WorldWideScience

Sample records for current global recession

  1. REINSURANCE MARKET UNDER THE GLOBAL RECESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Prokofjeva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the reinsurance market during the global recession. Reinsurance market and its place in the global insurance space were studied. The nature of reinsurance market and peculiarities of its development were considered. Author determined the processes of capitalization on the global reinsurance market, defined the process of the reinsurance market establishing and its cycles of development. Current state of domestic and foreign reinsurance market and its trends during the global recession were disclosed. The mechanism of the reinsurance on global reinsurance market was reviewed. The prospects of the domestic reinsurance market development were discussed. Integration processes of Ukrainian reinsurance globalization were defined.

  2. Climate change and the global malaria recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gething, Peter W; Smith, David L; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Snow, Robert W; Hay, Simon I

    2010-05-20

    The current and potential future impact of climate change on malaria is of major public health interest. The proposed effects of rising global temperatures on the future spread and intensification of the disease, and on existing malaria morbidity and mortality rates, substantively influence global health policy. The contemporary spatial limits of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and its endemicity within this range, when compared with comparable historical maps, offer unique insights into the changing global epidemiology of malaria over the last century. It has long been known that the range of malaria has contracted through a century of economic development and disease control. Here, for the first time, we quantify this contraction and the global decreases in malaria endemicity since approximately 1900. We compare the magnitude of these changes to the size of effects on malaria endemicity proposed under future climate scenarios and associated with widely used public health interventions. Our findings have two key and often ignored implications with respect to climate change and malaria. First, widespread claims that rising mean temperatures have already led to increases in worldwide malaria morbidity and mortality are largely at odds with observed decreasing global trends in both its endemicity and geographic extent. Second, the proposed future effects of rising temperatures on endemicity are at least one order of magnitude smaller than changes observed since about 1900 and up to two orders of magnitude smaller than those that can be achieved by the effective scale-up of key control measures. Predictions of an intensification of malaria in a warmer world, based on extrapolated empirical relationships or biological mechanisms, must be set against a context of a century of warming that has seen marked global declines in the disease and a substantial weakening of the global correlation between malaria endemicity and climate.

  3. Global Recession and the National System of Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo; Baskaran, Angethvar

    2011-01-01

    China, which was triggered by the global credit crunch and slow down of trade. Major economies across the world have introduced a series of measures in response to recession and to stem the tide of its negative impacts. These measures included: bank bailouts, rescue packages, fiscal stimuli, and, most....... In this context, we wish to investigate the following research question: 1.How did the strengths and weakness of NSI help or hinder in coping with the adverse effects of the recession in China? It appears that China is the least affected emerging market by the global recession mainly due to the inherent strength...

  4. STRATEGIC PLANNING IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS AND RECESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Anufrijev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the global economic crisis and recession, strategic planning is a necessity. New business environment manifests a new approach to strategic planning and strategic thinking defines the activities with the organizational aspects of the movements in the region has the greatest influence firm size. The financial plan, the deficit of financial assets is a condition that requires new forms of adjustment to market conditions. The recession and the Serbian go hand in hand and the lack of funds, the impact of economic crisis and economic recession are conditions that require urgent and strategic action planning.

  5. The global recession and energy markets

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid Grigoriev

    2010-01-01

    In the years before the economic crisis, global demand for energy resources rose sharply, especially from developing countries. During the economic crisis, oil demand decreased for a short period. In forecasting post-crisis developments, it is reasonable to assume a future reduction in the elasticity of demand for energy in GDP growth as a result of government measures and technological progress.

  6. Global Recession and the National System of Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo; Baskaran, Angethvar

    2011-01-01

    China, which was triggered by the global credit crunch and slow down of trade. Major economies across the world have introduced a series of measures in response to recession and to stem the tide of its negative impacts. These measures included: bank bailouts, rescue packages, fiscal stimuli, and, most...

  7. Marx and Foucault: Subjectivity, Employability and the Crisis of Youth Unemployment in the Great Global Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the different approaches taken to the concepts of work or labour by Marx and Foucault, examining in particular the question of subjectivity in relation to youth unemployment and the current crisis of youth unemployment as part of the aftermath of the global recession of 2008.

  8. Marx and Foucault: Subjectivity, Employability and the Crisis of Youth Unemployment in the Great Global Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the different approaches taken to the concepts of work or labour by Marx and Foucault, examining in particular the question of subjectivity in relation to youth unemployment and the current crisis of youth unemployment as part of the aftermath of the global recession of 2008.

  9. Will Low Crude Oil Prices Cause a Global Recession?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA PAPATULICǍ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available International crude oil market faces almost 2 years of sharp fall in benchmark crude oil prices (mainly Brent from $ 105.7 / barrel in June 2014 to $ 36 / barrel in December 2015 and a minimum of $ 27-28 / barrel (for the last 13 years, in January 2016. Several economists are raising the question whether low crude oil prices are a “growth factor or a curse” for the world economy, and whether they could even cause a recession. Opinions about the effects of the sharp decline, in world oil prices are divided. Some analysts say that such evolution is good for consumers, while others consider it is bad for the global economy. Low oil prices could create disadvantages by causing deflation. The risk is that deflationary expectations determine consumers to refrain from additional purchases in anticipation of even lower prices. This would lead to an excess of production capacity and to ample inventories that will force down the prices even further. When buyers’ suspicions are confirmed, they delay further consumption resulting in a vicious circle. Historically, plummeting crude oil prices have been perceived as a growth factor, especially in the net importing countries. But this has not yet been translated into tangible positive economic effects worldwide.

  10. Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias : the current state of affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, S.; van de Warrenburg, B. P. C.; Willemsen, M. A. A. P.; Cluitmans, M.; Scheffer, H.; Kremer, B. P.; Knoers, N. V. A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Among the hereditary ataxias, autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCAs) encompass a diverse group of rare neurodegenerative disorders in which a cerebellar syndrome is the key clinical feature. The clinical overlap between the different cerebellar ataxias, the occasional atypical phenotypes, an

  11. Will Low Crude Oil Prices Cause a Global Recession?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mariana Papatulica; Petre Prisecaru

    2016-01-01

    ...), in January 2016. Several economists are raising the question whether low crude oil prices are a "growth factor or a curse" for the world economy, and whether they could even cause a recession...

  12. GLOBAL RECESSION AND ASIAN GROWTH: EXPERIENCE AND PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, John Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    The paper outlines current macroeconomic developments in industrial countries and explains how slower growth in these economies is being transmitted to developing economies in Asia. The macroeconomic outlook for industrial countries in 2009 is discussed along with the transmission mechanism that has brought the global downturn tothe Asian economies. Monetary and fiscal policy adjustments in Asian economies have been implemented to address the downturn in economic activity and these policies a...

  13. Museums and Other Nonprofits in the Current Recession: A Story of Resilience, Innovation, and Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Stephanie Lessans; Salamon, Lester M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a nationwide survey conducted in the spring of 2009 that examined the impacts of the current recession on nonprofit organizations, including museums. The survey identified a host of negative effects that nonprofits have been experiencing as a result of the recession, including reduced organizational revenues,…

  14. Museums and Other Nonprofits in the Current Recession: A Story of Resilience, Innovation, and Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Stephanie Lessans; Salamon, Lester M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a nationwide survey conducted in the spring of 2009 that examined the impacts of the current recession on nonprofit organizations, including museums. The survey identified a host of negative effects that nonprofits have been experiencing as a result of the recession, including reduced organizational revenues,…

  15. Global Recession and Higher Education in Eastern Asia: China, Mongolia and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, Gerard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective on the capacity of colleges and universities during past and present economic shocks. The main argument is that the environment of the global recession--an Asia far more economically integrated than during past economic shocks, with more unified aspirations to be globally competitive and socially responsible--no…

  16. Global Health - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on research related to cancer’s impact around the world. Includes posts on factors that influence global cancer incidence and mortality and new research initiatives.

  17. The global financial crisis and the Great Recession of 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Singh, Rajiv G

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a re-examination of the global financial crisis that began in and was accompanied by the most severe recession since the Great Depression. It builds on our earlier paper (Dore and Singh, 2009) and expands its scope. It is divided into parts. The first part deals with the ideological backdrop in which this crisis occurred, namely the belief in the rationality and stability of all markets including the capital markets, called the 'efficient market hypothesis.' The second part is a survey of the role of income distribution and its relations to aggregate spending and the growing role played by credit in the circular flow of income. The third part examines some features of the business cycle expansion phase of to . The fourth part is a brief report on a nonlinear Vector Error Correction model spanning the period to and how this expansion came to an end. The fifth part is a brief comparison of the Great Recession with the Great Depression. Finally in the sixth part, the international impact of the Great Recession is considered briefly, followed by some conclusions.

  18. Pharmaceutical expenditure changes in Serbia and Greece during the global economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo Jakovljevic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Clarity on health expenditures is essential for the timely identification of risks that jeopardize the democratic provision of health services and the credibility of health insurance systems. Furthermore, observing health outcomes with geographical scope is essential for making multilateral associations. This study aimed at conveying information on the variability of important economic parameters of the health sector of Serbia and Greece from 2007 to 2012, when the most serious financial crisis in the post-war economic history hit the global economy. Methods: Exchange rates, purchase-power-parities (PPP and price indices were used for the bilateral review of health and pharmaceutical expenditure dynamics during 2007-2012. Prescription and dispensing changes were also studied taking into account the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC structure of drugs consumed. Results: Greece was forced to cut down its total health care and pharmaceutical expenditure and mainly its out-of-pocket payments were more seriously affected by the recession. Surprisingly, emerging market of Serbia, although severely damaged by global recession, succeeded to maintain 19% growth of its per capita health expenditure and even 25% increase of its per capita spending on pharmaceuticals. Innovative pharmaceuticals showed an upward trend in both countries. Conclusions: These two countries might serve as an example of two distinct pathways of mature and emerging health care markets during financial constraints caused by global recession. Our findings show that producing disease-based feedback, in the long run, may empower the assessment of the return on investment on medical technology and healthcare systems’ cost-effectiveness.

  19. Global economic recessions and the maritime industry 1980-2009 Impact on South African shipping 2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunga Jacobs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The maritime industry is the major enabler of international trade. Major economic events in the international arena such as global recessions affect world trade and therefore the maritime industry as well. South Africa imports and exports major commodities and products therefore such events will also affect the country's economy. This paper explores how different industries within the South African maritime industry have been affected by global economic recessions. As some of them are of great significance to the country's economy, it is imperative to look at how these industries are affected so as to be able to see the national impact.

  20. Global business activities in light of the impacts of the economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kuzmišin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the impacts of the economic recession in 2008-2009, which resulted in significant losses in manufacturing, investments, foreign trade and led to a major rise in unemployment and decrease in the standard of living. Based on the assumptions about the growth of global economy, the attention is paid to the activities of business sphere in the area of investments in terms of the Index of investor confidence published in 2010. As the main motive for investments in the forthcoming future, the security of investments has been identified. The turning point is expected to occur in 2011. Nowadays, there is rather a climate of “suspended investments” due to both the insecurity on the markets and problems with acquiring credits.

  1. GLOBAL BUSINESS ACTIVITIES IN LIGHT OF THE IMPACTS OF THE ECONOMIC RECESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER KUZMIŠIN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the impacts of the economic recession in 2008-2009, which resulted in significant losses in manufacturing, investments, foreign trade and led to a major rise in unemployment and decrease in the standard of living. Based on the assumptions about the growth of global economy, the attention is paid to the activities of business sphere in the area of investments in terms of the Index of investor confidence published in 2010. As the main motive for investments in the forthcoming future, the security of investments has been identified. The turning point is expected to occur in 2011. Nowadays, there is rather a climate of “suspended investments” due to both the insecurity on the markets and problems with acquiring credits.

  2. THE EVOLUTION OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION DURING THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Tuca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis constitutes a serious test for the process of globalization. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the current global crisis on economic globalization. To assess the impact of the current crisis on economic globalization, this paper examines the KOF Index of Globalization, before and during the crisis. The findings generally support the idea that economic globalization has been, in fact, weakened, after the onset of the current crisis. However, there is evidence that suggest that economic globalization has resumed the upward trend that characterized it before the crisis. Despite the fact the global crisis has shaken the process of globalization, we cannot talk of an end of globalization, as some predictions have indicated.

  3. Globalization of DNA-based prenatal diagnosis for recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessagowit, V; Chunharas, A; Wattanasirichaigoon, D; McGrath, J A

    2007-11-01

    Globalization of economies and improvements in international telecommunications has led to increased demand for better access to the latest developments in healthcare, wherever they may be available. In this report, we describe the first case from Thailand of DNA-based prenatal testing of a mother at risk for recurrence of severe recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), whose affected child had died in early childhood. In the absence of previous access to prenatal diagnostic tests, the mother had undergone several terminations for fear of having another affected child. To prevent this happening again, DNA from the mother and her consanguineous partner was sent from Bangkok to a specialist laboratory at St John's Institute of Dermatology in London and screened for pathogenic mutations in the COL7A1 gene: both individuals were shown to be heterozygous carriers of a splice-site mutation, c.2440G --> C. In a subsequent pregnancy, amniocentesis was performed at 18 weeks' gestation in Bangkok, and fetal DNA was extracted and sent to London for analysis. Restriction endonuclease digestion of the amplified fetal DNA revealed the wild-type COL7A1 sequence only, and 5 months later, a clinically unaffected boy was born. This case represents the first example of DNA-based prenatal diagnosis for RDEB in Thailand and illustrates the benefits for patients in establishing international links with diagnostic centres with technological expertise that is not widely available in certain countries.

  4. The Gendered Politics of a Global Recession: a news media analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Akass

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With an eye on the global recession and as recent austerity measures really begin to bite, the UK's leading campaigner for gender equality, The Fawcett Society, has argued that it is women that stand to suffer the most. The latest report from the Office of National Statistics spells out the miserable truth: cuts to local services in England and Wales have resulted in women's jobs accounting for some '66.4% of the total drop in employment in councils'. On the other side of the Atlantic the economic downturn has been widely reported to have turned a differently gendered course and, according to the North American media, has 'taken a disproportionate toll on male employment'. This article will argue that both the North American and British press are witnessing another backlash against feminism much like that described by Susan Faludi in 1992 and further that this style of media reporting is being used to obfuscate more pressing issues such as the impact of austerity measures upon those living on the poverty line – black and working class families.

  5. Measuring macro-level effects of the global economic recession on university-industry research cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azagra-Caro, J.M.; Tijssen, R.J.W.; Yegros-Yegros, A.

    2016-07-01

    The 2007/2008 financial crisis, and ensuing economic recession, had a direct negative effect on university-industry research cooperation in the OECD countries and other economies – it diminished the number of university-industry co-authored research publications (UICs) during the period 2008-13 by 7%. It also changed the relationship between national business expenditure on R&D and UIC output levels. Before the recession the relationship was negative, but became positive during the years 2008-2013. The few countries where business expenditure on R&D increased during recession saw UIC numbers rise. This moderating effect of the recession applies only to ‘domestic UICs’, where universities cooperated with business companies located in the same country. Micro-level research is needed to assess the contributing effects on large university-industry R&D consortia on both domestic and international collaboration patterns. (Author)

  6. Air transport and tourism of Montenegro in terms of global recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's dynamic environment can be characterized as unstable and unpredictable, which significantly affects the development of tourism and the flow of air traffic management which is why the tourism industry should be understood as a process based on continuous research, analysis and understanding of the interactions between the identified changes. Starting from the geographical position and strategic documents on Transport and Tourism, Montenegro is positioned as a air traffic destination whose success in the tourism market is conditioned by the willingness and ability of the holder of the tourist and transport policy pursuant to the challenges of today's approaches to planning and precisely define the development goals and courses of action. Based on the above and due recognition of the economic crisis as the challenges that face our country emphasized the need to analyze the effects of the global economic crisis on the performance of air traffic and future development of tourism in Montenegro. With the intention of the comprehensive observation of the current situation, this paper will present quantitative data from the previous period with the development of air traffic forecasts, organized under the development of Montenegrin tourism. In this way we want the consequences of the global economic crisis displayed as a serious threat to the development of air traffic and tourism in Montenegro, with the ultimate aim of highlighting the importance of establishing high-quality air traffic as part of an integrated approach to tourism development of our country that can achieve a certain degree of resistance to contemporary challenges.

  7. Economic condition of the transport, freight forwarding and logistics sector in Poland in the situation of the global economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently trends of macroeconomic indicators show that economy in Poland, despite the general recession in the EU, is in the stage of economic development. The question is 20 Ryszard Rolbiecki whether these positive signals in the Polish economy in relation to domestic demand, external investment, volume of industrial production and construction are reflected also in the improvement of economic situation in Transport, Freight Forwarding and Logistics (TFL sector in Poland. Hence the goal of the article is to analyze the economic condition of the TFL sector, which is recognized as one of the most important barometers of the economic growth.

  8. The influence of convective current generator on the global current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Morozov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical generalization of classical model of the global circuit with taking into account the convective current generator, working in the planetary boundary layer was considered. Convective current generator may be interpreted as generator, in which the electromotive force is generated by processes, of the turbulent transport of electrical charge. It is shown that the average potential of ionosphere is defined not only by the thunderstorm current generators, working at the present moment, but by the convective current generator also. The influence of the convective processes in the boundary layer on the electrical parameters of the atmosphere is not only local, but has global character as well. The numerical estimations, made for the case of the convective-unstable boundary layer demonstrate that the increase of the average potential of ionosphere may be of the order of 10% to 40%.

  9. The global economic recession and the change in the macroeconomic paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Zivkovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available All countries have felt the impact of the recession, the phase characteristic of negative effects such as slower economic growths (stagnation, high inflation rates and high unemployment rates. The economic crisis that has befallen even the most developed economies of the world is often compared to the crisis that happened in the 1930s, along with the attempts to pin down its causes in order to find the economic policy for its overcoming. Economic policy creators and policy decision-makers have to solve the question of how the crisis is to be overcome. Economic measures that should lead to overcoming the negative economic trends are primarily directed at encouraging aggregate supply, that is, a macroeconomic theory known as Keynesian economics based on the ideas of 30th century British economist John Maynard Keynes that he published during the Depression. Up to this day economies have not faced such a downfall as happened during this crisis, since the crisis brought about not only changes in the economic theory and the end of the so-called classic economic theories, but it also made way for a new scientific discipline based on Keynesian theory. There were changes in economic policies and an active policy of managing aggregate supply was introduced. Aggregate supply was based on monetary and fiscal expansion, that is, the world monetary and financial system. It is expected today that the crisis we are now facing will lead to the change in the dominant macroeconomic paradigm as well as to the creation of a new financial system which will be more transparent and regular.

  10. The dual process model of ideology and prejudice: a longitudinal test during a global recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Chris G; Duckitt, John

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the pathways between personality, social worldviews, and ideology, predicted by the Dual Process Model (DPM) of ideology and prejudice. These paths were tested using a full cross-lagged panel design administered to a New Zealand community sample in early 2008 (before the effects of the global financial crisis reached New Zealand) and again in 2009 (when the crisis was near its peak; n = 247). As hypothesized, low openness to experience predicted residualized change in dangerous worldview, which in turn predicted right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). Low agreeableness predicted competitive worldview, which in turn predicted social dominance orientation (SDO). RWA and SDO also exerted unexpected reciprocal effects on worldviews. This study provides the most comprehensive longitudinal test of the DPM to date, and was conducted during a period of systemic instability when the causal effects predicted by the DPM should be, and were, readily apparent.

  11. THE RECESSING DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINA LUMINITA SARBOVAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For some decades now, the social attention in our country and Europe focused on the ecological part of sustainable economy. Even now, the attention is focused on the foreign debt crisis, fiscal and monetary macroeconomic plans and measures being the most prominent part of the European economic policy. The follow up of this reality is that the rising employment long term goal of European Union did not get a spectacular achievement, in terms of rising employment and diminishing unemployment, as well. Close tied to the European evolution, our country crosses a recessing development because, given the current national effects of the austerity that we all have to face and determined by the global crisis, the economic output measured by GDP is raising, even in such conditions.

  12. Global Ocean Currents Database (GOCD) (NCEI Accession 0093183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Ocean Currents Database (GOCD) is a collection of quality controlled ocean current measurements such as observed current direction and speed obtained from...

  13. Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang

    2016-11-01

    A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.

  14. Singapore in Its Worst Recession for Years. The Effects of the Current Economic Crisis on the City-State’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current economic downturn, Singapore has experienced one of its most severe recessions since independence. The financial crisis, which caused a fall in prices at most of the world’s leading stock exchanges and a sharp decline in industrial production, has also had a negative impact on the city-state’s export-dependent economy. The analysis outlines the economic downturn and the decline of Singapore’s export economy since the beginning of the crisis in late 2008. Central to the analysis are questions regarding the social consequences of the current economic crisis and the amount of losses Singapore’s state-owned holding companies, Temasek and GIC, experienced when some of the world’s biggest investment banks, such as Merrill Lynch, went into bankruptcy.

  15. Impact of the 2008 Global Recession on air quality over the United States: Implications for surface ozone levels from changes in NOx emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Daniel; Pan, Li; Chen, Weiwei; Lamsal, Lok; Lee, Pius; Tang, Youhua; Kim, Hyuncheol; Kondragunta, Shobha; Stajner, Ivanka

    2016-09-01

    Satellite and ground observations detected large variability in nitrogen oxides (NOx) during the 2008 economic recession, but the impact of the recession on air quality has not been quantified. This study combines observed NOx trends and a regional chemical transport model to quantify the impact of the recession on surface ozone (O3) levels over the continental United States. The impact is quantified by simulating O3 concentrations under two emission scenarios: business-as-usual (BAU) and recession. In the BAU case, the emission projection from the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule is used to estimate the "would-be" NOx emission level in 2011. In the recession case, the actual NO2 trends observed from Air Quality System ground monitors and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on the Aura satellite are used to obtain "realistic" changes in NOx emissions. The model prediction with the recession effect agrees better with ground O3 observations over time and space than the prediction with the BAU emission. The results show that the recession caused a 1-2 ppbv decrease in surface O3 concentration over the eastern United States, a slight increase (0.5-1 ppbv) over the Rocky Mountain region, and mixed changes in the Pacific West. The gain in air quality benefits during the recession, however, could be quickly offset by the much slower emission reduction rate during the post-recession period.

  16. Free trade – a priority issue of G-20 summits after the world economy went into recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Alina-Petronela Haller

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The world economy has been greatly affected by the current recession. All countries have suffered regardless of their level of development. Given that global problems require global solutions, world powers have met at summits of the G-20 forum, in order to determine the causes of the recession and adopt the most relevant measures to overcome the crisis and to correct other imbalances (e.g. environmental issues, hunger existing in the world.

  17. [Instituto de Investigaciones Clinicas "Dr. Américo Negrette": 55 years of excellent research versus global economic recession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero Cedeño, Nereida Josefina

    2014-12-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas "Dr. Américo Negrette" belongs to the Faculty of Medicine at University of Zulia in Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. It was created on December 4, 1959 by Dr. Américo Negrette. Today, with 55 years of existence, the Institute seeks to fulfill the mission that characterizes it, based on the values instilled by its founder and maintained by subsequent generations, whose research projects are implemented through seven research sections: Biochemistry, Hematologic Research, Neuropharmacology and Neuroscience, Immunology and Cell Biology, Clinical Neurochemistry, Parasitology and Virology. The research originated in these laboratories have become national and international points of reference, despite the current economic situation with budget deficits that put at risk the quality and originality of their projects with negative consequences on the productivity and applications for health population, reasons of biomedical research.

  18. [Gingival recessions and orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, A M; Padmos, J A D; de Quincey, G de

    2015-11-01

    Gingival recessions represent the most visible periodontal disease. The prevalence of gingival recessions is high. The root surface is literally exposed to negative influences such as erosion, abrasion, discoloration and decay. Moreover, gingival recessions can affect the quality of life by increased thermal sensitivity and reduced dento-gingival aesthetics. The aetiology of gingival recessions is complex and considered to be multifactorial. In order to prevent the development of gingival recessions during and after orthodontic treatment, several factors should be taken into account, among which maintenance of optimal oral hygiene and respect for the 'biological envelope' are decisive. Once gingival recessions have developed, orthodontic therapy can play a positive role in their treatment.

  19. Analysis of Current Global Nuclear Safety and Security Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Chong

    2014-01-01

    Last year, global nuclear security and safety cooperation achieved some progress. In terms of nuclear safety, too many flaws are exposed by the current severe situation of the Fukushima in Japan’s new nuclear safety regulation system, and sound the alarm for East Asia countries accelerating the regional nuclear safety cooperation. In terms of nuclear security, since the Seoul Summit in March 2012, global nuclear security cooperation has achieved new successes. IAEA has and would play the central role in pushing forward the international framework and strengthening nuclear security globally. However, there are still some obstacles to overcome in the future, which need international society to enhance communication and common understanding, especially high-level consultations.

  20. On some issues concerning definition of an economic recession

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří, Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    In the article it is shown that current definitions of economic recessions are unsatisfactory. NBER definition of an economic recession is only qualitative, so it does not enable identifying recession unequivocally. Another often used ‘technical definition’ of a recession takes into account only quarter-to-quarter changes in real GDP without considering changes in population, so in some cases economy can be in recession while real GDP per capita is actually increasing, and vice versa. Hence, ...

  1. Comment on 'Current Budget of the Atmospheric Electric Global Circuit'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kevin T.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, three major issues relevant to Kasemir's new model will be addressed. The first concerns Kasemir's assertion that there are significant differences between the potentials associated with the new model and the conventional model. A recalculation of these potentials reveals that both models provide equivalent results for the potential difference between the Earth and ionosphere. The second issue to be addressed is Kasemir's assertion that discrepancies in the electric potentials associated with both models can be attributed to modeling the Earth as a sphere, instead of as a planar surface. A simple analytical comparison will demonstrate that differences in the equations for the potentials of the atmosphere derived with a spherical and a planar Earth are negligible for applications to global current flow. Finally, the third issue to be discussed is Kasemir's claim that numerous aspects of the conventional model are incorrect, including the role of the ionosphere in global current flow as well as the significance of cloud-to-ground lightning in supplying charge to the global circuit. In order to refute these misconceptions, it will be shown that these aspects related to the flow of charge in the atmosphere are accurately described by the conventional model of the global circuit.

  2. Current Issues of Engineering Education under Globalized Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Sun

    A global world has recently expedited the international collaboration and network among engineering education societies including their scholars. The current issues of engineering education societies have been raised and discussed and those are various topics such as accreditation issues, current trends in engineering and technology education, government policies, innovations, program and project based learning, social sciences in engineering and technology education, university-industry joint programs, human resource development and engineering education, university linkage with K-12, role of engineering education in sustainable development, and the others. Among the variety of issues and topics, the hottest topic is relating to “innovations” of engineering education system. The innovative direction of engineering education in Korea has been reported along with that of USA, whose role has been one of major parts in innovation for the global engineering education system. The recent survey by IFEES (International Federation of Engineering Education Societies) has also been analyzed to consider the current three biggest challenges of global engineering education societies.

  3. Forecasting US Recessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Eriksen, Jonas Nygaard; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2014-01-01

    We study the role of sentiment variables as predictors for US recessions. We combine sentiment variables with either classical recession predictors or common factors based on a large panel of macroeconomic and financial variables. Sentiment variables hold vast predictive power for US recessions i...... in excess of both the classical recession predictors and the common factors. The strong importance of the sentiment variables is documented both in-sample and out-of-sample....

  4. [Gingival recessions and orthodontics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, A.M.; Padmos, J.A.; Quincey, G. de

    2015-01-01

    Gingival recessions represent the most visible periodontal disease. The prevalence of gingival recessions is high. The root surface is literally exposed to negative influences such as erosion, abrasion, discoloration and decay. Moreover, gingival recessions can affect the quality of life by increase

  5. The Current Global Economic Crisis: Gleaning from History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettah B. Essien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study seeks to demonstrate how the knowledge of economic thought could help in explaining and managing the current global economic crisis. The current economic meltdown has affected nations of the world by differing degrees but adversely. Many analysts argue that the adoption of the Washington Consensusfinancial liberalization-gave vent to the crisis. The Washington Consensus discourages government involvement but promotes the operation of the market forces in economic and financial operations. However, the financial and economic devastation caused by the current economic crisis has prompted governments of various nations across the world to intervene through massive stimulus plans in order to rescue their economies from the meltdown situation. This suggests that the role of government in the economy is pertinent, and that the market forces are no substitutes but complement. This, therefore, suggests a fair balance of the government and the market forces in the operations of the economy.

  6. Global panorama of energy access: Current situation, challenges and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galichon, Ines; Lacroix, Olivier; Wiedmer, Damien

    2014-07-15

    Globally 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. If this figure is projected to decline 1 billion by 2030, the global population who relies on the traditional use of biomass for cooking is expected to substantially increase, from 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion people. In its commitment to energy access, ENEA published a synthesis on the current situation and the further development perspectives of energy access worldwide, a crucial issue of human and economic development and an opportunity for the private sector. This synthesis present the ecosystem of the actors involved in the improvement of energy access and the technical solutions that serve the needs of this high-potential market. The five main challenges energy access has to address are presented in this publication: energy prices, equipment financing, distribution, change of scale and environmental performances.

  7. The Current Global Financial Crisis 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albulena Shala

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current global financial crisis is considered as one of the biggest crises after the crisis of the years of 30’s. The global financial crisis has affected all countries including developed and developing ones. It also has affected all the industries. Population with the low-income faced the greatest consequences. The last hope for the survival of the market economy was to undertake important steps for the nationalization of bankrupted banks and companies, thereby developing policies for the preservation of jobs. Through this analysis, we have included briefly some of the development followed the period of 2008 and onwards. A summary of statistics for some important economic indicators such as employment, exporting and importing is covered in this study as well.

  8. Gingival Recessions and Biomechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten Godtfredsen

    Gingival recessions and biomechanics “Tissue is the issue, but bone sets the tone.“ A tooth outside the cortical plate can result in loss of bone and development of a gingival recession. The presentation aims to show biomechanical considerations in relation to movement of teeth with gingival...... recessions. Gingival recession is a problem often in the region of the lower incisors. A micro-CT study on human autopsy material, performed at the University of Aarhus, confirmed that the anterior mandibular alveolar envelope is indeed very thin. The prognosis of a gingival recession can be improved...

  9. Shaped Recess Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram (Inventor); Poinsatte, Philip (Inventor); Thurman, Douglas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    One or more embodiments of techniques or systems for shaped recess flow control are provided herein. A shaped recess or cavity can be formed on a surface associated with fluid flow. The shaped recess can be configured to create or induce fluid effects, temperature effects, or shedding effects that interact with a free stream or other structures. The shaped recess can be formed at an angle to a free stream flow and may be substantially "V" shaped. The shaped recess can be coupled with a cooling channel, for example. The shaped recess can be upstream or downstream from a cooling channel and aligned in a variety of manners. Due to the fluid effects, shedding effects, and temperature effects created by a shaped recess, lift-off or separation of cooling jets of cooling channels can be mitigated, thereby enhancing film cooling effectiveness.

  10. Recessive resistance to plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truniger, V; Aranda, M A

    2009-01-01

    About half of the approximately 200 known virus resistance genes in plants are recessively inherited, suggesting that this form of resistance is more common for viruses than for other plant pathogens. The use of such genes is therefore a very important tool in breeding programs to control plant diseases caused by pathogenic viruses. Over the last few years, the detailed analysis of many host/virus combinations has substantially advanced basic research on recessive resistance mechanisms in crop species. This type of resistance is preferentially expressed in protoplasts and inoculated leaves, influencing virus multiplication at the single-cell level as well as cell-to-cell movement. Importantly, a growing number of recessive resistance genes have been cloned from crop species, and further analysis has shown them all to encode translation initiation factors of the 4E (eIF4E) and 4G (eIF4G) families. However, not all of the loss-of-susceptibility mutants identified in collections of mutagenized hosts correspond to mutations in eIF4E and eIF4G. This, together with other supporting data, suggests that more extensive characterization of the natural variability of resistance genes may identify new host factors conferring recessive resistance. In this chapter, we discuss the recent work carried out to characterize loss-of-susceptibility and recessive resistance genes in crop and model species. We review actual and probable recessive resistance mechanisms, and bring the chapter to a close by summarizing the current state-of-the-art and offering perspectives on potential future developments.

  11. Traditional medicines and globalization: current and future perspectives in ethnopharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLeonti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethnopharmacological approach towards the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especially with respect to therapies related to ageing related, chronic and infectious diseases traditional medicines offer promising alternatives to biomedicine. Bioassays applied in ethnopharmacology represent the molecular characteristics and complexities of the disease or symptoms for which an indigenous drug is used in traditional medicine to variable depth and extent. One-dimensional in vitro approaches rarely cope with the complexity of human diseases and ignore the concept of polypharmacological synergies. The recent focus on holistic approaches and systems biology in medicinal plant research represents the trend towards the description and the understanding of complex multi-parameter systems.Ethnopharmacopoeias are non-static cultural constructs shaped by belief and knowledge systems. Intensified globalization and economic liberalism currently accelerates the interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias via international trade, television, the World Wide Web and print media. The increased infiltration of newly generated biomedical knowledge and introduction of foreign medicines into local pharmacopoeias leads to syncretic developments and generates a feedback loop. While modern and post-modern cultures and knowledge systems adapt and transform the global impact, they become more relevant for ethnopharmacology. Moreover, what is traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective.

  12. Traditional medicines and globalization: current and future perspectives in ethnopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Casu, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ethnopharmacological approach toward the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especially with respect to therapies related to aging related, chronic and infectious diseases traditional medicines offer promising alternatives to biomedicine. Bioassays applied in ethnopharmacology represent the molecular characteristics and complexities of the disease or symptoms for which an indigenous drug is used in "traditional" medicine to variable depth and extent. One-dimensional in vitro approaches rarely cope with the complexity of human diseases and ignore the concept of polypharmacological synergies. The recent focus on holistic approaches and systems biology in medicinal plant research represents the trend toward the description and the understanding of complex multi-parameter systems. Ethnopharmacopoeias are non-static cultural constructs shaped by belief and knowledge systems. Intensified globalization and economic liberalism currently accelerates the interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias via international trade, television, the World Wide Web and print media. The increased infiltration of newly generated biomedical knowledge and introduction of "foreign" medicines into local pharmacopoeias leads to syncretic developments and generates a feedback loop. While modern and post-modern cultures and knowledge systems adapt and transform the global impact, they become more relevant for ethnopharmacology. Moreover, what is traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective.

  13. Consumption as a Factor of Polish Economic Growth During the Global Recession of 2008/2009: A Comparison with Spain and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Jasiński

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic recession of 2007-2009 proved to be a difficult period for most European economies. Poland was among the few countries that recorded positive gross domestic product (GDP growth during that period. The main reason for its performance was that private consumption stimulated the GDP. The goal of this study was to explore the reasons that private consumption in Poland did not collapse during the economic recession through the substantial economic literature on this topic. The study compared Spain, Hungary and Poland from 2007 to 2009 to find differences specific to the latter. The most important factors differentiating Poland identified in this study were the confidence of Polish consumers in the economy and a high propensity to spend resulting in lower savings. Additional factors were a relatively low unemployment rate and relatively easy access to credit.

  14. Drought Duration Biases in Current Global Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Heewon; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Seneviratne, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Several droughts in the recent past are characterized by their increased duration and intensity. In particular, substantially prolonged droughts have brought major societal and economic losses in certain regions, yet climate change projections of such droughts in terms of duration is subject to large uncertainties. This study analyzes the biases of drought duration in state-of-the-art global climate model (GCM) simulations from the 5th phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Drought durations are defined as negative precipitation anomalies and evaluated with three observation-based datasets in the period of 1901-2010. Large spread in biases of GCMs is commonly found in all regions, with particular strong biases in North East Brazil, Africa, Northern Australia, Central America, Central and Northern Europe, Sahel and Asia. Also in most regions, the interquartile range of bias lies below 0, meaning that the GCMs tend to underestimate drought durations. Meanwhile in some regions such as Western South America, the Amazon, Sahel, West and South Africa, and Asia, considerable inconsistency among the three observation-based datasets were found. These results indicate substantial uncertainties and errors in current GCMs for simulating drought durations as well as a large spread in observation-based datasets, both of which are found to be particularly strong in those regions that are often considered to be hot spots of projected future drying. The underlying sources of these uncertainties need to be identified in further study and will be applied to constrain GCM-based drought projections under climate change.

  15. Review of the current wind energy technologies and global market

    OpenAIRE

    Komarov, Dragan; Stupar, Slobodan; Posteljnik, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    The modern wind energy technologies and recent global wind energy market trends are reviewed in the paper. Basic principles of conversion of wind energy to electricity are described with brief overview of the state-of-the-art technologies for subassemblies such as wind turbine blades and drive trains. Global wind energy market was reviewed in order to attain notion of wind power market developments in the future. The most developed countries in terms of wind energy utilization such as Denmark...

  16. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position mor

  17. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position

  18. Origin, dispersal and current global distribution of cacao genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is cultivated globally as the unique source of cocoa butter and powder for the confectionery industries. In spite of its economical importance, cocoa was and continues to be dominantly produced in low-input and low-output systems. Production constraints, including depletio...

  19. Superluminal Recession Velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, T M; Davis, Tamara M.; Lineweaver, Charles H.

    2000-01-01

    Hubble's Law, v=HD (recession velocity is proportional to distance), is a theoretical result derived from the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric. v=HD applies at least as far as the particle horizon and in principle for all distances. Thus, galaxies with distances greater than D=c/H are receding from us with velocities greater than the speed of light and superluminal recession is a fundamental part of the general relativistic description of the expanding universe. This apparent contradiction of special relativity (SR) is often mistakenly remedied by converting redshift to velocity using SR. Here we show that galaxies with recession velocities faster than the speed of light are observable and that in all viable cosmological models, galaxies above a redshift of three are receding superluminally.

  20. Currents, Geostrophic, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Zonal Geostrophic Current is inferred from Sea Surface Height Deviation, climatological dynamic height, and basic fluid mechanics.

  1. Currents, Geostrophic, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Meridional

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Meridional Geostrophic Current is inferred from Sea Surface Height Deviation, climatological dynamic height, and basic fluid mechanics.

  2. [Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, V; Penkova, S; Lalev, I

    1990-01-01

    A case of a 22 years old woman with autosomal-recessive form of kidney polycystosis is presented. The diagnosis was made in early childhood. A combination of renal anomaly and hepatic fibrosis with manifestations of portal hypertension was present. No deviations from the other internal organs were found. At the age of 12 she entered into the stage of chronic renal failure. The last five years she is on dialysis treatment. She had survived several acute bleedings from esophageal varices. The authors are of the opinion that the case is of interest since patients with autosomal-recessive renal polycystosis very rarely reach majority.

  3. Globalization of Gerontology Education: Current Practices and Perceptions for Graduate Gerontology Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Samuel M.; Yamashita, Takashi; Ewen, Heidi H.; Manning, Lydia K.; Kunkel, Suzanne R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level…

  4. Globalization of Gerontology Education: Current Practices and Perceptions for Graduate Gerontology Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Samuel M.; Yamashita, Takashi; Ewen, Heidi H.; Manning, Lydia K.; Kunkel, Suzanne R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level…

  5. Current Status of Japanese Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, Misako; Oki, Riko; Kubota, Takuji; Masaki, Takeshi; Kida, Satoshi; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji; Takayabu, Yukari N.

    2013-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is a mission led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under collaboration with many international partners, who will provide constellation of satellites carrying microwave radiometer instruments. The GPM Core Observatory, which carries the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) developed by JAXA and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) developed by NASA. The GPM Core Observatory is scheduled to be launched in early 2014. JAXA also provides the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) 1st - Water (GCOM-W1) named "SHIZUKU," as one of constellation satellites. The SHIZUKU satellite was launched in 18 May, 2012 from JAXA's Tanegashima Space Center, and public data release of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) on board the SHIZUKU satellite was planned that Level 1 products in January 2013, and Level 2 products including precipitation in May 2013. The Japanese GPM research project conducts scientific activities on algorithm development, ground validation, application research including production of research products. In addition, we promote collaboration studies in Japan and Asian countries, and public relations activities to extend potential users of satellite precipitation products. In pre-launch phase, most of our activities are focused on the algorithm development and the ground validation related to the algorithm development. As the GPM standard products, JAXA develops the DPR Level 1 algorithm, and the NASA-JAXA Joint Algorithm Team develops the DPR Level 2 and the DPR-GMI combined Level2 algorithms. JAXA also develops the Global Rainfall Map product as national product to distribute hourly and 0.1-degree horizontal resolution rainfall map. All standard algorithms including Japan-US joint algorithm will be reviewed by the Japan-US Joint

  6. The Recess Renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2015-01-01

    The author tells of his work around the country and world on transforming how schools do recess, free play, and outside time by transforming their outdoor spaces to match. Instead of a playground of fixed structures like traditional school grounds, newer spaces are filled with loose materials that children can use to build forts, dens, and tree…

  7. The current global status of Chinese materia medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinmin; Zou, Jiangqiang; Sheng, Zhixiang; Su, Guangqiang; Chen, Shilin

    2009-10-01

    The Chinese government has recently established a national project to improve the standards of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) products, particularly regarding their quality control and safety evaluation, in order to promote modernization and increase international trade. In 2006, the global sales value of Chinese medicinal products increased to 20 billion US$, and the export value of CMM was up to more than 1 billion US$. However, the standard of these products still needs to be improved to meet the more stringent requirements of the international markets. Over the past decade we have witnessed the increasing growth in popularity of health foods and herbal medicinal products, especially Chinese Materia Medica products (CMM).

  8. The CAWSES Global Observing Campaign on Tides: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, W. E.; Gerding, M.; Goncharenko, L.; Keckhut, P.; Marsh, D.; Oberheide, J.; Rao, D. N.; Scheer, .; Singer, W.

    2007-05-01

    The CAWSES Global Tidal Campaign was initiated to encourage collaboration between satellite and ground based observations and to identify features in various observation types consistent with specific components. This project is one of several sponsored under Theme 3, Atmospheric Coupling Processes, of the international Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System program (CAWSES, a SCOSTEP sponsored program). The overall goal of the campaign is to provide global data sets for several concentrated time periods over the next few years which includes coordinated ground-based and satellite measurements and modeling efforts. To unambiguously resolve the tidal components present in the Earth's atmosphere requires spatial and temporal sampling sufficient to resolve wavenumbers up to at least 5 and periods down to 4.8 hours every two to three days. Neither satellite or ground based observations on their own are capable of achieving these goals. Interpretation of tidal signatures in different observables (for example wind and temperature) is complicated by the fact the the associated latitudinal structures are typically different. A global network is required to allow these structures to be examined. Three campaign periods have been sceduled to date. The first tidal campaign took place from September 1 to October 31, 2005 and this year two campaigns, March 1 to April 31, and June 1 to August 15 are planned. The first of these latter campaigns will concentrate on the global tidal structures during equinox and their evolution and variability during this time period. The second of these campaigns will address the tidal structures during solstice conditions. Strong hemispheric asymmetries are know to develop in the structure of the migrating diurnal tide and it is of interest to determine the form of other components. These campaigns will allow the characterization of the heating sources, tidal components (migrating and nonmigrating), and tidal effects from the surface of the

  9. Asbestos case and its current implications for global health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marsili

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding a major body of evidence on the carcinogenicity of all asbestos fibres and a general consensus of the scientific community on the health impact of this agent, asbestos is still produced and used in a large number of countries, thus determining further harm for future generations. Prevention of asbestos-related disease requires international cooperation, transfer of know-how and dissemination of successful procedures in order to contrast asbestos exposure in the frame of a global environmental health approach.

  10. Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玮丽

    2008-01-01

    This paper mainly talks about the currently hot topic-globalization. Firstly, it brings out the general trend about globalization and how to better understand its implication. Secondly, it largely focuses on how to deal with it properly, especially for international marketers. Then, facing with the overwhelming trend, it is time for us to think about seriously what has globalization brought to us. Last but not least, it summarized the author's personal view about the future of globalization and how should we go.

  11. Zika virus: Global health challenge, threat and current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hafsa; Zia, Aadarash; Anwer, Amania; Aziz, Muneeba; Fatima, Shazia; Faheem, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    ZIKV has emerged as grave global health issue in the past few years. ZIKV was firstly isolated in 1947 from a rhesus sentinel monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda. It is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes and infects skin fibroblasts, skin keratinocytes, etc. ZIKV until now was under reported because of its clinical similarity with the dengue and chikungunya. It is usually spread through the course of the sylvatic cycle. In this cycle, the virus or pathogen lifespan is spent between the wild animal and vectors. The intrinsic incubation period is not yet fully known but it is observed that the very first symptoms of ZIKV infection can appear or develop within 3-12 days of time period and usually subside within 7 days of time. There is a strong relationship between prenatal Zika virus infection and microcephaly; other serious brain anomalies to the infant or newborn are Guillain-Barré syndrome. To date no vaccines are available for ZIKV prevention hence only symptomatic treatment is recommended in infected patients. Usually ZIKV is detected by serologic (IgM ELISA), plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) along with in-house" molecular techniques (RT-PCR). ZIKV infection being imminent global health issue warrants strong protective measures to prevent it from becoming an epidemic. Early detection and prevention is the key to tackle this grave potential health hazard. J. Med. Virol. 89:943-951, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Is there a technological fix for the current global stagnation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2016-01-01

    Daniele Archibugi asks whether the 2007–8 financial and economic crisis was brought about by the exhaustion of the current techno-economic paradigm, and whether a new paradigm will lead to eventual recovery. My answer to both questions is ‘No’. Whilst it is useful to think in terms of techno...

  13. Current Voices of Reforms in American Education: Ethnocentrism or Globalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubaiy, Abdul A.

    An analysis of four major reports on the current quality of education in the United States turned up very little concern for international education. "A Nation at Risk" and the reports of the Education Commission of the States, the Twentieth Century Fund, and the Carnegie Commission for the Advancement of Teaching were examined and the…

  14. Highly intense lightning over the oceans: Estimated peak currents from global GLD360 observations

    OpenAIRE

    İnan, Umran Savaş; Said, R. K.; Cohen, M. B

    2013-01-01

    We present the ?rst global distribution of the average estimated peak currents in negative lightning ?ashes using 1 year of continuous data from the Vaisala global lightning data set GLD360. The data set, composed of 353 million ?ashes, was compared with the National Lightning Detection NetworkTM for peak current accuracy, location accuracy, and detection ef?ciency. The validation results demonstrated a mean (geometric mean) peak current magnitude error of 21% (6%), a median lo...

  15. Measuring and predicting heterogeneous recessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Cakmakli; R. Paap; D. van Dijk

    2011-01-01

    This paper conducts an empirical analysis of the heterogeneity of recessions in monthly U.S. coincident and leading indicator variables. Univariate Markovswitching models indicate that it is appropriate to allow for two distinct recession regimes, corresponding with ‘mild’ and ‘severe’ recessions. A

  16. Gingival Recessions and Biomechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten Godtfredsen

    Gingival recessions and biomechanics “Tissue is the issue, but bone sets the tone.“ A tooth outside the cortical plate can result in loss of bone and development of a gingival recession. The presentation aims to show biomechanical considerations in relation to movement of teeth with gingival...... by moving the root back in the alveolus. The tooth movement is accompanied by bone gain and thus increase the success rate for soft tissue augmentation. The choice of biomechanical system influences the treatment outcome. If a standard straight wire appliance is used, a biomechanical dilemma can arise....... The forces applied to bring the tooth back into the alveolar process generate opposite reactive forces, which can direct the adjacent teeth out towards the boundary of the bony envelope. A different force system can be achieved with a segmented appliance: The reaction forces from the root movement...

  17. Current and future patterns of global marine mammal biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Kaschner

    Full Text Available Quantifying the spatial distribution of taxa is an important prerequisite for the preservation of biodiversity, and can provide a baseline against which to measure the impacts of climate change. Here we analyse patterns of marine mammal species richness based on predictions of global distributional ranges for 115 species, including all extant pinnipeds and cetaceans. We used an environmental suitability model specifically designed to address the paucity of distributional data for many marine mammal species. We generated richness patterns by overlaying predicted distributions for all species; these were then validated against sightings data from dedicated long-term surveys in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, the Northeast Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. Model outputs correlated well with empirically observed patterns of biodiversity in all three survey regions. Marine mammal richness was predicted to be highest in temperate waters of both hemispheres with distinct hotspots around New Zealand, Japan, Baja California, the Galapagos Islands, the Southeast Pacific, and the Southern Ocean. We then applied our model to explore potential changes in biodiversity under future perturbations of environmental conditions. Forward projections of biodiversity using an intermediate Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC temperature scenario predicted that projected ocean warming and changes in sea ice cover until 2050 may have moderate effects on the spatial patterns of marine mammal richness. Increases in cetacean richness were predicted above 40° latitude in both hemispheres, while decreases in both pinniped and cetacean richness were expected at lower latitudes. Our results show how species distribution models can be applied to explore broad patterns of marine biodiversity worldwide for taxa for which limited distributional data are available.

