preserve the 2 °C target after a particular development threshold is reached. For example, in each time step of five years, countries with an HDI of 0.85 would need to reduce their per capita emissions by approx. 17% and countries with an HDI of 0.9 by 33 %. Under this approach, global cumulative emissions by 2050 are estimated to range from 850 up to 1100 Gt of CO(2. These values are within the uncertainty range of emissions to limit global temperatures to 2 °C.

  8. Wave-current interactions: model development and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayet, Clement; Lyard, Florent; Ardhuin, Fabrice

    2013-04-01

    The coastal area concentrates many uses that require integrated management based on diagnostic and predictive tools to understand and anticipate the future of pollution from land or sea, and learn more about natural hazards at sea or activity on the coast. The realistic modelling of coastal hydrodynamics needs to take into account various processes which interact, including tides, surges, and sea state (Wolf [2008]). These processes act at different spatial scales. Unstructured-grid models have shown the ability to satisfy these needs, given that a good mesh resolution criterion is used. We worked on adding a sea state forcing in a hydrodynamic circulation model. The sea state model is the unstructured version of WAVEWATCH III c (Tolman [2008]) (which version is developed at IFREMER, Brest (Ardhuin et al. [2010]) ), and the hydrodynamic model is the 2D barotropic module of the unstructured-grid finite element model T-UGOm (Le Bars et al. [2010]). We chose to use the radiation stress approach (Longuet-Higgins and Stewart [1964]) to represent the effect of surface waves (wind waves and swell) in the barotropic model, as previously done by Mastenbroek et al. [1993]and others. We present here some validation of the model against academic cases : a 2D plane beach (Haas and Warner [2009]) and a simple bathymetric step with analytic solution for waves (Ardhuin et al. [2008]). In a second part we present realistic application in the Ushant Sea during extreme event. References Ardhuin, F., N. Rascle, and K. Belibassakis, Explicit wave-averaged primitive equations using a generalized Lagrangian mean, Ocean Modelling, 20 (1), 35-60, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.07.001, 2008. Ardhuin, F., et al., Semiempirical Dissipation Source Functions for Ocean Waves. Part I: Definition, Calibration, and Validation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40 (9), 1917-1941, doi:10.1175/2010JPO4324.1, 2010. Haas, K. A., and J. C. Warner, Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and

  9. MONOAMINE OXIDASE: RADIOTRACER DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN STUDIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER,J.S.; LOGAN,J.; VOLKOW,N.D.; WANG,G.J.; MACGREGOR,R.R.; DING,Y.S.

    2000-09-28

    PET is uniquely capable of providing information on biochemical transformations in the living human body. Although most of the studies of monoamine oxidase (MAO) have focused on measurements in the brain, the role of peripheral MAO as a phase 1 enzyme for the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics is gaining attention (Strolin Benedetti and Tipton, 1998; Castagnoli et al., 1997.). MAO is well suited for this role because its concentration in organs such as kidneys, liver and digestive organs is high sometimes exceeding that in the brain. Knowledge of the distribution of the MAO subtypes within different organs and different cells is important in determining which substrates (and which drugs and xenobiotics) have access to which MAO subtypes. The highly variable subtype distribution with different species makes human studies even more important. In addition, the deleterious side effects of combining MAO inhibitors with other drugs and with foodstuffs makes it important to know the MAO inhibitory potency of different drugs both in the brain and in peripheral organs (Ulus et al., 2000). Clearly PET can play a role in answering these questions, in drug research and development and in discovering some of the factors which contribute to the highly variable MAO levels in different individuals.

  10. Current insights into the role of human β-defensins in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieosilapatham, P; Ogawa, H; Niyonsaba, F

    2017-11-01

    Anti-microbial peptides or host defence peptides are small molecules that display both anti-microbial activities and complex immunomodulatory functions to protect against various diseases. Among these peptides, the human β-defensins (hBDs) are localized primarily in epithelial surfaces, including those of the skin, where they contribute to protective barriers. In atopic dermatitis skin lesions, altered skin barrier and immune dysregulation are believed to be responsible for reduced hBD synthesis. Impaired hBD expression in the skin is reportedly the leading cause of increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infection in patients with atopic dermatitis. Although hBDs have considerable beneficial effects as anti-microbial agents and immunomodulators and may ameliorate atopic dermatitis clinically, recent evidence has also suggested the negative effects of hBDs in atopic dermatitis development. In the current review, we provide an overview of the regulation of hBDs and their role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. The efforts to utilize these molecules in clinical applications are also described. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  11. Human bite injuries to the head and neck: current trends and management protocols in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Glyndwr W; Isaac, Robert; Mustafa, Shakir

    2018-03-01

    Human bite injuries can be challenging in their presentation to the examining physician. In a study by Merchant et al., 18% of patients presenting with a human bite injury had suffered wounds to the head and neck region. Current trends in their initial management at presentation to emergency departments throughout England and Wales will be discussed in this paper. A postal survey was sent out to 100 A&E lead clinicians. This was followed up by telephone enquiries to improve the response rate. The collated results of the survey were entered onto a spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel©) for the purpose of statistical review. A 68% response rate from A&E departments throughout England and Wales demonstrated a lack of consensus in the initial management and subsequent treatment of human bite injuries. Written protocols are in place for human bite injuries in 54.4% of units. In 100% of units, initial management involves irrigation +/- debridement of the wound, though there is a lack of agreement on the surgical management of the wound. 77.9% of units follow 'needle stick protocols' when stratifying risk for blood-borne viruses. Human bites pose a number of unique problems, ranging from cellulitis to the transmission of communicable diseases. The maxillofacial surgeon has the added dilemmas surrounding subsequent repair and reconstruction. Appreciation of the complexity of human bite injuries will ensure optimal care for the patient. We propose a set of guidelines developed 'in-house' to assist in the management of human bite injuries.

  12. HUMAN POTENTIAL AS A STRATEGIC FACTOR OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Korobeynikov

    2008-01-01

    The article gives an insight of human potential as the strategic factor of regional development. The matter of human potential and its role in regional reproducing process is considered; regional intellectual potential as an integral part of human potential is analysed. The author outlines major directions of active social policy, aimed to develop regional human potential.

  13. Individual differences in human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy T

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses recent scientific advances in the study of individual differences in human brain development. Focusing on structural neuroimaging measures of brain morphology and tissue properties, two kinds of variability are related and explored: differences across individuals of the same age and differences across age as a result of development. A recent multidimensional modeling study is explained, which was able to use brain measures to predict an individual's chronological age within about one year on average, in children, adolescents, and young adults between 3 and 20 years old. These findings reveal great regularity in the sequence of the aggregate brain state across different ages and phases of development, despite the pronounced individual differences people show on any single brain measure at any given age. Future research is suggested, incorporating additional measures of brain activity and function. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1389. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1389 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 The Authors. WIREs Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Sustainable human development: an educational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar AZNAR MÍNGUET

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Human Development (hereafter SHD is taking shape as a proposal for progress in the face of a crisis in civilization so complex and far-reaching that it is considered quite difficult to solve. The aim of this article is to offer a reasoned justification of the evolution of the concept of development and of the need for an educational commitment to be able to make progress towards it. Although it is still polemical and the object of criticism, SHD has become consolidated as a strongly ethical proposal to lead the change in the course of development, transversally affecting its multiple dimensions and advocating interdisciplinary and intercultural cooperation and dialogue. The article analyses the challenges posed by SHD to today’s global society, as well as some ways to respond to them from the field of educational action and research. It concludes with a reasoned structuring of the contents of the monograph and an analytical description of the contents of the different contributions.

  15. Infant feeding, poverty and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of the International Breastfeeding Journal's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. It is proposed that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding to 12 months, could prevent 1,301,000 deaths or 13% of all child deaths under 5 years in a hypothetical year. Although there is a conventional wisdom that poverty 'protects' breastfeeding in developing countries, poverty actually threatens breastfeeding, both directly and indirectly. In the light of increasingly aggressive marketing behaviour of the infant formula manufacturers and the need to protect the breastfeeding rights of working women, urgent action is required to ensure the principles and aim of the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes, and subsequent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly, are implemented. If global disparities in infant health and development are to be significantly reduced, gender inequities associated with reduced access to education and inadequate nutrition for girls need to be addressed. Improving women's physical and mental health will lead to better developmental outcomes for their children.

  16. A human-oriented framework for developing assistive service robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Conor; Cullinan, Michael F; Culleton, Mark; Kelly, Kevin

    2018-04-01

    Multipurpose robots that can perform a range of useful tasks have the potential to increase the quality of life for many people living with disabilities. Owing to factors such as high system complexity, as-yet unresolved research questions and current technology limitations, there is a need for effective strategies to coordinate the development process. Integrating established methodologies based on human-centred design and universal design, a framework was formulated to coordinate the robot design process over successive iterations of prototype development. An account is given of how the framework was practically applied to the problem of developing a personal service robot. Application of the framework led to the formation of several design goals which addressed a wide range of identified user needs. The resultant prototype solution, which consisted of several component elements, succeeded in demonstrating the performance stipulated by all of the proposed metrics. Application of the framework resulted in the development of a complex prototype that addressed many aspects of the functional and usability requirements of a personal service robot. Following the process led to several important insights which directly benefit the development of subsequent prototypes. Implications for Rehabilitation This research shows how universal design might be used to formulate usability requirements for assistive service robots. A framework is presented that guides the process of designing service robots in a human-centred way. Through practical application of the framework, a prototype robot system that addressed a range of identified user needs was developed.

  17. Human Factors in Virtual Reality Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This half-day tutorial will provide an overview of basic perceptual functioning as it relates to the design of virtual environment systems. The tutorial consists of three parts. First, basic issues in visual perception will be presented, including discussions of the visual sensations of brightness and color, and the visual perception of depth relationships in three-dimensional space (with a special emphasis on motion -specified depth). The second section will discuss the importance of conducting human-factors user studies and evaluations. Examples and suggestions on how best to get help with user studies will be provided. Finally, we will discuss how, by drawing on their complementary competencies, perceptual psychologists and computer engineers can work as a team to develop optimal VR systems, technologies, and techniques.

  18. The current concepts in management of animal (dog, cat, snake, scorpion) and human bite wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hassan; Rhee, Peter; Pandit, Viraj; Tang, Andrew; Gries, Lynn; Joseph, Bellal

    2015-03-01

    Animal and human bite wounds represent a significant global health issue. In the United States, animal and human bites are a very common health issue, causing significant morbidity and even, in rare scenarios, mortality. Most animal bite wounds in the United States are caused by dogs, with cat bites being a distant second. Human bite wounds constitute a dominant subset of all bite wounds. Several studies of bite wounds have reported improved outcomes with early diagnosis and immediate treatment. However, the available literature on the initial treatment provides a plethora of conflicting opinions and results. In this review, our aim was to identify and assess the current evidence on the management of animal (dog, cat, insects, scorpions, and snakes) and human bite wounds. Review article, level III.

  19. Current Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnt Nielsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The most important amendments to the Brussels I Regulation as adopted during the recast negotiations are presented and discussed. The author focuses on four subjects: first, the application of Brussels I to cases where the defendant is domiciled outside the EU; second, the abolition of exequatur;...

  20. Drug development for the irritable bowel syndrome: current challenges and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio eDe Ponti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Medications are frequently used for the treatment of patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, although their actual benefit is often debated. In fact, the recent progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of IBS, accompanied by a large number of preclinical and clinical studies of new drugs, has not been matched by a significant improvement of the armamentarium of medications available to treat IBS. The aim of this review is to outline the current challenges in drug development for IBS, taking advantage of what we have learnt through the Rome process (Rome I, Rome II and Rome III. The key questions that will be addressed are: a do we still believe in the "magic bullet", i.e. a very selective drug displaying a single receptor mechanism capable of controlling IBS symptoms? b IBS is a "functional disorder" where complex neuroimmune and brain-gut interactions occur and minimal inflammation is often documented: do we need to target gut motility, visceral sensitivity or minimal inflammation? c are there validated biomarkers (accepted by regulatory agencies for studies of sensation and motility with experimental medications in humans? d do animal models have predictive and translational value? d in the era of personalised medicine, does pharmacogenomics applied to these medications already play a role? Finally, this review will briefly outline medications currently used or in development for IBS. It is anticipated that a more focussed interaction between basic science investigators, pharmacologists and clinicians will lead to better treatment of IBS.

  1. The epidemic of HIV/AIDS in developing countries; the current scenario in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Muhammad Z; Zia, Sadia; Babar, Masroor E; Ashfaq, Usman A

    2011-08-12

    HIV (Human Immunodeficiency virus) causes (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) AIDS, in which the immune system of body totally fails to develop any defense against the foreign invaders. Infection with HIV occurs by transfer of blood, semen, and breast milk. HIV/AIDS is a global problem and it results nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Developing countries like Pakistan have issues regarding Public Health. Currently, epidemic of HIV/AIDS is established in Pakistan and there is a threat of an expanded HIV/AIDS outbreak in the country. The major reason is that population is engaging in high-risk practices, low awareness about HIV/AIDS, and treacherous blood transfusion practices. A supplementary threat to Pakistan is India because both sharing a border and India is facing a rapidly growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Local NGOs, National and International organizations are warning that in near future Pakistan may experiences bad situation regarding HIV/AIDS.In the present article we focused current situation of surveillance of HIV/AIDS, its virology, genotype, diagnostics, high-risk groups, reasons of vulnerability in Pakistani population, and the role of different national and international organizations in this situation.

  2. The epidemic of HIV/AIDS in developing countries; the current scenario in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Masroor E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV (Human Immunodeficiency virus causes (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS, in which the immune system of body totally fails to develop any defense against the foreign invaders. Infection with HIV occurs by transfer of blood, semen, and breast milk. HIV/AIDS is a global problem and it results nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Developing countries like Pakistan have issues regarding Public Health. Currently, epidemic of HIV/AIDS is established in Pakistan and there is a threat of an expanded HIV/AIDS outbreak in the country. The major reason is that population is engaging in high-risk practices, low awareness about HIV/AIDS, and treacherous blood transfusion practices. A supplementary threat to Pakistan is India because both sharing a border and India is facing a rapidly growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Local NGOs, National and International organizations are warning that in near future Pakistan may experiences bad situation regarding HIV/AIDS. In the present article we focused current situation of surveillance of HIV/AIDS, its virology, genotype, diagnostics, high-risk groups, reasons of vulnerability in Pakistani population, and the role of different national and international organizations in this situation.

