WorldWideScience

Sample records for current global nuclear

  1. Current Trends in the Nuclear Power Global Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Mikhailovna Osetskaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The review of the nuclear energy technologies market, namely the main processes of the initial and final stages of the nuclear fuel cycle (NTC was shown. The authors reveal key players in the markets of natural uranium mining, conversion, enrichment, fabrication of nuclear fuel, direct disposal, and reprocessing as well as determine their market shares. The article shows the fundamental factors influencing the development trends of the global nuclear power market such as: units’ commissioning in China, India, the Republic of Korea and other countries, the restart of the Japanese nuclear power plants, growth of uranium supplies long-term contracting planned for the period up to 2025, volatility of world prices of the NFC initial and final stages, political, economic and environmental reasons for the nuclear power generation choice. The article presents the results of analyses of Russian and world prices on the NFC initial and final stages main processes’ allowing to draw a conclusion about the current competitiveness of Russian nuclear energy technologies

  2. Global nuclear safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    As stated in the Nuclear Safety Review 1996, three components characterize the global nuclear safety culture infrastructure: (i) legally binding international agreements; (ii) non-binding common safety standards; and (iii) the application of safety standards. The IAEA has continued to foster the global nuclear safety culture by supporting intergovernmental collaborative efforts; it has facilitated extensive information exchange, promoted the drafting of international legal agreements and the development of common safety standards, and provided for the application of safety standards by organizing a wide variety of expert services

  3. Global warming and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The problems of pollution, global warming and renewable energy sources are not going to go away. Governments need to act with urgency if they are to produce a long-term energy policy. This paper looks at the current energy situation, and how this would project into the future without the instigation of radical changes. It concludes that nuclear is the best option available for averting a growing energy, pollution and global warming crisis. (author)

  4. Nuclear stockpiles globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouffray, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    For technological reasons, but more importantly political ones, the spread of nuclear weapons is foreseen as inevitable especially with the multiplication of so-called 'threshold states'. On the one hand, technological barriers will gradually disappear with globalization and information sharing in our societies. Furthermore, becoming a threshold power appears today as key to get freedom of action, a tool of counter-deterrence or blackmail according to the camp you belong to, like in the Iranian and north Korean cases. For proliferant countries, it will now consist in an enforcement of an embryonic, even though rather deterrent or even threatening, nuclear program thanks to new technologies, reducing completion times and even allowing to skip the final nuclear test

  5. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefidvash, Farhang

    1997-01-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  6. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefidvash, Farhang [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    1997-07-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  7. Global nuclear material control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of a disposition program for special nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool that treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. Such a tool must represent the fundamental data, information, and capabilities of the fuel cycle including an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, and a framework supportive of national or international perspective. They have developed a prototype global nuclear material management and control systems analysis capability, the Global Nuclear Material Control (GNMC) model. The GNMC model establishes the framework for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material

  8. Global warming and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two

  9. THE EVOLUTION OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION DURING THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Tuca

    2013-01-01

    The current economic crisis constitutes a serious test for the process of globalization. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the current global crisis on economic globalization. To assess the impact of the current crisis on economic globalization, this paper examines the KOF Index of Globalization, before and during the crisis. The findings generally support the idea that economic globalization has been, in fact, weakened, after the onset of the current crisis. However, t...

  10. Global nuclear-structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The revival of interest in nuclear ground-state octupole deformations that occurred in the 1980's was stimulated by observations in 1980 of particularly large deviations between calculated and experimental masses in the Ra region, in a global calculation of nuclear ground-state masses. By minimizing the total potential energy with respect to octupole shape degrees of freedom in addition to ε 2 and ε 4 used originally, a vastly improved agreement between calculated and experimental masses was obtained. To study the global behavior and interrelationships between other nuclear properties, we calculate nuclear ground-state masses, spins, pairing gaps and Β-decay and half-lives and compare the results to experimental qualities. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic approach, with the microscopic contributions calculated in a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential

  11. Global nuclear cleanout initiative 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlow, J.; Gruber, G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: During more than 50 years of Atoms for Peace programmes nuclear materials were spread out worldwide. Stranded nuclear materials from nuclear research are left over without any safe back-end solution. 'Dirty Bombs' or so-called 'Radioactive Dispersal Devices (RDD)' are no longer science fiction since the world experienced the 9/11 attack. Governmental, NGO's and private industry organizations having discussed Global Nuclear Cleanout since then and start to take actions. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has announced to establish a dedicated organization in cooperation with IAEA and start the 'Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)'. The US government will allocate to that program USD 450 M over the next 10 years. Besides the historical development the paper will focus on the progress of the different initiatives and perspectives to threat reduction. (author)

  12. Global outlook for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, F.H.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' The global nuclear power forecast, the North American outlook and the effect of nuclear power growth on greenhouse gas emissions in North America will be discussed. The construction of Generation III reactors will replace aging power plants and, further, add capacity that is environmentally sustainable. The outlook for Generation IV reactors also may significantly improve the environmental balance after 2030, both in electrical markets, waste reduction, and in non-traditional markets such as process heat. (author)

  13. Exchange currents in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truglik, Eh.

    1980-01-01

    Starting from Adler's low-energy theorem for the soft pion production amplitudes the predictions of the meson exchange currents theory for the nuclear physics are discussed. The results are reformulated in terms of phenomenological lagrangians. This method allows one to pass naturally to the more realistic case of hard mesons. The predictions are critically compared with the existing experimental data. The main processes in which vector isovector exchange currents, vector isoscalar exchange currents and axial exchange currents take place are pointed out

  14. Global Risk of Nuclear Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Diez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of nuclear terrorism, a threat that President Obama called "the gravest danger we face," has signaled a paradigm shift in international security. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, sensitive nuclear technologies and materials have become increasingly available. Globalization and the inadequate enforcement of treaties and export controls have allowed the proliferation of nuclear weapons materials. Today, international terrorist organizations seek to employ weapons of mass destruction (WMD as a means to influence national policies around the world. AlQaida spokesman Suleiman Abu Gheith declared that in order to balance the injustices that have been inflicted on the Muslim population worldwide, al-Qaida's new objective is "to kill 4 million Americans–2 million of them children." As political scientist Graham Allison notes, this could be achieved with either 1,334 attacks similar in magnitude to those of 9/11, or one nuclear bomb.Building a nuclear program is an arduous task that requires tacit knowledge, the recruitment of nuclear scientists, engineers, and machinists, and the resources and time to obtain nuclear materials and components. While it is unlikely that terrorist organizations have the capacity to develop full-fledged programs in the near term, terrorist development and acquisition of nuclear weapons remains a long-term threat that requires international action.

