WorldWideScience

Sample records for current government policies

  1. Governance and the Gulf of Mexico Coast: How Are Current Policies Contributing to Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Jordan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life and economies of coastal communities depend, to a great degree, on the ecological integrity of coastal ecosystems. Paradoxically, as more people are drawn to the coasts, these ecosystems and the services they provide are increasingly stressed by development and human use. Employing the coastal Gulf of Mexico as an example, we explore through three case studies how government policies contribute to preventing, mitigating, or exacerbating the degradation of coastal ecosystems. We consider the effectiveness of the current systems, what alternate or additional policy solutions might be needed to ensure the sustainability of the region and its quality of life, and what this example can tell us about the sustainability of coastal systems globally. In our examples, among other aspects, policies that are proactive and networked governance structures are observed to favor sustainable outcomes, in contrast to reactive policies and hierarchical models of governance.

  2. Current status of alcohol marketing policy--an urgent challenge for global governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally

    2012-03-01

    To review research literature and available information on the extent and impacts of marketing, current policy response and the interests engaged in the policy debate in order to inform recommendations for policy change on alcohol marketing. Relevant literature, including systematic reviews and publicly available information (websites and participant observation) is reviewed and synthesized. Alcohol marketing has expanded markedly in the past 50 years and, while there remains uncertainty about the impact across the population, there is now clear evidence of its impact on the consumption of young people. Few countries have effective policy in place restricting alcohol marketing, and there is a lack of an international response to alcohol marketing which crosses national boundaries. The protection of alcohol marketing has been a major focus for vested interest groups and this has affected governmental response at national and international levels. There has been a lack of non-governmental organization engagement. The policy response to tobacco marketing provides a clear contrast to that of alcohol marketing policy and provides a model for alcohol marketing policy. The global exposure of young people to alcohol marketing requires an urgent policy response. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate model for global governance to control alcohol marketing. There are extant examples of national level legislation achieving comprehensive bans with France's Loi Evin providing a feasible model. Resources from philanthropic organizations to allow non-governmental organization engagement are urgently required, as is engagement by the governmental sector independent of commercial influence. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Government Policy, Saving and Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Several arguments that government policy--income redistribution and support of the poor, higher marginal income taxes, and social security--has depressed saving are found wanting. Also hard to sustain is the argument that investment demand has been depressed by tax policy. Current government policy will not improve saving and investment. (RM)

  4. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...

  5. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  6. Policy Governance Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, William J.

    2001-01-01

    An administrator trainer/former superintendent's experience suggests that corporate governance models don't fit the reality of school governance in many districts. Elected board members define their roles differently than their business counterparts and derive little or no monetary benefit from public service. The "new breed" resemble…

  7. Creditor Governance and Corporate Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Marc; Westermann, Ramona

    This paper analyzes the impact of debt covenant renegotiations on corporate policies. We develop a structural model of a levered firm that can renegotiate debt both at investment and in corporate distress. Covenant renegotiation at investment disciplines equity holders in their financing...... and investment decisions and, hence, mitigates the agency cost of debt. Our model explains the empirical intensity and patterns of the occurrence of debt renegotiation. We also quantify the role of debt covenant renegotiations as a governance channel on corporate financial policies and on the value of corporate...

  8. Global health: governance and policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Patrick W

    2011-06-01

    Global health policy is now being influenced by an ever-increasing number of nonstate and non-intergovernmental actors to include influential foundations, multinational corporations, multi-sectoral partnerships, and civil society organizations. This article reviews how globalization is a key driver for the ongoing evolution of global health governance. It describes the massive increases in bilateral and multilateral investments in global health and it highlights the current global and US architecture for performing global health programs. The article closes describing some of the challenges and prospects that characterize global health governance today.

  9. What is good governance in the context of drug policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Nicola; Rubin, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    The concept of governance is applied in a wide range of contexts, but this paper focuses on governance in relation to public administration, i.e. states and how they take action, and specifically governance of particular policy areas. In the current context of financial austerity and an era of globalisation, policy-makers face pressures and challenges from a growing range of interests and local, national and supranational actors. Drug policy is an example of a particularly contentious and polarised area in which governance-related challenges abound. In response to these challenges, interest has grown in developing agreed policy governance standards and processes and articulating policy-making guidelines, including the use of available evidence to inform policy-making. Attempts have been made to identify 'policy fundamentals' - factors or aspects of policy-making apparently associated with successful policy development and implementation (Hallsworth & Rutter, 2011; Laughrin, 2011) and, in the drug policy field, Hughes et al. (2010) reflecting on the co-ordination of Australian drug policy highlighted some of what they considered principles of good governance. But how useful is the concept of 'good governance'; how well can it be defined, and to what purpose? As part of a wider project considering the governance of drug policy, RAND Europe and the UK Drug Policy Commission undertook a targeted review of other research and sought expert views, from within and beyond drug policy, on principles, processes, structures and stakeholders associated with good drug policy governance. From this emerged some perceived characteristics of good governance that were then used by the UK Drug Policy Commission to assess the extent to which drug policy making in the UK fits with these perceived good governance characteristics, and to suggest possible improvements. Particular consideration was given to the range of interests at stake, the overarching aims of drug policy and the

  10. Policy Learning and Governance of Education Policy in the EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Bettina; Alexiadou, Nafsika

    2010-01-01

    Open methods for coordinating (OMC) education policies in the EU rely on a number of techniques, one of which is policy learning. This article examines how policy learning and governance transform each other. More specifically, policy-learning in the education OMC becomes differentiated into four distinct learning styles: mutual, competitive,…

  11. Optimal Policy under Restricted Government Spending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Welfare ranking of policy instruments is addressed in a two-sector Ramsey model with monopoly pricing in one sector as the only distortion. When government spending is restricted, i.e. when a government is unable or unwilling to finance the required costs for implementing the optimum policy...

  12. Do Policy Networks lead to Network Governing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil

    This paper challenges the notion that creation of local policy networks necessarily leads to network governing. Through actor-centred case studies in the area of municipally implemented employment policy in Denmark it was found that the local governing mode is determined mainly by the municipality...

  13. Control of antibiotic resistance in China must not be delayed: The current state of resistance and policy suggestions for the government, medical facilities, and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Song, Peipei; Li, Jiajia; Kong, Fanlei; Sun, Long; Xu, Lingzhong

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotics are medicines used to prevent and treat bacterial infections. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in response to the use of these medicines. Antibiotic resistance is rising to dangerously high levels in all parts of the world, leading to higher medical costs, prolonged hospital stays, and increased mortality. In the European Union alone, drug-resistant bacteria are estimated to cause 25,000 deaths and cost more than US$1.5 billion every year in healthcare expenses and productivity losses. The problems of antibiotic misuse and antibiotic resistance are quite serious in China. In 2015, results of a study by the State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences indicated that the total antibiotic usage in China in 2013 was approximately 162,000 tons, including human use (48%) and use in animals (52%). This amount accounted for about half of the antibiotic usage worldwide. The per-capita use of antibiotics in China is more than 5 times that in Europe and the United States. These data mean that China is one of the world's leading countries with serious problems in terms of antibiotic misuse and antibiotic resistance. The current article analyzes the current state and harms of antibiotic misuse and causes of antibiotic resistance in China. The Government needs to pay close attention to the issue of antibiotic resistance in China and formulate a strategy at the national level. Thus, the following suggestions are offered: i) The Chinese Government should implement policies that promote antibiotic research and development; ii) Medical facilities in China should create multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) and encourage early action by MDTs to control the spread of multi-drug-resistant bacteria (MDRB); iii) An intervention in the form of health education should target patients and accompanying family members (AFM) in China. In other words, antibiotic resistance is not a personal problem but an

  14. Access to Government-Generated Information: Current Issues and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Linda E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews both historical and current policies for access to government information, and discusses such current trends in government information as paperwork reduction, commercialization, privatization, and electronic publishing. The possible impact of these trends on the library's ability to provide access to information is briefly considered. (CLB)

  15. Maritime Governance and Policy-Making

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A close analysis of the framework of existing governance and the existing jurisdictional arrangements for shipping and ports reveals that while policy-making is characterized by national considerations through flags, institutional representation at all jurisdictions and the inviolability of the state, the commercial, financial, legal and operational environment of the sector is almost wholly global. This governance mismatch means that in practice the maritime industry can avoid policies which it dislikes by trading nations off against one another, while enjoying the freedoms and benefits of a globalized economy. A Post-modern interpretation of this globalized society prompts suggestions for change in maritime policy-making so that the governance of the sector better matches more closely the environment in which shipping and ports operate. Maritime Governance and Policy-Making is a controversial commentary on the record of policy-making in the maritime sector and assesses whether the reason for continued polic...

  16. The Current Cluster Policy: Essence and Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onipko Tetiana A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining essence of the current cluster policy and its characteristics. It was specified that, in the process of developing and implementing regional, innovation and entrepreneurial policies, many governments drew attention to the clustering of economy as a means of achieving a high level of regional and national competitiveness. The current cluster policy needs to be integrated, that is, to unify different policies, programs, and means. One of the characteristics of the current cluster policy is its orientation towards public-private partnership. The efficient form of such a partnership is cluster organizations. The author’s vision of the current cluster policy is that both the State and the private sector should be parties to it. Emphasis has been placed on the need to support in Ukraine, at the State level, the innovation clusters that facilitate modernization of the existing economic sectors by combining the traditions and the challenges of modernity. It has been concluded that social organizations could be involved in the process of development and implementation of cluster policy in Ukraine. A prospect for further research can be development of the «intellectual specialization» strategy for regions as an important constituent of the current cluster policy.

  17. Network governance of active employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil; Torfing, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The recent reform of the Danish governance system in the field of active employment policy has been subject to fierce criticism, as many commentators fear that it is the beginning of the end of the Danish Model of active stakeholder involvement. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data...

  18. Governance in EU illicit drugs policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Carel; Galla, Maurice

    2014-09-01

    This commentary represents the authors' views on EU governance in illicit drug policy, a field in which they were active for more than 10 years between them. EU drug policy has a narrow legal basis in the European Treaties and is mostly non-binding. The main policy instruments are 8-year EU Drug Strategies, underpinned by 4-year Action Plans which set out specific objectives at national, EU or international level. The approach that guides EU drug policy is known as the 'balanced approach'. It is remarkably restrained and reflects the reality that very few Member States have either the socio-political culture or the resources to consistently apply the punitive sanctions foreseen by the UN conventions. An important feature of EU governance in the field of drugs is the proactive support that is provided to non-governmental organisations both within the EU as well as in accession, associated or third countries. At a global level, the EU is a major financial aid donor also in this field. This position is not however reflected in corresponding political clout for the EU within the UN system. EU governance on drugs has made it possible for many of its Member States to accommodate the problem rather than to "solve" what by all the evidence from the last 100 years may well be insoluble, at least by means of criminalisation and prohibition. The big question is where EU drug policy is headed in the next few years. The EU has been promoting measures and practices that target real problems. It has done so without indulging too much in unhelpful rhetoric. However, like all successful formulae this one also has a sell-by date. EU governance in the field of drugs cannot afford to stand still. It needs to find a second wind.

  19. Assessing youth policies. A system of indicators for local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Anna; Soler, Pere; Vilà, Montserrat

    2014-08-01

    In the current European climate of economic, financial and political crisis and the questioning of the welfare state, assessing public policies assume a primary and strategic relevance in clarifying the results and contributions of policy actions. In this article, we aim to present the current situation in relation to youth policy assessment so as to formulate a system of assessment indicators in the sphere of Spanish local government youth policy. A review is conducted of some of the principal contributions in the field of constructing indicators for evaluating youth policies. We have found that most of these evaluation tools exist on a national or state level and that there is a dearth of local or municipal tools. The article concludes with a concrete proposal for an assessment tool: the SIAPJove (Sistema d'Indicadors d'Avaluació per a les Polítiques Municipals de Joventut or System of Assessment Indicators for Local Government Youth Policies) (web page: http://siapjove.udg.edu/). It provides both quantitative and qualitative indicators for local youth policy managers to obtain assessment reports with relative ease in 12 possible areas for assessment within youth policy.

  20. EU Trade Governance and Policy: A Critical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Ford

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a critical analysis of EU trade policy. It does so by highlighting the political and economic enclosures within which EU trade policy is embedded and that continue to hamper more holistic and interdisciplinary analyses that are argued to be necessary in order to comprehend the obstacles to and avenues towards a more sustainable and socially just world. The article critically analyses economic and political hegemony by drawing on two strands of critical international thought, namely neo-Gramscian analysis and global political ecology, employing a critical realist approach. The article identifies the perceived twin short-comings of conventional analyses: firstly, the neglect of understandings of power relations and social justice, and secondly the lack of attention to criteria of sustainability. Within critical debates about European governance, including the governance of trade and trade policy, neo-Gramscian perspectives highlight the power relations within EU governance, exposing the mechanisms of hegemony as well as identifying potential counter-hegemonic forces. While this offers important insights, the article argues that a critical perspective cannot be complete without attention to sustainability. Political ecology makes a vital contribution to critical perspectives by highlighting the natural limits within which by necessity all human activity takes place. Using illustrations from trade policy debates, the article argues that current EU trade policy and governance is not best placed to meet the challenges of sustainability and social justice and it points to the need for more holistic systems thinking to challenge orthodoxy.

  1. Assessment on the Unemployment Policies under the Coalition Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解瑶

    2014-01-01

    This paper tentatively discusses the unemployment policies under the Coalition government through the comparison with its predecessors. It is found that its workfare and supply-side policies are based upon the previous government policies and the results of the government are yet satisfying.

  2. Institutional factors, government policies and appropriate technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S

    1980-01-01

    Traditionally the use of inappropriate technologies in the developing countries has been explained by the existence of factor price distortions, e.g. the price of labor being artificially raised by labor legislation, and the price of capital being reduced by subsidies and unrealistic exchange rates. In reality the technological choice is often determined by economic conditions and the local sociocultural/political conditions. The institutional framework of the country may discourage the appropriate technology. The obstacles can be overcome when the following conditions are met: 1) a national consensus about the need for development efforts and importance of policy goals; 2) promising market prospects and/or an effective marketing system; and, 3) sufficient industrial competition in both home and international markets. Institutional problems come from the generation and diffusion of technologies from the supply side which are introduced to people who do not see the need for them. More emphasis on the marketing side ususally results in application of correct technology, especially where governments fund research and development projects and formulate their plans on the basis of a concrete investment or production plan and a clear idea about the target market. Land reforms and agricultural price policies are needed as well as the establishment of an efficient national administrative network.

  3. Financial Literacy: A Review of Government Policy and Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Taylor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades there has been robust discussion by many governments and financial communityleaders generally, that financial security can only be achieved when a country’s population is considered to befinancially literate. Hence individuals need to be financially literate if they are to make informed decisionsabout savings, investments, debt and most importantly when considering retirement issues. No longer canthere be a reliance on social security in retirement due to the ever increasing ageing population and adeclining tax base worldwide.In both Australia and New Zealand, governments have put structures in place as a result of external evidencesuggesting both populations have questionable levels of financial literacy. Both governments have formulatedpolicies and embarked upon initiatives to address this issue. The strategies and structures used, whilst similar,encompassed some unique elements which makes a comparative investigation and discussion interesting.The outcomes of this research paper highlight that even with similar desired outcomes there can be multiplepathways.The rationale for this paper was the lack of any published academic literature in both Australia and NewZealand that reported on the stated government policies and there subsequent initiatives that related to theimprovement of financial literacy. Whilst structures to address government concerns have been put in place,the ability to assess the effectiveness of these initiatives has proven difficult, due to the sparse nature ofpublicly available information and the lack of access to the survey design, development and analysis. It shouldbe noted that this is an exploratory paper primarily to raise questions rather that provide a critical assessmentof either countries policies.While this research paper primarily seeks to describe and review both the policies and strategies implementedby the Australian and New Zealand governments in respect of financial literacy

  4. Policy Implementation Decentralization Government in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardin M. Simanjuntak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization in Indonesia is that reforms not completed and until the current implementation is not maximized or have not been successful. The essence of decentralization is internalising cost and benefit' for the people and how the government closer to the people. That's the most important essence of essence 'decentralization’. However, the implementation of decentralization in Indonesia is still far from the expectations. It is shown that only benefits of decentralization elite and local authorities, decentralization is a neo-liberal octopus, decentralization of public services are lacking in character, decentralization without institutional efficiency, decentralization fosters corruption in the area, and quasi-fiscal decentralization.

  5. Monetary and fiscal policy interaction and government debt stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Bovenberg, A.L.; Raith, M.

    1995-01-01

    In many developing and developed countries, government debt stabilization is an important policy issue. This paper models the strategic interaction between the monetary authorities who control monetization and the fiscal authorities who control primary fiscal deficits. Government debt dynamics are

  6. The Relationship between Government Policies on SMES and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Relationship between Government Policies on SMES and Development: A ... on entrepreneurship in selected countries – South Africa, United Arab Emirates ... Finally, it is assumed that having identified these challenges, policy makers ...

  7. Governing drug use through partnerships: Towards a genealogy of government/non-government relations in drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Natalie; Bull, Melissa; Dioso-Villa, Rachel; Smith, Catrin

    2016-02-01

    Drug policy in Australia is underpinned by the idea of partnerships wherein the non-government sector is one important partner in both delivering services and contributing to policy and decision-making processes. This article presents a genealogy of the concept of government/non-government 'partnerships', tracing its emergence and development within drug policy discourse in Australia. We find that the rise of neo-liberal policies since the 1980s has been a key factor facilitating the emergence of government/non-government 'partnerships' rhetoric in drug policy. Since the 1980s, the role of non-government organisations (NGOs) in drug policy has been articulated in relation to 'community' responsibilisation in contrast to the welfarist reliance on expert intervention. We link the rise of this rhetoric with the neo-liberal turn to governing through community and the individualisation of social problems. Furthermore, although we find that governments on the whole have encouraged the service delivery and policy work of NGOs at least in policy rhetoric, the actions of the state have at times limited the ability of NGOs to perform advocacy work and contribute to policy. Constraints on NGO drug policy work could potentially compromise the responsiveness of drug policy systems by limiting opportunities for innovative policy-making and service delivery.

  8. Electronic U.S. Government Information: Policy Issues and Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; McClure, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of U.S. federal information policy and its treatment of electronic information resources. Highlights include government publications; electronic government information; main providers of government information, including the Government Printing Office; the Freedom of Information Act; public access and use; information…

  9. 新政下地方政府债发行的现状与问题研究%A Research on Current Situation and Problems of Local Government Bond Issue under New Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑颖昊

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, local government debt has entered repayment peak. The Ministry of Finance issued new policy this year to relieve debt repayment pressure by replacing government bond with existing debt. There are reviews of three stages for the development of local government bond issue, including the phases in the beginning of new China establishment, spontaneous experiments and comprehensive implementation phase. Meanwhile , the analysis is about the basic information of local government debt issue under new policy, debt classification, and the current situation. Some features are believable that local governments debts have characters of great scale, long term, low interest rate and fast pace of issue at present. In consideration of facts, the majority of subscribers are banks, and transactions usually undertake within the interbank bond market. This paper discusses the influence that local government debt issue impacts on banks. It also studies several problems of local government debt , including its crowding-out effect, fiscal risk transferring to financial risk, replacement scale and details staying unclear, replacement ways and proportion needing adjustment, and lacking rating policy. At last, this paper suggests that pricing should be in marketing way, and information symmetry has to be realized. Meanwhile, enriched investors will be more helpful.%近年来,地方政府债进入偿债高峰期,为缓解偿债压力,财政部今年推出通过政府债券置换存量债务政策。文章从新中国成立之初、中央转贷、自发试点到全面铺开三个阶段回顾了我国地方政府债发行的历史沿革。从新政后地方政府债发行的基本情况和地方政府债务分类对地方政府债的现状进行了归纳,笔者认为目前地方政府债具有发行规模大、发行期限长、发行利率低和发行进度快等特点。结合地方政府债认购机构集中于银行、承接场所集中在银行间债券市场等

  10. Policy and Current Account Determination under Floating Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Genberg; Alexander K. Swoboda

    1989-01-01

    The determinants of current account imbalances under floating exchange rates are analyzed. The analysis provides a framework within which the sources of, and the remedies for, the current account imbalances between the United States, Japan, and the Federal Republic of Germany can be discussed. The effects of various government policies are emphasized, in particular the differences between expenditure-changing and expenditure-switching policies. Short-run and long-run considerations are invest...

  11. Influence of government policy on the promotion of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the influence of government policy on the promotion of wind power in different countries in Europe with focus on the development in Denmark.......This paper analyses the influence of government policy on the promotion of wind power in different countries in Europe with focus on the development in Denmark....

  12. THE CHANGING APPROACH TO THE HEALTH POLICY AND GOVERNANCE: INSIGHTS FROM LITHUANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaida Pukinaite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of this review is to present the changing approach to the health policy and governance and to provide an overview of the appropriate public governance model which would allow the practical realization of contemporary health policy and governance in Lithuania. Design/methodology/approach – A literature search was carried out in order to describe the context of contemporary health policy and governance. The analysis of the draft Lithuanian Health Programme 2020, as well as the EU legislation, has also been made. The review analyses the logic of the main public governance models, defines the features of traditional public administration, the New Public Management and the New Public Governance in a summarised way, by emphasising their nature in the current Lithuanian health policy and governance. Findings – Health policy both on a global scale and in Lithuania tends to apply the integrated “bottom-to-top” models, which are based on networking, partnership and cooperation. The attitudes prevailing in Lithuania on the improvement of health policy and governance reflect the logics of the New Public Governance (NPG. The NPG could be the theoretical framework which might allow the practical realization of prevailing ideas in Lithuania on health policy and governance improvement. Research limitations/implications – The small scope of this review and the necessity for a more detailed empirical data analysis cannot lead to overall generalizations. The Lithuanian Health Programme 2020 has not been approved by the Seimas yet. Practical implications – The review provides the practical features that would be essential in order to achieve the objectives of contemporary health policy and governance. Originality/Value – Prevailing ideas on the improvement of health policy and governance are changing, and previously applied theoretical models of public governance no longer meet the realia of these days. Assurance of effective

  13. Designing Software to Shape Open Government Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Harlan Ming-Tun

    2012-01-01

    Modern information technologies have transformed the meaning and promise of "open government." The term originally stood for the ideas of government transparency and public accountability. But with the rise of the Internet, "open government" has grown to encompass a wide range of civic goals--greater public participation and…

  14. Tackling obesity requires efficient government policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecchini Michele

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Changes in food supply and eating habits, combined with a dramatic fall in physical activity, have made obesity a global epidemic. Across OECD countries, one in two adults is currently overweight and one in six is obese. Children have not been spared, with up to one in three currently overweight. Obese people are more likely to develop diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and have a shorter life expectancy than people of normal weight. A prevention strategy combining health promotion campaigns, government regulation, counseling of individuals at risk in primary care, and paying special attention to the most vulnerable, would enhance population health at an affordable cost, with likely beneficial effects on health inequalities. Failure to implement such a strategy would impose heavy burdens on future generations. The new IJHPR paper by Ginsberg and Rosenberg illustrates how particular countries can assess alternative strategies for tackling obesity in a rigorous fashion. This is a commentary on http://www.ijhpr.org/content/1/1/17/

  15. Government Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Moon, Jeremy; Slager, Rieneke

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses policies of 22 European Union member governments, designed to encourage corporate social responsibility (CSR) between 2000 and 2011. It categorises these policies by their regulatory strength and identifies the range of issues to which CSR policies are directed. The paper argu...

  16. Government Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Moon, Jeremy; Slager, Rieneke

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses policies of 22 European Union member governments, designed to encourage corporate social responsibility (CSR) between 2000 and 2011. It categorises these policies by their regulatory strength and identifies the range of issues to which CSR policies are directed. The paper argu...

  17. Decentralization Policy and Effectiveness of Local Government Organization in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Muh. Tang

    2014-01-01

    In the era of decentralization policy implementation, the local bureaucracy (Indonesian: Organisasi Perangkat Daerah) has strategic position in the local government system. It is so as the instruments and the fundamental base of the local government in implementing its affairs and as the media to realize the vision, mission, and the objectives of local government. The successful of local government is determined by the effectiveness of the local bureaucracy. This study aims to examine the eff...

  18. Local government broadband policies for areas with limited Internet access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Arai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite their wide diffusion in developed countries, broadband services are still limited in areas where providing them is not profitable for private telecom carriers. To address this, many local governments in Japan have implemented broadband deployment projects subsidized by the national government. In this paper, we discuss local government broadband policies based on survey data collected from municipalities throughout the country. With the support of national promotion policies, broadband services were rapidly introduced to most local municipalities in Japan during the 2000s. Local government deployment policies helped to reduce the number of areas with no broadband access. A business model based on the Indefeasible Right of Use (IRU contract between a private telecom carrier and a local government has been developed in recent years. Even local governments without the technical capacity to operate a broadband business can introduce broadband services into their territory using the IRU business model.

  19. Policy Reform and Supply Chain Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.; Laven, A.; Ton, G.; Muilerman, S.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks at the degree of state involvement and the modes of market governance in the cocoa value chains of Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, and Ecuador, in order to document the institutional blending of private and public economic governance. Liberalization in the cocoa sectors transformed the role

  20. Policy Reform and Supply Chain Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.; Laven, A.; Ton, G.; Muilerman, S.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks at the degree of state involvement and the modes of market governance in the cocoa value chains of Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, and Ecuador, in order to document the institutional blending of private and public economic governance. Liberalization in the cocoa sectors transformed the role

  1. Government Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Moon, Jeremy; Slager, Rieneke

    This paper analyses policies of twenty two EU member governments designed to encourage corporate social responsibility (CSR) over the first decade of the century. Our paper categorizes policies for CSR into different types depending on their expected degree of regulatory strength. Secondly, whilst...... it identifies a wide range of issues to which government CSR policies are directed, it notes a tendency for these to have expanded from social affairs and employment issues, through environmental issues, to economic and trade and development issues. Thirdly, governments act as agents in their respective...

  2. Governing Methods: Policy Innovation Labs, Design and Data Science in the Digital Governance of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Policy innovation labs are emerging knowledge actors and technical experts in the governing of education. The article offers a historical and conceptual account of the organisational form of the policy innovation lab. Policy innovation labs are characterised by specific methods and techniques of design, data science, and digitisation in public…

  3. Correlation between Government and Economic Growth –Fiscal Policy during the Transition in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Xhenet Syka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to analyze some aspects of fiscal policy in our country, without pretending to give our own sample. Fiscal policy is the use of government expenditures and taxes which affect economic activity. Determination of fiscal policy in a given year takes into account the time virtually the past (current socio-economic status and the implications for the future (fiscal sustainability. In general the cases dealt the role fiscal policy plays toward economic growth. The analysis many focused both in the theoretical treatment as well as the role that fiscal policy has played in our country, going even further in some suggestions for the future. The most important issue was addressed in the long-term fiscal policy view, fiscal sustainability. In the final everything is addressed to the role of fiscal policy on social issues. The role that fiscal policy should play in economic and social development has long been a controversial issue and is still different among economists. While a restrictive fiscal policy means increasing taxes and cut government spending. Fiscal policy may be expansionary or restrictive. An expansionary fiscal policy means a reduction of direct and indirect taxes and increased government expenditures. Choose between two types of fiscal policy is not an easy decision, both in terms of the current state of the economy, as well as political decisions.

  4. Governance and Youth Participation in local policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Haaber Pettersen, Charlotte Louise; Aro, Arja R.

    2016-01-01

    research strategy was applied to examine these two case studies. Data was collected under the REPOPA Project (Research into Policy to enhance Physical Activity) though semi-structures interviews (N=11), analysed through content analysis and supported by analysis of 123 background documents. Results: Youth...... was involved in policy making only through adult representation. These adult stakeholders became part of participatory governance in developing the healthy public policies in both Odense and Esbjerg municipalities. Conclusion: Youth participation in local HEPA policy making in Esbjerg and Odense did not meet...... the Danish principle of participatory policy process and good health system governance. Main messages: Mechanisms to facilitate youth participation in policy making in the study communities were lacking. The Danish goal of improved participatory policy making at the local level was not met....

  5. [Integration, exclusion and solidarity in the current social policy debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, R

    2001-01-01

    The current global trend involving transformation of work and the crisis in large government economic development and intervention projects in the market are raising new challenges for social policies to combat poverty. This study reconstitutes and analyzes the tensions, paradoxes, and main consequences of this process, focusing on problems concerned with combining solidarity strategies and public welfare systems.

  6. National Security Policy on Government Secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    prevailed as a political issue. 6 The Watergate scandal caused the downfall of Nixon , leaving President Gerald Ford to help the nation recover its...pressure President Richard Nixon relaxed the requirements of the classification system by issuing EO 11652 on March 8, 1972. The directive reduced further...confidence in government. In the wake of Watergate the public pushed for greater awareness of government activities with emphasis on truthful information

  7. Policy measures and governance for sustainable tourism and recreation in the Netherlands – an evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the policy approach for facilitating sustainable development of the tourism and recreation sector inside the Netherlands. Taking a national perspective, it reflects on the sustainability challenges facing the sector, and how the currently used governance and policy styles address

  8. Current adaptation measures and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoff Roberts; John A. Parrotta; Anita. Wreford

    2009-01-01

    As stated in earlier chapters, the possible impacts of climate change on forests and the forest sector are considerable, and many impacts have already been observed. As forest conditions change, there is an inherent need to change management and policy measures to minimise negative impacts and to exploit the benefits derived from climate change. This chapter highlights...

  9. Capital flight and the uncertainty of government policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, N.; Lensink, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper shows that policy uncertainty, measured by the uncertainty of budget deficits, tax payments, government consumption and the inflation rate, has a statistically significant positive impact on capital flight. This result remains robust after having applied stability tests.

  10. The EU Eastern enlargement: Policy choices of the Spanish government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Piedrafita Tremosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eastern enlargement is a process in which the very identity of the European Union is under construction, with its constitutive principles and values being challenged. Policy choices of the member governments participating in this process can not exclusively being explained by rational choice assumptions, but a sociological approach to the issue also becomes necessary. Through the analysis of the Spanish government's policy on enlargement, this paper aims to show how policy preferences might not only respond to a cost-benefit calculus and how policy contents might develop endogenously during the process of policy formation in the EU. In this process there is room for member states to pursue their goals and search a collective decision that better accommodates their self-interest. However, deliberation also matters, and governments have to justify their actions in terms considered legitimate by all according to the constitutive principles and values of the EU polity.

  11. [Governance and political economy of PHC policies in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báscolo, Ernesto

    2011-06-01

    The development of implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America, is a challenge yet to be tackled. It is necessary to acknowledge the political economy related to the implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America from a governance perspective, characterized by the regulatory strategies used and the political processes. The promotion of social values, organizational policies or the introduction of new financial incentives are components of different forms of governance used in health system reforms. The institutional factors of social protection systems in Latin America are considered. Their potential, redistribution limitations and the political economy disputes of the reform strategies are explained by the conflict between the economic and related interests and values of the actors involved. This dynamic of the political process influences regulatory modes inherent in the processes of implementation of PHC policies. The State's governing capacity and levels of health system segmentation impinge on the effectiveness of reform strategies for resolving the conflicts in the policies implemented.

  12. Rural Develoment Policies and Rural Governability: the Andalusian case

    OpenAIRE

    López Moreno, Ignacio; Aguilar Criado, Encarnación; Lozano Cabedo, Carmen; Pérez Chueca, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 90s, the EU Rural Development Policy (RDP) embodied on different programmes and initiatives -such as Leader- has been changing the institutional way to approach rural communities among State Members. This new policy has been introducing new ideas such as multi-level governance or bottom-up decision making process, which have unfolded a new model of rural governance in Europe. Therefore, the hypothesis of this p...

  13. Public Access to Government Electronic Information. Policy Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This policy framework provides guidelines for federal agencies on public access to government electronic information. Highlights include reasons for disseminating information; defining user groups; which technology to use; pricing flexibility; security and privacy issues; and the private sector and state and local government roles. (LRW)

  14. Monetary and fiscal policy interaction and government debt stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Bovenberg, A.L.; Raith, M.

    1995-01-01

    In many developing and developed countries, government debt stabilization is an important policy issue. This paper models the strategic interaction between the monetary authorities who control monetization and the fiscal authorities who control primary fiscal deficits. Government debt dynamics are d

  15. Federal Government Electronic Bulletin Boards: An Assessment with Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes federal government electronic bulletin boards; assesses the types of information available to users, including costs and technological access issues; discusses federal information policy; and considers the role of federal bulletin boards in accessing and managing electronic government information. (Contains 29 references.)…

  16. 36 CFR 228.43 - Policy governing disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... policy is to make mineral materials on National Forest lands available to the public and to local, State... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy governing disposal... revests in the United States. (e) Decisions. All decisions as to whether or not to grant...

  17. An Empirical Evaluation of Government Scholarship Policy in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmet, Ozay; Hoong, Yip Yat

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of Malaysian government scholarships, designed to achieve restructuring objectives of the New Economic Policy, was studied. A survey of 1982-1983 graduates revealed that the scholarship policy is now generating a mismatch in the high-level personnel market. In addition, distribution of scholarships benefits high-income students.…

  18. An Empirical Evaluation of Government Scholarship Policy in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmet, Ozay; Hoong, Yip Yat

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of Malaysian government scholarships, designed to achieve restructuring objectives of the New Economic Policy, was studied. A survey of 1982-1983 graduates revealed that the scholarship policy is now generating a mismatch in the high-level personnel market. In addition, distribution of scholarships benefits high-income students.…

  19. Government Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Moon, Jeremy; Slager, Rieneke

    This paper analyses policies of twenty two EU member governments designed to encourage corporate social responsibility (CSR) over the first decade of the century. Our paper categorizes policies for CSR into different types depending on their expected degree of regulatory strength. Secondly, whils...

  20. Analysis of government policies to support sustainable domestic defense industries

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Armed forces all over the world need military equipment to support their security missions. Having a domestic defense industry is one approach that countries use to supply their armed forces’ requirements. The successful development of a domestic defense industry depends on many factors, but perhaps the most significant variable is the government. Because governments are both buyers and suppliers of national security, government polici...

  1. Executive Policy Agenda Drift in Coalition Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, G.E.; Timmermans, A.; Lowery, D.; Resodihardjo, S.

    2008-01-01

    Political parties, who form a government together, will usually do so after lengthy negotiations. Any compromises reached between the parties will be formalized in a coalition agreement. As such, the coalition agreement embodies what the coalition parties agree upon, what they want to achieve during

  2. Corporate governance and business ethics:pictures of the policies

    OpenAIRE

    Nic TERBLANCHE; Pitt, Leyland; Nel, Deon; Wallström, Åsa

    2009-01-01

    This study analyses the ethics policies of the world's four largest oil companies, as communicated on their websites, using the Leximancer approach. The text contained in the ethics policies of these firms was used in a content analysis and then mapped. This article illustrates a powerful, but simple and relatively inexpensive way for executives and corporate governance scholars to examine ethics policies, particularly as they are communicated online. The intent is to demonstrate a research a...

  3. Working Children: Current Trends and Policy Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bequele, Assefa; Boyden, Jo

    1988-01-01

    Examines the types of employment children are most frequently engaged in, the risks involved, earnings, relationship between work and school, and the constraints on the exercise of their rights. Discusses initiatives underway to protect child workers, meet their needs, and formulate government policy. (JOW)

  4. Government Policy and Environmental Innovation in the Automobile Sector in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahman, Max

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the role that the Japanese Government has played, and still plays, in the development of alternatives to conventional vehicles and the effect of government policy. The focus in this paper is on battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) These alternatives present an interesting case of technical choices in government policy. The effects of government policy and the process of innovation are analysed from a comprehensive view drawing on the literature regarding technical change and innovation. The whole chain of government support, including the context in which these different policies have been implemented since the early 1970s, is studied. Based on this analysis, current and suggested future government policy is discussed, as the development of alternative vehicles is still an ongoing process. The Japanese Government has adopted a comprehensive strategy and drafted long-term strategic plans including R and D, demonstration and market support. This strategy has enabled the Japanese Government to influence the direction of technical development within the domestic automobile industry with relatively limited government funding. In the development process analysed here, market support have been equally important for the development process as the R and D efforts. The history of BPEVs in Japan illustrates the conventional wisdom that 'picking winners' in government policy is not easy. Our conclusion is that governments should, if possible, focus on technologies that fulfil several policy aims and which can be used in several different applications. This increases the chance of a technology surviving the long journey from idea to competitive product. This study also shows that established dominating companies do not necessarily resist radical changes in their core designs.

  5. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE POLICIES AND TRANSPARENCY IN THE REPUBLIC OF SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila, DJOKIC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Corporate Governance Policy is the framework for the corporate governance of particular public company. The deed is drawn up by the supervisory board and the management board in order to commit to and publicly disclose how they will supervise and run the company. The article analyses how Corporate Governance Policies have been drawn up in annual reports of the prime listing and selected companies of the standard listing of the Ljubljana Stock Exchange. The annual reports for 2010, 2011 and 2012 have been scrutinized and the results commented. Article shows the perspectives for the further development of transparency principle in the Republic of Slovenia.

  6. Chapitre 13. Overview of Current Public Policies

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Current Public Policies, Rules and Legislation – especially European ones – With Regard to Highly Skilled Immigration, Nationality Regimes, Stay Rights, etc.Binod Khadria Introduction: Three Levels of Public Policies Policies and programs adopted by the developed receiving countries – mainly the United States, Canada, Australia, and the European Union (EU) countries – for the admission of foreign workers with a view to facilitating and/or regulating high-skill immigration fall into three broa...

  7. LEGAL POLICY OF INVESTMENT GOVERNMENT REFORM IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Darmawan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to find a legal policy model the Indonesian government in the management of government investment in infrastructure financing alternatives towards improving the welfare of all the people of Indonesia. This study uses a normative approach. The results showed that the management of government investment undertaken by the Government Investment Unit as a public service unit is not optimal and governance need to be improved. Legal reform through the establishment of a legal entity sui generis and realignment of authority operators, regulators and supervision in the management of government investment is expected to realize the objectives of the management of government investment as stipulated in Article 41 of Law No. 1 of 2004 on State Treasury.

  8. Designs on governance : development of policy instruments and dynamics in governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voß, Jan-Peter

    2007-01-01

    The thesis analyses the role of policy instruments for dynamics of governance, using case studies on ‘emissisons trading’ and ‘network access regulation in the utilities’. It opens by observing a paradox: Policy instruments are criticised for misrepresenting the complex and contested reality of

  9. Brazilian Foreign Policy Towards Internet Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Santoro

    Full Text Available Abstract Snowden´s whistleblowing on the NSA program had a powerful impact in Brazil, prompting Dilma Rousseff´s administration to promote, at the United Nations, resolutions on Internet privacy, freedom of expression, as well as to host important multistakeholder conferences and, domestically, to approve the innovative legislation known as Marco Civil. These answers were only possible due to a network of officials and activists. However, Brazil´s global leadership in Internet governance is fragile, with many internal contradictions.

  10. Government Should Adopt Policies Favouring Rural Migrants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩长赋

    2007-01-01

    Based on a systematic analysis of the development trends of Chinese rural migrant workers, this article has designed a model representing the flow of migrant workers from rural to urban areas, and the patterns of urban settlement. The significant factors contributing to the problems of migrant workers are assessed and suggestions for improvement put forward. This article concludes that the rural migrant worker problem is attributable to institutional set-up and strategy and will continue for the entire process of China’s modernization. It is estimated that modernization will be realized in about 2050, at which time the rural-urban migration process will also be completed. To solve the problems of migrant workers, a comprehensive strategy of balanced development between urban and rural areas should be carried out, featuring industry’s support of agriculture and urban support of rural areas. Furthermore, the urban-rural dual structure should be gradually eliminated through institutional reform and policy innovation. The principles of equality, humanity and fair treatment for both urban and rural populations should be sought.

  11. Internet governance origins, current issues, and future possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Balleste, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Internet Governance: Origins, Current Issues, and Future Possibilities provides an introductory, multidisciplinary account of the forces at work in the evolving concept of internet governance and includes computer history, Internet beginnings, institutions and stakeholders, proposed models of governance, and human rights.

  12. Capital flight and the uncertainty of government policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.

    This paper shows that policy uncertainty, measured by the uncertainty of budget deficits, tart payments, government consumption and the inflation rate, has a statistically significant positive impact on capital flight. This result remains robust after having applied stability tests. (C) 2001

  13. Formulating an Integrated Library Government Documents Collection Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Stanley P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Offers suggestions for developing a collection policy that promotes the integration of government documents into an academic library's overall collection management objectives. Steps described include selecting appropriate agencies, selecting appropriate levels of collection intensity, assigning intensity levels to agency materials, and adjusting…

  14. REDD+ policy strategy in Cameroon: Actors, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somorin, O.A.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; Arts, B.J.M.; Sonwa, D.J.; Tiani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is receiving increasing political and scientific attention as a climate change mitigation approach. The government of Cameroon has expressed an interest in participating in REDD+, and national deliberation on a policy strategy has

  15. The End of Access? The Government's New Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Thomas James

    2002-01-01

    Examines examples of "information lockdown" by the federal government, including Executive Order 13233 issued by President George W. Bush. Considers the underlying rationale for the lockdown, its policy implications for academics and others who seek regular access to public-sector information, and its threat to democratic society. Includes a…

  16. Theories of the firm: competitive advantage and government policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfring, T.; Man, de A.P.