  3. Standard development at the Human Variome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy D; Vihinen, Mauno

    2015-01-01

    The Human Variome Project (HVP) is a world organization working towards facilitating the collection, curation, interpretation and free and open sharing of genetic variation information. A key component of HVP activities is the development of standards and guidelines. HVP Standards are systems, procedures and technologies that the HVP Consortium has determined must be used by HVP-affiliated data sharing infrastructure and should be used by the broader community. HVP guidelines are considered to be beneficial for HVP affiliated data sharing infrastructure and the broader community to adopt. The HVP also maintains a process for assessing systems, processes and tools that implement HVP Standards and Guidelines. Recommended System Status is an accreditation process designed to encourage the adoption of HVP Standards and Guidelines. Here, we describe the HVP standards development process and discuss the accepted standards, guidelines and recommended systems as well as those under acceptance. Certain HVP Standards and Guidelines are already widely adopted by the community and there are committed users for the others. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Characterization of eddy current distortion effects on magnetic resonance axonography of human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafiey, Ibrahim; Narayana, Ponnada A.

    2002-05-01

    Axonography of human brain, based on diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI), has recently gained popularity because of its potential in providing crucial information about intercommunication between different regions of brain. This technique exploits the sensitivity of MRI to random water diffusion in tissues in the presence of diffusion gradient pulses incorporated into the imaging sequence. Large diffusion weighting that is necessary for the generation of axonography with high SNR is achieved by increasing the magnitude of diffusion pulses. However large diffusion gradients induce strong eddy currents in the metallic structure of the cryostat that houses the superconducting coil of the scanner magnet, resulting in distortion of magnetic resonance images. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of eddy currents on images obtained using the DT-MRI of human brain. Characterization of eddy current effects is essential for optimizing the scanning parameters and improving image quality. All MRI studies were performed on 1.5-T GE scanner, using single shot diffusion weighed echo planar imaging sequence. All acquisitions were cardiac gated for minimizing the pulsation effect of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the images. Diffusion gradient- or b-space was explored using a set of 62 directions along the two poles, and 60 other directions. Total scan time was less than three minutes. The exploration of the b-space helps quantify the relationship between the orientation of diffusion gradients and eddy current levels. Experimental results demonstrate that certain directions are more prone to eddy current-induced image distortions. Determining the optimum gradient directions should present a powerful technique for reducing eddy current distortion, and thus enhance the use of MRI axonography for a noninvasive assessment of human brain.

  5. 310 The Impact of Philosophy to Human Development Henry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development in the human society today which is likened to globalization is unfolded by the simple activity of philosophy. Introduction. Philosophy plays a fundamental role in human development. As love of wisdom, it instills in the human mind a hard look and critical attitude towards issues and in our case development. It ...

  6. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog–human dyad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne E

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Elyssa Payne,1 Pauleen C Bennett,2 Paul D McGreevy1 1Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, Bendigo, VIC, Australia Abstract: This article reviews recent research concerning dog–human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog–human bond. Of particular importance are the influences of human attitudes and personality. These themes have received surprisingly little attention from researchers. Identifying human attributes that contribute to successful dog–human relationships could assist in the development of a behavioral template to ensure dyadic potential is optimized. Additionally, this article reveals how dyadic functionality and working performance may not necessarily be mutually inclusive. Potential underpinnings of various dog–human relationships and how these may influence dogs' perceptions of their handlers are also discussed. The article considers attachment bonds between humans and dogs, how these may potentially clash with or complement each other, and the effects of different bonds on the dog–human dyad as a whole. We review existing tools designed to measure the dog–human bond and offer potential refinements to improve their accuracy. Positive attitudes and affiliative interactions seem to contribute to the enhanced well-being of both species, as reflected in resultant physiological changes. Thus, promoting positive dog–human relationships would capitalize on these benefits, thereby improving animal welfare. Finally, this article proposes future research directions that may assist in disambiguating what constitutes successful bonding between dogs and the humans in their lives. Keywords: human–animal bond, personality, attitudes, social learning, affective state, dog

  7. Oriental Culture and Human Rights Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leon Wessels

    rights, in dignity and the worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women of nations large and small …8. This is trite. I am not aware of any state trying to qualify or entering a reservation when joining the United Nations system. 1.2.2 UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS (UDHR). The Human ...

  8. TREK-1 currents in smooth muscle cells from pregnant human myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Nathanael S; Cowles, Chad L; Barnett, Scott D; Wu, Yi-Ying; Cullison, Charles; Singer, Cherie A; Leblanc, Normand; Buxton, Iain L O

    2013-09-15

    The mechanisms governing maintenance of quiescence during pregnancy remain largely unknown. The current study characterizes a stretch-activated, tetraethylammonium-insensitive K(+) current in smooth muscle cells isolated from pregnant human myometrium. This study hypothesizes that these K(+) currents can be attributed to TREK-1 and that upregulation of this channel during pregnancy assists with the maintenance of a negative cell membrane potential, conceivably contributing to uterine quiescence until full term. The results of this study demonstrate that, in pregnant human myometrial cells, outward currents at 80 mV increased from 4.8 ± 1.5 to 19.4 ± 7.5 pA/pF and from 3.0 ± 0.8 to 11.8 ± 2.7 pA/pF with application of arachidonic acid (AA) and NaHCO3, respectively, causing intracellular acidification. Similarly, outward currents were inhibited following application of 10 μM fluphenazine by 51.2 ± 9.8% after activation by AA and by 73.9 ± 4.2% after activation by NaHCO3. In human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells stably expressing TREK-1, outward currents at 80 mV increased from 91.0 ± 23.8 to 247.5 ± 73.3 pA/pF and from 34.8 ± 8.9 to 218.6 ± 45.0 pA/pF with application of AA and NaHCO3, respectively. Correspondingly, outward currents were inhibited 89.5 ± 2.3% by 10 μM fluphenazine following activation by AA and by 91.6 ± 3.4% following activation by NaHCO3. Moreover, currents in human myometrial cells were activated by stretch and were reduced by transfection with small interfering RNA or extracellular acidification. Understanding gestational regulation of expression and gating of TREK-1 channels could be important in determining appropriate maintenance of uterine quiescence during pregnancy.

  9. Genetic correlation between current circulating H1N1 swine and human influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Yin, Yanbo; Sun, Zhongsheng; Gao, Lei; Gao, George F; Liu, Sidang; Sun, Lei; Liu, Wenjun

    2010-11-01

    H1N1 is the main subtype influenza A virus circulating in human and swine population, and has long been a threat to economy and public health. To explore the genetic correlation between current circulating H1N1 swine and human influenza viruses. Three new H1N1 swine influenza viruses (SIVs) were isolated and genomes sequencing were conducted followed by phylogenetic and molecular analysis of all swine and human H1N1 influenza viruses isolated in China in the past five years. Homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three isolates possessed different characteristics: the genome of A/Swine/Shandong/1112/2008 was closely related to that of classical H1N1 SIV, while A/Swine/Shandong/1123/2008 was a reassortant with NS gene from the human-like H3N2 influenza virus and other genes from the classical H1N1 SIV, and A/Swine/Fujian/0325/2008 fell into a lineage of seasonal human H1N1 influenza viruses. Genetically, 2009 H1N1 influenza A viruses (2009 H1N1) in China were contiguous to the SIV lineages rather than the seasonal H1N1 human influenza virus's lineage. Furthermore, molecular analysis among human and swine influenza viruses provided more detail information for understanding their genetic correlation. These results suggested that in China in the past five years, the classical, avian-like and human-like H1N1 SIV existed in swine herds and the reassortment between H1N1 swine and H3N2 human influenza viruses was identified. In addition, the present data showed no evidence to support a strong correlation between the 2009 H1N1 and the swine influenza virus circulating in China. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anatomy, Development, and Function of the Human Pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva, Jeremy M; Rosenberg, Karen R

    2017-04-01

    The pelvis is an anatomically complex and functionally informative bone that contributes directly to both human locomotion and obstetrics. Because of the pelvis' important role in obstetrics, it is one of the most sexually dimorphic bony elements of the human body. The complex intersection of pelvic dimorphism, locomotion, and obstetrics has been reenergized by exciting new research, and many papers in this special issue of the pelvis help provide clarity on the relationship between pelvic form (especially female) and locomotor function. Compared to the pelvis of our ape relatives, the human pelvis is uniquely shaped; it is superoinferiorly short and stout, and mediolaterally wide-critical adaptations for bipedalism that are already present in some form very early in the history of the hominin lineage. In this issue, 13 original research papers address the anatomy, development, variation, and function of the modern human pelvis, with implications for understanding the selection pressures that shaped and continue to shape this bone. This rich collection of scholarship moves our understanding of the pelvis forward, while raising dozens of new questions that we hope will serve as inspiration for colleagues and students (both current and future) puzzled by this fascinatingly complex bone. Anat Rec, 300:628-632, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However...

  12. Current views on hunter-gatherer nutrition and the evolution of the human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Alyssa N; Schnorr, Stephanie L

    2017-01-01

    Diet composition and food choice are not only central to the daily lives of all living people, but are consistently linked with turning points in human evolutionary history. As such, scholars from a wide range of fields have taken great interest in the role that subsistence has played in both human cultural and biological evolution. Central to this discussion is the diet composition and nutrition of contemporary hunters and gatherers, who are frequently conscripted as model populations for ancestral human nutrition. Research among the world's few remaining foraging populations is experiencing a resurgence, as they are making the final transition away from diets composed of wild foods, to those dominated by domesticated cultigens and/or processed foods. In an effort to glean as much information as possible, before such populations are no longer hunting and gathering, researchers interested in the evolution of human nutrition are rapidly collecting and accessing new and more data. Methods of scientific inquiry are in the midst of rapid change and scholars are able to revisit long-standing questions using state of the art analyses. Here, using the most relevant findings from studies in ethnography, nutrition, human physiology, and microbiomes, we provide a brief summary of the study of the evolution of human nutrition as it has specifically pertained to data coming from living hunter-gatherers. In doing so, we hope to bridge the disciplines that are currently invested in research on nutrition and health among foraging populations. © 2017 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  13. Transcranial alternating current stimulation enhances individual alpha activity in human EEG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tino Zaehle

    Full Text Available Non-invasive electrical stimulation of the human cortex by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been instrumental in a number of important discoveries in the field of human cortical function and has become a well-established method for evaluating brain function in healthy human participants. Recently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS has been introduced to directly modulate the ongoing rhythmic brain activity by the application of oscillatory currents on the human scalp. Until now the efficiency of tACS in modulating rhythmic brain activity has been indicated only by inference from perceptual and behavioural consequences of electrical stimulation. No direct electrophysiological evidence of tACS has been reported. We delivered tACS over the occipital cortex of 10 healthy participants to entrain the neuronal oscillatory activity in their individual alpha frequency range and compared results with those from a separate group of participants receiving sham stimulation. The tACS but not the sham stimulation elevated the endogenous alpha power in parieto-central electrodes of the electroencephalogram. Additionally, in a network of spiking neurons, we simulated how tACS can be affected even after the end of stimulation. The results show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP selectively modulates synapses depending on the resonance frequencies of the neural circuits that they belong to. Thus, tACS influences STDP which in turn results in aftereffects upon neural activity.The present findings are the first direct electrophysiological evidence of an interaction of tACS and ongoing oscillatory activity in the human cortex. The data demonstrate the ability of tACS to specifically modulate oscillatory brain activity and show its potential both at fostering knowledge on the functional significance of brain oscillations and for therapeutic application.

  14. Human-water interface in hydrological modelling: current status and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; de Roo, Ad; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Famiglietti, James S.; Hanasaki, Naota; Konar, Megan; Liu, Junguo; Müller Schmied, Hannes; Oki, Taikan; Pokhrel, Yadu; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Troy, Tara J.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; van Emmerik, Tim; Van Huijgevoort, Marjolein H. J.; Van Lanen, Henny A. J.; Vörösmarty, Charles J.; Wanders, Niko; Wheater, Howard

    2017-08-01

    Over recent decades, the global population has been rapidly increasing and human activities have altered terrestrial water fluxes to an unprecedented extent. The phenomenal growth of the human footprint has significantly modified hydrological processes in various ways (e.g. irrigation, artificial dams, and water diversion) and at various scales (from a watershed to the globe). During the early 1990s, awareness of the potential for increased water scarcity led to the first detailed global water resource assessments. Shortly thereafter, in order to analyse the human perturbation on terrestrial water resources, the first generation of large-scale hydrological models (LHMs) was produced. However, at this early stage few models considered the interaction between terrestrial water fluxes and human activities, including water use and reservoir regulation, and even fewer models distinguished water use from surface water and groundwater resources. Since the early 2000s, a growing number of LHMs have incorporated human impacts on the hydrological cycle, yet the representation of human activities in hydrological models remains challenging. In this paper we provide a synthesis of progress in the development and application of human impact modelling in LHMs. We highlight a number of key challenges and discuss possible improvements in order to better represent the human-water interface in hydrological models.

  15. Exploring the current application of professional competencies in human resource management in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Schutte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Human research (HR practitioners have an important role to play in the sustainability and competitiveness of organisations. Yet their strategic contribution and the value they add remain unrecognised.Research purpose: The main objective of this research was to explore the extent to which HR practitioners are currently allowed to display HR competencies in the workplace, and whether any significant differences exist between perceived HR competencies, based on the respondents’ demographic characteristics.Motivation for the study: Limited empirical research exists on the extent to which HR practitioners are allowed to display key competencies in the South African workplace.Research approach, design, and method: A quantitative research approach was followed. A Human Resource Management Professional Competence Questionnaire was administered to HR practitioners and managers (N = 481.Main findings: The results showed that HR competencies are poorly applied in selected South African workplaces. The competencies that were indicated as having the poorest application were talent management, HR metrics, HR business knowledge, and innovation. The white ethic group experienced a poorer application of all human research management (HRM competencies compared to the black African ethnic group.Practical/managerial implications: The findings of the research highlighted the need for management to evaluate the current application of HR practices in the workplace and also the extent to which HR professionals are involved as strategic business partners.Contribution/value-add: This research highlights the need for the current application of HR competencies in South African workplaces to be improved.

  16. The human right to sustainable development in solidarity with Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya Teresa Parrilla Díaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of human development as a universal right subjected to the welfare of Nature. Nature is presented as supporter of life and supplier of the essential resources needed to achieve a complete human development. In light of the global ecological crisis, the author proposes sustainable development as the central framework for a new human development that can be fairer to Nature and to mankind. The challenge of sustainable human development consists in viewing Nature from an ethical perspective of human rights and solidarity.