  15. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahle, Larry

    2007-10-01

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241 Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R&D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

  16. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahle, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241 Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R and D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities

  17. Current status of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    The decision to devote the 1984 conference to nuclear power is timely and appropriate. Illinois has a long, and distinguished history in the development of civilian nuclear power. The concept was born at the University of Chicago, developed at Argonne National Laboratory and demonstrated on the Commonwealth Edison system at our pioneer Dresden Nuclear Station. Today, Illinois ranks number one in the nation in nuclear generation. With over a quarter century of commercial operating experience, nuclear power has proven its worth and become a significant and growing component of electric power supply domestically and throughout the world. Despite its initial acceptance, however, the nuclear power industry in the U.S. is now in the midst of a difficult period of readjustment stemming largely from the economic and regulatory problems of the past decade. As a result, the costs of plants under construction have increased dramatically, causing serious financial difficulties for several projects and their owners. At the same time, the U.S. is facing hard choices concerning its future energy supplies. Conferences such as this have an important role in clarifying the issues and helping to find solutions to today's pressing energy problems. This paper summarizes the status of nuclear power both here and abroad, discussing the implications of current events in the context of national energy policy and economic development here in Illinois

  18. A global nuclear safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses three components characterizing the infrastructure of a global nuclear safety culture, each one satisfying special needs. These are: (a) legally binding international agreements, which were drawn up at an accelerated pace in the 1980s following the Chernobyl accident, with its transboundary implications; (b) non-binding common safety standards, which were developed rapidly during the 1960s and 1970s, a period which saw a desire for harmonized safety approaches as nuclear power and the use of radiation and radioactive materials expanded globally; and (c) review and advisory services, which are provided by international experts, the need for which was underscored by the accident at Chernobyl. 5 refs, 1 fig

  19. Current puzzles in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A meeting on ''Current puzzles in nuclear physics'' was held at Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, on June 27 - 28, 1984. The meeting put emphasis on several puzzles which have not been solved for a long time in nuclear physics, and also on the puzzles. This collective report is composed of following eleven papers presented at the meeting. Almost all the papers are witten in English : (1) M1, GT excitations and configuration mixing (in Japanese). (2) Hadronic excitation of pionic states. (3) Microscopic analyses of 28 Si(α,α') 28 Si scattering and single particle strength in A = 29 nuclei. (4) Few-body physics and its incentives to nuclear physics. (5) Is it necessary to introduce three body interactions ? (in Japanese). (6) Puzzles in the neutron-deuteron elastic scattering. (7) Puzzles in NN, NΔ, πN and Nanti N interactions. (8) Problems in Hadron-Nucleus interaction. (9) Unified approach to the meson- and quark- theory of nuclear forces and currents. (10) Pion photoproduction in two Chiral bag models. (11) The dynamic bag model : The electromagnetic properties of nucleon. (Aoki, K.)

  20. Progress towards a global nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    During its April 2014 meeting, the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy held a policy debate on 'Progress towards a Global Nuclear Liability Regime'. The Steering Committee heard presentations from several experts on nuclear liability issues. To prepare the delegates to the Steering Committee for the policy debate, the NEA Secretariat prepared a background note on the status of the nuclear liability regimes, as well as on current issues and challenges in implementing the regimes. This article is based on the background note and is intended to provide basic information on the relevant international conventions and an overview of recent developments to enhance the understanding of the legal framework in which policy-makers and practitioners are engaging to respond to the call for broader adherence to the international liability instruments. (authors)

  1. Transient global amnesia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel DR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available David R Spiegel, Justin Smith, Ryan R Wade, Nithya Cherukuru, Aneel Ursani, Yuliya Dobruskina, Taylor Crist, Robert F Busch, Rahim M Dhanani, Nicholas Dreyer Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA Abstract: Transient global amnesia (TGA is a clinical syndrome characterized by the sudden onset of an extraordinarily large reduction of anterograde and a somewhat milder reduction of retrograde episodic long-term memory. Additionally, executive functions are described as diminished. Although it is suggested that various factors, such as migraine, focal ischemia, venous flow abnormalities, and epileptic phenomena, are involved in the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of TGA, the factors triggering the emergence of these lesions are still elusive. Recent data suggest that the vulnerability of CA1 neurons to metabolic stress plays a pivotal part in the pathophysiological cascade, leading to an impairment of hippocampal function during TGA. In this review, we discuss clinical aspects, new imaging findings, and recent clinical–epidemiological data with regard to the phenotype, functional anatomy, and putative cellular mechanisms of TGA. Keywords: transient global amnesia, vascular, migraines, psychiatric

  2. Towards a global nuclear safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of the global nuclear safety culture and the role in which the IAEA has played in encouraging its development. There is also a look ahead to what the future challenges of the world-wide nuclear industry might be and to the need for a continued and improved global nuclear safety culture to meet these changing needs. (Author)

  3. A global nuclear waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wunan

    As a concerned scientist, I think that having a global nuclear waste repository is a reachable goal for human beings. Maybe through this common goal, mankind can begin to treat each other as brothers and sisters. So far, most human activities are framed by national boundaries, which are purely arbitrary. Breaking through these national boundaries will be very beneficial to human beings.Formation of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program in 1986 indicates a growing awareness on the part of scientists regarding Earth as a system. The Apollo missions gave us a chance to look back at Earth from space. That perspective emphasized that our Earth is just one system: our only home. It is in deed a lonely boat in the high sea of dark space. We must take good care of our “boat.”

  4. Economic Globalization and a Nuclear Renaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas W; Johnson, Wayne L; Parker, Brian M

    2001-10-22

    The phenomenon of globalization has become increasingly well recognized, documented, and analyzed in the last several years. Globalization, the integration of markets and intra-firm competition on a worldwide basis, involves complex behavioral and mindset changes within a firm that facilitate global competition. The changes revolve around efficient information flow and rapid deployment of technology. The objective of this report is to examine the probable characteristics of a global nuclear renaissance and its broad implications for industry structure and export control relative to nuclear technology. The question of how a modern renaissance would affect the trend toward globalization of the nuclear industry is addressed.

  5. Economic Globalization and a Nuclear Renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Thomas W.; Johnson, Wayne L.; Parker, Brian M.