    1998-01-01

    To improve the effectiveness of government policy, it is necessay to develop a good picture of what a firms in a knowledge-intensive economy is and does. In this paper, we have drawn on the recent surge of books and articles on the resource- and knowledge-based theories of the firm and their implica

  17. REDD+ policy strategy in Cameroon: Actors, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somorin, O.A.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; Arts, B.J.M.; Sonwa, D.J.; Tiani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is receiving increasing political and scientific attention as a climate change mitigation approach. The government of Cameroon has expressed an interest in participating in REDD+, and national deliberation on a policy strategy has

  18. Europeanisation of Regional Development Policies? Linking the Multi-Level Governance Approach with Theories of Policy Learning and Policy Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Conzelmann

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the effects of non-regulatory EC policies on policy development at member state level. Taking EC regional policy and a recent reform of German regional policy as examples, it is suggested that the EC context may matter for policy development (1 through changing preferences of actors involved in regional policy-making, (2 through the mobilisation of new actors and the emergence of new actor coalitions in domestic policy domains, and (3 through serving as a source of inspiration for policy-makers looking for alternative policy ideas. In developing such thoughts, the article seeks to understand the influence of supranational factors as an integral part of domestic policy-making (rather than an external constraint. On a more abstract level, the aim is to link contributions from the field of policy analysis with the literature on multi-level governance.

  19. Migration policy of the Mexican government to its compatriots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Estefania Contreras Contreras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration is one of the phenomena of most importance in the XXI century; by 2013, it has reached 231.5 million people in the world. Mexico does not scape this phenomenon; it has a migration corridor with thousands of crossings a day. In response, the Mexican government has started a series of actions to manage the flow of migrants to the United States. The purpose of this paper is to expose the migration policy of the Mexican government to its compatriots in the United States, particularly since 1988 until today. At the same time it was done an analysis about these actions and their effects in the migration phenomena, the services that the Mexican government provides to its compatriots in the United States and how these services have promoted the strengthening of Mexican migrant organizations, which have become important players in the development of the Migration Policy in Mexico.

  20. Electronic government policies in Brazil: context, ICT management and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Martins de Laia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The State Reform processes combined with the emergence and use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT originated electronic government policies and initiatives in Brazil. This paper dwells on Brazilian e-government by investigating the institutional design it assumed in the state's public sphere, and how it contributed to outcomes related to e-gov possibilities. The analyses were carried out under an interpretativist perspective by making use of Institutional Theory. From the analyses of interviews with relevant actors in the public sphere, such as state secretaries and presidents of public ICT companies, conclusions point towards low institutionalization of e-gov policies. The institutional design of Brazilian e-gov limits the use of ICT to provide integrated public services, to amplify participation and transparency, and to improve public policies management.

  1. Government Policy and School Effects: Racism and Social Justice in Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillborn, David; Youdell, Deborah; Kirton, Alison

    1999-01-01

    Criticizes social justice policies of the Labour government in the United Kingdom because they promote formal equality in the schools without working for substantive equity in outcomes of education. Naive multiculturalism is an inadequate policy response to the institutionalized racism that pervades the contemporary education system. (SLD)

  2. Policy Governance--An Example of the Learning Paradigm in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D. Wayne

    This essay describes benefits of the Learning Paradigm and discusses policy governance as an example of this paradigm. In education, the current dominant paradigm is known as the "Instruction Paradigm." According to this paradigm, instructors should serve to transfer information and offer some practice using this information in such a…

  3. Energy policy design and China’s local climate governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ting, Guan; Delman, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    This study probes into climate policy design at city level in China, with Hangzhou’s energy efficiency and renewable energy policies between 2005 and 2014 as a case. The study applies a political action arena approach to accentuate the importance of different normative preferences behind climate...... energy efficiency is a more mature and comprehensive political action arena than renewable energy. The study also finds that there has been a significant shift away from preferences towards command-and-control to more marketbased instruments, while cooperative governance instruments are still...

  4. An overview of clinical governance policies, practices and initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Travaglia, Joanne F

    2008-02-01

    To map the emergence of, and define, clinical governance; to discuss current best practices, and to explore the implications of these for boards of directors and executives wishing to promote a clinical governance approach in their health services. Review and analysis of the published and grey literature on clinical governance from 1966 to 2006. Medline and CINAHL databases, key journals and websites were systematically searched. Central issues were identified in the literature as key to effective clinical governance. These include: ensuring that links are made between health services' clinical and corporate governance; the use of clinical governance to promote quality and safety through a focus on quality assurance and continuous improvement; the creation of clinical governance structures to improve safety and quality and manage risk and performance; the development of strategies to ensure the effective exchange of data, knowledge and expertise; and the sponsoring of a patient-centred approach to service delivery. A comprehensive approach to clinical governance necessarily includes the active participation of boards and executives in sponsoring and promoting clinical governance as a quality and safety strategy. Although this is still a relatively recent development, the signs are promising.

  5. Indicators in the governance of sustainable transport policies in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Fukuda, Daisuke

    The paper addresses the role of indicators to promote transitions towards a more sustainable transportation future in Japan. Existing international literature suggests a potential key role for performance measurement and indicator systems to strengthen such policies. The research explores to what...... extent governance frameworks associated with ‘new public management’ reforms in Japan also provide an enhanced basis to promote sustainability within transportation. A framework is derived based on the assumption that the effectiveness of such frameworks in this regard depends on the way sustainability...... is represented, as well as how the framework is integrated with decision making processes. Japan is used as a case, because Japanese transport seems to perform well in certain aspects of ‘sustainability’, while Japanese transportation policy also faces significant management challenges. A range of governance...

  6. Social Policy and Governance: Conceptual Reflections on Ageing in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L. Powell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks in more detail at the incidence and consequence of social policies for older people through the conceptual lens of governmentality (Foucault, 1977 in England. This international paper with focus on England will enable us to consider the implications of the re-figuring of the relationship between the state, older people and helping professions. In many ways, policy provides three trajectories for older people: first, as independent self-managing consumers with private means and resources; second, as people in need of some support to enable them to continue to self-manage; and third, as dependent and unable to commit to self-management. Governmentality provides the theoretical framework through which to view policy and practice that is largely governed by discourses of personalisation, safeguarding, capability and risk for older people in England.

  7. Experts, Citizens, and Eurocrats Towards a Policy Shift in the Governance of Biopolitics in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Abels

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis put forward in this paper is that we are currently observing a remarkable policy shift in the European Community concerning the conceptual basis and instruments for the governance of biopolitics. Biopolitics refers to an emerging policy field which involves the societal conflicts over the application of new genetic and reproductive technologies to humans (biomedicine as well as the application of these new technologies particularly to agriculture and food production (biotechnology. The changes refer to the basic concept of how to govern the relationship between science and society, experts and lay-people, citizens and Eurocrats. The EC is opening up for incorporating ethical concerns into its research, technology and development policy as well as its regulatory biopolicies; furthermore, there is growing openness for participatory forms of biopolicy-making, yet the meaning of participation is limited. The reasons for this development are to be found in a more general trend in the transformation of European governance on the one hand aiming at involving civil society actors, and, on the other hand, in the characteristics of the policy field. These visions, spread out in the Commissions White Paper on European Governance and several related policy papers, prove to be challenging for the Union as dynamic and multi-level polity.

  8. Governance and mental health: contributions for public policy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the conceptualization of the term governance on public mental health programs. METHODS In this systematic review, we analyzed the scientific literature published in the international scenario during 15 years (from 2000 to 2015). The databases analyzed were: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and PubMed. Governance and mental health were the descriptors. We included relevant articles according to our subject of study and levels of analysis: (i) the concept of governance in mental health; (ii) process and decision spaces; (iii) strategic and pertinent actors who operate in the functioning of the health system, and (iv) social regulations. We excluded letters to the editor, news articles, comments and case reports, incomplete articles and articles whose approach did not include the object of study of this review. RESULTS We have found five conceptualizations of the term governance on mental health in the area of provision policies and service organization. The agents were both those who offer and those who receive the services: we identified several social norms. CONCLUSIONS The concept of governance in mental health includes standards of quality and attention centered on the patient, and incorporates the consumers of mental healthcare in the decision-making process. PMID:28146159

  9. Governing obesity policies from England, France, Germany and Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-12-01

    Defining a phenomenon as a political problem could be considered a crucial part of any political process. Body weight, when categorised as obesity, has been defined as a political problem since the beginning of the 21st century and has entered the political agenda in many countries. In this article, I present a study of four plans from four Western European countries: England, France, Germany and Scotland, identifying how obesity is defined as a political issue. The questions addressed are: How is the development in the obesity prevalence explained and who is considered responsible for the development? What are the suggested remedies and who is considered responsible for acting? All plans state that obesity is a political issue because it causes health problems; in fact, weight is almost equated to health. The English and Scottish plans present a bio-political argument, characterising obesity as a serious threat to the countries' economies. So does the German plan, but not with the same emphasis. The plans portray people with obesity as being economically harmful to their fellow citizens. The French plan expresses another concern by focussing on the discrimination and stigmatization of obese people. All plans define the physical and food environment as a crucial factor in the obesity development, but only the Scottish Government is prepared to use statutory means towards industry and other actors to achieve change. The policies convey an unresolved dilemma: To govern or not to govern? The Governments want individuals to choose for themselves, yet they try to govern the populations to choose as the Governments find appropriate. The plans have a legitimising function, showing that the Governments take the issue seriously. Accordingly, in this case, the actual problematisations seem to be less crucial.

  10. Government Policy in the Natural Resource Management of Local Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revency Vania Rugebregt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource management is an important thing that should be done by the community for survival. Consciously of many ways in the management of natural resources has resulted in environmental damage, coupled with government policies that give permission without good supervision to entrepreneurs or private individuals in natural resource management adds a long list of environmental damage. In the last three decades, governments tend to ignore the phenomenon of legal pluralism in the legal development policy, preparation of legal instruments, as well as the implementation of the law through political neglect of the fact legal pluralism. So the product of legislation, especially those that set natural resource management, normatively ignore and displace the rights of indigenous peoples and local over control, management, and utilization of natural resources. Moreover, with deprivation of the rights of indigenous peoples’ customary rights and the implementation of development without taking into consideration the pattern of spatial planning, more and enlarge the conflict between the government and society.

  11. Government Policy in the Formal and Informal Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    The paper quantitatively investigates, in general equilibrium, the interaction between the firms' choice to operate in the formal or the informal sector and government policy on taxation and enforcement, given a level of regulation. A static version of Ghironi and Melitz's (2005) industry model...... is used to show that firms with lower productivity endogenously choose to operate in the informal sector. I use cross-country data on taxes, measures of informality, and measures of regulation (entry and compliance costs, red tape, etc.) to back out how high the enforcement levels must be country...... by country to make the theory match the data. The welfare gains from policy reforms are on average 1.2% (measured in terms of consumption) for OECD countries. I also find that the welfare gains from reducing regulation are on average 2.1%. Finally, performing a similar decomposition to that of Hall and Jones...

  12. Health in All Policies utilization by municipal governments: scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vliet-Brown, Cheryl E; Shahram, Sana; Oelke, Nelly D

    2017-03-14

    The aim of this scoping review was to examine the utilization of a Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach in municipal government settings. Specific objectives included: to review peer reviewed and grey literature, to identify common themes from the literature, and to highlight gaps in the evidence base for HiAP. An iterative scoping review method was used. Documents were identified through searches of academic databases, reference lists and journal indices, and the World Wide Web. Included documents focused on HiAP in the local or municipal government context, published in English, between 2006 and 2015. Data were extracted and analyzed using descriptive statistics and a narrative thematic method. As of June 2015, 26 documents met the inclusion criteria. A lack of research studies examining HiAP in the municipal government context was identified. Three broad themes were abstracted from analysis of the documents: the conceptualization of HiAP, the adoption of HiAP, and the implementation of HiAP. The focus on a HiAP approach at the municipal level of government is growing. A majority of the existing documents provide narrative evidence and recommendations for implementing a HiAP approach at the municipal level. Research is needed in the areas of conceptualization, implementation, adoption and evaluation of a HiAP approach in municipal settings.

  13. Ecosystem management policies in state government of the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, C.R. [Nuclear Waste Project Office, Capitol Complex, Carson City (United States)

    2000-04-20

    In the U.S., some state governments are beginning to adopt policies based on ecosystem management for conserving natural resources. Implicit or explicit in the policies usually is the concept of sustainable development that embodies achieving sustainable economies through the use of ecosystem management. State-level ecosystem management programs in the western U.S. often are in response to the Federal Ecosystem Management Initiative established by the White House in 1995 for federal land management agencies to apply to public lands. The intent of the policies in the western states, under the arising Enlibra doctrine of the Western Governors' Association (WGA), may or may not complement the activities of federal agencies. Consequently, the idea for the new western doctrine, already formally embraced by the WGA, is viewed with skepticism by some aside from those involved in developing it. Midwestern and eastern states with emerging ecosystem management policies and programs are discussed and compared in this paper along with the programs arising in the western states under the emerging Enlibra doctrine.

  14. INTEGRATION POLICY TOWARDS IMMIGRANTS: CURRENT EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Bureiko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world the intensity of the immigration movements is constantly increasing. Countries which experience great immigrant flows are facing numerous problems which should be solved. The article studies the current immigration flows in EU countries, the United States of America and Canada and presents three main models of integration policy towards immigrants – political assimilation, functional integration and multicultural model. Separate models are distinguished for the Muslims’ integration. The author examines the peculiarities of every model and examines the conclusions provided by the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX concerning the situation of the immigrants’ integration in 31 countries in 2011. Among all the policy indicators the first that are defined are as follows: political participation, education, labour market mobility and anti-discrimination. The situation with immigrants’ integration in Ukraine is also studied as it is gaining a great attention of the authorities and the public. The measures and practical steps done regarding this situation in Ukraine in recent years are analyzed using the information offered by the State Migration Service of Ukraine.

  15. Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. METHODS Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to i...

  16. Business, Government and Foreign Policy: Brazilian Construction Firms Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Frossard Silva Rego

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the interaction between Brazilian companies and government in the context of foreign policy, observing the state's support for the internationalization of large Brazilian civil construction firms. The results show that over the years these companies had privileged access to the Federal Executive, including civil service agencies. One consequence of this system of channelling demands through the Executive was to demote the Legislative branch to a secondary role. This pattern of interaction changed following the restoration of Congress's decision-making capacity, prompting the sector to diversify its areas of influence, focusing in particular on the Congress. To expand internationally, construction firms interact with the government primarily through the Executive, specifically via the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Itamaraty, which provides technical and diplomatic support, and the Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico, which supplies funding. The main argument of this article is that foreign policy should be examined through the relations between state and non-state actors in a multitude of decision-making arenas, taking into consideration both domestic and international factors.

  17. Current Challenges and Perspectives for Governing Forest Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Guariguata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation, reconciliation of multiple scales through both ecological and social dimensions and minimization of power imbalances are considered critical challenges to overcome for effective governance of forest restoration. Finding the right mix of “command and control” in forest restoration vs. “environmental governance”, which includes non-state actors, regulatory flexibility, and market based instruments is at the heart of these challenges. This Special Issue attempts at shedding light on these challenges with case studies from South and Central America, Africa, and Asia. Some provide within-country as well as cross-country comparisons. A few others present case studies at the household level. Both policy and legal constraints towards implementing forest restoration are also discussed as a function of top down vs. bottom up approaches. The effectiveness of payments for environmental services is examined as catalyzers of forest restoration initiatives. Finally, two papers deal with the legal and policy constraints in making restoration through natural regeneration a viable and cost-effective tool. In the face of renewed perspectives for expanding forest restoration programs globally, governance issues will likely play a key role in eventually determining success. As many of the papers in this Special Issue suggest, the fate of forest restoration outcomes is, more often than not, associated with overall governance challenges, some of which are often overlooked particularly across multiple scales.

  18. E-government Policy and its Implementation in the Czech Republic: Selected Shortcomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špaček David

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the specifics and challenges of e-government policy, and then discusses the apparent shortcomings of policy implementation and challenges for further development in the Czech Republic. It draws attention to problems in national e-government policy and in practical policy implementation (instability of governance, low quality of evaluation, low involvement of stakeholders in project design, and public procurement issues.

  19. The significance and role of local self-governments in the population policy of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Population should be in the central focus of local community institutions and the local community may constitute its population policy which will supplement state population policy measures, considering the local specific various traditions, values and models of living. The paper's basic goal is to critically perceive the characteristics, significance and role of local self-governments in the current population policy of Serbia. Social situation and social policy characteristics in Serbia are analyzed in the context of the population policy. It is pointed out that poverty, unemployment, the economic crisis, the process of privatization, the issue of system decentralization and social expectations of the population, as current expressions of transition, all have a consequence on the demographic development and population policy. A critical estimation of the activities in the field of population policies which are carried out by local and provincial self-governments in Serbia in the last decade are brought into focus, with a special review to the activities of provincial and local governments in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. As a result of the analysis it is pointed out that the population and social policy measures have been separated since the year 2000 and that they have been directed only to stimulating births and not child raising and that solutions regarding maternity leave brought improvements, however shortened maternity leave for the third child. The new conception of the population policy brought a whole series of restrictions such as: suspension of aid for newborn essentials; discontinuance of the right to maternity allowance; abolishing of compensation for preschool expenses for the third child; children’s allowance lost its population measures character along with considerable tightening of the census and decreasing of amount; the activities of preschool facilities have been reduced only to an educational function, and the

  20. Polish Government policy for coal (1989-2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotr Zientara

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss and assess the consecutive Governments' policy for coal (1989-2006) in the context of the systemic transformation of the Polish economy. The paper presents a critical analysis of the rationale and effectiveness of government efforts to restructure the Polish coal mining industry in the light of economic theory, published literature, and a survey of three collieries. Some parallels, toutes proportions gardees, are drawn between the situation in the UK under Margaret Thatcher and that in Poland. The paper argues that, despite throwing billions of zlotys at the industry in the form of direct subsidies and debt write-offs, decision makers failed to make the collieries economically sound. The weaknesses of the consecutive governments - manifesting itself, amongst other things, in the unwillingness and/or inability to confront the miners' unions, to introduce market mechanisms into the sector, to ensure competent management and, crucially, to press on with nationwide economic liberalisation - are seen as the principal reasons behind the failure.

  1. From Good Governance to Developmental Governance - How Policies, Institutions and Politics Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    2012-01-01

    The present global financial and economic crisis offers an opportunity to rethink the relative roles of state and market as well as of globalisation and national development strategies in the political economy of development. It has become more difficult to argue that globalisation has rendered...... national development strategies and in particular industrial policies superfluous. The crisis also calls for a rethinking of the prevailing standard recipes for development and of the ‘institutional therapy’ that has been driven by the international development establishment. The article seeks to identify...... and outline a heterodox view on how policies, institutions and politics matter for latecomer development, and does that by juxtaposing it with the orthodox view. The central argument of the article is that the orthodox view has serious weaknesses, and that a heterodox approach – developmental governance...

  2. A first look at the science-policy interface for ocean governance in the Wider Caribbean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eMcConney

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak governance is a root cause of the problems constraining the sustainable management of shared living marine resources within the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR. Integral to any fully functioning policy cycle in governance is the communication of marine science data and information, through the stages of the policy cycle, ultimately for use in decision-making. The networks of ties between science and policy constitute science-policy interfaces. Connecting science to policy is a major issue confronting the world today in efforts to achieve sustainable development. In order to develop a regional science-policy interface for ocean governance in the WCR we must first understand what currently exists. In this paper we describe the process and product of an interview investigation of the marine science-policy interface in the WCR. Policy discussions that used marine science extensively were infrequent. Constraints on use of science included low capacity, science not being provided in policy-relevant format, not having easy access to databases and low policy demand for science. There is little transboundary marine science information sharing except through informal social networks. The absence of a culture of evidence-based policy-making in the region must be addressed before there will be any significant change in use of properly packaged marine science. External influences, political context, science and evidence, links and networks are used to systematize the key learning.

  3. Globalisation and Governance: Educational Policy Instruments and Regulatory Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka-Ho

    2005-07-01

    For more than a decade, the economic, social, political and cultural effects of globalisation have been central topics of debate. Those who see globalisation as a combination of economic transactions and worldwide telecommunications tend to believe that its impact is profound, inasmuch as it is fundamentally altering the way in which we live and creating hybrid cultural styles. No country is immune from the effects of globalisation, and controversy continues to reign about its positive and negative consequences. The present study identifies and examines numerous challenges posed by globalisation and their implications for educational restructuring, with special attention being given to new forms of governance; the relation between the state, the market and civil society; and governmental policy instruments for education.

  4. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed 'tobacco exceptionalism'. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference.

  5. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed ‘tobacco exceptionalism’. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267

  6. Investigating the Privacy Policy Adoption among Malaysia E-Government Websites: Towards Conceptualizing the E-Privacy Assessment Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Asiakin Hasbullah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia E-government had improved the government services and overcome barriers faced by the public in the offline environment. The government initiatives to safeguard the interest of the public had transcended to include privacy protection. The Personal Data Protection Act 2009 is considered as  one of the initiatives that had been  successfully  passed by  the  Malaysia Government  by April 2010. However, the implementation and governance of the Act is still subjected to minister’s  decision. This study  aims in parallel with the government initiatives by investigating the  adoption of  privacy policy  among the  Malaysia's  egovernment  websites. This study is importance towards examining the  current  level of awareness for the importance for privacy protection being provided for the  public,  before the full  enforcement of the  Act. Samples of 154 websites were selected by using convenient sampling from Malaysia government portal (http://www.malaysia.gov.my, which comprises  of federal and state governments. The evaluation process was done by using personal observation through an adopted indicators of privacy policies from Jamal Maier and Sunder in 2002 by observing the links provided for 'privacy policy statements', 'privacy policy notice' and 'privacy policy'. The study revealed several issues pertaining privacy policy adoption among Malaysia e-government site and highlights few recommendations and future works towards conceptualization of e-privacy assessment framework in Malaysia e-government context.

  7. Reform of China’s Food Security Policies: Central Government Decentralizing Autonomous Management Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; LI

    2015-01-01

    Guaranteeing the food security is a fundamental state policy of China. Food security needs overall planning of central government,economic benefit allocation of local government,and increase of grain farmers’ income. Through analysis on current situations and causes of China’s food security,and comparative study on purposes and functions of foreign and domestic grain reserves,it came up with recommendations that central government should decentralize rights of grain production,reserve,sales,and management to grain producing areas and major sales provinces. It is not appropriate for central enterprises to take charge of national food security reserves. And it is required to make a new round of reform in autonomous management right of major grain producing areas and the capacity of the state purchasing social grain reserves.

  8. How Do Local Governments Decide on Public Policy in Fiscal Federalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko

    2008-01-01

    Previous literature widely assumes that taxes are optimized in local public finance while expenditures adjust residually. This paper endogenizes the choice of the optimization variable. In particular, it analyzes how federal policy toward local governments influences the way local governments...... toward local governments and, thereby, enable a more precise characterization of local government behaviour in fiscal federalism....

  9. A Look at Changes in Government Information Policies after September 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Edward T.

    One critical area in government campaigns to combat terrorism is the management and manipulation of information. This is information which is both produced by governments and private information that governments believe will be useful in the fight against terrorism. Governments are reviewing their information policies regarding access and privacy.…

  10. Decentralization in Educational Governance and Its Challenges in Korea: Focused on Policy Conflicts between Central and Local Government in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization of educational governance is characterized by the recent education reform in Korea. With the election of progressive superintendents and local council members, educational policy conflicts have often occurred and deepened in the process of decision-making and implementation of policies such as School Violence Prevention, National…

  11. Governance through concepts: The OECD and the construction of “competence” in Norwegian education policy

    OpenAIRE

    Mausethagen, Sølvi

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates how Norwegian policy documents construct the term competence in relation to policy initiatives exerted by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Recent Norwegian policy documents partially redefined student and teacher competence so that the concepts became more individual and performance-oriented. This departed from previous policy documents. Thus, the author argues, the OECD not only governs ...

  12. Changing currents in Norwegian hydropower governance? The challenge of reconciling conflicting interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Joergen Kjetil; Ruud, Audun

    2011-06-15

    The present report focuses on the potential for reconciling energy and environmental policy concerns when phasing in new renewable electricity production. In order to identify the potential for a better reconciliation for Norwegian hydropower, the report assesses the governance of the sector, focusing on the licensing of hydropower production along two dimensions: (1) horizontally, looking at the level of governance related to the degree of coordination between relevant policy domains and sectors - with related objectives, plans and regulations, as well as interests, actors and institutions; and (2) vertically, focusing on the interaction between different levels of governance (international/national/regional/local). In addition, perspectives from research and documentation of assumed effects and impacts of hydropower will also be viewed as a crucial part of the licensing processes. In sum, main political and regulatory drivers and barriers impacting upon the current and future hydropower development in Norway are quite complex and fragmentary, and there is currently no overall target providing a general direction for hydropower development. Given the lack of an overall, coherent approach, the interaction between the different levels of governance does not demonstrate a specific, coherent pattern. At the same time the interest for further expansion of hydropower production is growing. Knowledge and documentation stand out as crucial in two major ways: (1) A need to reinforce the accessibility and transparency of the licensing process; and (2) complementary and updated research and documentation on how to meet the challenges raised by the renewed interest in, and further demand for, hydropower. (Author)

  13. Sharing the Caring: Rethinking Current Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Don

    1992-01-01

    This article presents an argument for reforming Australian public policy in favor of social care, rather than family, residential, or community care, for the elderly, sick, and disabled. After noting policy assumptions that families are the focus of caring and women are the natural caregivers, the paper describes changes in Australian family…

  14. Governance and mental health: contributions for public policy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc

    2017-01-30

    To analyze the conceptualization of the term governance on public mental health programs. In this systematic review, we analyzed the scientific literature published in the international scenario during 15 years (from 2000 to 2015). The databases analyzed were: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and PubMed. Governance and mental health were the descriptors. We included relevant articles according to our subject of study and levels of analysis: (i) the concept of governance in mental health; (ii) process and decision spaces; (iii) strategic and pertinent actors who operate in the functioning of the health system, and (iv) social regulations. We excluded letters to the editor, news articles, comments and case reports, incomplete articles and articles whose approach did not include the object of study of this review. We have found five conceptualizations of the term governance on mental health in the area of provision policies and service organization. The agents were both those who offer and those who receive the services: we identified several social norms. The concept of governance in mental health includes standards of quality and attention centered on the patient, and incorporates the consumers of mental healthcare in the decision-making process. Analizar la conceptualización del término gobernanza en las políticas de salud mental. En esta revisión sistemática se analizó literatura científica publicada en el ámbito internacional durante 15 años (de 2000 hasta 2015). Las bases de datos analizadas fueron: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO y PubMed. Los descriptores fueron gobernanza y salud mental. Fueron incluidos artículos relevantes de acuerdo a nuestro objeto de estudio y niveles de análisis: (i) concepto de gobernanza en salud mental; (ii) proceso y espacios de decisión; (iii) actores estratégicos y de interés que intervienen en el funcionamiento del sistema de salud, y (iv) normas sociales. Se excluyeron cartas al editor, noticias, comentarios y reporte de caso

  15. Careers in Government: Bench Scientist to Policy Wonk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Katharine B.

    1998-04-01

    The U.S. system for graduate education in physics is arguably the most effective system yet devised for advanced training in physics. Focused as it is on original research, it teaches students to identify significant problems, study them in depth, and communicate the results. Because it trains them to be analytical, adaptable, persevering, and pragmatic problem solvers, it prepares them for a wide variety of nontraditional careers. Hence the demand for physicists by Wall Street and management consultant teams. Yet, as stressed in the 1995 report by the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy (COSEPUP)("Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers," COSEPUP; National Academy of Sciences/National Academy of Engineering/Institute of Medicine. National Academy Press, 1995), what is lacking is exposure to career information and guidance. Many students appear to be unaware of the range and richness of opportunities outside academe. In an effort to fill this gap, illustrative examples of diverse careers and career changes in government will be presented, together with examples of cooperative programs that can enhance the student's appreciation of career possibilities.

  16. Short-run analysis of fiscal policy and the current account in a finite horizon model

    OpenAIRE

    Heng-fu Zou

    1995-01-01

    This paper utilizes a technique developed by Judd to quantify the short-run effects of fiscal policies and income shocks on the current account in a small open economy. It is found that: (1) a future increase in government spending improves the short-run current account; (2) a future tax increase worsens the short-run current account; (3) a present increase in the government spending worsens the short-run current account dollar by dollar, while a present increase in the income improves the cu...

  17. NAPLAN and the Role of Edu-Business: New Governance, New Privatisations and New Partnerships in Australian Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a critical analysis of the edu-businesses currently working in partnership with the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority to deliver the Commonwealth government policy initiative of the National Assessment Program--Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). These emerging public--private partnerships (PPPs) exemplify…

  18. 12 CFR 614.4100 - Policies governing lending through Federal land bank associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... adopt policies and procedures governing the exercise of statutory and delegated authorities by such associations. Policies governing the delegated authorities shall: (1) Define authorities to be delegated; (2... authorities; (3) Provide for reporting of actions taken under delegated authority to the delegating bank; (4...

  19. Shifting Patterns of the Government's Policies for the Internationalization of Korean Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kiyong; Kim, Minjung

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of changing patterns since the mid-1990s in the Korean government's policies for internationalizing its higher education system. The study examines the driving forces behind the government's internationalization policies for Korean higher education, how the internationalization process affected…

  20. How do local governments decide on public policy in fiscal federalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko

    2011-01-01

    Previous literature widely assumes that taxes are optimized in local public finance while expenditures adjust residually. This paper endogenizes the choice of the optimization variable. In particular, it analyzes how federal policy toward local governments influences the way local governments...... decide on public policy. Unlike the usual presumption, the paper shows that local governments may choose to optimize over expenditures. The result holds when federal policy subsidizes local taxation. The results offer a new perspective of the efficiency implications of federal policy toward local...

  1. How Do Local Governments Decide on Public Policy in Fiscal Federalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko

    2008-01-01

    Previous literature widely assumes that taxes are optimized in local public finance while expenditures adjust residually. This paper endogenizes the choice of the optimization variable. In particular, it analyzes how federal policy toward local governments influences the way local governments...... decide on public policy. Unlike the presumption, the paper shows that local governments may choose to optimize over expenditures. The result most notably prevails when federal policy subsidizes local fiscal effort. The results offer a new perspective of the efficiency implications of federal policy...

  2. Do current European policies support soil multifunctionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Katharina; Glaesner, Nadia; de Vries, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Soils are multifunctional. Maximising one function, e.g. production of biomass, is often at the costs of the other functions, e.g. water purification, carbon sequestration, nutrient recycling, habitat provision. Sustainable soil management actually means the minimization of trade-offs between multiple soil functions. While Europe does not have a policy that explicitly focuses on soil functions, a number of policies exist in the agricultural, environmental and climate domains that may affect soil functions, in particular food production, water purification, climate change mitigation, biodiversity conservation. The objective of this study was to identify gaps and overlaps in existing EU legislation that is related to soil functions. We conducted a cross-policy analysis of 19 legislative policies at European level. Results revealed two key findings: (i) soil functions are addressed in existing legislation but with the approach to their conservation rather than their improvement. (ii) Different legislations addressed isolated soil functions but there is no policy in place that actually addressed the soil multifunctionality, which is the integrated balancing of the multitude of functions. Because soil degradation is ongoing in Europe, it raises the question whether existing legislation is sufficient for maintaining soil resources and achieving sustainable soil management. Addressing soil functions individually in various directives fails to account for the multifunctionality of soil. Here, research has a role to play to better reveal the interacting processes between soil functions and their sensitivity to soil management decisions and to translate such understanding into policy recommendation. We conclude the presentation with some insights into a research approach that integrates the soil systems into the socio-economic systems to improve the understanding of soil management pressures, soil functional reactions and their impacts on societal value systems, including

  3. CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Doo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered project in the direction of the government for fostering social entrepreneurs, putting emphasis on follow-up management and evaluation. Second, it must suggest a standard model for social entrepreneur promotion project. In other words, the projects with low performance should be reduced and education models appropriate for new circumstances and changes must be adopted through not only programs standardized in divisions, categories and local provinces, but also appointing expert instructors and project evaluation. Third, it’s necessary to propose specific guideline for detailed education operation according to education trainee and objectives of social entrepreneur. Fourth, it is needed to have more various contents development and distribution by strengthening support for specialized foundation, management and case studies related to fostering social entrepreneurs. Finally, it is even more required to spread awareness on social economics relating to programs for fostering social entrepreneur. With the long-term perspective, it is needed to render policy and specialization for fostering Korean-model social entrepreneurs, which is able to raise competent social entrepreneurs suitable for each stage of growth such as sourcing, incubation and launching social entrepreneurs.

  4. Multi-level governance of climate change in Belgium. Modest subnational policies in a complex setting

    OpenAIRE

    Happaerts, Sander

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes subnational climate policies in Belgium as a crucial case of multi-level policy-making in Europe. In Belgian federalism, the subnational governments have a large autonomy to conduct their own climate policies, while the scope to act at the federal level is very limited. Moreover, the federal system had produced complex and ineffective coordination patterns, where the federal and the subnational governments each have the possibility to block agreements, e.g. on the intra-Be...

  5. Directionality across Diversity: Governing Contending Policy Rationales in the Transition towards the Bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Scordato

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the bioeconomy has been embraced by many governments around the world as a way of responding to the grand challenge of climate change, it remains unclear what the bioeconomy is and how it can contribute to achieving these broad policy objectives. The aim of this paper is to improve our understanding of whether, and how, the bioeconomy includes contending rationales for governance and policy-making. In order to do this, we apply a typology of three bioeconomy visions onto the policy discourse on the bioeconomy. These visions are (1 a bio-technology vision; (2 a bio-resource vision; and (3 a bio-ecology vision. Based on a discourse analysis of 41 submissions to a public hearing on the development of a bioeconomy strategy in Norway, the paper explores the actors involved in shaping the new bioeconomy and analyses their positions on this emerging field. The paper finds that it is possible to categorise the consultative inputs into these three visions, and also that the bio-resource vision is predominant, which reflects the structure of the national economy. Moreover, the paper reflects upon how the contending visions observed imply negotiations and power struggles, which may hamper directionality in the current socio-technical transition.

  6. Simulating Deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under Changing Government Policies and Socioeconomic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Kayla; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Espírito-Santo, Mário; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural expansion is causing deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, converting savanna and tropical dry forest to farmland, and in 2012, Brazil's Forest Code was revised with the government reducing deforestation restrictions. Understanding the effects of policy change on rates and locations of natural ecosystem loss is imperative. In this paper, deforestation in Minas Gerais was simulated annually until 2020 using Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO). This system is a state-of-the-art land use and cover change (LUCC) model which incorporates government policy, landscape maps, and other biophysical and anthropogenic datasets. Three studied scenarios: (i) business as usual, (ii) increased deforestation, and (iii) decreased deforestation showed more transition to agriculture from shrubland compared to forests, and consistent locations for most deforestation. The probability of conversion to agriculture is strongly tied to areas with the smallest patches of original biome remaining. Increases in agricultural revenue are projected to continue with a loss of 25% of the remaining Cerrado land in the next decade if profit is maximized. The addition of biodiversity value as a tax on land sale prices, estimated at over $750,000,000 USD using the cost of extracting and maintaining current species ex-situ, can save more than 1 million hectares of shrubland with minimal effects on the economy of the State of Minas Gerais. With environmental policy determining rates of deforestation and economics driving the location of land clearing, site-specific protection or market accounting of externalities is needed to balance economic development and conservation.

  7. Governance as a Catalyst for Policy Change: Creating a Contingent Faculty Friendly Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezar, Adrianna; Sam, Cecile

    2014-01-01

    Policymakers and leaders have been calling for changes in the Academy for nontenure-track faculty. This study focuses on the role of governance in creating that policy change, and the practices facilitating their role in changing the institution through governance. Findings include: governance facilitating day-to-day changes, establishing…

  8. Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States. Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vorum, Martin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report catalogs by sector--buildings, transportation, industrial, and power--energy efficiency policies at the federal, state, and local levels, and identifies some prominent policy trends. Four key findings emerged from this report: 1) leadership on energy efficiency is necessary--and is found--at each level of government; 2) there is no widely accepted methodology for evaluating energy efficiency policies; 3) coordination among the three levels of government--and across sectors--is increasingly important, and there are opportunities to significantly improve policy performance through a unified strategy; and 4) there are efficiencies to be gained by informing policies in one sector with experience from others.

  9. Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States: Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Cochran, J.; Vorum, M.

    2009-12-01

    This report catalogs by sector--buildings, transportation, industrial, and power--energy efficiency policies at the federal, state, and local levels, and identifies some prominent policy trends. Four key findings emerged from this report: 1) leadership on energy efficiency is necessary--and is found--at each level of government; 2) there is no widely accepted methodology for evaluating energy efficiency policies; 3) coordination among the three levels of government--and across sectors--is increasingly important, and there are opportunities to significantly improve policy performance through a unified strategy; and 4) there are efficiencies to be gained by informing policies in one sector with experience from others.

  10. User self-governance in a complex policy design for managing water commons in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Ashutosh; Itoh, Tadao; Kada, Ryohei; Abe, Takaki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Herath, Gamini

    2014-03-01

    Studies have typically emphasized one of three major policy alternatives-government (state) ownership, privatization, or user self-governance-to address overuse of “the commons” as a natural resource shared by many competing users. Studies tend to focus on each alternative separately. Government ownership or privatization is usually understood to undermine user self-governing institutional arrangements, while user self-governance has proved to be a very powerful policy alternative in managing the commons in many cases. An important research question arises as to whether a complex policy design can strengthen the competence of user self-governing institutional arrangements. This article defines a complex policy design as one that involves a mix of flexible policy alternatives rather than a rigid alternative to address overuse issues. Drawing on Japan's irrigation water management experience, this study demonstrates that when a complex policy design is tailored to facilitate user autonomy, it further strengthens user self-governance. The study provides scholars with insight into how self-governing institutional arrangements-which were primarily developed in the existing literature with the government's role assumed as absent or implicit-could be enhanced when the role is strategically explicit.

  11. Reflexivity, Position, and the Ambivalent Public Space: The Politics of Educational Policy in Taiwan's Local Governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Teng; Ou, Yung-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    The rise of reflexivity and neoliberalism has led to a change in the nature of the public sphere and policy management. Thus, focusing only on analyses of state-initiated policy and the actions of central government is not conducive to understanding the complex process of policy implementation today. Hence, this study aims to analyse the politics…

  12. Slippage and/or Symbolism: Gender, Policy and Educational Governance in Scotland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Joan; Ohrn, Elisabet; Weiner, Gaby

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview and analysis of the relationship between gender, educational policy, and governance in Scotland and Sweden and the two countries' response to European Union and global legislative and policy change. In Scotland, gender is mainly invisible in recent policies on inclusion, achievement beyond academic attainment, and…

  13. Descriptive Assessment of Information Policy Initiatives: The Government Information Locator Service (GILS) as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Charles R.; Moen, William E.; Bertot, John Carlo

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of a descriptive assessment of an information policy initiative using the Government Information Locator Service (GILS) as an example. Techniques discussed include historical perspective, review of the key policy instrument, descriptive modeling, side-by-side analysis, review of related policy instruments, literature review,…

  14. Integral Action: Management Tool for Municipal Governments Centralized by the National Policy of Territorial Consolidation and Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Antonio Mejía Quintero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Integral action has been a key tool for social development, regarding the achievements of the national government to recover legitimacy and governability. Since its beginning in 2002 and up to date, the consolidation process—represented in the National Policy of Territorial Consolidation and Reconstruction (NPTCR— has presented changes in its strategy, in line with current circumstances. This article is theoretically based on the concepts of legitimacy and governability and on the doctrine of integral action of the Armed Forces, complemented with the experience of officers who worked on this strategy or currently run it. Thus, this study offers recommendations to the national government for decision making in modifying the development of NPTCR, taking into account the current historical moment.