  17. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  18. Intelligent (Autonomous) Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James; Raitano, Paul; McNelis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign and other exploration initiatives continue to mature they have identified the need for more autonomous operations of the power system. For current human space operations such as the International Space Station, the paradigm is to perform the planning, operation and fault diagnosis from the ground. However, the dual problems of communication lag as well as limited communication bandwidth beyond GEO synchronous orbit, underscore the need to change the operation methodology for human operation in deep space. To address this need, for the past several years the Glenn Research Center has had an effort to develop an autonomous power controller for human deep space vehicles. This presentation discusses the present roadmap for deep space exploration along with a description of conceptual power system architecture for exploration modules. It then contrasts the present ground centric control and management architecture with limited autonomy on-board the spacecraft with an advanced autonomous power control system that features ground based monitoring with a spacecraft mission manager with autonomous control of all core systems, including power. It then presents a functional breakdown of the autonomous power control system and examines its operation in both normal and fault modes. Finally, it discusses progress made in the development of a real-time power system model and how it is being used to evaluate the performance of the controller and well as using it for verification of the overall operation.

  19. Human development and sustainability of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This seminar on human development and sustainability was jointly organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Enerdata company. This document summarises the content of the different presentations and of the minutes of the discussions that took place at the end of each topic. The different themes discussed were: 1 - Political and methodological issues related to sustainability (sustainability concept in government policy, sustainability and back-casting: lessons from EST); 2 - towards a socially viable world: thematic discussions (demography and peoples' migration; time budget and life style change - equal sex access to instruction and labour - geopolitical regional and inter-regional universal cultural acceptability; welfare, poverty and social link and economics); 3 - building up an environmentally sustainable energy world, keeping resources for future generations and preventing geopolitical ruptures (CO{sub 2} emissions; nuclear issues; land-use, noise, and other industrial risks). The memorandum on sustainability issues in view of very long term energy studies is reprinted in the appendix. The transparencies of seven presentations are attached to this document. (J.S.)

  20. Analysis of Ion Currents Contribution to Repolarization in Human Heart Failure Using Computer Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marotta, F.; Paci, M.A.; Severi, S.; Trenor, B.

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms underlying repolarization of the ventricular action potential (AP) are subject of research for anti-arrhythmic drugs. In fact, the prolongation of the AP occurs in several conditions of heart disease, such as heart failure, a major problem precursor for serious arrhythmias. In this study, we investigated the phenomena of repolarization reserve, defined as the capacity of the cell to repolarize in case of a functional loss, and the all-or-none repolarization, which depends on the delicate balance of inward and outward currents in the different phases of the AP, under conditions of human heart failure (HF). To simulate HF conditions, the O'Hara et al. human AP model was modified and specific protocols for all-or-none repolarization were applied. Our results show that in the early repolarization the threshold for all-or-none repolarization is not altered in HF even if a decrease in potassium currents can be observed. To quantify the contribution of the individual ion currents to HF induced AP prolongation, we used a novel piecewise-linear approximation approach proposed by Paci et al. In particular, INaL and ICaL are the main responsible for APD prolongation due to HF (85 and 35 ms respectively). Our results highlight this novel algorithm as a powerful tool to have a more complete picture of the complex ionic mechanisms underlying this disease and confirm the important role of the late sodium current in HF repolarization. (Author)

  1. Detectability of Neuronal Currents in Human Brain with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Howland D. T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Edward V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mayer, Andrew R. [Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Caprihan, Arvind [Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gasparovic, Charles [Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blagoev, Krastan B. [Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haaland, David M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used in a high-risk, high-payoff search for neuronal current (NC) signals in the free induction decay (FID) data from the visual cortex of human subjects during visual stimulation. If successful, this approach could make possible the detection of neuronal currents in the brain at high spatial and temporal resolution. Our initial experiments indicated the presence of a statistically significant change in the FID containing the NC relative to FIDs with the NC absent, and this signal was consistent with the presence of NC. Unfortunately, two follow-on experiments were not able to confirm or replicate the positive findings of the first experiment. However, even if the result from the first experiment were evidence of NC in the FID, it is clear that its effect is so small, that a true NC imaging experiment would not be possible with the current instrumentation and experimental protocol used here.

  2. Development and impact analysis of 3-year-old child FE human model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koizumi, T.; Tsujiuchi, N.; Taki, N.; Forbes, P.A.; Lange, R. de

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, a 3-year old child FE human model was developed by scaling down an adult male FE human model. Scaling down was performed for body dimensions, joint characteristics, and material properties. The focus of this current study is biofidelity validation and enhancement of the

  3. Theorizing Strategic Human Resource Development: Linking Financial Performance and Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Po

    2007-01-01

    This paper is to explore potential new underlying theory of strategic human resource development based on critiques of current theoretical foundations of HRD. It offers a new definition and model of Strategic HRD based on resource-based view of firm and human resource, with linkage to financial performance and competitiveness. Proposed new model…

  4. Effects of obesity on human sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Isabel V; Sabin, Mathew A; Pfäffle, Roland W; Hiemisch, Andreas; Sergeyev, Elena; Körner, Antje; Kiess, Wieland

    2012-01-31

    Puberty is a period of physical and psychological maturation, with long-term effects on health. During the 20(th) century, a secular trend towards earlier puberty occurred in association with improvements in nutrition. The worldwide pandemic of childhood obesity has renewed interest in the relationship between body composition in childhood and the timing and tempo of puberty. Limited evidence suggests that earlier puberty is associated with a tendency towards central fat deposition; therefore, pubertal status needs to be carefully considered in the categorization of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity. In the other direction, rapid early weight gain is associated with advanced puberty in both sexes, and a clear association exists between increasing BMI and earlier pubertal development in girls. Evidence in boys is less clear, with the majority of studies showing obesity to be associated with earlier puberty and voice break, although a subgroup of boys with obesity exhibits late puberty, perhaps as a variation of constitutional delay in growth and puberty. The possible mechanisms linking adiposity with pubertal timing are numerous, but leptin, adipocytokines and gut peptides are central players. Other possible mediators include genetic variation and environmental factors such as endocrine disrupting chemicals. This Review presents current evidence on this topic, highlighting inconsistencies and opportunities for future research.

  5. The Factors and Conditions for National Human Resource Development in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, Torrence E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the factors and conditions that influence national human resource development (NHRD) in Brazil. In this paper, the transitioning nature of the political, economic, social and educational conditions; the current challenges and trends that may impact NHRD; and the current status of NHRD research in…

  6. Current knowledge of tooth development: patterning and mineralization of the murine dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catón, Javier; Tucker, Abigail S

    2009-04-01

    The integument forms a number of different types of mineralized element, including dermal denticles, scutes, ganoid scales, elasmoid scales, fin rays and osteoderms found in certain fish, reptiles, amphibians and xenarthran mammals. To this list can be added teeth, which are far more widely represented and studied than any of the other mineralized elements mentioned above, and as such can be thought of as a model mineralized system. In recent years the focus for studies on tooth development has been the mouse, with a wealth of genetic information accrued and the availability of cutting edge techniques. It is the mouse dentition that this review will concentrate on. The development of the tooth will be followed, looking at what controls the shape of the tooth and how signals from the mesenchyme and epithelium interact to lead to formation of a molar or incisor. The number of teeth generated will then be investigated, looking at how tooth germ number can be reduced or increased by apoptosis, fusion of tooth germs, creation of new tooth germs, and the generation of additional teeth from existing tooth germs. The development of mineralized tissue will then be detailed, looking at how the asymmetrical deposition of enamel is controlled in the mouse incisor. The continued importance of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions at these later stages of tooth development will also be discussed. Tooth anomalies and human disorders have been well covered by recent reviews, therefore in this paper we wish to present a classical review of current knowledge of tooth development, fitting together data from a large number of recent research papers to draw general conclusions about tooth development.

  7. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara: History, Value in Basic Research, and Current Perspectives for Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, A; Sutter, G

    2017-01-01

    Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment. As a biologically well-characterized mutant virus, MVA facilitates fundamental research to elucidate the functions of poxvirus host-interaction factors. As extremely safe viral vectors MVA vaccines have been found immunogenic and protective in various preclinical infection models. Multiple recombinant MVA currently undergo clinical testing for vaccination against human immunodeficiency viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Plasmodium falciparum. The versatility of the MVA vector vaccine platform is readily demonstrated by the swift development of experimental vaccines for immunization against emerging infections such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. Recent advances include promising results from the clinical testing of recombinant MVA-producing antigens of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 or Ebola virus. This review summarizes our current knowledge about MVA as a unique strain of vaccinia virus, and discusses the prospects of exploiting this virus as research tool in poxvirus biology or as safe viral vector vaccine to challenge existing and future bottlenecks in vaccinology. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Capital Development as a Strategy for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    This paper critically examined how human capital development could be a strategy or a catalyst for sustainable development in the Nigerian education system. The presentation by necessary implication involved an examination of the concepts of human capital development, sustainable development, quality education and ...

  9. Influence Of Globalization On Human Resource Development In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper addressed the influence of Globalization on human resource development in Nigeria. It traced the origin of human resource development in Nigeria to the coming of the missionaries who spiritually colonized Africa and also educated their adherents. The human resource produced from the education offered were ...

  10. Human potential development as a prerequisite of public policy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polishchuk Iryna Viktorivna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the role of the public officers’ human potential for the efficiency of making public policy. It introduces features and criteria of human potential in the context of its development of civil service. The article designates some key directions for the development of human potential of public officers.

  11. Human Subject Effects on Torsion Pendulum Oscillations: Further Evidence of Mediation by Convection Currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, Richard; Linda Baldwin, Ann; Schwartz, Gary E

    When a human subject sits beneath a wire mesh, hemispheric torsion pendulum (TP) a rapid-onset series of oscillations at frequencies both higher and lower than the fundamental frequency of the TP have been consistently observed. This study was designed to replicate and extend prior findings that suggest the human subject effect on TP behavior is due to subject-generated, heat-induced convection currents. Effects on pendulum behavior were tested after draping an aluminized "space blanket" over the subject and by replacing the subject with a thermal mattress pad shaped to approximate the human form. Experiments were performed in a basic science university research laboratory. Real-time recordings and Fast Fourier Transform frequency spectra of pendulum oscillatory movement. The space blanket blocked, while the mattress pad mimicked, the human subject induced complex array of pendulum oscillations. Our findings support and strengthen previous results that suggest the effects of human subjects on behavior of a torsion pendulum are mediated by body-heat-induced air convection rather than an unknown type of biofield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a Field Management Standard for Improving Human Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Young Su [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Son, Il Moon [Dongmyung University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Byung Chang [Korea Nazarene University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Hyo Yean [Suwon Science Collage, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    This project is to develop a management guideline for improving human performances as a part of the Human Factors Management System of Kori unit 1 which is managing all of human factors items such as man-machine system interfaces, work procedures, work environments, and human reliabilities in nuclear power plants. Human factors engineering includes an human factors suitability analysis and improvement of human works, an analysis of accidents by human error, an improvement of work environment, an establishment of human factors management rules and a development of human resources to manage and perform those things consistently. For assisting these human factors engineering tasks, we developed human factors management guidelines, checklists and work procedures to be used in staffing, qualification, training, and human information requirements and workload. We also provided a software tool for managing the above items. Additionally, contents and an item pool for a human factors qualifying examination and training programs were developed. A procedures improvement and a human factors V and V on the Kori unit 1 have been completed as a part of this project, too

  13. Development of Human Factor Management Requirements and Human Error Classification for the Prevention of Railway Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Sang Log; Park, Chan Woo; Shin, Seung Ryoung [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Railway accident analysis results show that accidents cased by human factors are not decreasing, whereas H/W related accidents are steadily decreasing. For the efficient management of human factors, many expertise on design, conditions, safety culture and staffing are required. But current safety management activities on safety critical works are focused on training, due to the limited resource and information. In order to improve railway safety, human factors management requirements for safety critical worker and human error classification is proposed in this report. For this accident analysis, status of safety measure on human factor, safety management system on safety critical worker, current safety planning is analysis.

  14. Thymic Epithelial Cell Development and Its Dysfunction in Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymic epithelial cells (TECs are the key components in thymic microenvironment for T cells development. TECs, composed of cortical and medullary TECs, are derived from a common bipotent progenitor and undergo a stepwise development controlled by multiple levels of signals to be functionally mature for supporting thymocyte development. Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR family members including the receptor activator for NFκB (RANK, CD40, and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR cooperatively control the thymic medullary microenvironment and self-tolerance establishment. In addition, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs, Wnt, and Notch signals are essential for establishment of functional thymic microenvironment. Transcription factors Foxn1 and autoimmune regulator (Aire are powerful modulators of TEC development, differentiation, and self-tolerance. Dysfunction in thymic microenvironment including defects of TEC and thymocyte development would cause physiological disorders such as tumor, infectious diseases, and autoimmune diseases. In the present review, we will summarize our current understanding on TEC development and the underlying molecular signals pathways and the involvement of thymus dysfunction in human diseases.

  15. Cryptopatches are essential for the development of human GALT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nochi, Tomonori; Denton, Paul W; Wahl, Angela; Garcia, J Victor

    2013-01-01

    ...) tract immune system. To aid in investigating GALT pathologies in vivo, we bioengineered a human-mouse chimeric model characterized by the development of human GALT structures originating in mouse cryptopatches...

  16. Calculation of induced current densities for humans by magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Om P.; Kang, Gang

    2001-11-01

    This paper illustrates the use of the impedance method to calculate the electric fields and current densities induced in millimetre resolution anatomic models of the human body, namely an adult and 10- and 5-year-old children, for exposure to nonuniform magnetic fields typical of two assumed but representative electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices at 1 and 30 kHz, respectively. The devices assumed for the calculations are a solenoid type magnetic deactivator used at store checkouts and a pass-by panel-type EAS system consisting of two overlapping rectangular current-carrying coils used at entry and exit from a store. The impedance method code is modified to obtain induced current densities averaged over a cross section of 1 cm2 perpendicular to the direction of induced currents. This is done to compare the peak current densities with the limits or the basic restrictions given in the ICNIRP safety guidelines. Because of the stronger magnetic fields at lower heights for both the assumed devices, the peak 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the CNS tissues such as the brain and the spinal cord are increasingly larger for smaller models and are the highest for the model of the 5-year-old child. For both the EAS devices, the maximum 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the brain of the model of the adult are lower than the ICNIRP safety guideline, but may approach or exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for models of 10- and 5-year-old children if sufficiently strong magnetic fields are used.