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenon of globalization has become increasingly well recognized, documented, and analyzed in the last several years. Globalization, the integration of markets and intra-firm competition on a worldwide basis, involves complex behavioral and mindset changes within a firm that facilitate global competition. The changes revolve around efficient information flow and rapid deployment of technology. The objective of this report is to examine the probable characteristics of a global nuclear renaissance and its broad implications for industry structure and export control relative to nuclear technology. The question of how a modern renaissance would affect the trend toward globalization of the nuclear industry is addressed

  6. Recent Activities on Global Nuclear Safety Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kun-Woo; Park, Jeong-Seop; Kim, Do-Hyoung

    2006-01-01

    Recently, rapid progress on the globalization of the nuclear safety issues is being made in IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and its member states. With the globalization, the need for international cooperation among international bodies and member states continues to grow for resolving these universal nuclear safety issues. Furthermore, the importance of strengthening the global nuclear safety regime is emphasized through various means, such as efforts in application of IAEA safety standards to all nuclear installations in the world and in strengthening the code of conduct and the convention on nuclear safety. In this regards, it is important for us to keep up with the activities related with the global nuclear safety regime as an IAEA member state and a leading country in nuclear safety regulation

  7. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Rok; Ko, Han Seok; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Byung Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes `IAEA Handbook`, which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author).

  8. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Rok; Ko, Han Seok; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Byung Woon

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes 'IAEA Handbook', which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author)

  9. Global warming and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P.E. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Oxford Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

  10. Global warming and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

  11. Nuclear cardiology - its current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology has been an exciting new field of nuclear medicine. Few examples of the dynamism and excitement of nuclear medicine demonstrate this field's vitality in the way that nuclear cardiology does. Recent new developments in radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation have established this field as an extremely useful clinical tool and provide a new dimension to the evaluation of a cardiac patient, more so being nonivasive in nature. An attempt has been made to focus the attention on some of the recent advances in nuclear cardiology with a special reference to its clinical application in the field of cardiology. Nuclear cardiology is the most important field of nuclear medicine which has shown most promising results and has opened a new horizon in the field of diagnostic noninvasive cardiac technique. Now it has come of age in concept, instrument development and clinical application. It is very rapidly growing into a subspeciality. (author)

  12. Nuclear security: A global response to a global threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2016-01-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real. The possibility of criminals getting hold of nuclear and other radioactive material cannot be ruled out. Much progress has been made in tackling this threat nationally, regionally and globally, but more needs to be done. International cooperation is vital. As the global platform for cooperation in nuclear security, the IAEA helps countries to establish and maintain robust and sustainable national nuclear security regimes. We help ensure that measures are taken to protect nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as the facilities in which such material is housed, from malicious acts. This has been an important year for nuclear security with the entry into force of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. This establishes legally binding commitments for countries to protect nuclear facilities as well as nuclear material in domestic use, storage and transport. I encourage all countries that have not yet done so to adhere to this Amendment and thereby contribute to a stronger global nuclear security regime. In this edition of the IAEA Bulletin, you will learn about the different areas of security where our work is making a real difference. We highlight the progress made in a number of countries.

  13. The influence of convective current generator on the global current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Morozov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical generalization of classical model of the global circuit with taking into account the convective current generator, working in the planetary boundary layer was considered. Convective current generator may be interpreted as generator, in which the electromotive force is generated by processes, of the turbulent transport of electrical charge. It is shown that the average potential of ionosphere is defined not only by the thunderstorm current generators, working at the present moment, but by the convective current generator also. The influence of the convective processes in the boundary layer on the electrical parameters of the atmosphere is not only local, but has global character as well. The numerical estimations, made for the case of the convective-unstable boundary layer demonstrate that the increase of the average potential of ionosphere may be of the order of 10% to 40%.

  14. Global Protest Against Nuclear Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhof, Astrid Mignon; Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Protest against nuclear power plants, uranium mining and nuclear testing played a pivotal role in the rise of a mass environmental movement around the globe in the 1970s and 1980s. Nevertheless, the history of anti-nuclear activism has largely been told from a strictly national perspective...... that anti-nuclear movements across the globe were transnationally connected. First, scientific expertise and protest practices were transferred between movements, and subsequently adapted to local requirements. Secondly, transnational cooperation and networks did indeed emerge, playing an important role...

  15. Global perspectives on future nuclear energy utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is presented as an overview of the nuclear sector from a global perspective. The aim is to show that nuclear power does have a future but that this will only be fully realised when the industry is able to demonstrate that it is part of the solution to the world's energy and environmental difficulties rather than part of the problem. The paper looks at the projected world energy demand as the population increases and countries develop, showing that nuclear power is required to meet this demand. In presenting nuclear power as a solution, the paper addresses the challenges facing us such as public confidence, environmental opposition, political issues and finance. It addresses the debate over reprocessing and direct disposal of irradiated nuclear fuel and looks at the competition from other fuels. The paper suggests how the industry might approach these issues such that nuclear power is indeed regarded globally as a solution to some of the worlds most pressing problems. (author)

  16. Global initiatives to prevent nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The fight against nuclear and radiological terrorism - someone to blow up a nuclear weapon or spread radioactive material as a 'dirty bomb' that act of terrorism - is one of the most serious threats to international security. The Global Initiative to prevent nuclear terrorism is a Norwegian-sponsored initiative that is aimed directly at combating terrorism by non-state actors. NRPA follow up Norwegian measures, including in Kazakhstan, and verifies that they are implemented and functioning as intended. (AG)

  17. Problem free nuclear power and global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.; Wood, L.; Nuckolls, J.; Ishikawa, M.; Hyde, R.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a solution-in-principle to all aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth's atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high- grade heat for electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-driving around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates. However, a substantial number of major issues currently stand between nuclear power implemented with light- water reactors and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems, including long-term fuel supply, adverse public perceptions regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps more seriously - cost. We describe a GW-scale, high-temperature nuclear reactor heat source that can operate with no human intervention for a few decades and that may be widely acceptable, since its safety features are simple, inexpensive and easily understood. We provide first-level details of a reactor system designed to satisfy these requirements. Such a back-solving approach to realizing large-scale nuclear fission power systems potentially leads to an energy source capable of meeting all large-scale stationary demands for high- temperature heat. If widely employed to support such demands, it could, for example, directly reduce present-day world-wide CO 2 emissions by two-fold; by using it to produce non-carbonaceous fuels for small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction could be attained. Even the first such reduction would permit continued slow power-demand growth in the First World and rapid development of the Third World, both without any governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage

  18. Nuclear winter: Global consequences of multiple nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turco, R.P.; Toon, O.B.; Ackerman, T.P.; Pollack, J.B.; Sagan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Concern has been raised over the short- and long-term consequences of the dust, smoke, radioactivity, and toxic vapors that would be generated by a nuclear war. The discovery that dense clouds of soil particles may have played a major role in past mass extinctions of life on Earth has encouraged the reconsideration of nuclear war effects. These developments have led the authors to calculate, using new data and improved models, the potential global environmental effects of dust and smoke clouds (henceforth referred to as nuclear dust and smoke) generated in a nuclear war. They neglect the short-term effects of blast, fire, and radiation. Most of the world's population could probably survive the initial nuclear exchange and would inherit the postwar environment. Accordingly, the longer-term and global-scale aftereffects of nuclear war might prove to be as important as the immediate consequences of the war

  19. Global nuclear material flow/control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.S.; Fasel, P.K.; Riese, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of an international regime for nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool which treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. The prototype model developed visually represents the fundamental data, information, and capabilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle in a framework supportive of national or an international perspective. This includes an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, facility specific geographic identification, and the capability to estimate resource requirements for the management and control of nuclear material. The model establishes the foundation for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material and supports the development of other pertinent algorithmic capabilities necessary to undertake further global nuclear material related studies

  20. Management of Global Nuclear Materials for International Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T; Choi, J-S

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear materials were first used to end the World War II. They were produced and maintained during the cold war for global security reasons. In the succeeding 50 years since the Atoms for Peace Initiative, nuclear materials were produced and used in global civilian reactors and fuel cycles intended for peaceful purposes. The Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1970 established a framework for appropriate applications of both defense and civilian nuclear activities by nuclear weapons states and non-nuclear weapons states. As global inventories of nuclear materials continue to grow, in a diverse and dynamically changing manner, it is time to evaluate current and future trends and needed actions: what are the current circumstances, what has been done to date, what has worked and what hasn't? The aim is to identify mutually reinforcing programmatic directions, leading to global partnerships that measurably enhance international security. Essential elements are material protection, control and accountability (MPC and A) of separated nuclear materials, interim storage, and geologic repositories for all nuclear materials destined for final disposal. Cooperation among key partners, such as the MPC and A program between the U.S. and Russia for nuclear materials from dismantled weapons, is necessary for interim storage and final disposal of nuclear materials. Such cooperative partnerships can lead to a new nuclear regime where a complete fuel cycle service with fuel leasing and spent fuel take-back can be offered to reactor users. The service can effectively minimize or even eliminate the incentive or rationale for the user-countries to develop their indigenous enrichment and reprocessing technologies. International cooperation, supported by governments of key countries can be best to facilitate the forum for formation of such cooperative partnerships

  1. Current US nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, O.F.

    2000-01-01

    The Price-Anderson Act Adopted by US Congress in 1957 as the world's first national nuclear liability regime. It is a comprehensive, complicated and unique system and stems from special features of US legal regime and federal system of government. It differs from other systems by providing for 'economic', not legal; channeling of liability to facility operator and not recommended as model for other states, but most features adopted by other states and international conventions

  2. Global Status of Nuclear Power: Prospects and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayobeka, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    Global energy requirements and the share of electricity in total energy consumption are increasing rapidly, and the contribution of nuclear power is projected to increase significantly. Out of the 29 countries currently using nuclear power for electricity generation, 22 intend to allow new plants to be built, and, of those, the majority are actively supporting the increased use of nuclear power, some by providing incentives. Most of these countries are expected to build reactors with a generating capacity of over 1000 MW(e). Only three countries continue to have a policy to phase out the use of nuclear energy in the future by not replacing existing operating nuclear power plants and with no consideration of the option of new nuclear plants.In addition, a growing number of countries are expressing interest in introducing nuclear power. Of the more than 60 countries that have expressed such an interest in recent years, over 20 are actively considering nuclear power programmes to meet their energy needs and the others have expressed interest in understanding the issues associated with the introduction of nuclear power.The drivers for rising expectations for nuclear power include: growing energy demand, concern over national energy supply security, the increasingly volatile price of fossil fuels and global environmental concerns. The drivers appear to be the same for countries expanding existing nuclear programmes and those seeking to introduce programmes. The projections made by different international organizations indicate a significant growth in the use of nuclear power. The IAEA projections indicate a world total for nuclear electrical generating capacity of between 445 and 543 GW(e) by 2020 and between 511 and 807 GW(e) by 2030. This paper takes a detailed look into the global status of nuclear power, highlighting challenges and prospects of the technology going into the next century.(author).

  3. Can global warming save nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear powered electricity generation in the United Kingdom has an uncertain future. The relative costs of generating electricity by nuclear fission compared to other means and the need for a desirable mixture or ''portfolio'' of energy sources in the electricity industry are identified as the key to this uncertainty. The author argues that Government commitments to reducing Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions, and hence global warming, may strengthen arguments in favour of a firm commitment to nuclear power, as even modern fossil-fuelled power plants emit nearly 90 times as much CO as nuclear plants. (UK)

  4. Globalization of ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swayne, Rick; Erler, Bryan A.

    2006-01-01

    With the globalization of the nuclear industry, it is clear that the reactor suppliers are based in many countries around the world (such as United States, France, Japan, Canada, South Korea, South Africa) and they will be marketing their reactors to many countries around the world (such as US, China, South Korea, France, Canada, Finland, Taiwan). They will also be fabricating their components in many different countries around the world. With this situation, it is clear that the requirements of ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards need to be adjusted to accommodate the regulations, fabricating processes, and technology of various countries around the world. It is also very important for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) to be able to assure that products meeting the applicable ASME Code requirements will provide the same level of safety and quality assurance as those products currently fabricated under the ASME accreditation process. To do this, many countries are in the process of establishing or changing their regulations, and it is important for ASME to interface with the appropriate organizations in those countries, in order to ensure there is effective use of ASME Codes and standards around the world. (authors)

  5. Nuclear transportation: The global vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, D.; Blowers, A.

    1996-01-01

    The movement of nuclear materials - spent fuel, plutonium and uranium and radioactive wastes - has become an issue of international political significance. It has generated considerable attention from a developing network of NGOs focussing on movements between France and Japan. The paper discusses the conflicts and their implications for six basic principles of radioactive waste management

  6. Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management Preliminary Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E; Dreicer, M.