  15. Government, politics and health policy: A quantitative analysis of 30 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Public health policies are often dependent on political decision-making, but little is known of the impact of different forms of government on countries' health policies. In this exploratory study we studied the association between a wide range of process and outcome indicators of health policy and four groups of political factors (levels of democracy, e.g. voice and accountability; political representation, e.g. voter turnout; distribution of power, e.g. constraints on the executive; and quality of government, e.g. absence of corruption) in contemporary Europe. Data on 15 aspects of government and 18 indicators of health policy as well as on potential confounders were extracted from harmonized international data sources, covering 30 European countries and the years 1990-2010. In a first step, multivariate regression analysis was used to relate cumulative measures of government to indicators of health policy, and in a second step panel regression with country fixed effects was used to relate changes in selected measures of government to changes in indicators of health policy. In multivariate regression analyses, measures of quality of democracy and quality of government had many positive associations with process and outcome indicators of health policy, while measures of distribution of power and political representation had few and inconsistent associations. Associations for quality of democracy were robust against more extensive control for confounding variables, including tests in panel regressions with country fixed effects, but associations for quality of government were not. In this period in Europe, the predominant political influence on health policy has been the rise of levels of democracy in countries in the Central & Eastern part of the region. In contrast to other areas of public policy, health policy does not appear to be strongly influenced by institutional features of democracy determining the distribution of power, nor by aspects of political

  16. [Shared governance and reasonableness as ethical contributions to health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Alcaraz, Ana M; Calvo-Rigual, Fernando; Siurana-Aparisi, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Health is one of the fundamental human rights. Recognizing it as a right means that the State has an obligation to ensure a minimum level of opportunities is maintained, and to restore it when lost. This minimum level may not be covered in periods of economic crisis, such as the one we are currently experiencing.Managed care, focused on economic questions, emerged after the crisis of 1973 in order to help make clinical decisions based on economic factors. In practice, the result of managed care was to turn economic cost control into an end in itself while forgetting about equity; something for which it has been challenged from an ethical perspective. Since then, many authors have attempted to reconcile efficiency and equity in health management, but the debate remains open.In this article, and basing our approach on the theories of P. Ruger and Norman Daniels, we argue that shared health governance and accountability for reasonableness can offer significant ethical contributions in the process of achieving an efficient and fair health system. In the model we propose, citizens, professionals and health institutions all play an active role in capacity building in the field of health. These capacities are related to healthy lifestyles, accessible and transparent information, the promotion of self-care, the acquisition of knowledge, skills and appropriate attitudes, leadership based on values and co-responsibility to achieve set goals in a reasonable way. If we develop these capacities, we will have used the current economic crisis as an opportunity for improving ethical practice in the field of health.

  17. Is Aboriginal nutrition a priority for local government? A policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helson, Catherine; Walker, Ruth; Palermo, Claire; Rounsefell, Kim; Aron, Yudit; MacDonald, Catherine; Atkinson, Petah; Browne, Jennifer

    2017-08-14

    The present study aimed to explore how Australian local governments prioritise the health and well-being of Aboriginal populations and the extent to which nutrition is addressed by local government health policy. In the state of Victoria, Australia, all seventy-nine local governments' public health policy documents were retrieved. Inclusion of Aboriginal health and nutrition in policy documents was analysed using quantitative content analysis. Representation of Aboriginal nutrition 'problems' and 'solutions' was examined using qualitative framing analysis. The socio-ecological framework was used to classify the types of Aboriginal nutrition issues and strategies within policy documents. Victoria, Australia. Local governments' public health policy documents (n 79). A small proportion (14 %, n 11) of local governments addressed Aboriginal health and well-being in terms of nutrition. Where strategies aimed at nutrition existed, they mostly focused on individual factors rather than the broader macroenvironment. A limited number of Victorian local governments address nutrition as a health issue for their Aboriginal populations in policy documents. Nutrition needs to be addressed as a community and social responsibility rather than merely an individual 'behaviour'. Partnerships are required to ensure Aboriginal people lead government policy development.

  18. Intergenerational aspects of government policy under changing demographic and economic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskin, M J

    1987-07-01

    Changing demographic and economic conditions in the US require that attention be given to some of the intergenerational equity features of government policy. In particular, social insurance programs and public debt leave public liabilities to future generations. Taken in the aggregate, the effects of rapidly rising public debt and especially social insurance programs are transferring substantial amounts of resources from younger working generations to the expanding generation of retirees. The most crucial element in evaluating the desirability of intergenerational wealth distribution in the long run is the rate of economic growth. A society's monetary, fiscal, tax, and regulatory policies can be more or less conducive to the generation of capital formation, technical change, and economic growth. Policies that influence growth and interest rates will combine with the national deficit to determine how rapidly the debt grows or shrinks. Present accounting procedures are insufficient to provide quantitative answers to the question of what is the impact of a given program on the age-specific distributions of resources. It is important to reconsider the desirability and efficiency of intergenerational redistributions of wealth in the US. It is likely that current policies are not in line with the principles of efficiency, equity, target effectiveness, and cost effectiveness.

  19. Experts, Citizens, and Eurocrats – Towards a Policy Shift in the Governance of Biopolitics in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Abels

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis put forward in this paper is that we are currently observing a remarkable policy shift in the European Community concerning the conceptual basis and instruments for the governance of biopolitics. Biopolitics refers to an emerging policy field which involves the societal conflicts over the application of new genetic and reproductive technologies to humans (biomedicine as well as the application of these new technologies particularly to agriculture and food production (biotechnology. The changes refer to the basic concept of how to govern the relationship between science and society, experts and lay-people, citizens and Eurocrats. The EC is opening up for incorporating ethical concerns into its research, technology and development policy as well as its regulatory biopolicies; furthermore, there is growing openness for “participatory” forms of biopolicy-making, yet the meaning of participation is limited. The reasons for this development are to be found in a more general trend in the transformation of European governance on the one hand aiming at involving civil society actors, and, on the other hand, in the characteristics of the policy field. These visions, spread out in the Commission’s White Paper on European Governance and several related policy papers, prove to be challenging for the Union as dynamic and multi-level polity.

  20. Micro and Macro Economic Policies of Government of Kosovo toward SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merita Shabani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis of the discussion in this paper is centered on economic policies of Kosovo government towards SMEs. The paper will analyze trends of economic policies fostered by the Government of Kosovo in attempt to maximize the development of SME’s sector. Furthermore, the paper will carry out an in-depth analytical approach of SME policies taking into account their crucial role for economic growth. The critical mode of discussion will reveal advantages and disadvantages, and subsequently ultimate paybacks as a result of promoting favorable economic policies in favor of cultivating suitable business environment for SMEs. Similarly, in concluding remarks this paper appeals for more suitable and sustainable economic policies towards SMEs taking in consideration their high potential of employment generation. The paper also suggests concrete steps the Government of Kosovo needs to undertake in terms of promoting policy opportunities in order to speed up economic development of the country, growth as well as economic welfare.

  1. Fiscal Policy and Local Government Administration in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    analytical in nature and used the theory of revenue exaction to examine the dynamics of ... the nexus between product market, factor market and entrepreneurship. Vol. .... administration geared towards bringing government closer to the people at the ..... the local government is audited by a team of auditors appointed by the.

  2. Hybridization of governance: the challenge of balancing policy impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impacts of hybrid forms of governance. Such hybrids are characterized by an arrangement of tasks and responsibilities, regarding regulatory governance, between public and private sector agencies. Empirically the paper is based on regulatory reforms in Australian and Canadia

  3. A Survey of Current e-Business (E-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Vance Kerr

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is a dynamic part of the business scene and there have been many examples of success and failures of e-commerce and e-business ventures. A survey was administered asking questions about industries understanding of current e-business (e-government practices in Australia. The object of the survey was to provide a benchmark of current practice. The results of this survey could have a major impact on academic curricula. The survey was sent to 671 Australian Businesses and was addressed to the Chief Information Officer. Only twenty four usable questionnaires were returned and while it is accepted that this is a limited sample, disturbing trends have appeared with respect to the lack of strategic planning for information technology use particularly in medium sized businesses in Australia. In addition, relationships between key factors associated with the business objectives for their IT infrastructure and the benefits of the organisation’s Extranet, Intranet and Internet initiatives were identified.

  4. Coercive E-government Policy Imposing Harm: The Need for a Responsible E-government Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Jesper Bull

    2016-01-01

    The value of e-government, services to citizens by public institutions through the internet, is dependent on the mutual adoption of e-government by both the public institution and the citizens. This paper describes a longitudinal study of e-government adoption by municipalities and citizens...... explained much more of the variation in the deficit than the variation in adoption by citizens did. We wish to draw attention to the overly optimistic expectations of savings from e-government and to a need for further research into the governmental processes of e-government....

  5. Child Labour, Education Policy and Governance in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae-Young

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how the issue of child labour is located in Cambodian education policy debates and how it is affected by the major constraints surrounding the Cambodian education sector. In particular, it asks why Cambodian policy makers have not sought to address the issue explicitly despite its considerable, and adverse, impact on…

  6. The Uses of Affect in Education: Chilean Government Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    This article draws attention to the uses of affect to produce specific subjectivities and moralities in educational policies. It highlights the connections between specific ideas of the educated subject, the family role presented in governmental educational policies in Chile, and the ways these ideas are linked to the subjectivities and…

  7. Outcome Reporting Bias in Government-Sponsored Policy Evaluations: A Qualitative Content Analysis of 13 Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaganay, Arnaud

    The reporting of evaluation outcomes can be a point of contention between evaluators and policy-makers when a given reform fails to fulfil its promises. Whereas evaluators are required to report outcomes in full, policy-makers have a vested interest in framing these outcomes in a positive light-especially when they previously expressed a commitment to the reform. The current evidence base is limited to a survey of policy evaluators, a study on reporting bias in education research and several studies investigating the influence of industry sponsorship on the reporting of clinical trials. The objective of this study was twofold. Firstly, it aimed to assess the risk of outcome reporting bias (ORB or 'spin') in pilot evaluation reports, using seven indicators developed by clinicians. Secondly, it sought to examine how the government's commitment to a given reform may affect the level of ORB found in the corresponding evaluation report. To answer these questions, 13 evaluation reports were content-analysed, all of which found a non-significant effect of the intervention on its stated primary outcome. These reports were systematically selected from a dataset of 233 pilot and experimental evaluations spanning three policy areas and 13 years of government-commissioned research in the UK. The results show that the risk of ORB is real. Indeed, all studies reviewed here resorted to at least one of the presentational strategies associated with a risk of spin. This study also found a small, negative association between the seniority of the reform's champion and the risk of ORB in the evaluation of that reform. The publication of protocols and the use of reporting guidelines are recommended.

  8. Bridging the Gap between Environmental Policy Integration and the EU’s Energy Policy: Mapping out the ‘Green Europeanisation’ of Energy Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Solorio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Europeanisation of energy policy has occupied a remote place in the European integration literature to date. However, current developments such as the Energy Policy for Europe launched in 2007 and the Lisbon Treaty Title XXI on Energy have given greater prominence to this policy area within the integration process. Hence, there are several indications that the Europeanisation of energy policy is already taking place, even though the understanding of this process is still weak. And indeed, European studies are just beginning to shed light on this policy area. Against this backdrop, this article examines the EU environmental performance, supported by the Environmental Policy Integration (EPI, as a driver for energy governance during the process of Europeanisation. Its main argument is that EPI is not only a variable for explaining the governance changes at the EU level concerning energy – defined here as ‘green Europeanisation’–, but also a useful instrument for pursuing coherence within the emergent EU energy policy.

  9. Complex governance structures and incoherent policies: Implementing the EU water framework directive in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Charlotta

    2016-12-01

    Contemporary processes of environmental policymaking in general span over several territorial tiers. This also holds for the EU Water Framework Directive system of environmental quality standards (EQS), which are part of a complex multi-level institutional landscape, embracing both EU, national and sub-national level. Recent evaluations show that many EU member states, including Sweden, have not reached the ecological goals for water in 2015. Departing from theories on policy coherence and multi-level governance, this paper therefore analyses Swedish water governance as a case to further our understanding of policy implementation in complex governance structures: how does policy coherence (or the lack thereof) affect policy implementation in complex governance structures? To answer this question, the paper maps out the formal structure of the water governance system, focusing on power directions within the system, analyses policy coherence in Swedish water governance through mapping out policy conflicts between the EQS for water and other goals/regulations and explore how they are handled by national and sub-national water bureaucrats. The study concludes that without clear central guidance, 'good ecological status' for Swedish water will be difficult to achieve since incoherent policies makes policy implementation inefficient due to constant power struggles between different authorities, and since environmental goals are often overridden by economic and other societal goals. Further research is needed in order to explore if similar policy conflicts between water quality and other objectives occur in other EU member states and how bureaucrats handle such conflicts in different institutional settings. This study of the Swedish case indicates that the role of the state as a navigator and rudder-holder is important in order to improve policy implementation in complex governance structures - otherwise; bureaucrats risk being lost in an incoherent archipelago of

  10. Special Reports; Homeland Security and Information Management; The Development of Electronic Government in the United States: The Federal Policy Experience; Digital Rights Management: Why Libraries Should Be Major Players; The Current State and Future Promise of Portal Applications; Recruitment and Retention: A Professional Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relyea, Harold C.; Halchin, L. Elaine; Hogue, Henry B.; Agnew, Grace; Martin, Mairead; Schottlaender, Brian E. C.; Jackson, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Theses five reports address five special issues: the effects of the September 11 attacks on information management, including homeland security, Web site information removal, scientific and technical information, and privacy concerns; federal policy for electronic government information; digital rights management and libraries; library Web portal…

  11. Synthesis of Climate Change Policy in Judicial, Executive, and Legislative Branches of U.S. Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brinkmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the United States has struggled to develop a comprehensive policy for climate change and concomitant greenhouse gas emissions that addresses the current scientific thinking on the topic. The absence of any clear legislative or executive approach dominated national discussions and the court system was used to litigate a variety of issues associated with global warming. This paper synthesizes actions taken in the three branches of government prior to and immediately following the Obama election. In the Judicial branch, several branches of law have been used to force government and private parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Based on the historic greenhouse gas lawsuit, Massachusetts et al. v. the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA, and under the direction of the Obama administration, the U.S. EPA has taken significant action to regulate greenhouse gases. In the legislative branch, a comprehensive energy and climate bill passed the House of Representatives and comparable and alternate energy and climate bills were debated in the Senate indicating hope for legislation in the 111th Congress. However, these bills proved to be unsuccessful, therefore leaving the U.S. EPA and the courts the only options for national climate policy in the near future.

  12. Government policy on privatization of power in Nigeria: end-users ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Government policy on privatization of power in Nigeria: end-users financial cost perspective. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Using data from consumers of privatized electricity power in Enugu State, this paper sought to evaluate ...

  13. INTERNAL MARKET GOVERNMENT SECURITIES IN PROMOTING THE EFFICIENCY OF DEBT POLICY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kuryshchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the effectiveness of debt policy of Ukraine, to its shortcomings and implications for the economy. The evaluation of the domestic government securities market and its impact on the efficiency of debt management.

  14. Corporate Governance Quality, Board Gender Diversity and Corporate Dividend Policy: Evidence from Jordan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayat S Al-Rahahleh

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance quality and board gender diversity on the corporate dividend policy for a set of all non-financial companies listed on Amman Stock Exchange (ASE...

  15. Book review: Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Watson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring' By Mark Bray (2009, 135pp. ISBN: 078-92-803-1333-8, Paris: IIEP/UNESCO Publishing

  16. Analysis of a government policy to address nursing shortage and nursing education quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhicharttibutra, K; Kunaviktikul, W; Turale, S; Wichaikhum, O-A; Srisuphan, W

    2017-03-01

    A well-educated, sufficient nursing workforce improves population health and standards of nursing care. Analysing workforce policies assists nurses to learn from the past and develop better future policies. Describe policy-making processes in the first Thai government plan to increase nursing capacity and improve nursing education quality. A qualitative study employing Longest's model to examine policy-making processes. Data were obtained from 28 in-depth interviews with key informants, who had been committee members and former deans of nursing involved with the policy processes in the 1990s. Both qualitative and quantitative data were extracted from relevant documents, and content analysis employed with all data. Three policy phases were identified. Policy formulation, where three streams of problems, politics and policy resulted in identification of nursing shortage, changes of government incumbents and needing to increase nurse production; Policy implementation included creating methods of implementation, appointing responsible people and committees, creating operational plans, producing more nurses and faculty development projects and Policy modification which incorporated implementing the first Thai international doctoral degree in English, a collaborative programme between universities. Not all key informants could be accessed due to the passage of time. Findings are unique to Thailand but inform internationally of nurses' abilities and need to be involved in policy. Nurses were involved in all policy phases. While the policy produced positive developments in growing nursing capacity and education in the past, nursing shortages remained and are now acute in Thailand. Lessons learned from this policy analysis help explain why the nursing education and nursing shortage policy was legislated through the government agenda, and the active involvement of Thai nurses in this process. Nurses globally need to be at the policy-making table to try to reduce nursing

  17. Antimicrobial resistance and biological governance: explanations for policy failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinga, D; Rayner, G; Lang, T

    2015-10-01

    The paper reviews the state of policy on antimicrobial use and the growth of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). AMR was anticipated at the time of the first use of antibiotics by their originators. For decades, reports and scientific papers have expressed concern about AMR at global and national policy levels, yet the problem, first exposed a half-century ago, worsened. The paper considers the explanations for this policy failure and the state of arguments about ways forward. These include: a deficit of economic incentivisation; complex interventions in behavioural dynamics; joint and separate shifts in medical and animal health regimes; consumerism; belief in technology; and a narrative that in a 'war on bugs' nature can be beaten by human ingenuity. The paper suggests that these narratives underplay the biological realities of the human-animal-biosphere being in constant flux, an understanding which requires an ecological public health analysis of AMR policy development and failure. The paper suggests that effective policy change requires simultaneous actions across policy levels. No single solution is possible, since AMR is the result of long-term human intervention which has accelerated certain trends in the evolution of a microbial ecosystem shared by humans, animals and other biological organisms inhabiting that ecosystem. Viewing the AMR crisis today through an ecological public health lens has the advantage of reuniting the social-ecological and bio-ecological perspectives which have been separated within public health.

  18. Paving the Way for Heat. Local Government Policies for Developing Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Johnsen Rygg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Local governments play dual roles in developing renewable energy projects. They are the targets of many goals concerning energy and climate, set by national and international actors, and they are important actors in energy planning, regulation setting, and the development of infrastructure and residential areas. In this paper, I study how local governments’ technology policies affect the actual outcome of project development based on experiences from 14 local governments. Technology policies are studied from the perspective of Sørensen’s [1] four areas of concern: direct support of innovation, infrastructure, regulation (protection and standards and public engagement. I find that local governments use policy instruments within all four areas, and that the way local governments involves in the process of bioenergy development are surprisingly similar despite differences in location and size of both the local government and the project.

  19. 78 FR 12369 - United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Public comments are sought on the entirety of the proposed United States Government Policy for... TECHNOLOGY POLICY United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use... responsible conduct and communication of such research. The proposed Policy herein, United States...

  20. The innovation policy of nanotechnology development and convergence for the new Korean government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seoung Hun; Lim, Jung Sun; Shin, Kwang Min; Kim, Chang Woo; Kang, Sang Kyu; Shin, Minsoo

    2013-11-01

    Since 2001, Korea has been establishing and executing policy for the development of nanotechnology in accordance with the National Comprehensive Development Plan of Nanotechnology (NCDPN) periods I, II, and III. NCDPN has been focused on innovation in wide spectrum of technology development, and NT-based convergence technologies are expected to contribute 35 % of the total GDP (about 5.02 billion won) with 1.2 million of job creation in KOREA at 2020. Establishment of new strategies for innovating and commercializing nanotechnology is an emerging global issue in major countries including the United States, Japan, Germany, and Korea, with particular concerns for safety in the implementations of nanotechnology (EHS). Under these circumstances, Korea needs to create a post-catch-up strategy beyond fast-follower approach, to compete effectively with nanotechnology-leading countries. This study analyzes the current status of Korean nanotechnology development and relevant policies, and suggests future policy directions for the new Korean government based on innovative competition theory.

  1. GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND MICRO LENDING IN EMERGING MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas A. LASH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although microfinance institutions have expanded rapidly since their inception in 1983, their growth has varied substantially among countries. This study examines the impact of government expenditures, taxes and regulations on the volume of microcredit for 92 emerging market countries for the period 2000-2011. The Index of Economic Freedom data is used as a proxy for government intervention while microcredit is represented alternatively by either the Gross Loan Portfolio Per-Capita or Penetration Index variables. While excessive government intervention could potentially encourage more lending in the informal microfinance markets, our findings suggest that, for both credit variables, the net impact is to reduce microcredit. The variables appearing to be most responsible are business regulations, taxes, and corruption. Tests using subperiods and also with a dynamic version suggest that our model is quite robust.

  2. DETERMINANTS OF CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT AND ECONOMY POLICIES PRACTICES FOR CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT IN TURKISH ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Karagol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In last years with the impact of rapid globalization and financiallisation current account deficit became a major problem for Turkish economy. Hence, many studies have been conducted foreseeing for policy recommendations and precautions against the current deficit. In this study, by considering determinants of current account deficit and implemented policies, it is intended to provide policy recommendations for closing the deficit. As part of this goal, the determinants of current account deficit and impacts of the determinantsa re discussed. Also, by mentioning monetary and fiscal policies during the period 2003-2015 overall assessment of the policies and a set of policiy recommendations for the next periods were presented. The most important result achieved by the study is applying discussed structural reforms in able to have quick progress in dealing with the current account deficit would have a great effect.

  3. Governance and Knowledge Transformations in Educational Administration: Greek Responses to Global Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifakakis, Polychronis; Tsatsaroni, Anna; Sarakinioti, Antigone; Kourou, Menie

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the localisation of the global and European discourse of educational governance in the Greek education system through the changes that have been introduced in the field of education administration since 2009 by the then socialist government. Our research aims to contribute to the critical policy literature on the spreading…

  4. Japan's Higher Education Incorporation Policy: A Comparative Analysis of Three Stages of National University Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    A number of countries with public higher education systems have implemented privatisation policies. In Japan, the national government introduced the National University Corporation Act (NUCA) in 2004 and changed the legal status of national universities from that of government-owned public institutions to independent administrative agencies. Its…

  5. Socializing the European Semester? Economic governance and social policy coordination in Europe 2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Vanhercke, B.

    2014-01-01

    The European Semester of policy coordination, which is the core of EU’s new institutional architecture for economic and social governance, introduced since the beginning of the Euro crisis, has prompted questions about the nature and dynamics of the EU’s emerging socio-economic governance architectu

  6. Coordination between Governance Actors in Universities: The Role of Policy Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheridis, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on coordination between governance actors in a public university. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and analyze policy documents as governance tools that allow departmental management to coordinate with the authorities, the board, and the management at different university levels. A central finding is that the…

  7. Coordination between Governance Actors in Universities: The Role of Policy Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheridis, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on coordination between governance actors in a public university. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and analyze policy documents as governance tools that allow departmental management to coordinate with the authorities, the board, and the management at different university levels. A central finding is that the…

  8. Improving the implementation of health workforce policies through governance: a review of case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Daniel MP

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Responsible governance is crucial to national development and a catalyst for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. To date, governance seems to have been a neglected issue in the field of human resources for health (HRH, which could be an important reason why HRH policy formulation and implementation is often poor. This article aims to describe how governance issues have influenced HRH policy development and to identify governance strategies that have been used, successfully or not, to improve HRH policy implementation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Methods We performed a descriptive literature review of HRH case studies which describe or evaluate a governance-related intervention at country or district level in LMIC. In order to systematically address the term 'governance' a framework was developed and governance aspects were regrouped into four dimensions: 'performance', 'equity and equality', 'partnership and participation' and 'oversight'. Results and discussion In total 16 case studies were included in the review and most of the selected studies covered several governance dimensions. The dimension 'performance' covered several elements at the core of governance of HRH, decentralization being particularly prominent. Although improved equity and/or equality was, in a number of interventions, a goal, inclusiveness in policy development and fairness and transparency in policy implementation did often not seem adequate to guarantee the corresponding desirable health workforce scenario. Forms of partnership and participation described in the case studies are numerous and offer different lessons. Strikingly, in none of the articles was 'partnerships' a core focus. A common theme in the dimension of 'oversight' is local-level corruption, affecting, amongst other things, accountability and local-level trust in governance, and its cultural guises. Experiences with accountability mechanisms for HRH policy

  9. Digital Education Governance: Data Visualization, Predictive Analytics, and "Real-Time" Policy Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Educational institutions and governing practices are increasingly augmented with digital database technologies that function as new kinds of policy instruments. This article surveys and maps the landscape of digital policy instrumentation in education and provides two detailed case studies of new digital data systems. The Learning Curve is a…

  10. The role of innovators in the introduction of preventive environmental policy in local government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.M.; Reijenga, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the role of innovators in the introduction of 'preventive environmental' policy in local government in the Netherlands. With the help of the configuration theory of Mintzberg and the innovation theory of Rogers a description is given of making this new prevention policy within

  11. Adaptive governance, uncertainty, and risk: policy framing and responses to climate change, drought, and flood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurlbert, M.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    As climate change impacts result in more extreme events (such as droughts and floods), the need to understand which policies facilitate effective climate change adaptation becomes crucial. Hence, this article answers the question: How do governments and policymakers frame policy in relation to clima

  12. Adaptive governance, uncertainty, and risk: policy framing and responses to climate change, drought, and flood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurlbert, M.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    As climate change impacts result in more extreme events (such as droughts and floods), the need to understand which policies facilitate effective climate change adaptation becomes crucial. Hence, this article answers the question: How do governments and policymakers frame policy in relation to clima

  13. The role of innovators in the introduction of preventive environmental policy in local government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.M.; Reijenga, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the role of innovators in the introduction of 'preventive environmental' policy in local government in the Netherlands. With the help of the configuration theory of Mintzberg and the innovation theory of Rogers a description is given of making this new prevention policy within

  14. Adaptive governance, uncertainty, and risk: policy framing and responses to climate change, drought, and flood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurlbert, M.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    As climate change impacts result in more extreme events (such as droughts and floods), the need to understand which policies facilitate effective climate change adaptation becomes crucial. Hence, this article answers the question: How do governments and policymakers frame policy in relation to

  15. Digital Education Governance: Data Visualization, Predictive Analytics, and "Real-Time" Policy Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Educational institutions and governing practices are increasingly augmented with digital database technologies that function as new kinds of policy instruments. This article surveys and maps the landscape of digital policy instrumentation in education and provides two detailed case studies of new digital data systems. The Learning Curve is a…

  16. False Dawns, Bleak Sunset: The Coalition Government's Policies on Career Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    The Coalition Government's policies on career guidance are analysed. Its rhetorical concern for career guidance provision is based largely on its support for social mobility, and its recognition of the role of career guidance in moving towards a demand-led skills system. Initial policy statements affirmed its intention to establish an all-age…

  17. The governance of hydro power in Norway and Sweden: How to manage the European current?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Audun; Jacobsen, Gerd; Knudsen, Joergen; Nilsson, Maans; Rudberg, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Objectives of the paper: The proposed paper will be based on studies of renewable electricity production within two different national contexts. Experiences clearly demonstrate that variations in political settings provide energy companies with disparate opportunities, constraints and motivations (Lafferty et Ruud, 2008). This is also the case with two countries as similar as Norway and Sweden. Both countries are, however, committed by EU-based legislation, not least former and current Directives on renewable electricity and energy as well as the Water Framework Management Directive. By comparing current governance of hydropower and how environmental concerns are taken into account, the paper aims at discussing differences in regulatory practice, and thereby assess to what extent EU legislation modify and/or reinforce the existing regulatory framework in Norway and Sweden. Organisation and methodology: The paper is related to the ongoing research project Governance for Renewable Electricity Production (GOVREP), which is part of the Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy (CEDREN) one of the eight newly established Centres for Environment-friendly Energy research. GOVREP aims at contributing to a better integration of environmental- and energy policy concerns in renewable electricity production. The authors of the proposed paper are working within the project. The proposed paper will present a comparative case study of specific hydro power projects. The research method is based on document analysis as well as interviews with relevant stakeholders. The primary data to be presented in the paper will thus represent original findings. The research will employ analytical approaches related to policy analysis and europeanization of national policies. Outline of results: The paper will assess the importance of national differences in regulatory practice vis-a-vis specific hydropower projects. Furthermore, the paper will provide an assessment as to what extent

  18. Simulating Deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under Changing Government Policies and Socioeconomic Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla Stan

    Full Text Available Agricultural expansion is causing deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, converting savanna and tropical dry forest to farmland, and in 2012, Brazil's Forest Code was revised with the government reducing deforestation restrictions. Understanding the effects of policy change on rates and locations of natural ecosystem loss is imperative. In this paper, deforestation in Minas Gerais was simulated annually until 2020 using Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO. This system is a state-of-the-art land use and cover change (LUCC model which incorporates government policy, landscape maps, and other biophysical and anthropogenic datasets. Three studied scenarios: (i business as usual, (ii increased deforestation, and (iii decreased deforestation showed more transition to agriculture from shrubland compared to forests, and consistent locations for most deforestation. The probability of conversion to agriculture is strongly tied to areas with the smallest patches of original biome remaining. Increases in agricultural revenue are projected to continue with a loss of 25% of the remaining Cerrado land in the next decade if profit is maximized. The addition of biodiversity value as a tax on land sale prices, estimated at over $750,000,000 USD using the cost of extracting and maintaining current species ex-situ, can save more than 1 million hectares of shrubland with minimal effects on the economy of the State of Minas Gerais. With environmental policy determining rates of deforestation and economics driving the location of land clearing, site-specific protection or market accounting of externalities is needed to balance economic development and conservation.

  19. REDD+ policy making in Nepal: toward state-centric, polycentric, or market-oriented governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Bushley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 40 years, Nepal has become renowned for its community-based forestry policies, initiatives, and institutions, characterized by local autonomy in decisions about forest management and use and a gradual shift toward more inclusive national policy processes. In recent years, the government, international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs, donors, and some civil society organizations have instigated policy and piloting initiatives for an international climate change mitigation scheme known as "reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries" (REDD+. Although many people see REDD+ as a means of bolstering forest conservation efforts and enhancing rural livelihoods, its broader implications for decentralized forest governance in Nepal and elsewhere remain uncertain and contested. Using policy network analysis and theories of polycentric and network governance, I examined influence, inclusiveness, and deliberation among actors involved in REDD+ policy making in Nepal. Data were collected between June and December 2011 through a survey of 34 organizations from government, civil society, educational and research institutions, international NGOs and donors, and the private sector. I investigated whether policy processes and the configurations of actors involved reflect state-centric, market-oriented, or polycentric governance, and I discuss the implications for decentralized forest governance in general and for the implementation of REDD+ in particular. Results indicate that REDD+ policy making is dominated by a "development triangle", a tripartite coalition of key government actors, external organizations (international NGOs and donors, and select civil society organizations. As a result, the views and interests of other important stakeholders have been marginalized, threatening recentralized forest governance and hampering the effective implementation of REDD

  20. Constructing a State Policy To Promote Regionalism in School Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowsky, Jerome; And Others.

    This paper defines regionalism, sets some tentative directions for the concept, and raises difficult questions related to its application in New York State. Regionalism, which offers an alternative to a State-local school governing system, is used to decentralize the planning and management of public services. A regional unit permits district…

  1. Fiscal deficits, financial fragility, and the effectiveness of government policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchner, M.; van Wijnbergen, S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in the euro area highlighted the interactions between fiscal policy, sovereign debt and financial fragility. We introduce asset choice and sovereign debt holdings in banks’ portfolios in an otherwise standard macroeconomic model with financial frictions, to emphasize a new crowdi

  2. Fiscal deficits, financial fragility, and the effectiveness of government policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchner, M.; van Wijnbergen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent macro developments in the euro area have highlighted the interactions between fiscal policy, sovereign debt, and financial fragility. We take a structural macroeconomic model with frictions in the financial intermediation process, in line with recent research, but introduce asset choice and

  3. Governance and political consumerism in Finnish energy policy-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruostetsaari, Ilkka [University of Turku, Turku (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    The research task in the study was, firstly, to analyse citizens' perceptions of the power structure underlying Finnish energy policy-making. Secondly, we analysed the role of civil society in the energy sector, addressing the question whether Finns feel that they can influence energy policy-making as citizens through general elections (civic participation) or as consumers via their own consumption choices (political consumerism). Methodologically, the study was based on postal survey conducted in 2007 among a random sample representing 18-75-year-old Finns (N=4000). According to the views expressed, the innermost core of the influence structure of Finland's energy policy-making today comprises only the Cabinet and Parliament, while the second circle is composed of energy-producer firms and big firms. The European Union, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Trade and Industry belong to the third circle of influence. The power relations in Finland's energy sector have continued particularly stable since the late 1980s despite the liberalization and globalization of the energy markets. In order to influence energy policy-making, citizens consider their own consumption choices more useful than voting in elections or contacts with MPs, authorities and energy-producing companies. The least useful devices are radical environmental activism and participation in mass demonstrations. (author)

  4. Adaptive Governance, Uncertainty, and Risk: Policy Framing and Responses to Climate Change, Drought, and Flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Margot; Gupta, Joyeeta

    2016-02-01

    As climate change impacts result in more extreme events (such as droughts and floods), the need to understand which policies facilitate effective climate change adaptation becomes crucial. Hence, this article answers the question: How do governments and policymakers frame policy in relation to climate change, droughts, and floods and what governance structures facilitate adaptation? This research interrogates and analyzes through content analysis, supplemented by semi-structured qualitative interviews, the policy response to climate change, drought, and flood in relation to agricultural producers in four case studies in river basins in Chile, Argentina, and Canada. First, an epistemological explanation of risk and uncertainty underscores a brief literature review of adaptive governance, followed by policy framing in relation to risk and uncertainty, and an analytical model is developed. Pertinent findings of the four cases are recounted, followed by a comparative analysis. In conclusion, recommendations are made to improve policies and expand adaptive governance to better account for uncertainty and risk. This article is innovative in that it proposes an expanded model of adaptive governance in relation to "risk" that can help bridge the barrier of uncertainty in science and policy. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. An Analysis of Competitiveness and Government Policies Impact on Development of Cocoa Farming in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Emelda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian cocoa plantations from year to year increase, on the other hand decreased cocoa production andsome government policies have been carried out in order to increase exports and tried to occupy the first rank world cocoa exporting countries.This study aims to analyze (1 comparative and competitive advantages of cocoa farming in North Luwu, (2 the impact of government policies on development of cocoa farming in North Luwu.This is a descriptive analytic study. The sampling method used was purposive sampling of 40 farmers selected. Data collected through interviews, observation and documentation. Data were analyzed using the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM.The results showed that the value of DRC and PCR of cocoa farming is respectively 0.03 and 0.04. The impact of government policies provide incentives to develop cocoa farming in North Luwu reflected NPCI value = 1.25; NPCO = 1.12, and EPC = 1.09 are all positive values.

  6. Qatar: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    founder of Wahhabism, belonged.1 Thus, Qatar officially subscribes to Wahhabism, a conservative Islamic tradition that it shares with Saudi Arabia...Conoco-Phillips are minority stakeholders) in an LNG terminal in Texas that is seeking U.S. government approval to expand the facility to the point where...develop Qatar’s housing, water , roads, airports, and shipping infrastructure in part to promote economic diversification, as well as to prepare to host

  7. Revisions Policy for Official Statistics; A Matter of Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Carol S Carson; Sarmad Khawaja; Thomas K. Morrison

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a set of good practices for the revision of macroeconomic data. The authors argue that revisions are a routine part of disseminating quality data. Revisions are made not just to correct errors but also to incorporate better source data, update base periods, and make other improvements. It is argued, using country examples and views from policymakers and other users, that national statistical agencies should have explicit revisions policies.

  8. Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada: Current Trends and Issues. Purich's Aboriginal Issues Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, John H., Ed.

    This book contains 13 chapters analyzing important practical issues that must be addressed as Aboriginal self-government becomes fully operational in Canada. These issues are related to social problems and policies, criminal justice, community services, education, employment and job training, finance, the land base of government, women's rights…

  9. Reconstructing the public in old and new governance: a Korean case of nuclear energy policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyomin

    2014-04-01

    Korean nuclear energy regulatory policies started to change from earlier exclusively technocratic policies into open dialogues after several anti-nuclear protests in the 1990s. However, technocratic policies still coexist with the new regulatory orientation towards openness, participation and institutional accountability. This paper analyzes Korean nuclear regulatory policies since approximately 2005 as a blend of old and new governance. The aim of the paper is not to decide whether new nuclear governance is deliberative or not by completely reviewing Korean nuclear policies after the 2000s. Instead, it provides an empirical account of how seemingly more participatory processes in decision-making entail new problems while they work with and reproduce social assumptions of different groups of the public.

  10. Making sense of the global health crisis: policy narratives, conflict, and global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Steven

    2012-04-01

    Health has become a policy issue of global concern. Worried that the unstructured, polycentric, and pluralist nature of global health governance is undermining the ability to serve emergent global public health interests, some commentators are calling for a more systematic institutional response to the "global health crisis." Yet global health is a complex and uncertain policy issue. This article uses narrative analysis to explore how actors deal with these complexities and how uncertainties affect global health governance. By comparing three narratives in terms of their basic assumptions, the way they define problems as well as the solutions they propose, the analysis shows how the unstructured pluralism of global health policy making creates a wide scope of policy conflict over the global health crisis. This wide scope of conflict enables effective policy-oriented learning about global health issues. The article also shows how exclusionary patterns of cooperation and competition are emerging in health policy making at the global level. These patterns threaten effective learning by risking both polarization of the policy debate and unanticipated consequences of health policy. Avoiding these pitfalls, the analysis suggests, means creating global health governance regimes that promote openness and responsiveness in deliberation about the global health crisis.

  11. Public sentiment towards alcohol and local government alcohol policies in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, Brett; Kypri, Kypros; Langley, John; Room, Robin

    2012-01-01

    In many countries, including New Zealand, alcohol availability and promotion have increased markedly in the last three decades as a result of liberalised central and/or state government alcohol policies. Accordingly, communities are increasingly relying on local government to manage alcohol-related problems. New Zealand's Local Government Act (2002) states the purpose of local government as facilitating public decision-making and promoting community well-being. We sought to describe public sentiment towards alcohol and local government alcohol policies. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2007 with a sample of 2337 residents aged 18 years and over in a diverse set of New Zealand communities. Data were collected via a self-administered pen-and-paper questionnaire. There were responses from 1372 individuals (response: 59%). Problem drinking amongst youth (vandalism, dangerous driving and traffic crashes. Fifty-eight percent of respondents agreed that "it is up to local government to make sure alcohol does not become a problem in the community". There was strong support for local governments to restrict the hours of operation of on-licenced premises, to use liquor bans to control drinking in public places, and for local governments and police to be stricter in their enforcement of drinking laws. There is strong support for local government alcohol policies that restrict the availability and promotion of alcohol. The study findings are important in light of the stated purpose of local government in New Zealand and the recently completed "once in a generation" review of alcohol laws and policies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Transformation of University Governance through Internationalization: Challenges for Top Universities and Government Policies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi; Shimmi, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    In order to strengthen their international presence, universities pursuing a world-class status are striving to increase their internationalization. Internationalization implies a transformation of university governance, especially for universities in a non-English-speaking system such as Japan's. This paper examines the challenges of…

  13. Transformation of University Governance through Internationalization: Challenges for Top Universities and Government Policies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi; Shimmi, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    In order to strengthen their international presence, universities pursuing a world-class status are striving to increase their internationalization. Internationalization implies a transformation of university governance, especially for universities in a non-English-speaking system such as Japan's. This paper examines the challenges of…

  14. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct

  15. Canadian Government industrial security policy : potential value added service for the Canadian oil and natural gas private sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, R.

    2006-03-15

    Responses to the terrorist attacks of September 11 have enhanced a number of national security policy programs, standards and resources to assess, advise, and protect critical energy infrastructure in Canada. It is expected that resolutions related to energy security and interdependence will reflect private sector concerns and solutions. However, the private energy sector does not currently qualify for sponsorship in the Industrial Security Policy Program. This paper argued that the security systems and standards in place in the Canadian private energy sector should be reinforced by government policies. A joint commission model developed by government agencies with the participation of the private sector was recommended. It was suggested that academic, security and intelligence professionals within government departments that provide services for energy infrastructure protection share their expectations under the leadership of the Canadian Centre of Intelligence and Security Studies. An outline of Canada's industrial security policy and program was presented, as well as details of the role of the industrial security advisory board. 31 refs.

  16. The Effects of Foreign Government Policies on the Location of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Min

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Many argue about which policy and non-policy variables play an important role in influencing foreign direct investment decisions. This article contributes to this debate by considering the effects of foreign government policies on the location of U.S. direct investment abroad. The analysis used pooled cross-section and time series data for 44 countries over three time periods to examine the effects of different types of non-policy and policy variables, including market size, per capita income, country risks, tax rates, investment incentives, and investment regulations. This study found that a policy variable, investment regulation and two non-policy variables, market size and per capita income impact investment decision. A moderately strong effect is found in investment incentive policy, whereas country risks and tax rates turned out not to be strong factors in influencing U.S. investment locations. However, in the case of FDI in developing countries, country risk and tax rates appeared to be more important factors for the location of U.S. FDI than host countries' market size. Strong interaction effects between policy variable and market size are found, while less strong interaction is found between policy variable and per capita income. This study concludes that policy variables are also important factors along with non-policy factors and the determinants of FDI are not independently exerting an influence but jointly affecting U.S. investment locations.