  17. Modelling the electric field and the current density generated by cerebellar transcranial DC stimulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazzini, Marta; Rossi, Elena; Ferrucci, Roberta; Liorni, Ilaria; Priori, Alberto; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the cerebellum (or cerebellar tDCS) modulates working memory, changes cerebello-brain interaction, and affects locomotion in humans. Also, the use of tDCS has been proposed for the treatment of disorders characterized by cerebellar dysfunction. Nonetheless, the electric field (E) and current density (J) spatial distributions generated by cerebellar tDCS are unknown. This work aimed to estimate E and J distributions during cerebellar tDCS. Computational electromagnetics techniques were applied in three human realistic models of different ages and gender. The stronger E and J occurred mainly in the cerebellar cortex, with some spread (up to 4%) toward the occipital cortex. Also, changes by ±1cm in the position of the active electrode resulted in a small effect (up to 4%) in the E and J spatial distribution in the cerebellum. Finally, the E and J spreads to the brainstem and the heart were negligible, thus further supporting the safety of this technique. Despite inter-individual differences, our modeling study confirms that the cerebellum is the structure mainly involved by cerebellar tDCS. Modeling approach reveals that during cerebellar tDCS the current spread to other structures outside the cerebellum is unlike to produce functional effects. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. HUMAN SECURITY – BUILDING THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea IANCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals agenda through the human security paradigm. It suggests that the human security paradigm represents “the missing link” from the development agenda. Therefore, this analysis explains the necessity for extending the development agenda by including the human security doctrine. The first part of the article discusses the relation between human security and development. The next section analyzes the values of the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals. The last part evaluates the improvements that the inclusion of the human security on the post-2015 development framework may bring. The results of this analysis present illustrate the opportunity of deepening the MDGs agenda with a more realistic and ethical approach, through the inclusion of the human security paradigm within the development agenda.

  19. Discoveries and developments in human-computer interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes contributions made to the science and practice of human-computer interaction (HCI), primarily through Human Factors and the society's annual proceedings. Research in HCI began to appear in publications associated with the Society around 1980 and has continued through the present. A search of the literature appearing in either the journal or the proceedings was done to identify the specific contributions made by researchers in this area. More than 2,300 papers were identified, some comparing the actual or predicted performance of a new device, display format, or computer-based system with an existing or alternative system. Other work describes methods for evaluating systems performance. This work has had a tremendous impact, particularly the work of Fitts, Smith and Mosier, and Virzi. Work on HCI has contributed to (a) current national and international guidelines, (b) the development of user interface management systems, (c) the provision of guidance as to where best to invest resources when evaluating computing systems, and (d) the prediction of human performance using those systems.

  20. HAMLET -Human Model MATROSHKA for Radiation Exposure Determination of Astronauts -Current status and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Pawel; Burmeister, Soenke; Labrenz, Johannes; Hager, Luke; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Hajek, Michael; Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, Lembit

    The exploration of space as seen in specific projects from the European Space Agency (ESA) acts as groundwork for human long duration space missions. One of the main constraints for long duration human missions is radiation. The radiation load on astronauts and cosmonauts in space (as for the ISS) is a factor of 100 higher than the natural radiation on Earth and will further increase should humans travel to Mars. In preparation for long duration space missions it is important to evaluate the impact of space radiation in order to secure the safety of the astronauts and minimize their radiation risks. To determine the radiation risk on humans one has to measure the radiation doses to radiosensitive organs within the human body. One way to approach this is the ESA facility MATROSHKA (MTR), under the scientific and project lead of DLR. It is dedicated to determining the radiation load on astronauts within and outside the International Space Station (ISS), and was launched in January 2004. MTR is currently preparing for its fourth experimental phase inside the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) in summer 2010. MTR, which mimics a human head and torso, is an anthropomorphic phantom containing over 6000 radiation detectors to determine the depth dose and organ dose distribution in the body. It is the largest international research initiative ever performed in the field of space dosimetry and combines the expertise of leading research institutions around the world, thereby generating a huge pool of data of potentially immense value for research. Aiming at optimal scientific exploitation, the FP7 project HAMLET aims to process and compile the data acquired individually by the participating laboratories of the MATROSHKA experiment. Based on experimental input from the MATROSHKA experiment phases as well as on radiation transport calculations, a three-dimensional model for the distribution of radiation dose in an astronaut's body will be built up. The scientific achievements

  1. Current evidence on the transmissibility of chronic wasting disease prions to humans-A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, L; Greig, J; Mascarenhas, M; Otten, A; Corrin, T; Hierlihy, K

    2018-02-01

    A number of prion diseases affect humans, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; most of these are due to genetic mutations in the affected individual and occur sporadically, but some result from transmission of prion proteins from external sources. Of the known animal prion diseases, only bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions have been shown to be transmissible from animals to humans under non-experimental conditions. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease that affects cervids (e.g., deer and elk) in North America and isolated populations in Korea and Europe. Systematic review methodology was used to identify, select, critically appraise and analyse data from relevant research. Studies were evaluated for adherence to good conduct based on their study design following the Cochrane collaboration's approach to grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations (GRADE). Twenty-three studies were included after screening 800 citations from the literature search and evaluating 78 full papers. Studies examined the transmissibility of CWD prions to humans using epidemiological study design, in vitro and in vivo experiments. Five epidemiological studies, two studies on macaques and seven studies on humanized transgenic mice provided no evidence to support the possibility of transmission of CWD prions to humans. Ongoing surveillance in the United States and Canada has not documented CWD transmission to humans. However, two studies on squirrel monkeys provided evidence that transmission of CWD prions resulting in prion disease is possible in these monkeys under experimental conditions and seven in vitro experiments provided evidence that CWD prions can convert human prion protein to a misfolded state. Therefore, future discovery of CWD transmission to humans cannot be entirely ruled out on the basis of current studies, particularly in the light of possible decades-long incubation periods for CWD prions in humans. It would be prudent to continue

  2. [Current problems of estimation of genetic risk of human exposure to radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V A

    2000-01-01

    The methodology of assessing the genetic risk of radiation exposure is based on the concept of "hitting the target" in development of which N.V. Timofeeff-Ressovsky has played and important role. To predict genetic risk posed by irradiation, the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has worked out direct and indirect methods of assessment, extrapolational, integral and populational criteria of risk analysis that together permit calculating the risk from human exposure on the basis of data obtained for mice. Laboratory mice are the main objects in studying radiation mutagenesis due to the fact that the data on the frequency of radiation-induced human mutations are rather scarce. The method of doubling dose based on the determination of a dose doubling the level of natural mutational process in humans is the main one used to predict the genetic risk. The evolution of views about the genetics risk of human exposure to radiation for last 40 years is considered. Till 1972 the main model for assessing the genetic risk was the "human/mouse" model (the use of data on the spontaneous human variability and data on the frequency of induced mutations in mice). In the period form 1972 till 1994 the "mouse/mouse" model was intensively elaborated in many laboratories. This model was also used in this period by UNSCEAR experts to analyze the genetic risk from human irradiation. Recent achievements associated with the study of the molecular nature of many hereditary human diseases as well as the criticism of number fundamental principles of the "mouse/mouse" model for estimating the genetic risk on a new basis. The estimates of risk for the different classes of genetic diseases have been obtained using the doubling-dose method. The estimate of doubling dose used in the calculations is 1 Gy for low dose/chronic low-LET radiation conditions.

  3. Ambient Air Quality and Human Health: Current Concepts—Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tee L Guidotti

    1995-01-01

    the control of which invites interest in second-order determinants of health. This article attempts to provide a framework for understanding air quality issues that pertain to human health. The objective is to provide the specialist in respiratory medicine with an overview that will assist in educating patients and in responding to their inquiries, and to equip the physician to respond to requests for assistance or interpretation when called upon to comment on public policy issues involving air pollution. The implications of setting air quality standards or objectives to meet arbitrary levels of risk of health effects are examined. The current state of the art does not support risk-based air quality standards. A policy of continuous improvement is most protective of both human health and the environment.

  4. Ancient Humans Influenced the Current Spatial Genetic Structure of Common Walnut Populations in Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pollegioni

    Full Text Available Common walnut (Juglans regia L is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that J. regia survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, J. regia evolved over many centuries under the influence of human management and exploitation. We evaluated the hypothesis that the current distribution of natural genetic resources of common walnut in Asia is, at least in part, the product of ancient anthropogenic dispersal, human cultural interactions, and afforestation. Genetic analysis combined with ethno-linguistic and historical data indicated that ancient trade routes such as the Persian Royal Road and Silk Road enabled long-distance dispersal of J. regia from Iran and Trans-Caucasus to Central Asia, and from Western to Eastern China. Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan, where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged. A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries. Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history.

  5. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduces psychophysically measured surround suppression in the human visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Spiegel

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a safe, non-invasive technique for transiently modulating the balance of excitation and inhibition within the human brain. It has been reported that anodal tDCS can reduce both GABA mediated inhibition and GABA concentration within the human motor cortex. As GABA mediated inhibition is thought to be a key modulator of plasticity within the adult brain, these findings have broad implications for the future use of tDCS. It is important, therefore, to establish whether tDCS can exert similar effects within non-motor brain areas. The aim of this study was to assess whether anodal tDCS could reduce inhibitory interactions within the human visual cortex. Psychophysical measures of surround suppression were used as an index of inhibition within V1. Overlay suppression, which is thought to originate within the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, was also measured as a control. Anodal stimulation of the occipital poles significantly reduced psychophysical surround suppression, but had no effect on overlay suppression. This effect was specific to anodal stimulation as cathodal stimulation had no effect on either measure. These psychophysical results provide the first evidence for tDCS-induced reductions of intracortical inhibition within the human visual cortex.

  6. Human resource development – A key factor for the sustainable development of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlat Lame

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the current situation of labor resources in Albania and its trends from the viewpoint of their contributions to the overall country progress. A real partnership between business and public institutions, the efforts to formalize the economy, to promote discipline and better application of international standards are considered key issues for the future country developments. The effective management of human resources and coordination could not be reached without profound structural and economic reforms, without free entrepreneurship initiative encouragement, and without mutual confidence between the employers and the employees.

  7. Changes in Intracellular Na+ following Enhancement of Late Na+ Current in Virtual Human Ventricular Myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Wayne R.

    2016-01-01

    The slowly inactivating or late Na+ current, INa-L, can contribute to the initiation of both atrial and ventricular rhythm disturbances in the human heart. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie these pro-arrhythmic influences are not fully understood. At present, the major working hypothesis is that the Na+ influx corresponding to INa-L significantly increases intracellular Na+, [Na+]i; and the resulting reduction in the electrochemical driving force for Na+ reduces and (may reverse) Na+/Ca2+ exchange. These changes increase intracellular Ca2+, [Ca2+]i; which may further enhance INa-L due to calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of the Na+ channels. This paper is based on mathematical simulations using the O’Hara et al (2011) model of baseline or healthy human ventricular action potential waveforms(s) and its [Ca2+]i homeostasis mechanisms. Somewhat surprisingly, our results reveal only very small changes (≤ 1.5 mM) in [Na+]i even when INa-L is increased 5-fold and steady-state stimulation rate is approximately 2 times the normal human heart rate (i.e. 2 Hz). Previous work done using well-established models of the rabbit and human ventricular action potential in heart failure settings also reported little or no change in [Na+]i when INa-L was increased. Based on our simulations, the major short-term effect of markedly augmenting INa-L is a significant prolongation of the action potential and an associated increase in the likelihood of reactivation of the L-type Ca2+ current, ICa-L. Furthermore, this action potential prolongation does not contribute to [Na+]i increase. PMID:27875582

  8. [SWOT Analysis of the National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, Hui-hui; ZHOU, Chang-hai; CHEN, Ying-dan; ZANG, Wei; XIAO, Ning; ZHOU, Xiao-nong

    2015-10-01

    The National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China has been carried out since 2014 under the organization of the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China. The National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NIPD, China CDC) provided technical support and was responsible for quality control in this survey. This study used SWOT method to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that were encountered by he NIPD, China CDC during the completion of the survey. Accordingly, working strategies were proposed to facilitate the future field work.

  9. Current use of contraceptive method among women in a middle-income developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Bourne

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul A Bourne1, Christopher AD Charles2,3, Tazhmoye V Crawford4, Maureen D Kerr-Campbell5, Cynthia G Francis1, Neva South-Bourne11Department of Community Health and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica; 2King Graduate School, Monroe College, Bronx, New York, USA; 3Center for Victim Support, Harlem Hospital Center, New York; 4Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 5Systems Development Unit, Main Library, Faculty of Humanities and Education, The University of the West Indies, Mona, JamaicaBackground: Jamaica is a mid-range income developing country with an increasing population and public resource constraints. Therefore, reproductive health issues are of critical importance in Jamaica.Aim: We examined the use of contraceptives among women and the factors that influence these women to use contraceptives.Materials and method: In the current study we utilized the secondary dataset for the Reproductive Health Survey, conducted by the National Family Planning Board. The investigation was carried out with a stratified random sample of 7168 women aged between 15 and 49. The measures included demographic variables, method of contraception used, being in a relationship, number of partners, pregnancy status, and sexual activity status, along with other variables.Results: The majority of participants used some method of contraception (64%. The most popular method of contraception was a condom (32%. Results of a multivariate analysis suggests that the explanatory variables for the method of contraception used are age (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.98–0.99, social class (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.73–0.95, being in a relationship (OR = 3.35, 95% CI: 2.80–4.02, the rural–urban dichotomy (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02–1.32, being currently pregnant (OR = 0.01, 95% CI: 0.00–0.02, currently having sex (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.95–2.70, number of partners (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.57–2.17, the age at

  10. Human Capital Development in Western Region, Nigeria, 1955-1968

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses sustained approaches, programmes and strategies for human capital development in the defunct Western Region of Nigeria. Three broad approaches were vigorously pursued, namely, education, technical skills development and agriculture. The most enduring legacy was human capital development ...

  11. agenda and outlook: human resource development for ict in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NESG PUBLICATIONS

    people come first. How well is Nigeria developing the manpower and human resources required to apply Information and Communications Technology. (ICT) for development? What should the agenda be for developing human resources that can compete globally in the digital economy? The nation certainly has a lot to do ...

  12. 1 Philosophy, Human Development and National Question John ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development and what is the contribution of philosophy to human development in Nigeria. And what is the relationship between philosophy, human development and national question in Nigeria fraught with corruption, insecurity, indiscipline, unemployment, etc. Introduction. Heidegger's philosophy is an attempt to ...

  13. Child Development and Structural Variation in the Human Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Haraksingh, Rajini; Grubert, Fabian; Abyzov, Alexej; Gerstein, Mark; Weissman, Sherman; Urban, Alexander E.