    2006-01-01

    The world is at a turning point, moving away from the Cold War nuclear legacy towards a future global nuclear enterprise; and this presents a transformational challenge for nuclear materials management. Achieving safety and security during this transition is complicated by the diversified spectrum of threat 'players' that has greatly impacted nonproliferation, counterterrorism, and homeland security requirements. Rogue states and non-state actors no longer need self-contained national nuclear expertise, materials, and equipment due to availability from various sources in the nuclear market, thereby reducing the time, effort and cost for acquiring a nuclear weapon (i.e., manifestations of latency). The terrorist threat has changed the nature of military and national security requirements to protect these materials. An Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management (IGNMM) approach would address the existing legacy nuclear materials and the evolution towards a nuclear energy future, while strengthening a regime to prevent nuclear weapon proliferation. In this paper, some preliminary concepts and studies of IGNMM will be presented. A systematic analysis of nuclear materials, activities, and controls can lead to a tractable, integrated global nuclear materials management architecture that can help remediate the past and manage the future. A systems approach is best suited to achieve multi-dimensional and interdependent solutions, including comprehensive, end-to-end capabilities; coordinated diverse elements for enhanced functionality with economy; and translation of goals/objectives or standards into locally optimized solutions. A risk-informed basis is excellent for evaluating system alternatives and performances, and it is especially appropriate for the security arena. Risk management strategies--such as defense-in-depth, diversity, and control quality--help to weave together various technologies and practices into a strong and robust security fabric. Effective

  7. Feeding the nuclear pipeline: Enabling a global nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear energy, which exhibits a unique combination of environmental and sustainable attributes, appears strongly positioned to play a much larger and more pivotal role in the mix of future global energy supplies than it has played in the past. Unfortunately, enrolment patterns in nuclear engineering programmes have seriously eroded over the past decade - causing alarmingly low enrolment levels in many countries by the turn of the century and a sobering concern that the nuclear manpower pipeline cannot keep up with the emerging needs of the nuclear industry. On the positive side, enrolment patterns within the United States are now generally on the rise, at least at the undergraduate level. A few of the particularly successful efforts initiated by various sectors of the U.S. nuclear infrastructure to stimulate this rebound are shared in this paper with the hope that some of them might be beneficially employed in other global settings. (author)

  8. Nuclear power for sustainable development. Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamantiades, A.; Kessides, I.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in nuclear power has been revived as a result of volatile fossil fuel prices, concerns about the security of energy supplies, and global climate change. This paper describes the current status and future plans for expansion of nuclear power, the advances in nuclear reactor technology, and their impacts on the associated risks and performance of nuclear power. Advanced nuclear reactors have been designed to be simpler and safer, and to have lower costs than currently operating reactors. By addressing many of the public health and safety risks that plagued the industry since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, these reactors may help break the current deadlock over nuclear power. In that case, nuclear power could make a significant contribution towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, significant issues persist, fueling reservations among the public and many decision makers. Nuclear safety, disposal of radioactive wastes, and proliferation of nuclear explosives need to be addressed in an effective and credible way if the necessary public support is to be obtained. (author)

  9. Nuclear standards: current issues and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of the important issues that currently face the nuclear standards field is presented and a discussion of how each of these issues is being resolved is given. The economic benefits that properly developed standards produce are listed

  10. Nuclear friction calculated from nucleon currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi, M.; Vinas, X.; Barranco, M.; La Rana, G.; Leray, S.; Lucas, R.; Ngo, C.; Tomasi, E.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear friction can be connected to the number of nucleons exchanged between two interacting nuclei. The proximity scaling allows to reduce this problem to a calculation of the nucleon current between two semi infinite slabs of nuclear matter facing each other. In this paper we review the approximations and the results concerning this problem with a special emphasis on the physical ideas. Applications of nucleons currents to Fermi jets and to the calculation of a part of the imaginary potential are also discussed

  11. Global architecture of innovative nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva-Andrievskaya, L.N.; Kagramanyan, V.S.; Usanov, V.I.; )

    2011-01-01

    The study Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems Based on Thermal and Fast Reactors including a Closed Fuel Cycle (GAINS), aimed at harmonization of tools used to assess various options for innovative development of nuclear energy, modeling of jointly defined scenarios and analysis of obtained results is presented in the paper. Objectives and methods of the study, issues of spent fuel and fissile materials management are discussed. Investment risks and economic indicators are also described [ru

  12. Regional and global significance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    Measures to combat poverty and improve the standard of living in countries of the Third World will inevitably boost global demand for energy, and energy conservation measures will not be able to offset this increase. Nuclear energy will regain significance in the framework of approaches adopted to resolve the energy problem, which primarily is an ecologic problem created by an extremely large flow of materials. The extraordinarily high energy density of nuclear fuels can contribute to markedly reduce the flow of materials; and at that, electric energy is an efficient substitute for primary energy forms. Thus nuclear electricity generation is of double benefit to the ecology. Engineering goals in nuclear technology thus gain a service aspect, with progress in power plant engineering and design aiming not only at enhanced engineered safety, but also at regaining public acceptance of and confidence in nuclear power plant technology. (orig./UA) [de

  13. The future of nuclear power worldwide and the role of the global nuclear energy partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurgeon, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation is entitled, 'The Future of Nuclear Power Worldwide and the Role of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership', and the core message in one sentence is: When we look at the challenges of meeting our growing energy demands, providing for energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, we must conclude that nuclear power has to play a significant and growing role in meeting these challenges. Similarly, the mission of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership is to foster the safe and secure worldwide expansion of nuclear energy. GNEP comes at a crucial time in the burgeoning expansion of nuclear power. It is the only comprehensive proposal to close the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States, and engage the international community to minimize proliferation risks as well as provide and benefit from cooperation in policy formation, technical support, and technology and infrastructure development. Nuclear power's poised renaissance is encouraging, but it will require public support, expanded R and D activities and facilities, and increases in human capital needed for wide-scale construction and operation of new nuclear plants. Despite recent political currents, Germany can, too, become a part of this renaissance and become a full partner in the global partnership that shares a common vision for nuclear power's expansion. (orig.)

  14. Current status of nuclear engineering education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladino, N.J.

    1975-01-01

    The 65 colleges and universities offering undergraduate degrees in nuclear engineering and the 15 schools offering strong nuclear engineering options are, in general, doing a good job to meet the current spectrum of job opportunities. But, nuclear engineering programs are not producing enough graduates to meet growing demands. They currently receive little aid and support from their customers --industry and government--in the form of scholarships, grants, faculty research support, student thesis and project support, or student summer jobs. There is not enough interaction between industry and universities. Most nuclear engineering programs are geared too closely to the technology of the present family of reactors and too little to the future breeder reactors and controlled thermonuclear reactors. In addition, nuclear engineering programs attract too few women and members of minority ethnic groups. Further study of the reasons for this fact is needed so that effective corrective action can be taken. Faculty in nuclear engineering programs should assume greater initiative to provide attractive and objective nuclear energy electives for technical and nontechnical students in other disciplines to improve their technical understanding of the safety and environmental issues involved. More aggressive and persistent efforts must be made by nuclear engineering schools to obtain industry support and involvement in their programs