  18. Current and future patterns of global marine mammal biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschner, Kristin; Tittensor, Derek P; Ready, Jonathan; Gerrodette, Tim; Worm, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial distribution of taxa is an important prerequisite for the preservation of biodiversity, and can provide a baseline against which to measure the impacts of climate change. Here we analyse patterns of marine mammal species richness based on predictions of global distributional ranges for 115 species, including all extant pinnipeds and cetaceans. We used an environmental suitability model specifically designed to address the paucity of distributional data for many marine mammal species. We generated richness patterns by overlaying predicted distributions for all species; these were then validated against sightings data from dedicated long-term surveys in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, the Northeast Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. Model outputs correlated well with empirically observed patterns of biodiversity in all three survey regions. Marine mammal richness was predicted to be highest in temperate waters of both hemispheres with distinct hotspots around New Zealand, Japan, Baja California, the Galapagos Islands, the Southeast Pacific, and the Southern Ocean. We then applied our model to explore potential changes in biodiversity under future perturbations of environmental conditions. Forward projections of biodiversity using an intermediate Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) temperature scenario predicted that projected ocean warming and changes in sea ice cover until 2050 may have moderate effects on the spatial patterns of marine mammal richness. Increases in cetacean richness were predicted above 40° latitude in both hemispheres, while decreases in both pinniped and cetacean richness were expected at lower latitudes. Our results show how species distribution models can be applied to explore broad patterns of marine biodiversity worldwide for taxa for which limited distributional data are available.

  19. Global energy and environmental security in the current global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosov Yuri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of the environmental impact of energy. Further reduction of this impact on the global environment can be achieved two ways. The short-term one implies the increase in energy efficiency. In the next 15—20 years, the increase in efficiency should become a priority of the energy policy of all states. The long-term one is based on the gradual expansion of renewable energy. This method is aimed to avoid further economic and energy crises. At the same time, it has an important environmental aspect. Experts claim that the new area of global energy should be less costly than the traditional ones.

  20. Global energy and environmental security in the current global economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Kosov Yuri; Mallon Vim

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the problems of energy sector environmental impact. Further reduction of the global energy sector impact on the global environment can be achieved by two methods. The first, short-term one implies the increase in energy efficiency. In the next 15—20 years, the increase in the efficiency should become a priority of the energy policy of all states. The second, long-term method is based on the gradual expansion of the scope of re-newable energy application. This method is ...

  1. Current Global Almond Trade and Its Consumption Patterns Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article aims to investigate the current situation of the international almond trade and its consumption patterns.Traditionally, almonds are characterized by their good taste and high quality and regarded as an ideal source of several natural health nutrients. At present, the United States is the leading almond producer and exporter in the world, accompanied by Germany, Spain and Japan, the biggest almond importing countries. In order to study almond consumption patterns, two indicators were used in our study, the Food Consumer Location Ratio (FCLR) and the Food Consumer Location Relative Ratio (FCLRR). Furthermore, to identify the almond consumption groups, we carried out two cluster analyses based on FCLR and FCLRR values. Finally, an analysis of the factors which have an impact on a country's almond consumption was conducted. It shows that income level, endowment of resources and tradition as well as dietary habits are key factors that help to shape a country's almond consumption pattern.

  2. The global HIV epidemic: current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2013-06-01

    Three decades after the first reported cases of AIDS we have within our reach sufficient evidence to substantially alter the HIV epidemic at a country level regardless of mode of transmission of HIV. There are a growing number of countries demonstrating control of the epidemic. Human rights violations and/or legislation relating to sexual orientation, status of minors, injecting drug use and sex work together with stigma and discrimination remain key barriers to knowledge of HIV status and access to appropriate services. The use of anti-retrovirals prophylactically to reduce sexual and vertical transmission and systemically to treat infected infants and adults is central to the optimism in responses to the epidemic. In the current fiscal climate careful thought needs to be given to how to efficiently optimise combinations of what is available to have the biggest impact in the context of limited human and infrastructure resources.

  3. A current global view of environmental and occupational cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mihi

    2011-07-01

    This review is focused on current information of avoidable environmental pollution and occupational exposure as causes of cancer. Approximately 2% to 8% of all cancers are thought to be due to occupation. In addition, occupational and environmental cancers have their own characteristics, e.g., specific chemicals and cancers, multiple factors, multiple causation and interaction, or latency period. Concerning carcinogens, asbestos/silica/wood dust, soot/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [benzo(a) pyrene], heavy metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), aromatic amines (4-aminobiphenyl, benzidine), organic solvents (benzene or vinyl chloride), radiation/radon, or indoor pollutants (formaldehyde, tobacco smoking) are mentioned with their specific cancers, e.g., lung, skin, and bladder cancers, mesothelioma or leukemia, and exposure routes, rubber or pigment manufacturing, textile, painting, insulation, mining, and so on. In addition, nanoparticles, electromagnetic waves, and climate changes are suspected as future carcinogenic sources. Moreover, the aspects of environmental and occupational cancers are quite different between developing and developed countries. The recent follow-up of occupational cancers in Nordic countries shows a good example for developed countries. On the other hand, newly industrializing countries face an increased burden of occupational and environmental cancers. Developing countries are particularly suffering from preventable cancers in mining, agriculture, or industries without proper implication of safety regulations. Therefore, industrialized countries are expected to educate and provide support for developing countries. In addition, citizens can encounter new environmental and occupational carcinogen nominators such as nanomaterials, electromagnetic wave, and climate exchanges. As their carcinogenicity or involvement in carcinogenesis is not clearly unknown, proper consideration for them should be taken into account. For these purposes, new

  4. Recessively transmitted predominantly motor neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parman, Yeşim; Battaloğlu, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Recessively transmitted predominantly motor neuropathies are rare and show a severe phenotype. They are frequently observed in populations with a high rate of consanguineous marriages. At least 15 genes and six loci have been found to be associated with autosomal recessive CMT (AR-CMT) and X-linked CMT (AR-CMTX) and also distal hereditary motor neuronopathy (AR-dHMN). These disorders are genetically heterogeneous but the clinical phenotype is relatively homogeneous. Distal muscle weakness and atrophy predominating in the lower extremities, diminished or absent deep tendon reflexes, distal sensory loss, and pes cavus are the main clinical features of this disorder with occasional cranial nerve involvement. Although genetic diagnosis of some of subtypes of AR-CMT are now available, rapid advances in the molecular genetics and cell biology show a great complexity. Animal models for the most common subtypes of human AR-CMT disease provide clues for understanding the pathogenesis of CMT and also help to reveal possible treatment strategies of inherited neuropathies. This chapter highlights the clinical features and the recent genetic and biological findings in these disorders based on the current classification.

  5. Recession-An issue for organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel GEORGESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The reality in all organization is that the directors and board are in the position of highest influence and their primary responsibility is leadership. As such, considering the consequences of a recession such as we currently face is not the time for directors to abdicate their responsibilities – it is time for governance leadership. The directors and the board must think and respond strategically. The article shows a matrix for positioning the general manager in recession that is similarly with BCG matrix and in the final a table with a set of essential questions for helping the board in new strategies building.

  6. Globalization of Gerontology Education: Current Practices and Perceptions for Graduate Gerontology Education in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    MWANGI, SAMUEL M.; Yamashita, Takashi; EWEN, HEIDI H.; Manning, Lydia K.; KUNKEL, SUZANNE R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level degree programs. The authors conducted qualitative interviews with representatives of the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education, the major nati...

  7. Global properties of magnetotail current sheet flapping: THEMIS perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Runov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A sequence of magnetic field oscillations with an amplitude of up to 30 nT and a time scale of 30 min was detected by four of the five THEMIS spacecraft in the magnetotail plasma sheet. The probes P1 and P2 were at X=−15.2 and −12.7 RE and P3 and P4 were at X=−7.9 RE. All four probes were at −6.5>Y>−7.5 RE (major conjunction. Multi-point timing analysis of the magnetic field variations shows that fronts of the oscillations propagated flankward (dawnward and Earthward nearly perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic maximum variation (B1 at velocities of 20–30 km/s. These are typical characteristics of current sheet flapping motion. The observed anti-correlation between ∂B1/∂t and the Z-component of the bulk velocity make it possible to estimate a flapping amplitude of 1 to 3 RE. The cross-tail scale wave-length was found to be about 5 RE. Thus the flapping waves are steep tail-aligned structures with a lengthwise scale of >10 RE. The intermittent plasma motion with the cross-tail velocity component changing its sign, observed during flapping, indicates that the flapping waves were propagating through the ambient plasma. Simultaneous observations of the magnetic field variations by THEMIS ground-based magnetometers show that the flapping oscillations were observed during the growth phase of a substorm.

  8. Global Trends and Current Status of Commercial Urban Rooftop Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Buehler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze current practices in commercial urban rooftop farming (URF. In recent years, URF has been experiencing increasing popularity. It is a practice that is well-suited to enhancing food security in cities and reducing the environmental impact that results from long transportation distances that are common in conventional agriculture. To date, most URF initiatives have been motivated by social and educational factors rather than the aim of creating large sustainable food production systems in cities. The commercial operation of urban rooftop farms, should they become profitable, is likely to attract notable private investment, allowing a significant level of high quality urban food production to be achieved. There is a reasonable amount of literature available on urban farming that deals with its potential, and its limitations. However, it does not focus on commercial operations. In contrast to other surveys and theoretical papers, this study of URF focuses on large and commercial operations. The analysis showed that commercial URFs can be grouped into two main types: Firstly, hydroponic systems in greenhouses where mostly leafy greens, tomatoes, and herbs are grown; secondly, soil-based open-air farms that grow a large variety of vegetables. Hydroponics is frequently seen as the key technology for commercial urban food production. While the technology is not in and of itself sustainable, hydroponic farms often make an effort to implement environmentally friendly technologies and methods. However, there is still untapped potential to systemically integrate farms into buildings. The findings of this study identified where future research is needed in order to make URF a widespread sustainable solution.

  9. Economic recession and mental health: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the current global economic downturn on population mental health will emerge in the years ahead. Judging from earlier experience of financial crises in various parts of the world, stresses associated with rising unemployment, poverty and social insecurity will lead to upward trends in many national suicide rates, as well as to less readily charted increase in the prevalence of psychiatric illness, alcohol-related disorders and illicit drug use. At the same time, mental health services are being cut back as part of government austerity programs. Budget cuts will thus affect psychiatric services adversely just when economic stressors are raising the levels of need and demand in affected populations. Proactive fiscal and social policies could, however, help to mitigate the health consequences of recession. Evidence- based preventive measures include active labor market and family support programs, regulation of alcohol prices and availability, community care for known high-risk groups, and debt relief projects. Economic mental health care could best be achieved, not by decimating services but by planning and deploying these to meet the needs of defined area populations.

  10. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  11. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat, Sorghum (sorghum, Pennisetum (pearl millet, Eleusine (finger millet, Cicer (chickpea and Lens (lentil exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth, Chenopodium (quinoa, Eragrostis (teff and Abelmoschus (okra. In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  12. Global Security Rule Sets An Analysis of the Current Global Security Environment and Rule Sets Governing Nuclear Weapons Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollahan, K; Nattrass, L

    2004-09-30

    America is in a unique position in its history. In maintaining its position as the world's only superpower, the US consistently finds itself taking on the role of a global cop, chief exporter of hard and soft power, and primary impetus for globalization. A view of the current global situation shows an America that can benefit greatly from the effects of globalization and soft power. Similarly, America's power can be reduced significantly if globalization and its soft power are not handled properly. At the same time, America has slowly come to realize that its next major adversary is not a near peer competitor but terrorism and disconnected nations that seek nuclear capabilities. In dealing with this new threat, America needs to come to terms with its own nuclear arsenal and build a security rule set that will establish for the world explicitly what actions will cause the US to consider nuclear weapons release. This rule set; however, needs to be established with sensitivity to the US's international interests in globalization and soft power. The US must find a way to establish its doctrine governing nuclear weapons release without threatening other peaceful nations in the process.

  13. The dynamism of the current global (and globalized moments: implications for teachers, administrators, and other educational leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan WAITE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the current conditions that have an impact upon teachers and their teaching. These global conditions are influenced by corporatist, corporativist, and neo-liberal forces, which are also discussed here. These global and increasingly globalizing trends make teaching difficult, even dangerous work, especially for the conscientious teacher, who must mediate helping the student in his/her becoming and doing the state’s work. Doing the state’s work generally involves disciplining the student and others, or policing the distribution of the sensible, and mediating these competing interests is difficult. Instructional supervision, educational leadership and educational administration are taken up, informed, especially, by Hazony’s discussion of the shepherd and the farmer.

  14. RECESSION AND INTERNATIONAL MARKET CORRELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Jones

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationships between various world stock indices from June 2007 to May 2009. The primary concern is whether the recession and the higher variance in daily market returns impact correlations between market indices. The results suggest that the correlations between daily returns on market indices are higher during the recession period of September 2008 to May 2009.

  15. Will ethical consumers sustain their values in the global credit crunch?

    OpenAIRE

    Carrigan, Marylyn; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The current global recession is presenting new and difficult challenges for those customers wishing to consume sustainably and ethically, and the marketers who seek to provide the goods that allow them to do so. This viewpoint will explore to what extent international marketers can engage consumers with a social conscience and retain their loyalty This conceptual paper explores the impact the global recession is having upon consumers and marketers, and considers the evidence surrounding conce...

  16. Winning in Global Value Chain: A Shifting Strategy of Chinese Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Peng

    2009-01-01

    @@ With the trend of globalization,no country will be spared and immune to what is happening on the global stage.Faced with the current global financial crisis and subsequent economic recession,to every corner of the world,what measures should be taken are heatedly discussed on the level of international community,country and company.

  17. Semiconductor devices having a recessed electrode structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2015-05-26

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.

  18. Global Electric Circuit Implications of Total Current Measurements over Electrified Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2009-01-01

    We determined total conduction (Wilson) currents and flash rates for 850 overflights of electrified clouds spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive and negative Wilson currents. We combined these individual storm overflight statistics with global diurnal lightning variation data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) to estimate the thunderstorm and electrified shower cloud contributions to the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit. The contributions to the global electric circuit from lightning producing clouds are estimated by taking the mean current per flash derived from the overflight data for land and ocean overflights and combining it with the global lightning rates (for land and ocean) and their diurnal variation derived from the LIS/OTD data. We estimate the contribution of non-lightning producing electrified clouds by assuming several different diurnal variations and total non-electrified storm counts to produce estimates of the total storm currents (lightning and non-lightning producing storms). The storm counts and diurnal variations are constrained so that the resultant total current diurnal variation equals the diurnal variation in the fair weather electric field (+/-15%). These assumptions, combined with the airborne and satellite data, suggest that the total mean current in the global electric circuit ranges from 2.0 to 2.7 kA, which is greater than estimates made by others using other methods.

  19. Global Electric Circuit Implications of Total Current Measurements over Electrified Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2009-01-01

    We determined total conduction (Wilson) currents and flash rates for 850 overflights of electrified clouds spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive and negative Wilson currents. We combined these individual storm overflight statistics with global diurnal lightning variation data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) to estimate the thunderstorm and electrified shower cloud contributions to the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit. The contributions to the global electric circuit from lightning producing clouds are estimated by taking the mean current per flash derived from the overflight data for land and ocean overflights and combining it with the global lightning rates (for land and ocean) and their diurnal variation derived from the LIS/OTD data. We estimate the contribution of non-lightning producing electrified clouds by assuming several different diurnal variations and total non-electrified storm counts to produce estimates of the total storm currents (lightning and non-lightning producing storms). The storm counts and diurnal variations are constrained so that the resultant total current diurnal variation equals the diurnal variation in the fair weather electric field (+/-15%). These assumptions, combined with the airborne and satellite data, suggest that the total mean current in the global electric circuit ranges from 2.0 to 2.7 kA, which is greater than estimates made by others using other methods.

  20. The LandScan Global Population Distribution Project: Current State of the Art and Prospective Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Amy N [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Advances in remote sensing, dasymetric mapping techniques, and the ever-increasing availability of spatial datasets have enhanced global human population distribution databases. These datasets demonstrate an enormous improvement over the conventional use of choropleth maps to represent population distribution and are vital for analysis and planning purposes including humanitarian response, disease mapping, risk analysis, and evacuation modeling. Dasymetric mapping techniques have been employed to address spatial mismatch, but also to develop finer resolution population distributions in areas of the world where subnational census data are coarse or non-existent. One such implementation is the LandScan Global model which provides a 30 arc-second global population distribution based on ancillary datasets such as land cover, slope, proximity to roads, and settlement locations. This work will review the current state of the LandScan model, future innovations aimed at increasing spatial and demographic resolution, and situate LandScan within the landscape of other global population distribution datasets.

  1. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of mercury world-wide are presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the m

  2. Globalisation and the foreignisation of space: The seven processes driving the current global land grab.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoomers, E.B.

    2010-01-01

    The current global land grab is causing radical changes in the use and ownership of land. The main process driving the land grab, or ‘foreignisation of space’, as highlighted in the media and the emerging literature is the production of food and biofuel for export in the aftermath of recent food and

  3. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of mercury world-wide are presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  4. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, J. M.; Travnikov, O.; De Simone, F.; Hedgecock, I. M.; Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, E. G.; Steenhuisen, F.; Pirrone, N.; Munthe, J.; Kindbom, K.

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  5. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuisen, Frits

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the ma

  6. Global Warming: Can Existing Reserves Really Preserve Current Levels of Biological Diversity?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Paleoecological evidence and paleoclimatic records indicate that there was a plant poleward migration in latitude and an upward shift in elevation with increased temperatures after the last glaciation. Recent studies have shown that global warming over the past 100 years has been having a noticeable effect on living systems.Current global warming is causing a poleward and upward shift in the range of many plants and animals.Climate change, in connection with other global changes, is threatening the survival of a wide range of plant and animal species. This raises the question: can existing reserves really preserve current levels of biological diversity in the long term given the present rapid pace of climate change? The present paper deals with this question in the context of the responses of plants and animals to global climate change, based on a literature review. Consequently, we recommend expanding reserves towards the poles and/or towards higher altitudes,to permit species to shift their ranges to keep pace with global warming.

  7. OPERATIONS OF THE CENTRAL BANK ON THE FINANCIAL MARKET FOR THE PERIOD OF EXIT FROM THE RECESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Liubkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The global economy is currently facing one of the longest recessions in the past fifty years. The way out of the Great recession requires active measures to stimulate the demand in the economy. However, distinctive features of the recent recession are the significant amount of a debt burden on national budgets, low inflation contributes to an increasing potential of a monetary policy to ensure economic recovery, but require from the central bank an unconventional approach to achieve the broad set of goals. One of the tools of so-called unconventional monetary policy is quantitative easing. The USA experience of applying the unconventional monetary policy suggests that the quantitative easing is an effective tool for warming up the economy in the recession phase, especially in the medium terms, but it causes challenges for developing of the national economy (credit risk deterioration of the central bank's portfolio, rising commodity prices, flows of speculative capital and like "secondary effects" challenges for developing of the global economy (interest rates volatility, price bubbles on stock markets, currency risks, etc..

  8. Autosomal recessive epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaleh, Q A; Teebi, A S

    1990-08-01

    Palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) is a heterogeneous group of disorders. Epidermolytic PPK is a well delineated autosomal dominant entity, but no recessive form is known. Here we report two sons of phenotypically normal, consanguineous, Arab parents with features suggestive of PPK. They presented with patchy eczematous skin lesions followed by PPK and raised serum levels of IgE. Skin biopsy from the keratotic lesions showed the features of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. Autosomal recessive inheritance is suggested and the differential diagnosis is discussed.

  9. Global, Energy-Dependent Ring Current Response During Two Large Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Burch, J. L.; De Pascuale, S.; Fuselier, S. A.; Genestreti, K. J.; Kurth, W. S.; LLera, K.; McComas, D. J.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Valek, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    Two recent large (~200 nT) geomagnetic storms occurred during 17--18 March 2015 and 22--23 June 2015. The global, energy-dependent ring current response to these two extreme events is investigated using both global imaging and multi-point in situ observations. Energetic neutral atom (ENA) imaging by the Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission provides a global view of ring current ions. Local measurements are provided by two multi-spacecraft missions. The two Van Allen Probes measure in situ plasma (including ion composition) and fields at ring current and plasmaspheric L values. The recently launched Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) comprises four spacecraft that have just begun to measure particles (including ion composition) and fields at outer magnetospheric L-values. We analyze the timing and energetics of the stormtime evolution of ring current ions, both trapped and precipitating, using TWINS ENA images and in situ data by the Van Allen Probes and MMS.

  10. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-10-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013) and future (2035) air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal) for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions), including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year-1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %), followed by biomass burning (9 %). A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT) have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has proved to be a very important

  11. Neuroscience in recession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Susan G; Grillner, Sten; Insel, Tom; Nutt, David; Tsumoto, Tadaharu

    2011-05-01

    As the global financial downturn continues, its impact on neuroscientists - both on an individual level and at the level of their research institute - becomes increasingly apparent. How is the economic crisis affecting neuroscience funding, career prospects, international collaborations and scientists' morale in different parts of the world? Nature Reviews Neuroscience gauged the opinions of a number of leading neuroscientists: the President of the Society for Neuroscience, the President Elect of the British Neuroscience Association, the former President of the Japan Neuroscience Society, the President of the Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and the Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Their responses provide interesting and important insights into the regional impact of the global financial downturn, with some causes for optimism for the future of neuroscience research.

  12. Global warming precipitation accumulation increases above the current-climate cutoff scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelin, J David; Sahany, Sandeep; Stechmann, Samuel N; Bernstein, Diana N

    2017-02-07

    Precipitation accumulations, integrated over rainfall events, can be affected by both intensity and duration of the storm event. Thus, although precipitation intensity is widely projected to increase under global warming, a clear framework for predicting accumulation changes has been lacking, despite the importance of accumulations for societal impacts. Theory for changes in the probability density function (pdf) of precipitation accumulations is presented with an evaluation of these changes in global climate model simulations. We show that a simple set of conditions implies roughly exponential increases in the frequency of the very largest accumulations above a physical cutoff scale, increasing with event size. The pdf exhibits an approximately power-law range where probability density drops slowly with each order of magnitude size increase, up to a cutoff at large accumulations that limits the largest events experienced in current climate. The theory predicts that the cutoff scale, controlled by the interplay of moisture convergence variance and precipitation loss, tends to increase under global warming. Thus, precisely the large accumulations above the cutoff that are currently rare will exhibit increases in the warmer climate as this cutoff is extended. This indeed occurs in the full climate model, with a 3 °C end-of-century global-average warming yielding regional increases of hundreds of percent to >1,000% in the probability density of the largest accumulations that have historical precedents. The probabilities of unprecedented accumulations are also consistent with the extension of the cutoff.

  13. Global warming precipitation accumulation increases above the current-climate cutoff scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahany, Sandeep; Stechmann, Samuel N.; Bernstein, Diana N.

    2017-01-01

    Precipitation accumulations, integrated over rainfall events, can be affected by both intensity and duration of the storm event. Thus, although precipitation intensity is widely projected to increase under global warming, a clear framework for predicting accumulation changes has been lacking, despite the importance of accumulations for societal impacts. Theory for changes in the probability density function (pdf) of precipitation accumulations is presented with an evaluation of these changes in global climate model simulations. We show that a simple set of conditions implies roughly exponential increases in the frequency of the very largest accumulations above a physical cutoff scale, increasing with event size. The pdf exhibits an approximately power-law range where probability density drops slowly with each order of magnitude size increase, up to a cutoff at large accumulations that limits the largest events experienced in current climate. The theory predicts that the cutoff scale, controlled by the interplay of moisture convergence variance and precipitation loss, tends to increase under global warming. Thus, precisely the large accumulations above the cutoff that are currently rare will exhibit increases in the warmer climate as this cutoff is extended. This indeed occurs in the full climate model, with a 3 °C end-of-century global-average warming yielding regional increases of hundreds of percent to >1,000% in the probability density of the largest accumulations that have historical precedents. The probabilities of unprecedented accumulations are also consistent with the extension of the cutoff. PMID:28115693

  14. Global warming precipitation accumulation increases above the current-climate cutoff scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelin, J. David; Sahany, Sandeep; Stechmann, Samuel N.; Bernstein, Diana N.

    2017-02-01

    Precipitation accumulations, integrated over rainfall events, can be affected by both intensity and duration of the storm event. Thus, although precipitation intensity is widely projected to increase under global warming, a clear framework for predicting accumulation changes has been lacking, despite the importance of accumulations for societal impacts. Theory for changes in the probability density function (pdf) of precipitation accumulations is presented with an evaluation of these changes in global climate model simulations. We show that a simple set of conditions implies roughly exponential increases in the frequency of the very largest accumulations above a physical cutoff scale, increasing with event size. The pdf exhibits an approximately power-law range where probability density drops slowly with each order of magnitude size increase, up to a cutoff at large accumulations that limits the largest events experienced in current climate. The theory predicts that the cutoff scale, controlled by the interplay of moisture convergence variance and precipitation loss, tends to increase under global warming. Thus, precisely the large accumulations above the cutoff that are currently rare will exhibit increases in the warmer climate as this cutoff is extended. This indeed occurs in the full climate model, with a 3 °C end-of-century global-average warming yielding regional increases of hundreds of percent to >1,000% in the probability density of the largest accumulations that have historical precedents. The probabilities of unprecedented accumulations are also consistent with the extension of the cutoff.

  15. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a hi

  16. The Phenomenon of Financial Economics: Russia and the World Are in Current Global Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine P. Akinina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the current situation on the global financial arena, analyzing the chain of cause and effect of the origins of the economic crisis and providing its possible logical outcomes. We are trying to prove here that the way the world economic situation develops will lead to either further growth or stagnation of national economies and define their position in the global business, financial, and social spheres.

    We provide an analysis of the serious transformations financial economics have been undergoing at the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries. All these changes, such as the development of international fusions on financial markets, the creation of new financial instruments, products and services, and others, have been caused largely by (and also have led to significant events in the global political arena. However, regardless of the transformations, world leadership remains in the hands of US government and business and that of their closest partners, while those societies that are not willing to support the “Americanized” world order end up on the blacklist of the World Bank, the IMF, and other international financial institutions.

    Finally, the article provides our views of the possible ways of dealing with the global economic stagnation. We highlight the importance of the strong and careful supervision of any global as well as national financial activities, the education of the public on the issues of wise investments, and the dangers of living on credit.

  17. The Current State of Global Activities Related to Deep-sea Mineral Exploration and Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Sven; Krätschell, Anna; Hannington, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea mining is seen as a potential way to provide future secure metal supply to global markets. The current rush to the seafloor in areas beyond national jurisdiction indicates that sound knowledge of the geological characteritics of the various commodities, a realistic resource assessment, and a social and political discussion about the cons and pros of their exploitation that is based on facts, not myths, is required. This contribution provides the most recent information on...

  18. Magnetotail Current Sheet Thinning and Magnetic Reconnection Dynamics in Global Modeling of Substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, M. M.; Hesse, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Toth, G.; DeZeeuw, D. L.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetotail current sheet thinning and magnetic reconnection are key elements of magnetospheric substorms. We utilized the global MHD model BATS-R-US with Adaptive Mesh Refinement developed at the University of Michigan to investigate the formation and dynamic evolution of the magnetotail thin current sheet. The BATSRUS adaptive grid structure allows resolving magnetotail regions with increased current density up to ion kinetic scales. We investigated dynamics of magnetotail current sheet thinning in response to southwards IMF turning. Gradual slow current sheet thinning during the early growth phase become exponentially fast during the last few minutes prior to nightside reconnection onset. The later stage of current sheet thinning is accompanied by earthward flows and rapid suppression of normal magnetic field component $B-z$. Current sheet thinning set the stage for near-earth magnetic reconnection. In collisionless magnetospheric plasma, the primary mechanism controlling the dissipation in the vicinity of the reconnection site is non-gyrotropic effects with spatial scales comparable with the particle Larmor radius. One of the major challenges in global MHD modeling of the magnetotail magnetic reconnection is to reproduce fast reconnection rates typically observed in smallscale kinetic simulations. Bursts of fast reconnection cause fast magnetic field reconfiguration typical for magnetospheric substorms. To incorporate nongyritropic effects in diffusion regions we developed an algorithm to search for magnetotail reconnection sites, specifically where the magnetic field components perpendicular to the local current direction approaches zero and form an X-type configuration. Spatial scales of the diffusion region and magnitude of the reconnection electric field are calculated self-consistently using MHD plasma and field parameters in the vicinity of the reconnection site. The location of the reconnection sites and spatial scales of the diffusion region are updated

  19. Comparison of empirical magnetic field models and global MHD simulations: The near-tail currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, T. I.; Baker, D. N.; Walker, R. J.; Raeder, J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    1995-01-01

    The tail currents predicted by empirical magnetic field models and global MHD simulations are compared. It is shown that the near-Earth currents obtained from the MHD simulations are much weaker than the currents predicted by the Tsyganenko models, primarily because the ring current is not properly represented in the simulations. On the other hand, in the mid-tail and distant tail the lobe field strength predicted by the simulations is comparable to what is observed at about 50 R(sub E) distance, significantly larger than the very low lobe field values predicted by the Tsyganenko models at that distance. Ways to improve these complementary approaches to model the actual magnetospheric configuration are discussed.

  20. What are the implications of rapid global warming for landslide-triggered turbidity current activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Peter, Talling; James, Hunt

    2014-05-01

    A geologically short-lived (~170kyr) episode of global warming occurred at ~55Ma, termed the Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum (IETM). Global temperatures rose by up to 8oC over only ~10kyr and a massive perturbation of the global carbon cycle occurred; creating a negative carbon isotopic (~-4% δ13C) excursion in sedimentary records. This interval has relevance to study of future climate change and its influence on geohazards including submarine landslides and turbidity currents. We analyse the recurrence frequency of turbidity currents, potentially initiated from large-volume slope failures. The study focuses on two sedimentary intervals that straddle the IETM and we discuss implications for turbidity current triggering. We present the results of statistical analyses (regression, generalised linear model, and proportional hazards model) for extensive turbidite records from an outcrop at Zumaia in NE Spain (N=285; 54.0 to 56.5 Ma) and based on ODP site 1068 on the Iberian Margin (N=1571; 48.2 to 67.6 Ma). The sedimentary sequences provide clear differentiation between hemipelagic and turbiditic mud with only negligible evidence of erosion. We infer dates for turbidites by converting hemipelagic bed thicknesses to time using interval-averaged accumulation rates. Multi-proxy dating techniques provide good age constraint. The background trend for the Zumaia record shows a near-exponential distribution of turbidite recurrence intervals, while the Iberian Margin shows a log-normal response. This is interpreted to be related to regional time-independence (exponential) and the effects of additive processes (log-normal). We discuss how a log-normal response may actually be generated over geological timescales from multiple shorter periods of random turbidite recurrence. The IETM interval shows a dramatic departure from both these background trends, however. This is marked by prolonged hiatuses (0.1 and 0.6 Myr duration) in turbidity current activity in contrast to the

  1. Objective hydrograph baseflow recession analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian F.; Vogel, Richard M.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2015-06-01

    A streamflow hydrograph recession curve expresses the theoretical relationship between aquifer structure and groundwater outflow to a stream channel. That theoretical relationship is often portrayed empirically using a recession plot defined as a plot of ln(-dQ/dt) versus ln(Q), where Q is streamflow discharge. Such hydrograph recession plots are commonly used to estimate recession parameters, aquifer properties and for evaluating alternative hydrologic hypotheses. We introduce a comprehensive and objective approach to analyze baseflow recessions with innovations including the use of quantile regression, efficient and objective numerical estimation of dQ/dt, inclusion of groundwater withdrawals, and incorporation of seasonal effects. We document that these innovations when all combined, lead to significant improvements, over previous studies, in our ability to discern the theoretical behavior of stream aquifer systems. A case study reveals that our methodology enables us to reject the simple linear reservoir hypothesis of stream aquifer interactions for watersheds in New Jersey and results in improved correlations between low flow statistics and aquifer properties for those same watersheds.

  2. Applications to One Business School Skyrocketed Despite Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In the past two years, the global financial crisis has wreaked havoc on businesses in America and abroad. But the gloom and doom seems to have had the opposite effect on business schools. The reason is that a recession often signals the perfect time for proactive students to sharpen their skill sets, shift their career goals (whether toward a…

  3. Improving Understanding of the Agulhas Current and Its Global Climate Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Lisa; Biastoch, Arne

    2010-05-01

    Working Group on the Climatic Importance of the Greater Agulhas System; Portland, Oregon, 20-21 February 2010; The first meeting of the new Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group 136 was held to discuss recent developments in understanding the greater Agulhas Current system and future research directions. The overarching goal of the working group is to improve understanding and awareness of the regional and global climate impacts of the Agulhas Current, a major western boundary current that flows along the east coast of Africa, and its interocean leakage. In addition to studying modern circulation, the working group is motivated by recent paleodata that suggest that through the currents' southern influence on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), changes in the leakage of warm and salty Agulhas waters into the Atlantic may have triggered the end of ice ages. In terms of global climate, this arguably puts the importance of the greater Agulhas system on a par with Heinrich (land-ice release) events and high-latitude deepwater formation.

  4. The NASA's Long-Term Global Solar Energy Resource: Current Solar Resource Variability and Future Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Cox, S. J.; Zhang, T.; Chandler, W.; Westberg, D.; Hoell, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Considering the likelihood of global climate change and the global competition for energy resources, there is an increasing need to provide improved global Earth surface solar resource information. The improved long-term records are needed to better understand and quantify potential shifts in the solar resource with anticipated changes in climatic weather patterns. As part of the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP) Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), NASA has an active Surface Radiation Budget project that has produced long-term global gridded estimates of the surface solar fluxes. These fluxes have been processed and made available to the solar energy community over the years through NASA's Surface meteorology and Solar Energy web site (SSE). This web site provides solar resource and accompanying meteorological variables specifically tailored to the renewable energy community spanning a 22 year period. The web application has been improved over time with usage growing nearly exponentially over the last few years. This paper presents the global and regional variability of the solar resource from the current data available at the SSE web application. The variability is compared for large different spatial scales and compared to other data sets where appropriate. We assess the interannual variability compared against surface sites and other satellite based data sets. These comparisons quantify the limits of usefulness of this data set. For instance, we find long-term linear trends that are dominated by satellite based artifacts in some areas, but agree well with surface measurements in others. Nevertheless, the extremes of solar variability are quantified and show agreement with surface observations good enough for most feasibility studies of solar energy systems. This presentation also contains a description of work currently on going to replace the current solar resource information available on SSE with a completely reprocessed version. The

  5. Ecophysiology of avian migration in the face of current global hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Marcel; Hoye, Bethany J; Nolet, Bart A; Buttemer, William A

    2012-06-19

    Long-distance migratory birds are often considered extreme athletes, possessing a range of traits that approach the physiological limits of vertebrate design. In addition, their movements must be carefully timed to ensure that they obtain resources of sufficient quantity and quality to satisfy their high-energy needs. Migratory birds may therefore be particularly vulnerable to global change processes that are projected to alter the quality and quantity of resource availability. Because long-distance flight requires high and sustained aerobic capacity, even minor decreases in vitality can have large negative consequences for migrants. In the light of this, we assess how current global change processes may affect the ability of birds to meet the physiological demands of migration, and suggest areas where avian physiologists may help to identify potential hazards. Predicting the consequences of global change scenarios on migrant species requires (i) reconciliation of empirical and theoretical studies of avian flight physiology; (ii) an understanding of the effects of food quality, toxicants and disease on migrant performance; and (iii) mechanistic models that integrate abiotic and biotic factors to predict migratory behaviour. Critically, a multi-dimensional concept of vitality would greatly facilitate evaluation of the impact of various global change processes on the population dynamics of migratory birds.

  6. Current status and trends in oral health in community dwelling older adults: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossioni, Anastassia E

    2013-01-01

    To record the available current national and regional data on the oral health of community-dwelling (living in their own homes, not institutionalised) older people globally and discuss the future trends considering existing dangers and opportunities. A literature search on tooth loss, dental decay and periodontal disease in the elderly was performed using available databases and electronic sources. The findings revealed that the updated national data are scarce in many parts of the world, particularly in Africa, Asia and South America, and direct comparisons are not always possible due to methodological variations. The available information may indicate that dental disease in older adults worldwide is more prevalent compared to younger age groups, with significant variation between countries and regions. Tooth loss is currently more common in the developed countries, while dental decay and periodontal disease are more widespread globally. There are important threats for further deterioration of the oral status among older adults in many developed and less developed areas due to existing sociodemographic and economic risk factors. National studies should be undertaken to record the specific oral problems of the elderly in each area. It is also necessary to develop gerodontology study programmes globally at the undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing education levels which will enhance dentists' knowledge, skills and attitudes towards oral care in the older population, and will promote opportunities for further research and development of relevant policies.

  7. Albedo control of seasonal South Polar cap recession on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frédéric; Douté, Sylvain; Schmitt, Bernard; Vincendon, Mathieu; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Langevin, Yves; Omega Team

    2009-04-01

    Over the last few decades, General Circulation Models (GCM) have been used to simulate the current martian climate. The calibration of these GCMs with the current seasonal cycle is a crucial step in understanding the climate history of Mars. One of the main climatic signals currently used to validate GCMs is the annual atmospheric pressure cycle. It is difficult to use changes in seasonal deposits on the surface of Mars to calibrate the GCMs given the spectral ambiguities between CO 2 and H 2O ice in the visible range. With the OMEGA imaging spectrometer covering the near infra-red range, it is now possible to monitor both types of ice at a spatial resolution of about 1 km. At global scale, we determine the change with time of the Seasonal South Polar Cap (SSPC) crocus line, defining the edge of CO 2 deposits. This crocus line is not symmetric around the geographic South Pole. At local scale, we introduce the snowdrop distance, describing the local structure of the SSPC edge. Crocus line and snowdrop distance changes can now be used to calibrate GCMs. The albedo of the seasonal deposits is usually assumed to be a uniform and constant parameter of the GCMs. In this study, albedo is found to be the main parameter controlling the SSPC recession at both global and local scale. Using a defrost mass balance model (referred to as D-frost) that incorporates the effect of shadowing induced by topography, we show that the global SSPC asymmetry in the crocus line is controlled by albedo variations. At local scale, we show that the snowdrop distance is correlated with the albedo variability. Further GCM improvements should take into account these two results. We propose several possibilities for the origin of the asymmetric albedo control. The next step will be to identify and model the physical processes that create the albedo differences.

  8. Controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic: current status and global challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten eDemberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of the current status of the global HIV pandemic and strategies to bring it under control. It updates numerous preventive approaches including behavioral interventions, male circumcision, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, vaccines, and microbicides. The manuscript summarizes current anti-retroviral treatment options, their impact in the western world, and difficulties faced by emerging and resource-limited nations in providing and maintaining appropriate treatment regimens. Current clinical and pre-clinical approaches towards a cure for HIV are described, including new drug compounds that target viral reservoirs and gene therapy approaches aimed at altering susceptibility to HIV infection. Recent progress in vaccine development is summarized, including novel approaches and new discoveries.

  9. Health in financial crises: economic recession and tuberculosis in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dye, Christopher

    2010-11-06

    The ongoing global financial crisis, which began in 2007, has drawn attention to the effect of declining economic conditions on public health. A quantitative analysis of previous events can offer insights into the potential health effects of economic decline. In the early 1990s, widespread recession across Central and Eastern Europe accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union. At the same time, despite previously falling tuberculosis (TB) incidence in most countries, there was an upsurge of TB cases and deaths throughout the region. Here, we study the quantitative relationship between the lost economic productivity and excess TB cases and mortality. We use the data of the World Health Organization for TB notifications and deaths from 1980 to 2006, and World Bank data for gross domestic product. Comparing 15 countries for which sufficient data exist, we find strong linear associations between the lost economic productivity over the period of recession for each country and excess numbers of TB cases (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) and deaths (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) over the same period. If TB epidemiology and control are linked to economies in 2009 as they were in 1991 then the Baltic states, particularly Latvia, are now vulnerable to another upturn in TB cases and deaths. These projections are in accordance with emerging data on drug consumption, which indicate that these countries have undergone the greatest reductions since the beginning of 2008. We recommend close surveillance and monitoring during the current recession, especially in the Baltic states.

  10. Coincident polio and Ebola crises expose similar fault lines in the current global health regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calain, Philippe; Abu Sa'Da, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared two "public health emergencies of international concern", in response to the worldwide polio situation and the Ebola epidemic in West Africa respectively. Both emergencies can be seen as testing moments, challenging the current model of epidemic governance, where two worldviews co-exist: global health security and humanitarian biomedicine. The resurgence of polio and the spread of Ebola in 2014 have not only exposed the weaknesses of national health systems, but also the shortcomings of the current global health regime in dealing with transnational epidemic threats. These shortcomings are of three sorts. Firstly, the global health regime is fragmented and dominated by the domestic security priorities of industrialised nations. Secondly, the WHO has been constrained by constitutional country allegiances, crippling reforms and the limited impact of the (2005) International Health Regulations (IHR) framework. Thirdly, the securitization of infectious diseases and the militarization of humanitarian aid undermine the establishment of credible public health surveillance networks and the capacity to control epidemic threats. The securitization of communicable diseases has so far led foreign aid policies to sideline health systems. It has also been the source of ongoing misperceptions over the aims of global health initiatives. With its strict allegiance to Member States, the WHO mandate is problematic, particularly when it comes to controlling epidemic diseases. In this context, humanitarian medical organizations are expected to palliate the absence of public health services in the most destitute areas, particularly in conflict zones. The militarization of humanitarian aid itself threatens this fragile and imperfect equilibrium. None of the reforms announced by the WHO in the wake of the 68(th) World Health Assembly address these fundamental issues.

  11. Total kinetic energy in four global eddying ocean circulation models and over 5000 current meter records

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    We compare the total kinetic energy (TKE) in four global eddying ocean circulation simulations with a global dataset of over 5000, quality controlled, moored current meter records. At individual mooring sites, there was considerable scatter between models and observations that was greater than estimated statistical uncertainty. Averaging over all current meter records in various depth ranges, all four models had mean TKE within a factor of two of observations above 3500. m, and within a factor of three below 3500. m. With the exception of observations between 20 and 100. m, the models tended to straddle the observations. However, individual models had clear biases. The free running (no data assimilation) model biases were largest below 2000. m. Idealized simulations revealed that the parameterized bottom boundary layer tidal currents were not likely the source of the problem, but that reducing quadratic bottom drag coefficient may improve the fit with deep observations. Data assimilation clearly improved the model-observation comparison, especially below 2000. m, despite assimilated data existing mostly above this depth and only south of 47°N. Different diagnostics revealed different aspects of the comparison, though in general the models appeared to be in an eddying-regime with TKE that compared reasonably well with observations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Economic recession and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Theocharous

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis, which struck in Europe since 2008, has raised concerns about the health of the less privileged, vulnerable and poor people of the continent - the ordinary people of Europe. There is currently sufficient evidence for the negative and, in certain countries, devastating effects of austerity policies on the financing of health and other services of general interest, essential to promote the proper functioning of our economies and the cohesion of our societies. This evidence proves that health and social services are seriously impaired.

  13. Current trends in the global tourism industry: evidence from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejdet Delener

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the largest U.S. industries, serving millions of international and domestic tourists yearly. Tourists visit the U.S. to see natural wonders, cities, historic landmarks, and entertainment venues. Americans seek similar attractions as well as recreation and vacation areas. Tourism competes in the global market, so it is important to understand current trends in the U.S. travel industry. Therefore, this article offers insight into important trends and suggests strategies for policy makers involved in the travel and tourism industry.

  14. The Indian Stock Market and the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam MANDAL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the impact of the outbreak of the Great Recession of 2007 on the behavior of the Indian stock market. The SENSEX index of the Bombay Stock Exchange is analyzed for the prerecession period of January 2002 – November 2007 and the postrecession outbreak period of December 2007 – July 2010. Substantial increase in SENSEX return volatility observed during the post-recession outbreak period, whereas no substantial difference in returns between two periods is found. Also strong co-movements in returns and volatility are observed between the SENSEX and other major stock indexes during the post-recession period. Our results establish the dominance of global factors in influencing Indian stock market behavior during periods of economic turmoil.

  15. COMPETITIVE DYNAMICS AND EARLY MOVER ADVANTAGES UNDER ECONOMIC RECESSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Vassolo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the recent macroeconomic instability in global markets, we examine the evolution of competitive dynamics and firm profitability when industries are subject to recessions. Although ordinary intuition leads most to view recessions as harmful, we highlight conditions under which they enhance the relative value of industry-level supply-side isolating mechanisms, thereby affording early movers significant and sustainable profit advantages vis-à-vis laggards. We observe that the distribution of firm size within the industry switches from a bi-modal distribution (i.e., one dominated by both small and large firms to a right-skewed one (i.e., dominated mostly by large firms in these contexts, thereby signaling the rise of important opportunities in the form of less rivalrous competitive contexts for survivors of recessions. We derive our results from formal modeling and multiple simulation runs.

  16. Spin-up and adjustment of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and global pycnocline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, L. C.; Johnson, H. L.; Marshall, D. P.

    2012-04-01

    A theory is presented for the adjustment of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and global pycnocline to a sudden and sustained change in wind forcing. The adjustment timescale is controlled by the mesoscale eddy diffusivity across the ACC, the mean width of the ACC, the surface area of the ocean basins to the north, and deep water formation in the North Atlantic. In particular, northern sinking may have the potential to shorten the timescale and reduce its sensitivity to Southern Ocean eddies, but the relative importance of northern sinking and Southern Ocean eddies cannot be determined precisely, largely due to limitations in the parameterization of northern sinking. Although it is clear that the main processes that control the adjustment timescale are those which counteract the deepening of the global pycnocline, the theory also suggests that the timescale can be subtly modified by wind forcing over the ACC and global diapycnal mixing. Results from calculations with a reduced-gravity model compare well with the theory. The multidecadal-centennial adjustment timescale implies that long observational time series will be required to detect dynamic change in the ACC due to anthropogenic forcing. The potential role of Southern Ocean mesoscale eddy activity in determining both the equilibrium state of the ACC and the timescale over which it adjusts suggests that the response to anthropogenic forcing may be rather different in coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models that parameterize and resolve mesoscale eddies.

  17. Numerical analysis of global ionospheric current system including the effect of equatorial enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tsunomura

    Full Text Available A modeling method is proposed to derive a two-dimensional ionospheric layer conductivity, which is appropriate to obtain a realistic solution of the polar-originating ionospheric current system including equatorial enhancement. The model can be obtained by modifying the conventional, thin shell conductivity model. It is shown that the modification for one of the non-diagonal terms (Σθφ in the conductivity tensor near the equatorial region is very important; the term influences the profile of the ionospheric electric field around the equator drastically. The proposed model can reproduce well the results representing the observed electric and magnetic field signatures of geomagnetic sudden commencement. The new model is applied to two factors concerning polar-originating ionospheric current systems. First, the latitudinal profile of the DP2 amplitude in the daytime is examined, changing the canceling rate for the dawn-to-dusk electric field by the region 2 field-aligned current. It is shown that the equatorial enhancement would not appear when the ratio of the total amount of the region 2 field-aligned current to that of region 1 exceeds 0.5. Second, the north-south asymmetry of the magnetic fields in the summer solstice condition of the ionospheric conductivity is examined by calculating the global ionospheric current system covering both hemispheres simultaneously. It is shown that the positive relationship between the magnitudes of high latitude magnetic fields and the conductivity is clearly seen if a voltage generator is given as the source, while the relationship is vague or even reversed for a current generator. The new model, based on the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model, can be applied to further investigations in the quantitative analysis of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling problems.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; equatorial ionosphere; ionosphere

  18. Overburndened and Underfunded: California Public Schools Amidst the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoda Freelon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008, many nations, including the United States, have struggled with the effects of a global recession. The state of California has been particularly impacted by the Great Recession. Unemployment rates in California are among the highest in the United States, and a weak fiscal environment has forced deep cutbacks to a variety of state services. This study uses California as a case to explore the effects of economic crisis on public schools and the students they serve. The study draws on two years of survey and interview data with a representative sample of public school principals across California. The data show that, during the Great Recession, students have experienced growing social welfare needs that often shape their well-being and their performance in schools. We also find that the capacity of public schools to meet these needs and provide quality education has been eroded by budget cuts. This study finds that schools primarily serving low-income families have been hardest hit during the recession, in part because they cannot raise private dollars to fill the gap left by public sector cuts. The Great Recession thus has undermined educational quality while producing widening educational inequality in California.