    2013-01-01

    Structural variation of the human genome sequence is the insertion, deletion, or rearrangement of stretches of DNA sequence sized from around 1,000 to millions of base pairs. Over the past few years, structural variation has been shown to be far more common in human genomes than previously thought. Very little is currently known about the effects…

  14. Examining human resources' efforts to develop a culturally competent workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Marilyn V; Valpuesta, Domingo

    2010-01-01

    The increasing diversification of the nation's population poses significant challenges in providing care that meets the needs of culturally diverse patients. Human resource management plays a vital role in developing a more culturally competent workforce. This exploratory study examines current efforts by human resource directors (HRDs) in Alabama's general hospitals to recruit more diverse candidates, train staff, and make language access resources available. A questionnaire was developed based on the Office of Minority Health's Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services standards. The HRDs of the 101 Alabama general hospitals served as the study's target population. A sample of 61 responses, or 60.4% of the population, was obtained. The findings indicate that most HRDs are focusing their efforts on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse candidates and training clerical and nursing staff to care for culturally and linguistically diverse patients. Less effort is being focused on recruiting candidates who speak a different language, and only 44.3% have a trained interpreter on the staff. The HRDs who indicated that they work closely with organizations that provide support to diverse groups were more likely to recruit diverse employees and have racially/ethnically and linguistically diverse individuals in leadership positions. It is crucial that health care organizations take the necessary steps to diversify their workforce to broaden access, improve the quality and equity of care, and capture a greater market share.

  15. Parenting Style as an Investment in Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Salamanca, Nicolas; Zhu, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We propose a household production function approach to human development in which the role of parenting style in child rearing is explicitly considered. Specifically, we model parenting style as an investment in human development that depends not only on inputs of time and market goods, but also on attention, i.e. cognitive effort. Socioeconomic disadvantage is linked to parenting style and human development through the constraints that it places on cognitive capacity. Our model finds empiric...

  16. Automated MRI segmentation for individualized modeling of current flow in the human head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Dmochowski, Jacek P.; Su, Yuzhuo; Datta, Abhishek; Rorden, Christopher; Parra, Lucas C.

    2013-12-01

    Objective. High-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) and high-density electroencephalography require accurate models of current flow for precise targeting and current source reconstruction. At a minimum, such modeling must capture the idiosyncratic anatomy of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and skull for each individual subject. Currently, the process to build such high-resolution individualized models from structural magnetic resonance images requires labor-intensive manual segmentation, even when utilizing available automated segmentation tools. Also, accurate placement of many high-density electrodes on an individual scalp is a tedious procedure. The goal was to develop fully automated techniques to reduce the manual effort in such a modeling process. Approach. A fully automated segmentation technique based on Statical Parametric Mapping 8, including an improved tissue probability map and an automated correction routine for segmentation errors, was developed, along with an automated electrode placement tool for high-density arrays. The performance of these automated routines was evaluated against results from manual segmentation on four healthy subjects and seven stroke patients. The criteria include segmentation accuracy, the difference of current flow distributions in resulting HD-tDCS models and the optimized current flow intensities on cortical targets.Main results. The segmentation tool can segment out not just the brain but also provide accurate results for CSF, skull and other soft tissues with a field of view extending to the neck. Compared to manual results, automated segmentation deviates by only 7% and 18% for normal and stroke subjects, respectively. The predicted electric fields in the brain deviate by 12% and 29% respectively, which is well within the variability observed for various modeling choices. Finally, optimized current flow intensities on cortical targets do not differ significantly.Significance. Fully

  17. The Role and Impact of Human Resources within Developing Post-Merger Competitive Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Popescu; Elvira Nica

    2012-01-01

    The current working paper focuses on the created context within post-merger companies provides the scope to develop new types of business, to increase the competitiveness of active companies with the economic sphere, offering new opportunities to increase productivity and efficiency of all activities. New perspectives generate significant changes for the human resources involved in the designing new strategies for work improvement. Considering the perpetual development of human capital in thi...

  18. HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT: A STRATEGY FOR MOVING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    digital signals in multimedia format using information technology. -. New economy is interested in strategic alliances like Public Private Partnership. (PPP) or team work. While, Eboh (2009) affirmed that today, knowledge is the key driving factor in social and economic progress of nations. The Place of Human Capital in ...

  19. Human Resources Coordinator | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary Under the direction of the Director of Human Resources, the Administrative Assistant provides operational and administrative assistance to her supervisor, performs a variety of administrative, research, coordinating and logistical services in support of the operations of the Director's office, and contributes to the ...

  20. Director, Human Resources | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary. Under the direction of the VP, Resources Branch and Chief Financial Officer, provides leadership and establishes within the Centre's strategic planning horizon clear directions for the deployment of the human resources function within the Centre, and for the management of staff as the key resource in the ...

  1. A Metabolic Biofuel Cell: Conversion of Human Leukocyte Metabolic Activity to Electrical Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui X Tracy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An investigation of the electrochemical activity of human white blood cells (WBC for biofuel cell (BFC applications is described. WBCs isolated from whole human blood were suspended in PBS and introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell. The cathode compartment contained a 50 mM potassium ferricyanide solution. Average current densities between 0.9 and 1.6 μA cm-2 and open circuit potentials (Voc between 83 and 102 mV were obtained, which were both higher than control values. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical activity of the activated WBCs in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of electron transfer between the cells and electrode. Voltammograms were obtained for the WBCs, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs - a lymphocyte-monocyte mixture isolated on a Ficoll gradient, a B lymphoblastoid cell line (BLCL, and two leukemia cell lines, namely K562 and Jurkat. An oxidation peak at about 363 mV vs. SCE for the PMA (phorbol ester activated primary cells, with a notable absence of a reduction peak was observed. Oxidation peaks were not observed for the BLCL, K562 or Jurkat cell lines. HPLC confirmed the release of serotonin (5-HT from the PMA activated primary cells. It is believed that serotonin, among other biochemical species released by the activated cells, contributes to the observed BFC currents.

  2. Cartilage Regeneration in Human with Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells: Current Status in Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoo Pak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is one of the most common debilitating disorders among the elderly population. At present, there is no definite cure for the underlying causes of OA. However, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs in the form of stromal vascular fraction (SVF may offer an alternative at this time. ADSCs are one type of mesenchymal stem cells that have been utilized and have demonstrated an ability to regenerate cartilage. ADSCs have been shown to regenerate cartilage in a variety of animal models also. Non-culture-expanded ADSCs, in the form of SVF along with platelet rich plasma (PRP, have recently been used in humans to treat OA and other cartilage abnormalities. These ADSCs have demonstrated effectiveness without any serious side effects. However, due to regulatory issues, only ADSCs in the form of SVF are currently allowed for clinical uses in humans. Culture-expanded ADSCs, although more convenient, require clinical trials for a regulatory approval prior to uses in clinical settings. Here we present a systematic review of currently available clinical studies involving ADSCs in the form of SVF and in the culture-expanded form, with or without PRP, highlighting the clinical effectiveness and safety in treating OA.

  3. A metabolic biofuel cell: conversion of human leukocyte metabolic activity to electrical currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, Gusphyl A; Zhang, Yingze; Cui, X Tracy; Bradberry, Charles W; Sun, Mingui; Sclabassi, Robert J

    2011-05-10

    An investigation of the electrochemical activity of human white blood cells (WBC) for biofuel cell (BFC) applications is described. WBCs isolated from whole human blood were suspended in PBS and introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The cathode compartment contained a 50 mM potassium ferricyanide solution. Average current densities between 0.9 and 1.6 μA cm-2 and open circuit potentials (Voc) between 83 and 102 mV were obtained, which were both higher than control values. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical activity of the activated WBCs in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of electron transfer between the cells and electrode. Voltammograms were obtained for the WBCs, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs - a lymphocyte-monocyte mixture isolated on a Ficoll gradient), a B lymphoblastoid cell line (BLCL), and two leukemia cell lines, namely K562 and Jurkat. An oxidation peak at about 363 mV vs. SCE for the PMA (phorbol ester) activated primary cells, with a notable absence of a reduction peak was observed. Oxidation peaks were not observed for the BLCL, K562 or Jurkat cell lines. HPLC confirmed the release of serotonin (5-HT) from the PMA activated primary cells. It is believed that serotonin, among other biochemical species released by the activated cells, contributes to the observed BFC currents.

  4. An Overview of Human Rights, Good Governance and Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The human rights issues have continue to generate both interest and controversy in the world. This is because more than before the organized world community has placed considerable emphasis on human rights violation especially in developing world. This study focuses on the issue of evolution of human rights, then ...

  5. Consequences of residential development for biodiversity and human well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liba Pejchar; Sarah E. Reed; Patrick Bixler; Lindsay Ex; Miranda H. Mockrin

    2015-01-01

    Residential development is a leading driver of land-use change, with important implications for biodiversity, ecosystem processes, and human well-being. We reviewed over 500 published scientific articles on the biophysical, economic, and social effects of residential development and open space in the US. We concluded that current knowledge of the effects of this type...

  6. Late Sodium Current in Human Atrial Cardiomyocytes from Patients in Sinus Rhythm and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Poulet

    Full Text Available Slowly inactivating Na+ channels conducting "late" Na+ current (INa,late contribute to ventricular arrhythmogenesis under pathological conditions. INa,late was also reported to play a role in chronic atrial fibrillation (AF. The objective of this study was to investigate INa,late in human right atrial cardiomyocytes as a putative drug target for treatment of AF. To activate Na+ channels, cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice which exhibit INa,late (ΔKPQ, and right atrial cardiomyocytes from patients in sinus rhythm (SR and AF were voltage clamped at room temperature by 250-ms long test pulses to -30 mV from a holding potential of -80 mV with a 100-ms pre-pulse to -110 mV (protocol I. INa,late at -30 mV was not discernible as deviation from the extrapolated straight line IV-curve between -110 mV and -80 mV in human atrial cells. Therefore, tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10 μM was used to define persistent inward current after 250 ms at -30 mV as INa,late. TTX-sensitive current was 0.27±0.06 pA/pF in ventricular cardiomyocytes from ΔKPQ mice, and amounted to 0.04±0.01 pA/pF and 0.09±0.02 pA/pF in SR and AF human atrial cardiomyocytes, respectively. With protocol II (holding potential -120 mV, pre-pulse to -80 mV TTX-sensitive INa,late was always larger than with protocol I. Ranolazine (30 μM reduced INa,late by 0.02±0.02 pA/pF in SR and 0.09±0.02 pA/pF in AF cells. At physiological temperature (37°C, however, INa,late became insignificant. Plateau phase and upstroke velocity of action potentials (APs recorded with sharp microelectrodes in intact human trabeculae were more sensitive to ranolazine in AF than in SR preparations. Sodium channel subunits expression measured with qPCR was high for SCN5A with no difference between SR and AF. Expression of SCN8A and SCN10A was low in general, and lower in AF than in SR. In conclusion, We confirm for the first time a TTX-sensitive current (INa,late in right atrial cardiomyocytes from SR and AF patients at room

  7. Resource efficiency in agricultural development: human capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's current economic recession, high poverty rate (71-74.2%) and unemployment informed the need to examine the extent that agricultural sector could assist in accelerating ... Agriculture accounts for over 78.3% of labour in Nigeria and contributed about 23.9% of the Gross National Domestic product in 2016.

  8. Ambient Air Quality and Human Health: Current Concepts—Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Guidotti, Tee L.

    1995-01-01

    There is a fundamental reevaluation of the association between air quality and human health taking place. This reevaluation is motivated by several recent developments: increasing interest in air quality as an environmental issue; interest in the unanswered questions regarding the epidemiology of asthma; and the reduced prevalence of the principal hazard to respiratory health, cigarette smoking, the control of which invites interest in second-order determinants of health. This article atte...

  9. Human taeniasis: current insights into prevention and management strategies in endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Thomas, Lian Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Human taeniasis is a zoonotic condition resulting from infection with the adult stages of Taenia saginata ("beef tapeworm"), Taenia solium ("pork tapeworm") or Taenia asiatica ("Asian tapeworm"). Although these parasites have a worldwide distribution, the overwhelming burden is felt by communities in low- and middle-income countries. This is particularly true for T. solium, whereby infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the parasite (neurocysticercosis) is a major cause of acquired epilepsy in low-resource settings. With a focus on endemic countries, this review provides an insight into the prevention and management of human taeniasis, concluding with some recent case studies describing their implementation. Discussion of the opportunities and challenges regarding current fecal and serological diagnostic assays for detecting Taenia spp. highlights the importance of accurate and accessible diagnostic options for the field situation. The lack of long-term impact on the parasites' lifecycle from human anthelmintic treatment, coupled with the propensity for adverse reactions, highlights the importance of a "two-pronged" approach that considers the relevant animal hosts, particularly in the case of T. solium. Aside from the therapeutic options, this review reiterates the importance of adequate assessment and consideration of the associated behavioral and policy aspects around sanitation, hygiene and meat inspection that have been shown to support parasite control, and potential elimination, in endemic regions.

  10. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Change Agents - Development - Current, Near-Term, and Long-Term Potential High Landscape Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows areas of high current, near-term, and long-term potential landscape development, based on factors such as urban areas, agriculture, roads, and energy...

  11. Current Web Application Development and Measurement Practices for Small Software Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Faudziah; Baharom, Fauziah; Husni, Moath

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses issues on current development and measurement practices that were identified from a pilot study conducted on Jordanian small software firms. The study was to investigate whether developers follow development and measurement best practices in web applications development. The analysis was conducted in two stages: first, grouping the development and measurement practices using variable clustering, and second, identifying the acceptance degree. Mean interval was used to dete...

  12. Telephone based speech interfaces in the developing world, from the perspective of human-human communication

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, S

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available recently, before computers systems were able to synthesize or recognize speech, speech was a capability unique to humans. The human brain has developed to differentiate between human speech and other audio occurrences. Therefore, the slowly- evolving... human brain reacts in certain ways to voice stimuli, and has certain expectations regarding communication by voice. Nass affirms that the human brain operates using the same mechanisms when interacting with speech interfaces as when conversing...

  13. Issues and Problems in the Current Development of Vocational Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Chinese vocational education is currently in its most optimal development period in history. This article discusses several challenges of different dimensions faced by vocational education in China as it develops, such as scale versus quality, development goals, a lifelong vocational education system, and creating model institutions; and puts…

  14. Human Development and Poverty - a Perspective Across Indian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Madan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate objective of development planning and policies is to increase social welfare and well-being of the society. As income alone is an incomplete measure of well-being of any society, human development attempts to capture quantitative as well as qualitative aspects of human well-being by encapsulating indicatorsof longevity, literacy and a decent standard of living. Human development is about enlarging choices, whereas poverty implies denial to the opportunities and choices most basic to human development. The main concern of this paper is to examine the transformation of development efforts into the well- being of the society, with special reference to India. Here an attempt has been made to find complementary between Human Development Index (HDI and Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI across major Indian states using regression analysis. The negative relationship between the two underlines the need of raising economic and educationalopportunities and their equitable distribution among all the sections of the society.