  17. The dynamics of the contemporary governance of the world’s food supply and the challenges of policy redirection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barling, David; Duncan, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the governance dynamics and the international policy architecture that frame contemporary policy actions in relation to the food supply and elaborates on key governance tensions that policy makers need to address to feed the world’s growing population by the mid-21st century

  18. European Innovation Policy Concepts and the Governance of Innovation: Slovenia and the Struggle for Organizational Readiness at the National Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Christiane; Stanovnik, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the interdependency of European Policy and governance of innovation. The authors elaborate on the policy implementation context of Slovenia, a small and less advanced European member state in a transition process. The literature on innovation policy, governance and existing innovation concepts aiming to accelerate economic…

  19. University Reform in the Post-Massification Era in Japan: Analysis of Government Education Policy for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiko, Yamada

    2001-01-01

    Examines government higher education policy and Japanese higher education reform in the globalization and post-massification eras. Explores the effects of market mechanisms on Japanese higher education policy, the kinds of phenomena that have emerged in this period, and the impact of the government policy shift on Japanese higher education. (EV)

  20. Risk Governance: An Application of Analytic-Deliberative Policy Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, Ortwin [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    The paper introduces an integrated analytic framework for risk governance which provides guidance for the development of comprehensive assessment and management strategies to cope with risks, in particular at the global level. The framework integrates scientific, economic, social and cultural aspects and includes the effective engagement of stakeholders. The concept of risk governance comprises a broad picture of risk: not only does it include what has been termed 'risk management' or 'risk analysis, it also looks at how risk-related decision-making unfolds when a range of actors is involved, requiring co-ordination and possibly reconciliation between a profusion of roles, perspectives, goals and activities. The framework's risk process breaks down into three main phases: 'pre-assessment', 'appraisal', and 'management'. A further phase, comprising the 'characterisation' and 'evaluation' of risk, is placed between the appraisal and management phases and, depending on whether those charged with the assessment or those responsible for management are better equipped to perform the associated tasks, can be assigned to either of them - thus concluding the appraisal phase or marking the start of the management phase. The risk process has 'communication' as a companion to all phases of addressing and handling risk and is itself of a cyclical nature. However, the clear sequence of phases and steps offered by this process is primarily a logical and functional one and will not always correspond to reality. The paper will address in particular the role of public participation and stakeholder involvement.

  1. Agrosilvopastoral Systems in Northern Thailand and Northern Laos: Minority Peoples’ Knowledge versus Government Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalathon Choocharoen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agrosilvopastoral systems have been an important component of the farming systems and livelihoods of thousands of ethnic minority people in the uplands of Mainland Southeast Asia. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and participatory inquiries in nine ethnic minority communities, this study emphasizes the complex articulation of local farmers’ knowledge which has been so far excluded from governmental development and conservation policies in the northern uplands of Thailand and Laos. Qualitative analysis of local knowledge systems is performed using the Agroecological Knowledge Toolkit (AKT5 software. Results show that ethnic minorities in the two countries perceive large ruminants to be a highly positive component of local forest agro-ecosystems due to their contribution to nutrient cycling, forest fire control, water retention, and leaf-litter dispersal. The knowledge and perceptions of agrosilvopastoral farmers are then contrasted with the remarkably different forestry policy frameworks of the two countries. We find that the knowledge and diversity of practices exercised by ethnic minority groups contrasts with the current simplified and negative image that government officials tend to construct of agrosilvopastoral systems. We conclude that local knowledge of forest-livestock systems can offer alternative or complementary explanations on ecological cause-and-effect relationships which may need further scientific investigation and validation.

  2. Do we have proportionate gender in policy making? A Study based on key Government Institutions of SAARC Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Nabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Women empowerment has remained a long standing issue for practitioners and policy makers at all levels even in the present modern known era of modernization. The basic objective of this study is to assess gender equality in the top sphere of the SAARC key governmental institutions from the recruitment and selection perspective. This study has used secondary data collected from the official websites of the governments and its affiliated key institutions. The unique feature of this study is that it analyzes gender inequality phenomena form the recruitment and selection perspective. An extensive gap has been identified between male and female top executives serving in key government institutions, which is not only a serious challenge for the global gender equality policy but also a serious question on government gender selection polices in the region. The notion of male dominance clearly prevails in the current scenario of the gender representation in government institutions, which remains a serious challenge for the gender equality. It has been concluded that a special focus is needed to prioritize the selection mechanism for females in top power structure of these governments especially in SAARC region.

  3. Measuring the effectiveness of conservation governance, policies and programmes in forest protected areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Macura, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Failures of governance underlay many problems in natural resource management. In-situ conservation strategies, such as forest protected areas (FPAs), are currently one of the main strategies for forest and terrestrial biodiversity conservation. Nevertheless, there is no clear evidence in the current literature on the exact role of governance arrangements and cause-effect relationships between decision-making style and conservation outcomes of forest protected areas. Governance theory deals wi...

  4. Constitutional Principles and E-Government: An Opinion about Possible Effects of Federalism and the Separation of Powers on E-Government Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.

    2002-01-01

    Examines how Constitutional principles, specifically the doctrines of Federalism and the separation of powers, relate to e-government policies and practices. Suggests that the move toward e-government, with emphasis on the simplification of access to government information and services, must be considered with regard to Federalism and separation…

  5. Mother, should I trust the government? The impact of personal characteristics, professional position and policy alienation on trust of public professionals in the government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A.M. van Engen (Nadine); N.M. van Loon (Nina); L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractTrust is seen as crucial for the legitimacy of governments: Without trust governments cannot act in name of its citizens. Although various studies have studied citizen trust in the government, much less is known about whether those citizens who have to execute policies and are at the for

  6. Policy Inputs to Honduran Government, Indigenous Federations, and NGOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-09

    Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 land use, land ownership, land rights, mapping REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. University of Kansas 2385

  7. The new "new racism" thesis: limited government values and race-conscious policy attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainous, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Some contend that Whites’ application of values to form opinions about race-conscious policy may constitute a subtle form of racism. Others challenge the new racism thesis, suggesting that racism and values are exclusive in their influence. Proponents of the thesis assert that many Whites’ attitudes about such policy are structured by a mix of racism and American individualism. The author suggests that an even more subtle form of racism may exist. Racism may actually be expressed in opposition to big government. The test results presented here indicate that the effects of limited-government values on attitudes about race-conscious policy are conditional on levels of racial prejudice for many Whites, whereas the effects on racially ambiguous social welfare policy attitudes are not. The author contends that these results provide support to the argument that racism still exists and has found a new subtle expression.

  8. Does problem complexity matter for environmental policy delivery? How public authorities address problems of water governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschke, Sabrina; Newig, Jens; Völker, Jeanette; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2017-03-08

    Problem complexity is often assumed to hamper effective environmental policy delivery. However, this claim is hardly substantiated, given the dominance of qualitative small-n designs in environmental governance research. We studied 37 types of contemporary problems defined by German water governance to assess the impact of problem complexity on policy delivery through public authorities. The analysis is based on a unique data set related to these problems, encompassing both in-depth interview-based data on complexities and independent official data on policy delivery. Our findings show that complexity in fact tends to delay implementation at the stage of planning. However, different dimensions of complexity (goals, variables, dynamics, interconnections, and uncertainty) impact on the different stages of policy delivery (goal formulation, stages and degrees of implementation) in various ways.

  9. Economic Reforms, Corporate Governance and Dividend Policy in Sectoral Economic Growth in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The paper attempts to establish a relationship economic reforms, dividend policy and economic growth. Broadly, the study tries to develop a link between economic reforms and economic growth. Further narrowing down, we split economic reforms into monetary, fiscal and governance reforms and find their influence on sectoral growth specifically focusing on corporate governance reforms. In Pakistan, as we have gone through phenomenon economic and structural changes during the last decade so the st...

  10. THE GOVERNMENT AND BUSINESS COLLABORATION IN DESIGNING INDUSTRIAL POLICY IN THE RUSSIAN RAILWAY MACHINE-BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pereversieva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to improvement of the mechanism of the government and business collaboration in designing industrial policy. Materials and data of the passenger railway machine-building industry were basis for the analysis. The article draws a lot of attention to regional aspects of the issue. Proposals for the improvement of political mechanisms of the coordination of interests were worked out based on the business proposals and positions of government bodies.

  11. Afghanistan: Post Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-12

    Use Bagram Air Base 50 miles north of Kabul, the operational hub of U.S. and NATO forces and aircraft in Afghanistan. Hospital constructed, one of...operates a 65-person field hospital at Bagram Air Base that instructs Afghan physicians, and Jordan operates a similar facility in Mazar-e-Sharif. A $236...feet of gas. Current oil production negligible, but USAID funding project to revive oil and gas facilities in the north. Cellphones/ Tourism

  12. Deforestation, Development, and Government Policy in the Brazilian Amazon: an Econometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Lykke E.; Eustáquio J. Reis

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a model of deforestation and economic development in the Amazon. It is based on the determinants of demand for agricultural land, i.e. on the interactions between population dynamics, urbanization and the growth of local markets, land prices, and government policies. The model is estimated using a panel data set covering 316 municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon during the period 1970/85. The model is used to evaluate the effects of different policy instruments. The trade...

  13. Food for thought? Potential conflicts of interest in academic experts advising government and charities on dietary policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Alex; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Capewell, Simon

    2016-08-05

    A conflict of interest (CoI) can occur between public duty and private interest, in which a public official's private-capacity interest could improperly influence the performance of their official duties and responsibilities. The most tangible and commonly considered CoI are financial. However, CoI can also arise due to other types of influence including interpersonal relationships, career progression, or ideology. CoI thus exist in academia, business, government and non-governmental organisations. However, public knowledge of CoI is currently limited due to a lack of information. The mechanisms of managing potential conflicts of interest also remain unclear due to a lack of guidelines. We therefore examined the independence of academic experts and how well potential CoI are identified and addressed in four government and non-governmental organisations in the UK responsible for the development of food policy. Policy analysis. We developed an analytical framework to explore CoI in high-level UK food policy advice, using four case studies. Two government policy-making bodies: Department of Health 'Obesity Review Group' (ORG), 'Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition' (SACN) and two charities: 'Action on Sugar' (AoS), & 'Heart of Mersey' (HoM). Information was obtained from publicly available sources and declarations. We developed a five point ordinal scale based upon the ideology of the Nolan Principles of Public Life. Group members were individually categorised on the ordinal ConScale from "0", (complete independence from the food and drink industry) to "4", (employed by the food and drink industry or a representative organisation). CoI involving various industries have long been evident in policy making, academia and clinical practice. Suggested approaches for managing CoI could be categorised as "deny", "describe", or "diminish". Declared CoI were common in the ORG and SACN. 4 out of 28 ORG members were direct industry employees. In SACN 11 out of 17 members

  14. [Indicators of governance in mental health policies and programmes in Mexico: a perspective of key actors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc

    To analyse the role of Mexico's mental health system governance in the development of mental health policies and programmes, from the perspective of its own actors. A map was developed for identifying the actors in Mexico's mental health system. A guide was designed for in-depth interviews, which were recorded and arranged in categories for their analysis. The Atlas-ti v.7 software was used for the organisation of qualitative data and Policy Maker v.4 was used to determine the position and influence of actors within the health system. The actors were identified according to their level of influence in mental health policies: high, medium and low. Actors with a high level of influence participate in national policies, actors with medium influence are involved in regional or local policies and the participation of actors with a low level of influence is considered marginal. This study facilitated understanding of governance in mental health. The level of influence of the actors directly affects the scope of governance indicators. Relevant data were obtained to improve policies in mental health care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. IMPACT OF THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT POLICY FOR THE DAIRY COW PRODUCT BUSINESS PARTNERSHIP AND INDEPENDENT SYSTEM IN SOUTH SULAWESI REGENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Sirajuddin, Nurani

    2011-01-01

    The impact of government policies on business in South Sulawesi fresh milk (pasteurized) partnership system doesn???t have increased competitiveness in a competitive and comparative. Government policy on the business of fresh milk (dangke) independent systems can enhance competitiveness in a competitive but doesn???t comparatively. Overall business profits on a independent system dangke higher than pasteurized milk business in a partnership system. Government policy with subsidies on Dairy ca...

  16. European Regional Populations: Current Trends, Future Pathways, and Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Philip; van der Gaag, Nicole; de Beer, Joop; Heins, Frank

    2012-11-01

    Europe is currently experiencing an ageing population and slowing population growth of both the total and working-age populations. These trends are likely to continue. Even though population ageing will affect all European regions, different regions will be affected in different ways. Even under favorable conditions, 35-40 % of all NUTS2 regions will face a labor force decline. If economic conditions are poor, some regions may continue to grow, but 55-70 % of the regions will see a labor force decline by 10 % or more. In most regions of Eastern Europe, the labor force may decrease by more than 30 %. To keep regions prosperous (maintaining competitiveness) and to avoid worse inequality (maintaining cohesion), policy-makers must find ways to cope with these challenges through new fiscal and social policies, though policies directly affecting demographic and migratory trends may also be needed.

  17. How do new innovation paradigms challenge current innovation policy perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Præst; Tanev, Stoyan; Bisgaard, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    multiple actors by managing knowledge sharing processes across entire value networks. The chapter provides a brief description and comparison of these new innovation paradigms and discusses the challenges that these paradigms imply for existing innovation policies. The innovation policy recommendations......Successful firms today are forced to deal with new competitive realities by being globally present, innovatively resourceful and internationally competitive on multiple markets across the world. The new competitive realities challenge firms to open their innovation processes by adopting new...... innovation paradigms such as user-driven innovation, open innovation and value co-creation. The user-driven and open innovation paradigms have already become the subject of extensive research and are currently discussed in terms of their potential implications for policy development. The value co...

  18. Are national policies on global health in fact national policies on global health governance? A comparison of policy designs from Norway and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    Since the signing of the Oslo Ministerial Declaration in 2007, the idea that foreign policy formulation should include health considerations has gained traction on the United Nations agenda as evidenced by annual General Assembly resolutions on global health and foreign policy. The adoption of national policies on global health (NPGH) is one way that some member states integrate health and foreign policymaking. This paper explores what these policies intend to do and how countries plan to do it. Using a most similar systems design, we carried out a comparative study of two policy documents formally adopted in 2012. We conducted a directed qualitative content analysis of the Norwegian White Paper on Global health in foreign and development policy and the Swiss Health Foreign Policy using Schneider and Ingram's policy design framework. After replicating analysis methods for each document, we analysed them side by side to explore the commonalities and differences across elements of NPGH design. Analyses indicate that NPGH expect to influence change outside their borders. Targeting the international level, they aim to affect policy venues, multilateral partnerships and international institutions. Instruments for supporting desired changes are primarily those of health diplomacy, proposed as a tool for negotiating interests and objectives for global health between multiple sectors, used internally in Switzerland and externally in Norway. Findings suggest that NPGH designs contribute to constructing the global health governance system by identifying it as a policy target, and policy instruments may elude the health sector actors unless implementation rules explicitly include them. Research should explore how future NPGH designs may construct different kinds of targets as politicised groups of actors on which national governments seek to exercise influence for global health decision-making.

  19. Policy Integration and Multi-Level Governance: Dealing with the Vertical Dimension of Policy Mix Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Howlett

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multifaceted problems such as sustainable development typically involve complex arrangements of institutions and instruments and the subject of how best to design and operate such ‘mixes’, ‘bundles’ or ‘portfolios’ of policy tools is an ongoing issue in this area. One aspect of this question is that some mixes are more difficult to design and operate than others. The paper argues that, ceteris paribus, complex policy-making faces substantial risks of failure when horizontal or vertical dimensions of policy-making are not well integrated. The paper outlines a model of policy mix types which highlights the design problems associated with more complex arrangements and presents two case studies of similarly structured mixes in the areas of marine parks in Australia and coastal zone management in Europe—one a failure and the other a successful case of integration—to illustrate how such mixes can be better designed and managed more effectively.

  20. Incorporation and University Governance: The Chinese Experience, Using University Enrolment Expansion Policy as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui

    2007-01-01

    At the end of 1998, the Chinese central government decided to raise China's level of participation in higher education dramatically. While the move was influenced by a combination of both domestic and external forces, it was a decision fundamentally based on economic considerations. Using the university enrolment expansion policy as an example,…

  1. Flexible information infrastructures in Dutch e-government collaboration arrangements: experiences and policy implication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHow can the flexibility of an information architecture in e-government chains - defined as a set of multi-rational agreements - be achieved, if one acknowledges the fact that the use of ICT may automate the status quo between organizations which work together in a policy chain? Research

  2. Dancing with Global Trends: Higher Education Policy and University Governance in Hong Kong, 1997-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Tang, Hei-Hang Hayes

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the significance of global trends in higher education (HE) development in Hong Kong between 1997 and 2012. Two trends, massification and internationalisation, are considered key driving forces that shaped Hong Kong's HE policy during the period. The former refers to government measures to widen participation in HE. The latter…

  3. Nuclear energy: French government policy; Politique nucleaire et diversification energetique: orientations gouvernementales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-02

    This report presents the French government policy concerning nuclear energy and alternative sources of energy for the next 10 years. This report overviews the situation of Super-Phenix fast reactor and presents the implications of the 30/12/1999 decree (Bataille's law) about the management of radioactive wastes.

  4. Modern Monetary Policy and Central Bank Governance : A Story of Two Tales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Masciandaro, D.

    The objective of this note is to present the evolution of both the economics and the political economy of monetary policy in the last three decades – first the Great Moderation and then the Financial Crisis – as a story of two intertwined tales: on the one side the tale of how to govern money and

  5. UNCONVENTIONAL MONETARY POLICY: CHANGING EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK’S PERSPECTIVE ON FINANCIAL GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Munteanu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to look at the European Central Bank governance in terms of decisions taken to deploy a new kit of unconventional monetary policy measures, in order to respond to a new economic paradigm characterized by dynamic change in evolution, high volatility and enhanced financial risks. As an institution, the European Central Bank is led by the Governing Council and the decisions taken on how to use monetary policy impact an entire financial system. European Central Banking governance is about safeguarding the common currency and ensuring a future for the economic and monetary area to emerge stronger. For this purpose, when conventional monetary policies reach limits in their effects, it is time for the European Central Bank governance to analyse and assume the decision to deploy the arsenal of unconventional monetary policies. The experience of recent years showed a positive effect of the European Central Bank’s unconventional monetary measures, but costs could rise in case of extensive use of such measures. When these measures are used in combination, the effect is amplified and the European Central Bank needs to assess when it is time to withdraw the support, how to communicate and what exit strategy should use, what the costs are and impact can expect.

  6. Environmental Governance Challenges in Kiribati : An Agenda for Legal and Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejo Olowu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the global notion of environmental governance is principally about how to achieve the goals of environmental conservation and sustainable development, analysing approaches to environmental governance invariably requires critical study of the policies and structures in place that determine how power is exercised and how environmental decisions are made not only in the abstract context of internationalism but with particular regard to national situations. This essay examines the legal and policy frameworks regulating environmental protection and the conservation of biodiversity within the broader goal of effective environmental governance in Kiribati . Acknowledging that Kiribati encounters formidable challenges in institutional, normative and policy terms, this essay particularly deals with the issue of pollution and its long- and short-term implications for this nation of many atolls. While highlighting the existence of significant treaties, municipal laws and diverse policy mechanisms, this essay identifies gaps and weaknesses, making suggestions for their reform and enhancement. Recognising that the path to the future lies in the synergy of initiatives and inputs from the government, the people and all other stakeholders in the environmental well-being of Kiribati, this essay proffers some viable trajectories for strategic responses.

  7. Co-evolution of industry strategies and government policies: The case of the brazilian automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, R.G. (Roberto Gonzalez); S.B. Rodrigues (Suzana)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the evolution of the automotive industry in Brazil and its key drivers. We argue that the rules of the game – industry policies – are an outcome of exchanges between the host government and industry. These arise from changes in economic and political environments and

  8. Palliative care for terminally ill patients in the Netherlands: Dutch government policy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    There is a broad range of palliative care available in the Netherlands. There are many options for obtaining palliative care at home. The care that terminally ill patients need can also be provided in nursing homes, care homes, hospitals and hospices. Government policy in this field is one of the re

  9. 47 CFR 90.173 - Policies governing the assignment of frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assignment to base stations or mobile stations in the Industrial/Business Pool are also available for... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Policies Governing the Assignment of Frequencies... this part, frequencies assigned to land mobile stations are available on a shared basis only and...

  10. Governance restricts : a contextual assessment of the wastewater treatment policy in the Guadelupe River Basin, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casiano Flores, Cesar; Özerol, Gül; Bressers, Hans

    Lack of wastewater treatment is among the main water problems worldwide. The implementation of wastewater treatment policies faces varying challenges given the many different contexts. Therefore, context-sensitive approaches are required from a governance perspective. This paper aims to improve the

  11. Sport Governance and Policy Development: An Ethical Approach to Managing Sport in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Thomas H.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Judge, Lawrence W.

    2008-01-01

    "Sport Governance and Policy Development" is written with the sport management student in mind. Designed to address the curriculum standards set by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education and the North American Society for Sport Management, this book provides information to meet core and related competency areas required for the…

  12. Good governance and virtue in South Africa's cyber security policy implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burmeister, O

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Good governance from an ethical perspective in cyberdefence policy has been seen in terms of duty and consequentialism. Yet the negotiated view of virtue ethics can also address how nation states mitigate the risks of a cyber attack...

  13. Research on the Policy Orientation of Government in Agricultural Industrialization Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hang, Hong-qiu

    2011-01-01

    Governmental functions in agricultural industrialization management are analyzed, mainly including supplying public products, providing property right security, managing and protecting resources and environment as well as stabilizing the agro-product market. The policy orientation promoted by the government in agricultural industrialization management is pointed out: formulating a series of macro-management planning to guide and regulate agricultural industrialization operation; fully playing...

  14. Dancing with Global Trends: Higher Education Policy and University Governance in Hong Kong, 1997-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Tang, Hei-Hang Hayes

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the significance of global trends in higher education (HE) development in Hong Kong between 1997 and 2012. Two trends, massification and internationalisation, are considered key driving forces that shaped Hong Kong's HE policy during the period. The former refers to government measures to widen participation in HE. The latter…

  15. Local Social Media Policies Governing Teachers' Professionally Oriented Participation Online: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodesiler, Luke

    2017-01-01

    In light of recent scholarship about teachers leveraging social media to support their continuing professional development, this article documents an investigation of school board policies governing teachers' use of social media. Focusing on 30 traditional public school systems within a 10-county region in the Midwestern United States, the author…

  16. Modern Monetary Policy and Central Bank Governance : A Story of Two Tales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Masciandaro, D.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this note is to present the evolution of both the economics and the political economy of monetary policy in the last three decades – first the Great Moderation and then the Financial Crisis – as a story of two intertwined tales: on the one side the tale of how to govern money and in

  17. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  18. Foxes, hedgehogs, and greenhouse governance: Knowledge, uncertainty, and international policy-making in a warming World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, David [Center for Transatlantic Relations, The Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, 1717 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Suite 525, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Global environmental challenges like greenhouse warming are characterized by profound uncertainties about the workings of complex systems, high stakes as to the costs and benefits of various possible actions, and important differences concerning the values that should shape public choices, confounding ready resolution by conventional decision-making procedures. So-called adaptive or reflexive governance strategies provide policy-makers an alternative framework for tackling the greenhouse problem. Adaptive governance employs deliberate experimentation and continuous learning-by-doing to test and adjust ongoing policy responses. Yet pursuing such approaches poses particular challenges to global climate cooperation. In an increasingly interdependent world, coordinating multiple parties experimentally adopting different climate measures could prove contentious. Unequivocal policy lessons may be difficult to draw and apply. Timely collective revisions to ongoing policies may prove more difficult still to define and agree. Advocates must engage these issues directly and develop means of addressing them if adaptive governance approaches are to allow policy-makers to formulate better strategies for combating climate change. (author)

  19. Current Approaches to Improving Access to Government Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Carol; Latta, Ann

    Based on the responses of 77 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries to a December 1986 survey of 106 ARL libraries (a 73% response rate), this report profiles the current state of bibliographic access to federal publications. Following a brief discussion of survey background and methodology, a summary of survey results indicates…

  20. The expansion of participatory governance in the environmental policies of developing countries: the example of Madagascar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froger, G.; Meral, P.; Herimandimby, V. [Versailles Univ., Guyancourt (France). Centre for Economics and Ethics in the Environment and Development

    2004-07-01

    The notion of governance is often considered to be essential, particularly by international institutions in developing countries, to improve the efficiency of policies and to strengthen the legitimacy of the aid. This article aims to clarify the various meanings of this notion and to analyse the policies for devolution of management of natural resources to local communities. The participatory practices involved supply some advantages: appropriation of the management of resources and policies by local actors, the intention to make these actors responsible, etc. But they do have limitations: an ''idyllic'' vision of community-based management; the risk of being ''captured'' by local community leaders; conflicts of interest and of temporality that are not discussed, but which do exist. The range and the limitations of this environmental governance, which we qualify as being participative, are illustrated by the case of Madagascar. (author)

  1. Public science policy and administration. [cooperation of government industry, foundations, and educational institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, A. H. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Science, the overwhelming concern of our time, is no longer a matter of private research and development but one of public policy and administration, in which government, industry, foundations, and educational institutions must all work together as never before. Few other single tasks are of such decisive importance to the collective and individual welfare of American citizens as the formulation of public science policy and the administration of scientific programs. Eleven national authorities of varied background in science, education, and government administration contribute their experience and their judgment in an effort to deal with the major aspects of the subject. Their focus is on the meeting of actual problems; they consider the decision making process in both public and public-private organizations. Topics are grouped in three general categories: personnel needs and resources, organizational problems and techniques, and the administrative role in policy leadership.

  2. E-Government – A Demand-Side Innovation Policy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina - Cristiana Necula

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents with example the actual status of E-Government in Romania. We start with an introduction which presents the importance of government implications in public procurement for innovation with concrete data of government’s investments and policies for innovation. In this section we include objectives and prior work. We approach our research by presenting web 2.0 technologies for E-government services with examples from other countries. The article focuses on the actual status of E-government in Romania. The main conclusions of the paper are presented in the end of the article. Our results are summarized in a discussion section. The value and implications of our research is in the area of governmental public sector innovation.

  3. Research on Non-government Policy Discrimination%民办教育政策歧视现象分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伶

    2013-01-01

    民办教育政策歧视有三条判别标准,即当平等处不予以平等、当差异处不予以差别对待、当补偿处不予以补偿。当前,我国民办教育政策歧视主要表现在学校税收、教师待遇、学生资助、学校办学自主权、特殊受教育群体补偿等方面,政策冲突、政策模糊和政策盲点是导致歧视发生的原因。%There are three criterions to differentiate the discrimination ,which include equality rule , difference rule and compensation rule . Currently , the discriminations mainly reflect in revenue policy , social security of teacher,students’ stake,school running power,educational right of the disadvantaged and so forth,and there are three factors leading to these discriminations ,there are some conflicts between non-government policies and other relative policies;there are obviously ambiguous expression and unclear definition in policy texts;there are some “blind spots”in the process of policy-making.

  4. Analysis of Competitiveness and Government Policy on Rice, Corn and Soybean Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetyo Ari Bowo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice, corn and soybean is the strategic commodities and the government always maintains their availability. Indonesia still imports rice, corn and soybean and implements the policy of tariffs, taxes and subsidies on rice, corn, soybean imports and farming inputs. Central Java is the main producer of rice, corn and soybean with the contibution of Gross Regional Domestic Product of the food crop sub-sector to the highest Provincial GRDP in Indonesian. This research examines the competitiveness and the government policy towards rice, corn and soybean farming in Central Java Province. It uses secondary data of Farming Economic Analysis from the relevant agencies and scientific publications on the international price of rice, corn and soybean that is analyzed using the quantitative descriptive method with analysis tool of Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. The PAM result shows that the rice farming in Cilacap Regency and the corn farming in Grobogan Regency have competitive and comparative advantage. The soybean farming in Grobogan only has a comparative advantage. Overall the government policies are protective towards the rice farming in Cilacap, but not protective towards the corn and soybean farming in Grobogan. The sensitivity analysis shows that the advantages and competitiveness of the rice farming in Cilacap and the corn and soybean farming in Grobogan are sensitive towards the international price changes of commodities and fertilizers, the labor cost changes, the exchange rate fluctuations of Rupiah towards USD, and the import tariff changes of commodities.

  5. Health and equity in all policies in local government: processes and outcomes in two Norwegian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Heimburg, Dina; Hakkebo, Berit

    2017-08-01

    To identify key factors in implementing Health and Equity in All Policies (HEiAP) at the local level in two Norwegian municipalities in order to accelerate the progress of promoting health, well-being and equity in other local governments. This case study is presented as a narrative from policy-making processes in two Norwegian municipalities. The story is told from an insider perspective, with a focus on HEiAP policy makers in these two municipalities. The narrative identified key learning from implementing HEiAP at the local level, i.e. the importance of strengthening system and human capacities. System capacity is strengthened by governing HEiAP according to national legislation and a holistic governance system at the local level. Municipal plans are based on theory, evidence and local data. A 'main story' is developed to support the vision, defining joint societal goals and co-creation strategies. Policies are anchored by measuring and monitoring outcomes, sharing accountability and continuous dialogue to ensure political commitment. Human capacity is strengthened through participatory leadership, soft skills and health promotion competences across sectors. Health promotion competence at a strategic level in the organization, participation in professional networks, crowd sourcing toward common goals, and commitment through winning hearts and minds of politicians and other stakeholders are vital aspects. Our experience pinpoints the importance of strengthening system and human capacity in local governments. Further, we found it important to focus on the two strategic objectives in the European strategy 'Health 2020': (1) Improving health for all and reducing health inequalities; (2) improving leadership and participatory governance for health.

  6. An exploratory study identifying where local government public health decision makers source their evidence for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Melissa; Dodds, James

    2014-08-01

    The Western Australian (WA) Public Health Bill will replace the antiquated Health Act 1911. One of the proposed clauses of the Bill requires all WA local governments to develop a Public Health Plan. The Bill states that Public Health Plans should be based on evidence from all levels, including national and statewide priorities, community needs, local statistical evidence, and stakeholder data. This exploratory study, which targeted 533 WA local government officers, aimed to identify the sources of evidence used to generate the list of public health risks to be included in local government Public Health Plans. The top four sources identified for informing local policy were: observation of the consequences of the risks in the local community (24.5%), statewide evidence (17.6%), local evidence (17.6%) and coverage in local media (16.2%). This study confirms that both hard and soft data are used to inform policy decisions at the local level. Therefore, the challenge that this study has highlighted is in the definition or constitution of evidence. SO WHAT? Evidence is critical to the process of sound policy development. This study highlights issues associated with what actually constitutes evidence in the policy development process at the local government level. With the exception of those who work in an extremely narrow field, it is difficult for local government officers, whose role includes policymaking, to read the vast amount of information that has been published in their area of expertise. For those who are committed to the notion of evidence-based policymaking, as advocated within the WA Public Health Bill, this presents a considerable challenge.

  7. Real Estate Bubble Bursts and Government Policy during Crisis: Examples of Estonia, Ireland and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmas Varblane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current article is to view previous experience with real estate crises and taking into account such experience find suitable policy reactions to overcome the current Estonian crisis as smoothly as possible. Beside overall theoretical guidelines for overcoming the crisis, examples of Sweden and Ireland are viewed. The policy issues suggested for Estonia include some changes in tax laws, avoiding expansionary fiscal policy, making lending stricter and borrower responsible to higher extent, cooperation of different authorities to tackle problem of bad loans, initiating wage and price cut, paying more attention to exporting sector

  8. ASSOCIATION OF GOVERNMENT POLICY AND MOTHER’S PERCEPTION TO EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufdlilah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the Indonesian government has campaigned exclusive breastfeeding during the past decade through maternal and child program of Ministry of Health, however, its coverage in Yogyakarta province remains low. Objective: This study aims to analyze factors related to exclusive breastfeeding program, especially indicators that can explain government’s regulation and mothers’ perception to exclusive breastfeeding practice. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study involved 185 mothers who have 6-12 months infants with parity 1-3. The correspondents live in Sleman district and had normal delivery in hospital, health center or midwifery private practitioner. The association between the exogenous (government policy and mothers’ perception and the endogenous variables (mothers’ participation to exclusive breastfeeding practice was determined using Lisrel version 8.80. Results: Although the government policy contributed to the success of implementing breastfeeding program (33%, providing breastfeeding rooms (28%, and declaring the related government regulation (17%; however, its contribution was recorded at only 2% to human resources. Knowledge significantly encouraged mothers to breastfeed whilst infrastructure was assessed as a strong determinant of mothers’ willingness to participate in the program at the contribution of 50%. Conclusion: Although there was only a weak association between government regulation to mothers’ perception and between mothers’ perception towards exclusive breastfeeding practice, the study highlights the importance of providing adequate information to improve mothers’ knowledge on exclusive breastfeeding. By knowledge improvement, mothers will have better perception, which in turn will improve their self-efficacy and practices in exclusive breastfeeding.

  9. Network Governance and the Making of Brazil's Foreign Policy Towards China in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Driven by China's increasing global influence, China-Brazil relations have deepened significantly in the 21st century; for Brazil, this bilateral relationship has become one of the most important aspects of its foreign relations. This article aims at analysing how Brazil's foreign policy towards China was made and implemented during the eight years of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's presidency, and the first four years of Dilma Rousseff's presidency. While scholars agree that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not exclusively dominate this policy, little is known about which state and non-state actors were involved, how and why they interacted, and how their interactions influenced policy choices. The article starts by identifying the actors that played a significant role in formulating Brazil's China policy. Next, drawing on the concept of network governance, it explores the processes and mechanisms that governed the interactions among them. It concludes with an assessment of the democratic quality of this policy area.

  10. Population policy of local self-government: Necessities possibilities and limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Ana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the roles it objectively has, the state is also responsible for the formulation and implementation of population policy. In the process of its articulation, population policy of our state, although not explicitly formulated, continual and consistent, went through various phases of development, but was mostly in the shadow of other policies. In order to be successful, population policy has to be local, too. The need for definition and implementation of local population policy is indicated by insufficiency and inefficiency of government measures, knowledge of determinants of reproductive behavior and social processes, especially society democratization and globalization. The possibilities available are not sufficiently used. The attention is focused on the measures of material assistance, which is understandable in present conditions, while the measures of non-material assistance are almost missing. The paper is pointing out the non-material potentials and the necessity of their activation. The paper also contains the results of an empiric research carried out by interviewing the presidents of the population policy committees within municipal assemblies in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, thus providing the picture of the present situation, and knowledge of their positions, opinions and suggestions for the better use of potentials and overcoming of limitations in population policy.

  11. The mediating effect of leverage and dividend policy on the influence of corporate governance towards firm value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soewarno Noorlailie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the mediating effect of leverage and dividend policy on the influence of corporate governance towards firm value. This is a quantitative study used secondary data of 181 companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX in the year of 2014. The results showed that leverage did not mediate corporate governance-firm value relationship, and devidend policy partially mediated corporate governance-firm value relationship

  12. Energizing Government Decision-Makers with the Facts on Solar Technology, Policy, and Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Solar Technical Assistance Team (STAT) is a network of solar technology and implementation experts who provide timely, unbiased expertise to assist policymakers and regulators in making informed decisions about solar programs and policies. Government officials can submit requests directly to the STAT for technical assistance. STAT then partners with experts in solar policy, regulation, finance, technology, and other areas to deliver accurate, up-to-date information to state and local decision makers. The STAT responds to requests on a wide range of issues -- including, but not limited to, feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, rate design, program design, workforce and economic impacts of solar on jurisdictions, and project financing.

  13. Practice Models and Public Policies in the Management and Governance of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin BRĂTIANU

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the last century, there  have been lots of analyses on the evolution of  various basic types of structures of authority and  academic governance patterns, public policies and  practice models, all together in search of the most  effective formula for adapting the higher education  institutions to the new educational requirements  and trends of the global market, characterized by  increasing competition. In this context, our paper  provides a succinct analysis of the worldwide trends  in the governance and management of higher  education with an emphasis on Europe and on  the evolution of the Romanian universities, in the  context of the public policies promoted during time.  

  14. Player or referee? Aid effectiveness and the governance of health policy development: Lessons from Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Rebecca; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Viet Nam is one of the brightest stars in the constellation of developing countries. Its remarkable achievements in reducing poverty and improving health and education outcomes are well known, and as a result it has enjoyed generous aid programmes. Viet Nam also has a reputation for taking a strong lead in disciplining its donors and pushing for more efficient and effective forms of aid delivery, both at home and internationally. This article discusses how efforts to improve the effectiveness of aid intersect with policy-making processes in the health sector. It presents a quantitative review of health aid flows in Viet Nam and a qualitative analysis of the aid environment using event analysis, participant observation and key informant interviews. The analysis reveals a complex and dynamic web of incentives influencing the implementation of the aid effectiveness agenda in the health sector. There are contradictory forces within the Ministry of Health, within government as a whole, within the donor community and between donors and government. Analytical frameworks drawn from the study of policy networks and governance can help explain these tensions. They suggest that governance of health aid in Viet Nam is characterised by multiple, overlapping 'policy networks' which cut across the traditional donor-government divide. The principles of aid effectiveness make sense for some of these communities, but for others they are irrational and may lead to a loss of influence and resources. However, sustained engagement combined with the building of strategic coalitions can overcome individual and institutional incentives. This article suggests that aid reform efforts should be understood not as a technocratic agenda but as a political process with all the associated tensions, perverse incentives and challenges. Partners thus need to recognise - and find new ways of making sense of - the complexity of forces affecting aid delivery.

  15. Policy Brief: Governance of mining in India: responding to policy deficits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganeshan, Swati; Khanna, Arpita Asha; Srivastava, Nidhi; Noronha, Ligia

    2012-06-15

    The reform in the minerals sector has been in response to both global and national pressures. Internationally, there was a need for India to make credible commitments to the world that it would do things differently in terms of approval, transparency, greater efficiency, more incentives to attract investment in exploration, and development activity. Nationally, there was need for greater exploration information; improved allocation processes; increased resource revenues from mineral rich states; and greater compensation for externalities created by mining. Over the last few years new initiatives have been put in place. The National Mineral Policy (NMP) and the Minerals and Metals Development and Regulation (MMDR) Bill have sought to address many of the industry and community concerns and also the issue of graft by making the process of allocation and clearances more transparent and less discretionary. The Policy and the Bill have many pro-people clauses that relate to benefit sharing, minimizing the ecological footprint, improved participation in decision-making and grievance redressal mechanisms.

  16. The impact of fiscal policy on government bond spreads in emerging markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Žigman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spreads on government bonds are a collective expression of differences in the level of development, risk, expected returns and other essential characteristics of states or regions the bond yields of which we wish to compare. At issue here is a collective expression of factors that work on the bond supply and demand side. These are for example the political environment (or political risks, expected return, economic risks, expected inflation, expected change in the exchange rate, solvency, way in which the bonds of a given state fi t into the portfolios of the major investors and so on. The paper identifies the influence of fiscal and non-fiscal factors on movements in spreads on government bonds in emerging markets. The possibility of isolating fiscal from non-fiscal influences on spreads and the identification of the nature of fiscal impacts can be of great importance for the conduct of fiscal policy. The results obtained can be used for an optimisation of fiscal policy so as to avoid negative impacts on yields (i.e. a growth in yields, that is, a growth in the costs of government borrowing. This paper enlarges the line of research by querying whether the structure of deficit financing (domestic or foreign has an impact on bond yields in emerging markets, and how this impact is reflected on the other determinants of fiscal policy.

  17. Impact of experience on government policy toward acceptance of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Min Jung [Department of Information and Industrial Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heejun, E-mail: h.park@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Information and Industrial Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    As the 'low carbon, green growth' agenda, which emphasized sustainable development through equilibrium between economic growth and environmental preservation, is propagated rapidly in Korea. Despite this progress, it is not uncommon for new products made through advanced technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, to face public skepticism preventing market penetration. Therefore, the factors impacting customer acceptance of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have to be estimated. Furthermore, it is necessary to examine whether or not the policies related to these products can prevent public skepticism regarding them. This empirical study examining the relationship between personal experiences related to the policy and acceptance of the innovative products of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles shows that government involvement in technology targeting and promotions administered by the 'low carbon, green growth' agenda rarely stimulate potential customers' purchase intentions. Thus, technology targeting administered by the 'low carbon, green growth' agenda needs to be reconciled with customer responses to the future market. - Highlights: > Experience of the 'low carbon, green growth' policy affects perception of it. > Positive perception on the policy seldom arouses positive perception on HFCV performance. > Technology targeting by the policy rarely stimulates purchase intention of HFCV. > Desire to be regarded as a person with environment concern impacts purchase intentions.> Technology targeting by the policy needs to be reconciled with customer responses to it.