  19. Marketing of library and information services in global era: A current approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Karn

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the marketing of library and information services in the global era. It discusses about the marketing concept of today's library and information centers covering various topics such as management of libraries and commitment to customer's satisfaction. It also defines the marketing and its current approach to library and information services at the global level. It also describes customer/user's topic such as customers' priorities, customers' expectations, individuality responsiveness, relationships, quality of services, professional skills and competencies and value added services. The 5 Ps of marketing mix, i.e. product, pricing, place, promotion and person (staff have been discussed. The marketing should aim at effective library and information services. The "service trinity", i.e. users (customers, the staff (service provider and information resources and system should be taken care of from the view of these services. In the modern age, the library and information services (LIS are customer (user oriented. Therefore, users' priorities, expectations and needs should be taken into account. The services should be value added according to the current requirement of the users. It is concluded that the modern libraries are information markets and the library users are consumers of information. The ultimate objective of the marketing of library and information services should be the dissemination of the right information to the right customer (user at the right time.

  20. A global map of suitability for coastal Vibrio cholerae under current and future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Luis E; Ryan, Sadie J; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Finkelstein, Julia L; King, Christine A; Qiao, Huijie; Polhemus, Mark E

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a globally distributed water-borne pathogen that causes severe diarrheal disease and mortality, with current outbreaks as part of the seventh pandemic. Further understanding of the role of environmental factors in potential pathogen distribution and corresponding V. cholerae disease transmission over time and space is urgently needed to target surveillance of cholera and other climate and water-sensitive diseases. We used an ecological niche model (ENM) to identify environmental variables associated with V. cholerae presence in marine environments, to project a global model of V. cholerae distribution in ocean waters under current and future climate scenarios. We generated an ENM using published reports of V. cholerae in seawater and freely available remotely sensed imagery. Models indicated that factors associated with V. cholerae presence included chlorophyll-a, pH, and sea surface temperature (SST), with chlorophyll-a demonstrating the greatest explanatory power from variables selected for model calibration. We identified specific geographic areas for potential V. cholerae distribution. Coastal Bangladesh, where cholera is endemic, was found to be environmentally similar to coastal areas in Latin America. In a conservative climate change scenario, we observed a predicted increase in areas with environmental conditions suitable for V. cholerae. Findings highlight the potential for vulnerability maps to inform cholera surveillance, early warning systems, and disease prevention and control.

  1. The sustainable management and protection of forests: analysis of the current position globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer-Smith, Peter; Carnus, Jean-Michel

    2008-06-01

    The loss of forest area globally due to change of land use, the importance of forests in the conservation of biodiversity and in carbon and other biogeochemical cycles, together with the threat to forests from pollution and from the impacts of climate change, place forestry policy and practice at the center of global environmental and sustainability strategy. Forests provide important economic, environmental, social, and cultural benefits, so that in forestry, as in other areas of environmental policy and management, there are tensions between economic development and environmental protection. In this article we review the current information on global forest cover and condition, examine the international processes that relate to forest protection and to sustainable forest management, and look at the main forest certification schemes. We consider the link between the international processes and certification schemes and also their combined effectiveness. We conclude that in some regions of the world neither mechanism is achieving forest protection, while in others local or regional implementation is occurring and is having a significant impact. Choice of certification scheme and implementation of management standards are often influenced by a consideration of the associated costs, and there are some major issues over the monitoring of agreed actions and of the criteria and indicators of sustainability. There are currently a number of initiatives seeking to improve the operation of the international forestry framework (e.g., The Montreal Process, the Ministerial Convention of the Protection of Forests in Europe and European Union actions in Europe, the African Timber Organisation and International Tropical Timber Organisation initiative for African tropical forest, and the development of a worldwide voluntary agreement on forestry in the United Nations Forum on Forests). We suggest that there is a need to improve the connections between scientific understanding

  2. Focus: global currents in national histories of science: the "global turn" and the history of science in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    The "global turn" in the history of science offers new ways to think about how to do national and regional histories of science, in this case the history of science in Latin America. For example, it questions structuralist and diffusionist models of the spread of science and shows the often active role that people in Latin America (and the rest of the Global South) played in the construction of "universal" scientific knowledge. It suggests that even national or regional histories of science must be situated in a global context; all too often, such histories have treated global processes as a distant backdrop. At the same time, historians need to pay constant attention to the role of power in the construction of scientific knowledge. Finally, this essay highlights a methodological tool for writing globally inflected histories of science: the method of "following".

  3. EGATEC: A new high-resolution engineering model of the global atmospheric electric circuit—Currents in the lower atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odzimek, A.; Lester, M.; Kubicki, M.

    2010-09-01

    We present a new high-resolution model of the Earth's global atmospheric electric circuit (GEC) represented by an equivalent electrical network. Contributions of clouds to the total resistance of the atmosphere and as current generators are treated more realistically than in previous GEC models. The model of cloud current generators is constructed on the basis of the ISCCP cloud data and the OTD/LIS lightning flash rates and TRMM rainfall data. The current generated and the electric resistance can be estimated with a spatial resolution of several degrees in latitude and longitude and 3 hour time resolution. The resistance of the atmosphere is calculated using an atmospheric conductivity model which is spatially dependent and sensitive to the level of solar activity. An equivalent circuit is constructed assuming the ionosphere and ground are ideal conductors. The circuit solution provides diurnal variations of the ionospheric potential and the GEC global current at the 3 hour time resolution as well as the global distributions and diurnal variations of the air-Earth current density and electric field. The model confirms that the global atmospheric electric activity peaks daily at ˜21 UT. The diurnal variation of the ionospheric potential and the global current have a maximum at 12 and 21-24 UT in July and at 9 and 21 UT in December, and a global minimum at 3-6 UT independent of season. About 80% of the current is generated by thunderstorm convective clouds and 20% by mid-level rain clouds.

  4. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Home/Host Country or Site/Institution Considerations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naser Z Alsharif; Adnan Dakkuri; Jeanine P Abrons; Dennis Williams; David N Ombengi; HaiAn Zheng; Sara Al-Dahir; Toyin Tofade; Suzanna Gim; Mary Beth O'Connell; Anna Ratka; Emily Dornblaser

    2016-01-01

      International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs...

  5. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    they would like to have more secluded areas added to the school playground, even in large schoolyards where lack of space was not a barrier. This aligned with girls' requests for more "hanging-out" facilities, whereas boys primarily wanted activity promoting facilities. CONCLUSION: Based on the results from......BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender....... This was verified by a thematic analysis of transcripts from the open discussions and go-along interviews. RESULTS: The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of play facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys...

  6. Ionic current correlations underlie the global tuning of large numbers of neuronal activity attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shunbing; Golowasch, Jorge

    2012-09-26

    Ionic conductances in identified neurons are highly variable. This poses the crucial question of how such neurons can produce stable activity. Coexpression of ionic currents has been observed in an increasing number of neurons in different systems, suggesting that the coregulation of ionic channel expression, by thus linking their variability, may enable neurons to maintain relatively constant neuronal activity as suggested by a number of recent theoretical studies. We examine this hypothesis experimentally using the voltage- and dynamic-clamp techniques to first measure and then modify the ionic conductance levels of three currents in identified neurons of the crab pyloric network. We quantify activity by measuring 10 different attributes (oscillation period, spiking frequency, etc.), and find linear, positive and negative relationships between conductance pairs and triplets that can enable pyloric neurons to maintain activity attributes invariant. Consistent with experimental observations, some of the features most tightly regulated appear to be phase relationships of bursting activity. We conclude that covariation (and probably a tightly controlled coregulation) of ionic conductances can help neurons maintain certain attributes of neuronal activity invariant while at the same time allowing conductances to change over wide ranges in response to internal or environmental inputs and perturbations. Our results also show that neurons can tune neuronal activity globally via coordinate expression of ion currents.

  7. Are streamflow recession characteristics really characteristic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stoelzle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Streamflow recession has been investigated by a variety of methods, often involving the fit of a model to empirical recession plots to parameterize a non-linear storage-outflow relationship. Such recession analysis methods (RAMs are used to estimate hydraulic conductivity, storage capacity, or aquifer thickness and to model streamflow recession curves for regionalization and prediction at the catchment scale. Numerous RAMs have been published, but little is known about how characteristic the resulting recession models are to distinguish characteristic catchment behavior. In this study we combined three established recession extraction methods with three different parameter-fitting methods to the power-law storage-outflow model to compare the range of recession characteristics that result from the application of these different RAMs. Resulting recession characteristics including recession time and corresponding storage depletion were evaluated for 20 meso-scale catchments in Germany. We found plausible ranges for model parameterization, however, calculated recession characteristics varied over two orders of magnitude. While recession characteristics of the 20 catchments derived with the different methods correlate strongly, particularly for the RAMs that use the same extraction method and while they rank the catchments relatively consistent, there are still considerable differences among the methods. To elucidate this variability we discuss the ambiguous roles of recession extraction procedures and the parameterization of storage-outflow model and the limitations of the presented recession plots. The results suggest strong limitations to the comparability of recession characteristics derived with different methods, not only in the model parameters but also in the relative characterization of different catchments. A multiple methods approach to investigate streamflow recession characteristics should be considered for applications whenever possible.

  8. ICT security curriculum or how to respond to current global challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Silviu Poboroniuc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some results obtained through the implementation of the Erasmus LLP “SALEIE” (Strategic Alignment of Electrical and Information Engineering in European Higher Education Institutions. The aim of the project was to bring together experts from European universities to enhance the competitiveness of Electrical and Information Engineering (EIE education within Europe, especially in relation to modern global technical challenges and to provide higher education models in a few EIE fields in accordance with these challenges. One of the outcomes of the project was a new ICT (Information and Computer Technology Security curriculum for bachelor and master levels. The research methodology comprised such stages as: identifying the most important current global challenges, conducting a survey related to existing EIE programs in order to establish the top-level criteria for an EIE curriculum, analyzing the results of the survey, obtaining the industry feedback related to technical and non-technical skills required for the specific field, and proposing a new curriculum for ICT Security programmes to respond to the modern technical challenges and to meet the needs of the industry, students, academics and graduates. As future work we will focus on stakeholder assessment in the EIE field and, based on the resulting feedback, on improving the ICT Security curriculum.

  9. O(D,D) covariant Noether currents and global charges in double field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong-Hyuck [Department of Physics, Sogang University,Seoul, 04107 (Korea, Republic of); Rey, Soo-Jong [School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University,Seoul, 08862 (Korea, Republic of); Fields, Gravity & Strings, Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe,Institute for Basic Sciences, Daejeon, 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Rim, Woohyun; Sakatani, Yuho [School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University,Seoul, 08862 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-20

    Double field theory is an approach for massless modes of string theory, unifying and geometrizing all gauge invariance in manifest O(D,D) covariant manner. In this approach, we derive off-shell conserved Noether current and corresponding Noether potential associated with unified gauge invariance. We add Wald-type counter two-form to the Noether potential and define conserved global charges as surface integral. We check our O(D,D) covariant formula against various string backgrounds, both geometric and non-geometric. In all cases we examined, we find perfect agreements with previous results. Our formula facilitates to evaluate momenta along not only ordinary spacetime directions but also dual spacetime directions on equal footing. From this, we confirm recent assertion that null wave in doubled spacetime is the same as macroscopic fundamental string in ordinary spacetime.

  10. How current assessments of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge legitimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas

    - in review). And since the UNGC in 2010 introduced the differentiation framework to their reporting standard, a significant number of Scandinavian corporations has chosen to report on an Advanced Level and self-assess their Sustainability Performance. Hence, in times where international opinion makers like...... Performance? And how the current assessment of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge the legitimacy of both the corporation, the UNGC and governments attempting to facilitate sustainability and CSR engagement? Best Practice is a concept frequently used by authorities...... element in assessing Sustainability Performance with the criteria for Advanced Level reporting in the UNGC differentiation framework. Though, previous empirical research by Kjaergaard (submitted, in review) has demonstrated that although the introduction of this framework generally should be acknowledged...

  11. The Social Lives of Global Policies against Malaria: Conceptual Considerations, Past Experiences, and Current Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckl, Julian

    2017-07-01

    While a casual observer might easily get the impression that global policies against malaria have unanimous support, there are strongly divergent perspectives on malaria control. Analyzing ethnographic and historical material through a political science lens, I foreground the social negotiation of malaria both as an illness experience of affected populations and as a disease problem defined by experts. Taking the interrelationship between problems, solutions, and solution providers as a point of departure, I reconstruct recurrent tensions and social mechanisms that can account for the tendency to downplay conflicts and to produce technical-biomedical solutions that seem to be irresistible. This helps to overcome the perception that current policies have no alternatives and that aiming directly for malaria eradication is the only form of sustainability in times of resistances when "saving the established technical-biomedical solutions" has become a key concern.

  12. Global elimination of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B: revisiting the current strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Chloe L; Guo, Nan; Xie, Chan; Nelson, Kenrad E; Ehrhardt, Stephan

    2015-08-01

    Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major route of HBV transmission worldwide despite an existing immunoprophylaxis regimen. The implementation of immunoprophylaxis has been challenging, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, where MTCT is common, because of difficulty obtaining and delivering the monovalent HBV vaccine and the HBV immunoglobulin. Global control of the HBV epidemic will need improved prevention of MTCT. We discuss research gaps that hinder development of new options for the elimination of MTCT as well as policy changes that may help the current vaccine-based strategy to live up to its full potential. We propose that decreasing hepatitis B viral concentrations before delivery, along with HBV vaccine use, could provide an alternative strategy that would decrease MTCT of HBV.

  13. Serogroup W meningococcal disease: global spread and current affect on the Southern Cone in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, R; López, E L; Debbag, R; Vázquez, J A

    2014-12-01

    Meningococcal serogroup W strains have been emerging throughout the current century with most of the isolates belonging to the sequence type (ST11)/electrophoretic type (ET37) clonal complex (ST11/E37 CC), particularly since the international outbreak following Hajj 2000. That outbreak appears to have triggered off that trend, contributing to the spread of W ST11/ET37 CC strains globally; however, local strains could be also responsible for increases in the percentage and/or incidence rates of this serogroup in some countries. More recently, unexpected increases in the percentage and incidence rate of W has been noticed in different countries located in the South Cone in Latin America, and W ST11/ET37 CC strains now appear as endemic in the region and an extensive immunization programme with tetravalent conjugate vaccine (covering serogroups A, C, Y and W) has been recently implemented in Chile. It is difficult to ascertain whether we are observing the emergence of W ST11 CC strains in different geographical areas or whether the Hajj 2000 strain is still spreading globally. Several aspects of the evolution of that situation are analysed in this paper, reviewing also the implications in immunization programmes. Closely related with the analysis of this potential evolution, it will be very interesting to monitor the evolution of serogroup W in the African meningitis belt after implementation of the extensive immunization programme with serogroup A conjugate vaccine that is currently underway. More data about carriers, transmission, clonal lineages, etc. are needed for taking decisions (target groups, outbreak control, defining the extent, etc.) to adapt the response strategy with potential interventions with broad coverage vaccines against the emergent serogroup W.

  14. The impact of economic recession on climate change: eight trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Obani; J. Gupta

    2015-01-01

    In the context of deadlocked climate change negotiations, and the expectation that legally binding targets may only set in as early as 2020, this paper addresses the question of whether the current economic recession in major economies in the North can help us buy time by reducing the emissions of g

  15. Intrinsically Motivated, Free-Time Physical Activity: Considerations for Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellino, Megan Babkes; Sinclair, Christina D.

    2008-01-01

    The current childhood obesity rates raise concern about youths' health and the role that a sedentary lifestyle plays in this growing trend. Focusing on how children choose to spend their free time is one approach that may yield ideas for reducing childhood obesity. Recess is a regularly occurring "free time" period in elementary schools. It is,…

  16. New baseflow separation and recession analysis approaches for streamflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Stewart

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and modelling the relationship between rainfall and runoff has been a driving force in hydrology for many years. Baseflow separation and recession analysis have been two of the main tools for understanding runoff generation in catchments, but there are many different methods for each and no consensus on how best to apply them. A new baseflow separation method is presented, which is justified by being based generally on the more objective tracer separation methods and by being optimised by fitting to the recession hydrograph. Using this baseflow separation method, the thesis is advanced that recession analysis should be applied to the separated components (quickflow and baseflow, because of their very different origins and characteristics, rather than to the streamflow itself because analysing the latter alone gives misleading results. Applying baseflow separation before recession analysis sheds new light on water storage in catchments and may resolve some current problems with recession analysis. It may also have implications for rainfall–runoff modelling. Among other things it shows that both quickflow and baseflow reservoirs have non-linear (quadratic characteristics in the studied catchment (Glendhu, New Zealand.

  17. Genetics of non-syndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroze, Bushra; Chaudhry, Bushra

    2013-01-01

    Non-syndromic mental retardation is one of the most serious neurodevelopmental disorders, which has a serious impact not only on the affected individuals and their families but also on the health care system and society. Previously research has been more focused on the X-linked mental retardation and only recently studies have shown that non-syndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation is extremely heterogeneous and contributes much more than the X-linked mental retardation. But very little is known about the genes and loci involved in nonsyndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation than the X-linked mental retardation. To date only thirty loci and ten genes have been established associated with the non-syndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation. This short review presents an overview of the current knowledge on clinical information available for the ten genes associated with this unexplored group of genetic disorder.

  18. Oil Price Rise and the Great Recession of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Siamak MONADJEMI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The financial crises of 2007-2008, caused wide-spread falling output and unemployment, in the affected countries and also globally. The severity of the recession was such that it was called the “Great Recession”. As a result of an increase in demand from China and India, at the same time, oil prices rose significantly. The empirical results from this study show that oil price changes negatively affected global growth rate in the 1970s but not in the 1990s and 2000s. These results suggest that the Great Recession in 2008 that initiated by the financial crises, was independent of a significant rise in oil prices.

  19. First detection of global dawn-dusk ionospheric current intensities using Ampere's integral law on Orsted orbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, P.; Primdahl, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic measurements by the Orsted satellite in noon-midnight orbits have enabled the derivation of the global dawn-dusk oriented ionospheric currents from an Ampere's law closed loop line integral of the geomagnetic vector field along the satellite track. The globally integrated dawn......-to-dusk ionospheric current is found to be proportional to the gee-effective solar wind electric field and is around 1 million ampere for a typical solar wind electric field of 2 mV/m. Dividing the Ampere integral into semi-orbit parts has enabled us to show that the hemispherical total current intensities depend...

  20. The trauma of a recession.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, S M

    2011-09-01

    Employment in construction in Ireland fell by 10% from nearly 282,000 in the second quarter of 2007 to 255,000 in the same period of 2008. Our study looks at the differences in soft tissue upper limb trauma dynamics of a pre- and post-recession Ireland. Construction accounted for 330 patients (27%) of all hand injuries in 2006, but only 18 (3%) in 2009. Our data shows a significant drop in hand injuries related to the construction industry, and more home\\/DIY cases and deliberate self-harm presenting in their stead.

  1. Current status of alcohol marketing policy--an urgent challenge for global governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally

    2012-03-01

    To review research literature and available information on the extent and impacts of marketing, current policy response and the interests engaged in the policy debate in order to inform recommendations for policy change on alcohol marketing. Relevant literature, including systematic reviews and publicly available information (websites and participant observation) is reviewed and synthesized. Alcohol marketing has expanded markedly in the past 50 years and, while there remains uncertainty about the impact across the population, there is now clear evidence of its impact on the consumption of young people. Few countries have effective policy in place restricting alcohol marketing, and there is a lack of an international response to alcohol marketing which crosses national boundaries. The protection of alcohol marketing has been a major focus for vested interest groups and this has affected governmental response at national and international levels. There has been a lack of non-governmental organization engagement. The policy response to tobacco marketing provides a clear contrast to that of alcohol marketing policy and provides a model for alcohol marketing policy. The global exposure of young people to alcohol marketing requires an urgent policy response. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate model for global governance to control alcohol marketing. There are extant examples of national level legislation achieving comprehensive bans with France's Loi Evin providing a feasible model. Resources from philanthropic organizations to allow non-governmental organization engagement are urgently required, as is engagement by the governmental sector independent of commercial influence. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Rainforest pharmacopeia in Madagascar provides high value for current local and prospective global uses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Golden

    Full Text Available Botanical diversity provides value to humans through carbon sequestration, air and water purification, and the provisioning of wild foods and ethnomedicines. Here we calculate the value of botanical ethnomedicines in a rainforest region of Madagascar, the Makira Protected Area, using a substitution method that combines replacement costs and choice modeling. The Makira watershed may comprise approximately 0.8% of global botanical diversity and possesses enormous value both in its ability to provision botanical ethnomedicines to local people and as a source of potentially novel pharmaceutical drugs for society as a whole. Approximately 241 locally-recognized species are used as ethnomedicines, including 113 agricultural or weed species. We equated each ethnomedicinal treatment to the monetary value of a comparable pharmaceutical treatment adjusted by personal preferences in perceived efficacy (rather than from known or assumed medicinal equivalency. The benefit value of these botanical ethnomedicines per individual is $5.40-7.90 per year when using the value of highly subsidized Malagasy pharmaceuticals and $100.60-287.40 when using the value of American pharmaceuticals. Using local pharmaceuticals as substitutes, the value per household is $30.24-44.30 per year, equivalent to 43-63% of median annual household income, demonstrating their local importance. Using the value of American pharmaceuticals, the amount is equivalent to 22-63% of the median annual health care expenditures for American adults under 45 in 2006. The potential for developing novel biomedicines from the Makira watershed's unique flora ranges in untapped benefit value from $0.3-5.7 billion for American pharmaceutical companies, non-inclusive of the importance of providing novel medicines and improved healthcare to society. This study provides evidence of the tremendous current local and prospective global value of botanical ethnomedicines and furthers arguments for the

  3. The global impact of ozone on agricultural crop yields under current and future air quality legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingenen, van R.; Dentener, F.J.; Raes, F.; Krol, M.C.; Emberson, L.; Cofala, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the global impact of surface ozone on four types of agricultural crop. The study is based on modelled global hourly ozone fields for the year 2000 and 2030, using the global 1°×1° 2-way nested atmospheric chemical transport model (TM5). Projections for the year 2030 are bas

  4. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  5. Recessed light fixture test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, D.W.; Yoo, K.T.; Koneru, P.B.

    1979-07-01

    Test results are presented for the operation of recessed light fixtures in contact with loose fill cellulose insulation. Nine recessed fixtures were operated at different power levels in attic sections in which loose fill cellulose was purposely misapplied. Cellulose insulation was introduced into the ceiling section by pouring to depths of up to nine inches. Maximum steady state temperatures were recorded for 485 combinations of the variables insulation depth, fixture power, and attic temperature. Results are included for operation of fixtures in the absence of cellulose and with barriers to provide needed clearance between the cellulose insulation and the powered fixtures. Observed temperatures on the electrical power cable attached to a fixture and ceiling joists adjacent to powered fixtures are reported. Examination of the data shows excess operating temperatures are encountered when powered fixtures are covered by three inches of loose fill insulation. Dangerous temperatures resulting in fires in some cases were recorded when covered fixtures were operated at above rated power levels. A preliminary analysis indicates that ceiling side heat transfer accounts for 85 to 90% of the heat dissipation from powered fixtures covered by three inches of loose fill cellulosic insulation.

  6. Does gingival recession require surgical treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hsun-Liang; Chun, Yong-Hee Patricia; MacEachern, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Gingival recession represents a clinical condition in adults frequently encountered in the general dental practice. It is estimated that 23% of adults in the US have one or more tooth surfaces with ≥ 3 mm gingival recession. Clinicians often time face dilemmas of whether or not to treat such a condition surgically. Therefore, we were charged by the editorial board to answer this critical question: “Does gingival recession require surgical treatment?” An initial condensed literature search was performed using a combination of gingival recession and surgery controlled terms and keywords. An analysis of the search results highlights our limited understanding of the factors that often guide the treatment of gingival recession. Understanding the etiology, prognosis and treatment of gingival recession continues to offer many unanswered questions and challenges in the field of periodontics as we strive to provide the best care possible for our patients. PMID:26427577

  7. Logarithmic InGaAs detectors with global shutter and active dark current reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yang; Arion, Bogdan; Bouvier, Christian; Noguier, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present newly developed logarithmic InGaAs detectors with global shuttering and also an active dark current reduction technique to ensure ambient temperature operation without TEC for industrial applications. The newly released detectors come with both VGA (15um pitch) and QVGA (25um pitch) resolutions, giving the possibility to use lens less than 1-inch size. The logarithmic response is obtained by using solar-cell mode InGaAs photodiodes. The VGA and QVGA ROICs have 3 analog memories inside each pixel which permit, except the classic ITR, IWR and CDS modes, a new differential imaging mode which can be a useful feature in active imaging systems. The photodiode frontend circuit, in pure voltage mode, is made with non-inverting amplifier instead of CTIA. The reason of this choice is that the exposure time can be shortened without need of excessive power consumption as in CTIA front-end. We think that this arrangement associated with true CDS could match the noise performance of CTIA based one. VGA and QVGA ROICs have been designed and manufactured by using 0.18um 1P4M CMOS process. Both ROIC have been tested with success and match the design targets. The first batch of both detectors is under fabrication and will be presented during the conference.

  8. The Effects of the Current Global Economic and Financial Crisis on the EU Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina DORNEAN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the main effects of the current global financial and economic crisis on the European Union budget and the measures that were taken in order to support the EU member states with the purpose of limiting and counteracting its effects. The focus will be on the budgetary expenditure and on the new Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance. For this purpose, we developed a regression model using the Least Square method with three significant variables: a dependent variable – EU budgetary expenditure and two independent variables – budgetary deficit and unemployment rate of member states. According to our analysis, the crisis determined the increase of the EU budgetary expenditure, which was due especially to the increase of the budgetary deficit and rising unemployment in the EU member states. Our findings suggested that the budgetary deficit and the unemployment rate had a highly significant influence on community expenditure growth during the crisis, while the GDP growth and the public debt did not have any significance for the community expenditure growth.

  9. Does gingival recession require surgical treatment?

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Hsun-Liang; Chun, Yong-Hee Patricia; MacEachern, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Gingival recession represents a clinical condition in adults frequently encountered in the general dental practice. It is estimated that 23% of adults in the US have one or more tooth surfaces with ≥ 3 mm gingival recession. Clinicians often time face dilemmas of whether or not to treat such a condition surgically. Therefore, we were charged by the editorial board to answer this critical question: “Does gingival recession require surgical treatment?” An initial condensed literature search was...

  10. Capital Market, Frequency of Recession, and Fraction of Time the Economy in Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Tharavanij, Piyapas

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationships of capital markets, frequency of recession, and fraction of time the economy is in recession. The main finding is that frequency of recession is not robustly linked to measures of capital market development. However, the fraction of time the economy spends in recession is significantly related to capital market development, though the marginal effect is small. This implies that countries with more advanced capital markets would tend to spend lower pro...

  11. [Economic recession, unemployment and suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duleba, Timea; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Dome, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Considering the ongoing global economic crisis which began in 2007 it is reasonable to discuss its possible and expectable effects on mental health. In our narrative review we have summarized the scientific literature on the relationship between economic downturns, unemployment and suicide rate. In addition, we have summarized the theories about the background of this relationship as well. Suicide is an extremely complex phenomenon since it is influenced by several environmental and genetic factors. Furthermore, some of these factors are mutually interrelated, so the independent effect of these frequently remains elusive and hard to investigate from a methodological point of view. Although results are somewhat contradictory, it seems that unemployment is an independent risk factor for both suicide and depression. The first papers about the effect of the current economic crisis on suicide rates have been published and their results confirmed the association between the rise of unemployment rate and the increase of suicide rate in both old and new members of the European Union. Although psychiatric, and primarily depressive illness is a major risk factor for suicide, understanding the contributing role of other etiologic factors in their complex relationship may be an important task in predicting and preventing suicide both at the level of at risk individuals and the whole population.

  12. Global'naja jenergeticheskaja i jekologicheskaja bezopasnost' v uslovijah sovremennogo mirovogo jekonomicheskogo krizisa [Global energy and environmental security in the current global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosov Yuri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of the environmental impact of energy. Further reduction of this impact on the global environment can be achieved two ways. The short-term one implies the increase in energy efficiency. In the next 15—20 years, the increase in efficiency should become a priority of the energy policy of all states. The long-term one is based on the gradual expansion of renewable energy. This method is aimed to avoid further economic and energy crises. At the same time, it has an important environmental aspect. Experts claim that the new area of global energy should be less costly than the traditional ones.

  13. Globalization and the Changing Face of Educational Leadership: Current Trends and Emerging Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litz, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper has used a deconstructivist conceptual framework in order to explore and analyze the multifaceted and complex impacts of globalization on educational leadership in the early 21st century. It will be argued that globalization has had far-reaching positive and negative effects on all of the various nation-states, cultures, economies, and…

  14. Regional and historical factors supplement current climate in shaping global forest canopy height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jian; Nielsen, Scott; Mao, Lingfeng;

    2016-01-01

    Summary Canopy height is a key factor that affects carbon storage, vegetation productivity and biodiversity in forests, as well as an indicator of key processes such as biomass allocation. However, global variation in forest canopy height and its determinants are poorly known. We used global data...

  15. The global spread of Zika virus: is public and media concern justified in regions currently unaffected?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narayan Gyawali; Richard S.Bradbury; Andrew W.Taylor-Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Background:Zika virus,an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus,is fast becoming a worldwide public health concern following its suspected association with over 4000 recent cases of microcephaly among newborn infants in Brazil.Discussion:Prior to its emergence in Latin America in 2015-2016,Zika was known to exist at a relatively low prevalence in parts of Africa,Asia and the Pacific islands.An extension of its apparent global dispersion may be enabled by climate conditions suitable to support the population growth ofA.aegypti and A.albopictus mosquitoes over an expanding geographical range.In addition,increased globalisation continues to pose a risk for the spread of infection.Further,suspicions of alternative modes of virus transmission (sexual and vertical),if proven,provide a platform for outbreaks in mosquito non-endemic regions as well.Since a vaccine or anti-viral therapy is not yet available,current means of disease prevention involve protection from mosquito bites,excluding pregnant females from travelling to Zika-endemic territories,and practicing safe sex in those countries.Importantly,in countries where Zika is reported as endemic,caution is advised in planning to conceive a baby until such time as the apparent association between infection with the virus and microcephaly is either confirmed or refuted.The question arises as to what advice is appropriate to give in more economically developed countries distant to the current epidemic and in which Zika has not yet been reported.Summary:Despite understandable concern among the general public that has been fuelled by the media,in regions where Zika is not present,such as North America,Europe and Australia,at this time any outbreak (initiated by an infected traveler returning from an endemic area) would very probably be contained locally.Since Aedes spp.has very limited spatial dispersal,overlapping high population densities of mosquitoes and humans would be needed to sustain a focus of infection.However,as A

  16. The global spread of Zika virus: is public and media concern justified in regions currently unaffected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Narayan; Bradbury, Richard S; Taylor-Robinson, Andrew W

    2016-04-19

    Zika virus, an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus, is fast becoming a worldwide public health concern following its suspected association with over 4000 recent cases of microcephaly among newborn infants in Brazil. Prior to its emergence in Latin America in 2015-2016, Zika was known to exist at a relatively low prevalence in parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific islands. An extension of its apparent global dispersion may be enabled by climate conditions suitable to support the population growth of A. aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes over an expanding geographical range. In addition, increased globalisation continues to pose a risk for the spread of infection. Further, suspicions of alternative modes of virus transmission (sexual and vertical), if proven, provide a platform for outbreaks in mosquito non-endemic regions as well. Since a vaccine or anti-viral therapy is not yet available, current means of disease prevention involve protection from mosquito bites, excluding pregnant females from travelling to Zika-endemic territories, and practicing safe sex in those countries. Importantly, in countries where Zika is reported as endemic, caution is advised in planning to conceive a baby until such time as the apparent association between infection with the virus and microcephaly is either confirmed or refuted. The question arises as to what advice is appropriate to give in more economically developed countries distant to the current epidemic and in which Zika has not yet been reported. Despite understandable concern among the general public that has been fuelled by the media, in regions where Zika is not present, such as North America, Europe and Australia, at this time any outbreak (initiated by an infected traveler returning from an endemic area) would very probably be contained locally. Since Aedes spp. has very limited spatial dispersal, overlapping high population densities of mosquitoes and humans would be needed to sustain a focus of infection. However, as A

  17. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF: properties and frontier of current knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aas IH Monrad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF is well known internationally and widely used for scoring the severity of illness in psychiatry. Problems with GAF show a need for its further development (for example validity and reliability problems. The aim of the present study was to identify gaps in current knowledge about properties of GAF that are of interest for further development. Properties of GAF are defined as characteristic traits or attributes that serve to define GAF (or may have a role to define a future updated GAF. Methods A thorough literature search was conducted. Results A number of gaps in knowledge about the properties of GAF were identified: for example, the current GAF has a continuous scale, but is a continuous or categorical scale better? Scoring is not performed by setting a mark directly on a visual scale, but could this improve scoring? Would new anchor points, including key words and examples, improve GAF (anchor points for symptoms, functioning, positive mental health, prognosis, improvement of generic properties, exclusion criteria for scoring in 10-point intervals, and anchor points at the endpoints of the scale? Is a change in the number of anchor points and their distribution over the total scale important? Could better instructions for scoring within 10-point intervals improve scoring? Internationally, both single and dual scales for GAF are used, but what is the advantage of having separate symptom and functioning scales? Symptom (GAF-S and functioning (GAF-F scales should score different dimensions and still be correlated, but what is the best combination of definitions for GAF-S and GAF-F? For GAF with more than two scales there is limited empirical testing, but what is gained or lost by using more than two scales? Conclusions In the history of GAF, its basic properties have undergone limited changes. Problems with GAF may, in part, be due to lack of a research programme testing the effects of

  18. G20 Finance Ministers Meeting Vows to Fight Against A Double-dip Recession

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    21 Century Business Herald

    2010-01-01

    @@ When the finance ministers and central bank governors of the Group of 20 began their first meeting on June 4 in Busan,South Korea,they expressed their concern about the recovery of the global economy and promised action taken to prevent the global economy from falling into the pit of a double-dip recession.

  19. Autosomal recessive cutis laxa syndrome revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morava, E.; Guillard, M.; Lefeber, D.J.; Wevers, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of the autosomal recessive cutis laxa syndromes is highly heterogeneous with respect to organ involvement and severity. One of the major diagnostic criteria is to detect abnormal elastin fibers. In several other clinically similar autosomal recessive syndromes, however, the

  20. Global health training and international clinical rotations during residency: current status, needs, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Paul K; Holmes, King K; Skeff, Kelley M; Hall, Thomas L; Gardner, Pierce

    2009-03-01

    Increasing international travel and migration have contributed to globalization of diseases. Physicians today must understand the global burden and epidemiology of diseases, the disparities and inequities in global health systems, and the importance of cross-cultural sensitivity. To meet these needs, resident physicians across all specialties have expressed growing interest in global health training and international clinical rotations. More residents are acquiring international experience, despite inadequate guidance and support from most accreditation organizations and residency programs. Surveys of global health training, including international clinical rotations, highlight the benefits of global health training as well as the need for a more coordinated approach. In particular, international rotations broaden a resident's medical knowledge, reinforce physical examination skills, and encourage practicing medicine among underserved and multicultural populations. As residents recognize these personal and professional benefits, a strong majority of them seek to gain international clinical experience. In conclusion, with feasible and appropriate administrative steps, all residents can receive global health training and be afforded the accreditation and programmatic support to participate in safe international rotations. The next steps should address accreditation for international rotations and allowance for training away from continuity clinics by residency accreditation bodies, and stipend and travel support for six or more weeks of call-free elective time from residency programs.

  1. Bond return predictability in expansions and recessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Møller, Stig Vinther; Jensen, Magnus David Sander

    We document that over the period 1953-2011 US bond returns are predictable in expansionary periods but unpredictable during recessions. This result holds in both in-sample and out-of-sample analyses and using both univariate regressions and combination forecasting techniques. A simulation study...... shows that our tests have power to reject unpredictability in both expansions and recessions. To judge the economic significance of the results we compute utility gains for a meanvariance investor who takes the predictability patterns into account and show that utility gains are positive in expansions...... but negative in recessions. The results are also consistent with tests showing that the expectations hypothesis of the term structure holds in recessions but not in expansions. However, the results for bonds are in sharp contrast to results for stocks showing that stock returns are predictable in recessions...

  2. CURRENT PERSPECTIVES OF POTTER'S GLOBAL BIOETHICS AS A BRIDGE BETWEEN CLINICAL (PERSONALIZED) AND PUBLIC HEALTH ETHICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turina, Iva Sorta-Bilajac; Brkljacić, Morana; Grgas-Bile, Cecilija; Gajski, Domagoj; Racz, Aleksandar; Cengić, Tomislav

    2015-12-01

    In the context of modern scientific and technological developments in biomedicine and health care, and the potential consequences of their application on humans and the environment, Potter's global bioethics concept resurfaces. By actualizing Potter's original thoughts on individual bioethical issues, the universality of two of his books, which today represent the backbone of the world bioethical literature, "Bioethics--Bridge to the Future" and "Global Bioethics: Building on the Leopold Legacy", is emphasized. Potter's global bioethics today can legitimately be viewed as a bridge between clinical personalized ethics on the one hand and ethics of public health on the other.

  3. Regionalization of subsurface stormflow parameters of hydrologic models: Derivation from regional analysis of streamflow recession curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Sheng; Li, Hongyi; Huang, Maoyi; Ali, Melkamu; Leng, Guoyong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Wang, Shaowen; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-07-21

    Subsurface stormflow is an important component of the rainfall–runoff response, especially in steep terrain. Its contribution to total runoff is, however, poorly represented in the current generation of land surface models. The lack of physical basis of these common parameterizations precludes a priori estimation of the stormflow (i.e. without calibration), which is a major drawback for prediction in ungauged basins, or for use in global land surface models. This paper is aimed at deriving regionalized parameterizations of the storage–discharge relationship relating to subsurface stormflow from a top–down empirical data analysis of streamflow recession curves extracted from 50 eastern United States catchments. Detailed regression analyses were performed between parameters of the empirical storage–discharge relationships and the controlling climate, soil and topographic characteristics. The regression analyses performed on empirical recession curves at catchment scale indicated that the coefficient of the power-law form storage–discharge relationship is closely related to the catchment hydrologic characteristics, which is consistent with the hydraulic theory derived mainly at the hillslope scale. As for the exponent, besides the role of field scale soil hydraulic properties as suggested by hydraulic theory, it is found to be more strongly affected by climate (aridity) at the catchment scale. At a fundamental level these results point to the need for more detailed exploration of the co-dependence of soil, vegetation and topography with climate.

  4. Global food and fibre security threatened by current inefficiencies in fungal identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, Pedro W.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal pathogens severely impact global food and fibre crop security. Fungal species that cause plant diseases have mostly been recognized based on their morphology. In general, morphological descriptions remain disconnected from crucially important knowledge such as mating types, host specificity,

  5. Autosomal recessive hereditary auditory neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋菊; 顾瑞; 曹菊阳

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Auditory neuropathy (AN) is a sensorineural hearing disorder characterized by absent or abnormal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and normal cochlear outer hair cell function as measured by otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Many risk factors are thought to be involved in its etiology and pathophysiology. Three Chinese pedigrees with familial AN are presented herein to demonstrate involvement of genetic factors in AN etiology. Methods: Probands of the above - mentioned pedigrees, who had been diagnosed with AN, were evaluated and followed up in the Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, China PLA General Hospital. Their family members were studied and the pedigree diagrams were established. History of illness, physical examination,pure tone audiometry, acoustic reflex, ABRs and transient evoked and distortion- product otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs and DPOAEs) were obtained from members of these families. DPOAE changes under the influence of contralateral sound stimuli were observed by presenting a set of continuous white noise to the non - recording ear to exam the function of auditory efferent system. Some subjects received vestibular caloric test, computed tomography (CT)scan of the temporal bone and electrocardiography (ECG) to exclude other possible neuropathy disorders. Results: In most affected subjects, hearing loss of various degrees and speech discrimination difficulties started at 10 to16 years of age. Their audiological evaluation showed absence of acoustic reflex and ABRs. As expected in AN, these subjects exhibited near normal cochlear outer hair cell function as shown in TEOAE & DPOAE recordings. Pure- tone audiometry revealed hearing loss ranging from mild to severe in these patients. Autosomal recessive inheritance patterns were observed in the three families. In Pedigree Ⅰ and Ⅱ, two affected brothers were found respectively, while in pedigree Ⅲ, 2 sisters were affected. All the patients were otherwise normal without

  6. Standardization of Administered Activities in Pediatric Nuclear Medicine: A Report of the First Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative Project, Part 2-Current Standards and the Path Toward Global Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seung; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI are to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. It was decided to divide the final report of this project into 2 parts. Part 1 was published in this journal in the spring of 2015. This article presents part 2 of the final report. It discusses current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various professional organizations. It also presents an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of 313 nuclear medicine clinics and centers from 29 countries. Lastly, it provides recommendations for a path toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children.

  7. Unemployment Insurance and Disability Insurance in the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Andreas I.; Jesse Rothstein; Till M. von Wachter

    2013-01-01

    Disability insurance (DI) applications and awards are countercyclical. One potential explanation is that unemployed individuals who exhaust their Unemployment Insurance (UI) benefits use DI as a form of extended benefits. We exploit the haphazard pattern of UI benefit extensions in the Great Recession to identify the effect of UI exhaustion on DI application, using both aggregate data at the state-month and state-week levels and microdata on unemployed individuals in the Current Population Su...

  8. Global'naja jenergeticheskaja i jekologicheskaja bezopasnost' v uslovijah sovremennogo mirovogo jekonomicheskogo krizisa [Global energy and environmental security in the current global economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Kosov Yuri; Mallon V.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the problems of the environmental impact of energy. Further reduction of this impact on the global environment can be achieved two ways. The short-term one implies the increase in energy efficiency. In the next 15—20 years, the increase in efficiency should become a priority of the energy policy of all states. The long-term one is based on the gradual expansion of renewable energy. This method is aimed to avoid further economic and energy crises. At the same time, it ha...

  9. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  10. The Global Positioning System for Military Users: Current Modernization Plans and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    signal was transmitted at 1575.42 MHz. 8. Michael Shaw, Kanwaljit Sandhoo, and David Turner, “Modern- ization of the Global Positioning System” (paper...the Foucault pendulum but uses a vibrating element, known as a Micro Electro-Mechanical System, instead of an actual pendulum. iGPS Module. The

  11. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Home/Host Country or Site/Institution Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Alsharif, Naser Z.; Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P.; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N.; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O’Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily

    2016-01-01

    International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of unde...

  12. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Home/Host Country or Site/Institution Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Alsharif, Naser Z.; Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P.; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N.; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O’Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily

    2016-01-01

    International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of unde...

  13. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.

  14. Behavioural reactions of consumers to economic recession

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kliestik, Tomas; VALÁŠKOVÁ, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The negative effects caused by the economic recession of the recent year, led to the necessity to recognize the changes in the consumer behaviour that may have a lasting impact, and they definitely will...

  15. Current initiatives in One Health: consolidating the One Health Global Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersmissen, A; Welburn, S C

    2014-08-01

    The Global Response to Avian Influenza has led to a longer-term One Health movement, which addresses risks, including zoonoses, at the human-animal- environment interface, and requires the development of innovative partnerships at the political, institutional and technical levels. One Health is a sustainable and rational option when the cumulative effects of health hazards on food and economic security are considered, but demands long-term financial investment. Projections of growth in the demand for livestock production and consumption in Asia and Africa also call for effective One Health responses. However, an effective response also requires validated evidence of the socio-economic value that the One Health approach can provide. Implementing the One Health approach depends on forging strong links between human and animal health services, the environment and public policy. The authors present a list of some of the national and transnational partnerships established since 2006. Political support, good governance and effective policies and networks are crucial building blocks for One Health sustainability. The Global Response to Avian Influenza was initially established under the joint leadership of the European Union, the United States and the United Nations System Influenza Coordination Office. Since then it has supported numerous initiatives, including the World Health Organization (WHO)/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Global Early Warning System (GLEWS). Indeed, the Global Response to Avian Influenza paved the way for an unprecedented WHO/FAO/OIE tripartite partnership, which promoted the integration of foodborne, neglected zoonotic and tropical diseases within the One Health movement and led to the tripartite High-Level Technical Meeting of 2011 in Mexico. The One Health Global Network, which began as a proposition at an Expert Consultation in Winnipeg, Canada, in 2009, is now a reality

  16. Global stability of plasmas with helical boundary deformation and net toroidal current against n=1,2 external modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardela, A.; Cooper, W.A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1996-09-01

    In this paper we resume a numerical study of the global stability of plasma with helical boundary deformation and non null net toroidal current. The aim was to see whether external modes with n=1,2 (n toroidal mode number) can be stabilized at values of {beta} inaccessible to the tokamak. L=2,3 configurations with several aspect ratios and different numbers of equilibrium field periods are considered. A large variety of toroidal current densities and different pressure profiles are taken into account. Mercier stability is also investigated. (author) 4 figs., 6 refs.

  17. Changes in the Tsushima Warm Current and the Impact under a Global Warming Scenario in Coupled Climate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-Ra Choi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated changes in the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC under the global warming scenario RCP 4.5 by analysing the results from the World Climate Research Program’s (WCRP Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5. Among the four models that had been employed to analyse the Tsushima Warm Current during the 20th Century, in the CSIRO-Mk3.6.0 and HadGEM2-CC models the transports of the Tsushima Warm Current were 2.8 Sv and 2.1 Sv, respectively, and comparable to observed transport, which is between 2.4 and 2.77 Sv. In the other two models the transports were much greater or smaller than the observed estimates. Using the two models that properly reproduced the transport of the Tsushima Warm Current we investigated the response of the current under the global warming scenario. In both models the volume transports and the temperature were greater in the future climate scenario. Warm advection into the East Sea was intensified to raise the temperature and consequently the heat loss to the air.

  18. Gingival prosthesis: A treatment modality for recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Samatha Yalamanchili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession caused due to periodontal disease disturbs patients because of sensitivity and esthetics. Gingival prosthesis may be fixed or removable and can be made from silicones, acrylics, composite resins or ceramics according to what is best suited for the case. The gingival veneer is esthetically appealing and easy to maintain. This case report describes the use of gingival veneer as a treatment modality for recession.

  19. Gingival prosthesis: A treatment modality for recession

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Samatha Yalamanchili; Hemchand Surapaneni; Arunima Padmakumar Reshmarani

    2013-01-01

    Gingival recession caused due to periodontal disease disturbs patients because of sensitivity and esthetics. Gingival prosthesis may be fixed or removable and can be made from silicones, acrylics, composite resins or ceramics according to what is best suited for the case. The gingival veneer is esthetically appealing and easy to maintain. This case report describes the use of gingival veneer as a treatment modality for recession.

  20. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SOLUTIONS REGARDING THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA DORNEAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze comparatively and critically the solutions adopted on international level by the European Union and also by different countries. In the first part, the paper aims at emphasizing the causes of the global economic and financial crisis and its features, including the contagion effect which manifested. In the second part, we consider the main implications of the global financial turmoil in order to emphasize the serious effects of the crisis. Finally, we analyze the solutions outlined in hard-hit countries in order to limit and counteract its effects, the solutions adopted on international level and also the domestic remedies. For this purpose, we compare the fiscal, monetary and budgetary solutions developed and implemented in countries such as USA, UK, Japan, EU countries and, of course, Romania.

  1. How current assessments of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge legitimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas

    the Economist (2013) turn to Scandinavia as having the solutions to some of the global sustainability-related challenges, it might also be worth reversing the optics. One approach could be to take a closer look at whether this high level of support for the UNGC translates to a high level of Sustainability......The Scandinavian countries have been strong supporters of the UN Global Compact (UNGC) since the official launch in year 2000. This is best evidenced by the level of adoption of the UNGC, which is the most widely adopted broad sustainability-reporting standard in Scandinavia (Kjaergaard, submitted...... - in review). And since the UNGC in 2010 introduced the differentiation framework to their reporting standard, a significant number of Scandinavian corporations has chosen to report on an Advanced Level and self-assess their Sustainability Performance. Hence, in times where international opinion makers like...

  2. The global spread of Zika virus: is public and media concern justified in regions currently unaffected?

    OpenAIRE

    Gyawali, Narayan; Bradbury, Richard S.; Taylor-Robinson, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Zika virus, an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus, is fast becoming a worldwide public health concern following its suspected association with over 4000 recent cases of microcephaly among newborn infants in Brazil. Discussion Prior to its emergence in Latin America in 2015–2016, Zika was known to exist at a relatively low prevalence in parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific islands. An extension of its apparent global dispersion may be enabled by climate conditions suitable to support ...

  3. Impact of the economic recession on companion animal relinquishment, adoption, and euthanasia: a Chicago animal shelter's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Hart, Lynette A

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how the current economic recession (since December 2007) has affected dog and cat relinquishment, adoption, and euthanasia at the Anti-Cruelty Society animal shelter in Chicago, Illinois. The study compared temporal patterns of the investigated statistics before (2000-2007) the start of the current recession with the patterns after the start of the recession (2008-2010). The results showed that once the guardianship (ownership) of a nonhuman animal had been established, the recession did not greatly affect the owner's decision on relinquishment-except for the relinquishment of senior dogs, which may be associated with increased costs of care. However, an unfavorable economic environment may have reduced adoption of animals. The consequences of a decline in adoptions might be reflected in an increase in the proportion or number of sheltered animals euthanized. This study demonstrated how monitoring changes in temporal patterns in these shelter statistics can help guide animal shelters to better prepare for the current recession.