  15. Innovative global architecture for sustainable nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, John; Kagramanyan, Vladimir; Poplavskaya, Elena; Edwards, Geoffrey; Dixon, Brent; Usanov, Vladimir; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Beatty, Randall

    2011-01-01

    The INPRO collaborative project 'Global architecture of innovative nuclear energy systems based on thermal and fast reactors with the inclusion of a closed nuclear fuel cycle (GAINS)' was one of several scenario studies implemented in the IAEA in recent years. The objective of GAINS was to develop a standard framework for assessing future nuclear energy systems (NESs) taking into account sustainable development, and to validate the results through sample analyses. Belgium, Canada, China, the Czech Republic, France, India, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, Slovakia, Ukraine, USA, the European Commission and Argentina as an observer participated in the project. The results received are discussed in the paper, including: development of a heterogeneous multi-group model of a global NES, estimation of nuclear energy demand, identification of a representative set of reactors and fuel cycles, evaluation capability of available analytical and modelling tools, and quantitative analysis of the different options of the global architecture. It was shown that the approach used contributes to development of a coherent vision of driving forces for nuclear energy system development and deployment. (author)

  16. Introducing nuclear power into currently non-nuclear states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gert, Claassen

    2007-01-01

    As the nuclear renaissance gains momentum, many countries that currently have no nuclear power plants will begin to consider introducing them. It is anticipated that smaller reactors such as the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) will not only be sold to current nuclear states to also to states where there is currently no nuclear experience. A range of issues would have to be considered for nuclear plants to be sold to non-nuclear states, such as the appropriate regulatory environment, standardization and codes, non-proliferation, security of supply, obtaining experienced merchant operators, appropriate financial structures and education and training. The paper considers nine major issues that need to be addressed by governments and vendors alike: 1) political enabling framework, 2) regulatory framework, 3) responsible owner, 4) responsible operator, 5) finance, 6) contact management, 7) fuel supply and waste management framework, 8) training and education, and 9) industrial infrastructure. International cooperation by organisations such as the IAEA, financial institutions and international suppliers will be required to ensure that developing countries as well as developed ones share the benefits of the nuclear renaissance. The opportunities that the nuclear industry affords to develop local skills, create job opportunities and to develop local manufacturing industries are among the important reasons that the South African Government has decided to support and fund the development of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor project. (author)

  17. Introducing nuclear power into currently non-nuclear states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claassen, Gert

    2007-01-01

    As the nuclear renaissance gains momentum, many countries that currently have no nuclear power plants will begin to consider introducing them. It is anticipated that smaller reactors such as the Pebble Bed Modulator Reactor (PBMR) will not only be sold to current nuclear states to also to states where there is currently no nuclear experience. A range of issues would have to be considered for nuclear plants to be solid to non-nuclear states, such as the appropriate regulatory environment, standardization and codes, non-proliferation, security of supply, obtaining experienced merchant operators, appropriate financial structures and education and training. The paper considers nine major issues that need to be addressed by governments and vendors alike. International cooperation by organisations such as the IAEA, financial institutions and international suppliers will be required to ensure that developing countries as well as developed ones share the benefits of the nuclear renaissance. The opportunities that the nuclear industry affords to develop local skills, create job opportunities and to develop local manufacturing industries are among the important reasons that the South African Government has decided to support and fund the development of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor project. These considerations are included in the paper. (author)

  18. Nuclear power and the logic of globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizsaecker, C.C. von

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses effects and results of globalization for nuclear power and other options of electricity generation. According to the present state of knowledge, it will not be possible to meet the growing worldwide energy requirement with fossil and renewable energy sources only - also because of the CO 2 problem. Consequently, nuclear power will remain an important alternative. On an international scale, this applies in particular to large countries, such as China and India, as large national economies particularly benefit from the economies of scale offered by nuclear power. This could well make Chinese nuclear technology a product for the world market. Thinking along these lines has not really gained ground in Germany, as nuclear power, being a technology requiring considerably capital outlay, is considered unsuitable for southern countries. It is an illusion to believe that Germany's opting out of the use of nuclear power could be a model to others. Instead, we are faced by the ethical question of how we can help to minimize the accident risks of nuclear facilities worldwide. We can do so only by maintaining the use of nuclear power and exporting our level of safety, for the risks will not become any smaller merely as a result of our opting out. (orig.) [de

  19. Global Nuclear Safety and Security Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lingquan

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the Regulatory Network are: - to contribute to the effectiveness of nuclear regulatory systems; - to contribute to continuous enhancements, and - to achieve and promote radiation and nuclear safety and security by: • Enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of international cooperation in the regulation of nuclear and radiation safety of facilities and activities; • Enabling adequate access by regulators to relevant safety and security information; • Promoting dissemination of information on safety and security issues as well as information of good practices for addressing and resolving these issues; • Enabling synergies among different web based networks with a view to strengthening and enhancing the global nuclear safety framework and serving the specific needs of regulators and international organizations; • Providing additional information to the public on international regulatory cooperation in safety and security matters

  20. Current challenges for education of nuclear engineers. Beyond nuclear basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfelder, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In past decades, curricula for the education of nuclear engineers (either as a major or minor subject) have been well established all over the world. However, from the point of view of a nuclear supplier, recent experiences in large and complex new build as well as modernization projects have shown that important competences required in these projects were not addressed during the education of young graduates. Consequently, in the past nuclear industry has been obliged to either accept long periods for job familiarization, or to develop and implement various dedicated internal training measures. Although the topics normally addressed in nuclear engineering education (like neutron and reactor physics, nuclear materials or thermohydraulics and the associated calculation methods) build up important competences, this paper shows that the current status of nuclear applications requires adaptations of educational curricula. As a conclusion, when academic nuclear engineering curricula start taking into account current competence needs in nuclear industry, it will be for the benefit of the current and future generation of nuclear engineers. They will be better prepared for their future job positions and career perspectives, especially on an international level. The recommendations presented should not only be of importance for the nuclear fission field, but also for the fusion community. Here, the Horizon 2020 Roadmap to Fusion as published in 2012 now is focusing on ITER and on a longer-term development of fusion technology for a future demonstration reactor DEMO. The very challenging work program is leading to a strong need for exactly those skills that are described in this article.