  18. Citizen science and natural resource governance: program design for vernal pool policy innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridie McGreavy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective natural resource policy depends on knowing what is needed to sustain a resource and building the capacity to identify, develop, and implement flexible policies. This retrospective case study applies resilience concepts to a 16-year citizen science program and vernal pool regulatory development process in Maine, USA. We describe how citizen science improved adaptive capacities for innovative and effective policies to regulate vernal pools. We identified two core program elements that allowed people to act within narrow windows of opportunity for policy transformation, including (1 the simultaneous generation of useful, credible scientific knowledge and construction of networks among diverse institutions, and (2 the formation of diverse leadership that promoted individual and collective abilities to identify problems and propose policy solutions. If citizen science program leaders want to promote social-ecological systems resilience and natural resource policies as outcomes, we recommend they create a system for internal project evaluation, publish scientific studies using citizen science data, pursue resources for program sustainability, and plan for leadership diversity and informal networks to foster adaptive governance.

  19. Governing the Extractive Sector: The Politics of Globalisation and Copper Policy in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewellord T. Nem Singh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chile exhibits an immense continuity in its copper policy and the sector’s reliable output contributes enormously to the tax revenues of the state. Copper in Chile is thus an interesting case because it challenges the presumed failure of neoliberal reforms in Latin America. It does this in a number of different ways. First, the sector is a clear success in terms of its output and contribution to GDP. Second, private capital and foreign direct investment in particular plays a critical role in developing the mining sector. Third, state- owned CODELCO has stood firmly against multinational companies. And fourth, Chile simultaneously exhibits a stability of rules inherited from Pinochet’s neoliberalism; labour relations characterised by conflict and co-optation; and a depoliticised mode of governance marked by copper policy technopols and an indirect link between copper and social policy. This paper argues that the Chilean state under La Concertación government has played an important ‘steering’ role by defusing the various political conflicts, contradictions and tensions in copper policy.

  20. Using economic policy to tackle chronic disease: options for the Australian Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplin, Lauren; Thow, Anne Marie

    2013-03-01

    Australia suffers from one of the highest prevalences among developed countries of persons being overweight and obese, these conditions arising from the overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that are generally less expensive than healthier options. One potential avenue for intervention is to influence the price of foods such that healthier options are less expensive and, therefore, are an easier choice to make. This article considers the potential for fiscal policies that would realign food prices with health incentives. Through a review of consumption taxes, consumer subsidies, trade policies, agricultural support policies, and other incentive programs as possible avenues for intervention, this article asks what the Commonwealth Government has already done to help improve Australian diets, and looks at where further improvements could be made.

  1. Foreign Direct Investment and Government Policy in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Jensen, Camilla

    2004-01-01

    , this chapter discusses how aspects of the institutional framework and FDI policy affect diverse types of investment projects. Acquisition and Greenfield investors are concerned with different aspects of government policy: privatization and regulatory policies for acquirers and investment incentives, regional......The 1990s have been a period of extraordinary politics in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). This chapter discusses how the transition from state to market has created bureaucratic barriers to entry, but also windows of opportunity for foreign direct investment (FDI). The high costs and high...... investment risks associated with FDI in CEE are a reflection the institutional development. Thus, inflows of FDI have been largest in those countries that made most progress in establishing a market-oriented institutional framework. After outlining trends of institutional change and their impact on FDI...

  2. The impact of financial globalization and financialization on the economy in the current crisis through banking corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Azkunaga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the role of governance of financial entities in the current crisis. Neoliberal economic policies, deregulation and liberalization have characterized financial globalization, giving rise to the financialization of the economy. This paper, using the analysis-synthesis method, shows that the corporate governance of entities has adapted to the new social environment under the influence of the interests of the investors. The results of this paper suggest the need to monitor the over-emphasis on the maximization of short-term shareholder value without relativizing the risk taken to achieve it, as such, the emphasis on short-term shareholder value is considered a crucial contributing factor to the present crisis.

  3. Inaugural Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation: Sharing New Ideas for Asia Clean Energy Future

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2010-01-01

    In response to the growing demand of energy policy makers and regulators in the Asia and Pacific region for additional knowledge support on clean energy, this publication—prepared under the Law and Policy Reform Program of the Office of the General Counsel—presents lessons learned from countries’ clean energy policy and regulatory measures and approaches discussed during the Inaugural Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation held on 21–22 June 2010 at the Asian...

  4. Striving for Sustainable Development and the Coordinating Role of the Central Government: Lessons from Swedish Housing Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Söderholm

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Housing plays an important role in the development of welfare policies and also often in achieving sustainability goals. There exists, however, implementation gaps between policies and practices in urban development and housing. Here it should be possible to draw lessons from policy implementations in the past. In this article we explore the strategies of the Swedish central government in implementing a social housing policy in the mid-20th century. The policy was successfully implemented in that it resulted in the rapid expansion and modernisation of the Swedish apartment stock in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and acute housingshortages and poor housing standards were overcome. The main lesson learned from the Swedish case study is the critical role of the central government in implementation throughthe strategic coordination of policy aims, instruments, stakeholders and interests throughout the implementation process. Although the central government could have used hard, almost authoritarian policy instruments to force the realisation of the new policy, it mainly used soft policy tools and focused on coordination. In the contemporary networked governance setting, the central government, like no other player, still has the potential to guide and coordinate implementation processes for the realization of sustainable housing visions.

  5. Policy Dialogue and Engagement between Non-Governmental Organizations and Government: A Survey of Processes and Instruments of Canadian Policy Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Mitchell Evans

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Various analysts have raised concerns respecting declining research, evaluation and analytical capacities within public services. Typically, the decline is attributed to reforms associated with neoliberal restructuring of the state and its concomitant managerial expression in New Public Management (NPM.  This has given rise to a conceptual shift now commonly captured as a movement from ‘government’ to ‘governance’. Policy advising from a new governance perspective entails an image of a more distributed policy advisory system where a plurality of actors, including non-state actors, engages with government in deliberating policy interventions to address collective problems.The original research presented here suggests that those responsible for policy work across four policy communities in the three Canadian provinces surveyed differ in terms of their capacities, depth of commitment to a specific policy file/field, roles and functions, as well as perceptions of the policy work that they undertake. Over the past several years, a number of primarily quantitative analyses examining the processes, tools and perspectives of Canadian federal and provincial government policy analysts have been published.  Consequently, a significant knowledge-base has been acquired respecting what government policy analysts do and their attitudes toward their work but very little is known about external interactions with non-governmental organizations (NGOs.

  6. The Propensity to Tax Competition: The Case of Implementation Local Tax Policy by Polish Local Governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Walasik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to identify the main factors determining the propensity of local authorities to compete for the access to the limited as well as mobile sources of local tax revenue. The success of such an activity should be discussed in relation to the stabilization of local budget revenues; hence it seems that the barriers of leaving tax jurisdiction could be better index to evaluate of the efficiency of local tax policy. The theoretical approach is based on the assumption that, if central government provides limitations of the right to improve local tax policy means (the scope of local tax jurisdiction, the local governments should focus on both the efficient acquiring the sources of tax revenues, and the stabilization of tax revenues in the future, in particular by the implementation of the barriers of leaving tax jurisdiction. The paper suggests studying a propensity to tax competition. The article formulates desideratum of the efficiency of spending on acquiring the sources of tax revenue, in particular, the need to identify the barriers to leave tax jurisdiction is suggested. The first and foremost way to build the barrier to leave tax jurisdiction could be reducing tax liabilities by local tax authorities, in particular by introducing local tax reliefs and local tax exemptions, as well as lowering local tax rates. Hence, the model of local authorities’ competition for local tax resources could be proposed. The empirical studies are dedicated to identify the actual propensity of Polish local government to execute the legal ability to impose tax policy instruments. The inquiry is based on comparing the fiscal consequences of implementing local tax policy within two groups of local authorities: small towns and countries (gminas and medium-size towns and big cities (cities with powiat status. The period under investigation contains 14 fiscal years, started 2000 and finished in 2013. The method is based on the analysis of the

  7. The government policy related to sugar-sweetened beverages in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Thahir Haning

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several options to enforce reduction in the use of sugary drinks such as strengthening regulations, taxation on the products and food labeling.  Aims & Objectives: 1 Identify the policy in Indonesia that regulates the quantity and the use of sugar in a beverage product; 2 Describe the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB and its impact on human health. Material & Methods: Literature search on sugar use and tax policies on SSB was conducted and 6 relevant documents were found. A total of 91 SSB products were selected systematically by randomly selecting 5 beverages per day for 20 days. Beverages chosen were certified Halal by Majelis Ulama Indonesia, having product labeling, and certified by BPOM. Results: Indonesia has no policy related to restriction of sugar use. The contribution of sugar to energy of SSB products is quite high (75.68%. SSB intake may increase the risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Conclusion: The absence of tax policy and rules for regulating the use of sugar in a product can cause an increase in sugar consumption per day. It could potentially lead to non-communicable diseases and could have enormous consequences in health financing. The government needs to create policies for preventing the widespread impact of sugar consumption. Advocacy efforts to encourage the establishment of SSB taxation should be done.

  8. Policy change and governance at the wildland-urban interface: the case of post-wildfire impacts in Boise, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In the summer of 2012 over 1.7 million acres (approximately 6900 sq kilometers) were burned from wildfires in the state of Idaho in the Western United States. While most of the these fires were in rural and wilderness areas, several significant fires occurred at the wildland-urban interface (WUI), threatening houses, communities and the built environment as never before. As the population of the Mountain West in the United States grows, the WUI (the area where homes are being built adjacent to traditionally wild or rural areas and the built environment encroaches on wildlands) is rapidly becoming an at risk area for human habitation. Efforts to make these areas more resilient and sustainable in the face of increasing fire risk, due to increasing drought and climate change, are resulting in efforts to change or adapt disaster response and planning policy. An increase in stakeholders, however, with diverse objectives and resources presents an opportunity to assess the current governance situation for policy change in response to wildland fires in the dynamic and complex context of the WUI. The research presented here will focus on the case of Treasure Valley region of southwest Idaho and Boise, the capitol city of Idaho. This region is illustrative of the growing urban western United States and the pressures from a growing population pushing into the WUI. This research frames fire policy and decision making at the wildland-urban interface within public policy process theory using the example of the summer of 2012 forest fires in Idaho (USA) and focuses on subsequents impact these fires are having on fire planning and policy in the Boise metropolitan region. The focus is on the diverse stakeholders (federal, state and regional agencies, tourism, agriculture and private sector interests, homeowner organizations, and fire response and recovery agencies) and their roles and responsibilities, their interactions, decision and policy processes, the use of science in

  9. English Educational Policies of the U.S. Army Military Government in Korea from 1945 to 1948 and Their Effects on the Development of English Language Teaching in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Gyong

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the English language teaching (ELT) policies and measures taken under the United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK) from 1945 to 1948, in an attempt to illuminate their implications on the current ELT in Korea. The study analyzes data derived from documents of the Korean and the U.S. governments, literature on…

  10. Employment after spinal cord injury: the impact of government policies in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloed, Lyn; Backman, Catherine; Forwell, Susan J; Carpenter, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The British Columbia Paraplegic Association (BCPA) sought a research partnership to evaluate where its activities should be focused. A survey of members with disabilities of the BCPA included questions on employment and identified three priorities related to employment. These were the need for assistance in finding appropriate work, the impact of policies of government and insurance agencies, and attitudes of employers. This paper examines the social and political environment related to employment following spinal cord injury in British Columbia, Canada. There is no coherent set of goals underlying government employment and income programs in Canada. Incremental development of particular employment and income programs during the 20th century led to a patchwork of policies and programs, which deal with people differently according to the cause of their disability. Federal and provincial governments have attempted to educate employers and reduce barriers to employment of those with disabilities by focusing on anti-discrimination legislation and individual rights (e.g. the Employment Equity Act and the Canadian Human Rights Act). However, people with disabilities face non-accommodating environments, inadequate income support, lack of opportunities and little political influence which stem from an unfair distribution of societal resources, not from discrimination. Joint efforts of the BCPA and other disability organizations are likely to have the most impact on legislative changes.

  11. NCBI Reference Sequences: current status, policy and new initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Kim D; Tatusova, Tatiana; Klimke, William; Maglott, Donna R

    2009-01-01

    NCBI's Reference Sequence (RefSeq) database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/RefSeq/) is a curated non-redundant collection of sequences representing genomes, transcripts and proteins. RefSeq records integrate information from multiple sources and represent a current description of the sequence, the gene and sequence features. The database includes over 5300 organisms spanning prokaryotes, eukaryotes and viruses, with records for more than 5.5 x 10(6) proteins (RefSeq release 30). Feature annotation is applied by a combination of curation, collaboration, propagation from other sources and computation. We report here on the recent growth of the database, recent changes to feature annotations and record types for eukaryotic (primarily vertebrate) species and policies regarding species inclusion and genome annotation. In addition, we introduce RefSeqGene, a new initiative to support reporting variation data on a stable genomic coordinate system.

  12. Defining Emergency Department Necessary Policies Based on Clinical Governance Accreditation Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Esmailian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of accreditation scheme in quality improvement of emergency departments (ED has not been thoroughly evaluated in studies. Therefore, this study was designed to appraise the effects of policies defined based on clinical governance accreditation scores, on improvement of the procedures in ED. Methods: The present cohort study was carried out in the ED of Alzahra University Hospital, Isfahan, Iran in 2012-2013. In 2012 the deficiencies in ED of this hospital was determined based on clinical governance indicators. Then the deficiencies were classified based on their importance and changes were made in the ED. Finally, the effects of the changes were evaluated in August 2013. Results: The evaluation made in 2012 showed that 23 clinical and non-clinical procedures were carried out with deficiencies. Over the mentioned period, 6 (26.1% procedures were not done at all, while 17 (73.9% were done without a policy and irregularly. The overall score for clinical and non-clinical procedures in the ED before carrying out the accreditation scheme was 43 / 230 (18.7% of the maximum possible score. The score was raised to 222 equal to 96.5% of the maximum possible score after carrying out the scheme. This increase was statistically significant (p < 0.001. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that defining policies for improving the procedures carried out in ED based on accreditation scheme leads to improvement of medical services in ED.

  13. Modelling the Impact of Government Policies on Import on Domestic Price of Indian Gold Using ARIMA Intervention Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Unnikrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to determine the impact of government policies of import of gold in India on the domestic price of gold during 2013 using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA intervention model. 2013 was an amazing year for Indian gold market where the price had reached its zenith. In April 2013, to curb a record trade deficit, India imposed an import duty of 10 percent on gold and tied imports for domestic consumption to exports, creating scarce supply of the yellow metal and boosting premiums to curtail the Current Account Deficit (CAD. The objective of the paper is to model the impact of this intervention by the government on the domestic price of Indian gold. Suitable ARIMA model is fit on the preintervention period and thereafter the effects of the interventions are analysed. The results indicate that ARIMA (1,1,1 is the most suitable model during preintervention period. Intervention analysis reveals that there is significant decrease in domestic price of gold by 56% from 2013. The model may be used by policymakers to analyse the future of gold before framing regulations and policies.

  14. Governance theory as a framework for empirical research. A case study on local environmental policy-making in Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toikka, A.

    2011-07-01

    Governance has been one of the most popular buzzwords in recent political science. As with any term shared by numerous fields of research, as well as everyday language, governance is encumbered by a jungle of definitions and applications. This work elaborates on the concept of network governance. Network governance refers to complex policy-making situations, where a variety of public and private actors collaborate in order to produce and define policy. Governance is processes of autonomous, self-organizing networks of organizations exchanging information and deliberating. Network governance is a theoretical concept that corresponds to an empirical phenomenon. Often, this phenomenon is used to describe a historical development: governance is often used to describe changes in political processes of Western societies since the 1980s. In this work, empirical governance networks are used as an organizing framework, and the concepts of autonomy, self-organization and network structure are developed as tools for empirical analysis of any complex decision-making process. This work develops this framework and explores the governance networks in the case of environmental policy-making in the City of Helsinki, Finland. The crafting of a local ecological sustainability programme required support and knowledge from all sectors of administration, a number of entrepreneurs and companies and the inhabitants of Helsinki. The policy process relied explicitly on networking, with public and private actors collaborating to design policy instruments. Communication between individual organizations led to the development of network structures and patterns. This research analyses these patterns and their effects on policy choice, by applying the methods of social network analysis. A variety of social network analysis methods are used to uncover different features of the networked process. Links between individual network positions, network subgroup structures and macro-level network

  15. Policy making on an uncertain climate: adaptation to climate change by local governments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Maya Marieke

    2013-01-01

    The ageless human practice of adapting to environmental circumstances and coping with extreme weather is currently being challenged as the once accepted norms of climate and changing markedly. There is a crucial role for local governments to play in the process of adapting our systems to a changing

  16. Sustainable energy policy: the impact of government subsidies on ethanol as a renewable fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, Denis Ahamarula

    The United States Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1978 to promote ethanol production and reduce American dependence on foreign oil. The provision of subsidies in the act is indicative of the importance of energy in the economy. America needs a national energy policy that is economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. Considering the importance of these needs, this study examines (a) the implementation of the Energy Policy Act of 1978 in regard to government subsidies and its effect on ethanol production, (b) the effect of gasoline consumption and cost on ethanol production, (c) the effect of corn production and price on ethanol fuel, and (d) the role of mandates and global crises on ethanol production. Secondary qualitative and quantitative data collected from various sources in 1978 through 2005 study the effect of ethanol subsidies on ethanol production. An autoregression error model is used to estimate the relevance of the explanatory variables on variations in ethanol production. The following are major study findings: (1) there is a positive correlation between corn production and ethanol production, is statistically significant; (2) government subsidies have a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production; (3) oil import has a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production, but has not contributed to a reduction the quantity of imported oil; (4) the price of corn has a statistically significant inverse relationship with ethanol production; (5) though not statistically significant, the price per barrel of oil is inversely related to ethanol production; (6) the budget surplus or deficit is associated with ethanol production; and (7) advocacy and lobbying for renewable fuel have encouraged support of ethanol production. The findings also show that global crises in the oil producing regions tend to influence the passage of favorable legislation for ethanol production. Furthermore, the

  17. IMPLICATIONS OF THE EU MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE IN THE FIELD OF COMPETITION POLICY – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF COHESION AND COMPETITION POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Bonciu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing the intrinsic characteristics of the European Union and to show that these characteristics objectively require the implementation of multi-level governance. A comparative analysis of the European Union’s cohesion and competition policy is presented from the point of view of these elements. Further on, given the implications of the economic crisis, the paper explores the possible translation from multi-level governance to polycentric governance and its implications for the cohesion and competition policies.

  18. What influences government adoption of vaccines in developing countries? A policy process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munira, Syarifah Liza; Fritzen, Scott A

    2007-10-01

    This paper proposes a framework for examining the process by which government consideration and adoption of new vaccines takes place, with specific reference to developing country settings. The cases of early Hepatitis B vaccine adoption in Taiwan and Thailand are used to explore the relevance of explanatory factors identified in the literature as well as the need to go beyond a variable-centric focus by highlighting the role of policy context and process in determining the pace and extent of adoption. The cases suggest the feasibility and importance of modeling 'causal diversity'-the complex set of necessary and sufficient conditions leading to particular decisional outcomes-in a broad range of country contexts. A better understanding of the lenses through which government decision-makers filter information, and of the arenas in which critical decisions are shaped and taken, may assist both analysts (in predicting institutionalization of new vaccines) and advocates (in crafting targeted strategies to accelerate their diffusion).

  19. POLICY DEVELOPMENT TRAINING AND EDUCATION RESOURCES TO REFORM THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT DISTRICT OF MAKASSAR SIDENRENG RAPPANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsuddin Maldun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know and study the strategy of resource development policy reform of local government district of Makassar Sidenreng Rappang. The research method used is descriptive qualitative study type, while the phenomenological approach is used. This is intended to give description in a systematic, factual and actual response object is examined. Results of the research implementation of education and training is not conducted in a planned and timely to get quality apparatus of the abilities, knowledge, skills, expertise, and job skills, as well as a good mental attitude, and optimal performance. Whereas in the era of regional autonomy, it takes the resources of local government apparatus that is intelligent and responsive to the needs of an increasingly complex society services. 

  20. Research on the Policy Orientation of Government in Agricultural Industrialization Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Governmental functions in agricultural industrialization management are analyzed, mainly including supplying public products, providing property right security, managing and protecting resources and environment as well as stabilizing the agro-product market. The policy orientation promoted by the government in agricultural industrialization management is pointed out: formulating a series of macro-management planning to guide and regulate agricultural industrialization operation; fully playing the comprehensive coordinating role of "economic manager"; making and carrying out relevant laws and regulations to normalize the implementation of agricultural industrialization management. To implement the industrial management of agriculture and promote the construction of new countryside, governments at all levels should eliminate the institutional barriers, transform governmental functions gradually and prioritize planning, regulation, service and supervision, changing from merely management to playing the role of market mechanism. Meanwhile, economic, legal and administrative means should be properly adopted to advance the industrial management and the healthy improvement of modern agriculture.

  1. The Czech government scholarship programme for students from developing countries--evaluation findings and policy reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němečková, Tereza; Krylová, Petra; Horký -Hlucháň, Ondřej; Hejkrlík, Jiří; Jílkova, Klementína

    2014-04-01

    In Czech Republic there is a long tradition of providing tertiary scholarships to students from developing countries. The government scholarship programme started in the 1950s already as a part of the Czechoslovak technical assistance to countries in the South. Even though the programme left tens of thousands of graduates all over the world, the recent programme evaluation has revealed that it is characterised by a relatively poor performance. This article brings forward the main outcomes of the programme evaluation, highlights the policy recommendations and summarises policy reflections that occurred following the evaluation. The programme evaluation was done under unfavourable circumstances and could be accordingly defined as 'shoestring evaluation'. The restrictions and their influence on evaluation outcomes are discussed in article, too.

  2. Scaling up the health workforce in the public sector: the role of government fiscal policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujicic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Health workers play a key role in increasing access to health care services. Global and country-level estimates show that staffing in many developing countries - particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa - is far leaner than needed to deliver essential health services to the population. One factor that can limit scaling up the health workforce in developing countries is the government's overall wage policy which sometimes creates restrictions on hiring in the health sector. But while there is considerable debate, the information base in this important area has been quite limited. This paper summarizes the process that determines the budget for health wages in the public sector, how it is linked to overall wage policies, and how this affects staffing in the health sector. The author draws mainly from a recent World Bank report.

  3. STRATEGIES IN POLICY NETWORKS AND GOVERNANCE ARRANGEMENTS: A VIEW FROM THE THEORY OF PRACTICE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Procopiuck

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to explain the fundaments and utilization of the Theory of Practice, by Pierre Bourdieu, as a means to better understand the relational logic among agents, the capacity of agents and the contextual structure of strategic action spatially located. The concepts of habitus, capital and field, with ontological and epistemological fundaments of critical realism are articulated as means to explain several influential constituents of structured actions to defend sociopolitical interests, while considering the potential of agents as important positive sources of strategically organized actions. Conclusions reveal that the Practice of Theory can bring promising contributions to the study of public policies, especially to strengthen approaches such as social network analysis, multilevel governance and policy networks.

  4. Using GDELT Data to Evaluate the Con dence on the Spanish Government Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bodas-Sagi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for affordable, reliable, domestically sourced, and low-carbon electricity is a matter of concern and it is driven by several causes including public policy priorities. Policy objectives and new technologies are changing wholesale market design. The analysis of different aspects of energy markets is increasingly on the agendas of academics, firms’ managers or policy makers. Some concerns are global and are related to the evolution of climate change phenomena. Others are regional or national and they strongly appear in countries like Spain with a high dependence on foreign energy sources and high potential of domestic renewable energy sources. We can find a relevant case in Spanish solar energy policy. A series of regulatory reforms since 2010 reduce revenues to existing renewable power generators and they end up the previous system of support to new renewable generation. This policy change has altered the composition of the energy market affecting investment decisions. In this paper, we analyze the public opinion about energy policy of the Spanish Government using the Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone (GDELT. The GDELT Project consists of over a quarter-billion event records in over 300 categories covering the entire world from 1979 to present, along with a massive network diagram connecting every person, organization, location, and theme to this event database. Our aim is to build sentiment indicators arising from this source of information and, in a final step, evaluate if positive and negative indexes have any effect on the evolution of key market variables as prices and demand.

  5. Toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones, and a waste management policy integrating consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Cellular phones have high environmental impact potentials because of their heavy metal content and current consumer attitudes toward purchasing new phones with higher functionality and neglecting to return waste phones into proper take-back systems. This study evaluates human health and ecological toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones; highlights consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities for effective waste management; and identifies key elements needed for an effective waste management strategy. The toxicity potentials are evaluated by using heavy metal content, respective characterization factors, and a pathway and impact model for heavy metals that considers end-of-life disposal in landfills or by incineration. Cancer potentials derive primarily from Pb and As; non-cancer potentials primarily from Cu and Pb; and ecotoxicity potentials primarily from Cu and Hg. These results are not completely in agreement with previous work in which leachability thresholds were the metric used to establish priority, thereby indicating the need for multiple or revised metrics. The triple bottom line of consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities is emphasized in terms of consumer attitudes, design for environment (DfE), and establishment and implementation of waste management systems including recycling streams, respectively. The key strategic elements for effective waste management include environmental taxation and a deposit-refund system to motivate consumer responsibility, which is linked and integrated with corporate and government responsibilities. The results of this study can contribute to DfE and waste management policy for cellular phones. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Informed Markets as Policy Instrument for Environmental Governance of Buffer Zones around Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    ”. In contrast, the human economic sphere is a space where “the market” rules. Buffer zones exist to help separate and shield “nature” from the human economy and yet establish a link or corridor between society and nature. Therefore buffer zones are expected to combine, embody and fulfill policy objectives...... of National Parks in Scandinavia (Denmark), this paper sets out to explore the theoretical rationale and record of using market based environmental governance in the form of Geographical Indications (GI´s) and organic agriculture certification (OAC), respectively, in buffer zones, to potentially serve...

  7. Modern Monetary Policy and Central Bank Governance: A Story of Two Tales

    OpenAIRE

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Masciandaro, D.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this note is to present the evolution of both the economics and the political economy of monetary policy in the last three decades – first the Great Moderation and then the Financial Crisis – as a story of two intertwined tales: on the one side the tale of how to govern money and interest rates in the short run; on the other side the tale of how to design in a longer horizon the monetary architectures. In the tradition the two tales are told separately, where the academic sch...

  8. 41 CFR 102-75.1095 - What is the policy governing delegations of authority to the Secretary of the Interior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Interior § 102-75.1095 What is the policy governing delegations of authority to the Secretary of the Interior? GSA delegates authority to the Secretary of the Interior to— (a) Maintain custody, control, and... governing delegations of authority to the Secretary of the Interior? 102-75.1095 Section 102-75.1095 Public...

  9. Policy makers are from Saturn,..citizens are from Uranus….: Involving citizens in environmental governance in the Drentsche Aa area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, S.; Turnhout, E.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Boonstra, F.G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated, theoretically as well as empirically, the relationship between public support for nature conservation policy - in the sense of citizen involvement - and governance in Dutch nature policy practices. It involved an in-depth case study of the relation between citizen

  10. Fiscal policy and the business cycle: the impact of government expenditures, public debt, and sovereign risk on macroeconomic fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchner, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies the role of fiscal policy over the business cycle based on a combination of empirical macroeconometric techniques and macroeconomic theory. The focus of the analysis to be conducted is on the impact of government expenditure policies, public debt, and sovereign default risk on

  11. Centralization and diversity: Evaluating the effects of government policies in U.S.A. and Dutch higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Jeroen; Morphew, Christopher C.

    1998-01-01

    The article details a comparative study of higher education policies in the U.S.A. and The Netherlands. The policies are similar in their attempt to centralize the governance of public higher education in state and national systems in an attempt to promote and maintain diversity. The authors examine

  12. Policy makers are from Saturn,..citizens are from Uranus….: Involving citizens in environmental governance in the Drentsche Aa area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, S.; Turnhout, E.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Boonstra, F.G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated, theoretically as well as empirically, the relationship between public support for nature conservation policy - in the sense of citizen involvement - and governance in Dutch nature policy practices. It involved an in-depth case study of the relation between citizen involvemen

  13. Towards integration and differentiation in environmental health risk governance. An international comparative quick-scan of policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, L.; Bree, L. van; Driessen, P.P.J.; Runhaar, H.A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decades several shifts can be identified in the field of environmental health risk reduction policies in the Netherlands. In response to the shortcomings of traditional sector-based (environmental) policy, the government has proposed a new approach to deal with health risks that encour

  14. 41 CFR 301-70.600 - What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to threatened law enforcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and procedures must we establish related to threatened law enforcement/investigative employees? 301-70... Policies and Procedures Relating to Threatened Law Enforcement/Investigative Employees § 301-70.600 What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to threatened law enforcement/investigative...

  15. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and..., and other information helpful to assess the current research, policy, and practice environment in... Control and Prevention (CDC) has worked to integrate genomics into public health research, policy,...

  16. What's So Special About Policy Networks? – An Exploration of the Concept and Its Usefulness in Studying European Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja A. Börzel

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A 'Babylonian' variety of policy network concepts and applications can be found in the literature. Neither is there a common understanding of what a policy networks actually is, nor has it been agreed upon whether policy networks constitute a mere metaphor, a method, an analytical tool or a proper theory. The aim of this paper is to review the state of the art in the field of policy networks and to explore their usefulness in studying European policy-making and European governance. It is argued that policy networks are more than an analytical tool box for studying these phenomena. What is so special then about policy networks? They constitute arenas for non-strategic, communicative action providing solutions for collective action problems and accounting for more efficient and legitimate policy-making. Yet, a theoretically ambitious policy network approach has to, first, show that policy networks do not only exist but are relevant for policy process and policy outcome, and second, tackle the problem of the ambiguity of policy networks, which can do both enhance and reduce the efficiency and legitimacy of policy-making.

  17. What's So Special About Policy Networks? An Exploration of the Concept and Its Usefulness in Studying European Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja A. Börzel

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A 'Babylonian' variety of policy network concepts and applications can be found in the literature. Neither is there a common understanding of what a policy networks actually is, nor has it been agreed upon whether policy networks constitute a mere metaphor, a method, an analytical tool or a proper theory. The aim of this paper is to review the state of the art in the field of policy networks and to explore their usefulness in studying European policy-making and European governance. It is argued that policy networks are more than an analytical tool box for studying these phenomena. What is so special then about policy networks? They constitute arenas for non-strategic, communicative action providing solutions for collective action problems and accounting for more efficient and legitimate policy-making. Yet, a theoretically ambitious policy network approach has to, first, show that policy networks do not only exist but are relevant for policy process and policy outcome, and second, tackle the problem of the ambiguity of policy networks, which can do both enhance and reduce the efficiency and legitimacy of policy-making.

  18. Activation Policies under Conditions of Weak Governance: Czech and Slovak Cases Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Sirovátka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines how the governance framework and implementation conditions influenced the profile and impact of activation policies realized in the Czech and Slovak Republics during 2003–2006. The findings are based on institutional analysis, a series of case studies of local Employment Offices in the Czech Republic and an evaluation study of activation policies carried out in the Slovak Republic.We argue that under conditions of inadequate governance framework, the activation strategy of enforced participation implemented in Slovakia and the Czech Republic did not bring the intended effect in terms of increasing employability nd reducing long-term unemployment. In the Czech Republic, the strategy is being implemented inconsistently, in dependence on local conditions, in a very limited scope, and with ambiguous outcomes. In recent years, activation has been ever more powerfully shaped by the bottom-up policy—influenced to a greater extent by the principles of inclusive participation. In Slovakia, the strategy was implemented more consistently, and registered unemployment decreased significantly.However, this was mainly due to the threat effect of the massively implemented activation measures. Labor force survey data indicate feeble subsequent placements of the ‘activated’ in the open labor market.

  19. Women's Views about Gender Equality on the Current Social Policy in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztop, Hülya; Finkel, Müge

    2015-01-01

    Women's equal participation in all aspects of social, political and economic life is an essential requirement for sustainable development and democratic governance. How to engage women in these different spheres of policy, increase their access to information and ensure their participation in policy debates are therefore among the key questions…

  20. Government policy and market penetration opportunities for US renewable energy technology in India and Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Weingart, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Some US renewable energy industries are now looking abroad, especially to the rapidly developing Asia-Pacific region, in order to increase sales and expand markets. The developing world appears in principle to be an important market for renewable energy technologies. These international markets have proven extremely difficult to penetrate, and the US competitive position is threatened by strong, well-organized, government-supported competition from Japan and Western Europe. For example, US photovoltaic manufacturers held 80% of the world PV market in 1980; today their market share is down to 35%. Less developed countries (LDCs) present a potentially significant but highly elusive market for renewable energy technologies. This market may develop for three major reasons; the shortage of electricity supply and the high cost of grid extension to rural areas, the high cost of oil imports and the scarcity of light oil products, and the gradual replacement of traditional fuels with modern ones. The focus of this report is on the policies and attitudes of national and regional governments in India and Pakistan towards renewable energy technology and how these policies and attitudes affect the potential for penetration of these markets by US industry. We have attempted to provide some useful insight into the actual market environment in India and Pakistan rather than just report on official laws, regulations, and policies. The report also examines the economics of technologies in comparison with more traditional sources of energy. It concentrates primarily on technologies, such as photovoltaics and wind electric systems, that would benefit from foreign participation, but also identifies potential market opportunities for advanced solar desalination and other renewable energy technologies. 31 refs.

  1. Brazil in Regional and Global Governance: Foreign Policy, Leadership and UNASUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Chin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of Brazil as a source of international governance innovation during the Lula da Silva and early Rousseff presidencies (2003–12. The analysis details some of Brazil’s main contributions to regional and global governance, and how these contributions are rooted in ideational and normative innovation and its imaginative, nonconformist, status quo–altering foreign policy of the period. Although Brazil was not, and is not, a “new actor” per se in global governance, it did take unprecedented and dramatic strides between 2003 and 2012 to redefine the multilateral agenda and reshape institutional arrangements for international cooperation and conflict management in South America. At the global level, Brazil launched new platforms for international cooperation, including with the other BRICS countries of Russia, India, China and South Africa. The regional trends are examined in the case of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR, and the innovations that Brazil spearheaded and supported in international security and health cooperation. However, Brazil’s contributions gain greater salience as part of the broader processes of global change where international power is becoming increasingly diffused and decentralized.

  2. From a holistic approach of public policy to co-governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa-Gabriela POPESCU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the current paper, the holistic approach means the extrapolation of the concept of citizen towards the level of co-participant in public policy process.The paper is focused on the transformation of public policies in the holistic perspective, as well as on the creation of conditions favourable to such approach.It means to emphasise issues linked, on the one hand, to how prepared the political representatives and public authorities are to accept both the direct involvement of citizens in decision-making and sharing of accountability in public policy process, and, on the other hand, the direct citizens’ involvement. In other words, the paper attempts to identify possible responses to key matters for the holistic approach: On the one hand, are the members of community aware of the importance of commitment? Are they truly motivated to take part in such a structure? On the other hand, how are prepared the political representatives and public authorities to accept co-operation with different categories of stakeholders?The researches in Romania reveal that unfortunately the actual context is not favourable to the holistic approach. The current conditions are just at minimal level, the policies will be further made behind closed doors and the citizens’ consultation will be mainly formal.

  3. The Current Mind-Set of Federal Information Security Decision-Makers on the Value of Governance: An Informative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, Jay Walter

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mind-set or perceptions of organizational leaders and decision-makers is important to ascertaining the trends and priorities in policy and governance of the organization. This study finds that a significant shift in the mind-set of government IT and information security leaders has started and will likely result in placing a…

  4. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government's response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents. We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products were released for areas at risk of

  5. Interdependence between government levels in Brazilian health policy: the implementation of Emergency Care Units in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciana Dias; Machado, Cristiani Veira; O'Dwyer, Gisele; Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares; Konder, Mariana Teixeira

    2015-02-01

    This article addresses policymaking related to Emergency Care Units (ECU) in the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2007 and 2013, duly identifying the relationships between the various levels of government in this process. It prioritized the context of policy formulation, the factors that motivated the inclusion and maintenance of ECUs on the state agenda and the process of how the policy was implemented in the state. The study was based on the literature that defines the agenda and implementation of public policies and on contributions from historic institutionalism. The research involved analysis of documents, secondary data, and 51 interviews with people in positions of authority in state and municipal governments. The priority given to ECUs in the government agenda was the result of a confluence of historical, structural, political and institutional factors, as well as the current context. The results of this study indicate the existence of interdependence between levels of government, however federal coordination problems have prejudiced the integration of the various components of emergency health care in the state.

  6. Status and Outlook for the U.S. Non-Automotive Fuel Cell Industry: Impacts of Government Policies and Assessment of Future Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Duleep, K. G. [ICF International; Upreti, Girish [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    Fuel cells (FCs) are considered essential future energy technologies by developed and developing economies alike. Several countries, including the United States, Japan, Germany, and South Korea have established publicly funded R&D and market transformation programs to develop viable domestic FC industries for both automotive and non-automotive applications. Important non-automotive applications include large scale and small scale distributed combined heat and electrical power, backup and uninterruptible power, material handling and auxiliary power units. The U.S. FC industry is in the early stages of development, and is working to establish sustainable markets in all these areas. To be successful, manufacturers must reduce costs, improve performance, and overcome market barriers to new technologies. U.S. policies are assisting via research and development, tax credits and government-only and government-assisted procurements. Over the past three years, the industry has made remarkable progress, bringing both stack and system costs down by more than a factor of two while improving durability and efficiency, thanks in part to government support. Today, FCs are still not yet able to compete in these markets without continued policy support. However, continuation or enhancement of current policies, such as the investment tax credit and government procurements, together with continued progress by the industry, appears likely to establish a viable domestic industry within the next decade.

  7. The impact of health system governance and policy processes on health services in Iraqi Kurdistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnaw Hiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relative to the amount of global attention and media coverage since the first and second Gulf Wars, very little has been published in the health services research literature regarding the state of health services in Iraq, and particularly on the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Building on findings from a field visit, this paper describes the state of health services in Kurdistan, analyzes their underlying governance structures and policy processes, and their overall impact on the quality, accessibility and cost of the health system, while stressing the importance of reinvesting in public health and community-based primary care. Discussion Very little validated, research-based data exists relating to the state of population health and health services in Kurdistan. What little evidence exists, points to a region experiencing an epidemiological polarization, with different segments of the population experiencing rapidly-diverging rates of morbidity and mortality related to different etiological patterns of communicable, non-communicable, acute and chronic illness and disease. Simply put, the rural poor suffer from malnutrition and cholera, while the urban middle and upper classes deal with issues of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. The inequity is exacerbated by a poorly governed, fragmented, unregulated, specialized and heavily privatized system, that not only leads to poor quality of care and catastrophic health expenditures, but also threatens the economic and political stability of the region. There is an urgent need to revisit and clearly define the core values and goals of a future health system, and to develop an inclusive governance and policy framework for change, towards a more equitable and effective primary care-based health system, with attention to broader social determinants of health and salutogenesis. Summary This paper not only frames the situation in Kurdistan in terms of a human rights or special political

  8. Governance of globalized water resources: the application of the water footprint to inform corporate strategy and government policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercin, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Managing the water footprint of humanity is something in which both governments and businesses have a key role. The actual reduction of humanity's water footprint depends on the combination of what governments, businesses and consumers do and how their different actions reinforce (or counteract) one

  9. Governance of globalized water resources: the application of the water footprint to inform corporate strategy and government policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercin, Ertug

    2012-01-01

    Managing the water footprint of humanity is something in which both governments and businesses have a key role. The actual reduction of humanity's water footprint depends on the combination of what governments, businesses and consumers do and how their different actions reinforce (or counteract) one

  10. Shifting currents: Progress, setbacks, and shifts in policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Dunning, Charles; Robertson, Dale

    2016-01-01

    clean water future. More than a decade has passed since our first statewide WOW conversation and the report that captured recommendations from its participants: Waters of Wisconsin: The Future of Our Aquatic Ecosystems and Resources. Drawing from a diverse and growing set of stakeholders from across the state, the Wisconsin Academy initiated a new conversation in 2012 (known as WOW II) to assess progress in regard to our 2003 recommendations. We also sought to review the status of waters in Wisconsin today. The result of this renewed conversation is Shifting Currents: Progress, Setbacks, and Shifts in Policy and Practice. The new report assesses progress in brief, and explores in greater depth the continuing and emerging challenges to water quality, supply, and aquatic ecosystems in Wisconsin.In this report, we first review the context and frameworks for public decision-making about water and then examine some of the root causes—or “drivers”—and ecological stressors that underlie many of the symptoms we see in the form of pollution or ecosystem degradation in Wisconsin. This is followed by a summary of current water issues, many of which had been identified in the 2003 report and remain relevant today. We examine progress since 2003 but also setbacks, and discuss issues that we are likely to continue to face in the coming decades, including controlling agricultural runoff, mitigating climate change and grappling with its effects on the state’s waters, protecting groundwater from bacterial contamination and other pollutants, and preventing groundwater depletion. We also attempt to anticipate issues on the horizon. We offer a deeper look at some particular challenges, such as phosphorus pollution and groundwater contamination. We then consider the current decision-making framework and how it is shaping our capacity to respond to water challenges in Wisconsin. Finally, we offer recommendations and identify opportunities to safeguard Wisconsin’s waters in the

  11. As políticas sociais no governo FHC Social Policies in FHC government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Cohn

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca fazer um balanço analítico do conjunto das políticas sociais que vêm sendo implementadas desde 1995. Não se trata de um balanço dos gastos efetuados na área social, dos recursos efetivamente apropriados pelos setores mais pobres da população. O objetivo aqui é averiguar em que grau se observa neste período uma efetiva mudança na forma de o governo tratar da questão social. Reconhecem-se avanços efetuados, porém constata-se a permanência do mesmo tipo de articulação entre política econômica e política social, entre política social e representação das demandas dos grupos não organizados da sociedade, favorecendo a ênfase na dimensão técnica da conformação dos programas sociais, e sobretudo avalia-se a timidez do governo em efetivamente enfrentar a equação pobreza-desigualdade.The aim of this article is to analyses the set of social policies, which have been implemented since 1995. This is not a study of the money spent neither on the social area nor of the budget effectively appropriated by the poorest members of the population. The objective of this paper is to check to which degree the government has made an effective change in the way it deals with the social problem. It is true that some advances were made, but there is still the same kind of articulation between economical policy and social policy, between social policy and representation of the demands of non organized groups, putting an emphasis on the technical dimension of social programs of the framework. Above all, this article evaluates the timidity of the government in effective facing the poverty-inequality equation.