  4. Observing Magnetic and Current Profiles of the Night side and Terminator of Mars through the Mars Global Surveyor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, N.; Fillingim, M. O.; Fogle, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Mars has no global magnetic field. Changes in the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field can impact the upper atmosphere and induce currents in the ionosphere of Mars. During aerobraking maneuvers, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) made over 1000 passes through Mars's ionosphere. During these passes, MGS measured the local magnetic field. From these measurements, we can determine the ionospheric currents. We restrict our analysis to passes where the radial component of the magnetic field is nearly zero. This restriction, along with some assumptions about the gradients in the magnetic field, allows us to estimate the horizontal ionospheric currents. Additionally, we focus on the magnetic field data acquired over regions above negligible crustal magnetic fields in order to simplify the analysis. At a maximum altitude of 250 km, the Mars map was segmented to 30 by 30 degrees east longitude and latitude for analysis. We find that on the night side, where the solar zenith angle (SZA) lies between 130 to 180 degrees, only 4% of the data (out of a total of 52 profiles) is usable for computing currents, that is the radial component of the magnetic field is nearly zero. We also find that near the terminator, where the SZA lies between 50 to 130 degrees, an average of 2% of the magnetic field profiles (out of 1905) are usable to compute currents. This implies that currents are rarely horizontal (as required by our assumptions) in these regions. The currents computed from these profiles can give us insights into how the changing solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field can affect the upper atmosphere of Mars. For example, induced currents can lead to Joule heating of the atmosphere potentially modifying the neutral dynamics.

  5. Global Electric Circuit Implications of Combined Aircraft Storm Electric Current Measurements and Satellite-Based Diurnal Lightning Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2011-01-01

    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of thunderstorms and electrified shower clouds (ESCs) spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean thunderstorms is 1.7 A while the mean current for land thunderstorms is 1.0 A. The mean current for ocean ESCs 0.41 A and the mean current for land ESCs is 0.13 A. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal flash rate statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie curve) to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. The agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Given our data and assumptions, mean contributions to the global electric circuit are 1.1 kA (land) and 0.7 kA (ocean) from thunderstorms, and 0.22 kA (ocean) and 0.04 (land) from ESCs, resulting in a mean total conduction current estimate for the global electric circuit of 2.0 kA. Mean storm counts are 1100 for land

  6. Wind Diffusivity Current, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  7. Wind Diffusivity Current, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  8. Wind Diffusivity Current, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Meridional

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  9. Wind Diffusivity Current, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  10. Direct current stimulation (tDCS) reveals parietal asymmetry in local/global and salience-based selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Lara; Kanai, Ryota; Mapelli, Daniela; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    Data from neuropsychology and neuroimaging studies indicate hemispheric asymmetries in processing object's global form versus local parts. However the attentional mechanisms subtending visual selection of different levels of information are poorly understood. The classical left hemisphere/local-right hemisphere/global dichotomy has been recently challenged by studies linking the asymmetry of activation in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) with the relative salience of the stimulus rather than with the local/global level. The present study aimed to assess hemispheric asymmetry in local-global and salience-based selection in hierarchical stimuli by using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). To this end, tDCS has been applied to the PPC of both the hemispheres. Our data revealed that tDCS did affect the selection of the target on the basis of its relative salience in a manner that depended on the tDCS polarity applied to the two hemispheres. This result is in line with previous findings that the left PPC is critically involved in attention for low-salience stimuli in the presence of high-salience distractor information, while right PPC is involved in attending to more salient stimuli. Hemispheric asymmetries were also found in local/global selection. Overall the results suggest that neural activation in the PPC is related to both the salience and the level of stimulus representations mediating responses to hierarchical stimuli. The comparison of the results from Experiments 1 and 2 in local/global-based selection suggests that the effect of stimulation could be completely opposite depending on subtle differences in demands of attentional control (sustained attention vs task switching).

  11. THE CURRENT FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS AS A NEW STAGE OF TRANSFORMATION OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that modern economic science failed to foresee the financial and economic crisis of 2008-2009. However it is appear that there is still a lack of understanding fundamental causes of this crush and its aftermath. The available standard forecasting models and theories for the growth of the global economy are barely able to make correct forecasts in a crisis period and treat this crisis as a cyclical one. Moreover the nature of this crisis and its long-run effect on the...

  12. Impact of Intellectual Property in National and Business Development under the Context of the Current Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalin Ballesteros García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the document is to show the impact of the intellectual property on the national and enterprise development in the globalization context since the early twenty-first century. First, it is a historical telling of the intellectual property and its role in the international society; then outlining the arguments to infer the incidence degree of the intellectual property in the economic development of countries and then discussing the inclusion impact of concepts directly related to the intellectual property in business growth activities. It concludes with a reflection on the Colombian situation, in public and private context, in terms of intellectual property.

  13. The global momentum for smokefree public places: best practice in current and forthcoming smokefree policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BA G Griffith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Smokefree Partnership has recently prepared a map of smokefree campaigns and policies around the world. It focuses primarily on countries that are parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but other countries were included. The smokefree status of 172 countries was mapped. Of these countries, 31 (18.0% have established comprehensive smokefree policies, either nationally or at state or city level - best practice; 25 (14.6% are planning to implement smokefree policies in 2008 or 2009; and 51(29.6% are making significant progress with smokefree policies. Only 65 countries (37.8% have limited or no smokefree polices. A selection of countries representing best practices in smokefree policies or planning to implement smokefree policies in 2008 or 2009 is highlighted. They illustrate the significant global momentum for smokefree policies, the success of established policies, the importance of civil society and the sharing of experience between countries.El Global Smokefree Partnership recién completó un mapa de las campañas para promover políticas de ambientes libres de humo (ALH a nivel mundial. El mapa se centra en los países Partes al Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco de la OMS, aunque otros países también se incluyen, y documenta el estatus de 172 países en el tema de los ALH. De estos países, 31 (18.0% tienen políticas comprehensivas de ALH, a nivel nacional, provincial, y/o estatal - mejores prácticas; 25 (14.6% prevén la implementación de políticas de ALH en 2008 o 2009; y 51 (29.6% han progresado significativamente con estas políticas. Sólo 65 países (37.8% no tienen políticas de ALH, o sólo políticas limitadas en este ámbito. Este ensayo destaca una selección de países que representan las mejores prácticas en las políticas de ALH o que prevén la implementación de estas políticas en 2008 o 2009, con tal de ilustrar el movimiento global hacia los ambientes libres de humo; el

  14. Current Status and Future Perspective in the Globalization of Traditional Chinese Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ying Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of traditional Chinese medicines started around 1996, which was initiated by the Chinese government. However, substantial progress was only achieved in recent years including the adoption of TCM quality monographs in the western pharmacopoeias (United States Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia and registration in main stream drug regulatory agencies such as US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA. So far, several TCM herbal quality monographs were adopted by the United States Pharmacopoeia including Chinese Salvia, Ganoderma lucidum and Panax notoginseng, etc. Over 45 TCM quality monographs were recorded in the European Pharmacopoeia with 20 more in progress. After the successful registration of the first TCM product named Diao Xin Xue Kang as traditional medicine via the Medicines Evaluation Board of the Netherlands, several other TCM herbal products are in the registration process in several European member states. So far, there has been still not any TCM product authorized as a drug by the FDA regardless of a few TCM products in phase III or phase II clinical trials. This review summarizes the progress made in the globalization of traditional Chinese medicines in recent years and future issues in this regard.

  15. Global health equity in United Kingdom university research: a landscape of current policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotham, Dzintars; Meldrum, Jonathan; Nageshwaran, Vaitehi; Counts, Christopher; Kumari, Nina; Martin, Manuel; Beattie, Ben; Post, Nathan

    2016-10-10

    Universities are significant contributors to research and technologies in health; however, the health needs of the world's poor are historically neglected in research. Medical discoveries are frequently licensed exclusively to one producer, allowing a monopoly and inequitable pricing. Similarly, research is often published in ways that make it inaccessible. Universities can adopt policies and practices to overcome neglect and ensure equitable access to research and its products. For 25 United Kingdom universities, data on health research funding were extracted from the top five United Kingdom funders' databases and coded as research on neglected diseases (NDs) and/or health in low- and lower-middle-income countries (hLLMIC). Data on intellectual property licensing policies and practices and open-access policies were obtained from publicly available sources and by direct contact with universities. Proportions of research articles published as open-access were extracted from PubMed and PubMed Central. Across United Kingdom universities, the median proportion of 2011-2014 health research funds attributable to ND research was 2.6% and for hLLMIC it was 1.7%. Overall, 79% of all ND funding and 74% of hLLMIC funding were granted to the top four institutions within each category. Seven institutions had policies to ensure that technologies developed from their research are affordable globally. Mostly, universities licensed their inventions to third parties in a way that confers monopoly rights. Fifteen institutions had an institutional open-access publishing policy; three had an institutional open-access publishing fund. The proportion of health-related articles with full-text versions freely available online ranged from 58% to 100% across universities (2012-2013); 23% of articles also had a creative commons CC-BY license. There is wide variation in the amount of global health research undertaken by United Kingdom universities, with a large proportion of total research

  16. Youth prospects in a time of economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cottini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper gives an update to earlier analysis considering youth poverty and transition to adulthood, which is timely given the economic crisis engulfing many countries in Europe. Whereas the crisis is affecting young people in particular, there is also a certain degree of variation across Europe. Objective: We document the short-term consequences of the current recession on the transition to adulthood of young Europeans, focusing on two main cornerstones in the transition to adulthood: economic independence and residential autonomy. Methods: We use a combination of OECD Employment Statistics for 2012 and micro-level data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC for the period 2005-2011 for 24 countries. Results: We document an increase in economic hardship experienced by young adults in several European countries during the recession, which is starting to translate into higher rates of co-residence with parents, hence delaying the process of leaving home and gaining economic independence. Conclusions: The way countries are reacting to the recession is not yet clear-cut, but economic uncertainty and deprivation is on the rise in those countries hardest hit, which is likely to delay the key markers of transition to adulthood.

  17. GLOBAL WOOD PELLET INDUSTRY AND MARKET – CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS AND OUTLOOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrän, Daniela; Peetz, David; Schaubach, Kay; Trømborg, Erik; Pellini, Alessandro; Lamers, Patrick; Hess, J. Richard; Schipfer, Fabian; Hektor, Bo; Olsson, Olle; Bruce, Lena; Stelte, Wolfgang; Proskurina, Svetlana; Heinimo, Jussi; Benedetti, Luca; Mai-Moulin, Thuy; Junginger, Martin; Craggs, Laura; Wild, Michael; Murray, Gordan; Diaz-Chavez, Rocio; Thiermann, Ute; Escobar, F. J.; Goldemberg, J.; Coelho, S. T.

    2017-06-01

    The wood pellet use in the heating and electricity sector has recorded a steady growth in the last years. IEA bioenergy task 40 carried out an update of the situation on the national pellet markets in the most relevant pellet producing countries and the global development as well. Various country specific data is collected and compiled for more than 30 countries, containing updated information about regulatory framework, production, consumption, price trends, quality standards and trade aspects. The analysis confirmed the positive development in terms of production and consumption of wood pellets in almost all countries. In 2015 more than 26 Mt of wood pellets have been produced and consumed worldwide. Technologies and markets become more mature. Increased international pellet trade needs to be supported by adequate frame condition not only for commerce, but also with regard to sustainability issues.

  18. Rapid Detection Strategies for the Global Threat of Zika Virus: Current State, New Hypotheses and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Shukla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current scenario regarding the widespread Zika virus (ZIKV has resulted in numerous diagnostic studies, specifically in South America and in locations where there is frequent entry of travelers returning from ZIKV-affected areas, including pregnant women with or without clinical symptoms of ZIKV infection. The World Health Organization, WHO, announced that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the United States of America in the near future. This situation has created an alarming public health emergency of international concern requiring the detection of this life-threatening viral candidate due to increased cases of newborn microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection. Hence, this review reports possible methods and strategies for the fast and reliable detection of ZIKV with particular emphasis on current updates, knowledge and new hypotheses that might be helpful for medical professionals in poor and developing countries that urgently need to address this problem. In particular, we emphasize liposome-based biosensors. Although these biosensors are currently among the less popular tools for human disease detection, they have become useful tools for the screening and detection of pathogenic bacteria, fungi and viruses because of their versatile advantageous features compared to other sensing devices. This review summarizes the currently available methods employed for the rapid detection of ZIKV and suggests an innovative approach involving the application of a liposome-based hypothesis for the development of new strategies for ZIKV detection and their use as effective biomedicinal tools.

  19. The current situation of meningococcal disease in Latin America and updated Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurélio P; O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela Bravo, Maria Teresa; Brandileone, Maria Cristina C; Gorla, Maria Cecília O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Moreno, Gabriela; Vazquez, Julio A; López, Eduardo L; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Borrow, Ray

    2015-11-27

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) was established in 2009 and comprises an international team of scientists, clinicians, and public health officials with expertise in meningococcal disease (MD). Its primary goal is to promote global prevention of MD through education, research, international cooperation, and developing recommendations that include decreasing the burden of severe disease. The group held its first roundtable meeting with experts from Latin American countries in 2011, and subsequently proposed several recommendations to reduce the regional burden of MD. A second roundtable meeting was convened with Latin American representatives in June 2013 to reassess MD epidemiology, vaccination strategies, and unmet needs in the region, as well as to update the earlier recommendations. Special emphasis was placed on the emergence and spread of serogroup W disease in Argentina and Chile, and the control measures put in place in Chile were a particular focus of discussions. The impact of routine meningococcal vaccination programs, notably in Brazil, was also evaluated. There have been considerable improvements in MD surveillance systems and diagnostic techniques in some countries (e.g., Brazil and Chile), but the lack of adequate infrastructure, trained personnel, and equipment/reagents remains a major barrier to progress in resource-poor countries. The Pan American Health Organization's Revolving Fund is likely to play an important role in improving access to meningococcal vaccines in Latin America. Additional innovative approaches are needed to redress the imbalance in expertise and resources between countries, and thereby improve the control of MD. In Latin America, the GMI recommends establishment of a detailed and comprehensive national/regional surveillance system, standardization of laboratory procedures, adoption of a uniform MD case definition, maintaining laboratory-based surveillance, replacement of polysaccharide vaccines with conjugate

  20. The feathered world and the global climate: Current changes; Vogelwelt und Klima: gegenwaertige Veraenderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, P. [Forschungsstelle fuer Ornithologie der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Vogelwarte Radolfzell (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    For the avifauna, environmental conditions in northern latitudes obviously have been changing to the better, primarily in the northern hemisphere, so that bird species have been expanding towards the northern face of the earth. This has been observed by ornitologists who came to realize that more species than before remained for longer periods in their northern breeding grounds, with reproduction rates increasing and mortality during the winter seasons declining. Most of the trends observed are significant, although there also are some species whose number in traditional living environments is declining. The positive trends are attributed to the recent global warming. Should this process continue, it is expected to cause considerable shifts in the bird population, from subtropical regions up to the polar regions. At our latitudes, the populations of non-migratory birds are expected to grow, while those of birds migrating over long distances should decline. This might reduce the diversity in species over a given period, but experts expect that this will be followed by growing and lasting diversity at our latitudes. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Fuer die Avifauna haben sich in hoeheren geographischen Breiten, vor allem der Nordhemisphaere, Umweltverhaeltnisse derart verbessert, dass sie die Ausbreitung vieler Vogelarten nach Norden ermoeglichen, vielen Arten laengere Anwesenheit im Brutgebiet erlauben und den Zugumfang reduzieren, und wiederum bei vielen Arten, die Fortpflanzung beguenstigen sowie die Wintermortalitaet reduzieren. Diese Trends sind grossenteils signifikant, obwohl auch viele Arten, vor allem Langstreckenzieher und Offenlandbrueter, starke Bestandsrueckgaenge zeigen. Die positiven Trends sind offenbar die Folge der Klimaerwaermung. Sollte sich diese globale Klimaerwaermung fortsetzen, so ist mit starken Umschichtungen der Avifauna in weiten Bereichen von den Subtropen bis in polare Regionen zu rechnen. In unseren mittleren Breiten ist die Zunahme von

  1. Esthetic dentistry for multiple gingival recession cases: Coronally advanced flap with bracket application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkle Gulati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of gingival recession is essential to rectify the esthetic and functional deficiencies of the patient and to combat further periodontal destruction. However, treating multiple recession cases is quite challenging, and therefore requires constant modifications of the prevalent treatment strategies as per the severity of the condition. The objective of this case report was to evaluate the effectiveness of coronally advanced flap (CAF technique without vertical incisions using CAF brackets (CAF+B for treating a patient presenting with class II gingival recession defects in relation to maxillary anteriors. Complete root coverage was observed, and the results were consistent even after 6 months. The current case report demonstrates good outcomes of the CAF + B technique without the use of any additional soft tissue grafts or vertical incisions, therefore, endorsing the promising potential of the CAF + B technique in multiple gingival recession cases.

  2. A simple strategy for managing many recessive disorders in a dairy cattle breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, John B

    2015-11-30

    High-density single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes have recently been used to identify a number of novel recessive mutations that adversely affect fertility in dairy cattle, as well as to track other conditions such as red coat color and polled. Most current methods for mate allocation fail to consider this information, and it will become increasingly difficult to manage matings as the number of recessive mutations to be accounted for increases. A modified version of a mating strategy that constrains inbreeding based on genomics (the Pryce method) was developed that also accounts for the economic effects of Mendelian disorders on overall economic merit (modified Pryce method) and compared with random mating, truncation selection, and the Pryce scheme. Several scenarios were considered, including scenarios with six hypothetical recessive alleles and 12 recessive alleles that are currently segregating in the US Holstein population. The Pryce method and the modified Pryce method showed similar ability to reduce frequencies of recessive alleles, particularly for loci with frequencies greater than 0.30. The modified Pryce method outperformed the Pryce method for low-frequency alleles with small economic value. Cumulative genetic gain for the selection objective was slightly greater when using the Pryce method, but rates of inbreeding were similar across methods. The proposed method reduces allele frequencies faster than other methods, and also can be used to maintain or increase the frequency of desirable recessives. It can be easily implemented in software for mate allocation, and the code used in this study is freely available as a reference implementation.

  3. Automating Recession Curve Displacement Recharge Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brennan; Schwartz, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Recharge estimation is an important and challenging element of groundwater management and resource sustainability. Many recharge estimation methods have been developed with varying data requirements, applicable to different spatial and temporal scales. The variability and inherent uncertainty in recharge estimation motivates the recommended use of multiple methods to estimate and bound regional recharge estimates. Despite the inherent limitations of using daily gauged streamflow, recession curve displacement methods provide a convenient first-order estimate as part of a multimethod hierarchical approach to estimate watershed-scale annual recharge. The implementation of recession curve displacement recharge estimation in the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) RORA program relies on the subjective, operator-specific selection of baseflow recession events to estimate a gauge-specific recession index. This paper presents a parametric algorithm that objectively automates this tedious, subjective process, parameterizing and automating the implementation of recession curve displacement. Results using the algorithm reproduce regional estimates of groundwater recharge from the USGS Appalachian Valley and Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis, with an average absolute error of less than 2%. The algorithm facilitates consistent, completely automated estimation of annual recharge that complements more rigorous data-intensive techniques for recharge estimation. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  4. Current subsidies in the agricultural sector of the global trade system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Voronina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the provisions of the WTO agreements regulating the use of subsidies in the agricultural sector by the member-states. It analyzes current practices of the WTO member-states’ in subsidizing their agricultural production. It also outlines the main trends in improving the practices of subsidizing agricultural producers in the leading countries of the world. The article also describes the major coalitions within the WTO that actively participate in the development and improvement of international trade rules in agricultural produce. In the current context whereby Ukraine seeks WTO accession, the structure of domestic measures in support of agriculture pursuant to the requirements of this international organization is given special attention. The article also considers the prospects for further liberalization of international trade in agricultural produce.

  5. Global Simulations of the March 17, 2013 Storm: Importance of Boundary Conditions in Reproducing Ring Current Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Jordanova, V.; Larsen, B.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Welling, D. T.; Skoug, R. M.; Kletzing, C.

    2013-12-01

    As modeling capabilities become increasingly available for the study of inner magnetospheric dynamics, the models' boundary conditions remain a crucial controlling factor in reproducing observations. In this study, we use the kinetic Ring current-Atmosphere Interaction Model (RAM) two-way coupled with the global MHD model BATS-R-US to study the evolution of the ring current and its feedback to the ionospheric electrodynamics during the March 17, 2013 storm. The MHD code solves fluid quantities and provides the inner magnetosphere code with plasma sheet plasma, which is the primary source for the development of the ring current. In this study, we examine the effect of different boundary conditions in specifying the plasma sheet plasma source on reproducing observations of the inner magnetospheric/subauroral region, such as in-situ observations (e.g., flux, magnetic fields, and electric fields) from Van Allen Probes (RBSP), field-aligned currents from AMPERE, and global convection maps from SuperDARN. These different boundary settings include a Maxwellian distribution assumption with MHD single-fluid temperature and density, a Kappa distribution assumption with MHD single-fluid temperature and density, and a bi-Maxwellian distribution with anisotropic pressures passed from the MHD code. Results indicate that a Kappa distribution at the boundary of RAM leads to a better ring current flux prediction than that with a Maxwellian distribution assumption, as well as a more realistic spatial distribution of ion anisotropy, which is important in driving electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. The anisotropic pressure coupling between the kinetic code and the MHD code with a bi-Maxwellian function significantly improves the agreement with observations, especially the Dst index prediction.

  6. Young people and the post-recession labour market in the context of Europe 2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, H.; Bekker, S.; Houwing, H.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how the recent global recession, together with the general flexibilization of labour markets, is affecting young people. We examine different forms of social exclusion, including unemployment, temporary employment contracts and periods of inactivity, as well as the subjective i

  7. Young people and the post-recession labour market in the context of Europe 2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, H.; Bekker, S.; Houwing, H.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how the recent global recession, together with the general flexibilization of labour markets, is affecting young people. We examine different forms of social exclusion, including unemployment, temporary employment contracts and periods of inactivity, as well as the subjective

  8. Working under pressure: economic recession and third sector development in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pape, U.D.; Chaves-Ávila, R.; Pahl, J.B.; Petrella, F.; Pielinski, B.; Savall-Morera, T.

    2016-01-01

    The context conditions for third sector organizations (TSOs) in Europe have significantly changed as a result of the global economic crisis, including decreasing levels of public funding and changing modes of relations with the state. The effect of economic recession, however, varies across Europe.

  9. Evaluation of global and local critical current densities in 122-type iron-based superconducting tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyon, Sunseng, E-mail: pyon@ap.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Mine, Akinori; Suwa, Takahiro; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • (Ba,K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} superconducting pressed tapes are fabricated. • We found an intriguing anisotropy in J{sub c} determined by magnetic measurements, which is related to microcrack structures affecting the local J{sub c}. • Microcrack structures are directly observed by magneto-optical imaging technique. - Abstract: We demonstrate the fabrication of (Ba,K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} superconducting pressed tapes through a powder-in-tube method using uniaxial cold pressing technique, and evaluate global and local J{sub c} by several physical measurements. We found an intriguing anisotropy in J{sub c} determined by magnetic measurements, which is related to microcrack structures affecting the local J{sub c}. The maximum J{sub c} estimated from magnetization measurements has reached ∼1.9 × 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} under self-field at 4.2 K. Furthermore, microcrack structures are directly observed by magneto-optical imaging technique.

  10. Current global and Korean issues in radiation safety of nuclear medicine procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H C

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the management of patient doses in medical imaging has evolved as concern about radiation exposure has increased. Efforts and techniques to reduce radiation doses are focussed not only on the basis of patient safety, but also on the fundamentals of justification and optimisation in cooperation with international organisations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the World Health Organization. The Image Gently campaign in children and Image Wisely campaign in adults to lower radiation doses have been initiated in the USA. The European Association of Nuclear Medicine paediatric dosage card, North American consensus guidelines, and Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative have recommended the activities of radiopharmaceuticals that should be administered in children. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), developed predominantly in Europe, may be an important tool to manage patient doses. In Korea, overexposure to radiation, even from the use of medical imaging, has become a public issue, particularly since the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. As a result, the Korean Nuclear Safety and Security Commission revised the technical standards for radiation safety management in medical fields. In parallel, DRLs for nuclear medicine procedures have been collected on a nationwide scale. Notice of total effective dose from positron emission tomography-computed tomography for cancer screening has been mandatory since mid-November 2014.

  11. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Preceptor and Student Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornblaser, Emily K; Ratka, Anna; Gleason, Shaun E; Ombengi, David N; Tofade, Toyin; Wigle, Patricia R; Zapantis, Antonia; Ryan, Melody; Connor, Sharon; Jonkman, Lauren J; Ochs, Leslie; Jungnickel, Paul W; Abrons, Jeanine P; Alsharif, Naser Z

    2016-04-25

    The objective of this article is to describe the key areas of consideration for global/international advanced pharmacy practice experience (G/I APPE) preceptors, students and learning objectives. At the 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP), the GPE SIG prepared and presented an initial report on the G/IAPPE initiatives. Round table discussions were conducted at the 2014 AACP Annual Meeting to document GPE SIG member input on key areas in the report. Literature search of PubMed, Google Scholar and EMBASE with keywords was conducted to expand this report. In this paper, considerations related to preceptors and students and learning outcomes are described. Preceptors for G/I APPEs may vary based on the learning outcomes of the experience. Student learning outcomes for G/I APPEs may vary based on the type of experiential site. Recommendations and future directions for development of G/IAPPEs are presented. Development of a successful G/I APPE requires significant planning and consideration of appropriate qualifications for preceptors and students.

  12. Globalization of Stem Cell Science: An Examination of Current and Past Collaborative Research Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyuan; Matthews, Kirstin R. W.

    2013-01-01

    Science and engineering research has becoming an increasingly international phenomenon. Traditional bibliometric studies have not captured the evolution of collaborative partnerships between countries, particularly in emerging technologies such as stem cell science, in which an immense amount of investment has been made in the past decade. Analyzing over 2,800 articles from the top journals that include stem cell research in their publications, this study demonstrates the globalization of stem cell science. From 2000 to 2010, international collaborations increased from 20.9% to 36% of all stem cell publications analyzed. The United States remains the most prolific and the most dominant country in the field in terms of publications in high impact journals. But Asian countries, particularly China are steadily gaining ground. Exhibiting the largest relative growth, the percent of Chinese-authored stem cell papers grew more than ten-fold, while the percent of Chinese-authored international papers increased over seven times from 2000 to 2010. And while the percent of total stem cell publications exhibited modest growth for European countries, the percent of international publications increased more substantially, particularly in the United Kingdom. Overall, the data indicated that traditional networks of collaboration extant in 2000 still predominate in stem cell science. Although more nations are becoming involved in international collaborations and undertaking stem cell research, many of these efforts, with the exception of those in certain Asian countries, have yet to translate into publications in high impact journals. PMID:24069210

  13. N2O emissions from the global agricultural nitrogen cycle – current state and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lotze-Campen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive nitrogen (Nr is not only an important nutrient for plant growth, thereby safeguarding human alimentation, but it also heavily disturbs natural systems. To mitigate air, land, aquatic, and atmospheric pollution caused by the excessive availability of Nr, it is crucial to understand the long-term development of the global agricultural Nr cycle. For our analysis, we combine a material flow model with a land-use optimization model. In a first step we estimate the state of the Nr cycle in 1995. In a second step we create four scenarios for the 21st century in line with the SRES storylines. Our results indicate that in 1995 only half of the Nr applied to croplands was incorporated into plant biomass. Moreover, less than 10 per cent of all Nr in cropland plant biomass and grazed pasture was consumed by humans. In our scenarios a strong surge of the Nr cycle occurs in the first half of the 21st century, even in the environmentally oriented scenarios. Nitrous oxide (N2O emissions rise from 3 Tg N2O-N in 1995 to 7–9 in 2045 and 5–12 Tg in 2095. Reinforced Nr pollution mitigation efforts are therefore required.

  14. [Gingival recessions and periodontal plastic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quincey, G de; Padmos, J A D; Renkema, A M

    2015-11-01

    Periodontal plastic surgery is defined as the set of surgical procedures that are performed to prevent or correct developmental disorders and anatomical, traumatic and pathological abnormalities of the gingiva, alveolar mucosa, and alveolar bone. Root coverage procedures fall under this term and have been applied for more than fifty years with varying degrees of success. There are several indications for the treatment of gingival recessions. When the treatment of choice - a conservative approach - offers no solace (any more), gingival recessions can be treated by applying periodontal plastic surgery. The goal of this surgery is complete recovery of the anatomical structures in the area of the recession. To this end several surgical techniques have been developed during the last decades. The choice of a particular technique depends on various factors, such as the number of defects, their size and the amount of keratinized gingiva around the defect.

  15. Staying Relevant and Current with Online Learning in an Increasingly Global and Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Lynch

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the success of online learning in the workplace with corporate partners through Open Universities Australia (OUA. OUA is recognized as the national leader in online higher education in Australia with over 200,000 students studying with OUA since 1993. The corporate program helps employees formalize or extend their current skills, reach the next level in their organization or pursue relevant interests through tertiary studies. The business sector sees OUA as a highly attractive solution to fostering a culture of professional development, engagement and inclusiveness.

  16. Global forces and local currents in Argentina's science policy crossroads: restricted access or open knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Javier Etchichury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the tensions between two competing approaches to scientific policy in Argentina. The traditional vision favors autonomous research. The neoliberal conception fosters the link between science and markets. In the past few years, a neodevelopmentalist current also tries to stress relevance of scientific research. Finally, the article describes how the Open Access movement has entered the debate. The World Bank intervention and the human rights dimension of the question are discussed in depth. The article introduces the notion of open knowledge as a guiding criterion to design a human-rights based scientific policy.

  17. Cardioprotection: A Review of Current Practice in Global Ischemia and Future Translational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Habertheuer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of protecting the heart from ischemic insult during heart surgery to allow elective cardiac arrest is as old as the idea of cardiac surgery itself. The current gold standard in clinical routine is a high potassium regimen added either to crystalloid or blood cardioplegic solutions inducing depolarized arrest. Ongoing patient demographic changes with increasingly older, comorbidly ill patients and increasing case complexity with increasingly structurally abnormal hearts as morphological correlate paired with evolutions in pediatric cardiac surgery allowing more complex procedures than ever before redefine requirements for cardioprotection. Many, in part adversarial, regimens to protect the myocardium from ischemic insults have entered clinical routine; however, functional recovery of the heart is still often impaired due to perfusion injury. Myocardial reperfusion damage is a key determinant of postoperative organ functional recovery, morbidity, and mortality in adult and pediatric patients. There is a discrepancy between what current protective strategies are capable of and what they are expected to do in a rapidly changing cardiac surgery community. An increased understanding of the molecular players of ischemia reperfusion injury offers potential seeds for new cardioprotective regimens and may further displace boundaries of what is technically feasible.

  18. Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: A global concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadar, Haji [International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafalou, Sara [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: Benzene, as a volatile organic compound, is known as one of the main air pollutants in the environment. The aim of this review is to summarize all available evidences on non-cancerous health effects of benzene providing an overview of possible association of exposure to benzene with human chronic diseases, specially, in those regions of the world where benzene concentration is being poorly monitored. Methodology: A bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scirus was conducted with key words of “benzene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants”, “breast cancer and environmental pollution”, “prevalence of lung cancer”, and “diabetes prevalence”. More than 300 peer reviewed papers were examined. Experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting health effects of benzene and volatile organic compounds were included in the study. Results: Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that benzene exposure can lead to numerous non-cancerous health effects associated with functional aberration of vital systems in the body like reproductive, immune, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Conclusion: Chronic diseases have become a health burden of global dimension with special emphasis in regions with poor monitoring over contents of benzene in petrochemicals. Benzene is a well known carcinogen of blood and its components, but the concern of benzene exposure is more than carcinogenicity of blood components and should be evaluated in both epidemiologic and experimental studies. Aspect of interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to diabetes, breast and lung cancers should be followed up. - Highlights: • Benzene is a volatile organic compound and established blood carcinogen. • Exposure to benzene needs to be

  19. Boosting the globalization of plant proteomics through INPPO: current developments and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Agrawal, Raj; Ndimba, Bongani Kaiser; Tanou, Georgia; Dunn, Michael J; Kieselbach, Thomas; Cramer, Rainer; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Chen, Sixue; Rafudeen, Mohammed Suhail; Deswal, Renu; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Rakwal, Randeep

    2012-02-01

    The International Plant Proteomics Organization (INPPO) is a non-profit-organization consisting of people who are involved or interested in plant proteomics. INPPO is constantly growing in volume and activity, which is mostly due to the realization among plant proteomics researchers worldwide for the need of such a global platform. Their active participation resulted in the rapid growth within the first year of INPPO's official launch in 2011 via its website (www.inppo.com) and publication of the 'Viewpoint paper' in a special issue of PROTEOMICS (May 2011). Here, we will be highlighting the progress achieved in the year 2011 and the future targets for the year 2012 and onwards. INPPO has achieved a successful administrative structure, the Core Committee (CC; composed of President, Vice-President, and General Secretaries), Executive Council (EC), and General Body (GB) to achieve INPPO objectives. Various committees and subcommittees are in the process of being functionalized via discussion amongst scientists around the globe. INPPO's primary aim to popularize the plant proteomics research in biological sciences has also been recognized by PROTEOMICS where a section dedicated to plant proteomics has been introduced starting January 2012, following the very first issue of this journal devoted to plant proteomics in May 2011. To disseminate organizational activities to the scientific community, INPPO has launched a biannual (in January and July) newsletter entitled 'INPPO Express: News & Views' with the first issue published in January 2012. INPPO is also planning to have several activities in 2012, including programs within the Education Outreach committee in different countries, and the development of research ideas and proposals with priority on crop and horticultural plants, while keeping tight interactions with proteomics programs on model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, and Medicago truncatula. Altogether, the INPPO progress and upcoming activities

  20. The Effect of Recessions on Firms’ Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eirik Sjåholm; Foss, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    of core activities in response to a recessionary shock. Further, we find a negative interaction effect between reductions in access to credit and reductions in demand on insourcing of core activities, but no such effect on outsourcing of core activities. We argue that this finding may highlight a possible......The economic theory of the firm offers conflicting predictions of how the two major effects of recessions, changes in demand and access to credit, affect firm boundaries. Using data on Norwegian firms in the recent recession, we find support for both increased and reduced vertical integration...

  1. Combined Aircraft and Satellite-Derived Storm Electric Current and Lightning Rates Measurements and Implications for the Global Electric Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2010-01-01

    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of electrified shower clouds and thunderstorms spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. The measurements were made with the NASA ER-2 and the Altus-II high altitude aircrafts. Peak electric fields, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16 kV/m, with a mean value of 0.9 kV/m. The median peak field was 0.29 kV/m. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean storms with lightning is 1.6 A while the mean current for land storms with lightning is 1.0 A. The mean current for oceanic storms without lightning (i.e., electrified shower clouds) is 0.39 A and the mean current for land storms without lightning is 0.13 A. Thus, on average, land storms with or without lightning have about half the mean current as their corresponding oceanic storm counterparts. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal lightning statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie

  2. Influence of numerical schemes on current-topography interactions in 1/4° global ocean simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Madec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The combined use of partial steps and of an energy-enstrophy conserving momentum advection scheme was shown by Barnier et al. (2006 to yield substantial improvements in the surface solution of the DRAKKAR ¼° global sea-ice/ocean model. The present study extends this investigation below the surface with a special focus on the Atlantic and reveals many improvements there as well: e.g. more realistic path, structure and transports of major currents (Gulf Stream, North Atlantic Current, Confluence region, Zapiola anticyclone, behavior of shedded rings, narrower subsurface boundary currents, stronger mean and eddy flows (MKE and EKE at depth, beneficial enhancement of cyclonic (anticyclonic flows around topographic depressions (mountains. Interestingly, adding a no-slip boundary condition to this improved model setup cancels most of these improvements, bringing back the biases diagnosed without the improved momentum advection scheme and partial steps (these biases are typical of other models at comparable or higher resolutions. This shows that current-topography interactions and full-depth eddy-admitting model solutions can be seriously deteriorated by near-bottom sidewall friction, either explicit or inherent to inadequate numerical schemes.

  3. Influence of numerical schemes on current-topography interactions in 1/4° global ocean simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Madec

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The combined use of partial steps and of an energy-enstrophy conserving momentum advection scheme was shown by Barnier et al. (2006 to yield substantial improvements in the surface solution of the DRAKKAR ¼° global sea-ice/ocean model. The present study extends this investigation below the surface with a special focus on the Atlantic and reveals many improvements there as well: e.g. more realistic path, structure and transports of major currents (Gulf Stream, North Atlantic Current, Confluence region, Zapiola anticyclone, behavior of shedded rings, narrower subsurface boundary currents, stronger mean and eddy flows (MKE and EKE at depth, beneficial enhancement of cyclonic (anticyclonic flows around topographic depressions (mountains. Interestingly, adding a no-slip boundary condition to this improved model setup cancels most of these improvements, bringing back the biases diagnosed without the improved momentum advection scheme and partial steps (these biases are typical of other models at comparable or higher resolutions. This shows that current-topography interactions and full-depth eddy-admitting model solutions can be seriously deteriorated by near-bottom sidewall friction, either explicit or inherent to inadequate numerical schemes.

  4. Optimizing Quality of Care and Patient Safety in Malaysia: The Current Global Initiatives, Gaps and Suggested Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrar, Mu'taman; Abdul Rahman, Hamzah; Don, Mohammad Sobri

    2015-10-20

    Demand for health care service has significantly increased, while the quality of healthcare and patient safety has become national and international priorities. This paper aims to identify the gaps and the current initiatives for optimizing the quality of care and patient safety in Malaysia. Review of the current literature. Highly cited articles were used as the basis to retrieve and review the current initiatives for optimizing the quality of care and patient safety. The country health plan of Ministry of Health (MOH) Malaysia and the MOH Malaysia Annual Reports were reviewed. The MOH has set four strategies for optimizing quality and sustaining quality of life. The 10th Malaysia Health Plan promotes the theme "1 Care for 1 Malaysia" in order to sustain the quality of care. Despite of these efforts, the total number of complaints received by the medico-legal section of the MOH Malaysia is increasing. The current global initiatives indicted that quality performance generally belong to three main categories: patient; staffing; and working environment related factors. There is no single intervention for optimizing quality of care to maintain patient safety. Multidimensional efforts and interventions are recommended in order to optimize the quality of care and patient safety in Malaysia.

  5. Current use of medical eponyms – a need for global uniformity in scientific publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Nalini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although eponyms are widely used in medicine, they arbitrarily alternate between the possessive and nonpossessive forms. As very little is known regarding extent and distribution of this variation, the present study was planned to assess current use of eponymous term taking "Down syndrome" and "Down's syndrome" as an example. Methods This study was carried out in two phases – first phase in 1998 and second phase in 2008. In the first phase, we manually searched the terms "Down syndrome" and "Down's syndrome" in the indexes of 70 medical books, and 46 medical journals. In second phase, we performed PubMed search with both the terms, followed by text-word search for the same. Results In the first phase, there was an overall tilt towards possessive form – 62(53.4% "Down's syndrome" versus 54(46.6% "Down syndrome." However, the American publications preferred the nonpossesive form when compared with their European counterpart (40/50 versus 14/66; P Conclusion Inconsistency in the use of medical eponyms remains a major problem in literature search. Because of linguistic simplicity and technical advantages, the nonpossessive form should be used uniformly worldwide.

  6. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    preferred the schoolyard over the field to avoid the competitive soccer games on the field whereas boys dominated the field playing soccer. Using a mixed-methods approach to investigate children's physical activity behavior during recess helped gain in-depth knowledge that can aid development of future...

  7. The effect of recessions on gambling expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Csilla; Paap, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This article examines the influence of the business cycle on expenditures of three major types of legalized gambling activities: Casino gambling, lottery, and pari-mutuel wagering. Empirical results are obtained using monthly aggregated US per capita consumption time series for the period 1959.01-2010.08. Among the three gambling activities only lottery consumption appears to be recession-proof. This series is characterized by a vast and solid growth that exceeds the growth in income and the growth in other gambling sectors. Casino gambling expenditures show a positive growth during expansions and no growth during recessions. Hence, the loss in income during recessions affects casino gambling. However, income shocks which are not directly related to the business cycle do not influence casino gambling expenditures. Pari-mutuel wagering displays an overall negative trend and its average growth rate is smaller than the growth in income, especially during recessions. The findings of this article provide important implications for the gambling industry and for local governments.

  8. Recess for Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    During recess, the participation of a student with visual impairments in terms of movement can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and general education teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of students with visual impairments and present basic solutions to improve the participation of these students in the…

  9. Are recessions good for workplace safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.

    2006-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that in recessions the rate of workplace accidents goes down. This paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation to explain this phenomenon. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident affects the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that

  10. Drawing the line on coastline recession risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongejan, R.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.; Wainwright, D.; Callaghan, D.P.; Reyns, J.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and the growth of coastal communities will significantly increase the socio-economic risks associated with coastline recession (i.e. the net long term landward movement of the coastline). Coastal setback lines are a commonly adopted management/planning tool to mitigate these risks. Wh

  11. Gender Differences during Recess in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twarek, Linda S.; George, Halley S.

    A study examined the differences in what boys and girls choose, or are free to choose, to do on the playground during recess. Given the apparent problem that boys dominate the playground area, leaving girls on the perimeter, it was hypothesized that girls engage in passive, non-competitive, small group activities, whereas boys engage in…

  12. [Periodontology and esthetics: the gingival recession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corba, N H

    1991-06-01

    Gingival recessions are regarded by many people as an esthetical problem. Successively the etiology, the significance and the indications for therapy are discussed. Different kinds of therapy such as oral hygiene instruction, the free gingival graft and various pedicle grafts are explained. Finally it is advocated that surgical kinds of therapy have to be applied with reservedness.

  13. A boy with autosomal recessive hypercholesterolaemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, A.; Vissers, M.N.; Kastelein, J.J.P.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a 9-year-old Iranian boy with tuberous xanthomas, elevated LDL-cholesterol levels of 15.5 mmol/l, and vague complaints of chest pain while playing soccer. The consanguineous parents of the boy had normal cholesterol concentrations, which indicated an autosomal recessive disorder rather

  14. Current meter data from FIXED PLATFORMS as part of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project from 15 May 1988 to 19 June 1989 (NODC Accession 9700014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS from 15 May 1988 to 19 June 1989. University of South Florida (USF) as part of the Tropical Ocean Global...

  15. Eurasia: The Rivalry of Global Integration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Kobenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the Eurasian integration projects as major drivers of world globalization. Eurasian regionalism seems to be gaining attention in the scientific literature. Under the current political circumstance many regions are accelerating integration and many countries are opting for regional associations as a mechanism to help them overcome the global recession. Moreover, the global political leaders , some developed countries - the U.S., China, and the European Union (EU are interested to set up regional economic blocs such as Eurasian Economic Union (The EEU, the China's project 'One Belt One Road', the U.S's projects - The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP and The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP. The goal of this paper is to introduce a number of integration initiatives and to analyze the current strategies of Eurasian regionalism.

  16. The impact of financial globalization and financialization on the economy in the current crisis through banking corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Azkunaga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the role of governance of financial entities in the current crisis. Neoliberal economic policies, deregulation and liberalization have characterized financial globalization, giving rise to the financialization of the economy. This paper, using the analysis-synthesis method, shows that the corporate governance of entities has adapted to the new social environment under the influence of the interests of the investors. The results of this paper suggest the need to monitor the over-emphasis on the maximization of short-term shareholder value without relativizing the risk taken to achieve it, as such, the emphasis on short-term shareholder value is considered a crucial contributing factor to the present crisis.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions ARCA1 autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type 1 Printable PDF Open All Close All ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type 1 ( ARCA1 ) is a condition characterized by ...

  18. Can Brazil play a more important role in global tuberculosis drug production? An assessment of current capacity and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemal, Andre; Keravec, Joel; Menezes, Alexandre; Trajman, Anete

    2013-03-27

    Despite the existence of effective treatment, tuberculosis is still a global public health issue. The World Health Organization recommends a six-month four-drug regimen in fixed-dose combination formulation to treat drug sensitive tuberculosis, and long course regimens with several second-line drugs to treat multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. To achieve the projected tuberculosis elimination goal by 2050, it will be essential to ensure a non-interrupted supply of quality-assured tuberculosis drugs. However, quality and affordable tuberculosis drug supply is still a significant challenge for National Tuberculosis Programs. Quality drug production requires a combination of complex steps. The first challenge is to guarantee the quality of tuberculosis active pharmaceutical ingredients, then ensure an adequate manufacturing process, according to international standards, to guarantee final product's safety, efficacy and quality. Good practices for storage, transport, distribution and quality control procedures must follow. In contrast to other high-burden countries, Brazil produces tuberculosis drugs through a strong network of public sector drug manufacturers regulated by a World Health Organization-certified national sanitary authority. The installed capacity for production surpasses the 71,000 needed treatments in the country. However, in order to be prepared to act as a global supplier, important bottlenecks are to be overcome. This article presents an in-depth analysis of the current status of production of tuberculosis drugs in Brazil and the bottlenecks and opportunities for the country to sustain national demand and play a role as a potential global supplier. Raw material and drug production, quality control, international certification and pre-qualification, political commitment and regulatory aspects are discussed, as well recommendations for tackling these bottlenecks. This discussion becomes more important as new drugs and regimens to treat tuberculosis are

  19. Semiconductor structure and recess formation etch technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Bin; Sun, Min; Palacios, Tomas Apostol

    2017-02-14

    A semiconductor structure has a first layer that includes a first semiconductor material and a second layer that includes a second semiconductor material. The first semiconductor material is selectively etchable over the second semiconductor material using a first etching process. The first layer is disposed over the second layer. A recess is disposed at least in the first layer. Also described is a method of forming a semiconductor structure that includes a recess. The method includes etching a region in a first layer using a first etching process. The first layer includes a first semiconductor material. The first etching process stops at a second layer beneath the first layer. The second layer includes a second semiconductor material.

  20. Cutting Symmetrical Recesses In Soft Ceramic Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesotas, Tony C.; Tyler, Brent

    1989-01-01

    Simple tool cuts hemispherical recesses in soft ceramic tiles. Designed to expose wires of thermocouples embedded in tiles without damaging leads. Creates neat, precise holes around wires. End mill includes axial hole to accommodate thermocouple wires embedded in material to be cut. Wires pass into hole without being bent or broken. Dimensions in inches. Used in place of such tools as dental picks, tweezers, spatulas, and putty knives.

  1. POSSIBLE RECESSION CURVE APPLICATIONS FOR RETENTION EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Liberacki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to present possible applications of recession flow curve in a small lowland watershed retention discharge size evaluation. The examined woodland micro catchment area of 0.52 sq km is located in Puszcza Zielonka in central Wielkopolska. The Hutka catchment is typically woody with high retention abilities. The catchment of the Hutka watercourse is forested in 89%, the other 11% is covered by swamps and wasteland. The predominant sites are fresh mixed coniferous forest (BMśw, fresh coniferous forest (Bśw and alder carr forest (Ol. Landscape in catchment is characterized by a large number of interior depressions, filled partly with rainwater or peatbogs, with poorly developed natural drainage. The watercourses do not exceed 1 km in length, the mean width is approx. 0.5 m, while mean depth ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 m. During hydrological research conducted in 1997/1998–1999/2000, 35 major (characteristic raised water stages were observed in Hutka after substantial precipitation. The recession curve dating from 18–24 September 2000 has the α and n rates nearest to average. Comparing the model curve and the curve created by observing watercourse flow, one can notice their resemblance and that they have similar ordinate values as well as shape. In the case of other recession curves, the maximum differences of ordinate values are also about 0.1–0.2 l/s/km2. The measuured α and n rates do not reveal any regularities. There are no significant statistical Horton model parameter (for recession flow curves dependencies between α and n and e.g. initial flows (Qo or the whole period of high water waves (Qp. Consequently, calculated relation between these parameters is only an approximation for the general evaluation of the retention discharge in the catchment area towards retention with flow function.