  1. Current challenges for education of nuclear engineers. Beyond nuclear basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, Christian [AREVA GmbH, Offenbach (Germany). Training Center

    2014-07-15

    In past decades, curricula for the education of nuclear engineers (either as a major or minor subject) have been well established all over the world. However, from the point of view of a nuclear supplier, recent experiences in large and complex new build as well as modernization projects have shown that important competences required in these projects were not addressed during the education of young graduates. Consequently, in the past nuclear industry has been obliged to either accept long periods for job familiarization, or to develop and implement various dedicated internal training measures. Although the topics normally addressed in nuclear engineering education (like neutron and reactor physics, nuclear materials or thermohydraulics and the associated calculation methods) build up important competences, this paper shows that the current status of nuclear applications requires adaptations of educational curricula. As a conclusion, when academic nuclear engineering curricula start taking into account current competence needs in nuclear industry, it will be for the benefit of the current and future generation of nuclear engineers. They will be better prepared for their future job positions and career perspectives, especially on an international level. The recommendations presented should not only be of importance for the nuclear fission field, but also for the fusion community. Here, the Horizon 2020 Roadmap to Fusion as published in 2012 now is focusing on ITER and on a longer-term development of fusion technology for a future demonstration reactor DEMO. The very challenging work program is leading to a strong need for exactly those skills that are described in this article.

  2. Current status and future prospects on nuclear industry in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joongjae

    2006-01-01

    It is ny great pleasure to have this chance of speaking at twenty-first KAIF/KNS Annual Conference, with the subject of the current status and future prospects of nuclear industry in Korea. As you all know, since the start of operation in Obninsk, the former Soviet Union, on June 26th, 1954, nuclear generation in the world has expanded continuously for the past 50 years. In 1973, when the first oil crisis hit the world, there were 147 nuclear power plants in operation, supplying only 0.8% of the world energy demand. About 30 years later, by the end of last year, 443 plants were in operation in 32 countries, supplying about 16% of the world power demand. Nuclear power generation is greatly contributing to the energy security of many countries and preservation of global environments. Recently, countries all over the world are becoming aware of the values and importance of nuclear energy which can help respond to energy crises caused by a sharp rise in oil prices and protect the earth from global warming. Due to its high energy density and ability to secure fuel supply at a lower cost, in addition to its cleanliness resulting from almost no emission of greenhouse gases, nuclear power generation is the practical alternative for energy security and the prevention of global warming. However, in the rapidly changing 21st century, the nuclear industries of the world, as well as Korea, are facing more challenges than ever before. The political and social disputes on nuclear generation are continuing while we all are facing urgent challenges, including the concerns about the safety of nuclear generation, procuring site to build nuclear power plants, and the improvement of competitiveness. Please allow me to remind you that it is very important for the world's nuclear societies to cooperate together in order to overcome diverse difficulties along our path and to contribute to the development of mankind and preservation of natural environments with nuclear power as a

  3. Feeding the nuclear pipeline: Enabling a global nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, Alan E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: There is nothing more vital to the advancement of human civilization than the abundance of usable and affordable energy. It underpins national security, economic prosperity, and global stability. Nuclear energy, which exhibits a unique combination of environmental and sustainable attributes, appears strongly positioned to play a much larger and more pivotal role in the mix of future global energy supplies than it has played in the past. Unfortunately, after a fairly rapid growth period within the industrialized nations in the 1960 to 1980 time frame, a variety of factors led to a substantial reduction in commercial nuclear power plant construction (with the possible exception of several Pacific Rim countries). This, in turn, led to a serious erosion in the enrollment patterns of nuclear engineering programs - causing alarmingly low enrollment levels in many counties by the turn of the century. Numerous studies conducted over the past five years have soberly come to the consistent conclusion that the nuclear pipeline cannot keep up with the needs of the nuclear industry. In fact, when combining the aging work force with low matriculation rates in most nuclear engineering academic programs, a huge (and unacceptable) mismatch between needs and supply is strikingly evident. This is further exasperated by the lack of meaningful efforts to capture the knowledge of the 'first nuclear era' professionals in a form that can be effectively transferred to the upcoming generation. Methods must be found to better capture the enormous body of experience already accumulated and both document it and then mentor the new nuclear engineers that do enter the work force to enable them to build upon this experience, rather than having to re-create it. On the positive side, enrollment patterns in the majority of nuclear engineering programs still in existence within the United States are now generally on the rise, at least at the undergraduate level. Some programs have

  4. Global mainpower requirements for projected nuclear programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, S.B.; Lane, J.A.; Rogov, A.; Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1976-01-01

    The scarcity of trained engineers and technicians may be an important bottleneck to the continued growth of nuclear power, particularly in developing countries, if steps are not taken at an early date to insure against such a limitation. This paper presents a quantitative indication of both regional and global needs for trained manpower in all sectors of the nuclear power industry and compares these with estimates of the corresponding output of engineers. Studies of a few selected countries are also presented to illustrate potential problems on a national scale. (orig./UA) [de

  5. Does nuclear energy save global environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki

    2006-01-01

    Since the ecological footprint analysis in 1970s suggested changing consumption patterns and overpopulation concerns, energy policy such as energy conservation and use of renewable energy has become of prime importance. Several results of the long-term energy demand and supply analysis in 2050 or 2100 to reduce drastically carbon dioxide emission as a measure against global warming, showed the necessity of nuclear power deployment as well as maximum efforts to save energy, exploitation of the separation and disposal of carbon dioxide, and shifting energy sources to fuels that emit less greenhouse gases or non-fossil fuels. As a promising means to contribute to long-term energy supply, nuclear power generation is expected with improving safety, economic efficiency, environmental adaptability, and nuclear proliferation resistance of the technologies. (T.Tanaka)

  6. Current Status of Yongbyon Nuclear Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The DPRK has developed Yongbyon Nuclear Complex in Figure 1 since 1960's. Currently it is composed of the reactor facility, fuel fabrication facility including the enrichment center, and the radiochemistry center. Even though many facilities are not modern and economic in the western standards, Yongbyon Nuclear Complex is fully equipped with the entire life cycle of the nuclear installation. The key facilities have been added step by step. For example, the DPRK's nuclear reactor fleet started with the 2 MW IRT-2000 reactor in the middle of 80's. It started with a small scale radioactive isotope separation center nearby. But nowadays the DPRK is constructing a much more larger isotope separation center in the vicinity of its enrichment center along with a potential new UF6 conversion center. The general description over Yongbyon Nuclear Complex is given in this paper. More detailed context of the current status of the center will be discussed in the main symposium purely based on the open source information study.