  12. Encouraging private sector investment in climatefriendly technologies in developing countries. An assessment of policy options for the Dutch government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rooijen, S.N.M.; Van Wees, M.T. [Capacity for Sustainable Development CAP SD, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2006-10-15

    This study aims to explore new or reformed policies to be adopted by the Dutch government to encourage private sector investments in climate-friendly technologies in developing countries. A literature review of barriers to climate-friendly investments and of directions for solutions has been complemented with a number of in-depth interviews with stakeholders representing the major actors involved in investment projects (project sponsors, financing institutions, institutional investors and government). The barrier analysis has resulted in the following list of key obstacles to climate-friendly investments: (1) Lack of a sound, transparent and stable enabling environment for investing in developing countries; (2) Shortage of experienced and creditworthy sponsors; (3) High specific project risks; (4) Overestimation investment risks related to (sustainable) investments in developing countries in general (risk perspective); (5) Additional costs of climate-friendly technologies; (6) Shortage of risk capital; (7) Insufficient guarantee mechanisms; (8) Lack of know-how on public-private partnership structures and on financial design; and (9) Lack of insight how corporate social responsibility can be operationalised. Four main gaps have been identified on the basis of an assessment of current Dutch policies and instruments: (1) Shortage of instruments to directly promote investments; (2) Underdeveloped guarantee instruments; (3) Too restrictive cap on project size in financial schemes; (4) Lack of support in operationalising the concept of corporate social responsibility. Four areas for new or intensified policies have been identified based on the barrier and gap analysis: (1) Direct promotion of (potentially large scale) investments, including: (a) Supporting (the establishment of) sponsor companies developing sustainable energy projects in developing countries; (b) Making risk capital available; (c) Creating investment credit facilities; (d) Making development capital in

  13. Government Spending Shocks, the Current Account and the Real Exchange Rate in OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Kim

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of government spending shocks on the current account and the real exchange rate for 20 OECD countries using panel VAR model, in order to provide empirical stylized facts. The countries were grouped based on openness and size, and the influence of openness and size on the effects of government spending shocks. The main findings are as follows. First, in the analysis of all 20 countries, in response to government spending shocks, the worsening of the current account is significant, but real exchange rate appreciation is not significant. Second, real exchange rate appreciation is more significant and worsening of the current account is more temporary in the group of countries with higher openness than in those with low openness. Third, the worsening of the current account is more significant in the group of large countries than in the group of small countries. Although real exchange rate depreciation under fiscal expansion is not consistent with traditional theories, the results are broadly consistent with the existing theories that incorporate openness and the size of the country.

  14. Globalization, Edu-Business and Network Governance: The Policy Sociology of Stephen J. Ball and Rethinking Education Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces developments across Stephen J. Ball's policy sociology in education "oeuvre" and considers their implications for doing research on education policy today. It begins with an account of his policy sociology trilogy from the 1990s, which outlined his conception of the policy cycle consisting of the contexts of influence,…

  15. Globalization, Edu-Business and Network Governance: The Policy Sociology of Stephen J. Ball and Rethinking Education Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces developments across Stephen J. Ball's policy sociology in education "oeuvre" and considers their implications for doing research on education policy today. It begins with an account of his policy sociology trilogy from the 1990s, which outlined his conception of the policy cycle consisting of the contexts of influence,…

  16. Reflexive governance in biobanking: on the value of policy led approaches and the need to recognise the limits of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Graeme

    2011-09-01

    Although a few jurisdictions around the world have legislated in response to the phenomenon of biobanking, the far more common response has been policy led with funders and other stakeholders initiating multi-level policy initiatives to guide biobanking practice. An example of this is UK Biobank which has developed and operates according to an Ethics and Governance Framework. Such an instrument has no basis in law and yet it has played a crucial role in the set up and ongoing management of the resource. It will continue to do so, as related policies emerge, such as access and intellectual property policies. Numerous biobanking initiatives have similar high-level policy documents that guide decisions and practice. These are often framed as a commitment to participants, researchers and society more broadly and invoke notions such as the public good and the public interest. As such, they serve as a benchmark against which to measure a biobank's performance. Moreover, policies become an important means by which biobankers are held accountable. This article critically analyses this policy-driven phenomenon asking how effectively policy--often as an alternative to law--serves to police and to promote biobanking. It argues that a policy of reflexive governance--defined and developed herein--can best meet the challenges faced by many biobanks and without the need for recourse to law.

  17. Hubungan antara Knowledge-Technology-Innovation (KTI, Commitment, Competence, Leadership, Government Policy, Human Capital, dan Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In current tight competitive situation, companies always try to create differentiation anytime to achieve better and sustainable performance. Rapid and unpredictable changes insist the companies should always be innovative, so that aspects of globalization, e-business, technology innovation, creativity, global competition, knowledge creation, diffusion of new technologies and knowledge revolution should be sources of performance and competitiveness improvement. Therefore, tomaintain core competencies and competitive advantage, the companies should develop continuous innovation, technologylearning, and knowledge management. Knowledge-Technology-Innovation (KTI can be a driver for country’s development and growth. Japan, South Korea, and Singapore are the countries that have limited natural and human resources, but able to achieve sustainable economic development. KTI is not only to be practiced at individual and organizational level, but also can be implemented at the community, national, or state level. KTI, therefore, can encourage expected competitive advantage creation and become a decisive factor for a country to achieve stable and sustainable economic growth. This research intends to analyze relationships of KTI, competitive advantage, commitment, leadership, human capital, government policy,and competence. This research used correlational method and literature study approach. The result of this research is a relationship model of each of these aspects that can be used as a framework for further research. The relationships model isas follows: Leadership, competence, and human capital (as independent variables have direct relationship (influence oncompetitive advantage (dependent variable or indirectly (through KTI as an intervening variable; KTI has direct relationship (effect on competitive advantage; Government policy and commitment are moderator variables for relationshipof KTI and competitive advantage.

  18. HUBUNGAN ANTARA KNOWLEDGE-TECHNOLOGY-INNOVATION (KTI, COMMITMENT, COMPETENCE, LEADERSHIP, GOVERNMENT POLICY, HUMAN CAPITAL, DAN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In current tight competitive situation, companies always try to create differentiation anytime to achieve better and sustainable performance. Rapid and unpredictable changes insist the companies should always be innovative, so that aspects of globalization, e-business, technology innovation, creativity, global competition, knowledge creation, diffusion of new technologies and knowledge revolution should be sources of performance and competitiveness improvement. Therefore, to maintain core competencies and competitive advantage, the companies should develop continuous innovation, technology learning, and knowledge management. Knowledge-Technology-Innovation (KTI can be a driver for countrys development and growth. Japan, South Korea, and Singapore are the countries that have limited natural and human resources, but able to achieve sustainable economic development. KTI is not only to be practiced at individual and organizational level, but also can be implemented at the community, national, or state level. KTI, therefore, can encourage expected competitive advantage creation and become a decisive factor for a country to achieve stable and sustainable economic growth. This research intends to analyze relationships of KTI, competitive advantage, commitment, leadership, human capital, government policy, and competence. This research used correlational method and literature study approach. The result of this research is a relationship model of each of these aspects that can be used as a framework for further research. The relationships model is as follows: Leadership, competence, and human capital (as independent variables have direct relationship (influence on competitive advantage (dependent variable or indirectly (through KTI as an intervening variable; KTI has direct relationship (effect on competitive advantage; Government policy and commitment are moderator variables for relationship of KTI and competitive advantage.

  19. Finland as a Knowledge Economy 2.0: Lessons on Policies and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in the 1950’s into one of the leading innovation-driven, knowledge-based economies and high-tech producers in the twenty-first century. The development was rapid, and involved determined action and sometimes drastic decisions by the government and other key actors. Today, at the end of 2013, Finland is facing...... new types of challenges both domestically and internationally in efforts to maintain its societal sustainability and economic competitiveness. Finland Knowledge Economy 2.0 presents some of the key policies, elements, initiatives and decisions behind Finland’s path into the Knowledge Economy of today....... The authors hope to provide the readers inspiration, new ideas, and novel insights. Hopefully some of the lessons learned may prove valuable in another context. Based on this account of the development of Finnish Knowledge Economy, the authors have identified six areas of lessons, each described in detail...

  20. ACCESS TO GOVERNMENT INFORMATION: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF TRANSPARENCY POLICIES IN FOUR CENTRAL AMERICAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Ríos Cázares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the functioning of public information access systems in four Central American countries (Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama based on the methodology used in the project Transparency Metric 2010, conducted by the Center for Economic Research and Teaching (CIDE. The specific objective is to identify common challenges, recurring issues and best practices in matter of access to governmental information in these four countries. The study shows that, although all four countries have made progress in consolidating a specialised Freedom of Information Legislation (FOI, significant challenges remain in institutionalising the operation of such system, as well as consolidating its ability to effectively make government information public, both proactively and in response to specific requests from citizens. The main challenge is to develop a public policy which allows structuring a coherent system for the access to information.

  1. International coalitions in Brazil’s foreign policy: security and governance reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Costa Vaz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The text analyses the relevance and role of international coalitions as instruments and arenas for negotiation in the context of Brazilian foreign policy under Luis Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2010, and the perspectives they bring to the attainment of the goal of reforming the spaces and instruments of global governance in the political, economic and security spheres. Under Lula da Silva, Brazil supported and resorted intensively to coalitions not only for their instrumental value for consolidating the country’s international presence and actions, but also due to the possibility that they could induce systemic change towards a more uneven pattern of power distribution, thus helping to overcome lasting political and economic international asymmetries.

  2. Why Governments Intervene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Dana; Knudsen, Jette Steen

    Why are national governments increasingly adopting policies on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)? What is the rationale and purpose of these policies? Scholars from various disciplines including Political Science, International Relations and Management Studies have offered explanations...... for this phenomenon. Research has tended either to rely on cross-country comparisons that generalize tendencies within given countries; or to over-generalize global trends. The current paper analyzes particular CSR policies in two countries – Denmark and the United Kingdom. We find that the rationales for government...... initiatives on CSR are neither consistent across countries or within them. Instead, CSR policies are utilized to address multiple issues crossing various areas of governance, including domestic social policy, global competitiveness policies and foreign policy....

  3. Geo-Hazards and Mountain Road Development in Nepal: Understanding the Science-Policy-Governance Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, Sumit; Dahal, Vaskar

    2015-04-01

    The foothills of Nepalese Himalayas located in the neotectonic mountain environment are among some of the most unstable and geomorphologically dynamic landscapes in the world. Young fold mountains in this region are characterized by complex tectonics that influence the occurrence of earthquakes, while climatic processes such as intense orographic rainfall often dictate the occurrence of floods and landslides. Development of linear infrastructures, such as roads, in mountainous terrain characterized by high relief and orogeny is considerably challenging where the complexity of landscape in steep and irregular topography, difficult ground conditions and weak geology, presents engineers and planners with numerous difficulties to construct and maintain mountain roads. Whilst application of engineering geology, geomorphic interpretation of terrain in terms of physiography and hydrology, and identification of geo-hazards along the road corridor is critical for long term operation of mountain roads, low-cost arterial roads in the Himalayan foothills generally fail to incorporate standard road slope engineering structures. This research provides unique insights on policy and governance issues in developing mountainous countries such as Nepal, where achieving a sound balance between sustainability and affordability is a major challenge for road construction. Road development in Nepal is a complex issue where socio-economic and political factors influence the budget allocation for road construction in rural hilly areas. Moreover, most mountain roads are constructed without any geological or geo-technical site investigations due to rampant corruption and lack of adequate engineering supervision. Despite having good examples of rural road construction practices such as the Dharan-Dhankuta Road in Eastern Nepal where comprehensive terrain-evaluation methods and geo-technical surveys led to an improved understanding of road construction, learnings from this project have not

  4. Groundwater Governance in a Water-Starved Country: Public Policy, Farmers' Perceptions, and Drivers of Tubewell Adoption in Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Syed Mohammad; Mushtaq, Shahbaz; Reardon-Smith, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan faces the challenge of developing sustainable groundwater policies with the main focus on groundwater management rather than groundwater development and with appropriate governance arrangement to ensure benefits continue into the future. This article investigates groundwater policy, farmers' perceptions, and drivers of tubewell (groundwater bore) adoption and proposes possible pathways for improved groundwater management for Balochistan, Pakistan. Historical groundwater policies were mainly aimed at increasing agricultural production and reducing poverty, without consideration of adverse impact on groundwater availability. These groundwater policies and governance arrangements have resulted in a massive decline in groundwater tables. Tubewell owners' rankings of the drivers of groundwater decline suggest that rapid and widespread installation of tubewells, together with uncontrolled extraction due to lack of property rights, electricity subsidy policies, and ineffective governance, are key causes of groundwater decline in Balochistan. An empirical "tubewell adoption" model confirmed that the electricity subsidy significantly influenced tubewell adoption decisions. The article proposes a more rational electricity subsidy policy for sustaining groundwater levels in the short-run. However, in the long run a more comprehensive sustainable groundwater management policy, with strong institutional support and involvement of all stakeholders, is needed.

  5. What's Yours Is Mine: An Investigation of Current Copyright Policies of Education Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the current copyright policies of 21 education journals published by academic societies, universities and university presses, and commercial publishers. For the sample I chose only journals with a copyright policy on the journal or publisher web site, and I then analyzed the content of the policies in order to answer…

  6. The paradoxical effects of institutional change for the legitimacy of European governance: the case of EU Social Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Wendler

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available .This article discusses the tensions between two aspects of institutional change in the EU: the adaptation of institutional arrangements with the prospect of the legitimization of Community governance within a policy-making arena on the one hand, and the external evaluation of these institutional developments from the viewpoint of democratic theory on the other. Taking up the example of EU Social Policy, the argument proposed is twofold: First, a reconstruction of the institutional evolution in this field shows that strong tendencies towards the adaptation of Community governance to its contested legitimacy base – with regard to power relations, the behaviour of actors, the definition of policy ideas and the mechanisms of institutional change itself – are present. Second, evaluating these changes from the perspective of democratic theory reveals legitimacy deficits that are not just related to the imbalance of the input- and output-dimensions of legitimacy, but also to the tension between different normative standards of legitimate governance.

  7. Evaluating the oil sands reclamation process: Assessing policy capacity and stakeholder access for government and non-governmental organizations operating in Alberta's oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tyler

    By employing interpretive policy analysis this thesis aims to assess, measure, and explain policy capacity for government and non-government organizations involved in reclaiming Alberta's oil sands. Using this type of analysis to assess policy capacity is a novel approach for understanding reclamation policy; and therefore, this research will provide a unique contribution to the literature surrounding reclamation policy. The oil sands region in northeast Alberta, Canada is an area of interest for a few reasons; primarily because of the vast reserves of bitumen and the environmental cost associated with developing this resource. An increase in global oil demand has established incentive for industry to seek out and develop new reserves. Alberta's oil sands are one of the largest remaining reserves in the world, and there is significant interest in increasing production in this region. Furthermore, tensions in several oil exporting nations in the Middle East remain unresolved, and this has garnered additional support for a supply side solution to North American oil demands. This solution relies upon the development of reserves in both the United States and Canada. These compounding factors have contributed to the increased development in the oil sands of northeastern Alberta. Essentially, a rapid expansion of oil sands operations is ongoing, and is the source of significant disturbance across the region. This disturbance, and the promises of reclamation, is a source of contentious debates amongst stakeholders and continues to be highly visible in the media. If oil sands operations are to retain their social license to operate, it is critical that reclamation efforts be effective. One concern non-governmental organizations (NGOs) expressed criticizes the current monitoring and enforcement of regulatory programs in the oil sands. Alberta's NGOs have suggested the data made available to them originates from industrial sources, and is generally unchecked by government

  8. Beyond Gang Truces and Mano Dura Policies: Towards Substitutive Security Governance in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Schuberth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With responses to urban violence receiving increasing academic attention, the literature on anti-gang efforts in Latin America has focused mainly on coercive 'mano dura' policies and cooperative gang truces. Yet, there remains a paucity of studies going beyond such carrots-and-sticks approaches towards gangs. To fill this gap, this study investigates the possibilities and limitations of substitutive security governance across Latin America and the Caribbean. More specifically, this article looks at Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR programmes in Medellín, Armed Violence Reduction and Prevention (AVRP efforts in Haiti and Security Sector Reform (SSR in Guatemala and Rio de Janeiro. It will be argued that communities are driven to support gangs against the oppressive state when they are indiscriminately targeted through muscular operations. Likewise, engaging gangs in dialogue grants them legitimacy and further weakens the position of the state. Therefore, the only sustainable solution lies in substitutive security governance, which aims to replace the functions gangs fulfil for their members, sponsors, and the community in which they are nested with a modern and accountable state that is bound by the rule of law. Still, substitutive strategies vis-à-vis gangs have their own limitations, which can only be overcome by way of an integrated and coordinated framework.

  9. The audiovisual communication policy of the socialist Government (2004-2009: A neoliberal turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Zallo, Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The first legislature of Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero’s government (2004-08 generated important initiatives for some progressive changes in the public communicative system. However, all of these initiatives have been dissolving in the second legislature to give way to a non-regulated and privatizing model that is detrimental to the public service. Three phases can be distinguished, even temporarily: the first one is characterized by interesting reforms; followed by contradictory reforms and, in the second legislature, an accumulation of counter reforms, that lead the system towards a communicative system model completely different from the one devised in the first legislature. This indicates that there has been not one but two different audiovisual policies running the cyclical route of the audiovisual policy from one end to the other. The emphasis has changed from the public service to private concentration; from decentralization to centralization; from the diffusion of knowledge to the accumulation and appropriation of the cognitive capital; from the Keynesian model - combined with the Schumpeterian model and a preference for social access - to a delayed return to the neoliberal model, after having distorted the market through public decisions in the benefit of the most important audiovisual services providers. All this seems to crystallize the impressive process of concentration occurring between audiovisual services providers in two large groups that would be integrated by Mediaset and Sogecable and - in negotiations - between Antena 3 and Imagina. A combination of neo-statist restructuring of the market and neo-liberalism.

  10. Developing government policies for distance education: Lessons learnt from two Sri Lankan case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanagunawardena, Tharindu Rekha; Adams, Andrew A.; Rassool, Naz; Williams, Shirley A.

    2014-12-01

    Education, especially higher education, is considered vital for maintaining national and individual competitiveness in the global knowledge economy. Following the introduction of its "Free Education Policy" as early as 1947, Sri Lanka is now the best performer in basic education in the South Asian region, with a remarkable record in terms of high literacy rates and the achievement of universal primary education. However, access to tertiary education is a bottleneck, due to an acute shortage of university places. In an attempt to address this problem, the government of Sri Lanka has invested heavily in information and communications technologies (ICTs) for distance education. Although this has resulted in some improvement, the authors of this article identify several barriers which are still impeding successful participation for the majority of Sri Lankans wanting to study at tertiary level. These impediments include the lack of infrastructure/resources, low English language proficiency, weak digital literacy, poor quality of materials and insufficient provision of student support. In the hope that future implementations of ICT-enabled education programmes can avoid repeating the mistakes identified by their research in this Sri Lankan case, the authors conclude their paper with a list of suggested policy options.

  11. Profits and votes: Entrepreneurs and the government in Brazilian housing policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDNEY CIELICI DIAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAfter more than twenty years of low housing construction output, the housing policy recovered its momentum in the country with the ascent of the Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers' Party, PT to the seat of the federal government. This article demonstrates - through the analysis of documents, interviews and research conducted with businessmen - that the impetus of such a state policy is a part of the PT electoral strategy, which is based on economic growth and the expansion of social programs. The research analyses the dovetailing of interests between the Lula (the Brazilian President from 2003 to 2010 administration and the civil construction business - the latter concerned with expanding its business, and the former with increasing the supply of jobs and the level of economic activity. This process culminated in the launching of the largest social housing program to be implemented in the country. Minha Casa, Minha Vida (My House, My Life, is a project in whose planning building companies played a key role, performing feasibility studies and carrying out social housing projects.

  12. Rapid policy network mapping: a new method for understanding governance structures for implementation of marine environmental policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, John Michael; Potts, Tavis; O'Higgins, Tim Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relationships and dependencies in the development and implementation of environmental policy is essential to the effective management of the marine environment. A new method of policy network analysis called 'Rapid Policy Network Mapping' was developed that delivers an insight for both technical and non-technical users into the lifecycle, relationships and dependencies of policy development. The method was applied to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the Water Framework Directive in the UK. These case studies highlight the environmental policy challenges to protect the UK's marine coastal environment and they identify differences in the styles of policy implementation between the devolved authorities of the UK. Rapid Policy Network Mapping provides an opportunity to create a collaborative policy data environment with a relatively small investment. As a tool for civil society it should assist in their ability to understand and influence policy making and implementation.

  13. What's Happening on the West Coast? The National Ocean Policy, EBM and Ocean Governance on the West Coast of the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    A robust update on the latest ocean governance developments in the West Coast region of the U.S. will be provided, highlighting implementation of the National Ocean Policy and ongoing dialog among federal, state and tribal entities and coastal stakeholders at a range of scales. The link between ecosystem-based management (EBM) as a guiding principle and meaningful management outcomes will discussed, guided by the latest ocean policy priorities from local, state, tribal and regional scales in the West Coast. The West Coast Regional Planning Body has been recently initiated under the framework provided by the National Ocean Policy, bringing together a formal partnership of state and tribal governments with federal agencies in a way never before achieved in the region. The newly reformed West Coast Ocean Partnership builds upon efforts of the West Coast Governors Alliance on Ocean Health to continue to address priority ocean policy topics, while other regional efforts are identifying data, science and tools to support an EBM approach. All of these will be discussed in detail, providing both up-to-date reports on the latest West Coast activities, while illustrating lessons learned from past regional efforts and exactly how EBM has been effectively integrated. The West Coast of the U.S. is a unique region in terms of geographic scale, governance structure and history of innovative ocean management approaches. Using opportunities provided by recent state, tribal, regional and national policy initiatives, the West Coast has undertaken a range of activities to better coordinate ocean management while enhancing dialogs to support it. This presentation will provide a concise summary of current efforts, demonstrating how policy is being translated into significant action and highlighting opportunities to build on successful outcomes to date.

  14. How has government policy post-Global Strategy for Plant Conservation impacted on science? The Ethiopian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissew, Sebsebe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, existing relevant Ethiopian government biodiversity-related policies and strategies, and mandates of various institutions prior to GSPC targets, are reviewed. Response to whether or not institutions responded to GSPC targets as the result of new policies or rebranded their work to fit within the context of existing policies and adjust their outcomes to fit into the GSPC targets is provided. The Ethiopian national report of 2009 submitted to the Convention of Biological Diversity Secretariat is reviewed and gaps analysed. The policies of the Federal government (and implementing institutions) post-GSPC so far have had only a limited impact on science, but research institutions have aligned their outputs to fit with the GSPC targets. Suggestions, conclusions and recommendations are made in order to work effectively towards the realization of the GSPC targets beyond 2010 in Ethiopia.

  15. A comparative review of governments' views on objectives and policy instruments in the field of population and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    It is possible to assess population policies through statements and decisions taken by governments as they reflect the views and commitments of political authorities in the field of population and development. Cases in the following African countries are reviewed with focus on objectives and policy instruments: Algeria; Angola; Benin; Botswana; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Congo; Djibouti; Egypt; Ethiopia; Guinea; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Equatorial Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Ivory Coast; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mauritius; Morocco; Mozambique; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Sao Tome and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sudan; Swaziland; Togo; Tunisia; Uganda; United Republic of Cameroon; Tanzania; Upper Volta; Zaire; Zambia; and Zimbabwe. The information presented was drawn from the following publications: UN Population Division, "Population Policy Briefs: Current Situation in Developing Countries and Selected Territories," and UNFPA, "Population Programs and Projects," Volume 2, 1980-1981. On the basis of this review the following conclusions are drawn, which could indicate areas in which technical assistance to the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) member States would be required: among the 50 country members of ECA, 34 countries (68%) have as a development objective the reduction of mortality, and in particular, maternal and child mortality; the 2nd important objective is stabilizing or improving spatial distribution of population, and 44% of the 50 countries have adopted this objective which involves the distribution of population from 1 place to another within a country; the 3rd important objective consists of restricting the migratory flow from rural areas to urban areas; the countries of Botswana, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Mauritius, Morocco, Rwanda, Seychelles, Swaziland, and Tunisia adopted the objective of reducing the rate of population growth; 34% of African countries

  16. ON THE CURRENT RMB EXCHANGE RATE REGIME AFFECTING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MONETARY POLICY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕君

    2001-01-01

    The current exchange rate regime of China is just like the US dollar-pegged exchange rate regime, which weakens the effectiveness of monetary policy but increases the effectiveness of fiscal policy. Since the scope of implementing the fiscal policy is quite narrow, it is necessary to promote the effectiveness of monetary policy by enlarging the elasticity of the RMB exchange rate regime so as to stimulate the rapid development of the Chinese economy effectively.

  17. To what extent does recurrent government health expenditure in Uganda reflect its policy priorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabyonga-Orem Juliet

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Health Policy 2000 - 2009 and Health sector strategic plans I & II emphasized that Primary Health Care (PHC would be the main strategy for national development and would be operationalized through provision of the minimum health care package. Commitment was to spend an increasing proportion of the health budget for the provision of the basic minimum package of health services which was interpreted to mean increasing spending at health centre level. This analysis was undertaken to gain a better understanding of changes in the way recurrent funding is allocated in the health sector in Uganda and to what extent it has been in line with agreed policy priorities. Methods Government recurrent wage and non-wage expenditures - based on annual releases by the Uganda Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development were compiled for the period 1997/1998 to financial year 2007/2008. Additional data was obtained from a series of Ministry of Health annual health sector reports as well as other reports. Data was verified by key government officials in Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development and Ministry of Health. Analysis of expenditures was done at sector level, by the different levels in the health care system and the different levels of care. Results There was a pronounced increase in the amount of funds released for recurrent expenditure over the review period fueled mainly by increases in the wage component. PHC services showed the greatest increase, increasing more than 70 times in ten years. At hospital level, expenditures remained fairly constant for the last 10 years with a slight reduction in the wage component. Conclusion The policy aspiration of increasing spending on PHC was attained but key aspects that would facilitate its realization were not addressed. At any given level of funding for the health sector, there is need to work out an optimal balance in investment in the different inputs to

  18. Informing public health policy through deliberative public engagement: perceived impact on participants and citizen-government relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molster, Caron; Potts, Ayla; McNamara, Beverley; Youngs, Leanne; Maxwell, Susannah; Dawkins, Hugh; O'Leary, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative public engagement has been proposed for policy development, where issues are complex and there are diverse public perspectives and low awareness of competing issues. Scholars suggest a range of potential outcomes for citizens and government agencies from involvement in such processes. Few studies have examined outcomes from the perspective of citizen participants in deliberative processes. To examine participant perceptions of their involvement in and outcomes of a deliberative engagement exercise. A case study using semistructured interviews was conducted with participants following a deliberative forum on biobanking. From their involvement in the deliberative exercise, participants described transformations in their knowledge and beliefs about the policy issues. They reported being more informed to the extent of having confidence to educate others and effectively contribute to public policy development. They had developed greater trust in government policymakers who they believed would take reasonable account of their recommendations. We conclude that the participants were satisfied with the outcomes of the deliberative public engagement process and viewed it as an effective means of citizen involvement in public policy development. Particularly for citizens who participate in deliberative processes, such processes may promote active citizenship, empower citizens to undertake representative and educative roles, and improve relations between citizens and government agencies. Actions taken by policymakers subsequent to the deliberative exercise, whereby the majority of citizen recommendations were incorporated in the policy developed, may have contributed to participants holding sustained levels of trust in the commissioning government agency.

  19. Attaining Sustainable Energy Access for All: Third Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, Law and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    The Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) energy policy focuses on maximizing energy access, promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy, and promoting improved governance and capacity in the energy sector to strengthen the capacity of developing member countries to meet critical energy needs. This publication seeks to further the efforts of ADB to promote knowledge sharing among stakeholders and help identify the policy, regulatory, and legal barriers to energy access; design and implement eff...

  20. The Current Situation of ICT Development in the Middle East and ICT Support Policies. The Case of Syrian Arab Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Yamamoto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how ICT development is progressing and what kind of political and social effects have been occurring (or could occur in the near future in Middle Eastern Arabic countries. To examine this theme, this paper will adopt the Syrian Arab Republic as a case. To understand the Syrian government's policy toward the ICT development, it is necessary to examine the domestic political situation, since they are closely related. Under the Bashar Al- Asad's regime, we can confirm several reasons why they have to move forward on their ICT development policy and why it has become a crucial issue, which they cannot evade, as they had done under the previous regime, Hafez Al- Asad's regime. The situation that the Syrian government is facing right now is known by the term, "Dictator's Dilemma". This paper tries to provide bases in order to examine and explore this dilemma in Syria. Also, when we examine ICT development in Syria, it is important to consider the ICT support policies, which are mainly conducted by OECD countries and international organizations and stem from the issue of "Digital Divide". This is why international assistances could have great effect on ICT development in Syria. As a provisional conclusion of this paper, I will summarize how we can understand the current situation of ICT development in Syria, and I will also comment on the future prospect of the dilemma that the Syrian government is facing at the present time.

  1. Poliomyelitis in the United States: A Historical Perspective and Current Vaccination Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farizo, Karen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines poliomyelitis in the United States by reviewing clinical manifestations and outcomes, history, recent epidemiologic characteristics, characteristics of currently available vaccines, controversies surrounding vaccination policy, current poliovirus vaccination recommendations, and prospects for worldwide eradication. Poliomyelitis remains…

  2. Governance for Learning Outcomes in European Policy-Making: Qualification Frameworks Pushed through the Open Method of Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Bjørn Ure

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of European education policy builds on a widely shared goal of transparency in qualifications, upheld by the popular narrative of mobile students endowed with scholarships from the EU Erasmus programme, which  allow them  to transfer credit points between universities and across national borders. EU education policy is increasingly inscribed in National Qualification Frameworks (NQF. Their European umbrella is coined  the European Qualification Framework (EQF, which is linked to a discourse on or even shift to Learning Outcomes; functioning as  a tool for the displacement of input to output categories in education systems with a view to make qualifications more transparent. This form of governance situates Learning Outcomes as a tool for policy reform that intentionally should affect all educational and administrative levels of European education. The article shows that the multitude of governance instruments used to promote a shift to Learning Outcomes are so varied that EU education policy has no apparent need of new instruments for this purpose. The fact that Learning Outcomes are linked to EU policy instruments of the Open Method of policy-Coordination and destined for several sectors of education, increases the likelihood that they will be translated into modified learning practices. Yet, there is a danger that governance of Learning Outcomes succumbs to a pitfall of declaratorily placing Learning Outcomes in the middle of learning practices in all subsectors of education, without sufficiently proving their real novelty and regulatory functions.

  3. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-08

    Communist Party was overtaken by the Party of Regions in its eastern Ukraine strongholds and has a largely elderly electorate . It opposes market economics...corruption through a new government procurement law. Tax increases are also envisioned, including ending tax evasion schemes and other frauds

  4. Corporate Governance, Essential Lever of the Policy for Stockholders Wealth Maximization and its Contemporary Complements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Feleaga

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War, in USA and in the capitalist Europe, a new economic growth regime emerges, known under the name of: the “ford regime”. This regime is based on four main institutional issues: the “ford” wage proportion – which organises the sharing of productivity gains; the active economic policies – budget and monetary ones; the “providence” status – given by a social security system based on social classes and generations’ solidarity; financial systems – meant to ensure the financing of the productive capital accumulation through bank credits. Beginning with the 70’s, the international finances raised their powers within a globalization context. The financial globalization is a process of capital markets’ interaction both at a national and international level – a fact that leads to a world unified cash flow market. Corporate governance is often presented as one of the key institutions of the new capitalism. The theoretical and classical hypothesis, which lies at the base of the Anglo-Saxon governance model, is the one saying that a company’s managers and shareholders have opposite interests. The managers are seeking to take advantage of their status and financial powers because of the inside-business information they hold, all by damaging the shareholders. The “agency theory” is meant either to explain and detail the organisational models as ways to solve conflicts or reduce involved costs (all leading to a “positive agency theory” -PAT, or to allow the reduction of these conflicts’ costs (leading to a “normative/prescriptive agency theory”. The new corporate governance models have as objective the reduction of the informational asymmetry, and of guiding the business leaders towards managing the company in the interests of the shareholders by placing all operations in the area of maximising the value per share. Beyond this approach, many countries adopt a governance model where the

  5. Artificial Neural Networks in Policy Research: A Current Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfel, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that artificial neural networks (ANNs) exhibit properties that promise usefulness for policy researchers. Notes that ANNs have found extensive use in areas once reserved for multivariate statistical programs such as regression and multiple classification analysis and are developing an extensive community of advocates for processing text…

  6. Artificial Neural Networks in Policy Research: A Current Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfel, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that artificial neural networks (ANNs) exhibit properties that promise usefulness for policy researchers. Notes that ANNs have found extensive use in areas once reserved for multivariate statistical programs such as regression and multiple classification analysis and are developing an extensive community of advocates for processing text…

  7. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2011: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    a policy of neutrality on the claims by the parties, which also include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines, and Taiwan. Throughout 2009...territorial disputes. Roughly one and a half times the size of the Mediterranean Sea, it is ringed by China, Vietnam, Malaysia , Indonesia, Brunei...government to monitor data processed by these companies and/or more susceptible to government pressure on issues such as censorship .36 Many of the

  8. How can power discourses be changed? : Contrasting the ‘daughter deficit’ policy of the Delhi government with Gandhi and King’s transformational reframing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Sinha (Manisha); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSocial policy impact is partly determined by how policy is articulated and advocated, including which values are highlighted and how. We examine the influence of policy framing and reframing on outcomes, with particular reference to policies of the Delhi state government in India that ta

  9. Online media coverage of air pollution risks and current policies in India: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Negi, Nalin S; Puri, Pallavi; Mullin, Sandra; Onyon, Lesley

    2017-09-01

    institution or organization - such as the government or industry groups - as the primary responsible stakeholder, thus leaving ambiguous the organizations whose leadership was necessary to mitigate air pollution. Conclusion Gaps exist in the current media discourse on air pollution, suggesting the need for strengthening engagement with the media as a means of creating citizen engagement and enabling policy action. Through greater elaboration of the health burdens and evidence-based policy actions, the media can play a critical role in galvanizing India's action on air quality. These data may suggest opportunities for media advocacy and greater public and policy engagement to address issues around air quality in India.

  10. Socialist government health policy reforms in Bolivia and Ecuador: The underrated potential of integrated care to tackle the social determinants of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herland Tejerina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Selective vertical programs prevailed over comprehensive primary health care in Latin America. In Bolivia and Ecuador, socialist governments intend to redirect health policy. We outline both countries’ health system’s features after reform, explore their efforts to rebuild primary health care, identify and explain policy gaps, and offer considerations for improvement. Methods Qualitative document analysis. Findings Earlier reform left Bolivia’s and Ecuador’s population in bad health, with limited access to a fragmented health system. Today, both countries focus their policy on household and community-based promotion and prevention. The negative effects on access to care of decentralization, dual employment, vertical programming and targeting are largely left unattended. Neglecting care is understandable in the light of particular interpretations of social medicine and social determinants, international policy pressures, reliance on external funding and institutional inertia. Current policy choices preserve key elements of selective care and consolidate commodification. It might not improve health and worsen poverty. Interpretation Care can be considered as a social determinant on its own. Key to the accomplishment of primary care is an integrated application of family medicine, taking advantage of individual care as one of the ways to act on social determinants. It deserves a central place on the policy-makers’ priority list, in Bolivia and Ecuador as elsewhere.

  11. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gilmour

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG, and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government's response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents.We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137 of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products were released for

  12. MONETARY POLICY UNDER THE IMPACT OF THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina Marcu (Cioran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the financial crisis draws more and more the specialists’ attention. The monetary policy has a decisive role in monitoring and reducing the inflationary phenomenon as much as possible, since it can become a real danger for an economy during a period of crisis. Inflation is a negative thing that affects the economy. It discourages the investments and the economic growth. The aim of this paper is to find the Central Bank’s economic instruments and levers that can contribute to price stability in the economy. It was found that the elaboration of a measure of monetary policy with a restrictive feature can contribute to price stability on long term, but we should take into account the macroeconomic context in which it is applied.

  13. Policy Risk of Current Bank Bailouts in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XianxinZhao

    2004-01-01

    China's banking risk is mainly driven by "moral hazard", the inherent deficiency of state ownership. The ongoing reform strategy for state-owned banks, adopted by the government, mainly aims at this target, but fails to take a correct path. Since the government still holds the controlling right of the banks, there is no evidence to show that recapitalization and initial public offering (IPO) will lead to sound practices for banking governance. Furthermore, in order to accelerate the recapitalization process, the reformers have injected a large amount of foreign exchange reserves into the state-owned banks, which consequently expands money supply and will lead to instability of future economic growth. Our conclusion is that there is a latent banking risk. China's banking reform should be in line with the external environment and the overall economic reform process, and the reformers should always keep in mind that sustainability of future economic growth is the ultimate means by which banking risk can be cushioned and absorbed.

  14. Wastewater irrigation and environmental health: implications for water governance and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanjra, Munir A; Blackwell, John; Carr, Gemma; Zhang, Fenghua; Jackson, Tamara M

    2012-04-01

    need to better integrate water reuse into core water governance frameworks in order to effectively address the challenges and harness the potential of this vital resource for environmental health protection. The paper also presents a blueprint for future water governance and public policies for the protection of environmental health.

  15. Energy/Environment/Economy. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected U.S. Government Publications Concerning United States Energy Policy, Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENVIRO/INFO, Green Bay, WI.

    This annotated bibliography supplements ED 077 704. It provides a selective listing of 93 U.S. Federal Government publications germane to the energy crisis and its attendant environmental and economic implications. Primary emphasis is placed upon documents presenting energy policy issues which have emerged, plus statistical reportage which…

  16. Ecosystem-based marine management in European regional seas calls for nested governance structures and coordination—A policy brief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raakjaer, J.; Leeuwen, van J.; Tatenhove, van J.; Hadjimichael, M.

    2014-01-01

    Marine governance in European seas is at a crossroad aiming towards implementation of eco-system based marine management (EBMM) through integration of different EU policies or directives to protect the environment, while at the same time expected to facilitate growth and employment in support of the

  17. Energy/Environment/Economy. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected U.S. Government Publications Concerning United States Energy Policy, Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENVIRO/INFO, Green Bay, WI.

    This annotated bibliography supplements ED 077 704. It provides a selective listing of 93 U.S. Federal Government publications germane to the energy crisis and its attendant environmental and economic implications. Primary emphasis is placed upon documents presenting energy policy issues which have emerged, plus statistical reportage which…

  18. The Nexus between the WTO and the Energy Charter treaty in Global Energy Governance : Analysis and policy implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable energy policy is one of the biggest challenges the world faces today. The necessity of mitigating climate change and shifting to cleaner energy sources points to the need for a far more coherent approach to today’s fragmented global energy governance. This approach has to take into accou

  19. Annotated Bibliography on School Finance: Policy and Political Issues; Federal Government; State Issues; Non-Public Schools; Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Joella

    Limited to periodical literature, this annotated bibliography on school finance contains 81 references grouped in 5 categories: (1) policy and politica issues, (2) federal government, (3) state issues, (4) aid to nonpublic schools, and (5) accountability. Following the bibliographic citations, annotations range from 4 to 15 lines and conclude by…

  20. International Organisations and the Shared Construction of Policy "Problems": Problematisation and Change in Education Governance in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grek, Sotiria

    2010-01-01

    Over recent years, research has shown the ways that national governments have seemingly ceded some of their autonomy in education policy development to international organisations (IOs) in the context of globalisation and one of its conduits, Europeanisation. This article develops the idea that IOs, and particularly the Organisation for Economic…

  1. Annotated Bibliography on School Finance: Policy and Political Issues; Federal Government; State Issues; Non-Public Schools; Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Joella

    Limited to periodical literature, this annotated bibliography on school finance contains 81 references grouped in 5 categories: (1) policy and politica issues, (2) federal government, (3) state issues, (4) aid to nonpublic schools, and (5) accountability. Following the bibliographic citations, annotations range from 4 to 15 lines and conclude by…

  2. 41 CFR 302-15.70 - What governing policies must we establish for the allowance for property management services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must we establish for the allowance for property management services? 302-15.70 Section 302-15.70... TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 15-ALLOWANCE FOR PROPERTY MANAGEMENT SERVICES Agency Responsibilities § 302-15.70 What governing policies must we establish for the allowance for property management services? You must establish...