  2. Controversies in the Hydrosphere: an iBook exploring current global water issues for middle school classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoe, A.; Guertin, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    This project looks to help teachers utilize iPad technology in their classrooms as an instructional tool for Earth system science and connections to the Big Ideas in Earth Science. The project is part of Penn State University's National Science Foundation (NSF) Targeted Math Science Partnership grant, with one goal of the grant to help current middle school teachers across Pennsylvania engage students with significant and complex questions of Earth science. The free Apple software iBooks Author was used to create an electronic book for the iPad, focusing on a variety of controversial issues impacting the hydrosphere. The iBook includes image slideshows, embedded videos, interactive images and quizzes, and critical thinking questions along Bloom's Taxonomic Scale of Learning Objectives. Outlined in the introductory iBook chapters are the Big Ideas of Earth System Science and an overview of Earth's spheres. Since the book targets the hydrosphere, each subsequent chapter focuses on specific water issues, including glacial melts, aquifer depletion, coastal oil pollution, marine debris, and fresh-water chemical contamination. Each chapter is presented in a case study format that highlights the history of the issue, the development and current status of the issue, and some solutions that have been generated. The next section includes critical thinking questions in an open-ended discussion format that focus on the Big Ideas, proposing solutions for rectifying the situation, and/or assignments specifically targeting an idea presented in the case study chapter. Short, comprehensive multiple-choice quizzes are also in each chapter. Throughout the iBook, students are free to watch videos, explore the content and form their own opinions. As a result, this iBook fulfills the grant objective by engaging teachers and students with an innovative technological presentation that incorporates Earth system science with current case studies regarding global water issues.

  3. Five Recession-Driven Strategies for Planning and Managing Campus Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudden, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities continue to face significant fiscal challenges in the current recession. A review of ongoing campus facilities planning projects, coupled with a review of more than 30 recent campus master planning requests for proposals and the relevant literature, indicates that colleges and universities are finding innovative ways to…

  4. Five Recession-Driven Strategies for Planning and Managing Campus Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudden, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities continue to face significant fiscal challenges in the current recession. A review of ongoing campus facilities planning projects, coupled with a review of more than 30 recent campus master planning requests for proposals and the relevant literature, indicates that colleges and universities are finding innovative ways to…

  5. El recreo en la escuela primaria: Que indica la investigacion? (Recess in Elementary School: What Does the Research Say?) ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga S.

    Compared to the rest of the school day, recess is a time when children have more freedom to choose what they want to do and with whom. In light of the current climate of school accountability, this Spanish-language Digest discusses research on recess and its relationship to learning, social development, and child health, as well as research on…

  6. Event-scale power law recession analysis: quantifying methodological uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dralle, David N.; Karst, Nathaniel J.; Charalampous, Kyriakos; Veenstra, Andrew; Thompson, Sally E.

    2017-01-01

    The study of single streamflow recession events is receiving increasing attention following the presentation of novel theoretical explanations for the emergence of power law forms of the recession relationship, and drivers of its variability. Individually characterizing streamflow recessions often involves describing the similarities and differences between model parameters fitted to each recession time series. Significant methodological sensitivity has been identified in the fitting and parameterization of models that describe populations of many recessions, but the dependence of estimated model parameters on methodological choices has not been evaluated for event-by-event forms of analysis. Here, we use daily streamflow data from 16 catchments in northern California and southern Oregon to investigate how combinations of commonly used streamflow recession definitions and fitting techniques impact parameter estimates of a widely used power law recession model. Results are relevant to watersheds that are relatively steep, forested, and rain-dominated. The highly seasonal mediterranean climate of northern California and southern Oregon ensures study catchments explore a wide range of recession behaviors and wetness states, ideal for a sensitivity analysis. In such catchments, we show the following: (i) methodological decisions, including ones that have received little attention in the literature, can impact parameter value estimates and model goodness of fit; (ii) the central tendencies of event-scale recession parameter probability distributions are largely robust to methodological choices, in the sense that differing methods rank catchments similarly according to the medians of these distributions; (iii) recession parameter distributions are method-dependent, but roughly catchment-independent, such that changing the choices made about a particular method affects a given parameter in similar ways across most catchments; and (iv) the observed correlative relationship

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of guided tissue regeneration and connective tissue autotransplants with periosteum in the management of gingival recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Bojan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Gingival recession progression in clinical practice as an ethiological factor of periodontal diseases, and symptoms of the disease have caused the development of various surgical procedures and techniques of the reconstruction of periodontal defects. The aim of this study was to verify efficacy of surgical procedures that include connective tissue autotransplants with periosteum and guided tissue regeneration for the treatment of gingival recession. Methods. The study included 20 teet with gingival recession, Müller class II and III. Ten teeth with gingival recession were treated with resorptive membrane and coronary guided surgical flap (GTR group. On the contralateral side 10 teeth with gingival recession were treated with connective tissue autotransplants with periosteum in combination with coronary guided surgical flap (TVT group. We measured the degree of epithelial attachment (DEA, width of subgingival curettage (WGC and vertical deepness of recession (VDR. For statistical significance we used Student's ttest. Results. The study revealed statistical significance in reducing VDR by both used treatments. Root deepness in GTR and TVT group was 63.5%, and 90%, respectively. With both surgical techniques we achieved coronary dislocation of the epithelial attachment, larger zone of gingival curettage, and better oral hygiene. Conclusion. Current surgical techniques are effective in the regeneration of deep periodontal spaces and the treatment of gingival recession. Significantly better results were achieved with the used coronary guided surgical flap than with guided tissue regeneration.

  8. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Home/Host Country or Site/Institution Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharif, Naser Z; Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O'Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily

    2016-04-25

    International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of understanding (MoUs) from pharmacy programs were also examined. In addition, a preliminary draft was developed and the findings and recommendations were reviewed in a 90-minute roundtable discussion at the 2014 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting. Recommendations for the host country include travel considerations (eg, passport, visa, air travel), safety, housing, transportation, travel alerts and warnings, health issues, and financial considerations. For the home country, considerations for establishment of G/I APPE site (eg, vetting process, MoU, site expectations) are described. The paper is a resource for development of new G/I APPEs and provides guidance for continuous quality improvement of partnerships focusing on G/I pharmacy education.

  9. Global and local critical current density in superconducting SmFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} measured by two methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otabe, E.S., E-mail: otabe@cse.kyutech.ac.j [Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan); Kiuchi, M.; Kawai, S. [Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan); Morita, Y.; Ge, J.; Ni, B. [Department of Life, Environment and Material Science, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1 Wajirohigashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Gao, Z.; Wang, L.; Qi, Y.; Zhang, X.; Ma, Y. [Key Laboratory of Applied Superconductivity, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2703, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2009-11-01

    The critical current densities of polycrystalline bulk SmFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} prepared by the powder-in-tube (PIT) method and by a conventional solid-state reaction were investigated using the remnant magnetic moment method and Campbell's method. Two types of shielding current, corresponding to global and local critical current densities J{sub c} were observed using both measurement methods. The global and local J{sub c} were on the order of 10{sup 7} A/m{sup 2} and 10{sup 10} A/m{sup 2} at 5 K, respectively. The local J{sub c} decreased slightly with increasing magnetic field. The global J{sub c} was independent of the preparation method, while the local J{sub c} was larger for samples prepared by PIT than for those prepared by solid-state reaction.

  10. The United States after the great recession: the challenge of sustainable growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meltzer, Joshua [The Johns Hopkins University’s School of Advanced International Studies (United States); Steven, David (The Brookings Institution Center and the Center on International Cooperation at New York University (United States)); Langley, Claire (The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-02-15

    The paper outlines the strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. economic growth model, assesses its’ ability to respond to the key economic, environmental and social challenges currently facing the U.S. and proposes policies that if adopted would move the U.S. onto a more sustainable growth path. The paper provides scenarios of projected future growth trajectories, as well as recommendations for specific policies in key areas: employment, infrastructure, energy and fiscal rebalancing. To reach this goal this paper focuses on four areas for action: Increasing employment, which is the most urgent priority to accelerate recovery from the Great Recession, while addressing underlying structural issues that have led to a decade of poor economic outcomes for most citizens; Investing in the future, as the key marker of whether the United States is prepared to make farsighted decisions to improve education, build new infrastructure and increase innovation; Maximizing an increased energy endowment in a way that grows the economy, while reinforcing the trend towards reducing resource demand and reducing greenhouse gas emissions; and, Fiscal rebalancing, where the United States must insulate economic recovery from the process of fiscal reform while reducing and stabilizing debt over the long term. Finally, we argue that President Obama can re-energize America’s global leadership if he builds on a platform of domestic actions that enhance the sustainability of America’s society and economy.

  11. Ocean currents measured by Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (SADCP) from global oceans accumulated at Joint Archive for SADCP from 2004 to 2013 (NODC Accession 0123302)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Absolute U- and V-component ocean current vectors from Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (SADCP), as both a high-frequency sampling (nominally 5 minutes...

  12. The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans

    2015-02-01

    How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960-2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Devaluation as the instrument for recession overcoming in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko Maric

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Devaluation is the instrument of monetary policy which has been used very often during the 20th century. In recent time of globalization, the many limited factors (openness of the economy, capital movements, currency substitution, money illusion significantly reduce or completely make impossible the devaluation implementation as the measure for foreign trade deficit or recession overcoming in many countries. This paper discusses on positive and negative effects of devaluation in the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina economy.

  14. Behavioural reactions of consumers to economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Valášková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The negative effects caused by the economic recession of the recent year, led to the necessity to recognize the changes in the consumer behaviour that may have a lasting impact, and they definitely will. The situation in the Slovak consumer market is described and characterized by the survey which was conduced in 2013. The article also raises three hypotheses considering the basic fact about consumers and their impact on the intensity of behavioural changes. In order to verify our results surveys and studies carried out by many companies in various countries are analyzed in the last chapter.

  15. Normally-off AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor on Si(111) by recessed gate and fluorine plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jyun-Hao; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Lai, Chao-Hsing; Su, Yan-Kuin

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the efficiency of using both recessed gate and fluorine plasma treatment to achieve normally-off high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT). It is found that, by a simple recess process, one cannot achieve normally off device with high drain current because of gate leakage problem after inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching for recessed structure. The proper method is adding fluorine treatment based on recess gate. The normally off GaN HEMTs with recess gate and fluorine treatment show very good performance. It is found that the threshold voltages can be shifted to +1.1 V, and the drain current at VGS - Vth = 2 V and VDS = 20 V was 218 mA/mm.

  16. Recessively inherited deficiencies predisposing to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H

    1990-01-01

    The genetic factors involved in the multistep process of carcinogenesis can be divided at least into two major categories: 1. Mutated or lost genes, which may directly represent one step in the sequential process (tumour suppressor genes); inheritance of one tumour suppressor gene causes dominant expression of the carcinogenic phenotype (the dominant inheritance is described in the accompanying paper); 2. Other genes, which lead to conditions that favour the development of cancer and generally are inherited in a recessive fashion; they are the subject of this paper. Autosomal recessively inherited diseases, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia, Bloom's syndrome and Fanconi's anaemia display increased genome instability (chromosomal fragility and/or DNA-repair deficiencies) and are associated in the homozygote and probably also in the heterozygote state with defined malignancies. Neoplasms particularly of the lymphoreticular system frequently occur in patients with genetically determined immunodeficiencies (e.g. severe combined immune deficiency or Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome). People differ due to their individual genetic constitution in their responses to various classes of carcinogens such as physical and chemical agents, to dietary habits, as well as to viruses. Furthermore, tumours are often found in patients displaying premature aging (e.g. Werner's syndrome). In addition, several metabolic abnormalities such as genetic syndromes featuring chronic liver disease, but also many other inherited metabolic conditions have cancer as a regular or frequent complication.

  17. Return to physical activity after gastrocnemius recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang Qian Ying, Camelia; Lai Wei Hong, Sean; Lee, Bing Howe; Thevendran, Gowreeson

    2016-01-01

    AIM To prospectively investigate the time taken and patients’ ability to resume preoperative level of physical activity after gastrocnemius recession. METHODS Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession (EGR) was performed on 48 feet in 46 consecutive sportspersons, with a minimum follow-up of 24 mo. The Halasi Ankle Activity Score was used to quantify the level of physical activity. Time taken to return to work and physical activity was recorded. Functional outcomes were evaluated using the short form 36 (SF-36), American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Hindfoot score and modified Olerud and Molander (O and M) scores respectively. Patient’s satisfaction and pain experienced were assessed using a modified Likert scale and visual analogue scales. P-value 2 were able to resume their preoperative level of physical activity in mean time of 8.8 mo, as compared to 86% (n = 19) of patients whose activity score was ≤ 2, with mean time of 6.1 mo. Significant improvements were noted in SF-36, AOFAS hindfoot and modified O and M scores. Ninety percent of all patients rated good or very good outcomes on the Likert scale. CONCLUSION The majority of patients were able to return to their pre-operative level of sporting activity after EGR. PMID:27900272

  18. Comparison of bottom-track to global positioning system referenced discharges measured using an acoustic Doppler current profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C.R.; Mueller, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    A negative bias in discharge measurements made with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) can be caused by the movement of sediment on or near the streambed. The integration of a global positioning system (GPS) to track the movement of the ADCP can be used to avoid the systematic negative bias associated with a moving streambed. More than 500 discharge transects from 63 discharge measurements with GPS data were collected at sites throughout the US, Canada, and New Zealand with no moving bed to compare GPS and bottom-track-referenced discharges. Although the data indicated some statistical bias depending on site conditions and type of GPS data used, these biases were typically about 0.5% or less. An assessment of differential correction sources was limited by a lack of data collected in a range of different correction sources and different GPS receivers at the same sites. Despite this limitation, the data indicate that the use of Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) corrected positional data is acceptable for discharge measurements using GGA as the boat-velocity reference. The discharge data based on GPS-referenced boat velocities from the VTG data string, which does not require differential correction, were comparable to the discharges based on GPS-referenced boat velocities from the differentially-corrected GGA data string. Spatial variability of measure discharges referenced to GGA, VTG and bottom-tracking is higher near the channel banks. The spatial variability of VTG-referenced discharges is correlated with the spatial distribution of maximum Horizontal Dilution of Precision (HDOP) values and the spatial variability of GGA-referenced discharges is correlated with proximity to channel banks. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Recessed insulator and barrier AlGaN/GaN HEMT: A novel structure for improving DC and RF characteristics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S M RAZAVI; S H ZAHIRI; S E HOSSEINI

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with recessed insulator and barrier is reported. In the proposed structure, insulator is recessed into the barrier at the drain side and barrier is recessed into the buffer layer at the source side. We study important device characteristics such as electric field, breakdown voltage, drain current, maximum output power density, gate-drain capacitance, short channel effects and DC transconductance using two-dimensional and two-carrier device simulator. Recessed insulator in the drain side of the proposed structure reduces maximum electric field in the channel and therefore increases the breakdown voltage and maximum output power density compared to the conventional counterpart. Also, gate-drain capacitance value in the proposed structure is less than that of the conventional structure. Overall, the proposed structure reduces short channel effects. Because of the recessed regions at both the source and the drain sides, the average barrier thickness of the proposed structure is not changed. Thus, the drain current of the proposed structure is almost equivalent to that of the conventional transistor. In this work, length (Lr) and thickness (Tr) of the recessed region of the barrier at the source side are the same as those of the insulator at the drain side.

  20. Global Harmonic Current Rejection of Nonlinear Backstepping Control with Multivariable Adaptive Internal Model Principle for Grid-Connected Inverter under Distorted Grid Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a brief review on current harmonics generation mechanism for grid-connected inverter under distorted grid voltage, the harmonic disturbances and uncertain items are immersed into the original state-space differential equation of grid-connected inverter. A new algorithm of global current harmonic rejection based on nonlinear backstepping control with multivariable internal model principle is proposed for grid-connected inverter with exogenous disturbances and uncertainties. A type of multivariable internal model for a class of nonlinear harmonic disturbances is constructed. Based on application of backstepping control law of the nominal system, a multivariable adaptive state feedback controller combined with multivariable internal model and adaptive control law is designed to guarantee the closed-loop system globally uniformly bounded, which is proved by a constructed Lyapunov function. The presented algorithm extends rejection of nonlinear single-input systems to multivariable globally defined normal form, the correctness and effectiveness of which are verified by the simulation results.

  1. Berkeley's New Approach to Global Engagement: Early and Current Efforts to Become More International. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.12.15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Nicholas B.; Gilman, Nils

    2015-01-01

    This essay discusses past and current thinking about the globalization of higher education (from a U.S. point of view in particular) and a new model we are attempting to develop at the University of California, Berkeley. This essay begins with a brief narrative of the historical evolution of efforts to internationalize education, from the…

  2. A visual basic spreadsheet macro for recession curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavec, Kristijan; Bacani, Andrea; Nakić, Zoran

    2006-01-01

    A Visual Basic program for an Excel spreadsheet was written to construct a master recession curve (MRC), using the adapted matching strip method, for recession analysis of ground water level time series. The program uses five different linear/nonlinear regression models to adjust individual recession segments to their proper positions in the MRC. The program can also be used to analyze the recession segments of other time series, such as daily stream discharge or stage. Some examples of field data from Croatia are used to illustrate the usefulness of its application.

  3. [The decline in population growth, income distribution, and economic recession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banguero, H

    1983-05-01

    This work uses Keynesian principles and an analysis of the Colombian population in the 1970s to argue that the Colombian policy of slowing population growth, which was adopted with the aim of improving the general welfare of the population, has had shortterm negative effects on effective demand and thus on the level of employment and welfare. These negative effects were caused by the inflexibility of income distribution, which prevented expansion of the internal market, complicated by the stagnant condition of the external sector and the budget deficit. The results of the Colombian case study demonstrate how the deceleration of population growth beginning in the 1960s had a significant impact on the levels of consumption and savings and on the patterns of consumption, leading to low levels of investment and little dynamism. Although the current Colombian economic recession is aggravated by contextual factors such as the world economic recession, the high cost of capital, the industrial recession, and declining food production among others, at the core of the crisis are longer term structural determinants such as the decline in the rate of population growth and the highly unequal distribution of income and wealth, which have contributed to a shrinking of the internal market for some types of goods. Given the unlikelihood of renewed rapid population growth, the Keynesian model suggests that the only alternative for increasing aggregate demand is state intervention through public spending and investment and reorientation of the financial system to achieve a dynamic redistribution of income. Based on these findings and on proposals of other analysts, a stragegy for revitalization is proposed which would imply a gradual income redistribution to allow increased consumption of mass produced goods by the low income groups. Direct consumption subsidies would be avoided because of their inflationary and import-expanding tendencies; rather, incentives and support would be

  4. „STABILITY AND GROWTH PACT, COMMUNITY DOCUMENT „REVIVED” IN THE CURRENT GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-DANIELA PAUN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes to make a reasoned radiography Stability and Growth Pact, EU document revived therefore need to strengthen financial discipline and budget 6 to 7 September 2010 meeting of the Economic and Financial Affairs Council (ECOFIN. He talked about the introduction of the Stability and Growth in a 'European quarter' which will be monitored in structural and fiscal policies of the Member States. He also held a first exchange of views about the possible introduction of a levy on banks and a tax on financial transactions. Thus, the European Union has moved to create the world's first supranational system of control over the financial markets, particularly in order to reduce the risk of global financial crisis. The system will act in early 2011. For the first time in history, European financial control agencies will have more seats than national governments. In addition, the European Central Bank will see a branch that will track the emergence of crisis risk.The financial crisis has diminished the EU's growth potential, and made it clear just how interdependent its members' economies are, particularly inside the eurozone. The most important priority now is to restore growth and create effective mechanisms for regulating financial markets - in Europe and internationally. In strengthening its system of economic governance, Europe must learn from previous shortcomings which have put the financial stability of the whole eurozone at risk:- poor observance of the EU's sound rules and procedures for economic policy coordination- insufficient reduction in public debt during the good times – with peer pressure proving an adequate incentive- failure to deal effectively with the build-up of macroeconomic imbalances - despite the Commission's warnings – resulting in high current account deficits, large external indebtedness and high public debt levels in a number of countries (above the official 60% limit for eurozone countries. Greater economic

  5. Quantification of Global Left Ventricular Function: Comparison of Multidetector Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. A Meta-analysis and Review of the Current Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vleuten, P.A. van der; Willems, T.P.; Goette, M.J.; Tio, R.A.; Greuter, M.J.; Zijlstra, F.; Oudkerk, M. [Univ. Medical Centre Groningen (Netherlands). Depts. of Cardiology and Radiology

    2006-12-15

    Cardiac morbidity and mortality are closely related to cardiac volumes and global left ventricular (LV) function, expressed as left ventricular ejection fraction. Accurate assessment of these parameters is required for the prediction of prognosis in individual patients as well as in entire cohorts. The current standard of reference for left ventricular function is analysis by short-axis magnetic resonance imaging. In recent years, major extensive technological improvements have been achieved in computed tomography. The most marked development has been the introduction of the multidetector CT (MDCT), which has significantly improved temporal and spatial resolutions. In order to assess the current status of MDCT for analysis of LV function, the current available literature on this subject was reviewed. The data presented in this review indicate that the global left ventricular functional parameters measured by contemporary multi-detector row systems combined with adequate reconstruction algorithms and post-processing tools show a narrow diagnostic window and are interchangeable with those obtained by MRI.

  6. Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing of a 12.5 Mb Homozygous Region Reveals ANO10 Mutations in Patients with Autosomal-Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, Sascha; Hoischen, Alexander; Meijer, Rowdy P. P.; Gilissen, Christian; Neveling, Kornelia; Wieskamp, Nienke; de Brouwer, Arjan; Koenig, Michel; Anheim, Mathieu; Assoum, Mirna; Drouot, Nathalie; Todorovic, Slobodanka; Milic-Rasic, Vedrana; Lochmueller, Hanns; Stevanin, Giovanni; Goizet, Cyril; David, Albert; Durr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Kremer, Berry; van de Warrenburg, Bart P. C.; Schijvenaars, Mascha M. V. A. P.; Heister, Angelien; Kwint, Michael; Arts, Peer; van der Wijst, Jenny; Veltman, Joris; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Scheffer, Hans; Knoers, Nine

    2010-01-01

    Autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxias comprise a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast to their dominant counterparts, unraveling the molecular background of these ataxias has proven to be more complicated and the currently known mutations provid

  7. A etiologia multifatorial da recessão periodontal The etiologic factors of periodontal recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ferreira Gazel Yared

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A literatura apresenta vários fatores relacionados na etiologia da recessão periodontal, além do processo inflamatório induzido pelo biofilme bacteriano, os quais incluem fatores externos e anatômicos locais. Por meio deste estudo, revistou-se a literatura sobre tais fatores, cujo conhecimento é de grande importância para o ortodontista, contribuindo durante o diagnóstico, planejamento e tratamento ortodôntico propriamente dito.The literature shows that besides dental plaque, some external and anatomic local factors are still related to gingival recession etiology. This study reviewed the literature about those factors, which knownledge is of great benefit to the orthodontist, contributing during diagnostic, planning and orthodontic treatment.

  8. Seeking Sustainable Public Universities: The Legacy of the Great Recession. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    The business models under which most public universities in the U.S. operate have become unsustainable. They were put in place when state economies were stronger and there were fewer programs making competing claims on state funds. The current Great Recession has made things worse, but the unsustainability of current business models derives from…

  9. AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with 0.2μm V-gate recesses for X-band application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chong; He Yunlong; Zheng Xuefeng; Hao Yue; Ma Xiaohua; Zhang Jincheng

    2012-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with 0.2 μm V-gate recesses were developed.The 0.2 μm recess lengths were shrunk from the 0.6 μm designed gate footprint length after isotropic SiN deposition and anisotropic recessed gate dry etching.The AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with 0.2 μm V-gate recesses on sapphire substrates exhibited a current gain cutoff frequency f of 35 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation fmax of 60 GHz.At 10 GHz frequency and 20 V drain bias,the V-gate recess devices exhibited an output power density of 4.44 W/mm with the associated power added efficiency as high as 49%.

  10. Gingival recession, oral hygiene and associated factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the presence of plaque, calculus, gingival bleeding and gingival recession at six sites ... Results: The prevalence of gingival recession (GR) > 1mm was 33.6%, calculus 99.3%, plaque 100%, and ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v86i3.54967.

  11. Who Suffers during Recessions? NBER Working Paper No. 17951

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoynes, Hilary W.; Miller, Douglas L.; Schaller, Jessamyn

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine how business cycles affect labor market outcomes in the United States. We conduct a detailed analysis of how cycles affect outcomes differentially across persons of differing age, education, race, and gender, and we compare the cyclical sensitivity during the Great Recession to that in the early 1980s recession. We present…

  12. Students with Sickle Cell Anemia Participating in Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.; Devlin, Katharine M.

    2011-01-01

    The participation of a student with Sickle Cell Anemia in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of students with Sickle Cell Anemia and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these students in the recess setting. Initially the definition,…

  13. Prevention, Recognition and Treatment of Common Recess Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Jenny M.; David, Shannon L.

    2017-01-01

    When examining recess within a school's comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP), stakeholders should consider that 30% to 70% of school injuries occur during this part of the school day (Posner, 2000). Thus, existing frameworks to prevent and manage recess injuries may require a thorough review. The purpose of this article is to…

  14. Development of labial gingival recessions in orthodontically treated patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Anne Marie; Fudalej, Piotr S.; Renkema, Alianne; Kiekens, Rosemie; Katsaros, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to assess the prevalence of gingival recessions in patients before, immediately after, and 2 and 5 years after orthodontic treatment. Methods: Labial gingival recessions in all teeth were scored (yes or no) by 2 raters on initial, end-of-treatment, and posttreatment (2 and

  15. Development of labial gingival recessions in orthodontically treated patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, A.M.; Fudalej, P.S.; Kiekens, R.M.A.; Katsaros, C.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to assess the prevalence of gingival recessions in patients before, immediately after, and 2 and 5 years after orthodontic treatment. METHODS: Labial gingival recessions in all teeth were scored (yes or no) by 2 raters on initial, end-of-treatment, and posttreatment (2 and

  16. Mining of lethal recessive genetic variation in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    in fertility. The primary objective of this PhD projekt was to identify recessive lethal gentic variants in the main Danish dairy cattle breed. Holstein-Friesian utilzing next generation sequencing (NGS) data. This study shows a potential for the use of the NGS-based reverse genetic approach in identifying...... lethal or semi-lethal recessive gentic variation...

  17. Postoperative hand treatment in children with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Formsma, S. A.; Maathuis, C. B. G.; Robinson, P. H.; Jonkman, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to give an overview of the postoperative hand treatment options in children with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (EB) and to introduce a treatment protocol and discuss the indications and timing. Recessive dystrophic EB is a rare hereditary blistering skin con

  18. Students with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Participating in Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.; Sturgis, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    The participation of a student with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of students with OCD and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these students in the recess setting. Initially the definition,…

  19. Economic recession and suicidal behaviour: Possible mechanisms and ameliorating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Gunnell, David; Platt, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    A growing body of research evidence from countries around the world indicates that economic recession is associated with increases in suicide, particularly in males of working age. To explore contributory and ameliorating factors associated with economic recession and suicide and thereby stimulate further research in this area and encourage policy makers to consider how best to reduce the impact of recession on mental health and suicidal behaviour. We conducted a selective review of the worldwide literature focusing on possible risk factors, mechanisms and preventative strategies for suicidal behaviour linked to economic recession. A model of how recession might affect suicide rates is presented. A major and often prolonged effect of recession is on unemployment and job insecurity. Other important effects include those exerted by financial loss, bankruptcy and home repossession. It is proposed these factors may lead directly or indirectly to mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and binge drinking and then to suicidal behaviour. Countries with active labour market programmes and sustained welfare spending during recessions have less marked increases in suicide rates than those that cut spending on welfare and job-search initiatives for the unemployed. Other measures likely to help include targeted interventions for unemployed people, membership of social organisations and responsible media reporting. Good primary care and mental health services are needed to cope with increased demand in times of economic recession but some governments have in fact reduced healthcare spending as an austerity measure. The research evidence linking recession, unemployment and suicide is substantial, but the evidence for the other mechanisms we have investigated is much more tentative. We describe the limitations of the existing body of research as well as make suggestions for future research into the effects of economic recession on suicidal behaviour. © The Author

  20. Modeling of the global distribution of ionospheric electric fields based on realistic maps of field-aligned currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukianova, R.; Christiansen, Freddy

    2006-01-01

    [1] A new approach for modeling the global distribution of ionospheric electric potentials utilizing high-precision maps of FACs derived from measurements by the Orsted and Champ satellites as input to a comprehensive numerical scheme is presented. The boundary conditions provide a correct...

  1. Stream flow recession patterns can help unravel the role of climate and humans in landscape co-evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Bogaart

    2015-09-01

    Brutsaert and Nieber (1977 analysis method to characterize streamflow recession behaviour of ≈ 200 Swedish catchments within the context of global change and landscape co-evolution. Results suggest that the Brutsaert–Nieber parameters are strongly linked to the climate, soil, land-use and their interdependencies. Many catchments show a trend towards more non-linear behaviour, meaning faster initial recession, but also slower recession towards baseflow. This trend has been found to be independent from climate change. Instead, we suggest that land cover change, both natural (restoration of natural soil profiles in forested areas and anthropogenic (reforestation and optimized water management, is probably responsible. Both change types are characterised by system adaptation and change, towards more optimal ecohydrological conditions, suggesting landscape co-evolution is at play. Given the observed magnitudes of recession changes during the past 50 years, predictions of future river discharge critically need to include effects of landscape co-evolution. The interconnections between the controls of land cover and climate on river recession behaviour, as we have quantified in this paper, provide first-order handles to do so.

  2. Streamflow recession patterns can help unravel the role of climate and humans in landscape co-evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaart, Patrick W.; van der Velde, Ype; Lyon, Steve W.; Dekker, Stefan C.

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, long-term predictions of river discharges and their extremes include constant relationships between landscape properties and model parameters. However, due to the co-evolution of many landscape properties more sophisticated methods are necessary to quantify future landscape-hydrological model relationships. As a first step towards such an approach we use the Brutsaert and Nieber (1977) analysis method to characterize streamflow recession behaviour of ≈ 200 Swedish catchments within the context of global change and landscape co-evolution. Results suggest that the Brutsaert-Nieber parameters are strongly linked to the climate, soil, land use, and their interdependencies. Many catchments show a trend towards more non-linear behaviour, meaning not only faster initial recession but also slower recession towards base flow. This trend has been found to be independent from climate change. Instead, we suggest that land cover change, both natural (restoration of natural soil profiles in forested areas) and anthropogenic (reforestation and optimized water management), is probably responsible. Both change types are characterised by system adaptation and change, towards more optimal ecohydrological conditions, suggesting landscape co-evolution is at play. Given the observed magnitudes of recession changes during the past 50 years, predictions of future river discharge critically need to include the effects of landscape co-evolution. The interconnections between the controls of land cover and climate on river recession behaviour, as we have quantified in this paper, provide first-order handles to do so.

  3. The Impact of Current CH4 and N2O Loss Process Uncertainties on Model Calculated Ozone and Global Lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, E. L.; Burkholder, J. B.; Kurylo, M. J., III; Jackman, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    The atmospheric loss processes of CH4 and N2O, their estimated uncertainties, lifetimes, and impacts on ozone abundance and long-term trends are examined using atmospheric model calculations and updated kinetic and photochemical parameters and uncertainty factors from SPARC (2013). Uncertainties in CH4 loss due to reaction with OH and O(1D) have relatively small impacts on present day calculated global total ozone (±0.2-0.3%), with the OH+CH4 uncertainty impacting tropospheric ozone by ±3-5%. Uncertainty in the Cl+CH4 reaction affects the amount of chlorine in radical vs. reservoir forms and has a modest impact on present day SH polar ozone (~±6%), and on the rate of past SH polar ozone decline and future recovery. The O(1D)+N2O reaction has uncertainty in both the total rate coefficient and branching ratio for the O2+N2 and 2*NO product channels. This uncertainty results in a substantial range in present day stratospheric odd nitrogen (±10-25%) and global total ozone (±1-2.5%). This uncertainty also impacts the rate of past global total ozone decline and future recovery, with a range in future ozone projections of ±1-1.5% by 2100, relative to present day. The uncertainty ranges in calculated CH4 and N2O global lifetimes are also examined: these ranges are significantly reduced when using the updated SPARC estimated uncertainties compared with those from JPL-2010.

  4. Accurate and rapid error estimation on global gravitational field from current GRACE and future GRACE Follow-On missions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Wei; Hsu Hou-Tse; Zhong Min; Yun Mei-Juan

    2009-01-01

    Firstly,the new combined error model of cumulative geoid height influenced by four error sources,including the inter-satellite range-rate of an interferometric laser (K-band) ranging system,the orbital position and velocity of a global positioning system (GPS) receiver and non-conservative force of an accelerometer,is established from the perspectives of the power spectrum principle in physics using the semi-analytical approach.Secondly,the accuracy of the global gravitational field is accurately and rapidly estimated based on the combined error model; the cumulative geoid height error is 1.985×10-1 m at degree 120 based on GRACE Level 1B measured observation errors of the year 2007 published by the US Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL),and the cumulative geoid height error is 5.825×10-2 m at degree 360 using GRACE Follow-On orbital altitude 250 km and inter-satellite range 50 km.The matching relationship of accuracy indexes from GRACE Follow-On key payloads is brought forward,and the dependability of the combined error model is validated.Finally,the feasibility of high-accuracy and high-resolution global gravitational field estimation from GRACE Follow-On is demonstrated based on different satellite orbital altitudes.

  5. The Role of Credit in Predicting US Recessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pönkä, Harri

    are useful predictors of US recessions over and above the control variables both in and out of sample. Especially the excess bond premium, capturing the cyclical changes in the relationship between default risk and credit spreads, is found to be a powerful predictor. Overall, models that combine credit......We study the role of credit in forecasting US recession periods with probit models. We employ both classical recession predictors and common factors based on a large panel of financial and macroeconomic variables as control variables. Our findings suggest that a number of credit variables...

  6. Wind Diffusivity Current, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  7. Wind Diffusivity Current, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  8. Wind Diffusivity Current, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  9. Wind Diffusivity Current, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Meridional

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  10. Wind Diffusivity Current, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  11. Wind Diffusivity Current, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Meridional

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  12. Integration Processes in the Global Economy: Current State and Prospects. The Cases of the European Union, ASEAN Economic Community, and NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowska Janina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to determine the current state of the integration processes in the global economy and prognosticate on the foreseeable changes in this phenomenon in the upcoming. Will they be divergence from or continuity with the past trends in the global economy in this field? The article examines three regional integration groupings, i.e. the European Union, ASEAN Economic Community, and NAFTA. The analysis makes it possible to conclude that all of these groupings/organizations are encountering some problems. In the case of the EU, these are mainly: the two – speed integration process as far as a monetary union is concerned; serious negative consequences of the global financial crisis for the socio-economic cohesion of the EU-28; as well as a worsening position in the world trade in goods and services and in the total global gross capital inflows. The problems of the ASEAN Economic Community seem to be connected with some discrepancies between the political will in favour of deepening integration among member states and the real economic difficulties involved in attaining higher stages of integration among a group of countries extremely differentiated in their economic development. NAFTA’s problems also lie in the asymmetrical development between member states, as well as in the lessening importance of the integration within the organization for the member states, which results from the putting into effect numerous other FTAs. The growing openness of all the analyzed integration groupings, being in line with the globalization process, seems to be a future characteristic of integration processes in the global economy.

  13. Using Freire's Participatory Educational Method to Understand the Experience of Living With Chronic Illness in the Current Age of Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo Plazas, Maria del Pilar; Cameron, Brenda L

    2015-06-01

    Many approaches and efforts have been used to better understand chronic diseases worldwide. Yet, little is known about the meaning of living with chronic illness under the pressures of globalization and neoliberal ideologies. Through Freire's participatory educational method, this article presents an innovative approach to understanding the multiple dimensions of living with chronic illness. In this way, we hope to use an innovative approach to address the impact of globalization on the daily life of chronically ill people and thus expand to the body of knowledge on nursing. This article uses Freire's participatory educational method to understand the multiple dimensions of living with chronic illness. This qualitative study follows an interpretive inquiry approach and uses a critical hermeneutic phenomenological method and critical research methodologies. Five participants were recruited for this participatory educational activity. Data collection methods included digitally recorded semistructured individual interviews and a Freire's participatory educational method session. Data analysis included a thematic analysis. Participants reported lacking adequate access to healthcare services because of insurance policies; a general perception that they were an unwanted burden on the healthcare system; and a general lack of government support, advocacy, and political interest. This research activity assisted participants to gain a new critical perspective about the condition of others with chronic diseases and thus provided an enlightening opportunity to learn about the illnesses and experiences of others and to realize that others experienced the same oppression from the healthcare system. Participants became agents of change within their own families and communities. Chronic diseases cause many economic and social consequences in their victims. These findings urge us to move from merely acknowledging the difficulties of people who live with chronic illness in an age of

  14. Improved Structure and Function in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Rat Kidneys with Renal Tubular Cell Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K J Kelly

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is a truly catastrophic monogenetic disease, causing death and end stage renal disease in neonates and children. Using PCK female rats, an orthologous model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease harboring mutant Pkhd1, we tested the hypothesis that intravenous renal cell transplantation with normal Sprague Dawley male kidney cells would improve the polycystic kidney disease phenotype. Cytotherapy with renal cells expressing wild type Pkhd1 and tubulogenic serum amyloid A1 had powerful and sustained beneficial effects on renal function and structure in the polycystic kidney disease model. Donor cell engraftment and both mutant and wild type Pkhd1 were found in treated but not control PCK kidneys 15 weeks after the final cell infusion. To examine the mechanisms of global protection with a small number of transplanted cells, we tested the hypothesis that exosomes derived from normal Sprague Dawley cells can limit the cystic phenotype of PCK recipient cells. We found that renal exosomes originating from normal Sprague Dawley cells carried and transferred wild type Pkhd1 mRNA to PCK cells in vivo and in vitro and restricted cyst formation by cultured PCK cells. The results indicate that transplantation with renal cells containing wild type Pkhd1 improves renal structure and function in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and may provide an intra-renal supply of normal Pkhd1 mRNA.

  15. Improved Structure and Function in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Rat Kidneys with Renal Tubular Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K J; Zhang, Jizhong; Han, Ling; Kamocka, Malgorzata; Miller, Caroline; Gattone, Vincent H; Dominguez, Jesus H

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is a truly catastrophic monogenetic disease, causing death and end stage renal disease in neonates and children. Using PCK female rats, an orthologous model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease harboring mutant Pkhd1, we tested the hypothesis that intravenous renal cell transplantation with normal Sprague Dawley male kidney cells would improve the polycystic kidney disease phenotype. Cytotherapy with renal cells expressing wild type Pkhd1 and tubulogenic serum amyloid A1 had powerful and sustained beneficial effects on renal function and structure in the polycystic kidney disease model. Donor cell engraftment and both mutant and wild type Pkhd1 were found in treated but not control PCK kidneys 15 weeks after the final cell infusion. To examine the mechanisms of global protection with a small number of transplanted cells, we tested the hypothesis that exosomes derived from normal Sprague Dawley cells can limit the cystic phenotype of PCK recipient cells. We found that renal exosomes originating from normal Sprague Dawley cells carried and transferred wild type Pkhd1 mRNA to PCK cells in vivo and in vitro and restricted cyst formation by cultured PCK cells. The results indicate that transplantation with renal cells containing wild type Pkhd1 improves renal structure and function in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and may provide an intra-renal supply of normal Pkhd1 mRNA.

  16. THE MOTOR ACTIVITY IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOL IN OUR COUNTRY NOT AFFECTED BY THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecturer MARCONI ROBERTO GABRIEL, Phd

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this period of global crisis the motor activity at the level of the secondary school from our country did not stagnate, on the contrary it achieved a special development due to an increase in the number of stu- dents (pupils eager to practice the motor activity, as a result of the improvement of the material equipment with more than 40 simple and complex stadiums of various gymnastics, judo and karate courts, equipped with minifootball, handball, basketball and volleyabll courts. But the most important thing is to provide professionals belonging to the field of physical education within the Universities of Arad up to the present and also in the future.

  17. Saturn's Periodic Magnetosphere: The Relation Between Periodic Hot Plasma Injections, a Rotating Partial Ring Current, Global Magnetic Field Distortions, Plasmapause Motion, and Radio Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, P. C.; Mitchell, D. G.; Gurnett, D. A.; Persoon, A. M.; Tsyganenko, N. A.

    2012-04-01

    It has been know for some time that the large-scale energetic particle injections (~3-200 keV) on the nigh side of Saturn observed by Cassini/INCA are closely tracked by the periodic Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR). The resulting energetic particle pressure is comparable to that of the colder plasma and it therefore distorts the global magnetic field significantly as the energetic particle population drifts around Saturn. In this presentation we discuss the important consequences this has for the large-scale dynamics and configuration of the entire inner magnetosphere of Saturn. We begin by reviewing the observational correlations between remote, global INCA observations of energetic particles, magnetic field distortions, and radio emissions. We present examples of how the magnetic field measurements and the INCA observations show direct implications of a rotating 3D electrical current system associated with, not only, the energetic particle pressure, but also with an interhemispheric field-aligned current (FAC) system. Recently, we found an intriguing high correlation also between the periodic motion of the high-latitude plasmapause-like boundary reported by Gurnett et al. [2011] and the energetic particles observed remotely by INCA that are periodically injected on the night side and then drift around Saturn according to their energy. In our preliminary analysis we see a direct correlation in at least 75% of the case with the center of drifting energetic particle distribution [Brandt et al., 2010] and the encounter with the rotating plasmapause-like density boundary [Gurnett et al., 2011]. However, the remaining, low-correlation cases suggest that we do not fully understand the global, 3D current system that produces the periodic perturbations in Saturn's magnetosphere. We will use these observations to constrain the underlying 3D current system and in particular, assess the role of interhemispheric FACs in reproducing the observations.

  18. A strategy for selective detection based on interferent depleting and redox cycling using the plane-recessed microdisk array electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Feng [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Yan Jiawei, E-mail: jwyan@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Lu Miao [Pen-Tung Sah Micro-Nano Technology Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Zhou Yongliang; Yang Yang; Mao Bingwei [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > A novel strategy based on a combination of interferent depleting and redox cycling is proposed for the plane-recessed microdisk array electrodes. > The strategy break up the restriction of selectively detecting a species that exhibits reversible reaction in a mixture with one that exhibits an irreversible reaction. > The electrodes enhance the current signal by redox cycling. > The electrodes can work regardless of the reversibility of interfering species. - Abstract: The fabrication, characterization and application of the plane-recessed microdisk array electrodes for selective detection are demonstrated. The electrodes, fabricated by lithographic microfabrication technology, are composed of a planar film electrode and a 32 x 32 recessed microdisk array electrode. Different from commonly used redox cycling operating mode for array configurations such as interdigitated array electrodes, a novel strategy based on a combination of interferent depleting and redox cycling is proposed for the electrodes with an appropriate configuration. The planar film electrode (the plane electrode) is used to deplete the interferent in the diffusion layer. The recessed microdisk array electrode (the microdisk array), locating within the diffusion layer of the plane electrode, works for detecting the target analyte in the interferent-depleted diffusion layer. In addition, the microdisk array overcomes the disadvantage of low current signal for a single microelectrode. Moreover, the current signal of the target analyte that undergoes reversible electron transfer can be enhanced due to the redox cycling between the plane electrode and the microdisk array. Based on the above working principle, the plane-recessed microdisk array electrodes break up the restriction of selectively detecting a species that exhibits reversible reaction in a mixture with one that exhibits an irreversible reaction, which is a limitation of single redox cycling operating mode. The advantages of the

  19. Understanding the reasons why tourists visit the Kruger National Park during a recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Scholtz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 and 2009 recession increased pressure on travellers to cut costs on luxury items, such as going on holiday, and this has led to a global tourism decline of 8%. This, however, was not the case in the Kruger National Park (KNP in South Africa where a sustained 1.6% accommodation unit occupancy growth was experienced. In order to sustain this growth, it is of the utmost importance to determine why people still visited the Park during this period. Thus the aim of the study was to determine why people still visited the KNP amidst the 2008 and 2009 economic recession. A total of 355 completed questionnaires were obtained at the Park during 15 December 2009 – 20 December 2009 (high season after which various analyses (including factor analysis were conducted. Six motives were identified and ‘escape’, ‘wildlife experience’ and ‘family benefits’ were rated most important. Push factors were more dominant to the extent that visitors regard taking a holiday to the Park as a necessity. It furthermore seems that visitors adapt their spending behaviour at the Park to still be able to afford the visit. This was the first time that research was conducted at a national park during a recession period and this information is important for South African National Parks, seeing as it provides a better understanding of visitors’ behaviour as well as feeling towards the Park (especially during recession, and leads to improved niche marketing and a competitive advantage. This research also provides a better understanding of visitors’ behaviour during economic downturns.

  20. Recession-Tolerant Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase II project will develop a suite of diagnostic sensors using Direct Write technology to measure temperature, surface recession depth, and heat flux of an...

  1. Gonadal mosaicism as a rare cause of autosomal recessive inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazi, S; Al-Sabban, E; Alkuraya, F S

    2014-03-01

    Autosomal recessive diseases are typically caused by the biparental inheritance of familial mutant alleles. Unusual mechanisms by which the recessiveness of a mutant allele is unmasked include uniparental isodisomy and the occurrence of a de novo chromosomal rearrangement that disrupts the other allele. Gonadal mosaicism is a condition in which a postfertilization mutation is confined to the gamete precursors and is not detected in somatic tissues. Gonadal mosaicism is known to give the impression of autosomal recessive inheritance when recurrence of an autosomal-dominant condition among offspring of phenotypically normal parents is observed. Here, we report an extremely rare event in which maternal gonadal mosaicism for a recessive mutation in COL4A4 caused the recurrence of Alport syndrome within a consanguineous family. Such rare occurrence should be taken into account when analyzing pedigrees both for clinical and research purposes.

  2. HYDRORECESSION: A Matlab toolbox for streamflow recession analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega-Esparza, Saúl; Breña-Naranjo, José Agustín; Pedrozo-Acuña, Adrián; Appendini, Christian Mario

    2017-01-01

    Streamflow recession analysis from observed hydrographs allows to extract information about the storage-discharge relationship of a catchment and some of their groundwater hydraulic properties. The HYDRORECESSION toolbox, presented in this paper, is a graphical user interface for Matlab and it was developed to analyse streamflow recession curves with the support of different tools. The software extracts hydrograph recessions segments with three different methods (Vogel, Brutsaert and Aksoy) that are later analysed with four of the most common models to simulate recession curves (Maillet, Boussinesq, Coutagne and Wittenberg) and it includes four parameter-fitting techniques (linear regression, lower envelope, data binning and mean squared error). HYDRORECESSION offers tools to parameterize linear and nonlinear storage-outflow relationships and it is useful for regionalization purposes, catchment classification, baseflow separation, hydrological modeling and low flows prediction. HYDRORECESSION is freely available for non-commercial and academic purposes and is available at Matlab File Exchange (http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/51332-hydroecession).

  3. Frontal headache induced by osteoma of frontal recess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Soo

    2013-01-01

    We reported a case of osteoma involving the frontal recess, which presented as frontal headache and reviewed literatures. Also, this case highlights that sinunasal osteomas can cause pain by local mass effects, referred pain, or prostaglandin E2-mediated mechanisms.

  4. Supplemental security income, welfare reform, and the recession

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    With Temporary Assistance for Needy Families providing less support during recessions than its predecessor safety net, Supplemental Security Income has become important for low-income families with children.

  5. Development of the Non-Hydrostatic Jupiter Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (J-GITM): Status and Current Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougher, Stephen; Ridley, Aaron; Majeed, Tariq; Waite, J. Hunter; Gladstone, Randy; Bell, Jared

    2016-07-01

    The primary objectives for development and validation of a new 3-D non-hydrostatic model of Jupiter's upper atmosphere is to improve our understanding of Jupiter's thermosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system and to provide a global context within which to analyze the data retrieved from the new JUNO mission. The new J-GITM model presently incorporates the progress made on the previous Jupiter-TGCM code (i.e. key parameterizations, ion-neutral chemistry, IR cooling) while also employing the non-hydrostatic numerical core of the Earth Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM). The GITM numerical framework has been successfully applied to Earth, Mars, and Titan (see Ridley et al. [2006], Bougher et al. [2015], Bell [2008, 2010]). Moreover, it has been shown to simulate the effects of strong, localized heat sources (such as joule heating and auroral heating) more accurately than strictly hydrostatic GCMs (Deng et al. [2007, 2008]). Thus far, in the J-GITM model development and testing, model capability has been progressively augmented to capture the neutral composition (e.g. H, H2, He major species), 3-component neutral winds, and thermal structure, as well as the ion composition (H3+, H2+, and H+ among others) above 250 km. Presently, J-GITM: (a) provides an interactive calculation for auroral particle precipitation (i.e. heating, ionization), an improvement over the static formulation used previously in the J-TGCM (Bougher et al., 2005; Majeed et al., 2005, 2009, 2015); (b) self-consistently calculates an ionosphere using updated ion-neutral chemistry, ion dynamics, and electron transport; (c) simulates the chemistry that forms key hydrocarbons at the base of the thermosphere, focusing on CH4, C2H2, and C2H6; (d) allows the production of H3+, CH4, C2H2, and C2H6 to modify the global thermal balance of Jupiter through their non-LTE radiative cooling; (e) provides a calculation of H2 vibrational chemistry to regulate H+ densities; and (f) uses the improved

  6. 'Animal spirits' and expectations in U.S. recession forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott Middleton

    2001-01-01

    A two-variable model is developed to forecast the probability of recession in the U.S. economy. Like many others, the model uses data a year or more old to explain movements of a dichotomous dependent variable for recession. The innovation of the present effort is the introduction of a confidence variable, which appears to increase the qualitative accuracy and structural stability of the model in validation testing compared to others.