  15. A 540-[Formula: see text] Duty Controlled RSSI With Current Reusing Technique for Human Body Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaeeun; Lee, Yongsu; Cho, Hyunwoo; Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2016-08-01

    An ultra-low-power duty controlled received signal strength indicator (RSSI) is implemented for human body communication (HBC) in 180 nm CMOS technology under 1.5 V supply. The proposed RSSI adopted 3 following key features for low-power consumption; 1) current reusing technique (CR-RSSI) with replica bias circuit and calibration unit, 2) duty controller, and 3) reconfigurable gm-boosting LNA. The CR-RSSI utilizes stacked amplifier-rectifier-cell (AR-cell) to reuse the supply current of each blocks. As a result, the power consumption becomes 540 [Formula: see text] with +/-2 dB accuracy and 75 dB dynamic range. The replica bias circuit and calibration unit are adopted to increase the reliability of CR-RSSI. In addition, the duty controller turns off the RSSI when it is not required, and this function leads 70% power reduction. At last, the gm-boosting reconfigurable LNA can adaptively vary its noise and linearity performance with respect to input signal strength. Fro current reusing technique m this feature, we achieve 62% power reduction in the LNA. Thanks to these schemes, compared to the previous works, we can save 70% of power in RSSI and LNA.

  16. Current Research on IMS Learning Design and Lifelong Competence Development Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarette, Tony; Blat, Josep; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Navarette, T., Blat, J., & Koper, R. (2008). Current Research on IMS Learning Design and Lifelong Competence Development Infrastructures. Proceedings of the 3rd TENCompetence Open Workshop. Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Grup de Tecnologies Interactives: Barcelona, Spain. Available on line

  17. Atlantis model outputs - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  18. Physical oceanography - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  19. Current approaches in identification and isolation of human renal cell carcinoma cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    KHAN, MOHAMMED I.; Czarnecka, Anna M.; Helbrecht, Igor; Bartnik, Ewa; Lian, Fei; Szczylik, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, cancer stem cells (CSCs)/tumor initiating cells (TICs) have been identified inside different tumors. However, currently used anti-cancer therapies are mostly directed against somatic tumor cells without targeting CSCs/TICs. CSCs/TICs also gain resistance to chemotherapies/radiotherapies. For the development of efficient treatment strategies, choosing the best method for isolation and characterization of CSCs/TICs is still debated among the scientific community. In this review...

  20. With eloquence and humanity? Human factors/ergonomics in sustainable human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dave; Barnard, Tim

    2012-12-01

    This article is based on a keynote presentation given at the 18th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association in Recife, Brazil, February 2012. It considers new, and not so new, approaches and practical roles for the emerging field of human factors/ergonomics (HFE) in sustainable development (SD).The material for this article was largely drawn from the literature in the fields of human development, sustainability, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and social/environmental impact assessment. Identifying the role of HFE in SD is not a simple one and from the outset is complicated by the widely differing ideas in the sustainability literature about what exactly it is we are hoping to sustain. Is it individual companies, business models, cultures, or the carrying capacity of our planet? Or combinations of these? For the purposes of this article, certain assumptions are made, and various emerging opportunities and responsibilities associated with our changing world of work are introduced. First, there are new versions of traditional tasks for us, such as working with the people and companies in the renewable energy sectors. Beyond this, however, it is suggested that there are emerging roles for HFE professionals in transdisciplinary work where we might play our part, for example, in tackling the twinned issues of climate change and human development in areas of significant poverty. In particular we have the tools and capabilities to help define and measure what groups have reason to value, and wish to sustain. It is suggested, that to do this effectively, however, will require a philosophical shift, or perhaps just a philosophical restatement at a collective level, regarding who and what we ultimately serve.

  1. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO MEASURE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Rostom

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with finding optimal ways to measure the level of Human Development in Russia’s regions. In the past, it was common to measure the level of regional development by the Gross Regional Income indicator. Nowadays, we shifted to more “humanized” indicators of regional development. The Human Development index is one of them. A way to improve methods of calculating this index to reflect the closest to reality situation is suggested.

  2. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO MEASURE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Rostom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with finding optimal ways to measure the level of Human Development in Russia’s regions. In the past, it was common to measure the level of regional development by the Gross Regional Income indicator. Nowadays, we shifted to more “humanized” indicators of regional development. The Human Development index is one of them. A way to improve methods of calculating this index to reflect the closest to reality situation is suggested.

  3. Urban youth unemployment and human capital development in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Lahlum, Nils Ivar

    2007-01-01

    This is a study on the main causes of urban youth unemployment in Iran. It argues that, based upon structural and classical explanations of unemployment, urban youth unemployment in Iran is caused by deficiencies in human capital development. Based in the two approaches to human capital development, the study uses empirical findings obtained through interviews, surveys and statistics in Iran to discuss earlier studies on the phenomenon, and to see whether investments in human capital developm...

  4. Increasing Organizational Effectiveness through Better Human Resource Planning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the increasing importance of human resource planning and development for organizational effectiveness, and examines how the major components of a human resource planning and development system should be coordinated for maximum effectiveness. Available from Alfred P. Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,…

  5. Development of human resources for Indian nuclear power ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper discusses the requirements of the human resource development programme for nuclear energy, the challenges in the way of its realization, its national and international status and traces the history of nuclear education in the country. It brings out the linkage of human resource development programme with the ...

  6. Relevant Education for Sustainable Human Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In human development, conscious efforts are made to enlarge people's choices to enable them live a healthy and prolonged life, acquire knowledge, and have access to resources needed to earn a decent living. Obviously, sustained improvement in African human development still falls short of those experienced in other ...

  7. Adult Education & Human Resource Development: Overlapping and Disparate Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education and human resource development as fields of practice and study share some roots in common but have grown in different directions in their histories. Adult education's roots focused initially on citizenship for a democratic society, whereas human resource development's roots are in performance at work. While they have…

  8. Globalization and the challenges of human resource development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the challenge of human resource development as it relates counseling in Nigerian schools in the face of globalization of world economy with its attendant changes in every facet of life. It traces the origin of human resource development Iin Nigeria up to the coming of the missionaries who spiritually ...

  9. Teaching Human Development: A Case for Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Nathan R.; Glover, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    This article makes a case for the use of blended learning in teaching human development as a means to encourage higher-order student learning outcomes. The authors review literature regarding the use and effectiveness of blended learning, discuss an illustrative example of a redesign of a human development course, present outcomes from a…

  10. Optimizing Human Resources: Readings in Individual and Organization Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippitt, Gordon L., Ed.; And Others

    The objective of putting together this collection of readings are: (1) to organize the many diverse changes in the human resource development field, (2) to establish links between new and old trends in this field, (3) to choose areas that are on the "cutting edge" of human resource development, and (4) to present different points of view about the…

  11. An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-08-29

    An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach: Freedom and Agency. Book cover An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach: Freedom and Agency. Editor(s):. Séverine Deneulin and Lila Shahani. Publisher(s):. Earthscan, IDRC. August 29, 2009. ISBN: 9781844078066.

  12. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador. Using family fixed effects models we find positive and persistent birth order effects; earlier-born children stay behind in their human capital development from infancy to adolescence. Turning to potential

  13. Commentary on "Education, Employment and Human Development: Illustrations from Mexico"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Flores-Crespo has written a timely paper, "Education, employment and human development: illustrations from Mexico". Flores-Crespo uses Amartya Sen's ideas to bring a fresh perspective to bear on the relationship between higher education and human development. Although there is growing interest in applying Sen's ideas in a range of…

  14. Core Curriculum for Human Services. Career Options Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Robert K.; And Others

    Developed through the Career Options Research and Development (CORD) Project, this report presents, in outline form, a core curriculum for the human services area. Specific objectives of the CORD project were the: (1) application of job analysis to positions in the social and human services, (2) organization of tasks and skills into career…

  15. An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 août 2009 ... An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach : Freedom and Agency. Couverture du livre An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach : Freedom and Agency. Directeur(s) : Séverine Deneulin et Lila Shahani. Maison(s) d'édition : Earthscan, CRDI. 29 août ...

  16. Potential use of mesenchymal stem cells in human meniscal repair: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak J

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jaewoo Pak,1–3* Jung Hun Lee,1,4* Kwang Seung Park,4 Jeong Ho Jeon,4 Sang Hee Lee4 1Stems Medical Clinic, Gangnamgu, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2TEDA‑Puhua International Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 3Life Science Institute, Komplek Permata Senayan, Jalan Tentara Pelajar, Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia; 4National Leading Research Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Myongji University, Yongin, Gyeonggido, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The menisci of the human knee play an important role in maintaining normal functions to provide stability and nutrition to the articular cartilage, and to absorb shock. Once injured, these important structures have very limited natural healing potential. Unfortunately, the traditional arthroscopic meniscectomy performed on these damaged menisci may predispose the joint toward early development of osteoarthritis. Although a very limited number of studies are available, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been investigated as an alternative therapeutic modality to repair human knee meniscal tears. This review summarizes the results of published applications of MSCs in human patients, which showed that the patients who received MSCs (autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells or culture-expanded bone marrow-derived stem cells presented symptomatic improvements, along with magnetic resonance imaging evidences of the meniscal repair. Keywords: adipose tissue-derived stem cells, bone marrow-derived stem cells, human knee, meniscal tear, articular cartilage, therapeutic modality

  17. Philosophy and Human Development: Nigerian Context | Egbekpalu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article tries to relate clearly the sacred role of philosophy with regard to development. As an education of the mind it is a very powerful medium through which necessary skills can be acquired to cope with daily life's prospects meaningfully. With philosophy, one develops a rational outlook on life that interrogates the ...

  18. Rabies--risk of exposure and current trends in prevention of human cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, W

    1999-03-26

    According to official WHO data more than 2.5 billion people are at risk in over 100 countries reporting the disease. Rabies mortality ranks ten in all infectious diseases worldwide. There are still about 50,000 to 60,000 human deaths annually although effective vaccines for post-exposure treatment are available. Most affected are the tropical countries in Africa, Asia, South America, and Oceania. The mortality figures range from about 0.001 per 100,000 for the US to 18 per 100,000 in Ethiopia. The vast majority (95-98%) of the 60,000 annual human death cases worldwide occur in canine (dog rabies) endemic regions with large stray dog population. Control of the disease is hampered by cultural, social and economic realities. In the rabies infested developing countries modern cell culture vaccines are hardly affordable. Dangerous neural tissue derived vaccines are still used. Three dose-saving treatment schedules have been developed: The reduced dose intramuscular 2-1-1 regimen, the two-site intradermal and the 8-site intradermal regimen. There is a critical shortage of human and purified equine rabies immunoglobulins, which are essential biologicals in the treatment of severe exposures.

  19. 78 FR 46969 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug... Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; reopening of comment period. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA...' perspective on current approaches to managing HIV, symptoms experienced because of HIV or its treatment, and...

  20. APOPTOSIS DURING HUMAN FETAL KIDNEY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Čukuranović

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney morphogenesis is a complex and stepwise process. The formation of mature kidney in mammals is preceded by two primitive embryonic kidneys known as pronephros and mesonephros. Metanephros develops as a result of reciprocal inductive interactions between two primordial mesodermal derivates: ureteric bud, an epithelial outgrowth of the Wolffian duct, and metanephric blastema, a group of mesenchymal cells. The ureteric bud induces the metanephric mesenchyme to differentiate and form nephrons, whilst the metanephric mesenchyme induces the ureteric bud to grow and branch to form collecting ducts. The nephron goes through four developmental stages, which are described as: 1 vesicle, 2 comma-shaped and S-shaped stages, 3 developing capillary loop, and finally 4 maturing glomerulus. Apoptosis (programmed cell death is a predominant form of physiological cell death, by which organism eliminate unwanted or damaged cells. It is the major component of normal development and disease. Apoptosis is the result of series of biochemical processes happening in certain order in a dying cell, among which the most important is activation of enzyme families called caspases which influence different cell components. Apoptosis is characterized by membrane blebbing, shrinkage of the cell, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation. Organelles are preserved almost intact. Cell surface molecules change. A variety of physiological and pathological stimuli can initiate apoptosis. They act via receptor mechanisms, through biochemical agents, or cause DNA and cell membrane damage. Apoptosis is an important component of fetal development. It is thought that apoptosis is the one of the main regulatory events involved in kidney morphogenesis, considering that among great number of developed cells, only a few of them are involved in the developing program by escaping apoptosis. In any period during kidney development about 3 to 5%of cells are apoptotic. Thorough

  1. An overview of food waste management in developing countries: Current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Ngoc Bao Dung; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2015-07-01

    Food waste (FW) related issues in developing countries is currently considered to be a major threatening factor for sustainable development and FW management systems. Due to incomplete FW management systems, many developing countries are facing challenges, such as environmental and sanitary problems that are caused by FW. The difference in FW generation trends between developing countries and developed countries was reviewed in this work, which demonstrated that the effects of income level, population growth, and public participation in FW management are very important. Thus, this work aimed to provide an overview of recycling activities, related regulations, and current FW treatment technology in developing countries by following some case studies. Taiwan, has been suggested as being a successful case in terms of FW management, and is therefore a typical model for developing countries to follow. Finally, an integrative management system as a suitable model for FW management has been suggested for developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and impact of human papillomavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darus, Christopher J; Mueller, Jennifer J

    2013-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a global health crisis that disproportionately affects developing nations and underserved populations. Two vaccines targeting HPV-16 and 18, which account for 70% of invasive cervical carcinomas, are licensed in the United States and numerous countries worldwide. Both vaccine formulations have shown excellent efficacy with minimal toxicity. Numerous questions remain, including cost-effectiveness, vaccination of males, societal acceptance of HPV vaccination, and cervical dysplasia screening in the HPV-immunized population. Access to vaccination for underserved populations both in developed and resource-poor nations remains an issue. Multivalent vaccines that encompass additional oncogenic HPV strains are under development.