  3. High-Technology Trade Pattern Analysis: Its Use and Application for Industry Competitiveness Response and Government Policy Development

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    The Canadian Advanced Technology Association (CATA) in collaboration with Industry Canada, sponsored a workshop on high-technology trade statistics in Ottawa, 19 October 1995. The purpose of the workshop was to review various approaches to high-technology trade pattern analysis, its use, and application for industrial competitiveness responses and government policy development.

  4. 41 CFR 302-5.101 - What governing policies must we establish for the househunting trip expenses allowance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must we establish for the househunting trip expenses allowance? 302-5.101 Section 302-5.101 Public... STATION (PCS) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP... trip expenses allowance? You must establish policies and procedures governing: (a) When you will...

  5. Current situations and future directions for mental health system governance in Nepal: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Pokhrel, Ruja; Gurung, Dristy; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Petersen, Inge; Komproe, Ivan H

    2017-01-01

    Assessing and understanding health systems governance is crucial to ensure accountability and transparency, and to improve the performance of mental health systems. There is a lack of systematic procedures to assess governance in mental health systems at a country level. The aim of this study was to appraise mental health systems governance in Nepal, with the view to making recommendations for improvements. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with national-level policymakers (n = 17) and district-level planners (n = 11). The interview checklist was developed using an existing health systems governance framework developed by Siddiqi and colleagues as a guide. Data analysis was done with NVivo 10, using the procedure of framework analysis. The mental health systems governance assessment reveals a few enabling factors and many barriers. Factors enabling good governance include availability of mental health policy, inclusion of mental health in other general health policies and plans, increasing presence of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and service user organizations in policy forums, and implementation of a few mental health projects through government-NGO collaborations. Legal and policy barriers include the failure to officially revise or fully implement the mental health policy of 1996, the existence of legislation and several laws that have discriminatory provisions for people with mental illness, and lack of a mental health act and associated regulations to protect against this. Other barriers include lack of a mental health unit within the Ministry of Health, absence of district-level mental health planning, inadequate mental health record-keeping systems, inequitable allocation of funding for mental health, very few health workers trained in mental health, and the lack of availability of psychotropic drugs at the primary health care level. In the last few years, some positive developments have emerged in terms of policy recognition for

  6. Comparative policy analysis for alcohol and drugs: Current state of the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison; Livingston, Michael; Chalmers, Jenny; Berends, Lynda; Reuter, Peter

    2016-05-01

    A central policy research question concerns the extent to which specific policies produce certain effects - and cross-national (or between state/province) comparisons appear to be an ideal way to answer such a question. This paper explores the current state of comparative policy analysis (CPA) with respect to alcohol and drugs policies. We created a database of journal articles published between 2010 and 2014 as the body of CPA work for analysis. We used this database of 57 articles to clarify, extract and analyse the ways in which CPA has been defined. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the CPA methods employed, the policy areas that have been studied, and differences between alcohol CPA and drug CPA are explored. There is a lack of clear definition as to what counts as a CPA. The two criteria for a CPA (explicit study of a policy, and comparison across two or more geographic locations), exclude descriptive epidemiology and single state comparisons. With the strict definition, most CPAs were with reference to alcohol (42%), although the most common policy to be analysed was medical cannabis (23%). The vast majority of papers undertook quantitative data analysis, with a variety of advanced statistical methods. We identified five approaches to the policy specification: classification or categorical coding of policy as present or absent; the use of an index; implied policy differences; described policy difference and data-driven policy coding. Each of these has limitations, but perhaps the most common limitation was the inability for the method to account for the differences between policy-as-stated versus policy-as-implemented. There is significant diversity in CPA methods for analysis of alcohol and drugs policy, and some substantial challenges with the currently employed methods. The absence of clear boundaries to a definition of what counts as a 'comparative policy analysis' may account for the methodological plurality but also appears to stand in the way

  7. The current situation of impact of coal mine developing on environment in China and government proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yang [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Ministry of Land and Resources

    2005-07-01

    Current environmental problems caused by coal mining in China, the importance of management of the environment, impact of coal mining on land and water resources, and upcoming coal development are discussed. It is suggested that the government should act in two ways: take responsibility for management of reclamation of mines existing before 1986, and set up mechanisms to protect the environment, starting with the publishing of relevant laws and regulations. Methods for solving environmental issues include: prepare a practical plan, establish an environmental control fund, establish a special fund to protect the environment, and develop new ways to combine protection of the biological environment and land reclamation. 5 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. 关于电子政务信息的计量分析与网络环境下的政务决策%Informetric Analysis of the e-government and Government Policies Making in the Network Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯经川; 赵蓉英

    2003-01-01

    The activities of the government can be described as reporting the feelings of the people (receiving infor-mation), making policies (processing information) and issuing government orders (sending out information). This is a typical course of information processing. If we can successively trail and scientifically measure this information course, we will be able to appraise the performance of the government in a scientific way. The development of government informatiza-tion and e-government is providing such a kind of appraisement for the government. The paper mainly discusses the possi-bilities of informetric analysis of the e-government. Methods for such analysis are also described.

  9. Scott B. Sumner, The Midas Paradox: Financial Markets, Government Policy Shocks, and the Great Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark JOHNSON

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In a study with detailed evidence and technical economics, Scott Sumner seeks to explain both the monetary origins of the Great Depression (1929-1932 and its persistence due to government-driven wage shocks (1933-1941. He credits the Mundell-Johnson hypothesis, based on the post WWI undervaluation and shortage of gold, with identifying the deflationary pressure that led to monetary distress. Sumner concludes that interest rates, money supply, and price changes provide inadequate measures of the stance of monetary policy. Sumner’s most important evidence supports his arguments that, first, raising the price of gold in 1933 facilitated price inflation and rapid recovery after years of deflation; and second, that several Roosevelt-era recoveries were stopped in their tracks by New Deal-driven real wage increases. The 1937-38 depression was caused by Treasury sterilization of gold inflows, but aggravated by unionization drives and wage increases. Reviewer considers Sumner’s critique of Keynesian economics, and adds overview to identify two areas where Keynes’ “revolution” set back understanding. He then moves to some intra-New Deal dynamics and to some recent political economy parallels.Keywords. Great Depression, New Deal, Wages, Monetary History, Financial Markets, Keynesian Macroeconomics.JEL. B22, E24, E52, F33, N12.

  10. Do Government Policies Foster Environmental Performance of Enterprises from CEE Region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowska Małgorzata Stefania

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, EU countries, including these from the Central Eastern European (CEE region has recognised, that eco-innovation should be treated as strategic priority of their economies. The aim of this paper is to present a cross-country analysis of the connection between eco-innovation and its main drivers within firms from selected CEE countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Romania and Germany. The empirical part is based on micro-data for Community Innovation Survey (CIS 2006-2008. Based on the results of stepwise regression between main policy actions sustaining innovation activity and eco-innovation performance we can conclude, that financial support for innovation activities has a rather limited role in promoting eco-innovation. At the same time enterprises from the CEE region regard environmental regulations as the most important drivers of eco-innovation. In Germany, a country ranked in the highest category in the Eco-Innovation Scoreboard, the variety of forces that influence eco-innovation is much more wide-ranging. This indicates that government actions should take a broader look and lay the more general bases fostering the model of a green growth.

  11. Extended Deterrence: Taking Stock of Current Policy and Updating the Research and PME Agendas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    economic policy and leadership in global governance has diminished. The BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) are now challenging US...Monetary Fund has given the BRICs incentives to establish parallel institutions. The United States must find ways to maneuver more effectively in an

  12. Current Status of e-Government Services in Tanzania: A Security Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Dewa

    Full Text Available E-Government services improve efficiency in the delivery of government services, strengthen citizen participation, build trust in government, and yield cost savings for citizens, businesses and the government itself. However, the use of e-Government servi ...

  13. 228 Empirical Analysis of Fiscal Policy Shocks and Current Account ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... extension by Obstfeld and Rogoff, (1995) in open economy macroeconomics .... worsens the U.S. current account deficit by 47 cents by using Romer and ..... crowding-out hypothesis in Pakistan's manufacturing industry. The.

  14. Use of evidence in policy making in South Africa: An exploratory study of attitudes of senior government officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Paine Cronin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a 2011 study commissioned by the Presidency’s Programme to Support Pro-Poor Policy Development (PSPPD which promotes evidence-based policy making (EBPM in South Africa. EBPM refers to norms, initiatives and methods aimed at improving evidence-based policy in countries from which South Africa traditionally borrows public service reforms, particularly the UK and Canada. The study provides a descriptive snapshot of attitudes to evidence-use in policy making. All 54 senior government officials interviewed felt that evidence-use is too limited to ensure relevant, effective policy responses. This includes policies on which complex results depend and those with long-term and high-resource implications. Although all respondents regarded EBPM as self-evidently desirable, there were different views on practical application. Examples provided suggest that, where evidence was used, it was very often related to a borrowed international policy without a prior evidencedrivenanalysis of successes and failures or its relevance and feasibility in terms of local issuesand context. Policy makers generally know they should be making optimal use of availableevidence, but highlighted systemic barriers beyond the influence of individual managersto resolve. The study suggests that improved use of evidence throughout the policy cycle,particularly in analysing problems and needs, is a requirement for learning through evidencebased policy development. It suggests that political and administrative leadership will need to agree on norms, ways of dealing with the barriers to effective use of evidence and on the role of each throughout the policy cycle in ensuring appropriate evidence is available and used.

  15. Groundwater socio-ecology and governance: a review of institutions and policies in selected countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherji, Aditi; Shah, Tushaar

    2005-03-01

    Groundwater is crucial for the livelihoods and food security of millions of people, and yet, knowledge formation in the field of groundwater has remained asymmetrical. While, scientific knowledge in the discipline (hydrology and hydrogeology) has advanced remarkably, relatively little is known about the socio-economic impacts and institutions that govern groundwater use. This paper therefore has two objectives. The first is to provide a balanced view of the plus and the down side of groundwater use, especially in agriculture. In doing so, examples are drawn from countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, Spain and Mexico—all of which make very intensive use of groundwater. Second, institutions and policies that influence groundwater use are analyzed in order to understand how groundwater is governed in these countries and whether successful models of governance could be replicated elsewhere. Finally, the authors argue that there is a need for a paradigm shift in the way groundwater is presently perceived and managed—from management to governance mode. In this attempt, a number of instruments such as direct regulation, indirect policy levers, livelihood adaptation and people's participation will have to be deployed simultaneously in a quest for better governance. L'eau souterraine est cruciale pour la survie et la sécurité alimentaire de plusieurs millions de personnes mais cependant la foramtion en matière d'eaux souterraines reste asymmétrique. Alors que la connaissance scientifique dans la discipline (hydrologie et hydrogéologie) a avancée de manière remarquable, on connaît peu de choses sur les impacts socio-économiques et les institutions qui gouvernent l'utilisation des eaux souterraines. Cet article a par conséquent deux objectifs. Le premier est d'assurer un point de vue balancé entre le côté positif et le côté négatif de l'utilisation de l'eau souterraine, spécialement en agriculture. De cette manière, des exemples d

  16. Raising the Legal Age of Tobacco Sales: Policy Support and Trust in Government, 2014-2015, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Boynton, Marcella H; Richardson, Amanda; Jarman, Kristen; Ranney, Leah M; Goldstein, Adam O

    2016-12-01

    The National Academy of Medicine has called for an increase in the minimum age of tobacco product sales. It is not clear what age increase would garner the greatest public support, or whether trust in the U.S. government predicts policy support. The data for these analyses are from a nationally representative telephone sample of U.S. adults (N=4,880) conducted from September 2014 to May 2015. The authors assessed whether support varied by the proposed minimum age of tobacco sales using a survey experiment (i.e., random assignment to the 19-, 20-, or 21-year age minimum condition) and, in cross-sectional analyses, whether smoking status, individual demographics, state-level politics, and general trust in the government predicted policy support. Analyses were conducted from May to December 2015. Odds of support for raising the minimum sales age to 21 years trended higher than support for raising to age 20 or 19 years (AOR=1.22, 95% CI=0.97, 1.53, p=0.09). There was majority support for raising the age of sales for cigarettes in all regions of the U.S. (66.3%, 95% CI=64.0, 68.6). Race, age, and trust in government were significant predictors of support. Raising the age of tobacco sales is broadly supported by the public. An age 21 years tobacco sales policy trends toward garnering more support than a policy at age 19 or 20 years. Trust in government may be an important consideration in understanding policy support beyond demographics. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    Afghanistan scale back relations with India and sign a strategic agreement with Pakistan that includes Pakistani training for the ANDSF. Pakistan’s...17 Media Freedoms...46 Bilateral Government-to-Government Relations

  18. European regional populations: current trends, future pathways and policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rees, P.H.; van der Gaag, N.L.; de Beer, J.A.A.; Heins, F.

    2012-01-01

    Europe is currently experiencing an ageing population and slowing population growth of both the total and working-age populations. These trends are likely to continue. Even though population ageing will affect all European regions, different regions will be affected in different ways. Even under

  19. How do local government associations influence policy? Assessing conditions for policy influence of interest groups in Brazil and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Macedo de Jesus (Anderson)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In recent years a considerable number of studies have been undertaken concerning the impact of interest groups' influence in the European and North American policy-making process.

  20. An Optimization Model for Expired Drug Recycling Logistics Networks and Government Subsidy Policy Design Based on Tri-level Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to recycle and dispose of all people’s expired drugs, the government should design a subsidy policy to stimulate users to return their expired drugs, and drug-stores should take the responsibility of recycling expired drugs, in other words, to be recycling stations. For this purpose it is necessary for the government to select the right recycling stations and treatment stations to optimize the expired drug recycling logistics network and minimize the total costs of recycling and disposal. This paper establishes a tri-level programming model to study how the government can optimize an expired drug recycling logistics network and the appropriate subsidy policies. Furthermore, a Hybrid Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (HGSAA is proposed to search for the optimal solution of the model. An experiment is discussed to illustrate the good quality of the recycling logistics network and government subsides obtained by the HGSAA. The HGSAA is proven to have the ability to converge on the global optimal solution, and to act as an effective algorithm for solving the optimization problem of expired drug recycling logistics network and government subsidies.

  1. An Optimization Model for Expired Drug Recycling Logistics Networks and Government Subsidy Policy Design Based on Tri-level Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Li, Yuyu; Huang, Bo; Pi, Xing

    2015-07-01

    In order to recycle and dispose of all people's expired drugs, the government should design a subsidy policy to stimulate users to return their expired drugs, and drug-stores should take the responsibility of recycling expired drugs, in other words, to be recycling stations. For this purpose it is necessary for the government to select the right recycling stations and treatment stations to optimize the expired drug recycling logistics network and minimize the total costs of recycling and disposal. This paper establishes a tri-level programming model to study how the government can optimize an expired drug recycling logistics network and the appropriate subsidy policies. Furthermore, a Hybrid Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (HGSAA) is proposed to search for the optimal solution of the model. An experiment is discussed to illustrate the good quality of the recycling logistics network and government subsides obtained by the HGSAA. The HGSAA is proven to have the ability to converge on the global optimal solution, and to act as an effective algorithm for solving the optimization problem of expired drug recycling logistics network and government subsidies.

  2. Digitalization and Information Management in Smart City Government: Requirements for Organizational and Managerial Project Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Antti Syväjärvi; Ville Kivivirta; Jari Stenvall; Ilpo Laitinen

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of information and communication technology (ICT) in public management and public sector reforms is widely recognized. Here digital or electronic government is studied on the basis of information management in smart city government. Digital governance and information management have changed the ways city governments are organized and public services delivered. Unlike the research that has concentrated on private sector developments from digital or business perspective, stud...

  3. Scenarios of technology and innovation policies in Europe : Investigating future governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Stefan; Edler, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    In Europe, public research, technology and innovation policies are no longer exclusively in the hands of national authorities: increasingly, national initiatives are supplemented by, or even competing with, regional innovation policies or transnational programmes, in particular the activities of the

  4. Policy Internationalization, National Variety and Governance: Global Models and Network Power in Higher Education States

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes policy convergence and the adoption of globalizing models by higher education states, a process we describe, following Thatcher (2007), as policy internationalization. This refers to processes found in many policy domains and which increasingly are exemplified in tertiary education systems too. The focus is on governmental…

  5. Policy Matters: De/Re/Territorialising Spaces of Learning in Victorian Government Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to augment an emerging interest in education policy research in enactment theorising, to explicitly consider the role and contribution of materiality in this theorising. Guided by the notion of policy "matters," the article takes as its empirical context a major policy initiative, the Building the Education Revolution…

  6. The causal flow between public opinion and policy: government responsiveness, leadership, or counter movement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakhverdian, A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the causal relationship between public opinion and policy. Does opinion affect policy or is it the other way around? Three hypotheses take centre stage. The responsiveness hypothesis postulates that changes in public opinion lead to subsequent changes in policy in the same dire

  7. Governing climate change in Dutch cities: anchoring local climate strategies in organisation, policy and practical implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exter, den R.; Lenhart, J.L.; Kern, K.

    2015-01-01

    Although Dutch cities were among the forerunners in local climate policy, a systematic overview on climate mitigation and adaptation policy is still missing. This study aims to fill this gap by analysing 25 Dutch cities using indicators for the level of anchoring in policy, organisation and

  8. Campus Sustainability Governance in Canada: A Content Analysis of Post-Secondary Institutions' Sustainability Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughter, Philip; McKenzie, Marcia; Lidstone, Lauri; Wright, Tarah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of a content analysis of sustainability policies from Canadian post-secondary education institutions. The paper reports findings on the orientations to sustainability evident in the policies; references to other policies within the documents; and other key themes on how sustainability is engaged in…

  9. Campus Sustainability Governance in Canada: A Content Analysis of Post-Secondary Institutions' Sustainability Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughter, Philip; McKenzie, Marcia; Lidstone, Lauri; Wright, Tarah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of a content analysis of sustainability policies from Canadian post-secondary education institutions. The paper reports findings on the orientations to sustainability evident in the policies; references to other policies within the documents; and other key themes on how sustainability is engaged in…

  10. Current Sino-Latin American Relations and the Corresponding Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. History of the Relationship and Its Current Situation. The Sino-Latin American relationship has a long-standing history that starts from the trade exchanges in the middle of the 16th century.From the 18th century to the early 19th century,hundreds and thousands of Chinese laborers were seized and sold by the western colonists to Latin America as "coolies" who made contribution to the local economic development there.

  11. Viewpoint – Swimming against the Current: Questioning Development Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Mørck Jensen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The water world is dominated by normative policies prescribing what 'good development' is all about. It is a universe of its own where policies live their own lives and feed in and out of each other. As new buzzwords continue to be invented or reinvented, policies continue to maintain their shiny images of how water resources or water supply should be managed. There are many water professionals acting as missionaries in the service of policies but probably fewer professionals acting up against blindfolded policy promotion. It is when water policies are being implemented in the real world that the trouble starts. In spite of their well-intended mission, water policies often suffer shipwreck on the socio-economic and political realities in developing countries. Through cases from India and the Mekong, the author demonstrates what happens when normative water polices are forced out of their comfort zone and into social and political realities. Although policies are made of stubborn material they need to be questioned through continuous analytical insight into developing country realities. But undertaking critical analysis and questioning the wisdom of water policies are easier said than done. It takes a lot of effort to swim against the policy current.

  12. The impact of the government policy on the Chinese electric gehicle industry and business strategy management : Case of FAW

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhe; Lu, Sun

    2011-01-01

    Background: The electric vehicle industry is an emerging industry worldwide. In China the development of the electric vehicle industry is rapid. The government policy is of great influence on the economy in the Chinese context. The Chinese electric vehicle company has to design the right business strategy to maintain and enhance its competitive advantages in order to respond to challenges. Aim: This study analyzes the five competitive forces of the Chinese electric vehicle industry and the ef...

  13. Current anti-doping policy: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauron Alexandre

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current anti-doping in competitive sports is advocated for reasons of fair-play and concern for the athlete's health. With the inception of the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA, anti-doping effort has been considerably intensified. Resources invested in anti-doping are rising steeply and increasingly involve public funding. Most of the effort concerns elite athletes with much less impact on amateur sports and the general public. Discussion We review this recent development of increasingly severe anti-doping control measures and find them based on questionable ethical grounds. The ethical foundation of the war on doping consists of largely unsubstantiated assumptions about fairness in sports and the concept of a "level playing field". Moreover, it relies on dubious claims about the protection of an athlete's health and the value of the essentialist view that sports achievements reflect natural capacities. In addition, costly antidoping efforts in elite competitive sports concern only a small fraction of the population. From a public health perspective this is problematic since the high prevalence of uncontrolled, medically unsupervised doping practiced in amateur sports and doping-like behaviour in the general population (substance use for performance enhancement outside sport exposes greater numbers of people to potential harm. In addition, anti-doping has pushed doping and doping-like behaviour underground, thus fostering dangerous practices such as sharing needles for injection. Finally, we argue that the involvement of the medical profession in doping and anti-doping challenges the principles of non-maleficience and of privacy protection. As such, current anti-doping measures potentially introduce problems of greater impact than are solved, and place physicians working with athletes or in anti-doping settings in an ethically difficult position. In response, we argue on behalf of enhancement practices in sports within a

  14. Current anti-doping policy: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Bengt; Mauron, Alexandre; Miah, Andy

    2007-03-29

    Current anti-doping in competitive sports is advocated for reasons of fair-play and concern for the athlete's health. With the inception of the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA), anti-doping effort has been considerably intensified. Resources invested in anti-doping are rising steeply and increasingly involve public funding. Most of the effort concerns elite athletes with much less impact on amateur sports and the general public. We review this recent development of increasingly severe anti-doping control measures and find them based on questionable ethical grounds. The ethical foundation of the war on doping consists of largely unsubstantiated assumptions about fairness in sports and the concept of a "level playing field". Moreover, it relies on dubious claims about the protection of an athlete's health and the value of the essentialist view that sports achievements reflect natural capacities. In addition, costly antidoping efforts in elite competitive sports concern only a small fraction of the population. From a public health perspective this is problematic since the high prevalence of uncontrolled, medically unsupervised doping practiced in amateur sports and doping-like behaviour in the general population (substance use for performance enhancement outside sport) exposes greater numbers of people to potential harm. In addition, anti-doping has pushed doping and doping-like behaviour underground, thus fostering dangerous practices such as sharing needles for injection. Finally, we argue that the involvement of the medical profession in doping and anti-doping challenges the principles of non-maleficience and of privacy protection. As such, current anti-doping measures potentially introduce problems of greater impact than are solved, and place physicians working with athletes or in anti-doping settings in an ethically difficult position. In response, we argue on behalf of enhancement practices in sports within a framework of medical supervision. Current anti

  15. An overview of current NAMA guidance. Policy Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, L.R. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    The International Climate Initiative formed a number of working groups within an Enhanced NAMA Cooperation Group. The Tools and Guides working group seeks to coordinate current efforts on NAMA related tools, guidebooks and templates, as well as reduce repetition of such work by different organisations. As a first step towards this goal, this brief analysis looks at the 8 main guides on NAMA development that have been published, or made available in draft form, as of May 2013. This note summarises the approach found in these guides and identifies a number of areas, or gaps, that would benefit from further effort to provide supporting resources and guidance. It also aims to provide the basis for further discussion within the working group.

  16. Towards co-operative governance in the development and implementation of cross-sectoral policy: water policy as an example

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    MacKay, HM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available to be established on the ground, and not just considered as some form of laudable principle. One of the most important steps in moving towards operational co-operative governance is the identification and agreement, by all the relevant and affected sectors...

  17. Mobile phone health risk policy in Germany: the role of the federal government and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph; Gross, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    In order to establish a regulatory framework for a given technology important to society, the government must make decisions in the face of existing unknowingness. In the last decade, health risks originating from electromagnetic fields of mobile telecommunication transmitting stations and devices have become a regulation policy issue in Germany. This article investigates the role of the government and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection in regard to policy-making by analysing publications and Federal Parliament reports, hearings and debates. The government and Federal Parliament perceived the research situation in 2001 as insufficient in the absence of hard evidence for health impairment. Against this background, the government struck a compromise with mobile telecommunication network operators, who did not want to integrate stricter limit values for transmission stations as precautionary measures. The network operators' voluntary self-commitment included financing half the budget of the German Mobile Telecommunication Research Programme (2002-2008) under the lead management of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, which concluded that it was not required to change the position taken in 2001. The results of this programme provided the basis to continue the agreement of that year. With regard to health issues and all the other interests involved, this agreement was an acceptable and remarkably stable compromise.

  18. BUDGET ISSUES AND FISCAL POLICY IN ROMANIA AND IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on one of the priority themes of any governance, namely public administration reform, a particular importance being its financial component. In terms of austerity in which public authorities operate in Romania, balancing local budgets is a current topic and strongly debated. It is a clear difference between earning income communities and communities of sufficient own funds set up not doing any maintenance to cover the village. Communities who occupy the first places have economic, social, demographic benefits, that enable continuous development. Although there is always the tendency to criticize communities that do not have sufficient income,it must be seen that in Europe today the basic concept that builds on development theory is economic and social cohesion. It is believed that the uneven development of the territories actually reflect the economic weaknesses of the combination of which led to political and economic instability. An alternative to this situation is the solidarity of local communities, calculated to maintain a balance between both communities. It is believed that overall healthy economic development can be achieved by a balanced territorial development, and not by widening the existing gaps. In this paper we conducted an analysis of revenues and expenditures of local budgets in Romania, the time interval, 2013-2015, and each party's share of the local budget both in GDP and in the general consolidated budget. Analysis based on the data allows the expression of conclusions on the implementation of revenue and expenditures of local budgets.

  19. Immigration and cultural policies: a bone of contention between the Province of Quebec and the Canadian federal government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, L

    1995-01-01

    "This article addresses the way in which the Province of Quebec has obtained increasing power in the area of immigration.... Data from interviews with key members of [the Ministry of Immigration] and from selected documents are drawn on to illustrate Quebec's cultural politics. The Quebec position on the question of immigration as it has evolved in the context of immigration policies defined by the federal government in Ottawa is examined.... In particular, the present article considers how attempts to construct a cultural identity and a nation-state in Quebec have had important consequences for immigration policy and for attitudes and policies concerning Quebec's cultural minorities. The emergence of the notion of 'cultural communities' as a result of the constitutional rivalry and the on-going struggle for legitimacy between Quebec and Ottawa is also explored."

  20. The role of government policies in the proliferation of multinational business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Golea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The different components of the governmental policy have a significant influence over the foreign companies` activity. The economic policies include the fiscal policy, monetary policy, commercial policy and sector policy. For transnational society, the most influential governmental actions are those regarding economic restriction like: exchange control, import restrictions, taxes control, price control, the local matters restrictions, foreign investments` restrictions. Knowing the host country’s global political climate (anticipating changes that might appear in time and its involvement in a larger frame of the world’s political context will offer to the company the possibility of a correct underlying and adaption of its own international strategy according to the concret conditions of the political space where it will operate.

  1. The Institutionalization of Universal Health Policy in Costa Rica and Current Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the role of the Ministry of Health in Costa Rican public policy. Methods: The analysis is a case study comparing two periods (1950 - 1990 and 1990 - 2010) using qualitative data collection instruments, including review of literature and institutional documents as well as in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, all with data triangulation. Results: The analysis found important differences between two periods: before the 1990s,consecutive governments were strongly...

  2. The Institutionalization of Universal Health Policy in Costa Rica and Current Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Jorine Muiser

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the role of the Ministry of Health in Costa Rican public policy. Methods: The analysis is a case study comparing two periods (1950 - 1990 and 1990 - 2010) using qualitative data collection instruments, including review of literature and institutional documents as well as in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, all with data triangulation. Results: The analysis found important differences between two periods: before the 1990s,consecutive governments were strongly...

  3. US Government Information: Selected Current Issues in Public Access vs. Private Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the dissemination of government information focuses on the debate concerning public versus private access to government information; efforts of the National Technical Information Service (NTIS); electronic access and the need for printed documents; and joint efforts between government agencies and the private sector to charge for…

  4. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Héctor; Ramírez-Herrera, M Teresa

    2011-12-01

    . Current conditions are the result of "top-down" conservation strategies in Zihuatanejo, as Federal and Municipal authorities do not coordinate, disregard local community in coral reef management, and ignore the intimate relationship between the coastal and marine realms. This work confirms the importance of conservation strategies with a holistic approach, considering both terrestrial and marine ecosystems in coastal areas; and that these initiatives should include local coastal communities in management and decision-taking processes done by government authorities.

  5. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Nava

    2011-12-01

    . Current conditions are the result of "top-down" conservation strategies in Zihuatanejo, as Federal and Municipal authorities do not coordinate, disregard local community in coral reef management, and ignore the intimate relationship between the coastal and marine realms. This work confirms the importance of conservation strategies with a holistic approach, considering both terrestrial and marine ecosystems in coastal areas; and that these initiatives should include local coastal communities in management and decision-taking processes done by government authorities. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1487-1501. Epub 2011 December 01.

  6. Voluntary resettlement in China : policy and outcomes of government-organised poverty reduction projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The primary concern of this research is the justice of using government resources for poverty reduction, in other words investigating whether or not such investment has served its claimed purpose. My central argument is that government organized resettlement projects have mobil

  7. Voluntary resettlement in China : policy and outcomes of government-organised poverty reduction projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The primary concern of this research is the justice of using government resources for poverty reduction, in other words investigating whether or not such investment has served its claimed purpose. My central argument is that government organized resettlement projects have

  8. A public-policy practicum to address current issues in human, animal, and ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, John A; Johnson, Yvette J; Troutt, H Fred; Prudhomme, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    There are recognized needs for cross-training health professionals in human, animal, and ecosystem health and for public health policy to be informed by experts from medical, science, and social science disciplines. Faculty members of the Community Health and Preventive Medicine Section at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have offered a public-policy course designed to meet those needs. The course was designed as a practicum to teach students the policy-making process through the development of policy proposals and to instruct students on how to effectively present accurate scientific, demographic, and statistical information to policy makers and to the public. All students substantially met the learning objectives of the course. This course represents another model that can be implemented to help students learn about complex, multifactorial issues that affect the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems, while promoting participation in public health policy development.

  9. Greening Governance: an Evolutionary Approach to Policy Making for a Sustainable Built Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bueren, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    After twenty years of sustainable building policies, the issue of environmental impact of buildings and urban environments remains. Policy makers still have difficulties addressing the ambiguous, contested and dynamic goals encapsulated in the term ‘sustainable development’. How to decide between us

  10. 48 CFR 211.274-5 - Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy for assignment of... DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Using and Maintaining Requirements Documents 211.274-5 Policy for assignment of...

  11. Developing an Interlibrary Loan Borrowing Policy for Evergreen Valley College Library Patrons. Governance and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Ruth I.

    The increased use of interlibrary loan (ILL) services at the Evergreen Valley College (EVC) library which resulted from joining OCLC automated Interlibrary Loan subsystem in 1979 led to the development of an Interlibrary Loan Borrowing Policy by the EVC library staff. The policy is designed to explain to library patrons the limitations on…

  12. When Online Exchanges Byte: An Examination of the Policy Environment Governing Cyberbullying at the University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Chantal; Jackson, Margaret; Cassidy, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a scan of 465 policies relevant to the handling of cyberbullying in 74 Canadian universities. It first assesses the commonalities and differences in the policies. Second, it considers how their various lenses--a human rights perspective versus a student conduct perspective, for instance--can affect the…

  13. Water governance, policy and knowledge transfer: International studies in contextual water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de Cheryl; Vinke-de Kruijf, Joanne; Özerol, Gül; Bressers, Hans Th.A.; Boer, de Cheryl; Vinke-de Kruijf, Joanne; Özerol, Gül; Bressers, Hans Th.A.

    2013-01-01

    In an increasingly global community of researchers and practitioners, new technologies and communication means have made the transfer of policies from one country or region to another progressively more prevalent. There has been a lot of attention in the field of public administration paid to policy

  14. The Seduction of the Subject/Citizen: Governmentality and School Governance Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda L.

    Traditional educational policy analysis is typically evaluative, focusing on degrees of success or failure, often obscuring how particular forms of knowledge and power reproduce social inequity. A Foucauldian, postmodern framework is particularly appropriate for analyzing educational policy because, in part, the Foucauldian concepts of…

  15. EU governance of economic and social policies : Chances and challenges for social Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, S.; Klosse, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at establishing to what extent the renewed EU economic and social policy coordination cycles offer opportunities to uphold and further develop the Union’s social objectives. First, it seeks to examine to what extent the legal frameworks in which macroeconomic and social policies op

  16. Greening Governance: an Evolutionary Approach to Policy Making for a Sustainable Built Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bueren, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    After twenty years of sustainable building policies, the issue of environmental impact of buildings and urban environments remains. Policy makers still have difficulties addressing the ambiguous, contested and dynamic goals encapsulated in the term ‘sustainable development’. How to decide between us

  17. Comparing radical right parties in government: immigration and integration policies in nine countries (1996-2010)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, T.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the direct influence of radical right parties on immigration and integration policies by comparing the output of 27 cabinets of varying composition in nine countries in the period between 1996 and 2010. A Nationalist Immigration and Integration Policy index has been develop

  18. Governance by green taxes: Implementing clean water policies in Europe 1970 - 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the use of economic instruments for environmental policy in four European countries. The study employs data from national and international sources for an ex post evaluation of the effects of economic policy instruments in the clean water programs of Denmark, France, Germany...

  19. EU governance of economic and social policies : Chances and challenges for social Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, S.; Klosse, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at establishing to what extent the renewed EU economic and social policy coordination cycles offer opportunities to uphold and further develop the Union’s social objectives. First, it seeks to examine to what extent the legal frameworks in which macroeconomic and social policies

  20. Bilingual Intercultural Education in Indigenous Schools: An Ethnography of Teacher Interpretations of Government Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiviezo, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores how teachers' beliefs and practices create spaces for the contestation and innovation of bilingual intercultural education (BIE) policy, a policy of indigenous culture and language revitalization in Peru. Based on ethnographic research, there are two central arguments developed throughout this paper. First, the author argues…

  1. Policies for patient access to clinical data via PHRs: current state and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah A; Vawdrey, David K; Kukafka, Rita; Kuperman, Gilad J

    2011-12-01

    Healthcare delivery organizations are increasingly using online personal health records (PHRs) to provide patients with direct access to their clinical information; however, there may be a lack of consistency in the data made available. We aimed to understand the general use and functionality of PHRs and the organizational policies and decision-making structures for making data available to patients. A cross-sectional survey was administered by telephone structured interview to 21 organizations to determine the types of data made available to patients through PHRs and the presence of explicit governance for PHR data release. Organizations were identified based on a review of the literature, PHR experts, and snowball sampling. Organizations that did not provide patients with electronic access to their data via a PHR were excluded. Interviews were conducted with 17 organizations for a response rate of 81%. Half of the organizations had explicit governance in the form of a written policy that outlined the data types made available to patients. Overall, 88% of the organizations used a committee structure for the decision-making process and included senior management and information services. All organizations sought input from clinicians. Discussion There was considerable variability in the types of clinical data and the time frame for releasing these data to patients. Variability in data release policies may have implications for PHR use and adoption. Future policy activities, such as requirement specification for the latter stages of Meaningful Use, should be leveraged as an opportunity to encourage standardization of functionality and broad deployment of PHRs.

  2. Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of C. difficile and MRSA in the Light of Current NHS Control Policies: A Policy review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Maliha

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare associated infections (HCAIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality, and are estimated to cost the United Kingdom National Health Service £1 billion annually. The current health care infection rates suggest that the level of performance to avoid HCAIs is not maintained consistently. Increasing screening, improving local accountability and performance management, careful use of antibiotics in the management of emergency patients, health economy wide approaches, and improved hand washing will be effective in lowering the rate of HCAIs. This paper reviews current NHS Control Policies in place for Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) and C. difficile.

  3. Perspective: Improving nutritional guidelines for sustainable health policies: Current status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magni, Paolo; Bier, Dennis M; Pecorelli, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    application of these concepts requires the translation of scientific information into practical approaches that have a tangible and measurable impact at both individual and population levels. The agenda for the future is expected to support available methodology in nutrition research to personalize guideline...... a constructive coalition among scientists, policy makers, and communication professionals for sustainable health and nutritional policies. Currently, a strong rationale and available data support a personalized dietary approach according to personal variables, including sex and age, circulating metabolic...

  4. Institutional and Policy Guarantee,a Premise to Improving Enterprise Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄速建; 王钦; 贺俊

    2008-01-01

    During the last 30 years of reform and opening up, China’s private enterprises have acted with different "identities" and "organizational form" at different stages. The specific transition background determines that the historical perspective with which to analyze the governance evolution of China’s private enterprises is appropriate. The governance evolution of China’s private enterprises is characterized by environmental constraints, which include the change of the economic system, industrial organization, as well as management and nancial markets. The internal demand-driven resource is another stylized factor which conditions the enterprises’ maximization behaviors for growth. The adaptive choice is the endogenous mechanism of governance evolution of the private enterprises.

  5. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien Minh Do, E-mail: tmdo@eng.uts.edu.au [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1 Dai Co Viet Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sharma, Deepak [University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: > Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. > Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. > Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  6. Juventude como problema de políticas públicas Youth as a problem of government policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Frezza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tendo como foco discutir concepções de juventudes que se expressam em políticas públicas para jovens no Brasil, concentramos nossa pesquisa no Consórcio Social da Juventude. A partir da perspectiva da Psicologia Social, usamos como estratégia metodológica a problematização e como ferramenta teórica conceitos de Michel Foucault. Buscamos compreender como as práticas discursivas instituídas em políticas públicas definem e denominam parcelas da juventude. Ao problematizarmos as tensões elencadas do material analisado, discutimos quatro concepções de juventude: voluntária, digitalizada, trabalhadora e vulnerabilizada. Estas se constituíram em profícuos indicadores de análise para a problematização dos enunciados dos documentos e entrevistas. A análise sinalizou o quanto as políticas públicas de juventude estão inseridas em uma rede discursiva que desenha, forma e institui modos de viver de jovens - de baixa renda - na contemporaneidade. Observamos que, de forma generalizada, discursos de educação, cidadania, inclusão, entre outros, operam, principalmente, para legitimar programas de políticas públicas.Focusing on concepts of youth expressed in government policies for young people in Brazil, we concentrated our research in the Consórcio Social da Juventude - a national project developed by the Brazilian Government. From the Social Psychology perspective, we used the problematization as a methodological strategy and concepts of Michel Foucault as theoretical tools. We sought to comprehend how the discoursive practices installed in government policies define and establish portions of young people. Problematizing the tensions verified in the material analysed, we discussed four concepts of young people: volunteer, digitalized, worker and vulnerabilized. They turned into proficuous indicators of analysis for the proposed problematization. The analysis suggests how government policies are inserted in a discoursive net that

  7. Governance, knowlegde economy and learning. Human resource policies in companies and institutions in Singapore and Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The present volume contains case studies of how government and firms in a number of select Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation....

  8. Empowering open and collaborative governance technologies and methods for online citizen engagement in public policy making

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Providing both research and practical results, this volume sets out the latest findings in electronic participation and open governance, and includes unique features such as a systematic analysis of the domain and evaluation of international initiatives.

  9. "The Policy Dystopia Model": Implications for Health Advocates and Democratic Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; McDaniel, Patricia A

    2016-09-01

    In this Perspective on the research article by Ulucanlar and colleagues, Elizabeth Smith and Patricia McDaniel discuss how industry opposition to regulation can undermine the public's overall confidence in government and science.