  7. The Great Recession and America’s Geography of Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Brian C.; Monnat, Shannon M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Great Recession of 2007–2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the U.S. since the Great Depression. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. Objective To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. Methods We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states. We use exploratory spatial statistics to identify geographic clusters of counties that experienced similar changes in unemployment. We use spatial regression to evaluate associations between county-level recession impacts on unemployment and demographic composition, industrial structure, and state context. Results The recession was associated with increased inequality between county labor markets within states, but declining between-state differences. Counties that experienced disproportionate recession-related increases in unemployment were spatially clustered and characterized by large shares of historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority populations, low educational attainment, and heavy reliance on pro-cyclical industries. Associations between these sources of vulnerability were partially explained by unobserved state-level factors. Conclusions The local consequences of macroeconomic trends are associated with county population characteristics, as well as the structural contexts and policy environments in which they are embedded. The recession placed upward pressure on within-state inequality between local labor market conditions. Contribution To present new estimates of the recession’s impact on local labor markets, quantify how heterogeneous impacts affected the distribution of unemployment prevalence, and identify county characteristics associated with disproportionately large recession

  8. Children's Physical Activity during Recess and Outside of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy; Pangrazi, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine children's physical activity during recess and outside of school. Third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students (N = 270; 121 boys, age = 9.5 plus or minus 0.9 years; 150 girls, age = 9.6 plus or minus 0.9 years) wore sealed pedometers during a 15-minute recess period and outside of school for 4 consecutive…

  9. Lending Calling. Recession by over-indebtedness: Description and specific features of the Spanish case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Antonio Sanabria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the approaches of Fisher, Koo, and in particular Minsky, this article describes recent developments in the Spanish economy. These authors’ theories of financial fragility, and the extension of analysis of the recession to also include the expansionary period, are very useful when it comes to understanding the boom (1994-2008 and subsequent collapse of the Spanish economy. Both processes are part of the same phenomenon: the binomial relation between debt and the asset bubble, amplified by the use of external financing, and the subsequent process of slow deleveraging. Alongside said analytical elements, and considering Spain’s membership in the Eurozone monetary union system, this characterisation of the euphoria and subsequent balance-sheet recession further identifies specific features of the Spanish economy that informed current outcomes.

  10. The Impact of Recession on the Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility in Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Placier Klára

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, companies have had an increasing interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR and its implications in economic performance and competitive environment. However, as a result of the recent economic decline, CSR and the overall attitude of companies towards socially responsible activities have been affected. This article discusses the shift in the perception of CSR during the economic recession as well as the current implementation of CSR in the corporate sector, especially in a period when features such as financial stability, innovation and competitiveness are crucial. The research was based on a cross-case analysis in three companies. The analysis resulted in the identification of the impact of recession on CSR and an outline of the trends for future development.

  11. A Linkage Study in 8 Pakistani Families Segregating as Autosomal Recessive Primary Microcephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hassanullah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to find the most frequent MCPH phenotype in inbred Pakistani families. Primary microcephaly is marked by small brain size and is usually inherited as recessive trait. In the present study, we performed linkage analysis on 8 Pakistani families with autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH and linked 6 of them to known MCPH genes/loci like MCPH1 (Microcephalin, MCPH3 (CDK5RAP2 and MCPH5 (ASPM. Majority of the families showed linkage with MCPH5, the most common MCPH locus in Pakistan. The linked families were then subjected to mutational analysis, revealing a previously known G to A transition at nucleotide position 3978 in exon 17 of ASPM gene in three of the families. To decrease its incidence, it is indispensible to train the people of the possible devastating outcome of cousin marriages and to find the carriers through carrier screening programs.

  12. Precise positioning with current multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ren, Xiaodong; Fritsche, Mathias; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-02-09

    The world of satellite navigation is undergoing dramatic changes with the rapid development of multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs). At the moment more than 70 satellites are already in view, and about 120 satellites will be available once all four systems (BeiDou + Galileo + GLONASS + GPS) are fully deployed in the next few years. This will bring great opportunities and challenges for both scientific and engineering applications. In this paper we develop a four-system positioning model to make full use of all available observations from different GNSSs. The significant improvement of satellite visibility, spatial geometry, dilution of precision, convergence, accuracy, continuity and reliability that a combining utilization of multi-GNSS brings to precise positioning are carefully analyzed and evaluated, especially in constrained environments.

  13. Global warming: the balance of evidence and its policy implications. A review of the current state-of-the-controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Charles F

    2003-05-05

    Global warming and attendant climate change have been controversial for at least a decade. This is largely because of its societal implications. With the recent publication of the Third Assessment Report of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change there has been renewed interest and controversy about how certain the scientific community is of its conclusions: that humans are influencing the climate and that global temperatures will continue to rise rapidly in this century. This review attempts to update what is known and in particular what advances have been made in the past 5 years or so. It does not attempt to be comprehensive. Rather it focuses on the most controversial issues, which are actually few in number. They are: Is the surface temperature record accurate or is it biased by heat from cities, etc.?, Is that record significantly different from past warmings such as the Medieval Warming Period?, Is not the sun's increasing activity the cause of most of the warming?, Can we model climate and predict its future, or is it just too complex and chaotic?, Are there any other changes in climate other than warming, and can they be attributed to the warming? Despite continued uncertainties, the review finds affirmative answers to these questions. Of particular interest are advances that seem to explain why satellites do not see as much warming as surface instruments, how we are getting a good idea of recent paleoclimates, and why the 20th century temperature record was so complex. It makes the point that in each area new information could come to light that would change our thinking on the quantitative magnitude and timing of anthropogenic warming, but it is unlikely to alter the basic conclusions. Finally, there is a very brief discussion of the societal policy response to the scientific message, and the author comments on his 2-year email discussions with many of the world's most outspoken critics of the anthropogenic warming hypothesis.

  14. Cost inefficiency under financial strain: a stochastic frontier analysis of hospitals in Washington State through the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izón, Germán M; Pardini, Chelsea A

    2015-12-17

    The importance of increasing cost efficiency for community hospitals in the United States has been underscored by the Great Recession and the ever-changing health care reimbursement environment. Previous studies have shown mixed evidence with regards to the relationship between linking hospitals' reimbursement to quality of care and cost efficiency. Moreover, current evidence suggests that not only inherently financially disadvantaged hospitals (e.g., safety-net providers), but also more financially stable providers, experienced declines to their financial viability throughout the recession. However, little is known about how hospital cost efficiency fared throughout the Great Recession. This study contributes to the literature by using stochastic frontier analysis to analyze cost inefficiency of Washington State hospitals between 2005 and 2012, with controls for patient burden of illness, hospital process of care quality, and hospital outcome quality. The quality measures included in this study function as central measures for the determination of recently implemented pay-for-performance programs. The average estimated level of hospital cost inefficiency before the Great Recession (10.4 %) was lower than it was during the Great Recession (13.5 %) and in its aftermath (14.1 %). Further, the estimated coefficients for summary process of care quality indexes for three health conditions (acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, and heart failure) suggest that higher quality scores are associated with increased cost inefficiency.

  15. Overload, and Cutbacks, and Freezes, Oh My! The Relative Effects of the Recession-Related Stressors on Employee Strain and Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Morgan D; Sliter, Michael; Sinclair, Robert R

    2016-12-01

    Across the globe, economic fluctuations have taken their toll on both organizations and employees, particularly during sustained recessions. Surprisingly, little research, however, has directly investigated the effects of recessions on employees. As such, the goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of specific recession-related stressors on employee outcomes (strain and satisfaction). We investigated an archival data set of 7666 individuals collected as part of the Workplace Employment Relations Study for relations among recession-related stressors with strain and job satisfaction variables. We found that recession-related stressors were significantly related to both strain and satisfaction. More specifically, certain recession-related stressors (e.g. increased workload and reorganization of work) were more strongly related to strain and satisfaction than others. These results imply the need for greater attention to stress management strategies aimed at helping both employees and their organizations cope with the human costs of economic recessions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Analyzing Magnetic Field and Electrical Current Profiles of the Day Side and Terminator of Mars Using Data from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, A. L.; Ponce, N.; Fillingim, M. O.

    2014-12-01

    Mars does not have a global magnetic field, so the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) can impact the upper atmosphere and induce currents in the Martian ionosphere. During aerobraking maneuvers, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) made over 1000 passes through the Martian ionosphere. During the aerobraking phase, MGS measured the local magnetic field in the ionosphere. From measuring changes in the magnetic field, we can calculate the ionospheric currents. By only using measurements where the radial component of the magnetic field is zero and making some assumptions about the gradients in the magnetic field, we are allowed to classify data that meets those conditions as "good" data and calculate horizontal currents in the ionosphere. We focus on data taken over regions of Mars that had negligible crustal magnetic fields to simplify our analysis. The data being analyzed is observed at a maximum altitude of 250 kilometers with a solar zenith angle (SZA) range of 0 degrees to 50 degrees for the day side and 50 to 130 degrees for the terminator. For the day side of Mars, it was found that 24.06% of the data observed was usable data under the initial parameters that were set for "good" data. For the terminator, it was found that 32.08% of the data was usable. The currents that are computed using these "good" magnetic field profiles can give us insights into how the changing solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field can effect the upper atmosphere of mars. For example, induced currents can lead to Joule heating of the atmosphere potentially modifying the neutral dynamics.

  17. Current medical research funding and frameworks are insufficient to address the health risks of global environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, Kristie L; Semenza, Jan C; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-11-11

    Three major international agreements signed in 2015 are key milestones for transitioning to more sustainable and resilient societies: the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development; the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction; and the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Together, these agreements underscore the critical importance of understanding and managing the health risks of global changes, to ensure continued population health improvements in the face of significant social and environmental change over this century. BODY: Funding priorities of major health institutions and organizations in the U.S. and Europe do not match research investments with needs to inform implementation of these international agreements. In the U.S., the National Institutes of Health commit 0.025 % of their annual research budget to climate change and health. The European Union Seventh Framework Programme committed 0.08 % of the total budget to climate change and health; the amount committed under Horizon 2020 was 0.04 % of the budget. Two issues apparently contributing to this mismatch are viewing climate change primarily as an environmental problem, and therefore the responsibility of other research streams; and narrowly framing research into managing the health risks of climate variability and change from the perspective of medicine and traditional public health. This reductionist, top-down perspective focuses on proximate, individual level risk factors. While highly successful in reducing disease burdens, this framing is insufficient to protect health and well-being over a century that will be characterized by profound social and environmental changes. International commitments in 2015 underscored the significant challenges societies will face this century from climate change and other global changes. However, the low priority placed on understanding and managing the associated health risks by national and international research

  18. Zika virus - emergence, evolution, pathology, diagnosis, and control: current global scenario and future perspectives - a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raj Kumar; Dhama, Kuldeep; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Ramakrishnan, Muthannan Andavar; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Saurabh, Sharad; Sachan, Swati; Joshi, Sunil Kumar

    2016-09-01

    This review converses the Zika virus which has attained global concern due to its rapid pandemic potential and impact on humans. Though Zika virus was first isolated in 1947, till the recent large-scale outbreak which occurred in Micronesia, in 2007, the virus was placed into the innocuous pathogen category. The World Health Organization on 1 February 2016 declared it as a 'Public Health Emergency of International Concern.' Of the note, American as well as Pacific Island strains/isolates is relatively closer to Asian lineage strains. The African and American strains share more than 87.5% and 95% homologies with Asian strains/isolates, respectively. Asian strains form independent clusters, except those isolated from China, suggesting relatively more diversity than African strains. Prevention and control are mainly aimed at the vector population (mosquitoes) with Aedes aegypti being the main species. Surveys in Africa and Asia indicated seropositivity in various animal species. However, so far its natural reservoir is unknown. There is an urgent need to understand why Zika virus has shifted from being a virus that caused mild illness to unforeseen birth defects as well as autoimmune-neurological problems. Unfortunately, an effective vaccine is not available yet. Availability of cryo-electron microscopy based on 3.8 Å resolution revealing mature Zika virus structure and the probable virus attachment site to host cell would provide critical insights into the development of antiviral treatments and vaccines.

  19. Building a shared understanding of the skills and competences in order to respond to the current global technical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna; Ward, Anthony; Welzer, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    A pan-European team, including the representatives from 45 European universities, is working on an EU supported project to firstly explore and then provide models for ways in which Higher Education Institutions of Europe in the Electrical and Information Engineering disciplines can respond...... to current challenges. This paper presents the objectives and actual results of the EU supported project which runs from October 2012 to November 2015, named SALEIE - Strategic Alignment of Electrical and Information Engineering in European Higher Education Institutions. We describe in this paper...

  20. Management of the Spring Snowmelt Recession in Regulated Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, S. M.; Lind, A.; Epke, G.; Viers, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    In unregulated rivers in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, the spring snowmelt recession links high winter flows to low summer baseflow and is a consistent and predictable portion of the annual hydrograph. Consequently, it is an important resource to both riverine ecosystems and California's water supply. In regulated river systems where the spring snowmelt recession is often captured behind dams or diverted for hydropower, restoration of a more natural spring flow regime can provide distinct ecological benefits, such as breeding and migration cues for native species, increased habitat availability, and greater hydraulic habitat diversity. However, knowledge of how to create and manage an ecologically beneficial spring snowmelt recession in a regulated river system has been lacking. This study defined a methodology by which spring flow regimes can be modeled in regulated systems from the quantifiable characteristics of spring snowmelt recessions in unregulated rivers. Using fundamental flow components such as magnitude, timing, and rate of change, the spring snowmelt recession in eight unregulated rivers across the Sierra Nevada range was quantified to gain a better understanding of the predictability and variability across watersheds. The analysis found that unregulated Sierran systems behaved similarly with respect to seasonal patterns and flow recession shape (i.e., recession limb curvature), and thus flows could be modeled in a manner that mimics those predictable characteristics. Using this methodology that quantifies spring recession flows in terms of a daily percent decrease in flow, a series of flow recession scenarios were then created for application on a regulated Sierran river. Four scenarios, ranging from a slow natural recession to a short fast recession typically observed in regulated rivers following cessation of high flow spills, were evaluated within a 2D hydrodynamic model. The effects of the flows on suitable habitat for Foothill yellow

  1. Precarious Slopes? The Great Recession, Federal Stimulus, and New Jersey Schools. Working Paper #02-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Sutherland, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    While sparse literature exists investigating the impact of the Great Recession on various sectors of the economy, there is virtually no research that studies the effect of the Great Recession, or past recessions, on schools. This paper starts to fill the void. Studying school funding during the recession is of paramount importance because schools…

  2. "Permission to Speak": A Postcolonial View on Racialized Bodies and PE in the Current Context of Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarito, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The current neoliberal context of schools presents difficult challenges in addressing persistent issues of social inequalities. In this article, first, I argue that because of today's market-driven education, the rise of fitness testing in school physical education (PE) can be seriously detrimental to young people in general and to ethnic-minority young people's embodied identity in particular. Second, I explain how the racialization process circulated by the body-at-risk discourse, sustained by the media, and reproduced by high-stakes testing in PE forces ethnic-minority young people to construct their identities through White eyes, which alienates them from a consciousness of their own identity. Third, I explore the possible uses and pitfalls of Spivak's theoretical notion of "strategic essentialism" to put forward strategies to build a positive image of the "other" while attempting to avoid the erasure of difference. Fourth, I conclude the article by suggesting how Spivak's notion of strategic essentialism can be useful in rethinking current PE fitness practices.

  3. Global mental health and trauma exposure: the current evidence for the relationship between traumatic experiences and spirit possession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hecker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We present a literature review on trauma exposure and spirit possession in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Despite the World Health Organization's objective of culturally appropriate mental health care in the Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020, and the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee to consider local idioms of distress and to collaborate with local resources, this topic still receives very little attention. Pathological spirit possession is commonly defined as involuntary, uncontrollable, and occurring outside of ritual settings. It is often associated with stigmatization, suffering, and dysfunctional behavior. While spirit possession has been discussed as an idiom of distress in anthropological literature, recent quantitative studies have presented support for a strong relationship between traumatic experiences and pathological possession states. Objective: The aim of this review was to investigate this relationship systematically in LMICs, in view of the debate on how to address the mental health gap in LMICs. Methods: Twenty-one articles, published in peer-reviewed English-language journals between 1994 and 2013, were identified and analyzed with regard to prevalence of possessive trance disorders, patients’ sociodemographic characteristics, and its relation to traumatic experiences. Results: The review and analysis of 917 patients with symptoms of possessive trance disorders from 14 LMICs indicated that it is a phenomenon occurring worldwide and with global relevance. This literature review suggests a strong relationship between trauma exposure and spirit possession with high prevalence rates found especially in postwar areas in African countries. Conclusions: More attention for possessive trance disorders in mental health and psychosocial intervention programs in humanitarian emergency settings as well as in societies in transition in LMICs is needed and justified by the results of this

  4. Global mental health and trauma exposure: the current evidence for the relationship between traumatic experiences and spirit possession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Braitmayer, Lars; van Duijl, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    Background We present a literature review on trauma exposure and spirit possession in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the World Health Organization's objective of culturally appropriate mental health care in the Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020, and the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee to consider local idioms of distress and to collaborate with local resources, this topic still receives very little attention. Pathological spirit possession is commonly defined as involuntary, uncontrollable, and occurring outside of ritual settings. It is often associated with stigmatization, suffering, and dysfunctional behavior. While spirit possession has been discussed as an idiom of distress in anthropological literature, recent quantitative studies have presented support for a strong relationship between traumatic experiences and pathological possession states. Objective The aim of this review was to investigate this relationship systematically in LMICs, in view of the debate on how to address the mental health gap in LMICs. Methods Twenty-one articles, published in peer-reviewed English-language journals between 1994 and 2013, were identified and analyzed with regard to prevalence of possessive trance disorders, patients’ sociodemographic characteristics, and its relation to traumatic experiences. Results The review and analysis of 917 patients with symptoms of possessive trance disorders from 14 LMICs indicated that it is a phenomenon occurring worldwide and with global relevance. This literature review suggests a strong relationship between trauma exposure and spirit possession with high prevalence rates found especially in postwar areas in African countries. Conclusions More attention for possessive trance disorders in mental health and psychosocial intervention programs in humanitarian emergency settings as well as in societies in transition in LMICs is needed and justified by the results of this systematic literature review

  5. Current and Future Applications of 3-D Global Earth-Ionosphere Models Based on the Full-Vector Maxwell's Equations FDTD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jamesina J.

    2009-04-01

    Advances in computing technologies in recent decades have provided a means of generating and performing highly sophisticated computational simulations of electromagnetic phenomena. In particular, just after the turn of the twenty-first century, improvements to computing infrastructures provided for the first time the opportunity to conduct advanced, high-resolution three-dimensional full-vector Maxwell’s equations investigations of electromagnetic propagation throughout the global Earth-ionosphere spherical volume. These models, based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, are capable of including such details as the Earth’s topography and bathymetry, as well as arbitrary horizontal/vertical geometrical and electrical inhomogeneities and anisotropies of the ionosphere, lithosphere, and oceans. Studies at this level of detail simply are not achievable using analytical methods. The goal of this paper is to provide an historical overview and future prospectus of global FDTD computational research for both natural and man-made electromagnetic phenomena around the world. Current and future applications of global FDTD models relating to lightning sources and radiation, Schumann resonances, hypothesized earthquake precursors, remote sensing, and space weather are discussed.

  6. The role of climatic and terrain attributes in estimating baseflow recession in tropical catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Peña-Arancibia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of low flows in rivers is paramount more than ever as demand for water increases on a global scale. At the same time, limited streamflow data to investigate this phenomenon, particularly in the tropics, makes the provision of accurate estimations in ungauged areas an ongoing research need. This paper analysed the potential of climatic and terrain attributes of 167 tropical and sub-tropical unregulated catchments to predict baseflow recession rates. Daily streamflow data (m3 s–1 from the Global River Discharge Center (GRDC and a linear reservoir model were used to obtain baseflow recession coefficients (kbf for these catchments. Climatic attributes included annual and seasonal indicators of rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Terrain attributes included indicators of catchment shape, morphology, land cover, soils and geology. Stepwise regression was used to identify the best predictors for baseflow recession coefficients. Mean annual rainfall (MAR and aridity index (AI were found to explain 49% of the spatial variation of kbf. The rest of climatic indices and the terrain indices average catchment slope (SLO and tree cover were also good predictors, but co-correlated with MAR. Catchment elongation (CE, a measure of catchment shape, was also found to be statistically significant, although weakly correlated. An analysis of clusters of catchments of smaller size, showed that in these areas, presumably with some similarity of soils and geology due to proximity, residuals of the regression could be explained by SLO and CE. The approach used provides a potential alternative for kbf parameterisation in ungauged catchments.

  7. Sensitivity of the Humboldt current system to global warming: a downscaling experiment of the IPSL-CM4 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevin, Vincent [LOCEAN, Paris (France); Goubanova, Katerina; Dewitte, Boris [LEGOS, Toulouse (France); IMARPE, IGP, LEGOS, Lima (Peru); Belmadani, Ali [LOCEAN, Paris (France); LEGOS, Toulouse (France); University of Hawaii at Manoa, IPRC, International Pacific Research Center, SOEST, Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)

    2012-02-15

    The impact of climate warming on the seasonal variability of the Humboldt Current system ocean dynamics is investigated. The IPSL-CM4 large scale ocean circulation resulting from two contrasted climate scenarios, the so-called Preindustrial and quadrupling CO{sub 2}, are downscaled using an eddy-resolving regional ocean circulation model. The intense surface heating by the atmosphere in the quadrupling CO{sub 2} scenario leads to a strong increase of the surface density stratification, a thinner coastal jet, an enhanced Peru-Chile undercurrent, and an intensification of nearshore turbulence. Upwelling rates respond quasi-linearly to the change in wind stress associated with anthropogenic forcing, and show a moderate decrease in summer off Peru and a strong increase off Chile. Results from sensitivity experiments show that a 50% wind stress increase does not compensate for the surface warming resulting from heat flux forcing and that the associated mesoscale turbulence increase is a robust feature. (orig.)

  8. Root coverage with Emdogain/AlloDerm: a new way to treat gingival recessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadoun, André P

    2008-01-01

    The recession of the gingival margin is becoming a more prominent condition in the oral situation of many patients and should be treated at its earliest detection. The multifactorial etiology, decision modality, and current trends in the treatment of gingival recession are discussed in this article. The surgical technique of choice depends on several factors, but among the different surgical protocols available, the clinician should select one that will minimize surgical trauma and achieve predictable esthetic results. All of the approaches described in this article can effectively treat deep and shallow Class I or II buccal recessions. Recently, as an alternative to autogenous gingival grafts in root coverage procedures, enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) and acellular dermal matrix allograft (AlloDerm) were utilized to correct these gingival defects, negating the morbidity and the requirement for a second palatal surgical procedure. Emdogain or AlloDerm materials used alone or in combination are a predictable treatment for root coverage, are relatively easy to perform (although they are technique sensitive), present low patient morbidity, offer a significant increase in the percentage of root coverage and amount of keratinized tissue, and should be part of the periodontal plastic surgery armamentarium.

  9. Laterally positioned flap associated with subepithelial connective tissue graft for coverage of isolated gingival recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Marchi Martins

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The coverage of denuded roots represents one of the challenges of periodontal treatment. Among the several techniques for this purpose is the laterally positioned flap, which has undergone some modifications since its first reports and is currently combined with other techniques such as subepithelial connective tissue graft. Objective: To report a case of a 41-year-old female patient who presented Miller class I gingival recession at labial surface of tooth #43. Case report: The main symptom of the patient was dentin hypersensitivity. Clinical and radiographic exams were performed and gingival inflammation due to the presence of bacterial plaque was diagnosed as the main cause of root recession. After basic periodontal treatment, surgery for root coverage was performed. Since the area adjacent to the recession showed a good amount of attached gingiva and no interproximal bone loss, the surgical technique of choice was a laterally positioned flap associated with a subepithelial connective tissue graft. Conclusion: Postoperative assessment showed complete root coverage, an increased keratinized gingival band, absence of dentin hypersensitivity, and an excellent esthetic outcome.

  10. Global financial centers: shifting power balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    London and New York are the most important global financial centers in the world. Tokyo used to be considered the third global financial center, but has lost its position in the last 20 years, partly as a result of a sustained recession and partly because both Japanese society and Japanese economy a

  11. Seasonal palmar keratoderma in erythropoietic protoporphyria indicates autosomal recessive inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, S Alexander; Whatley, Sharon D; Roberts, Andrew G; Anstey, Alexander V; Elder, George H; Ead, Russell D; Stewart, M Felicity; Farr, Peter M; Lewis, Helen M; Davies, Nicholas; White, Marion I; Ackroyd, R Simon; Badminton, Michael N

    2009-03-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is an inherited disorder that results from partial deficiency of ferrochelatase (FECH). It is characterized clinically by acute photosensitivity and, in 2% of patients, liver disease. Inheritance is usually autosomal dominant with low penetrance but is recessive in about 4% of families. A cross-sectional study of 223 patients with EPP in the United Kingdom identified six individuals with palmar keratoderma. We now show that these and three additional patients, from six families, have an inherited subtype of EPP which is characterized by seasonal palmar keratoderma, relatively low erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentrations, and recessive inheritance. No patient had evidence of liver dysfunction; four patients had neurological abnormalities. Patients were hetero- or homoallelic for nine different FECH mutations; four of which were previously unreported. Prokaryotic expression predicted that FECH activities were 2.7-25% (mean 10.6%) of normal. Neither mutation type nor FECH activity provided an explanation for the unusual phenotype. Our findings show that palmar keratoderma is a clinical indicator of recessive EPP, identify a phenotype that occurs in 38% of reported families with recessive EPP that to our knowledge is previously unreported, and suggest that patients with this phenotype may carry a lower risk of liver disease than other patients with recessive EPP.

  12. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation as first-line treatment in myeloma: a global perspective of current concepts and future possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona Elizabeth Mactier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell transplantation forms an integral part of the treatment for multiple myeloma. This paper reviews the current role of transplantation and the progress that has been made in order to optimize the success of this therapy. Effective induction chemotherapy is important and a combination regimen incorporating the novel agent bortezomib is now favorable. Adequate induction is a crucial adjunct to stem cell transplantation and in some cases may potentially postpone the need for transplant. Different conditioning agents prior to transplantation have been explored: high-dose melphalan is most commonly used and bortezomib is a promising additional agent. There is no well-defined superior transplantation protocol but single or tandem autologous stem cell transplantations are those most commonly used, with allogeneic transplantation only used in clinical trials. The appropriate timing of transplantation in the treatment plan is a matter of debate. Consolidation and maintenance chemotherapies, particularly thalidomide and bortezomib, aim to improve and prolong disease response to transplantation and delay recurrence. Prognostic factors for the outcome of stem cell transplant in myeloma have been highlighted. Despite good responses to chemotherapy and transplantation, the problem of disease recurrence persists. Thus, there is still much room for improvement. Treatments which harness the graft-versus-myeloma effect may offer a potential cure for this disease. Trials of novel agents are underway, including targeted therapies for specific antigens such as vaccines and monoclonal antibodies.

  13. The VEMAP integrated dataset for simulation of ecological responses to global change: Current climate and climate change scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, T.G.F. [NCAR/UCAR, Boulder, CO (United States)]|[Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP) dataset consists of inputs for biogeochemical and biogeographical models, including current climate, climate scenarios, soils, and vegetation for the conterminous United States on a 0.5 deg lat./lon. grid. The set has daily and monthly representations of climate. Monthly temperature (T) and precipitation (PPT) were derived from station records or statistically-generated from nearby stations. These values were interpolated to the grid accounting for orographic effects in an effort to make the grid-scale climate representative of actual bioclimates within grid cells; this was crucial because ecosystem responses are nonlinearly related to climate. Daily T and PPT were stochastically simulated with WGEN, and daily solar radiation and humidity empirically estimated with CLIMSIM. Equilibrium climate change scenarios were selected to capture a range of potential change from GCM experiments. Transient scenario rates of change were based on atmosphere-ocean GCM results. Mean climate, equilibrium scenarios, vegetation, and soil data are available on CD-ROM.

  14. The Berkeley High spatial Resolution (BEHR) OMI NO2 retrieval: Effects of emission control technology and the economic recession over the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, R. C.; Russell, A. R.; Valin, L. C.

    2012-12-01

    We describe the Berkeley High Spatial Resolution OMI NO2 retrieval and analyses of trends in urban and rural locations in the U.S. based on that retrieval. The role of catalytic convertors and other emission control technologies and the global recession of the last 5 years will be assessed.

  15. Franchising Education: Challenges and Opportunities for Coping with the Economic Recession and the Provision of Higher Education in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul; Shotte, Gertrude

    2010-01-01

    When the global economic recession hit the world some 18 months ago, very few could predict the impact this would have on government spending on higher education. Higher education institutions in the United Kingdom face spending cuts. Notwithstanding, they are expected to deliver quality education with fewer resources. This article discusses…

  16. Space, body, time and relationship experiences of recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    and relations revealed several key factors influencing their recess physical activity: perceived classroom safety, indoor cosiness, lack of attractive outdoor facilities, bodily dissatisfaction, bodily complaints, tiredness, feeling bored, and peer influence. CONCLUSION: We found that the four existential...... the classroom as a space for physical activity, designing schoolyards with smaller secluded spaces and varied facilities, improving children's self-esteem and body image, e.g., during physical education, and creating teacher organised play activities during recess.......BACKGROUND: Increasing recess physical activity has been the aim of several interventions, as this setting can provide numerous physical activity opportunities. However, it is unclear if these interventions are equally effective for all children, or if they only appeal to children who are already...

  17. Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: Antenatal Diagnosis and Histopathological Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayananda Kumar Rajanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD is one of the most common inheritable disease manifesting in infancy and childhood with a frequency of 1:6,000 to 1:55,000 births. The patient in her second trimester presented with a history of amenorrhea. Ultrasound examination revealed bilateral, enlarged, hyperechogenic kidneys, placentomegaly, and severe oligohydramnios. The pregnancy was terminated. An autopsy was performed on the fetus. Both the kidneys were found to be enlarged and the cut surface showed numerous cysts. The liver sections showed changes due to fibrosis. The final diagnosis of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease was made based on these findings. In this article, we correlate the ante-natal ultrasound and histopathological findings in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

  18. Marketing strategies and tactics in a period of recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Avlonitis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recession is an extremely difficult period for most companies. Especially when a recession has universal dimensions, many companies find themselves unprepared to face great challenges. While marketing in good times has a long-term focus, a broad scope, it is benefits- and opportunities-driven and proactive, in bad times it has a short-term focus, limited and narrow scope, it is cost-and sales-driven and reactive. Panic is not the right reaction. Such difficult times should be overcome through methodical and well planned actions. After all, research has shown that those companies that take a proactive stance and treat the recession as an opportunity are likely to come out of the crisis stronger than before. Specific marketing activities have been proved to be beneficial to companies during a downturn. Below we analyze, ten marketing survival strategies and tactics.

  19. Gendering Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The current global financial situation bluntly and brutally brings home the fact that the global and local are closely connected in times of opportunity as well as crises. The articles in this issue of Asia Insights are about ontra-action between Asia, particularly China, and the Nordic countries...

  20. Upper ocean currents and sea surface temperatures (SST) from Satellite-tracked drifting buoys (drifters) as part of the Global Drifter Program for Hawaii region 1980/02/01 - 2009/03/31 (NODC Accession 0063296)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite-tracked drifting buoys ("drifters") collect measurements of upper ocean currents and sea surface temperatures (SST) around the world as part of the Global...

  1. A New Formula for Front Slope Recession of Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2010-01-01

    The front slope stability of breakwaters with a homogeneous berm was studied in a large number of two dimensional model tests at Aalborg University, Denmark. The results are presented together with a new formula for prediction of the berm recession which is the most important parameter for descri......The front slope stability of breakwaters with a homogeneous berm was studied in a large number of two dimensional model tests at Aalborg University, Denmark. The results are presented together with a new formula for prediction of the berm recession which is the most important parameter...

  2. Analysis on the Current Situation Global of Avian Inlfuenza Prevalence%当前全球禽流感流行概况及特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱迪国; 宋建德; 黄保续

    2015-01-01

    为了解全球禽流感的流行现状和特点,以OIE、FAO近10余年来通报的禽流感疫情为基础,分析全球禽流感流行特点。结果表明,禽流感的季节性暴发特征已不十分明显;病毒变异重组加速,出现多血清亚型共存;候鸟成为禽流感病毒散播的重要传播途径;病毒的公共卫生影响持续存在。同时,H5N1亚型高致病性禽流感疫情已从全球性暴发转变为区域性流行。%The global prevalence characteristics of avian influenza were analyzed in the paper according to the avian influenza epidmics reported by OIE and FAO in recent 10 years in order to understand the current status and character-istics of global avian influenza prevalence. The result showed that H5N1 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza was endemic in the world without significant seasonal outbreak features,variation and recombination of the viruses were ac-celerated and poly subtypes coexisted,migratory birds became the major route of avian influenza virus spreading,and the impact of the virus on public health was existing continuously. Meanwhile,the global prevalence of H5N1 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza has changed into regional prevalence.

  3. Chrono-nutrition: a review of current evidence from observational studies on global trends in time-of-day of energy intake and its association with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoosawi, S; Vingeliene, S; Karagounis, L G; Pot, G K

    2016-11-01

    The importance of the circadian rhythm in regulating human food intake behaviour and metabolism has long been recognised. However, little is known as to how energy intake is distributed over the day in existing populations, and its potential association with obesity. The present review describes global trends in time-of-day of energy intake in the general population based on data from cross-sectional surveys and longitudinal cohorts. Evidence of the association between time-of-day of energy intake and obesity is also summarised. Overall, there were a limited number of cross-sectional surveys and longitudinal cohorts that provided data on time-of-day of energy intake. In the identified studies, a wide variation in time-of-day of energy intake was observed, with patterns of energy distribution varying greatly by country and geographical area. In relation to obesity, eight cross-sectional surveys and two longitudinal cohorts were identified. The association between time-of-day of energy intake and obesity varied widely, with several studies reporting a positive link between evening energy intake and obesity. In conclusion, the current review summarises global trends in time-of-day of energy intake. The large variations across countries and global regions could have important implications to health, emphasising the need to understand the socio-environmental factors guiding such differences in eating patterns. Evidence of the association between time-of-day of energy intake and BMI also varied. Further larger scale collaborations between various countries and regions are needed to sum data from existing surveys and cohorts, and guide our understanding of the role of chrono-nutrition in health.

  4. The commercial impact of pig Salmonella spp. infections in border-free markets during an economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Evangelopoulou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Salmonella, a group of important zoonotic pathogens, is having global economic and political importance. Its main political importance results from the pathogenicity of many of its serovars for man. Serovars Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are currently the most frequently associated to foodborne infections, but they are not the only ones. Animal food products contaminated from subclinically infected animals are a risk to consumers. In border free markets, an example is the EU, these consumers at risk are international. This is why, economic competition could use the risk of consumer infection either to restrict or promote free border trade in animals and their products. Such use of public health threats increases during economic recessions in nations economically weak to effectively enforce surveillance. In free trade conditions, those unable to pay the costs of pathogen control are unable to effectively implement agreed regulations, centrally decided, but leaving their enforcement to individual states. Free trade of animal food products depends largely on the promotion of safety, included in "quality," when traders target foreign markets. They will overtake eventually the markets of those ineffectively implementing agreed safety regulations, if their offered prices are also attractive for recession hit consumers. Nations unable to effectively enforce safety regulations become disadvantaged partners unequally competing with producers of economically robust states when it comes to public health. Thus, surveillance and control of pathogens like Salmonella are not only quantitative. They are also political issues upon which states base national trade decisions. Hence, the quantitative calculation of costs incurring from surveillance and control of animal salmonelloses, should not only include the cost for public health protection, but also the long term international economic and political costs for an individual state

  5. An Appraisal on the Earlier Euro Adoption by the New Member States in the Frame of the Current Global Economic and Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea Iordache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathway of the new member states towards the euro area was stopped, but not modified by the current world economic crisis. Their inflation declined but the fiscal status suffered. On the verge of thefinancial crisis, the European Central Bank overruled the Central and Eastern European member states’ intentions for an earlier adoption of the euro, requiring compliance with the Maastricht criteria. The objective of this paper is to analyze the main proposed solutions and to draw attention on the most suitable ones in keeping with the particular features of these countries. Our conclusion is that fast results on the euro adoption will definitely depend on the fiscal consolidation, the soundness of global economic rehabilitation, the capital availability, and the domestic policies. The nature of the approached problems and the authors’ experience recommend this study, both for researchers and practitioners.

  6. The use of whole exome sequencing for the diagnosis of autosomal recessive malignant infantile osteopetrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamriz, O; Shaag, A; Yaacov, B; NaserEddin, A; Weintraub, M; Elpeleg, O; Stepensky, P

    2017-07-01

    Autosomal recessive malignant infantile osteopetrosis is a congenital disease characterized by pathologically increased bone density. Recently, the use of whole exome sequencing has been utilized as a clinical diagnostic tool in a number of Mendelian disorders. In this study, whole exome sequencing (WES) was successfully used in six patients with malignant infantile osteopetrosis (MIOP) and identified mutations in four MIOP-related genes (CLCN7, TCIRG1, SNX10, and TNFRSF11A). We report these patients, describe the mutations and review the current literature. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Estimating probabilities of recession in real time using GDP and GDI

    OpenAIRE

    Nalewaik, Jeremy J.

    2006-01-01

    This work estimates Markov switching models on real time data and shows that the growth rate of gross domestic income (GDI), deflated by the GDP deflator, has done a better job recognizing the start of recessions than has the growth rate of real GDP. This result suggests that placing an increased focus on GDI may be useful in assessing the current state of the economy. In addition, the paper shows that the definition of a low-growth phase in the Markov switching models has changed over the pa...

  8. X-Linked and Autosomal Recessive Alport Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savige, Judith; Storey, Helen; Il Cheong, Hae

    2016-01-01

    Alport syndrome results from mutations in the COL4A5 (X-linked) or COL4A3/COL4A4 (recessive) genes. This study examined 754 previously- unpublished variants in these genes from individuals referred for genetic testing in 12 accredited diagnostic laboratories worldwide, in addition to all publishe...

  9. The Post-Recession Employment Situation: A Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Slow economic growth since the end of the U.S. recession in June of 2009 has not yet translated into increases in employment large enough to meaningfully reduce the rate of unemployment. Because expansionary macroeconomic policy has been pursued on both the fiscal and monetary fronts, it appears at first glance that the hands of government at this…

  10. The Post-Recession Employment Situation: A Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Slow economic growth since the end of the U.S. recession in June of 2009 has not yet translated into increases in employment large enough to meaningfully reduce the rate of unemployment. Because expansionary macroeconomic policy has been pursued on both the fiscal and monetary fronts, it appears at first glance that the hands of government at this…

  11. No association between gingival labial recession and facial type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazurova, K.; Renkema, A.M.; Navratilova, Z.; Katsaros, C.; Fudalej, P.S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if facial type is a predictor of the development of gingival recession. METHODS: A cohort of 179 orthodontic patients (76 males, 101 females; age before treatment T S = 12.4 years, SD = 0.8) were followed until 5 years post-treatment (T 5 = 20.7 years, SD = 1.2). The presence

  12. The Credit Crisis and Recession as a Paradigm Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk J.

    This paper contributes to the debate on what economics can learn from the credit crisis and recession. It asks what are the elements in the mainstream paradigm that caused many economists to misjudge the state of the economy so dramatically in the years leading up to the 2007 credit crisis and the

  13. Capital stock management during a recession that freezes credit markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caulkins, J.P.; Feichtinger, G.; Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, Peter; Seidl, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of how to price a conspicuous product while maintaining liquidity during a recession which both reduces demand and freezes credit markets. Reducing price would help maintain cash flow, but low prices can erode brand image and, hence, long-term sales. The paper extend

  14. SPATACSIN mutations cause autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlacchio, Antonio; Babalini, Carla; Borreca, Antonella; Patrono, Clarice; Massa, Roberto; Basaran, Sarenur; Munhoz, Renato P; Rogaeva, Ekaterina A; St George-Hyslop, Peter H; Bernardi, Giorgio; Kawarai, Toshitaka

    2010-02-01

    The mutation of the spatacsin gene is the single most common cause of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum. Common clinical, pathological and genetic features between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and hereditary spastic paraplegia motivated us to investigate 25 families with autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and long-term survival for mutations in the spatascin gene. The inclusion criterion was a diagnosis of clinically definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis according to the revised El Escorial criteria. The exclusion criterion was a diagnosis of hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum in line with an established protocol. Additional pathological and genetic evaluations were also performed. Surprisingly, 12 sequence alterations in the spatacsin gene (one of which is novel, IVS30 + 1 G > A) were identified in 10 unrelated pedigrees with autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and long-term survival. The countries of origin of these families were Italy, Brazil, Canada, Japan and Turkey. The variants seemed to be pathogenic since they co-segregated with the disease in all pedigrees, were absent in controls and were associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis neuropathology in one member of one of these families for whom central nervous system tissue was available. Our study indicates that mutations in the spatascin gene could cause a much wider spectrum of clinical features than previously recognized, including autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  15. Adjustable recessions in horizontal comitant strabismus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the surgical outcome of adjustable with the conventional recession in patients with horizontal comitant strabismus. Patients and Methods: A prospective comparative nonrandomized interventional pilot study was performed on patients with horizontal comitant strabismus. Fifty-four patients (27 in each group were allocated into 2 groups to undergo either adjustable suture (AS recession or non-AS (NAS recession along with conventional resection. The patients were followed up for 6 months. A successful outcome was defined as deviation ±10 prism diopters at 6 months. The results were statistically analyzed by Chi-square test, Fisher′s exact test, and Student′s t-test. Results: A successful outcome was found in 24 (88.8% patients in AS and 17 (62.9% in NAS group (P = 0.02. The postoperative adjustment was done in 13 (48.1% patients in AS group. There was one complication (tenon′s cyst in AS group. Conclusion: AS recession may be considered in all cooperative patients undergoing strabismus surgery for comitant deviations.

  16. A novel GLRA1 mutation in a recessive hyperekplexia pedigree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsyth, Rob J.; Gika, Artemis D.; Ginjaar, Leke; Tijssen, Marina A. J.

    2007-01-01

    We report the identification of a novel Y228C mutation within the Ml trans-membrane domain of the GLRA1 subunit of the glycine receptor responsible for a severe recessive hyperekplexia phenotype in a Kurdish pedigree. (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society.

  17. A simulation study of the recession coefficient for antecedent precipitation index. [soil moisture and water runoff estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Blanchard, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The antecedent precipitation index (API) is a useful indicator of soil moisture conditions for watershed runoff calculations and recent attempts to correlate this index with spaceborne microwave observations have been fairly successful. It is shown that the prognostic equation for soil moisture used in some of the atmospheric general circulation models together with Thornthwaite-Mather parameterization of actual evapotranspiration leads to API equations. The recession coefficient for API is found to depend on climatic factors through potential evapotranspiration and on soil texture through the field capacity and the permanent wilting point. Climatologial data for Wisconsin together with a recently developed model for global isolation are used to simulate the annual trend of the recession coefficient. Good quantitative agreement is shown with the observed trend at Fennimore and Colby watersheds in Wisconsin. It is suggested that API could be a unifying vocabulary for watershed and atmospheric general circulation modelars.

  18. Badnaviruses: The Current Global Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alangar Ishwara Bhat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Badnaviruses (Family: Caulimoviridae; Genus: Badnavirus are non-enveloped bacilliform DNA viruses with a monopartite genome containing about 7.2 to 9.2 kb of dsDNA with three to seven open reading frames. They are transmitted by mealybugs and a few species by aphids in a semi-persistent manner. They are one of the most important plant virus groups and have emerged as serious pathogens affecting the cultivation of several horticultural crops in the tropics, especially banana, black pepper, cocoa, citrus, sugarcane, taro, and yam. Some badnaviruses are also known as endogenous viruses integrated into their host genomes and a few such endogenous viruses can be awakened, e.g., through abiotic stress, giving rise to infective episomal forms. The presence of endogenous badnaviruses poses a new challenge for the fool-proof diagnosis, taxonomy, and management of the diseases. The present review aims to highlight emerging disease problems, virus characteristics, transmission, and diagnosis of badnaviruses.

  19. Badnaviruses: The Current Global Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Alangar Ishwara; Hohn, Thomas; Selvarajan, Ramasamy

    2016-01-01

    Badnaviruses (Family: Caulimoviridae; Genus: Badnavirus) are non-enveloped bacilliform DNA viruses with a monopartite genome containing about 7.2 to 9.2 kb of dsDNA with three to seven open reading frames. They are transmitted by mealybugs and a few species by aphids in a semi-persistent manner. They are one of the most important plant virus groups and have emerged as serious pathogens affecting the cultivation of several horticultural crops in the tropics, especially banana, black pepper, cocoa, citrus, sugarcane, taro, and yam. Some badnaviruses are also known as endogenous viruses integrated into their host genomes and a few such endogenous viruses can be awakened, e.g., through abiotic stress, giving rise to infective episomal forms. The presence of endogenous badnaviruses poses a new challenge for the fool-proof diagnosis, taxonomy, and management of the diseases. The present review aims to highlight emerging disease problems, virus characteristics, transmission, and diagnosis of badnaviruses. PMID:27338451

  20. Porcine collagen matrix for treating gingival recession. Randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Castro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving root coverage after exposure caused by gingival recession is one of the main goals of reconstructive periodontal surgery. Even though a large variety of techniques and mucogingival grafting procedures are available, their long-term results are not clear yet. Therefore, this study aimed to compare clinical effectiveness of the porcine collagen matrix with subepithelial connective graft for treating Miller class I and II gingival recessions. Materials and methods: The randomized clinical trial included twelve patients assigned to two groups. In the first group (experimental, six patients were treated using collagen matrix (mean age, 54.3±5.6 years; mean recession 2. 67±1.03mm. Another group (control of six patients was treated using connective grafts (mean age, 57.1± 2.7 years; mean recession 4.33±1.03mm. All patients underwent periodontal evaluation and pre-surgical preparation including oral hygiene instruction and supragingival scaling. Gingival recessions were exposed through partial thickness flaps where the grafts and matrices were placed. Patients were assessed periodically until complete healing of tissue. Results: Root coverage parameters, amount of keratinized gingiva, gingival biotype and clinical attachment level were evaluated. The root coverage percentage for the group using connective graft was 24.7±13.5% and 16.6±26.8% for the one treated with the matrix. The amount of increased keratinized tissue was 4.33±2.06mm and 4.5±0.83mm for the control and experimental group respectively. Both groups increased gingival biotypes from thin to thick at 100%. The final clinical attachment level was 4.17±3.17±04mm for the control group and 0.98mm for the experimental group. There were significant differences between the outcome of gingival recession and clinical attachment. Conclusion: Results indicate both techniques, besides being predictable, are useful for improving clinical parameters when treating gingival recessions

  1. Economic recession and fertility in the developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Tomáš; Skirbekk, Vegard; Philipov, Dimiter

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of economic recessions on fertility in the developed world. We study how economic downturns, as measured by various indicators, especially by declining GDP levels, falling consumer confidence, and rising unemployment, were found to affect fertility. We also discuss particular mechanisms through which the recession may have influenced fertility behavior, including the effects of economic uncertainty, falling income, changes in the housing market, and rising enrollment in higher education, and also factors that influence fertility indirectly such as declining marriage rates. Most studies find that fertility tends to be pro-cyclical and often rises and declines with the ups and downs of the business cycle. Usually, these aggregate effects are relatively small (typically, a few percentage points) and of short durations; in addition they often influence especially the timing of childbearing and in most cases do not leave an imprint on cohort fertility levels. Therefore, major long-term fertility shifts often continue seemingly uninterrupted during the recession—including the fertility declines before and during the Great Depression of the 1930s and before and during the oil shock crises of the 1970s. Changes in the opportunity costs of childbearing and fertility behavior during economic downturn vary by sex, age, social status, and number of children; childless young adults are usually most affected. Furthermore, various policies and institutions may modify or even reverse the relationship between recessions and fertility. The first evidence pertaining to the recent recession falls in line with these findings. In most countries, the recession has brought a decline in the number of births and fertility rates, often marking a sharp halt to the previous decade of rising fertility rates.