  3. Dengue human infection models to advance dengue vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Christian P; Whitehead, Stephen S; Durbin, Anna P

    2015-12-10

    Dengue viruses (DENV) currently infect approximately 400 million people each year causing millions to seek care and overwhelming the health care infrastructure in endemic areas. Vaccines to prevent dengue and therapeutics to treat dengue are not currently available. The efficacy of the most advanced candidate vaccine against symptomatic dengue in general and DENV-2 in particular was much lower than expected, despite the ability of the vaccine to induce neutralizing antibody against all four DENV serotypes. Because seroconversion to the DENV serotypes following vaccination was thought to be indicative of induced protection, these results have made it more difficult to assess which candidate vaccines should or should not be evaluated in large studies in endemic areas. A dengue human infection model (DHIM) could be extremely valuable to down-select candidate vaccines or therapeutics prior to engaging in efficacy trials in endemic areas. Two DHIM have been developed to assess the efficacy of live attenuated tetravalent (LATV) dengue vaccines. The first model, developed by the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases at the U. S. National Institutes of Health, utilizes a modified DENV-2 strain DEN2Δ30. This virus was derived from the DENV-2 Tonga/74 that caused only very mild clinical infection during the outbreak from which it was recovered. DEN2Δ30 induced viremia in 100%, rash in 80%, and neutropenia in 27% of the 30 subjects to whom it was given. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) is developing a DHIM the goal of which is to identify DENV that cause symptomatic dengue fever. WRAIR has evaluated seven viruses and has identified two that meet dengue fever criteria. Both of these models may be very useful in the evaluation and down-selection of candidate dengue vaccines and therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Annals of Humanities and Development Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heritage management and development in Dire Dawa City administration: touristic values in focus · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Mesafint Tarekegn Yalew, 34-47 ...

  5. Development of a Human Factors Management Guideline for the MMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Woo Chang; Kang, Young Ju; Jung, Seong Hae [Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Ha [The University of Suwon, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kwang Tae [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    The objective of this project is to develop human factors guidelines of MMI devices, maintenance tasks, and operating procedures. The scope of guidelines covers interface components between the operation or maintenance personnel and a system. It also includes human factor consideration items for emergency operating procedures. Various design guidelines and technical papers related to evaluation of MMI devices and information displays were collected and reviewed to identify the appropriate human factors issues for human interface devices. From the collected issues, the evaluation issues and items to be used in the guidelines for a nuclear power plant have been developed through the consensus of the design review expertise. For developing human factor guidelines of the emergency operating procedures, we have researched on human errors of emergency operations in the nuclear power plant in the 1st year, on the deficiencies of the human factor aspects in the writing guidelines of emergency operating procedures in the 2nd year. A new writing and management guideline for emergency operating procedures were developed in the 3rd year. This report consists of three parts ; (1) human factors guidelines for MMI devices, (2) human factors guidelines for the maintenance tasks of NPP devices, (3) human factors guidelines for the management of operating procedures

  6. Qualitative ergonomics/human factors research in health care: Current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Rupa Sheth; McGuire, Kerry Margaret; Rivera, A Joy

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to understand the current state of Ergonomics/Human Factors (E/HF) qualitative research in health care and to draw implications for future efforts. This systematic review identified 98 qualitative research papers published between January 2005 and August 2015 in the seven journals endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association with an impact factor over 1.0. The majority of the studies were conducted in hospitals and outpatient clinics, were focused on the work of formal health care professionals, and were classified as cognitive or organizational ergonomics. Interviews, focus groups, and observations were the most prevalent forms of data collection. Triangulation and data archiving were the dominant approaches to ensuring rigor. Few studies employed a formal approach to qualitative inquiry. Significant opportunities remain to enhance the use of qualitative research to advance systems thinking within health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. What the Current System Development Trends tell us about Systems Development Methodologies: Toward explaining SSDAM, Agile and IDEF0 Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla F. Ally

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Systems integration, customization and component based development approach are of increasing attention. This trend facilitates the research attention to also focus on systems development methodologies. The availability of systems development tools, rapid change in technologies, evolution of mobile computing and the growth of cloud computing have necessitated a move toward systems integration and customization rather than developing systems from scratch. This tendency encourages component based development and discourages traditional systems development approach. The paper presents and evaluates SSADM, IDEF0 and Agile systems development methodologies. More specifically, it examines how they fit or not fit into the current competitive market of systems development. In the view of this perspective, it is anticipated that despite of its popularity, SSADM methodology is becoming obsolete while Agile and IDEF0 methodologies are still gaining acceptance in the current competitive market of systems development. The present study more likely enrich our understanding of the systems development methodologies concepts and draw attention regarding where the current trends in system development are heading.

  8. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  9. Real-time sweat analysis via alternating current conductivity of artificial and human sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gengchen; Alomari, Mahmoud; Sahin, Bunyamin; Snelgrove, Samuel E.; Edwards, Jeffrey; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga

    2015-03-01

    Dehydration is one of the most profound physiological challenges that significantly affects athletes and soldiers if not detected early. Recently, a few groups have focused on dehydration detection using sweat as the main biomarker. Although there are some proposed devices, the electrical and chemical characteristics of sweat have yet to be incorporated into the validations. In this work, we have developed a simple test setup to analyze artificial sweat that is comprised the main components of human sweat. We provide theoretical and experimental details on the electrical and chemical behavior of the artificial sweat for various concentration values within a temperature range of 5 °C to 50 °C. We have also developed an efficient sweat collecting and detection system based on 3D printing. Human studies were conducted and this particular protocol has shown that dehydration starts to take effect as early as 40 min into the physical activity if there is no fluid intake during the exercise. We believe that our device will lead to developing viable real-time sweat analysis systems.

  10. Physiology and pharmacology of the human ureter: basis for current and future treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, A Erdem; Turna, Burak; Cinar, G Mehtap; Nazli, Oktay

    2007-01-01

    This article sets out to be a review regarding agents that affect contraction and relaxation of the ureter in order to establish a basis for current and future treatments for upper urinary tract obstruction. A complete review of the English literature using MEDLINE was performed between 1960 and 2007 on ureter physiology and pharmacology with special emphasis on signal transduction mechanisms involved in the contractile regulation of the human ureter. Activation of muscarinic and adrenergic receptors increases the amplitude of ureteral contractions. The sympathetic nerves modulate the contractions by alpha-adrenoceptors and relaxation by beta-adrenoceptors. The purinergic system is important in sensory/motor functions and ATP is an important non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) agent causing contraction. Nitric oxide (NO) is a major inhibitory NANC neurotransmitter causing relaxation. Serotonin causes contraction. Prostaglandin-F(2)alpha contracts whereas prostaglandin-E(1)/E(2) relaxes the ureter. Phosphodiesterases (PDE) and the Rho-kinase pathway have recently been identified in the human ureter. PDE-IV inhibitors, K(+) channel openers, calcium antagonists, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists and NO donors seem to be promising drugs in relieving obstruction and facilitating stone passage. Further understanding of the ureteral function and pharmacology may lead to the discovery of promising new drugs that could be useful in relieving ureteral colic, facilitating spontaneous stone passage, preparing the ureter for ureteroscopy as well as acting adjunctive to extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy.

  11. Cumulative human impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea marine ecosystems: assessing current pressures and opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Micheli

    Full Text Available Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine ecosystems reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60-99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification, demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine ecosystems.

  12. Working Paper 39 - Human Capital and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Appleton; Francis Teal

    2002-01-01

    Health and education are both components of human capital and contributors to human welfare. Oneindex of human welfare, which incorporates income, education and health, shows that Africa’s level of‘human development’ is the lowest of any region in the world. In this paper we will frequently compareAfrica with South Asia. While Africa’s level of human development is lower than that of South Asia, itsper capita income is higher. Africa’s poor economic performance has been most marked in its gro...

  13. Human taeniasis: current insights into prevention and management strategies in endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okello A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anna L Okello,1 Lian Francesca Thomas2 1Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, Edinburgh Medical School, Biomedical Sciences College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Scotland; 2Independent Consultant, Lusaka, Zambia Abstract: Human taeniasis is a zoonotic condition resulting from infection with the adult stages of Taenia saginata (“beef tapeworm”, Taenia solium (“pork tapeworm” or Taenia asiatica (“Asian tapeworm”. Although these parasites have a worldwide distribution, the overwhelming burden is felt by communities in low- and middle-income countries. This is particularly true for T. solium, whereby infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the parasite (neurocysticercosis is a major cause of acquired epilepsy in low-resource settings. With a focus on endemic countries, this review provides an insight into the prevention and management of human taeniasis, concluding with some recent case studies describing their implementation. Discussion of the opportunities and challenges regarding current fecal and serological diagnostic assays for detecting Taenia spp. highlights the importance of accurate and accessible diagnostic options for the field situation. The lack of long-term impact on the parasites’ lifecycle from human anthelmintic treatment, coupled with the propensity for adverse reactions, highlights the importance of a “two-pronged” approach that considers the relevant animal hosts, particularly in the case of T. solium. Aside from the therapeutic options, this review reiterates the importance of adequate assessment and consideration of the associated behavioral and policy aspects around sanitation, hygiene and meat inspection that have been shown to support parasite control, and potential elimination, in endemic regions. Keywords: Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, cysticercosis, zoonotic disease, neglected tropical diseases

  14. The Metal Neurotoxins: An Important Role in Current Human Neural Epidemics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Schofield

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many published studies have illustrated that several of the present day neurological epidemics (autism, attention deficit disorder, Alzheimer’s cannot be correlated to any single neurotoxicant. However, the present scientific examination of the numerous global blood monitoring databases for adults that include the concentrations of the neurotoxic elements, aluminum (Al, arsenic (As, lead (Pb, manganese (Mn, mercury (Hg, and selenium (Se clearly indicate that, when considered in combination, for some, the human body may become easily over-burdened. This can be explained by changes in modern lifestyles. Similar data, solely for pregnant women, have been examined confirming this. All these elements are seen to be present in the human body and at not insignificant magnitudes. Currently suggested minimum risk levels (MRL for humans are discussed and listed together with averages of the reported distributions, together with their spread and maximum values. One observation is that many distributions for pregnant women are not too dissimilar from those of general populations. Women obviously have their individual baseline of neurotoxin values before pregnancy and any efforts to modify this to any significant degree is not yet clearly apparent. For any element, distribution shapes are reasonably similar showing broad distributions with extended tails with numerous outlier values. There are a certain fraction of people that lie well above the MRL values and may be at risk, especially if genetically susceptible. Additionally, synergistic effects between neurotoxins and with other trace metals are now also being reported. It appears prudent for women of child-bearing age to establish their baseline values well before pregnancy. Those at risk then can be better identified. Adequate instrumental testing now is commercially available for this. In addition, directives are necessary for vaccination programs to use only non-neurotoxic adjuvants, especially for

  15. Developing a strategic human resources plan for the Urban Angel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    In healthcare a significant portion of the budget is related to human resources. However, many healthcare organizations have yet to develop and implement a focused organizational strategy that ensures all human resources are managed in a way that best supports the successful achievement of corporate strategies. St. Michael's Hospital, in Toronto, Ontario, recognized the benefits of a strategic human resources management plan. During an eight-month planning process, St. Michael's Hospital undertook the planning for and development of a strategic human resources management plan. Key learnings are outlined in this paper.

  16. Optimal marine mammal welfare under human care: Current efforts and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brando, Sabrina; Broom, Donald M; Acasuso-Rivero, Cristina; Clark, Fay

    2017-09-18

    Marine mammals include cetaceans, pinnipeds, sirenians, sea otters and polar bears, many of which are charismatic and popular species commonly kept under human care in zoos and aquaria. However, in comparison with their fully terrestrial counterparts their welfare has been less intensively studied, and their partial or full reliance on the aquatic environment leads to unique welfare challenges. In this paper we attempt to collate and review the research undertaken thus far on marine mammal welfare, and identify the most important gaps in knowledge. We use 'best practice case studies' to highlight examples of research promoting optimal welfare, include suggestions for future directions of research efforts, and make recommendations to strive for optimal welfare, where it is currently lacking, above and beyond minimum legislation and guidelines. Our review of the current literature shows that recently there have been positive forward strides in marine mammal welfare assessment, but fundamental research is still required to validate positive and negative indicators of welfare in marine mammals. Across all marine mammals, more research is required on the dimensions and complexity of pools and land areas necessary for optimal welfare, and the impact of staff absence for most of the 24-h day, as standard working hours are usually between 0900 and 1700. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cultural Change, Human Activity, and Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cognitive performance across cultural contexts has been a standard result in comparative research. Here we discuss how societal changes occurring when a small-scale traditional community incorporates elements from industrialized society may contribute to cognitive development, and we illustrate this with an analysis of the cognitive…

  18. 2008 Human Resources Development Programmes in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbaje E.S

    It was suggested that for effective HRD, each university library should have a written staff development policy ... through a staff orientation programme and this .... N=41. FUTO. Responses. Percentage( %) Responses. Percentage (%). Orientation. 6. 66.7%. 35. 85.3%. On the job training. 3. 33.3%. 32. 78%. Job rotation. 4.

  19. Professional Skills Acquisition and Human Capital Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study delved into University of Port Harcourt (UPH) and Rivers State University of Science and Technology (RSUST) lecturers' approaches to professional development. Lecturers in the faculties of education in the universities constituted the target population from which a random sample of 120 respondents was ...

  20. Language Preservation and Human Resources Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorne, Joyce A.

    Those who work in the field of preserving Native American languages are an assortment of individuals who come to the work as a central career (linguists), through family heritage (fluent speakers), or through a developed passion (language learners). This paper examines the field from the perspective of R. Wayne Pace, Phillip C. Smith, and Gordon…

  1. Pediatric stress: hormonal mediators and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmandari, Evangelia; Kino, Tomoshige; Souvatzoglou, Emmanuil; Chrousos, George P

    2003-01-01

    Stress activates the central and peripheral components of the stress system, i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the arousal/sympathetic system. The principal effectors of the stress system are corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine vasopressin, the proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and beta-endorphin, the glucocorticoids, and the catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine. Appropriate responsiveness of the stress system to stressors is a crucial prerequisite for a sense of well-being, adequate performance of tasks and positive social interactions. By contrast, inappropriate responsiveness of the stress system may impair growth and development, and may account for a number of endocrine, metabolic, autoimmune and psychiatric disorders. The development and severity of these conditions primarily depend on the genetic vulnerability of the individual, the exposure to adverse environmental factors and the timing of the stressful event(s), given that prenatal life, infancy, childhood and adolescence are critical periods characterized by increased vulnerability to stressors. The developing brain undergoes rapid growth and is characterized by high turnover of neuronal connections during the prenatal and early postnatal life. These processes and, hence, brain plasticity, slow down during childhood and puberty, and plateau in young adulthood. Hormonal actions in early life, and to a much lesser extent later, can be organizational, i.e., can have effects that last for long periods of time, often for the entire life of the individual. Hormones of the stress system and sex steroids have such effects, which influence the behavior and certain physiologic functions of individuals for life. Exposure of the developing brain to severe and/or prolonged stress may result in hyperactivity/hyperreactivity of the stress system, with resultant amygdala hyperfunction (fear reaction), decreased activity of the hippocampus

  2. Measuring Key Disparities in Human Development: The Gender Inequality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Amie Gaye; Jeni Klugman; Milorad Kovacevic; Sarah Twigg; Eduardo Zambrano

    2010-01-01

    Gender inequality remains a major barrier to human development. Girls and women have made major strides since 1990, but they have not yet gained gender equity. In this paper, we review ways to measure and monitor gender inequality, providing a critique of existing measures including the first global gender indices that were launched in the 1995 Human Development Report – the Gender-related Development Index and the Gender Empowerment Measure - and introduce a new index that is presented in th...