  10. The Determinants Of United States Government Policy And Practice Towards Offsets In International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    terms to describe their offset programs.7 Examples of such terms include “Strategic Industry Development Activities ( SIDAs )” (Australia...governments include: Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Czech Republic, Chile , Colombia, Croatia, Estonia, Georgia, Jordan, Kyrgyz Republic

  11. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    www.defense.gov/news/1230_1231Report.pdf. 18 Ibid.; Moreau, Ron . “New Leaders for the Taliban.” Newsweek, January 24, 2011. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance...revive oil and gas facilities in the north. Cellphones/ Tourism About 18 million cellphone subscribers, up from neglibile amounts during Taliban era... Tourism : National park opened in Bamiyan June 2009. Increasing tourist visits. Sources: CIA, The World Factbook; various press and U.S. government

  12. The Political Economy of Sovereign Borrowing: Explaining the Policy Choices of Highly Indebted Governments

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen B. Kaplan; Kaj Thomsson

    2014-01-01

    In newly democratized and developing countries, political economy theory expects politicians to use budget defcits to engineer an election-timed boom, known as the political business cycle. In this paper, we challenge this view by incorporating the Önancial constraints faced by government into an electoral political framework. Debtor governments must often borrow from foreign creditors to fund their domestic spending. Employing a formal model, we show theoretically that the extent of ownershi...

  13. ABOUT THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT SPENDING IN THE PROCESSES OF FINANCIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ye. Vlasiuk

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analyses of financial system conditions through the state expenses. The factors of the state regulation influence on forming the financial policy are analyzed.

  14. Understanding the differing governance of EU emissions trading and renewable: feedback mechanisms and policy entrepreneurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boasson, Elin Lerum; Wettestad, Joergen

    2010-04-15

    This paper presents a comparative study of two central EU climate policies: the revised Emissions Trading System (ETS), and the revised Renewable Energy Directive (RES). Both were originally developed in the early 2000s and revised policies were adopted in December 2008. While the ETS from 2013 on will have a quite centralized and market-streamlined design, the revised RES stands forward as a more decentralized and technology-focused policy. Differing institutional feed-back mechanisms and related roles of policy entrepreneurs can shed considerable light on these policy differences. Due to member states' cautiousness and contrary to the preferences of the Commission, the initial ETS was designed as a rather decentralized and 'politicized' market system, creating a malfunctioning institutional dynamic. In the revision process, the Commission skillfully highlighted this ineffective dynamic to win support for a much more centralized and market-streamlined approach. In the case of RES, national technology-specific support schemes and the strong links between the renewable industry and member states promoted the converse outcome: decentralization and technology development. Members of the European Parliament utilized these mechanisms through policy networking, while the Commission successfully used developments within the global climate regime to induce some degree of centralization. (Author)

  15. Strong nutrition governance is a key to addressing nutrition transition in low and middle-income countries: review of countries’ nutrition policies

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno F Sunguya; Ong, Ken IC; Dhakal, Sumi; Mlunde, Linda B; Shibanuma, Akira; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2014-01-01

    Methods We reviewed nutrition policies, nutrition governance, and the trends of nutrition status from LAMICs. We retrieved data on the policies from the global database on the implementation of nutrition actions (GINA). We also retrieved data on the trends of nutrition status and nutrition governance from the nutrition landscape information system (NLiS), and on LAMICs from the World Bank database. We then analyzed the data both descriptively and by using a mixed effects model with random-int...

  16. Evaluating public participation in Denmark’s water councils: How policy design and boundary judgements affect water governance!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversgaard, Morten; Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard; Kjeldsen, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Under the Water Framework Directive, public participation was identified as a key part of water planning. This caused a paradigm shift in Danish water planning. Water councils in River Basin Districts were established to provide public input on how to improve the physical conditions in streams....... A study of the water councils found that Denmark has complied with the requirements of making background information available to the public and ensuring consultation. The facilitation of the councils’ processes has worked well. However, while they are presented as the ‘new governance option’ in Danish...... water planning, this does not accord with reality. The water council processes are limited in scope and controlled by the central government. Their process can be better characterized as expanded stakeholder consultation, officially part of the policy process but involving very little active public...

  17. African policy of Delhi and Indian community in Africa: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Alexandrovich Usov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a changing nature of India-Africa relations and a role of Indian Diaspora in Africa. Indian Diaspora in African countries for many years was regarded by the Indian government more as a stumbling block for development India-Africa relations than as a source of opportunities. New policy to Diaspora was elaborated in the very beginning of 2000s but it was Narendra Modi, Indian prime-minister from 2014, who started promoting Diaspora as one of the priority in his international agenda. Indian government initiated in October 2015 third India-Africa Forum-Summit which happened to be much larger event than two previous forum summits in 2008 and 2011. However energetic policy of N. Modi has not brought India-Africa relations to a new level yet. While planned visit of N. Modi to a number of African countries in July 2016 is seen as a step to achieve this goal, his meetings with representatives of Indian communities in these African countries could be regarded as a sign of a new approach to the Indian Diaspora as “Ambassadors of India”. That could bring some controversy as many South African Indians consider themselves only citizens of their country and no more. Besides, the Indian government should take all necessary measures to prevent racist attacks against Africans in India which greatly tarnish the Indian image in the eyes of Africans.

  18. Use of queue modelling in the analysis of elective patient treatment governed by a maximum waiting time policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlowski, Dawid; Worthington, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Many public healthcare systems struggle with excessive waiting lists for elective patient treatment. Different countries address this problem in different ways, and one interesting method entails a maximum waiting time guarantee. Introduced in Denmark in 2002, it entitles patients to treatment at...... by hospital planners and strategic decision makers....... at a private hospital in Denmark or at a hospital abroad if the public healthcare system is unable to provide treatment within the stated maximum waiting time guarantee. Although clearly very attractive in some respects, many stakeholders have been very concerned about the negative consequences of the policy...... on the utilization of public hospital resources. This paper illustrates the use of a queue modelling approach in the analysis of elective patient treatment governed by the maximum waiting time policy. Drawing upon the combined strengths of analytic and simulation approaches we develop both continuous-time Markov...

  19. Educational Inequality in the Minority Regions of Present Day China and Suggestions for the Government Regarding the Education Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Yueya

    2006-01-01

    Based on the research of new educational inequality in the minority regions of preset day China,this article points out the importance of educational equality principle in government's decision making and suggests tha ti tshould give top priority to ethnic minorities when distributing education resources,to develop their compulsory education and broaden meir opportunities to enter into postcompulsory education by the"differentiated but equal"principle.Perfect education policies and mechanism and lifelong education system are also pivotal for the attainment of the goal of educational equality.

  20. Remaking Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, John

    2000-01-01

    The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded freedom for…

  1. Engaging with Comparative Risk Appraisals: Public Views on Policy Priorities for Environmental Risk Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocks, Sophie A; Schubert, Iljana; Soane, Emma; Black, Edgar; Muckle, Rachel; Petts, Judith; Prpich, George; Pollard, Simon J

    2017-03-17

    Communicating the rationale for allocating resources to manage policy priorities and their risks is challenging. Here, we demonstrate that environmental risks have diverse attributes and locales in their effects that may drive disproportionate responses among citizens. When 2,065 survey participants deployed summary information and their own understanding to assess 12 policy-level environmental risks singularly, their assessment differed from a prior expert assessment. However, participants provided rankings similar to those of experts when these same 12 risks were considered as a group, allowing comparison between the different risks. Following this, when individuals were shown the prior expert assessment of this portfolio, they expressed a moderate level of confidence with the combined expert analysis. These are important findings for the comprehension of policy risks that may be subject to augmentation by climate change, their representation alongside other threats within national risk assessments, and interpretations of agency for public risk management by citizens and others.

  2. Responding to Poverty through Education and Teacher Education Initiatives: A Critical Evaluation of Key Trends in Government Policy in England 1997-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Katharine; Childs, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative critique of key education and teacher education policies in England adopted by New Labour (1997-2010) and the Coalition government (2010-2015). It focuses on direct measures intended to alleviate the effects of poverty on young people's educational outcomes, and on teacher education policies with implications for…

  3. Responding to Poverty through Education and Teacher Education Initiatives: A Critical Evaluation of Key Trends in Government Policy in England 1997-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Katharine; Childs, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative critique of key education and teacher education policies in England adopted by New Labour (1997-2010) and the Coalition government (2010-2015). It focuses on direct measures intended to alleviate the effects of poverty on young people's educational outcomes, and on teacher education policies with implications for…

  4. Institutional Governance in Higher Education: Public Policy in France, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Yale Higher Education Research Group Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premfors, Rune

    Major public policies for institutional governance in France, Sweden, and the United Kingdom over the past two decades are reviewed, and factors that may account for differences in policy developments in the three countries are considered. In France and (although only recently) in Sweden, politics have aimed at increasing institutional autonomy in…

  5. Governance and the Gulf of Mexico coast: How are current policies contributing to sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The quality of life and economies of coastal communities depend to a great degree on the ecological integrity of coastal ecosystems. Paradoxically, as more people are drawn to the coasts, these ecosystems and the services they provide are increasingly stressed by development and ...

  6. Soft regulations in pharmaceutical policy making : an overview of current approaches and their consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wettermark, B.; Godman, B.; Jacobsson, B.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    It is a challenge to improve public health within limited resources. Pharmaceutical policy making is a greater challenge due to conflicting interests between key stakeholder groups. This paper reviews current and future strategies to help improve the quality and efficiency of care, with special emph

  7. Current Trends in Malaysian Higher Education and the Effect on Education Policy and Practice: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapragasem, Selvaraj; Krishnan, Anbalagan; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has evolved from a production-based to knowledge-based economy in order to stay relevant and compete in the global marketplace. Thus, the purpose of this article is to discuss current trends in Malaysian higher education and how these affect education policies and practices. Four main trends are discussed in this study: Globalization,…

  8. Place of Diversity in the Current Ethiopian Education and Training Policy: Analysis of Cardinal Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Tariku; Latchanna, Gara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate to what extent the diversity dimensions are addressed in the current Education and Training Policy. To that end, document analysis was employed. The major diversity dimensions were analyzed based on their cardinal features. The study demonstrated that there is an ambitious need to address issues of…

  9. Governing integration through sports. A case study of civil society involvement in welfare policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine; Michelsen la Cour, Annette

    2012-01-01

    governing techniques of the welfare state. To do so, a case study approach is applied. First of all, the article will describe the ways in which the issues of enhancing ethnic integration through sports is represented (thought of as a problem) by the involved public authorities and non-state actors using...

  10. Adapting Floods Management to Climate Change: Comparing Policy Frames and Governance Practices in the Low Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crabbé, A.; Wiering, M.A.; Liefferink, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Belgium and the Netherlands together form the Low Countries. Empirical research in Flanders (the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium) and the Netherlands proves that there are substantive differences in the organization of governance processes regarding flood management in response to climate change. Thi

  11. Governing a Common Sea. Environmental Policies in the Baltic Sea Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joas, M.; Jahn, D.; Kern, K.

    2008-01-01

    How is a natural common pool resource such as a sea, which is shared by several countries, best governed? The potential for international conflict is immense, as each country may have different agendas with regard to issues such as exploitation and environmental protection. This book uses a case stu

  12. Governing biofuels in Brazil: A comparison of ethanol and biodiesel policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stattman, S.L.; Hospes, O.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade Brazil has implemented a new and ambitious biofuel program: the National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB). When launching this program in 2004 the government stated that it wanted to avoid the same kind of geographical concentration, single crop focus, dominance

  13. Governing biofuels in Brazil: A comparison of ethanol and biodiesel policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stattman, S.L.; Hospes, O.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade Brazil has implemented a new and ambitious biofuel program: the National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB). When launching this program in 2004 the government stated that it wanted to avoid the same kind of geographical concentration, single crop focus, dominance

  14. Informed Markets as Policy Instrument for Environmental Governance of Buffer Zones around Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    of National Parks in Scandinavia (Denmark), this paper sets out to explore the theoretical rationale and record of using market based environmental governance in the form of Geographical Indications (GI´s) and organic agriculture certification (OAC), respectively, in buffer zones, to potentially serve...

  15. Governing ecosystem services : National and local lessons from policy appraisal and implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Selnes, T.; Verweij, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The TEEB approach to the use of ecosystem services has found its way to policy as a means to biodiversity conservation and greening of the economy. In this paper we analysed the uptake of the TEEB approach at national and local levels by applying a framework that revolves around the problem, approac

  16. Translating Government Policy into Recipes for Success! Nutrition Criteria Promoting Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M.; Nicolson, Clemency; Pulker, Claire E.; Binns, Colin W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To develop nutrition criteria consistent with Australian dietary guidelines encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption for branding recipes with the "Go for 2&5" campaign message. Design: Dietary policies, guidelines, food selection guides, nutrient targets, existing consumer education programs' nutrition criteria, food…

  17. Street-Level Governments: Assessing Decentralization and Urban Services (An Evaluation of Policy Related Research).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.; Yates, Douglas

    Urban decentralization is an attempt to reorganize local services through some combination of: (1) giving service recipients or clients greater responsibility over service policies (the client dimension) and (2) increasing service resources at the level of specific, geographically defined neighborhoods (the territorial dimension). The…

  18. Phelps-Stokes in Congo: Transferring Educational Policy Discourse to Govern Metropole and Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghers, Maud

    2004-01-01

    This article combines a historical with a social/political anthropological framework to examine the role played by the transfer of educational discourse between the United States-based Phelps-Stokes Fund and the Belgian Ministry of Colonies in the formulation of the colonial education policy of "adapted education" in the 1920s. The…

  19. Translating Government Policy into Recipes for Success! Nutrition Criteria Promoting Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M.; Nicolson, Clemency; Pulker, Claire E.; Binns, Colin W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To develop nutrition criteria consistent with Australian dietary guidelines encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption for branding recipes with the "Go for 2&5" campaign message. Design: Dietary policies, guidelines, food selection guides, nutrient targets, existing consumer education programs' nutrition criteria, food habits, and…

  20. The policy context of biofuels: a case of non-governance at the global level?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastos Lima, M.G.; Gupta, J.

    2013-01-01

    The large-scale production of crop-based biofuels has been one of the fastest and most controversial global changes of recent years. Global biofuel outputs increased six-fold between 2000 and 2010, and a growing number of countries are adopting biofuel promotion policies. Meanwhile, multilateral bod

  1. From pragmatism to dogmatism: European Union governance, policy paradigms, and financial meltdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, D.

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary analyses commonly attribute the global credit crisis to faulty regulation. What have been the roots of these deficient rules, particularly in Europe, where rapid spill-over from US markets took policy makers and observers by surprise? This article focuses on regulatory liberalism as the

  2. Government Technology Acquisition Policy: The Case of Proprietary versus Open Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Thomas A.

    2005-01-01

    This article begins by explaining the concepts of proprietary and open source software technology, which are now competing in the marketplace. A review of recent individual and cooperative technology development and public policy advocacy efforts, by both proponents of open source software and advocates of proprietary software, subsequently…

  3. Japanese Government Policies in Education, Science, Sports and Culture, 1998. Mental and Physical Health and Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, Tokyo (Japan).

    This annual publication introduces Japan's educational policies in education, science, sports, and culture. Part 1, "Trends in Education Reform," discusses fundamental concepts in educational reform. Part 2, "Mental and Physical Health and Sports," includes two chapters. Chapter 1, "Health and Sports into the Future,"…

  4. Translating Government Policy into Recipes for Success! Nutrition Criteria Promoting Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M.; Nicolson, Clemency; Pulker, Claire E.; Binns, Colin W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To develop nutrition criteria consistent with Australian dietary guidelines encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption for branding recipes with the "Go for 2&5" campaign message. Design: Dietary policies, guidelines, food selection guides, nutrient targets, existing consumer education programs' nutrition criteria, food…

  5. Re/Assembling Spaces of Learning in Victorian Government Schools: Policy Enactments, Pedagogic Encounters and Micropolitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    The significant public investment that has been made over the past decade in the educational infrastructure of universities, colleges and schools has prompted increasing interest in the re-consideration of learning and the spaces in which learning takes place. Set within policy interest in Australia in how spaces can contribute to the broader…

  6. Cybersecurity in the European Union resilience and adaptability in governance policy

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, George

    2015-01-01

    Cybercrime affects over 1 million people worldwide a day, and cyber attacks on public institutions and businesses are increasing. This book interrogates the European Union's evolving cybersecurity policies and strategy and argues that while progress is being made, much remains to be done to ensure a secure and resilient cyberspace in the future.

  7. Behaviour Change Policy Agendas for "Vulnerable" Subjectivities: The Dangers of Therapeutic Governance and Its New Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecclestone, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Apocalyptic crisis discourses of mental health problems and psycho-emotional dysfunction are integral to behaviour change agendas across seemingly different policy arenas. Bringing these agendas together opens up new theoretical and empirical lines of enquiry about the symbioses and contradictions surrounding the human subjects they target. The…

  8. National security governance exemplified by South Africa's cyber security policy implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burmeister, OK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There exists a paucity of research on ethical considerations in cyberdefence policies that can provide nation states guidance in mitigating the risks of a cyber attack to their national interests and to preparing for a cyber offence in response...

  9. Behaviour Change Policy Agendas for "Vulnerable" Subjectivities: The Dangers of Therapeutic Governance and Its New Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecclestone, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Apocalyptic crisis discourses of mental health problems and psycho-emotional dysfunction are integral to behaviour change agendas across seemingly different policy arenas. Bringing these agendas together opens up new theoretical and empirical lines of enquiry about the symbioses and contradictions surrounding the human subjects they target. The…

  10. Between "Bastard" and "Wicked" Leadership? School Leadership and the Emerging Policies of the UK Coalition Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    Barker argues that in England under New Labour, school leaders and teachers have been "bastardised" and suggests that the situation in 2010, with a general election afforded an opportunity in education policy for the "pendulum to swing". In this article, the key points about "bastard Leadership" are briefly…

  11. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Nava

    2011-12-01

    . Current conditions are the result of "top-down" conservation strategies in Zihuatanejo, as Federal and Municipal authorities do not coordinate, disregard local community in coral reef management, and ignore the intimate relationship between the coastal and marine realms. This work confirms the importance of conservation strategies with a holistic approach, considering both terrestrial and marine ecosystems in coastal areas; and that these initiatives should include local coastal communities in management and decision-taking processes done by government authorities. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1487-1501. Epub 2011 December 01.Las estrategias integrales son clave para lograr efectividad en la conservación de las áreas costeras. Para discutir la importancia de las estrategias holísticas en iniciativas de conservación, usamos como caso de estudio los arrecifes coralinos de Zihuatanejo Guerrero. En primer lugar, analizamos el valor paisajístico terrestre y marino de la zona costera y posteriormente usamos indicadores biológicos y ambientales de degradación en arrecifes coralinos. El valor paisajístico mostró que Manzanillo Beach tiene el mayor potencial para desarrollar iniciativas de conservación (TtV=14.2. No obstante, ambos arrecifes se enfrentan a elevados niveles de sedimentación (hasta 1.16kg/m2d y baja transparencia del agua (<5m causados por el aumento de la erosión de la costa, como consecuencia del cambio de uso del suelo. La alta cobertura de corales muertos (23.6% y algas (hasta un 29% en los arrecifes reflejan su manejo inadecuado. Estas condiciones son resultado de las estrategias de conservación usadas principalmente por las autoridades gubernamentales, que en muchos casos no se encuentran coordinadas y no consideran a la población local en el manejo de los recursos. Estos resultados confirman la importancia de las estrategias de conservación con una visión holística del ecosistema terrestre-marino en las áreas costeras. Estas iniciativas deben

  12. The establishment of nationalism as a state policy during the government of Col. Rafael Franco (1936 and 1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ramón Caballero Cáceres

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The new regime that emerged after 1936 introduced a nationalism that aimed to awaken national pride, a pride hurt, engendered in the defeat of the War against the Triple Alliance. This awakening was to return to the past to project into the future. This nationalist ideology used to the Nation as an instrument of political and historical awareness, setting up a new political landscape printed new life into Paraguayan politics. Nationalism implemented as State Policy had profound implications for the country and affected various areas of national life. The new regime established after the Revolution of 1936 adopted nationalism as State Policy, turning away from gravitating element in the political system. The adoption of nationalism involved a review of the national past, in order to claim figures of national history that had been humiliated and forgotten by the political model implemented in the country after the completion of the Triple Alliance War, from being considered from there, the governments of France and Charles A. Lopez, as role models, to consider their governments, as paradigms to mimic and allow the triumph of nationalist military political imaginary, that years later, will be transformed into Catholic and red.

  13. Effects of Government Grassland Conservation Policy on Household Livelihoods and Dependence on Local Grasslands: Evidence from Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingzhen Du

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grassland degradation intensifies human-environment conflicts and adversely affects local residents’ livelihoods. To reduce grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia, China, the government has enforced (since 1998 a series of grassland conservation and management policies that restrict the use of grasslands. To ease the impact on the residents’ livelihoods, the national and regional governments have offered a series of top-down arrangements to stimulate sustainable use of the grasslands. Simultaneously, local households spontaneously developed bottom-up countermeasures. To determine the effects of these processes, we interviewed members of 135 households using a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods. We analyzed the effects on household dependence on local grasslands and on perceptions of the future of grassland use. Our findings show that the implementation of the grassland conservation policies significantly affected household livelihoods, which in turn affected household use of natural assets (primarily the land, their agricultural assets (farming and grazing activities and their financial assets (income and consumption, resulting in fundamental transformation of their lifestyles. The households developed adaptation measures to account for the dependence of their livelihood on local ecosystems by initializing strategies, such as seeking off-farm work, leasing pasture land, increasing purchases of fodder for stall-fed animals and altering their diet and fuel consumption to compensate for their changing livelihoods.

  14. The Heath government and British defence policy in Southeast Asia at the end of empire (1970-71).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea, Benvenuti

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the rationale behind the Heath government's 1970 decision to negotiate a Five Power Defence agreement with Australia, New Zealand, Singapore and Malaysia and to maintain a small British military contingent in Southeast Asia as a part of this new politico-military framework. It argues that while its overriding foreign policy concern was to end Britain's problematic relationship with the European Economic Community and to make membership of this grouping the cornerstone of its foreign policy, the Heath government was careful not to cast Britain's post-imperial future in purely European terms. The successful negotiation of the Five Power Defence Arrangements in 1970-71 was instrumental in achieving this by ensuring that London would maintain close links with key Commonwealth partners in the Asian region. In what was not only an attempt to neutralize potential domestic opposition to Britain's entry into the EEC, but also a lingering reluctance to do away with the rhetoric of Britain as a leading power with extra-European interests, Heath was eager to show that by making a contribution to the stability of Southeast Asia, Britain still had a role to play outside Europe.

  15. Can all cause readmission policy improve quality or lower expenditures? A historical perspective on current initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, James F; Hockenberry, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    All-cause readmission to inpatient care is of wide policy interest in the United States and a number of other countries (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, in the United Kingdom by the National Centre for Health Outcomes Development, and in Australia by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare). Contemporary policy efforts, including high powered incentives embedded in the current US Hospital Readmission Reduction Program, and the organizationally complex interventions derived in anticipation of this policy, have been touted based on potential cost savings. Strong incentives and resulting interventions may not enjoy the support of a strong theoretical model or the empirical research base that are typical of strong incentive schemes. We examine the historical broad literature on the issue, lay out a 'full' conceptual organizational model of patient transitions as they relate to the hospital, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of previous and proposed policies. We use this to set out a research and policy agenda on this critical issue rather than attempt to conduct a comprehensive structured literature review. We assert that researchers and policy makers should consider more fundamental societal issues related to health, social support and health literacy if progress is going to be made in reducing readmissions.

  16. Diferentes padrões de políticas salariais nos estados brasileiros: uma análise a partir do diferencial de salários público-privado Different patterns of wage policies in Brazilian state governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Miranda Moriconi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Public servant wages represent a significant part of Brazilian state governments' current expenses. Based on the literature, this paper has tried to identify which states practice efficient, compensatory or appropriation wage politics through the estimation of public-private wage differentials. The differential of salaries was calculated between 1995 and 2004 following the Oaxaca's technique. The results show that the wage policy of an important number of states has had efficiency and a numerous part of the North and the Northeast states have developed compensatory politics. The Federal District and Roraima practiced a wage policy characterized by explicit appropriation.

  17. Governing education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ria Bronneman-Helmers

    2011-01-01

    Governing education. Trends in Dutch education policy 1990-2010 The Dutch government is responsible for e a cohesive and properly functioning education system. This report discusses the way in which the government fulfilled that responsibility in the period 1990-2010.  The study is

  18. Greenland as a self-governing sub-national territory in international relations: past, current and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackrén, Maria; Jakobsen, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Greenland was used by the US as a platform and as an extended arm within its security and foreign policy during the World War II and the cold war. After this things changed, although Greenland remained important in Danish-US relations under the umbrella of NATO. Nowadays, the geostrategic position....... This article reviews developments from the World War II to the present regarding international relations from a Greenlandic perspective. As a self-governing sub-national territory within the realm of Denmark, Greenland does not have the ultimate decision-making power within foreign and security policy. The new...... of Greenland between North America and Europe is gaining fresh prominence in the race for natural resources in the Arctic. Many issues arise from the prospective opening of the Arctic, all of which may have fateful impacts on future development in the region. Climate change, claims related to the extension...

  19. Ningxia update: Government policy and measures for promoting a sustainable wine industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Linhai; Li Xueming; Cao Kailong; Ma Huiqin

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly growing wine industry in the Ningxia region of north-central China had 35,300 ha of wine grapes and 184 registered wineries as of mid-2016. Ningxia's mission is to develop a sustainable wine industry based on small-scale producers and high-quality products in order to distinguish itself from other key regions in China. Government measures over the last two years have included diversifying grape varieties, encouraging vineyard mechanization, awarding cash to medalists in renown win...

  20. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-10

    is involved in agriculture. Products for export include fruits, raisins, melons, pomegranate juice (Anar), nuts, carpets, lapis lazuli gems, marble...Afghan leaders complain that not enough has been done to revive such potentially lucrative industries as minerals mining, such as of copper and lapis ... lazuli (a stone used in jewelry). In November 2007, the Afghan government signed a deal with China Metallurgical Group for the company to invest

  1. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    several hundred used by Taliban government officials. Tourism: National park opened June 2009. Increasing tourist visits. Sources: CIA, The World...Garden, President Obama attributed the change purely to the disrespect of civilian authority contained in the Rolling Stone comments, and stated that...11 7 20 Cultural Exchanges, International Orgs 6 10 16 Totals 1,463 3,640 5,248 10,352 Notes: P.L. 111-32 (FY2009 supplemental): provides

  2. Army Contracting Command--Picatinny Telework Policy: Applying Lessons Learned from the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    and lacks an empirical foundation. Galbraith’s organizational design process assumed that the organization “is a ‘ tabula rasa ’, a blank sheet of paper...telework; GSA and OPM have had and continue to have a major role in defining, administering, and implementing telework in the federal government. A...the role of technology in federal telecommuting. Before this, federal telework had been too cautious in stressing that telecommuting was not

  3. Policy and governance for sustainable consumption at the crossroads of theories and concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Margit; Halkier, Bente; Wilska, Terhi-Anna

    2016-01-01

    for policy-makers and social change programme designers. In the final section we provide some recommendations. These consider the need for greater reflexivity and experimentation with the practices of policy- and programme-making and the building of coalitions of ‘distributed interveners’. They also relate...... to the need for more focus on consumers' workplace practices alongside domestic practices and analysis of and intervention in the material environments and objects in which social practices are embedded. Finally, they are concerned with the identification of moments of transition in consumers' lives......This introductory article of the special issue compares different conceptual underpinnings of efforts to make the everyday activities of consumers more sustainable. As social practice theory (SPT) is the main theoretical foundation of the articles collected here, we outline its strengths...

  4. Global forces and local currents in Argentina's science policy crossroads: restricted access or open knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Javier Etchichury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the tensions between two competing approaches to scientific policy in Argentina. The traditional vision favors autonomous research. The neoliberal conception fosters the link between science and markets. In the past few years, a neodevelopmentalist current also tries to stress relevance of scientific research. Finally, the article describes how the Open Access movement has entered the debate. The World Bank intervention and the human rights dimension of the question are discussed in depth. The article introduces the notion of open knowledge as a guiding criterion to design a human-rights based scientific policy.

  5. Agrosilvopastoral Systems in Northern Thailand and Northern Laos: Minority Peoples’ Knowledge versus Government Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Chalathon Choocharoen; Andreas Neef; Pornchai Preechapanya; Volker Hoffmann

    2014-01-01

    Traditional agrosilvopastoral systems have been an important component of the farming systems and livelihoods of thousands of ethnic minority people in the uplands of Mainland Southeast Asia. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and participatory inquiries in nine ethnic minority communities, this study emphasizes the complex articulation of local farmers’ knowledge which has been so far excluded from governmental development and conservation policies in the northern uplands of Thailand an...

  6. Proactive Transparency Policy in the Mercosur Local Governments: Regulation vs. Self-Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoli GARCÍA-TABUYO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to develop the fi ndings of a previous research on policies regarding proactive information disclosure, both voluntary and mandatory. We present and analyze new evidence on the factors that infl uence decisions taken in this respect. This study is focused on Mercosur area, a region that has received little previous research attention on these issues. To achieve the study goals, we analyze the proactive information disclosure made by local authorities, regarding both the degree of compliance with legal requirements and whether these local authorities are voluntarily and homogeneously implementing the proactive information disclosure policies recommended by the Organization of American States (OAS. Finally, with respect to the voluntary information provision, we determine the infl uence of environmental factors on information disclosure. The results obtained show that transparency is more an issue of attitude than of laws, and highlight the existence of a large gap between legal requirements, the OAS requirements and actual performance. Finally, it can be seen that fi ve factors are statistically signifi cant for the voluntary disclosure of the OAS recommended items: corruption, technology, size, mandatory disclosure policy and socio-economic development.

  7. CONSULAR ASSISTANCE FOR NATIONALS DETAINED BY A FOREIGN GOVERNMENT: STATES’ POLICIES AND PRACTISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Avilia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 1963 outlined the rights of a state to exercise its obligation to protect the interests of its nationals abroad. The protection given by states to their nationals is commonly referred to as consular assistance. The main objective of consular assistance is to help nationals facing difficulties abroad. In the event of an arrest, the aim of the provision of consular assistance is to protect the inalienable rights of a foreign detainee. The inalienable rights inherent to all detainees are the right retain counsel, and to receive due process of law. Although the 1963 Convention on Consular Relations is the codification of international customary law with regard to states’ practises in protecting their nationals, the practises may vary from one state to another. This paper analyses the policy and practises adopted by a state to protect its nationals detained abroad and suggests effective policies to provide consular assistance based on the reviewed state practises and policies.

  8. Activization of the state policy on euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Pak

    2016-09-01

    Research objective is the justification of the need of activization of the state policy on Euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance. During the research it is recognized that the realization of the state policy on the basis of the considered principles, tools, functions, factors and methods has to execute a main objective of the interstate regional control which is exercised in the sphere of Euro-regional cooperation and to promote adjustment of close mutually beneficial relations of Ukraine and neighboring states, to increase competitiveness of the Ukrainian territories and the most effective use of capacity of the Ukrainian regions in the course of activity of Euro-regions. Finally, such state policy has to be focused on the maintenance of the sufficient standard of living of the population, on ensuring integrity and unity of the social and economic space of the country, on formation of the conditions of sustainable and industrial and innovative development of regions, which will provide its harmonious integration into the European environment.

  9. Activization of the state policy on euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Pak

    2016-09-01

    Research objective is the justification of the need of activization of the state policy on Euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance. During the research it is recognized that the realization of the state policy on the basis of the considered principles, tools, functions, factors and methods has to execute a main objective of the interstate regional control which is exercised in the sphere of Euro-regional cooperation and to promote adjustment of close mutually beneficial relations of Ukraine and neighboring states, to increase competitiveness of the Ukrainian territories and the most effective use of capacity of the Ukrainian regions in the course of activity of Euro-regions. Finally, such state policy has to be focused on the maintenance of the sufficient standard of living of the population, on ensuring integrity and unity of the social and economic space of the country, on formation of the conditions of sustainable and industrial and innovative development of regions, which will provide its harmonious integration into the European environment.

  10. Inclusive pedagogy in Australian universities: A review of current policies and professional development activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Hitch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on activities undertaken by Australian universities to support academic staff to provide inclusive teaching. The findings of two lines of inquiry are reported - a desktop audit of the presence of inclusive teaching or universal design for learning (UDL in publically available policies and procedures documents, and a survey of the methods adopted to build staff capacity to provide inclusive teaching and learning. Just over a third (34.21% of Australian universities referred to inclusive teaching or UDL in their policies and procedures. A wide range of current practices in professional development for inclusive teaching was reported, with the most frequent being one-off workshops focussing on accommodating specific groups of students. Improved institutional support through policies, procedures and professional development would enable Australian higher education teachers to provide quality inclusive teaching to all students.

  11. Neo-liberal Governing of “Radicals”: Danish Radicalization Prevention Policies and Potential Iatrogenic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Lindekilde

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Danish government’s counter-radicalization Action Plan of 2009 had intended and unintended effects. Primarily targeting Danish Muslims, it employs neoliberal governmentality approaches of governance through individual support and response, information and knowledge, empowerment, surveillance and intervention, and anti-discrimination. It aims to prevent radicalization by transforming, shaping, and disciplining illiberal and violence-prone “radicals” into active, liberal citizens. Prolonged fieldwork and in-depth interviews with seventeen Muslims from a targeted milieu reveal skepticism about the effectiveness of the measures. Implementation of the action plan in practice may yield iatrogenic effects.

  12. Are government policies effective in promoting deployment of renewable electricity resources?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrimali, Gireesh, E-mail: gireesh_shrimali@isb.edu [Indian School of Business, Hyderabad, AP (India); Kniefel, Joshua [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Using a panel data over 50 US states and years 1991-2007, this paper uses a state fixed-effects model with state-specific time-trends to estimate the effects of state policies on the penetration of various emerging renewable electricity sources, including wind, biomass, geothermal, and solar photovoltaic. Renewable portfolio standards with either capacity or sales requirements have a significant impact on the penetration of all types of renewables-however, this impact is variable depending on the type of renewable source: it is negative for combined renewables, wind, and biomass; and positive for geothermal and solar. Further, clean energy funds and required green power options mostly result in increasing the penetration of all types of renewables. On the other hand, voluntary renewable portfolio standards as well as state green power purchasing programs are found to be ineffective in increasing the penetration of any type of renewable source. Finally, economic variables, such as electricity price, natural gas price, and per capita GDP as well as structural variables, such as league of conservation voters rating and the share of coal-generated electricity are found to be generally insignificant, suggesting the crucial role of policy in increasing the penetration of renewables. - Highlights: > Ascertains the impact of state policies on increasing the renewable capacity. > Renewable portfolio requirements have an (sometimes unexpected) impact. > Clean energy funds and required green power options have a positive impact. > Voluntary renewable standards as well as state green power purchasing requirements are ineffective. > Economics as well as political and structural variables are ineffective.

  13. Council Tax Policies and Territorial Governance: Analysis and Outlook of a Difficult Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Rusci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the dependency of local public finance from various forms of taxation related to urban development and real estate has become increasingly evident in Italy. Nevertheless, to date no organic relationship seems to have been established between fiscal policies, on the one hand, and urban planning, on the other. This article examines the ties linking the two areas, focusing on different types of taxes and discussing the aspects that have come to influence the area of planning, with special regard to territorial competition, urban equalization, building rights and land consumption mitigation measures.

  14. Perspectives on European Governance in Comparative Perspective: Interests, Institutions and Policy-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection of papers has been crafted by students of Adrienne Héritier in honour of her 70th birthday on June 29, 2014 and her official retirement from the European University Institute in Florence. We would like to use this occasion to thank and commemorate her for the extraordinary work she......-making’, at Freie Universität in Berlin on July 4 and 5, 2014. The papers aim at encapsulating the versatility of Adrienne’s scholarship by addressing core themes regarding ‘EU Governance’, ‘Policy Analysis’, and ‘Regulation and Governance’. A number of acknowledgements are appropriate regarding the birthday...

  15. Strained local and state government finances among current realities that threaten public hospitals' profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Nancy M; Singer, Sara J; Clark, Jonathan R; Eeckloo, Kristof; Valentine, Melissa

    2012-08-01

    This study demonstrates that some safety-net hospitals--those that provide a large share of the care to low-income, uninsured, and Medicaid populations--survived and even thrived before the recent recession. We analyzed the financial performance and governance of 150 hospitals during 2003-07. We found, counterintuitively, that those directly governed by elected officials and in highly competitive markets were more profitable than other safety-net hospitals. They were financially healthy primarily because they obtained subsidies from state and local governments, such as property tax transfers or supplemental Medicaid payments, including disproportionate share payments. However, safety-net hospitals now face a new market reality. The economic downturn, slow recovery, and politics of deficit reduction have eroded the ability of local governments to support the safety net. Many safety-net hospitals have not focused on effective management, cost control, quality improvement, or services that attract insured patients. As a result, and coupled with new uncertainties regarding Medicaid expansion stemming from the recent Supreme Court decision on the Affordable Care Act, many are likely to face increasing financial and competitive pressures that may threaten their survival.

  16. Current status and future development of Chinese Government Public Information Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Huiwei; WANG; Zhigeng

    2010-01-01

    Since its launch last year,the Chinese Government Public Information Online(CGPIO)platform’s basic construction has developed rapidly.This paper describes the technology and service status of the platform,analyzes its problems,and details the future development of the alliance platform in the future.

  17. Iran`s petroleum policy: Current trends and the future outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezeshki, S.; Fesharaki, F.

    1994-12-01

    The Iranian economy and political situation have undergone radical changes since the 1979 Islamic revolution. The excesses of the early years of the revolution have gradually given way to moderation and a more pragmatic economic policy--based on the principles of the free market. The petroleum policy, as a subset of the economic policies, has been somewhat affected by the political and economic developments in Iran. The petroleum policy has changed from a position of no foreign participation to a position that includes a desire for foreign participation, the text of a model contract, and an attempt to introduce new technologies in the upstream sector. This report provides an overview of the key issues facing the Iranian oil industry and the economic context in which the oil industry is operating in Iran. It describes the evolution of policies meant to move the oil industry toward the free market; it discusses Iran`s oil trading partners, the outlook for refining and project investments, and current and likely future developments in the natural gas and petrochemical sectors. In short, the report provides an up-to-date assessment of the Iranian petroleum sector and its likely evolution in the future.

  18. Impact of current policies on future air quality and health outcomes in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakia, Hem H.; Purohit, Pallav; Rao, Shilpa; Garg, Amit

    2013-08-01

    A key policy challenge in Indian megacities is to curb high concentrations of PM2.5 and mitigate associated adverse health impacts. Using the Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model we carry out an integrated analysis of the air quality regulations across different sectors for the city of Delhi. Our findings show that PM2.5 concentrations for Delhi will not reach the recommended national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) even by 2030 under the current policies scenario. Adopting advanced control technologies reduces PM2.5 concentrations by about 60% and all-cause mortality by half in 2030. Climate change mitigation policies significantly reduce greenhouse gases, but have a modest impact on reducing PM2.5 concentrations. Stringent policies to control the net flow of air pollution from trans-boundary sources will play a crucial role in reducing pollution levels in Delhi city. Achieving NAAQS requires a stringent policy portfolio that combines advanced control technologies with a switch to cleaner fuels and the control of trans-boundary pollution.

  19. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Interaction and the Relationship between the Central Bank and the Government. (The Case of Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Chironachi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is analyzing the impact of fiscal and monetary policies on the dynamics of the exchange rate, inflation and other macroeconomic variables. The author investigates the forms of strategic interaction between the Government and the Central Bank in designing and implementing these policies. As a result, the author concludes the necessity of institutions cooperation in the development and implementation of monetary and fiscal policy measures, but also concluded that the responsible institutions must remain independent in achieving an efficient monetary and fiscal policy of the Republic of Moldova.

  20. Globalization, Governance and Public Policy Transference Globalización, gobierno y transferenciade políticas públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Flores Crespo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and governance pave the way for the ocurrence of policy transfer processes. This article shows that higher education policy in Mexico has been historically influenced by foreign educational models. By using the Policy Transfer Framework, this article also makes three claims: (1 the academic debate has been generally focused on the role of specific international organizations, so a limited perspective about the policy transfer approach emerges; (2 the process of identifying what objects are being transferred to Mexican educational agenda is blurred, and thus, (3 as a consequence of methodological weaknesses, it is difficult to validate whether or not policy transfer processes are taking place in this Latin American country. Therefore, further research needs to be done in order to broaden the understanding of the policy transfer processes in Mexico. La globalización impacta significativamente sobre las formas de gobierno las cuales, a su vez, crean una nueva institucionalidad que sirve de base para la transferencia de políticas públicas. En este artículo se utiliza el Marco de la Transferencia de Políticas para analizar el caso de la educación superior en México, y se sostiene que históricamente el sistema universitario mexicano ha usado de manera recurrente la experiencia externa para la elaboración de sus propias estrategias en materia educativa. Asimismo, se destaca que: (1 el análisis general sobre la adopción o copia de políticas educativas en México se ha centrado básicamente en el papel que desempeñan algunos organismos internacionales lo que genera una visión limitada de la transferencia de políticas; (2 es difícil identificar qué objetos se están realmente transfiriendo de estos organismos a la agenda educativa nacional y, por lo tanto, (3 validar la existencia de una transferencia de políticas educativas es un proceso complicado y abierto a cuestionamientos de tipo metodológico. Por lo tanto, se