  2. The role of climatic and terrain attributes in estimating baseflow recession in tropical catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Peña-Arancibia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of low flows in rivers is paramount more than ever as demand for water increases on a global scale. At the same time, limited streamflow data to investigate this phenomenon, particularly in the tropics, makes the provision of accurate estimations in ungauged areas an ongoing research need. This paper analysed the potential of climatic and terrain attributes of 167 tropical and sub-tropical unregulated catchments to predict baseflow recession rates. Climatic attributes included annual and seasonal indicators of rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Terrain attributes included indicators of catchment shape, morphology, land cover, soils and geology. Stepwise regression was used to identify the best predictors for baseflow recession coefficients (kbf. Mean annual rainfall (MAR and aridity index (AI were found to explain 49% of the spatial variation of kbf. The rest of climatic indices plus average catchment slope (SLO and tree cover were also good predictors, but co-correlated with MAR. Catchment elongation (CE, a measure of catchment shape, was also found to be statistically significant, although weakly correlated. An analysis of clusters of catchments of smaller size, showed that in these areas, presumably with some similarity of soils and geology due to proximity, residuals of the regression could be explained by SLO and CE. The approach used provides a~potential alternative for kbf parameterisation in ungauged areas.

  3. Globalization Crises, Trade,and Development in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn

    Vietnam has been among the most successful East Asian economies, especially in weathering the external shocks of recent globalization crises—the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008-09 great recession, financial crisis and collapse of global trade. Its success contradicts its characterizat......Vietnam has been among the most successful East Asian economies, especially in weathering the external shocks of recent globalization crises—the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008-09 great recession, financial crisis and collapse of global trade. Its success contradicts its...

  4. Current status of the dual-frequency precipitation radar on the global precipitation measurement core spacecraft and the new version of GPM standard products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, K.; Nio, T.; Konishi, T.; Masaki, T.; Kubota, T.; Oki, R.; Iguchi, T.

    2016-10-01

    The Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite was developed by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). The objective of the GPM mission is to observe global precipitation more frequently and accurately. The GPM core satellite is a joint product of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), JAXA and NICT. NASA developed the satellite bus and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), and JAXA and NICT developed the DPR. The inclination of the GPM core satellite is 65 degrees, and the nominal flight altitude is 407 km. The non-sunsynchronous circular orbit is necessary for measuring the diurnal change of rainfall. The DPR consists of two radars, which are Ku-band precipitation radar (KuPR) and Ka-band precipitation radar (KaPR). GPM core observatory was successfully launched by H2A launch vehicle on Feb. 28, 2014. DPR keeps its performances on orbit after launch. DPR products were released to the public on Sep. 2, 2014. JAXA is continuing DPR trend monitoring, calibration and validation operations to confirm that DPR keeps its function and performance on orbit. JAXA have started to provide new version (Version 4) of GPM standard products on March 3, 2016. Various improvements of the DPR algorithm were implemented in the Version 4 product. Moreover, the latent heat product based on the Spectral Latent Heating (SLH) algorithm is available since Version 4 product. Current orbital operation status of the GPM/DPR and highlights of the Version 4 product are reported.

  5. Glacial recession in the Tropical Andes from the Little Ice Age: the case of Ampato Volcanic Complex (Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, J.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.

    2010-03-01

    Data published over the last decade reveal substantial glacial recession in the tropical Andes since the Little Ice Age (LIA), (Ramirez, et al., 2001; Rabatel, et al., 2005; Rabatel, et al., 2008; Vuille, et al., 2008; Hastenrath, 2009; Jomelli, et al., 2009), and a growing rate of recession since the 1980’s caused by global warming (Ramirez, et al., 2001; Vuille, et al., 2008). Today there is great interest in the evolution of these ice masses due to heightened awareness of climate change and of the strategic importance that glaciers have as a hydrologic resource for communities in arid climate zones in the tropical Andes (Mark, 2008; Vuille et al., 2008). Cordillera Blanca forms part of the Andes Mountains of northern Peru, and is a chosen site for many studies on glacier evolution. Vuille et al. 2008 determined that a considerable area of ice mass was lost at Huascarán-Chopicalqui glacier (18% from 1920-1970) and Astesonraju glacier (20% from 1962-2003). Studies at Coropuna volcano, which has the most extensive glacier field in the western range of southern Peru, also report a strong melting trend that began with only minimal recession from 1955-1986 (4%), but increased to 14% from 1986-2007 (Úbeda et al., 2009). Only a few of the Andes glaciers are consistently monitored, and the most comprehensive data are for Chacaltaya and Zongo glaciers (16º S) in Bolivia. Since the maximum LIA, Chacaltaya has lost 89% of its surface area, particularly in recent years. By 1983, the totaled loss was five times the shrinkage for the period 1940-1963 (Ramirez, et al., 2001). Zongo glacier maintained equilibrium from 1956-1975, but later experienced a period dominated by continuous recession (Soruco, et al., 2009). This study expands current knowledge of glacier evolution since the LIA in the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ; 14º - 27º S) (Stern, 2004) of the Andes. The study site was chosen in an area that had never been used for preliminary research of this type, concretely

  6. The incidence of HLA-SD antigens in recessive retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M C; Marak, G E; Pilkerton, A R

    1978-01-01

    Eighteen patients with recessive retinitis pigmentosa were tissue typed for HLA-SD antigens. There was no evidence that a particular HLA-SD antigen was associated with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:638110

  7. The high-riding superior aortic recess of the pericardium: MRI visualization in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Mervyn [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Johnson, Tiffanie; Hoyer, Mark [Indiana University School of Medicine, Pediatric Cardiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2005-12-01

    We report a 4-year-old child with a high-riding superior aortic recess of the pericardium, initially misdiagnosed as a possible vascular malformation. The anatomy of the pericardial recesses is reviewed. (orig.)

  8. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions ARSACS autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay Enable Javascript to view the ... Open All Close All Description Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay , more commonly known as ARSACS , ...

  9. Glacial lakes amplify glacier recession in the central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Owen; Quincey, Duncan; Carrivick, Jonathan; Rowan, Ann

    2016-04-01

    store large amounts of ice in broad accumulation zones and are more equidimensional (HI -1.2 to 1.2). Glaciers flowing onto the Tibetan Plateau have a similar hypsometric distribution to glaciers of the Dudh Koshi, but terminate at a higher altitude overall, approximately 500 m higher than glaciers of the Dudh Koshi or Tama Koshi. We estimate the approximate Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELA) of the last 15 years to be above a substantial portion (66%- Dudh Koshi; 87%- Tama Koshi; 83% Tibetan Plateau) of the glacierised area for all three catchments. Future ice recession may therefore be governed primarily by glacier hypsometry, but is likely to be amplified by the continued development of new, or growth of current glacial lakes.

  10. A Quarter-Century of Glacier Recession in the Tropical Andes from Landsat: c1987 - c2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, D. A.; Tucker, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The glaciers of the tropical Andes constitute 99% of the world's tropical glaciers. They primarily occur in Peru and Bolivia (90%) with smaller glaciers scattered across the peaks in Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. Specific glaciers in the range have been studied in great detail, such as Bolivia's Zongo glacier and Peru's Quelccaya Ice Cap, but few studies of glacier recession across the full range have been published. We previously assessed glacier recession between c1987 and c2006 using manual classification techniques on Landsat imagery. We have now updated that study to the present (2013/2014), and and have incorporated automated techniques using support vector machines. The update to present allows us to examine both the variability in recession rates, and the current state of overall recession. The primary issues in completing this analysis are accounting for snow cover (which can otherwise be easily misidentified as glacier), and developing a robust and semi-automated methodology to process the large number of individual images required. To avoid confusion with transient snow, we analysed 2-3 clear images at each epoch, with minimal visually apparent snow or glacier, and only labelled as glacier those pixels that were classified as glacier in the clear portions of each image. To automate the processing, we used support vector machines, trained with the extensive data we have available from our previous manual classification work.Our previous work indicated an overall recession of approximately 30% (or 700 km2 of glacier area loss) between c1987 and c2006. We will present updated figures from our new analysis, extending to 2013/2014.

  11. The Global Economic Crisis, Poverty and Education: A Perspective from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambissan, Geetha B.

    2010-01-01

    Debates on the global economic recession have failed to draw adequate attention to the meaning of the crisis for the poor and their education, especially in later developing societies. In this paper, I focus on the education of children of the poor in India--a country that has experienced economic slowdown rather than recession. Available research…

  12. The Global Economic Crisis, Poverty and Education: A Perspective from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambissan, Geetha B.

    2010-01-01

    Debates on the global economic recession have failed to draw adequate attention to the meaning of the crisis for the poor and their education, especially in later developing societies. In this paper, I focus on the education of children of the poor in India--a country that has experienced economic slowdown rather than recession. Available research…

  13. Non-Overweight and Overweight Children's Physical Activity during School Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little research has investigated children's physical activity levels during school recess and the contribution of recess to school day physical activity levels by weight status. The aims of this study were to examine non-overweight and overweight children's physical activity levels during school recess, and examine the contribution of…

  14. Did Cuts in State Aid during the Great Recession Lead to Changes in Local Property Taxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Livingston, Max; Roy, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    The Great Recession led to marked declines in state revenue. In this paper we investigate whether (and how) local school districts modified their funding and taxing decisions in response to state aid declines in the post-recession period. Our results reveal school districts responded to state aid cuts in the post-recession period by countering…

  15. Non-Overweight and Overweight Children's Physical Activity during School Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little research has investigated children's physical activity levels during school recess and the contribution of recess to school day physical activity levels by weight status. The aims of this study were to examine non-overweight and overweight children's physical activity levels during school recess, and examine the contribution of…

  16. Global Mindsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives seeks to tackle a topic that is relatively new in research and practice, and is considered by many to be critical for firms seeking to conduct global business. It argues that multiple mindsets exist (across and within organizations), that they operate...... it is important for future scholars and managers and how it could be conceptualized. Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives is split into two major sections; the first examines where the literature currently is with respect to the knowledge in the field and what conceptual frameworks guide the thinking......, and should help researchers determine areas of high potential research needs in the future. Given the fluid sense of global mindsets in action, the authors of this book have adopted a flexible and wide-ranging approach. Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives includes conceptual chapters that push...

  17. Analysis of current status of global PCB industry and top PCB makers (2013)%全球PCB产业和顶尖PCB企业现状分析(2013)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏强

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the current status of global PCB industry, regional PCB revenues, global market share, and the rank, operation and development opportunity of top PCB makers.%主要分析了目前全球各国家/地区PCB的产值、市场占有率、全球顶尖PCB企业排名、运营现状和未来发展机会。

  18. Analysis of current status of global PCB industry and top PCB makers (2011)%全球PCB产业和顶尖PCB企业现状分析(2011)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏强

    2011-01-01

    主要分析了目前全球各国家/地区PcB的产值、市场占有率、全球顶尖PCB企业名单、运营现状和未来发展机会。%The paper analyzes the current status of global PCB industry, regional PCB revenues, global market share, top PCB maker, operation and development opportunity.

  19. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis with a unique imaging finding: multiple encephaloceles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saglam, Dilek; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Bekci, Tuemay [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey); Albayrak, Canan; Albayrak, Davut [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    Osteopetrosis is a hereditary form of sclerosing bone dysplasia with various radiological and clinical presentations. The autosomal recessive type, also known as malignant osteopetrosis, is the most severe type, with the early onset of manifestations. A 5-month-old infant was admitted to our hospital with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Chest X-ray and skeletal survey revealed the classic findings of osteopetrosis, including diffuse osteosclerosis and bone within a bone appearance. At follow-up, the patient presented with, thickened calvarium, multiple prominent encephaloceles, and dural calcifications leading to the intracranial clinical manifestations with bilateral hearing and sight loss. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is one of the causes of encephaloceles and this finding may become dramatic if untreated. (orig.)

  20. Serous retinal detachment after trabeculectomy in angle recession glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy, Avik Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old male with 360 degree angle recession after blunt trauma in his right eye developed uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP despite four antiglaucoma medications (AGM with advancing disc damage. He underwent trabeculectomy with intraoperative mitomycin-c (MMC application. There was an intraoperative vitreous prolapse which was managed accordingly. On post-surgery day 1, he had shallow choroidal detachment superiorly with non-recordable IOP. This was deteriorated 1 week postoperatively as choroidal detachment proceeded to serous retinal detachment. He was started with systemic steroid in addition to topical route. The serous effusions subsided within 2 weeks time. At the last follow up at 3 months, he was enjoying good visual acuity, deep anterior chamber, diffuse bleb, an IOP in low teens off any AGM and attached retina. This case highlights the rare occurrence of serous retinal detachment after surgical management of angle recession glaucoma.

  1. Global Monitoring of Atmospheric Trace Gases, Clouds and Aerosols from UV/vis/NIR Satellite Instruments: Currents Status and Near Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T.; Beirle, S.; Deutschmann, T.; Frankenberg, C.; Grzegorski, M.; Khokhar, M. F.; Kühl, S.; Marbach, T.; Mies, K.; de Vries, M. Penning; Platt, U.; Pukite, J.; Sanghavi, S.

    2008-04-01

    A new generation of UV/vis/near-IR satellite instruments like GOME (since 1995), SCIAMACHY (since 2002), OMI (since 2004), and GOME-2 (since 2006) allows to measure several important stratospheric and tropospheric trace gases like O3, NO2, OClO, HCHO, SO2, BrO, and H2O as well as clouds and aerosols from space. Because of its extended spectral range, the SCIAMACHY instrument also allows the retrieval of Greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4) and CO in the near IR. Almost all of the tropospheric trace gases are observed by these instruments for the first time. From satellite data it is possible to investigate the temporal and spatial variation. Also different sources can be characterised and quantified. The derived global distributions can serve as input and for the validation of atmospheric models. Here we give an overview on the current status of these new instruments and data products and their recent applications to various atmospheric and oceanic phenomena.

  2. The neoliberal policy paradigm and the great recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Howard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between neoliberal policies and the Great Recession with a focus on the persistence of the policy paradigm in spite of overwhelming evidence of its role in creating the crisis. These economic problems are only the latest that have arisen in the wake of the three long decade experiment with these policy packages. The paper investigates the ideological, methodological, historical, theoretical, political and economic interests underlying the perpetuation of neoliberalism.

  3. Anatomy of the pleura: reflection lines and recesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, François; Deslauriers, Jean

    2011-05-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the lines of pleural reflection, triangular ligaments, and pleural recesses is important to thoracic surgeons because their anatomic areas are used daily for radiographic interpretation as well as for the performance of procedures such as chest tube insertion, thoracentesis, and pericardiocentesis. Their knowledge is also important for thoracic surgeons doing surgical procedures such as parietal pleurectomies, extrapleural mobilization and resection of the lungs, and pleuroneumonectomies for destroyed lungs or malignant pleural neoplasms.

  4. Job Loss and Infrastructure Job Creation Spending During the Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14...Depression period. (See CRS Report R41017, Job Creation Programs of the Great Depression: the WPA and the CCC.) To mitigate all but one recession since the...interrelationships between industries in the production process, showing how the dollar value of a sale is distributed across industries at a particular point in

  5. Do consanguineous parents of a child affected by an autosomal recessive disease have more DNA identical-by-descent than similarly-related parents with healthy offspring? Design of a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Martina C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The offspring of consanguineous relations have an increased risk of congenital/genetic disorders and early mortality. Consanguineous couples and their offspring account for approximately 10% of the global population. The increased risk for congenital/genetic disorders is most marked for autosomal recessive disorders and depends on the degree of relatedness of the parents. For children of first cousins the increased risk is 2-4%. For individual couples, however, the extra risk can vary from zero to 25% or higher, with only a minority of these couples having an increased risk of at least 25%. It is currently not possible to differentiate between high-and low-risk couples. The quantity of DNA identical-by-descent between couples with the same degree of relatedness shows a remarkable variation. Here we hypothesize that consanguineous partners with children affected by an autosomal recessive disease have more DNA identical-by-descent than similarly-related partners who have only healthy children. The aim of the study is thus to establish whether the amount of DNA identical-by-descent in consanguineous parents of children with an autosomal recessive disease is indeed different from its proportion in consanguineous parents who have healthy children only. Methods/Design This project is designed as a case-control study. Cases are defined as consanguineous couples with one or more children with an autosomal recessive disorder and controls as consanguineous couples with at least three healthy children and no affected child. We aim to include 100 case couples and 100 control couples. Control couples are matched by restricting the search to the same family, clan or ethnic origin as the case couple. Genome-wide SNP arrays will be used to test our hypothesis. Discussion This study contains a new approach to risk assessment in consanguineous couples. There is no previous study on the amount of DNA identical-by-descent in consanguineous

  6. FOXE3 plays a significant role in autosomal recessive microphthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Linda M; Tyler, Rebecca C; Schneider, Adele; Bardakjian, Tanya; Stoler, Joan M; Melancon, Serge B; Semina, Elena V

    2010-03-01

    FOXE3 forkhead transcription factor is essential to lens development in vertebrates. The eyes of Foxe3/foxe3-deficient mice and zebrafish fail to develop normally. In humans, autosomal dominant and recessive mutations in FOXE3 have been associated with variable phenotypes including anterior segment anomalies, cataract, and microphthalmia. We undertook sequencing of FOXE3 in 116 probands with a spectrum of ocular defects ranging from anterior segment dysgenesis and cataract to anophthalmia/microphthalmia. Recessive mutations in FOXE3 were found in four of 26 probands affected with bilateral microphthalmia (15% of all bilateral microphthalmia and 100% of consanguineous families with this phenotype). FOXE3-positive microphthalmia was accompanied by aphakia and/or corneal defects; no other associated systemic anomalies were observed in FOXE3-positive families. The previously reported c.720C > A (p.C240X) nonsense mutation was identified in two additional families in our sample and therefore appears to be recurrent, now reported in three independent microphthalmia families of varied ethnic backgrounds. Several missense variants were identified at varying frequencies in patient and control groups with some apparently being race-specific, which underscores the importance of utilizing race/ethnicity-matched control populations in evaluating the relevance of genetic screening results. In conclusion, FOXE3 mutations represent an important cause of nonsyndromic autosomal recessive bilateral microphthalmia.

  7. Recession and Divorce in the United States, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip N

    2014-10-01

    Recession may increase divorce through a stress mechanism, or reduce divorce by exacerbating cost barriers or strengthening family bonds. After establishing an individual-level model predicting U.S. women's divorce, the paper tests period effects, and whether unemployment and foreclosures are associated with the odds of divorce using the 2008-2011 American Community Survey. Results show a downward spike in the divorce rate after 2008, almost recovering to the expected level by 2011, which suggests a negative recession effect. On the other hand, state foreclosure rates are positively associated with the odds of divorce with individual controls, although this effect is not significant when state fixed effects are introduced. State unemployment rates show no effect on odds of divorce. Future research will have to determine why national divorce odds fell during the recession while state-level economic indicators were not strongly associated with divorce. Exploratory analysis which shows unemployment decreasing divorce odds for those with college degrees, while foreclosures have the opposite effect, provides one possible avenue for such research.

  8. Current Cigarette Smoking, Access, and Purchases from Retail Outlets Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 45 Countries, 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous

    2016-09-02

    Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of

  9. Great Recession and paradigm shift – towards sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Szydło

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Great Recession is another proof that the current paradigm of economic growth should be changed. It ought to be applied to all sectors, including agriculture. The farming sector was strongly affected by substantial price increases of some products. It was especially painful for poorer consumers in developing and Third World countries, while its benefits were channelled mainly to big farmers and speculators in developed economies. Common Agricultural Policy could not avert this turbulence. The implementa-tion of the concept of sustainable development is a possible solution of this problem as its approach is more holistic and humanistic. However, the implementation of adequate reforms is very slow. It is a sign that leading US and EU policymakers attempt to stay within the limits of current model of growth.However, the second wave of price hikes may prove to be more lasting, which would further deepen income inequality.

  10. Statistical analysis of the prevalence, severity and some possible etiologic factors of gingival recessions among the adult population of Thamar city, yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ali S. Ataa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: Gingival recession is an undesirable condition resulting in root exposure which is often not esthetic and may lead to sensitivity and root caries. The objective of the current study was to quantify and analyze the prevalence and severity of the gingival recession problem and also to identify the influence of some risk factors on gingival recession’s occurrence. The current study is arguably important because there was no previous study of this type in Yemen. Material and methods: This study was performed on 602 non missing teeth participants of age class ≥ 20 years old who attending the learning dental clinics of faculty of dentistry at Thamar University, and Thamar General Hospital during the period January to October 2010. All measurements of gingival recession and loss of attachment were done with periodontal probe and under sufficient illumination. Furthermore the severity of gingival recessions was evaluated based on Miller’s classification. Some measurements were done twice randomly in order to examine intra-observer agreement of data. Statistical analysis was accomplished using Chi-squares test and Logistic Linear Regression. Results: Our findings showed that 60.5% of patients had gingival recessions. The trend of gingival recession was upward within 20-29 (15.0% to 30-39 years of age (16.8% and was descending within 40-49 (15.9% to 50 years of age and older (12.8%. Prevalence of gingival recession in females (33.6% was found to be significantly higher than that in males (26.9%, (P 4 mm (24.4, were found to differ significantly, (P 4 mm (42.5, were also significantly different, (P<0.05. Finally, the relationship between gingival recession and the concomitant risk factors was significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of gingival recession (60.5% among Yemeni population may relate to the destructive periodontitis, and khat chewing so the implementation of oral hygiene instructions

  11. Suggestions on Optimization of the Structure of Chinese Foreign Trade under the Background of Global Trade Recession%全球贸易不景气背景下优化我国对外贸易结构的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沄沄

    2015-01-01

    在全球经济萎缩的背景下,从优化对外贸易商品结构、优化对外贸易方式结构、优化对外贸易区域结构和优化对外贸易企业结构4个方面进行探讨分析,提出优化我国对外贸易结构、推进外贸稳定增长的政策和措施,以促进经济的稳定发展。%In recent years,the global economy has still been under adjustment and recovery after the international financial crisis.Under this background,this article discusses which policies and measures should be taken to optimize the structure of China’s foreign trade and to promote the steady development of China’s foreign trade in four aspects,including the optimi-zation of commodity structure,mode structure,regional structure and enterprise structure of foreign trade.

  12. Etiology and Severity of Different Grades of Gingival Recession in Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhoomika Khosya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gingival recession is the most common and undesirable condition of the gingiva and its prevalence increases with age. Materials and methods: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted on the patients of gingival recession who visited dental OPD. The pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was utilized which included questions regarding oral hygiene habits (i.e. frequency of brushing, method of brushing, type of toothbrush used, age of toothbrush. Periodontal evaluation included Gingival score, Plaque score, Gingival recession, Clinical attachment loss and mea-surement of width of attached gingival. Results: Of 244 subjects 112 (45.9% had Millers class I recession, 64 (26.2% class II recession, 38 (15.6% class III recession, 30 (12.3% class IV recession. Statistical analysis revealed that the correlation between both toothbrush type and brushing method with gingival recession was significantly associated (p < 0.05. The correlation association between age, dental plaque, gingival inflammation, clinical attachment loss, width of attached gingiva and gingival recession was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The most frequent affected teeth with gingival recession were the 1st and 2nd molars of maxilla followed by mandibular incisors. Horizontal brushing method, usage of medium type toothbrush and tooth brushing once daily were found to be more associated with gingival recession. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(3.000: 189-192

  13. Founder mutation in dystonin-e underlying autosomal recessive epidermolysis bullosa simplex in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeichi, T; Nanda, A; Liu, L; Aristodemou, S; McMillan, J R; Sugiura, K; Akiyama, M; Al-Ajmi, H; Simpson, M A; McGrath, J A

    2015-02-01

    Only two homozygous nonsense mutations in the epidermal isoform of the dystonin gene, DST-e, have been reported previously in autosomal recessive epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS); the affected pedigrees were Kuwaiti and Iranian. This subtype of EBS is therefore considered to be a rare clinicopathological entity. In this study, we identified four seemingly unrelated Kuwaiti families in which a total of seven individuals had predominantly acral trauma-induced blistering since infancy. All affected individuals were homozygous for the mutation p.Gln1124* in DST-e, the same mutation that was identified in the originally reported family from Kuwait. Haplotype analysis in the five pedigrees (including the previous case) revealed a shared block of ~60 kb of genomic DNA across the site of the mutation, consistent with a founder effect. Most heterozygotes had no clinical abnormalities although one subject had mild transient skin fragility during childhood, an observation noted in the previously reported Iranian pedigree, suggesting that the condition may also be semidominant in some pedigrees rather than purely autosomal recessive. Our study reveals propagation of a mutant ancestral allele in DST-e throughout Kuwait, indicating that this subtype of EBS may be more common in Kuwait, and perhaps other Middle Eastern countries, than is currently appreciated.

  14. Evaluation of karstic aquifers contribution to streams by the statistical analysis of recession curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Cem Koc

    2008-02-01

    Karstic aquifers significantly contribute to streams in most of Turkey’s river basins, so studies on karst water resources have great importance for Turkey. Karstic aquifer contributions are generally emerging at several locations near the river bed and are not readily measured by direct hydrometric methods. In this study, the extent of karstic aquifer contributions to a stream will be investigated by the statistical analysis of recession coefficients of recession curves. Six stream gauging stations on different streams in the western Mediterranean region of Turkey are selected. Recession periods of the streams are simulated by exponential and quadratic recession curve models. Recession coefficient series of the stream gauging stations are statistically investigated. The comparison of various statistical parameters shows that the recession coefficient series are fairly related to the karstic aquifer contributions. Especially, the measure of spread parameters, standard deviation and interquartile range of recession coefficient series are related to the extent of the karstic aquifer contributions to streams.

  15. An Assessment of the Current US Radiation Oncology Workforce: Methodology and Global Results of the American Society for Radiation Oncology 2012 Workforce Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichare, Anushree; Washington, Raynard; Patton, Caroline; Arnone, Anna [ASTRO, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Olsen, Christine [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, (United States); Fung, Claire Y. [Commonwealth Newburyport Cancer Center, Newburyport, Massachusetts (United States); Hopkins, Shane [William R. Bliss Cancer Center, Ames, Iowa (United States); Pohar, Surjeet, E-mail: spohar@netzero.net [Indiana University Health Cancer Center East, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the characteristics, needs, and concerns of the current radiation oncology workforce, evaluate best practices and opportunities for improving quality and safety, and assess what we can predict about the future workforce. Methods and Materials: An online survey was distributed to 35,204 respondents from all segments of the radiation oncology workforce, including radiation oncologists, residents, medical dosimetrists, radiation therapists, medical physicists, nurse practitioners, nurses, physician assistants, and practice managers/administrators. The survey was disseminated by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) together with specialty societies representing other workforce segments. An overview of the methods and global results is presented in this paper. Results: A total of 6765 completed surveys were received, a response rate of 19%, and the final analysis included 5257 respondents. Three-quarters of the radiation oncologists, residents, and physicists who responded were male, in contrast to the other segments in which two-thirds or more were female. The majority of respondents (58%) indicated they were hospital-based, whereas 40% practiced in a free-standing/satellite clinic and 2% in another setting. Among the practices represented in the survey, 21.5% were academic, 25.2% were hospital, and 53.3% were private. A perceived oversupply of professionals relative to demand was reported by the physicist, dosimetrist, and radiation therapist segments. An undersupply was perceived by physician's assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses. The supply of radiation oncologists and residents was considered balanced. Conclusions: This survey was unique as it attempted to comprehensively assess the radiation oncology workforce by directly surveying each segment. The results suggest there is potential to improve the diversity of the workforce and optimize the supply of the workforce segments. The survey also provides a benchmark for

  16. Current status of the global change observation mission - water SHIZUKU (GCOM-W) and the advanced microwave scanning radiometer 2 (AMSR2) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Takashi; Kachi, Misako; Kasahara, Marehito

    2016-10-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W) or "SHIZUKU" in 18 May 2012 (JST) from JAXA's Tanegashima Space Center. The GCOM-W satellite joins to NASA's A-train orbit since June 2012, and its observation is ongoing. The GCOM-W satellite carries the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2). The AMSR2 is a multi-frequency, total-power microwave radiometer system with dual polarization channels for all frequency bands, and successor microwave radiometer to the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) loaded on the NASA's Aqua satellite. The AMSR-E kept observation in the slower rotation speed (2 rotations per minute) for cross-calibration with AMSR2 since December 2012, its operation ended in December 2015. The AMSR2 is designed almost similarly as the AMSR-E. The AMSR2 has a conical scanning system with large-size offset parabolic antenna, a feed horn cluster to realize multi-frequency observation, and an external calibration system with two temperature standards. However, some important improvements are made. For example, the main reflector size of the AMSR2 is expanded to 2.0 m to observe the Earth's surface in higher spatial resolution, and 7.3-GHz channel is newly added to detect radio frequency interferences at 6.9 GHz. In this paper, we present a recent topic for the AMSR2 (i.e., RFI detection performances) and the current operation status of the AMSR2.

  17. Improved Ohmic-contact to AlGaN/GaN using Ohmic region recesses by self-terminating thermal oxidation assisted wet etching technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, H.; Zhu, L.; Wu, W.

    2017-06-01

    Lower Ti/Al/Ni/Au Ohmic contact resistance on AlGaN/GaN with wider rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperature window was achieved using recessed Ohmic contact structure based on self-terminating thermal oxidation assisted wet etching technique (STOAWET), in comparison with conventional Ohmic contacts. Even at lower temperature such as 650°C, recessed structure by STOAWET could still obtain Ohmic contact with contact resistance of 1.97Ω·mm, while conventional Ohmic structure mainly featured as Schottky contact. Actually, both Ohmic contact recess and mesa isolation processes could be accomplished by STOAWET in one process step and the process window of STOAWET is wide, simplifying AlGaN/GaN HEMT device process. Our experiment shows that the isolation leakage current by STOAWET is about one order of magnitude lower than that by inductivity coupled plasma (ICP) performed on the same wafer.

  18. Global Cropland Area Database (GCAD) derived from Remote Sensing in Support of Food Security in the Twenty-first Century: Current Achievements and Future Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Xiong, Jun N.; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Giri, Chandra; Milesi, Cristina; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Congalton, Russ; Tilton, James; Sankey, Temuulen Tsagaan; Massey, Richard; Phalke, Aparna; Yadav, Kamini

    2015-01-01

    The precise estimation of the global agricultural cropland- extents, areas, geographic locations, crop types, cropping intensities, and their watering methods (irrigated or rainfed; type of irrigation) provides a critical scientific basis for the development of water and food security policies (Thenkabail et al., 2012, 2011, 2010). By year 2100, the global human population is expected to grow to 10.4 billion under median fertility variants or higher under constant or higher fertility variants (Table 1) with over three quarters living in developing countries, in regions that already lack the capacity to produce enough food. With current agricultural practices, the increased demand for food and nutrition would require in about 2 billion hectares of additional cropland, about twice the equivalent to the land area of the United States, and lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas productions (Tillman et al., 2011). For example, during 1960-2010 world population more than doubled from 3 billion to 7 billion. The nutritional demand of the population also grew swiftly during this period from an average of about 2000 calories per day per person in 1960 to nearly 3000 calories per day per person in 2010. The food demand of increased population along with increased nutritional demand during this period (1960-2010) was met by the “green revolution” which more than tripled the food production; even though croplands decreased from about 0.43 ha/capita to 0.26 ha/capita (FAO, 2009). The increase in food production during the green revolution was the result of factors such as: (a) expansion in irrigated areas which increased from 130 Mha in 1960s to 278.4 Mha in year 2000 (Siebert et al., 2006) or 399 Mha when you do not consider cropping intensity (Thenkabail et al., 2009a, 2009b, 2009c) or 467 Mha when you consider cropping intensity (Thenkabail et al., 2009a; Thenkabail et al., 2009c); (b) increase in yield and per capita food production (e.g., cereal production

  19. Process optimizations to recessed e-SiGe source/drain for performance enhancement in 22 nm all-last high-k/metal-gate pMOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Changliang; Wang, Guilei; Hong, Peizhen; Liu, Jinbiao; Yin, Huaxiang; Yin, Haizhou; Ma, Xiaolong; Cui, Hushan; Lu, Yihong; Meng, Lingkuan; Xiang, Jinjuan; Zhong, Huicai; Zhu, Huilong; Xu, Qiuxia; Li, Junfeng; Yan, Jian; Zhao, Chao; Radamson, Henry H.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the technology of recessed embedded SiGe (e-SiGe) source/drain (S/D) module is optimized for the performance enhancement in 22 nm all-last high-k/metal-gate (HK/MG) pMOSFETs. Different Si recess-etch techniques were applied in S/D regions to increase the strain in the channel and subsequently, improve the performance of transistors. A new recess-etch method consists of a two-step etch method is proposed. This process is an initial anisotropic etch for the formation of shallow trench followed by a final isotropic etch. By introducing the definition of the upper edge distance (D) between the recessed S/D region and the channel region, the process advantage of the new approach is clearly presented. It decreases the value of D than those by conventional one-step isotropic or anisotropic etch of Si. Therefore, the series resistance is reduced and the channel strain is increased, which confirmed by the simulation results. The physical reason of D reducing is analyzed in brief. Applying this recess design, the implant conditions for S/D extension (SDE) are also optimized by using a two-step implantation of BF2 in SiGe layers. The overlap space between doping junction and channel region has great effect on the device's performance. The designed implantation profile decreases the overlap space while keeps a shallow junction depth for a controllable short channel effect. The channel resistance as well as the transfer ID-VG curves varying with different process conditions are demonstrated. It shows the drive current of the device with the optimized SDE implant condition and Si recess-etch process is obviously improved. The change trend of on-off current distributions extracted from a series of devices confirmed the conclusions. This study provides a useful guideline for developing high performance strained PMOS SiGe technology.

  20. Cosmetic surgery in times of recession: macroeconomics for plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Lloyd M

    2002-10-01

    Periods of economic downturn place special demands on the plastic surgeon whose practice involves a large amount of cosmetic surgery. When determining strategy during difficult economic times, it is useful to understand the macroeconomic background of these downturns and to draw lessons from businesses in other service industries. Business cycles and monetary policy determine the overall environment in which plastic surgery is practiced. Plastic surgeons can take both defensive and proactive steps to maintain their profits during recessions and to prepare for the inevitable upturn. Care should also be taken when selecting pricing strategy during economic slowdowns.

  1. Mutations of the tyrosinase gene produce autosomal recessive ocular albinism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.A.; Summers, C.G.; Oetting, W.S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Albinism has historically been divided into ocular (OA) and oculocutaneous (OCA) types based on the presence or absence of clinically apparent skin and hair involvement in an individual with the ocular features of albinism. The major genes for OCA include the tyrosinase gene in OCA1 and the P gene in OCA2. X-linked and autosomal recessive OA have been described and the responsible genes have not been identified. We now present six Caucasian individuals who have the phenotype of autosomal recessive OA but who have OCA1 as shown by the presence of mutations of the tyrosinase. They had white or very light hair and white skin at birth, and cutaneous pigment developed in the first decade of life. At ages ranging from 1.5-23 years, hair color was dark blond to light brown. The skin had generalized pigment and well developed tan was present on the exposed arm and face skin of four. Iris pigment was present and iris translucency varied. Molecular analysis of the tyrosinase gene, using PCR amplification and direct di-deoxy sequencing showed the following mutations: E398Z/E398Q, P406S/g346a, R402E/T373K, ?/D383N, and H211N/T373K. The homozygous individual was not from a known consanguineous mating. T373K is the most common tyrosinase gene mutation in our laboratory. Three of these mutations are associated with a total loss of tyrosinase activity (g346a splice-site, T373K, and D383N), while four are associated with residual enzyme activity (H211N, R402E, E398Q, and P406S). These studies show that mutations of the tyrosinase gene can produce the phenotype of autosomal recessive OA in an individual who has normal amounts of cutaneous pigment and the ability to tan after birth. This extends the phenotypic range of OCA1 to normal cutaneous pigment after early childhood, and suggest that mutations of the tyrosinase gene account for a significant number of individuals with autosomal recessive OA.

  2. Job-Related Well-Being Through the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    GREEN, F.; Felstead, A.; Gallie, D.; Inanc, H.

    2016-01-01

    We study how job-related well-being (measured by Warr’s ‘Enthusiasm’ and ‘Contentment’ scales) altered through the Great Recession, and how this is related to changing job quality. Using nationally representative data for Britain, we find that job-related well-being was stable between 2001 and 2006, but then declined between 2006 and 2012. We report relevant changes in job quality. In modelling the determinants of job-related well-being, we confirm several previously-studied hypotheses and pr...

  3. Mars: South Polar Spring Recession as observed by CRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A.; Roush, T. L.; Wiseman, S.; McGuire, P.; Wolff, M.; Smith, M.

    2007-12-01

    We are creating a seasonal mosaic of CRISM multispectral data for each MSP (multispectral) image obtained in the south polar region (all regions poleward of 55 deg S) since the start of the MRO primary mission. This effort compliments high resolution targeted observations of the South Polar Cryptic Region (Titus et al., 2007) and OMEGA observations of the south polar cap during spring recession (Langevin et al., 2007). Langevin et al. presented similar maps at 1-10km/pixel - CRISM multispectral observations used here have a nominal resolution of 200m (Seelos, 2007). A similar CRISM multispectral mosaic has been constructed for the north polar region by Seelos et al. (Seelos et al., 2007). Science objectives of this investigation include: 1. High resolution (200m/pixel) multispectral observations of CO2 and H2O seasonal distribution, 2. Observing the point where Cap Recession Observations indicate CO2 has Ultimately Sublimated (CROCUS) line (Kieffer et al., 2000) as a function of solar longitude (ls), 3. Observations of changes in CO2 grain size linked to seasonal brightening of the polar high latitude areas (Langevin et al., 2007), and 200m/pixel observations of dust cover linked to cold jets in the Cyptic Region (Kieffer et al., 2000; Langevin et al., 2007), 4. Observations of small water ice patches in late southern spring (Langevin et al., 2007), 5. Development of climate-based atmospheric correction for use with multispectral data based on TES climatology and DISORT. We will report on the progress of our investigation and present high resolution multispectral mosaics of the south polar cap during spring recession and compare them to data from previous years. References Kieffer, H., et al., 2000. Mars south polar spring and summer behavior observed by TES: Seasonal cap evolution controlled by frost grain size. JGR 105, 9653-9700. Langevin, Y., et al., 2007. Observations of the south seasonal cap of Mars during recession in 2004-2006 by the OMEGA visible

  4. “Tomato packers recess, Copiah County, 1936”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Mazzari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available “Tomato packers recess, Copiah County, 1936,” Photographs, p. 31, with the gracious permission of the Eudora Welty FoundationAs well as any photo I know, Eudora Welty here embodies music in sight. She has caught a moment of music as it ripples through these men. The music swirls around and through the casual grace of its listeners’ lounging the way a clothesline of billowing laundry captures the shape of the wind.There’s a magic tension in the composition. The relaxed throw of these bodies an...

  5. A Comparative Study of Turkey's Output Gaps in the Recessions

    OpenAIRE

    Öztürkler, Harun; GÖKSEL, Türkmen

    2015-01-01

    An effective set of monetary, fiscal, and income policies can only be formulated on the basis of a correct estimation of the position of an economy in a cycle. Output gap estimation provides an important tool for predicting the position of the economy. In this paper, we measure output gap for the Turkish Economy for the period between 2000Q1 and 2013Q4, using production function approach and quarterly data. We utilize two definitions of recession: According to the first definition, we refer a...

  6. Performance Analysis of High-Speed Deep/Shallow Recessed Hybrid Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a theoretical analysis of the performance of deep/shallow recessed hybrid bearing. It is intended that, on the basis of the numerical results drawn from this study, appropriate shallow recess depth and width can be determined for use in the bearing design process. By adopting bulk flow theory, the turbulent Reynolds equation and energy equation are modified and solved numerically including concentrated inertia effects at the recess edge with different depth and width of shallow recess. The results indicate that the load capacity, drag torque increases as the depth of shallow recess is shallower and the width ratio (half angle of deep recess versus half angle of shallow recess is smaller. In contrast, the flow rate decreases as the depth of shallow recess is shallower and the width ratio is smaller. Nevertheless, the appropriate design of the depth and width of shallow recess might well induce the performance of high-speed deep/shallow recessed hybrid bearing.

  7. Development of Web-Based RECESS Model for Estimating Baseflow Using SWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwanjae Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater has received increasing attention as an important strategic water resource for adaptation to climate change. In this regard, the separation of baseflow from streamflow and the analysis of recession curves make a significant contribution to integrated river basin management. The United States Geological Survey (USGS RECESS model adopting the master-recession curve (MRC method can enhance the accuracy with which baseflow may be separated from streamflow, compared to other baseflow-separation schemes that are more limited in their ability to reflect various watershed/aquifer characteristics. The RECESS model has been widely used for the analysis of hydrographs, but the applications using RECESS were only available through Microsoft-Disk Operating System (MS-DOS. Thus, this study aims to develop a web-based RECESS model for easy separation of baseflow from streamflow, with easy applications for ungauged regions. RECESS on the web derived the alpha factor, which is a baseflow recession constant in the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, and this variable was provided to SWAT as the input. The results showed that the alpha factor estimated from the web-based RECESS model improved the predictions of streamflow and recession. Furthermore, these findings showed that the baseflow characteristics of the ungauged watersheds were influenced by the land use and slope angle of watersheds, as well as by precipitation and streamflow.

  8. Future Global Cryosphere: Impacts of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, T. Y.; Barry, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the Earth is undergoing potentially rapid changes in all cryospheric components, including Arctic sea ice shrinkage, mountain glacier recession, thawing permafrost, diminishing snow cover, and accelerated melting of the Greenland ice sheet. This has significant implications for global climate, hydrology, water resources, and global sea level. Physical evidences of changes observed in the cryosphere are: (a) Duration of ice cover of rivers and lakes in high latitudes of N. H. decreased by about two weeks over the 20th Century; (b) Significant retreat of glaciers world wide during the 20th Century; (c) Thinning of Arctic sea-ice extent and thickness by about 40% in late summer in recent decades, with the minimum sea ice concentration mapped by the SSM/I sensor of NASA in 2007; (d) Snow cover decreased in area by about 10% since global observations by satellites began in the late 1960s, in various places of the Northern Hemisphere; (e) In North America, snow water equivalent decreased by about 10mm since observations by passive microwave sensors began in the late 1970s; (f) Degradations of permafrost have been detected in some parts of the polar and sub-polar regions, and (g) The total 20th Century global average sea level rise was about 0.17m, likely due to decline in glaciers, snow, ice sheets, and losses from Greenland and Antarctica ice. Next, projected changes to the Cryosphere: northern hemisphere snow cover, avalanches, land ice, permafrost, freshwater ice, and sea ice changes, are presented.

  9. The Current Economic Crisis: Effects, Consequences, Measures and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana-Antonela BONTA (cas. MITEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present research project is the current economiccrisis, its effects, consequences but especially the measures and the solutions that we can find to resolve this situation. A key problem preoccupying developing countries today is the global economic crisis and how they can address it. The epicenter of the crisis is in the developed countries, especially the USA. But the developing countries that have no role in causing the crisis have suffered the most severe “collateral damage”. I will try to present the similarities with other periods of recession that we have crossed-over time. I will propose a few measures to remedy this situation, both long-term and short-term, referring of course to Romania and EU as well.

  10. Policies and institutions for moderating deep recessions, debt crises and financial instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Hara Phillip Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a long-term policy and institutional framework for reducing the intensity of recessions, debt crises and financial instabilities, especially for the Core nations and areas that bore the brunt of the anomalies during 2008-2013. We argue that institutional changes need to be systemic, amounting to the construction of a new social structure of accumulation (SSA or mode of regulation (MOR, which we call an SSA of embedded communitarian liberalism. Five institutional spheres are introduced which are in need of systemic change, due to the entrenched contradictions and problems which the current set of institutions generate. These involve firstly institutions within the world-system of finance and production; secondly relating to finance versus industry; thirdly capital versus labor; fourthly state systems of production; and fifthly the interlinking of state, community and ecology.

  11. The impact of the economic recession on well-being and quality of life of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenge, Lee-Ann; Hean, Sarah; Worswick, Louise; Wilkinson, Charlie; Fearnley, Stella; Ersser, Steve

    2012-11-01

    The importance of economic well-being is recognised in the recent UK Government policy. Older people may be particularly vulnerable to economic fluctuations as they are reliant on fixed incomes and assets, which are reducing in value. Within the literature, little is understood about the impact of the current economic downturn on people's general quality of life and well-being and, in particular, there is little research on the financial experiences and capability of the older age group, a concern in light of the ageing UK population. This article reports a qualitative research study into the nature of older peoples' vulnerability by exploring their perceptions of the impact of the economic recession on their well-being and quality of life. It explores specifically a group of older people who are not the poorest within the ageing population, but who may be described as the 'asset rich-income poor' group. Key themes relate to the impact of the recession on the costs of essential and non-essential items and dimensions of mental, physical and social well-being. Implications for health and social care practice in meeting the needs of older people during times of economic recession are then explored. The paper adds to the debate by demonstrating that the recession is having adverse consequences for older people's quality of life in terms of economic, mental and social well-being, although there is also evidence that some of them are equipped with certain resilience factors due to their money management and budgeting skills.

  12. Microcephaly-chorioretinopathy syndrome, autosomal recessive form. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The autosomal recessive form of microcephaly-chorioretinopathy syndrome is a rare genetic condition that is considered to be an important differential diagnosis with congenital toxoplasmosis.CASE REPORT: Our patient was a seven-year-old white boy who was initially diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis. However, his serological tests for congenital infections, including toxoplasmosis, were negative. He was the first child of young, healthy and consanguineous parents (fourth-degree relatives. The parents had normal head circumferences and intelligence. The patient presented microcephaly and specific abnormalities of the retina, with multiple diffuse oval areas of pigmentation and patches of chorioretinal atrophy associated with diffuse pigmentation of the fundus. Ophthalmological evaluations on the parents were normal. A computed tomography scan of the child's head showed slight dilation of lateral ventricles and basal cisterns without evidence of calcifications. We did not find any lymphedema in his hands and feet. He had postnatal growth retardation, severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy.CONCLUSIONS: The finding of chorioretinal lesions in a child with microcephaly should raise suspicions of the autosomal recessive form of microcephaly-chorioretinopathy syndrome, especially in cases with an atypical pattern of eye fundus and consanguinity. A specific diagnosis is essential for an appropriate clinical evaluation and for genetic counseling for the patients and their families.

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of X-linked recessive Lenz microphthalmia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Kaname, Tadashi; Muramatsu, Yukako; Yanagi, Kumiko; Kumagai, Kyoko; Mizuno, Seiji; Naritomi, Kenji; Saitoh, Shinji; Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi

    2013-11-01

    Lenz microphthalmia syndrome comprises microphthalmia-anophthalmia with mental retardation, malformed ears and skeletal anomalies, and is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. In 2004, it was reported that the missense mutation (BCL-6 co-repressor gene [BCOR] c.254C>T, p.P85L) in a single family with Lenz microphthalmia syndrome co-segregated with the disease phenotype. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis for X-linked recessive Lenz microphthalmia syndrome with the mutation. A 32-year-old gravida 5, para 2 Japanese woman was referred to Nagoya City University Hospital at 15 weeks of gestation. After genetic counseling and informed consent, amniocentesis was performed for fetal karyotyping, which was 46,XY. Using the extracted DNA from cultured amniotic cells, fetal search for BCOR c.254C>T mutation was undertaken. The couple requested medical termination of pregnancy, and the postabortion examination confirmed the diagnosis. This is the third report of a BCOR mutation, associated with X-linked syndromic microphthalmia, and most importantly, it is always the same mutation. The prenatal genetic diagnosis of the Lenz microphthalmia syndrome allowed time for parental counseling and delivery planning.

  14. Recessive omodysplasia: five new cases and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcioglu, Nursel H. [Department of Pediatric Genetics, Marmara University Hospital, Tophanelioglu cad 15, Altunizade, 34660 Istanbul (Turkey); Gustavson, Karl H. [Department of Clinical Genetics, Uppsala University Children' s Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Wilkie, Andrew O.M. [Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Yueksel-Apak, Memune [Institute of Child Health, University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey); Spranger, Juergen W. [Universitaets-Kinderklinik Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Greenwood Genetic Center, Greenwood, South Carolina (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Autosomal recessive omodysplasia (MIM 258315) is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe congenital micromelia with shortening and distal tapering of the humeri and femora to give a club-like appearance. Fewer than 20 cases have been reported in the literature so far. The purpose of this study was to more clearly describe the clinical and radiographic phenotypes and their changes with age. Five new patients, including two sibs, with autosomal recessive omodysplasia are presented. Clinical features are rhizomelic dwarfism with limited extension of elbows and knees and a distinct face with a short nose, depressed nasal bridge, long philtrum, midline haemangiomas in infants and cryptorchidism in males. Radiological findings are distal hypoplasia of the short humerus and femur with characteristic radial dislocation and radioulnar diastasis. Based on a review of these and 16 previously reported patients, the regressive nature of the humerofemoral changes and the obvious male predominance are stressed. Phenotypic similarities with the atelosteogenesis group of disorders and with diastrophic dysplasia suggest common pathogenetic mechanisms. (orig.)