  3. An experience of virtual leadership development for human resource managers

    OpenAIRE

    Sherk, Karen E; Nauseda, Fiona; Johnson, Sarah; Liston, Delphine

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Problem Strong leadership and management skills are crucial to finding solutions to the human resource crisis in health. Health professionals and human resource (HR) managers worldwide who are in charge of addressing HR challenges in health systems often lack formal education in leadership and management. Approach Management Sciences for Health (MSH) developed the Virtual Leadership Development Program (VLDP) with support from the United States Agency for International Development (U...

  4. Methadone but not morphine inhibits lubiprostone-stimulated Cl- currents in T84 intestinal cells and recombinant human ClC-2, but not CFTR Cl- currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppoletti, John; Chakrabarti, Jayati; Tewari, Kirti; Malinowska, Danuta H

    2013-05-01

    In clinical trials, methadone, but not morphine, appeared to prevent beneficial effects of lubiprostone, a ClC-2 Cl(-) channel activator, on opioid-induced constipation. Effects of methadone and morphine on lubiprostone-stimulated Cl(-) currents were measured by short circuit current (Isc) across T84 cells. Whole cell patch clamp of human ClC-2 (hClC-2) stably expressed in HEK293 cells and in a high expression cell line (HEK293EBNA) as well as human CFTR (hCFTR) stably expressed in HEK293 cells was used to study methadone and morphine effects on recombinant hClC-2 and hCFTR Cl(-) currents. Methadone but not morphine inhibited lubiprostone-stimulated Isc in T84 cells with half-maximal inhibition at 100 nM. Naloxone did not affect lubiprostone stimulation or methadone inhibition of Isc. Lubiprostone-stimulated Cl(-) currents in hClC-2/HEK293 cells, but not forskolin/IBMX-stimulated Cl(-) currents in hCFTR/HEK293 cells, were inhibited by methadone, but not morphine. HEK293EBNA cells expressing hClC-2 showed time-dependent, voltage-activated, CdCl2-inhibited Cl(-) currents in the absence (control) and the presence of lubiprostone. Methadone, but not morphine, inhibited control and lubiprostone-stimulated hClC-2 Cl(-) currents with half-maximal inhibition at 100 and 200-230 nM, respectively. Forskolin/IBMX-stimulated hClC-2 Cl(-) currents were also inhibited by methadone. Myristoylated protein kinase inhibitor (a specific PKA inhibitor) inhibited forskolin/IBMX- but not lubiprostone-stimulated hClC-2 Cl(-) currents. Methadone caused greater inhibition of lubiprostone-stimulated currents added before patching (66.1 %) compared with after patching (28.7 %). Methadone caused inhibition of lubiprostone-stimulated Cl(-) currents in T84 cells and control; lubiprostone- and forskolin/IBMX-stimulated recombinant hClC-2 Cl(-) currents may be the basis for reduced efficacy of lubiprostone in methadone-treated patients.

  5. Environmental epigenomics: Current approaches to assess epigenetic effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC's) on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Orozco, Natalia; Santiago-Toledo, Gerardo; Barrón, Valeria; Espinosa-García, Ana María; García-García, José Antonio; García-Arrazola, Roeb

    2017-04-01

    Environmental Epigenomics is a developing field to study the epigenetic effect on human health from exposure to environmental factors. Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been detected primarily in pharmaceutical drugs, personal care products, food additives, and food containers. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been associated with a high incidence and prevalence of many endocrine-related disorders in humans. Nevertheless, further evidence is needed to establish a correlation between exposure to EDC and human disorders. Conventional detection of EDCs is based on chemical structure and concentration sample analysis. However, substantial evidence has emerged, suggesting that cell exposure to EDCs leads to epigenetic changes, independently of its chemical structure with non-monotonic low-dose responses. Consequently, a paradigm shift in toxicology assessment of EDCs is proposed based on a comprehensive review of analytical techniques used to evaluate the epigenetic effects. Fundamental insights reported elsewhere are compared in order to establish DNA methylation analysis as a viable method for assessing endocrine disruptors beyond the conventional study approach of chemical structure and concentration analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [The rhythmic structure of the human EEG: the current state and trends of the research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotchev, A I; Bondar', A T; Akoev, I G

    2000-01-01

    During the past decade, spectral analysis has become indispensable instrument for different kinds of EEG processing. With the development of dedicated computer system, investigation of shifts in human EEG rhythm under various conditions has improved considerably. However, it is difficult to make general conclusions from this line of research, since a large number of studies are carried out using the ambiguous experimental approaches and different methods. Present paper aims to evaluate a modern state of the art in the field of human EEG rhythmical structure investigation. The results from recent relevant articles are briefly reviewed according to the universal scheme (EEG rhythm--experimental condition--observed effect). Due to such presentation, the obtained results have been summarized and some tendencies of modern investigations have been revealed. The extension of studied frequency range of rhythmical EEG components to both high (> 35 Hz) and low (cognitive activity, and a wide utilization of dynamic approaches for the analysis of brain electrical activity are discussed in some detail. The observed data are indicate of high functional significance and perspectives of human EEG rhythmical structure investigation.

  7. Structural Connectivity of the Developing Human Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Zeynep M.; Osher, David E.; Koldewyn, Kami; Martin, Rebecca E.; Finn, Amy; Saxe, Rebecca; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Sheridan, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of research suggests that there are changes in the manner and degree to which the amygdala supports cognitive and emotional function across development. One possible basis for these developmental differences could be the maturation of amygdalar connections with the rest of the brain. Recent functional connectivity studies support this conclusion, but the structural connectivity of the developing amygdala and its different nuclei remains largely unstudied. We examined age related changes in the DWI connectivity fingerprints of the amygdala to the rest of the brain in 166 individuals of ages 5-30. We also developed a model to predict age based on individual-subject amygdala connectivity, and identified the connections that were most predictive of age. Finally, we segmented the amygdala into its four main nucleus groups, and examined the developmental changes in connectivity for each nucleus. We observed that with age, amygdalar connectivity becomes increasingly sparse and localized. Age related changes were largely localized to the subregions of the amygdala that are implicated in social inference and contextual memory (the basal and lateral nuclei). The central nucleus’ connectivity also showed differences with age but these differences affected fewer target regions than the basal and lateral nuclei. The medial nucleus did not exhibit any age related changes. These findings demonstrate increasing specificity in the connectivity patterns of amygdalar nuclei across age. PMID:25875758

  8. Strategic Human Resource Development in Hospitality Crisis Management: A Conceptual Framework for Food and Beverage Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Ala`a Nimer AbuKhalifeh; Ahmad Puad Mat Som; Ahmad Rasmi AlBattat

    2013-01-01

    Crisis management has been a largely unnoticed territory in human resource development. Despite the increased impact of organizational crises on individual and organizational performance, it remains to be an issue that must be recognized and addressed. This paper reviews the current literature on hotel industry crisis management, its progression and effective crisis management framework. Garavan`s strategic human resource model as a guiding framework is discussed to help understand the variou...

  9. Current Development Situations of Ziziphus Jujuba Industry in South Xinjiang and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Xinwen; Yao, Xuedong; Liu, Chengjiang; Lin, Hai; Lou, Zheng; Gao, Zhenjiang

    2015-01-01

    Through surveying current development situations and existing problems of planting and processing of Ziziphus jujuba in south Xinjiang, this paper discussed planting, processing mode of Ziziphus jujube in south Xinjiang and development direction of enterprises in Ziziphus jujube production. It is expected to ensure and increase quality and sales volume of Ziziphus jujube and promote sound and sustainable development of Ziziphus jujube industrial chain in south Xinjiang.

  10. [EU law on marketing authorization of medicines. History, current state of development and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettesheim, Martin

    2008-07-01

    The article describes the development of EU policies and regulations on the marketing authorization of medicines. First, it describes the changing perspective of the EU towards the regulation of such authorizations. While its original focus was on the liberalization of national markets, it has today assumed overarching political responsibility for the development and marketing of medicines. Second, the article describes the current, rather fragmented regulatory system. Finally, political perspectives on the integration of markets for medicines are developed.

  11. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF FINANCING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kozarezenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the possibilities and expediency of endowment utilization as an alternative of the social sphere elements budgetary funding in Ukraine. We have conclusions that the endowments have some advantages. That’s is creates the possibility for a long-term planning and development of social sphere (mechanism of adequate general stable situation in the country, convenient for major companies inclined to strategic business planning and contributions in the social sphere, transparent and provides guarantees for the donors in the specific cash expenditure, provides the non-commercial organizations with the possibility to change the approach to implementation of social projects, to study how to earn the money and not to be just the consumers, creates the possibility to accumulate the funds in charitable purposes that makes them attractive for medium and small companies. The disadvantages of endowments are risks of financial nature (small income guaranteed transactions, high inflation rate, exposure to the financial crises, difficulties with forming the «body» of the specific capital of such size that would guarantee more or less substantial income directed for charity, no instant effect for recipient’s favor,  possibility to be used in swindling, no tax stimulation of donors. Let’s think that endowments or funds specific capital have an important meaning in the development of social sphere because they are basis for its long-term planning and development. For non-commercial organization there are at least two advantages. First is stable financing and second is attraction of new contributors for non-commercial organizations. It is both stability of financing and guarantee of stable functioning.

  12. Development and current state of the Water Rescue Service of ČČK

    OpenAIRE

    Krčma, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Title: Water Rescue Service Goals: The goal of this bachelor thesis is to describe the history, structure and the current activities of the Water Rescue Service of Czech Red Cross. Method: This thesis is used to analyse related literature and other suitable available sources. Results: The result of this work is a description of the development and current status of the Water Rescue Service of Czech Red Cross and its activities with Integrated Rescue System in Czech Republic. Key words: Rescue...

  13. 3D atlas of human embryology : New insights in human development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, B.S.

    2018-01-01

    Congenital malformations, which have an incidence of 3% in the human population, cause up to one-quarter of all neonatal deaths. Studying the intricate morphogenesis of the developing human body facilitates better understanding of the etiology of malformations. Embryonic development, however, is

  14. Recovered Alcoholics and Career Development: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie; Mercer, Frances; Iodice, Jody D.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents three issues regarding alcoholism, recovery, and career development. First, alcoholism is a disease that creates health and wellness problems for those it afflicts. It also impacts individual and workplace productivity. Second, alcoholism has a persistent stigmatization. As a result, those alcoholics who are in recovery face…

  15. 6. 6 kV/1. 5 kA-class superconducting fault current limiter development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, D.; Yoneda, E.S.; Tsurunaga, K.; Tada, T. (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)); Hara, T.; Ohkuma, T.; Yamamoto, T. (Engineering Research Center, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Nishi-Tsutsujigaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182 (JP))

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the authors have developed and tested a 6.6 kV/1.5 kA-class fault current limiter wound with a 42-strand AC superconducting wire having ultra-fine MbTi filaments in a high resistivity matrix. In experiments, voltages up to 7.2 kV were applied to the limiter with phase angles of 0, 45, and 90 degrees. The limiter was able to limit the fault current to 1.8 kA successfully from the 55 kA short-circuit current that would flow in a circuit without limiter.

  16. Development of a Multi-Site and Multi-Device Webgis-Based Tool for Tidal Current Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, M. R. C. O.; Panganiban, I. K.; Mamador, C. C.; De Luna, O. D. G.; Bausas, M. D.; Cruz, J. P.

    2016-06-01

    A multi-site, multi-device and multi-criteria decision support tool designed to support the development of tidal current energy in the Philippines was developed. Its platform is based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) which allows for the collection, storage, processing, analyses and display of geospatial data. Combining GIS tools with open source web development applications, it becomes a webGIS-based marine spatial planning tool. To date, the webGIS-based tool displays output maps and graphs of power and energy density, site suitability and site-device analysis. It enables stakeholders and the public easy access to the results of tidal current energy resource assessments and site suitability analyses. Results of the initial development showed that it is a promising decision support tool for ocean renewable energy project developments.

  17. Full Human Development And School Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    The aim of this keynote address is to show how theoretical ideas from the cultural-historical tradition have been used to address issues that fall within the scope of interest for Brazilian school psychologists. The first part of the conference discusses the idea of radical-local teaching and lea...... for all professional approaches to school psychology.......The aim of this keynote address is to show how theoretical ideas from the cultural-historical tradition have been used to address issues that fall within the scope of interest for Brazilian school psychologists. The first part of the conference discusses the idea of radical-local teaching...... and learning, which was inspired by Davydov’s ideas about theoretical thinking and learning activity, and further developed by Hedegaard and Chaiklin to link the contents of school teaching with the pupil’s life situation. Examples with primary school-age children (social studies in the New York City...

  18. CPA Perceptions of Human Skills for Professional Competency Development Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kari C.

    2017-01-01

    This study addressed CPA perceptions about the need for human skill competencies as professional development. The problem was identified as the undetermined assessment of state level CPA perceptions about human skill competencies as developmental needs. CPAs and education providers may be impacted by this problem. The purpose of this study was to…

  19. Children of War and Peace: A Human Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Political conflicts and intractable wars can be conceived as disasters of human activities and they affect the entire life of children and their families. An ecological-transactional perspective of human development is adopted in order to identify multilevel developmental and contextual trajectories that might facilitate or impede the willingness…

  20. Adult Education and Human Resource Development: A Symbiotic Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Robert E.; Hemby, K. Virginia; Conerly-Stewart, Donna L.

    1998-01-01

    Top-ranked competencies for graduate education in human resources development (HRD) identified by 55 (of 195) HRD practitioners were adult learning, presentation, facilitation, needs assessment, and human relations. Seven of the top 10 were allied with adult education graduate program content. (SK)