  15. Ocean currents measured by Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (SADCP) from global oceans as part of the Joint Archive for Shipboard ADCP holdings from 16 June 1985 to 22 July 2003 (NODC Accession 0001206)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Absolute U- and V-component ocean current vectors from Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (SADCP), as both a high frequency sampling (nominally 5 minutes...

  16. Ocean currents measured by Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (SADCP) from global oceans as part of the Joint Archive for Shipboard ADCP holdings from 9 October 1990 to 27 August 2004 (NODC Accession 0001974)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Absolute U- and V-component ocean current vectors from Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (SADCP), as both a high frequency sampling (nominally 5 minutes...

  17. Ocean currents measured by Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (SADCP) from global oceans as part of the Joint Archive for Shipboard ADCP holdings from 8 October 1993 to 16 March 2008 (NODC Accession 0049878)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Absolute U- and V-component ocean current vectors from Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (SADCP), as both a high frequency sampling (nominally 5 minutes...

  18. Ocean currents measured by Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (SADCP) from global oceans as part of the Joint Archive for SADCP holdings from 20 August 1999 to 13 May 2009 (NCEI Accession 0067774)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Absolute U- and V-component ocean current vectors from Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (SADCP), as both a high-frequency sampling (nominally 5 minutes...

  19. Ocean currents measured by Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (SADCP) from global oceans as part of the Joint Archive for Shipboard ADCP holdings from 13 September 1999 to 28 April 2007 (NCEI Accession 0036863)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Absolute U- and V-component ocean current vectors from Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (SADCP), as both a high frequency sampling (nominally 5 minutes...

  20. Ocean currents measured by Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (SADCP) from global oceans as part of the Joint Archive for Shipboard ADCP holdings from 16 June 1985 to 23 March 2001 (NCEI Accession 0000755)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Absolute U- and V-component ocean current vectors from Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (SADCP), as both a high frequency sampling (nominally 5 minutes...

  1. Ocean currents measured by Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (SADCP) from global oceans as part of the Joint Archive for Shipboard ADCP holdings from 6 November 1993 to 11 October 2005 (NODC Accession 0002679)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Absolute U- and V-component ocean current vectors from Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (SADCP), as both a high frequency sampling (nominally 5 minutes...

  2. Giving children a voice: Exploring qualitative perspectives on factors influencing recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2017-01-01

    Facilitators and barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. To date, research on recess physical activity has predominantly focused on quantitative measures typically focusing on a narrow set of predefined factors, often constructed by adults. To really understand the factors...... affecting recess physical activity it is crucial to observe and listen to children to know how they engage in and perceive recess physical activity. The aim of this paper was to gain knowledge on children’s perceptions and experiences of factors influencing their physical activity behaviour during recess...... 11–12-year-old children. The socio-ecological model was used as the overall theoretical framework. Twelve factors were identified as influencing the children’s recess physical activity: bodily self-esteem and ability; gender; gendered school culture; peer influence; conflicts and exclusion; space...

  3. Addressing key issues in the consanguinity-related risk of autosomal recessive disorders in consanguineous communities: lessons from a qualitative study of British Pakistanis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, A; Small, N; Ahmad, W I U; Atkin, K; Corry, P; Modell, B

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no consensus regarding services required to help families with consanguineous marriages manage their increased genetic reproductive risk. Genetic services for communities with a preference for consanguineous marriage in the UK remain patchy, often poor. Receiving two disparate explanations of the cause of recessive disorders (cousin marriage and recessive inheritance) leads to confusion among families. Further, the realisation that couples in non-consanguineous relationships have affected children leads to mistrust of professional advice. British Pakistani families at-risk for recessive disorders lack an understanding of recessive disorders and their inheritance. Such an understanding is empowering and can be shared within the extended family to enable informed choice. In a three-site qualitative study of British Pakistanis, we explored family and health professional perspectives on recessively inherited conditions. Our findings suggest, firstly, that family networks hold strong potential for cascading genetic information, making the adoption of a family-centred approach an efficient strategy for this community. However, this is dependent on provision of high-quality and timely information from health care providers. Secondly, families' experience was of ill-coordinated and time-starved services, with few having access to specialist provision from Regional Genetics Services; these perspectives were consistent with health professionals' views of services. Thirdly, we confirm previous findings that genetic information is difficult to communicate and comprehend, further complicated by the need to communicate the relationship between cousin marriage and recessive disorders. A communication tool we developed and piloted is described and offered as a useful resource for communicating complex genetic information.

  4. Children's physical activity levels during school recess: a quasi-experimental intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Fairclough Stuart J; Stratton Gareth; Ridgers Nicola D; Twisk Jos WR

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Recess provides a daily opportunity for children to engage in moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA). Limited research has investigated the effects of recess-based interventions on physical activity using large sample sizes whilst investigating variables that may influence the intervention effect. The aim of the study was to investigate the short-term effects of a playground markings and physical structures intervention on recess physical activity...

  5. Accounting for the Great Recession in the UK: Real Business Cycles and Financial Frictions

    OpenAIRE

    Jagjit S. Chadha; Warren, James

    2012-01-01

    Using the business cycle accounting (BCA) framework pioneered by Chari, Kehoe and McGratten (2006) we examine the 2008-09 recession in the UK. There has been much commentary on the financial causes of this recession, which we might have expected to shock the equation governing the intertemporal rate of substitution in consumption. However, the recession appears to have been mostly driven by shocks to the efficiency wedge in total production, rather than the intertemporal consumption, labour o...

  6. Ocean currents measured by shipboard ADCP from global oceans from the Joint Archive for Shipboard ADCP holdings from 2000-07 to 2012-02 (NODC Accession 0093159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Absolute U- and V-component ocean current vectors from Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (SADCP), as both a high frequency sampling (nominally 5 minutes...

  7. Using interactive recession curve analysis to specify a general catchment storage model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lamb

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of hydrograph recessions can be used to identify the parameters of a conceptual catchment storage irnodel and, with the advent of large-scale digital data storage and automated logging systems, it has become desirable to automate recession curve analysis. Various studies have thus reported algorithms used to infer 'baseflow' storage models automatically from recession data. Such algorithms commonly operate by maximising the fit of measured recession data to some a priori function. Here, an alternative approach is taken in which the appropriate form for a catchment saturated zone store is investigated by combining observed recession data to form a Master Recession Curve (MRC. This is done within a software package that offers automated functions to help select recession periods suitable for inclusion within the MRC. These recession periods are combined automatically to form a 'prototype' MRC, which can be modified interactively to overcome problems such as unrepresentative or sparse data. The master recession for a catchment is used to calculate an empirical catchment-averaged discharge-relative storage (QΔS relationship. The method is considered to be general because the QΔS relationship may be of arbitrary form. Examples are given, showing the derivation for three catchments of different QΔS functions.

  8. Gender Differences in Mental Health Outcomes before, during, and after the Great Recession.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada K Dagher

    Full Text Available We examined gender differences in mental health outcomes during and post-recession versus pre-recession. We utilized 2005-2006, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011 data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Females had lower odds of depression diagnoses during and post-recession and better mental health during the recession, but higher odds of anxiety diagnoses post-recession. Males had lower odds of depression diagnoses and better mental health during and post-recession and lower Kessler 6 scores post-recession. We conducted stratified analyses, which confirmed that the aforementioned findings were consistent across the four different regions of the U.S., by employment status, income and health care utilization. Importantly, we found that the higher odds of anxiety diagnoses among females after the recession were mainly prominent among specific subgroups of females: those who lived in the Northeast or the Midwest, the unemployed, and those with low household income. Gender differences in mental health in association with the economic recession highlight the importance of policymakers taking these differences into consideration when designing economic and social policies to address economic downturns. Future research should examine the reasons behind the decreased depression diagnoses among both genders, and whether they signify decreased mental healthcare utilization or increased social support and more time for exercise and leisure activities.

  9. Treatment of gingival recessions by guided tissue regeneration and coronally advanced flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihashemrad, Ali; Aghassizadeh, Ershad; Radvar, Mehrdad

    2009-01-01

    Gingival recession refers to the denudation of root surface caused by apical migration of the gingival margin as a result of destruction of the covering gingival tissue of the affected area. It is among the most frequent problems presented by periodontal patients and may have different etiologies and sequels. So far, several techniques have been devised and tested to treat gingival recession. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using a GTR resorbable collagen membrane in conjunction with coronally advanced flap (CAF) as compared to CAF alone in the treatment of Miller's Class I & II gingival recessions. Seven patients took part in the study, each providing either two or four facial recessions of 3 mm. to 6 mm., totaling 11 pairs of gingival recessions. The two paired sites within each patient were randomly assigned to one of the two treatments mentioned above. Prior to and six months after treatments, the following clinical parameters were measured and recorded: recession depth; probing pocket depth; clinical attachment level; width of keratinized gingiva; and width of recession. After six months, recession depth showed a mean reduction of 67.88% and 57.42% in the "GTR + CAF" and "CAF alone" groups, respectively. The mean difference between the groups was 1+/-0.33 mm (P=0.03). The results of this study indicate that Miller's Class I & II gingival recessions are amenable to treatment using the GTR technique with satisfactory outcome.

  10. Convergence excess esotropia treated surgically with fadenoperation and medical rectus muscle recessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, R J; Burke, J P; Strachan, I M

    1990-05-01

    Convergence excess esotropia has been treated with bifocals, miotics, medial rectus recession(s), fadenoperation, or a combination of these. However, comparatively few studies on the sensory status of these patients exist. We present the sensory findings in 31 children treated surgically. Twenty-one had fadenoperations combined with bimedial rectus recessions, one had a fadenoperation alone, and nine had augmented bimedial rectus recessions. Five children (16%) achieved bifoveal fusion, 22 (71%) had varying degrees of peripheral fusion, and four (13%) had no detectable binocularity after a mean postoperative follow-up of 2.4 years.

  11. Hardships of the Great Recession and health: Understanding varieties of vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Kirsch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Great Recession of 2007–2009 is regarded as the most severe economic downturn since World War II. This study examined relationships between reported recession hardships and physical health in a national survey of American adults (N = 1275. Furthermore, education and psychological resources (perceived control, purpose in life, and conscientiousness were tested as moderators of the health impacts of the recession. A greater number of hardships predicted poorer health, especially among the less educated. Psychological resources interacted with education and hardships to predict health outcomes. Although typically viewed as protective factors, such resources became vulnerabilities among educationally disadvantaged adults experiencing greater recession hardships.

  12. Costa Rica During the Global Recession: Fiscal Stimulus with Tight Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Antonio Cordero

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that, in spite of a reasonably sized fiscal stimulus package, Costa Rica’s economy continues on a downward path, partly because fiscal policy is being offset by a tightening of monetary policy. The paper notes that the International Monetary Fund has insisted that Costa Rica’s monetary policy remain tight due to worries over inflation targets and a perceived risk of a balance of payments crisis. However, the author notes that the IMF could help prevent a balance of payments c...

  13. The effects of fiscal policy after the global recession: assessing the evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Paula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a commented review of the most recent empirical studies of the effects of fiscal contraction on economic growth, which have helped underpin the prescription that fiscal policy should be expansionary in coming years in order to contain economic semi-stagnation in the developed countries. The paper shows that there is ample literature showing that fiscal expansion helps the economy grow, and that fiscal contraction tends to reduce output and employment in the short term.

  14. Globalization:After the Recession%经济衰退之后的全球化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹宏毅; Justin Lin

    2010-01-01

    @@ 世界经济刚刚经历过一场严重的衰退.其特征是金融动荡、财富的大规模减损,以及工业生产和全球贸易的下降.据国际劳工组织称,2009年劳动力市场行情的持续恶化可能会导致全球失业工人人数比2007年增加大约3900万到6100万.

  15. Crossover suppressors and balanced recessive lethals in Caenorhabditis elegans. [Nematode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    Two dominant suppressors of crossing over have been identified following x-ray treatment of the small nematode C. elegans. They suppress crossing over in linkage group II (LGII) about 100-fold and 50-fold and are both tightly linked to LGII markers. One, called C1, segregates independently of all other linkage groups and is homozygous fertile. The other is a translocation involving LGII and X. The translocation also suppresses crossing over along the right half of X and is homozygous lethal. C1 has been used as a balancer of LGII recessive lethal and sterile mutations induced by EMS. The frequencies of occurrence of lethals and steriles were approximately equal. Fourteen mutations were assigned to complementation groups and mapped. They tended to map in the same region where LGII visibles are clustered.

  16. Extra-large Tribolium confusum: a new autosomal recessive mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardell, H H; Brower, J H

    1975-12-01

    A new mutant of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin duVal (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), extra-large (designated xl), was isolated in mating competition tests with red-eye (re) and wild-type (+). Crosses showed that it was autosomal recessive gene with subvital effects. The pupal weights averaged 6.1 and 7.3 mg for males and females, respectively, about twice the weights of the ancestral wild-type. The generation time (egg to adult) was approximately 8 to 9 weeks compared with about 4 weeks for the wild-type. This increase resulted from a lengthening of the larval stage since the durations of the egg and pupal stages were within the ranges of the wild-type. Mean longivity of xl males and females was reduced to 8.5 and 6.0 weeks, respectively at 26.7 +/- 1 degree C and 60% RH.

  17. Entering adulthood in a recession tempers later narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Emily C

    2014-07-01

    Despite widespread interest in narcissism, relatively little is known about the conditions that encourage or dampen it. Drawing on research showing that macroenvironmental conditions in emerging adulthood can leave a lasting imprint on attitudes and behaviors, I argue that people who enter adulthood during recessions are less likely to be narcissistic later in life than those who come of age in more prosperous times. Using large samples of American adults, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people who entered adulthood during worse economic times endorsed fewer narcissistic items as older adults. Study 3 extended these findings to a behavioral manifestation of narcissism: the relative pay of CEOs. CEOs who came of age in worse economic times paid themselves less relative to other top executives in their firms. These findings suggest that macroenvironmental experiences at a critical life stage can have lasting implications for how unique, special, and deserving people believe themselves to be.

  18. The Autosomal Recessive Inheritance of Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulami Majumder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF is a rare condition which is marked by enlargement of gingival tissue that covers teeth to various extents leading to aesthetic disfigurement. This study presents a case of a 28-year-old female patient and 18-year-old male who belong to the same family suffering from HGF with chief complaint of overgrowing swelling gingiva. The presence of enlarged gingiva with the same eruption was found in their other family members with no concomitant drug or medical history, and the occurrence of HGF has been found in one generation of this family which may indicate the autosomal recessive inheritance pattern of HGF. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is an idiopathic condition as its etiology is unknown and it was found to recur in some cases even after surgical treatment. Both patients underwent thorough oral prophylaxis and later surgical therapy to correct the deformity.

  19. COMPARING FINANCIAL DISTRESS PREDICTION MODELS BEFORE AND DURING RECESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Šarlija

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to design three separate financial distress prediction models that will track the changes in a relative importance of financial ratios throughout three consecutive years. The models were based on the financial data from 2000 privately-owned small and medium-sized enterprises in Croatia from 2006 to 2009, and developed by means of logistic regression. Macroeconomic conditions as well as market dynamic have been changed over the mentioned period. Financial ratios that were less important in one period become more important in the next period. Composition of model starting in 2006 has been changed in the next years. It tells us what financial ratios are more important during the time of economic downturn. Besides, it helps us to understand behavior of small and medium-sized enterprises in the period of prerecession and in the period of recession.

  20. Operating temperatures for a convectively cooled recessed incandescent light fixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, D.W.; Toor, I.

    1980-12-01

    Test results are given for the operation of a recessed incandescent light fixture intended for residential use. The fixture is labeled for use in direct contact with attic thermal insulation. Temperature control of the powered fixture is provided by convective heat transfer from the ceiling side of the fixture. The fixture was operated at power levels up to two times the rated power of 75 watts and under thermal insulations up to R-40. In all operating configurations tested the fixture surface in contact with attic insulation was found to be less than 175/sup 0/C. The observed surface temperatures are judged to be safe for operation in contact with loose-fill or batt-type insulations. It was observed that the power leads inside one fixture configuration are exposed to temperatures as high as 168/sup 0/C. The electrical insulation could, therefore, have a limited life. The properties of the internal fixture wiring were not, however, studied in detail.

  1. Molecular and Cellular Basis of Autosomal Recessive Primary Microcephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Barbelanne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH is a rare hereditary neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a marked reduction in brain size and intellectual disability. MCPH is genetically heterogeneous and can exhibit additional clinical features that overlap with related disorders including Seckel syndrome, Meier-Gorlin syndrome, and microcephalic osteodysplastic dwarfism. In this review, we discuss the key proteins mutated in MCPH. To date, MCPH-causing mutations have been identified in twelve different genes, many of which encode proteins that are involved in cell cycle regulation or are present at the centrosome, an organelle crucial for mitotic spindle assembly and cell division. We highlight recent findings on MCPH proteins with regard to their role in cell cycle progression, centrosome function, and early brain development.

  2. The 2007-09 recession and health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, John

    2011-01-01

    Loss of employment and declining incomes meant that five million Americans lost employment-based health insurance during the recent economic recession (2007-09). All groups of Americans were affected, but the growth in the number of uninsured people was particularly noticeable for whites, native-born citizens, and residents of the Midwest and South. Adults did not benefit nearly as much as children from public programs designed to offset the decline in employer-sponsored insurance and thus bore all of the burden of rising uninsurance. Throughout the past decade, even in good economic times, the number of Americans with employer-sponsored insurance has fallen, and the number of uninsured Americans has increased. This finding underscores the importance of planned coverage expansions under the Affordable Care Act.

  3. Connexin 26 and autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Monisha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Prelingual deafness occurs with a frequency of 1 in 1000 live births and is divided into syndromic and non-syndromic forms contributing 40 and 60% respectively. Autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL is responsible for 80% cases of childhood deafness. Nearly all genes localized for ARNSHL cause prelingual, severe to profound, sensorineural hearing impairment. ARNSHL is genetically heterogeneous and at least 39 loci have been identified. The most significant finding to date has been the discovery of mutations in GJB2 gene at the DFNB1 locus on chromosome 13q12 as the major cause of profound prelingual deafness. This was first reported in a Tunisian family in 1994 and thereafter in many different countries. GJB2 gene encodes the gap-junction protein, connexin 26 (Cx26, mutations in which have become the first genetic marker of inherited hearing loss. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR, single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP and sequencing methods have been developed for the detection of mutations in Cx26 gene. In India as well, the Cx26 mutations are being screened in families with hearing impaired children using these molecular methods. Therefore, in order to create awareness among the clinicians and the affected families; we have attempted to review the Cx26 gene mutations responsible for autosomal recessive type of non-syndromic hearing loss. The efficacy and utility of Cx26 gene analysis might open the path to proper counseling of families for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis. It may even facilitate the development of strategies in future for the treatment of this common genetic disorder.

  4. Gingival recession: prevalence, extension and severity in adults Recessão gengival: prevalência, extensão e severidade em adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Guerreiro Marini

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The gingival recession was assessed in 380 adult individuals aged more than 20 years and comprised both subjects being treated and looking for treatment at Bauru Dental School. Clinical evaluation was conducted by a single examiner in all teeth and involved analysis of four dental aspects (mesial, buccal, distal and lingual. The gingival recession was regarded as present whenever more than 1mm of root surface was exposed, and its vertical width was measured in millimeters from the cementoenamel junction to the gingival margin. The recessions were further scored following the criteria suggested by Miller in 1985. Gingival recession was observed in at least one dental surface in about 89% of the individuals analyzed. The prevalence, extension and severity of this clinical aspect increased with age. Class I recessions were the most frequent, yet there was a gradual increase of Class III and IV recessions as older subjects were evaluated. The mandibular teeth displayed more surfaces with gingival recession than the maxillary teeth and the mandibular incisors were the most affected teeth. Such high prevalence of gingival recession in adult patients demonstrates that dental professionals should provide attention to the clinical relevance of such alterations, as well as to the diagnosis of the etiologic factors.Recessão gengival foi relatada em 380 indivíduos adultos com mais de 20 anos de idade, pacientes em tratamento ou indivíduos que procuravam atendimento odontológico na Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru. Durante avaliação clínica, realizada por apenas um examinador, em todos os dentes, quatro superfícies foram consideradas (mesial, vestibular, distal e lingual. Recessão gengival foi considerada presente quando mais de 1mm de raiz estivesse exposta e sua amplitude vertical foi medida em milímetros da junção cemento-esmalte a margem gengival. As recessões foram ainda classificadas segundo os parâmetros da classificação proposta por

  5. Watershed model calibration to the base flow recession curve with and without evapotranspiration effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, S. M.; Harmon, T. C.; Shi, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Calibration of watershed models to the shape of the base flow recession curve is a way to capture the important relationship between groundwater discharge and subsurface water storage in a catchment. In some montane Mediterranean regions, such as the midelevation Providence Creek catchment in the southern Sierra Nevada of California (USA), nearly all base flow recession occurs after snowmelt, and during this time evapotranspiration (ET) usually exceeds base flow. We assess the accuracy to which watershed models can be calibrated to ET-dominated base flow recession in Providence Creek, both in terms of fitting a discharge time-series and realistically capturing the observed discharge-storage relationship for the catchment. Model parameters estimated from calibrations to ET-dominated recession are compared to parameters estimated from reference calibrations to base flow recession with ET-effects removed ("potential recession"). We employ the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM) for simulations of base flow and ET, and methods that are otherwise general in nature. In models calibrated to ET-dominated recession, simulation errors in ET and the targeted relationship for recession (-dQ/dt versus Q) contribute substantially (up to 57% and 46%, respectively) to overestimates in the discharge-storage differential, defined as d(lnQ)/dS, relative to that derived from water flux observations. These errors result in overestimates of deep-subsurface hydraulic conductivity in models calibrated to ET-dominated recession, by up to an order of magnitude, relative to reference calibrations to potential recession. These results illustrate a potential opportunity for improving model representation of discharge-storage dynamics by calibrating to the shape of base flow recession after removing the complicating effects of ET.

  6. Dentinogenesis imperfecta associated with short stature, hearing loss and mental retardation: a new syndrome with autosomal recessive inheritance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauwels, R G E C; De Coster, P J; Mortier, G R; Marks, L A M; Martens, L C

    2005-08-01

    The follow-up history and oral findings in two brothers from consanguineous parents suggest that the association of dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), delayed tooth eruption, mild mental retardation, proportionate short stature, sensorineural hearing loss and dysmorphic facies may represent a new syndrome with autosomal recessive inheritance. Histological examination of the dentin matrix of a permanent molar from one of the siblings reveals morphological similarities with defective dentinogenesis as presenting in patients affected with Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI), a condition caused by deficiency of type I collagen. A number of radiographic and histological characteristics, however, are inconsistent with classical features of DI. These findings suggest that DI may imply greater genetical heterogeneity than currently assumed.

  7. Formulating the spring discharge-function for the recession period by analyzing its recession curve: A case study of the Ranichauri spring (India)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Vashisht; B Bam

    2013-10-01

    The Greater Himalayan region is witnessing a changing rainfall pattern from the last few decades. Low-intensity longer-duration rainfall events have now been replaced with intense and shorter-duration events that are further responsible for the reduced recharging of the spring catchments. Consequently, the natural springs are either drying up or becoming seasonal. Prediction of spring water availability during the recession period is the key to its proper management. The spring discharge-rate can be forecasted by studying its behaviour for the past recession periods. Expressing recession curve in mathematical terms requires its quantitative analyses in priori. It was found that the fitting of recession-curve (of the Ranichauri spring under study) with two exponential components gives accurate results. The maximum value of exponential coefficient (i.e., 0.0206) represents the major contribution to drainage from the spring-catchment’s portion with highest permeability, whereas the minimum value (i.e., 0.0016) represents the major contribution to spring discharge from the portion with lowest permeability. Analyses show that the permeability of the porous medium is responsible for discharge rate and its capacity is responsible for perennial or seasonal behaviour of the spring. Using the mean values of the recession parameters, the master discharge-function of the spring for the recession period is formulated for calculating its discharge-rate during the recession period of any year. Apart from the year 2001, its predictions are in close agreement with the actually monitored data. The efficiency of the formulated master discharge function of the spring for the recession period has been evaluated equal to 0.965 using the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency criterion.

  8. Award of Top 20 Most-Globally Competitive Chinese Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2010-01-01

    @@ Now,in the post financial-crisis times,Chinese enterprises that took part in the wave of globalization and felt an economic recession for the first time,realized they should have the required skills both externally and internally to become internationally competitive powers.Recently,"Global Entrepreneur" magazine and Roland Berger Management·Consulting (Shanghai) Co.,Ltd.jointly released awards for the "Most Globally Competitive Chinese Companies".

  9. Outcome of inferior and superior rectus recession in Graves' orbitopathy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellema, Hinke Marijke; Saeed, Peerooz; Groenveld, Linda; Kloos, Roel; Mourits, Maarten P

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the surgical effect of unilateral inferior rectus recession (IR-group) with or without a recession of contralateral superior rectus (IR-SR-group) on squint angle and motility restrictions in Graves' Orbitopathy (GO) patients. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. MATERIALS AND METH

  10. Parental Employment Status and Symptoms of Children Abused during a Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Trina; McAuliff, Kathleen; Rocha, Celina

    2013-01-01

    Incidences and severity of child abuse have increased since the start of the recession. This study examined the relationship between employment status and severity of symptoms in children abused during a recession year. Participants included 154 females and 65 males between 2 and 17 years old referred to Dallas Children's Advocacy Center…

  11. Is Recess an Achievement Context? An Application of Expectancy-Value Theory to Playground Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Dunn, Janice Causgrove; Watkinson, E. Jane

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the application of an expectancy-value model to children's activity choices on the playground at recess. The purpose was to test the prediction that expectancies for success and subjective task values are related to decisions to engage in specific recess activities such as climbing, playing soccer, or skipping rope.…

  12. Recession, Retrenchment, and Recovery: State Higher Education Funding & Student Financial Aid. Volume II: State Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Allison S.; Hines, Edward R.; Hodel, Ross A.; Kelly, Kathleen F.; Mushrush, Christopher E., Pruden, Sheila J.; Vogt, W. Paul

    2006-01-01

    This report is a companion to "Recession, Retrenchment and Recovery: Higher Education Funding and Student Financial Aid" (ED502180). It provides profiles of individual states and their performance on a variety of measures used in the economic and fiscal analysis of the Recession, Retrenchment and Recovery project. The profiles describe the results…

  13. Recession, Retrenchment, and Recovery: State Higher Education Funding & Student Financial Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodel, Ross; Laffey, Maureen; Lingenfelter, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The Recession, Retrenchment, and Recovery Project examined the effects of recessions on financial access to college during the 25-year period 1979-2004, identified states that have been relatively successful in maintaining financial access, and collected policy strategies used by these states. This study examined the similarities and differences…

  14. Parental Employment Status and Symptoms of Children Abused during a Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Trina; McAuliff, Kathleen; Rocha, Celina

    2013-01-01

    Incidences and severity of child abuse have increased since the start of the recession. This study examined the relationship between employment status and severity of symptoms in children abused during a recession year. Participants included 154 females and 65 males between 2 and 17 years old referred to Dallas Children's Advocacy Center after…

  15. A note on predicting recessions in the euro area using real M1

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Boysen-Hogrefe

    2012-01-01

    Real M1 is a renowned leading indicator used to forecast real economic activity. This note provides evidence that real M1 is also a suitable recession indicator that gave a clear and early signal for the Great Recession as long as changes in money demand are controlled for.

  16. Gingival labial recessions in orthodontically treated and untreated individuals : a case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Anne Marie; Fudalej, Piotr S.; Renkema, Alianne A. P.; Abbas, Frank; Bronkhorst, Ewald; Katsaros, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the long-term development of labial gingival recessions during orthodontic treatment and retention phase. Material and Methods In this retrospective casecontrol study, the presence of gingival recession was scored (Yes or No) on plaster models of 100 orthodontic patients (case

  17. Scheduling Recess before Lunch: Exploring the Benefits and Challenges in Montana Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bark, Katie; Stenberg, Molly; Sutherland, Shelly; Hayes, Dayle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the "Montana Recess Before Lunch Survey" was to explore benefits, challenges, and factors associated with successful implementation of Recess Before Lunch (RBL), from the perspective of school principals. Methods: An online written questionnaire was distributed to all (N = 661) Montana elementary and…

  18. Understanding Factors Associated with Children's Motivation to Engage in Recess-Time Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrat, Merav W.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is linked with health and academic benefits. While recess provides the greatest opportunity for children to accumulate physical activity, most children are not motivated to engage in sufficient amounts of physical activity during recess. Research demonstrates a strong relationship between self-efficacy and children's motivation…

  19. 46 CFR 171.073 - Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II... Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II subdivision. (a) A main transverse watertight bulkhead may not be stepped unless additional watertight bulkheads are located as shown in Figure...

  20. 46 CFR 171.067 - Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type I subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type I... Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type I subdivision. (a) For the purpose of this section— (1) The main transverse watertight bulkhead immediately forward of a stepped bulkhead is referred to...

  1. The Impact of the Recession on Public Library Use in Colorado: A Closer Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Keith Curry; Hofschire, Linda; Daisey, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    This report shares the statistical trends for public library use in Colorado before and since the onset of the latest recession. It also includes the voices of librarians from around the state, offering their observations and stories of how public libraries are helping in these difficult times. To determine the impact of the Great Recession on use…

  2. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism in patients with horizontal rectus muscle recession

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harun; akmak; Tolga; Kocatürk; Sema; Oru; Dündar

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To compare surgically induced astigmatism(SIA)following horizontal rectus muscle recession surgery between suspension recession with both the "hang-back" technique and conventional recession technique.·METHODS: Totally, 48 eyes of 24 patients who had undergone horizontal rectus muscle recession surgery were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups. Twelve patients were operated on by the hang-back technique(Group 1), and 12 by the conventional recession technique(Group 2). SIA was calculated on the 1stwk, 1stand in the 3rdmo after surgery using the SIA calculator.·RESULTS: SIA was statistically higher in the Group 1all postoperative follow-up. SIA was the highest in the 1st wk, and decreased gradually in both groups.·CONCLUSION: The suspension recession technique induced much more SIA than the conventional recession technique. This difference also continued in the following visits. Therefore, the refractive power should be checked postoperatively in order to avoid refractive amblyopia.Conventional recession surgery should be the preferred method so as to minimize the postoperative refractive changes in patients with amblyopia.

  3. How the Economy Influences Pedagogy: The Great Recession's Influence on Elementary Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Amanda G.

    2017-01-01

    From 2007 to 2009, the United States experienced one of the greatest economic declines reported in the previous decades, known as the Great Recession (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012). While a great deal of media attention focused on the immediate financial effects of the recession, little discussion was made about the influence of this crisis…

  4. Surgical treatment of gingival recessions using Emdogain gel : Clinical procedure and case reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, F; Wennstrom, J; Van der Weijden, F; Schneiders, T; Van der Velden, U

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the clinical procedure and outcome of surgical treatment of gingival recessions with the adjunctive use of Emdogain gel, an enamel matrix derivative bioactive material for periodontal reconstructive surgery. Six cases with gingival recession on maxillary canines are presented

  5. Gingival labial recessions in orthodontically treated and untreated individuals : a case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Anne Marie; Fudalej, Piotr S.; Renkema, Alianne A. P.; Abbas, Frank; Bronkhorst, Ewald; Katsaros, Christos

    Objectives To evaluate the long-term development of labial gingival recessions during orthodontic treatment and retention phase. Material and Methods In this retrospective casecontrol study, the presence of gingival recession was scored (Yes or No) on plaster models of 100 orthodontic patients

  6. Characterization of Al2O3/GaN/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors with different gate recess depths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiao-Hua; Pan Cai-Yuan; Yang Li-Yuan; Yu Hui-You; Yang Ling; Quan Si; Wang Hao; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Hao Yue

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, in order to solve the interface-trap issue and enhance the transconductance induced by high-k dielectric in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), we demonstrate better performances of recessed-gate Al2O3 MIS-HEMTs which are fabricated by Fluorine-based Si3N4 etching and chlorinebased AlGaN etching with three etching times (15 s, 17 s and 19 s). The gate leakage current of MIS-HEMT is about three orders of magnitude lower than that of AlGaN/GaN HEMT. Through the recessed-gate etching, the transconductance increases effectively. When the recessed-gate depth is 1.02 nm, the best interface performance with γit=(0.20-1.59) μs and Dit=(0.55-1.08)×1012 cm-2·eV-1 can be obtained. After chlorine-based etching, the interface trap density reduces considerably without generating any new type of trap. The accumulated chlorine ions and the N vacancies in the AlGaN surface caused by the plasma etching can degrade the breakdown and the high frequency performances of devices. By comparing the characteristics of recessed-gate MIS-HEMTs with different etching times, it is found that a low power chlorine-based plasma etching for a short time (15 s in this paper) can enhance the performances of MIS-HEMTs effectively.

  7. Impacts of recessed gate and fluoride-based plasma treatment approaches toward normally-off AlGaN/GaN HEMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jun-Woo; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2014-12-01

    We report two approaches to fabricating high performance normally-off AIGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The fabrication techniques employed were based on recessed-metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) gate and recessed fluoride-based plasma treatment. They were selectively applied to the area under the gate electrode to deplete the two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) density. We found that the recessed gate structure was effective in shifting the threshold voltage by controlling the etching depth of gate region to reduce the AIGaN layer thickness to less than 8 nm. Likewise, the CF4 plasma treatment effectively incorporated negatively charged fluorine ions into the thin AIGaN barrier so that the threshold voltage shifted to higher positive values. In addition to the increased threshold voltage, experimental results showed a maximum drain current and a maximum transconductance of 315 mA/mm and 100 mS/mm, respectively, for the recessed-MIS gate HEMT, and 340 mA/mm and 330 mS/mm, respectively, for the fluoride-based plasma treated HEMT.

  8. “United Pedicle Flap” for management of multiple gingival recessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous surgical procedures have evolved and are being modified with time to treat gingival recession by manipulating gingival or mucosal tissues in various ways. However, the decision to choose the most appropriate technique for a given recession site still remains a challenging task for clinicians. Mucogingival deformities such as shallow vestibule, frenal pull, or inadequate attached gingiva complicate the decision and limit the treatment options to an invasive procedure involving soft tissue grafts. The situation is further comprised if there is a nonavailability of adequate donor tissue and patients' unwillingness for procedures involving a second surgical site. In such situations, the recession either remains untreated or has poor treatment outcomes. This case report presents a modified pedicle graft technique for treatment of multiple gingival recessions with shallow vestibule and inadequate attached gingiva. The technique is a promising therapeutic alternative to invasive surgical procedures such as soft tissue grafts for treatment of multiple gingival recessions.

  9. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Program (WOCE) Global Data, Version 2: Acoustic doppler current profilers data on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 0000312)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World-Wide shipboard current data were collected from ADCP casts from the ALPHA HELIX and other platforms as part of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). Data...

  10. NGS-Based Assay for the Identification of Individuals Carrying Recessive Genetic Mutations in Reproductive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulí, Anna; Boada, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Santiago, Benjamín; Coroleu, Buenaventura; Veiga, Anna; Armengol, Lluís; Barri, Pedro N; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Estivill, Xavier

    2016-06-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the capacity of carrier screening in gamete donation (GD) programs. We have developed and validated an NGS carrier-screening test (qCarrier test) that includes 200 genes associated with 368 disorders (277 autosomal recessive and 37 X-linked). Carrier screening is performed on oocyte donation candidates and the male partner of oocyte recipient. Carriers of X-linked conditions are excluded from the GD program, whereas donors are chosen who do not carry mutations for the same gene/disease as the recipients. The validation phase showed a high sensitivity (>99% sensitivity) detecting all single-nucleotide variants, 13 indels, and 25 copy-number variants included in the validation set. A total of 1,301 individuals were analysed with the qCarrier test, including 483 candidate oocyte donors and 635 receptor couples, 105 females receiving sperm donation, and 39 couples seeking pregnancy. We identified 56% of individuals who are carriers for at least one genetic condition and 1.7% of female donors who were excluded from the program due to a carrier state of X-linked conditions. Globally, 3% of a priori assigned donations had a high reproductive risk that could be minimized after testing. Genetic counselling at different stages is essential for helping to facilitate a successful and healthy pregnancy.

  11. New evidence of Yangtze delta recession after closing of the Three Gorges Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X. X.; Yang, S. L.; Wang, R. S.; Zhang, C. Y.; Li, P.

    2017-01-01

    Many deltas are likely undergoing net erosion because of rapid decreases in riverine sediment supply and rising global sea levels. However, detecting erosion in subaqueous deltas is usually difficult because of the lack of bathymetric data. In this study, by comparing bathymetric data between 1981 and 2012 and surficial sediment grain sizes from the Yangtze subaqueous delta front over the last three decades, we found severe erosion and significant sediment coarsening in recent years since the construction of Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the largest dam in the world. We attributed these morphological and sedimentary variations mainly to the human-induced drastic decline of river sediment discharge. Combined with previous studies based on bathymetric data from different areas of the same delta, we theorize that the Yangtze subaqueous delta is experiencing overall (net) erosion, although local accumulation was also noted. We expect that the Yangtze sediment discharge will further decrease in the near future because of construction of new dams and delta recession will continue to occur. PMID:28145520

  12. Brazilian economic performance since the emergence of the great recession: The effects of income distribution on consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arestis Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After a long period of unstable and low economic activity, Brazil achieved a relatively high economic growth with low inflation from 2004 to 2008, when the world scenario was favourable for the Brazilian trade balance. An incomes policy, focused on real increases in the minimum wage along with a credit boom, led to a decade of high consumption growth rates. High levels of consumption and exports, in turn, induced investment and stimulated manufacturing production, despite the real appreciation of the national currency. However, the Great Recession that emerged after the global financial crisis of 2007/2008 brought challenges to the Brazilian economic performance, with unpleasant consequences for the country’s GDP growth. Consumption, investment and exports have decelerated, despite anti-cyclical macroeconomic policies. In this setting, manufacturing production stagnated and GDP growth slowed down substantially, while imports continued rising considerably. The aim of this paper is to provide an explanation to the slowdown of Brazilian growth rates after the Great Recession. The main hypothesis is that consumption was the main source of effective demand in the country since 2003. However, Brazil has not yet been able to sustain manufacturing and economic growth without a more active government policy to stimulate productive investment.

  13. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna M; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S; Asma, Samira

    2015-09-17

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation.

  14. Where do we stand in trial readiness for autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Volker; Bertoli, Marta

    2016-02-01

    Autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD2) are a group of genetically heterogeneous diseases that are typically characterised by progressive weakness and wasting of the shoulder and pelvic girdle muscles. Many of the more than 20 different conditions show overlapping clinical features with other forms of muscular dystrophy, congenital, myofibrillar or even distal myopathies and also with acquired muscle diseases. Although individually extremely rare, all types of LGMD2 together form an important differential diagnostic group among neuromuscular diseases. Despite improved diagnostics and pathomechanistic insight, a curative therapy is currently lacking for any of these diseases. Medical care consists of the symptomatic treatment of complications, aiming to improve life expectancy and quality of life. Besides well characterised pre-clinical tools like animal models and cell culture assays, the determinants of successful drug development programmes for rare diseases include a good understanding of the phenotype and natural history of the disease, the existence of clinically relevant outcome measures, guidance on care standards, up to date patient registries, and, ideally, biomarkers that can help assess disease severity or drug response. Strong patient organisations driving research and successful partnerships between academia, advocacy, industry and regulatory authorities can also help accelerate the elaboration of clinical trials. All these determinants constitute aspects of translational research efforts and influence patient access to therapies. Here we review the current status of determinants of successful drug development programmes for LGMD2, and the challenges of translating promising therapeutic strategies into effective and accessible treatments for patients.

  15. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models. Current status and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hanqin [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Lu, Chaoqun [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Yang, Jia [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Banger, Kamaljit [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Huntzinger, Deborah N. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Schwalm, Christopher R. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Michalak, A. M. [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Stanford, CA (United States); Cook, Robert B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ciais, Philippe [Climate and Environment Sciences Lab. (LSCE) (France); Hayes, Daniel J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huang, Maoyi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ito, Akihiko [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Jain, Atul K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Lei, Huimin [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Mao, Jiafu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pan, Shufen [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Post, W. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peng, Shushi [Climate and Environment Sciences Lab. (LSCE) (France); Poulter, Benjamin [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Ren, Wei [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Ricciuto, Daniel M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schaefer, Kevin [National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO (United States); Shi, Xiaoying [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tao, Bo [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Wang, Weile [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mountain View, CA (United States); Wei, Yaxing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yang, Qichun [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Zhang, Bowen [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Zeng, Ning [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-06-05

    Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and loss from soil accounts for a large pro portion of land-atmosphere C exchange. Due to large pool size and variable residence time from years to millennia, even small changes in soil organic C(SOC) have substantial effects on the terrestrial C budget, thereby affecting atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2)concentration and climate change. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify global SOC stocks and soil exchange with the atmosphere through site measurements, inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these estimates are highly uncertain and identifying major driving forces controlling soil C storage and fluxes remains a key research challenge his study has compiled century-long (1901-2010)estimates of SOC storage and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from ten terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) and two observation based datasets. The ten-TBM ensemble shows that global SOC estimate range from 4 to 2111 Pg C (1 Pg = 1015g) with a median value of 1158 Pg C33 in 2010. Modeling approach estimates a broad range of Rh from 35 to 69 Pg C yr-1 with a median value of 51Pg C yr-1 during 200–2010. The largest uncertainty in SOC stocks exists in the 40–65°N latitude band while Rh differences are the largest in the tropics. All the models agreed that climate and land use changes have decreased SOC stocks while elevated CO2 and atmospheric nitrogen deposition have increased SOC stocks though the response varied significantly among models. Model representations of temperature and moisture sensitivity,nutrient limitation and land use partially explain the divergent estimates of global SOC stocks and soil fluxes in this study. In addition, major sources of uncertainty from model estimation include exclusion of SOC storage in

  16. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: Current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Banger, Kamaljit; Huntzinger, Deborah N; Schwalm, Christopher R; Michalak, Anna M; Cook, Robert; Ciais, Philippe; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Ito, Akihiko; Jain, Atul K; Lei, Huimin; Mao, Jiafu; Pan, Shufen; Post, Wilfred M; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Benjamin; Ren, Wei; Ricciuto, Daniel; Schaefer, Kevin; Shi, Xiaoying; Tao, Bo; Wang, Weile; Wei, Yaxing; Yang, Qichun; Zhang, Bowen; Zeng, Ning

    2015-06-01

    Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and C loss from soil accounts for a large proportion of land-atmosphere C exchange. Therefore, a small change in soil organic C (SOC) can affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and climate change. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify global SOC stocks and soil C exchange with the atmosphere through site measurements, inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these estimates are highly uncertain, and identifying major driving forces controlling soil C dynamics remains a key research challenge. This study has compiled century-long (1901-2010) estimates of SOC storage and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from 10 terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project and two observation-based data sets. The 10 TBM ensemble shows that global SOC estimate ranges from 425 to 2111 Pg C (1 Pg = 10(15) g) with a median value of 1158 Pg C in 2010. The models estimate a broad range of Rh from 35 to 69 Pg C yr(-1) with a median value of 51 Pg C yr(-1) during 2001-2010. The largest uncertainty in SOC stocks exists in the 40-65°N latitude whereas the largest cross-model divergence in Rh are in the tropics. The modeled SOC change during 1901-2010 ranges from -70 Pg C to 86 Pg C, but in some models the SOC change has a different sign from the change of total C stock, implying very different contribution of vegetation and soil pools in determining the terrestrial C budget among models. The model ensemble-estimated mean residence time of SOC shows a reduction of 3.4 years over the past century, which accelerate C cycling through the land biosphere. All the models agreed that climate and land use changes decreased SOC stocks, while elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen deposition over intact ecosystems increased SOC stocks-even though the responses varied

  17. Has the great recession and its aftermath reduced traffic fatalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Robert B; Zhou, Yuhan

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of state-level data from 1984 to 2014 provides evidence on the relationship between economic recessions and US traffic fatalities. While there are large reductions associated with decreases in household median income, other policy variables tend to have additional and in some cases, larger effects. An increase in the inequality of the income distribution, measured by the Gini index, has reduced traffic fatalities. Graduated licensing policies, cell phone laws, and motorcycle helmet requirements are all associated with reductions in fatalities. Other factors include a proxy for medical technology, and access to emergency medical services (based on the percent of vehicle miles traveled in rural areas); reductions in the latter accounted for a substantial reduction in fatalities and is likely another indicator of reduced economic activity. Changes in the road network, mainly increases in the percent of collector roads has increased fatalities. Population growth is associated with increased traffic fatalities and changes in age cohorts has a small negative effect. Overall, results suggest that there has been a beneficial impact on traffic fatalities from reduced economic activity, but various policies adopted by the states have also reduced traffic fatalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A cephalometric analysis of patients with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hemal; McDonald, Fraser; Lucas, Victoria; Ashley, Paul; Roberts, Graham

    2002-02-01

    Patients diagnosed with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa (RDEB) suffer from severe growth inhibition due to reduced food intake as a result of severe oropharyngeal and esophageal blistering. This investigation examined the patterns of facial growth in a group of 42 children with RDEB for whom lateral skull radiographs were available. The differences between RDEB patients and patients with normal cephalometric values were also assessed. Lateral skull radiographs were digitized and a number of orthodontic indices were compared to the published normal values. The RDEB patients examined demonstrated smaller maxillae than normal (length 41.3 +/- 2.9 mm compared to 47.4 +/- 2.5 mm) and smaller mandibles than normal (length 82.3 +/- 6.1 mm compared to 93.1 +/- 4.2 mm). This impaired growth may result from reduced food intake or severe orofacial scarring associated with RDEB. This contributes significantly to dento-alveolar disproportion and dental crowding and puts patients at increased risk of dental caries.

  19. Mutations in KDSR Cause Recessive Progressive Symmetric Erythrokeratoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyden, Lynn M; Vincent, Nicholas G; Zhou, Jing; Hu, Ronghua; Craiglow, Brittany G; Bayliss, Susan J; Rosman, Ilana S; Lucky, Anne W; Diaz, Luis A; Goldsmith, Lowell A; Paller, Amy S; Lifton, Richard P; Baserga, Susan J; Choate, Keith A

    2017-06-01

    The discovery of new genetic determinants of inherited skin disorders has been instrumental to the understanding of epidermal function, differentiation, and renewal. Here, we show that mutations in KDSR (3-ketodihydrosphingosine reductase), encoding an enzyme in the ceramide synthesis pathway, lead to a previously undescribed recessive Mendelian disorder in the progressive symmetric erythrokeratoderma spectrum. This disorder is characterized by severe lesions of thick scaly skin on the face and genitals and thickened, red, and scaly skin on the hands and feet. Although exome sequencing revealed several of the KDSR mutations, we employed genome sequencing to discover a pathogenic 346 kb inversion in multiple probands, and cDNA sequencing and a splicing assay established that two mutations, including a recurrent silent third base change, cause exon skipping. Immunohistochemistry and yeast complementation studies demonstrated that the mutations cause defects in KDSR function. Systemic isotretinoin therapy has achieved nearly complete resolution in the two probands in whom it has been applied, consistent with the effects of retinoic acid on alternative pathways for ceramide generation. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Recessive mutations in DGKE cause atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Mathieu; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Schaefer, Franz; Choi, Murim; Tang, Wai Ho; Le Quintrec, Moglie; Fakhouri, Fadi; Taque, Sophie; Nobili, François; Martinez, Frank; Ji, Weizhen; Overton, John D.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Altmüller, Janine; Thiele, Holger; Morin, Denis; Deschenes, Georges; Baudouin, Véronique; Llanas, Brigitte; Collard, Laure; Majid, Mohammed A.; Simkova, Eva; Nürnberg, Peter; Rioux-Leclerc, Nathalie; Moeckel, Gilbert W.; Gubler, Marie Claire; Hwa, John; Loirat, Chantal; Lifton, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Pathologic thrombosis is a major cause of mortality. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) features episodes of small vessel thrombosis resulting in microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal failure1. Atypical HUS (aHUS) can result from genetic or autoimmune factors2 that lead to pathologic complement cascade activation3. By exome sequencing we identify recessive mutations in DGKE (diacylglycerol kinase epsilon) that co-segregate with aHUS in 9 unrelated kindreds, defining a distinctive Mendelian disease. Affected patients present with aHUS before age 1, have persistent hypertension, hematuria and proteinuria (sometimes nephrotic range), and develop chronic kidney disease with age. DGKE is found in endothelium, platelets, and podocytes. Arachidonic acid-containing diacylglycerols (DAG) activate protein kinase C, which promotes thrombosis. DGKE normally inactivates DAG signaling. We infer that loss of DGKE function results in a pro-thrombotic state. These findings identify a new mechanism of pathologic thrombosis and kidney failure and have immediate implications for treatment of aHUS patients. PMID:23542698