  7. Current Abstracts Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bales, J.D.; Hicks, S.C. [eds.

    1993-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  8. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metri, Paulo, E-mail: pmetri@terra.com.br [Clube de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  9. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metri, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  10. Global Energy Challenges of the 21. Century and Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinskiy, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    The paper considers the world energy demand till the middle of the century, as well as possible forecasting solution for this challenge. On the base of the mathematical model developed in the Kurchatov Institute in 2003- 2006, the vision of the global nuclear energy system and its potential contribution in the energy mix was analyzed. The rate of rapprochement between specific energy consumptions in different countries of the world is a key parameter determining the energy market strain. It was shown that a continuation of the current world trends of this rapprochement would result in an energy resource deficit already in the nearest future. The energy mix picture would contain an 'unsatisfied demand' area of about 10 000 Mtoe of total energy to be consumed by the mid-century Supposing that the mankind has to meet the 'unsatisfied demand' by nuclear energy, the global energy challenges of the 21. century energy do not impose any upper limit on nuclear energy development, the scale of which would be determined by development opportunities. Russia, as one of the pioneers of the First Nuclear Era, possesses great experience of solving the key issues of nuclear energy of the 20. century, and is capable to play an important role in dealing with the challenges faced by nuclear in the 21. century. (authors)

  11. Global security and the impacts in nuclear matter control: Nuclear Security Summit 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Martonio Mont’Alverne Barreto; Barreto, Midred Cavalcante

    2017-01-01

    Due to the current international security instability, especially resulting from traffic and nuclear terrorism threat proliferation, the Nuclear Security Summits were conceived with the objective of increasing the cooperation between States, institutions and international organisms, as well as conducting a global community in following the guidelines and action plans which have produced curious results such as the reduction and the removal of enriched uranium in some countries, the reinforcement of safeguard installations that store radioactive materials and the establishment of Excellence Centers, qualification, training and technological development in the fight against nuclear weaponry traffic. (author)

  12. Global security and the impacts in nuclear matter control: Nuclear Security Summit 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Martonio Mont’Alverne Barreto; Barreto, Midred Cavalcante, E-mail: barreto@unifor.br, E-mail: midredcb@hotmail.com [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Due to the current international security instability, especially resulting from traffic and nuclear terrorism threat proliferation, the Nuclear Security Summits were conceived with the objective of increasing the cooperation between States, institutions and international organisms, as well as conducting a global community in following the guidelines and action plans which have produced curious results such as the reduction and the removal of enriched uranium in some countries, the reinforcement of safeguard installations that store radioactive materials and the establishment of Excellence Centers, qualification, training and technological development in the fight against nuclear weaponry traffic. (author)

  13. Current nuclear threats and possible responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Frederick K.

    2005-04-01

    Over the last 50 years, the United States has spent more than 100 billion developing and building a variety of systems intended to defend its territory against intercontinental-range ballistic missiles. Most of these systems never became operational and ultimately all were judged ineffective. The United States is currently spending about 10 billion per year developing technologies and systems intended to defend against missiles that might be acquired in the future by North Korea or Iran. This presentation will discuss these efforts ad whether they are likely to be more effective than those of the past. It will also discuss the proper role of anti-ballistic programs at a time when the threat of a nuclear attack on the U.S. by terrorists armed with nuclear weapons is thought to be much higher than the threat of an attack by nuclear-armed ballistic missles.

  14. Nuclear power generation and global heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, Horacio

    1999-01-01

    The Professionals Association and Nuclear Activity of National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) are following with great interest the worldwide discussions on global heating and the role that nuclear power is going to play. The Association has an active presence, as part of the WONUC (recognized by the United Nations as a Non-Governmental Organization) in the COP4, which was held in Buenos Aires in November 1998. The environmental problems are closely related to human development, the way of power production, the techniques for industrial production and exploitation fields. CO 2 is the most important gas with hothouse effects, responsible of progressive climatic changes, as floods, desertification, increase of average global temperature, thermal expansion in seas and even polar casks melting and ice falls. The consequences that global heating will have on the life and economy of human society cannot be sufficiently emphasized, great economical impact, destruction of ecosystems, loss of great coast areas and complete disappearance of islands owing to water level rise. The increase of power retained in the atmosphere generates more violent hurricanes and storms. In this work, the topics presented in the former AATN Meeting is analyzed in detail and different technological options and perspectives to mitigate CO 2 emission, as well as economical-financial aspects, are explored. (author)

  15. Nuclear energy: current situation and prospects to 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Sue

    2007-04-15

    For close to half a century nuclear fission has been providing reliable supplies of electricity to the UK, with virtually no emissions of carbon dioxide. Over that period, the UK nuclear industry has avoided the emission of over one and a half billion tonnes of CO2. Yet no nuclear plant has been built in the UK for over two decades even though many of the stations in our current fleet are now within a decade or so of the end of their lifetime. Without new plants being ordered soon, the UK's nuclear capacity will decline dramatically, from 23% today to 3% post-2020--just as considerations of supply security and climate change are becoming increasingly important. Elsewhere in the world, many countries such as China, India, Japan, South Korea, Finland and France are building new stations. Other countries such as the USA, South Africa, and some nations that currently do not have nuclear stations (such as Indonesia and Poland) are making preparations for future nuclear stations. Globally capacity factors for nuclear plants are higher than they have ever been, averaging around 85% and with the best stations achieving well over 90%. Lifetime can be 60 years. That the economics of such stations compete well with other technologies is well founded and easily verifiable--especially in the face of rising fossil fuel prices and the pricing in of costs for CO2 emissions--both of which stand to improve the economics of nuclear energy still further. Waste volumes arising from modern plants are just a fraction of those of some earlier stations, and the technologies are in place to deal with them safely and effectively. Following recent reviews and international developments, there is growing confidence that internationally available competitive designs of nuclear plant will provide part of the solution to the UK's long-term energy needs.

  16. Review of Current Nuclear Vacuum System Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.; McCracken, J.; Shope, T.

    2003-01-01

    Nearly all industrial operations generate unwanted dust, particulate matter, and/or liquid wastes. Waste dust and particulates can be readily tracked to other work locations, and airborne particulates can be spread through ventilation systems to all locations within a building, and even vented outside the building - a serious concern for processes involving hazardous, radioactive, or nuclear materials. Several varieties of vacuum systems have been proposed and/or are commercially available for clean up of both solid and liquid hazardous and nuclear materials. A review of current technologies highlights both the advantages and disadvantages of the various systems, and demonstrates the need for a system designed to address issues specific to hazardous and nuclear material cleanup. A review of previous and current hazardous/nuclear material cleanup technologies is presented. From simple conventional vacuums modified for use in industrial operations, to systems specifically engineered for such purposes, the advantages and disadvantages are examined in light of the following criteria: minimal worker exposure; minimal secondary waste generation;reduced equipment maintenance and consumable parts; simplicity of design, yet fully compatible with all waste types; and ease of use. The work effort reviews past, existing and proposed technologies in light of such considerations. Accomplishments of selected systems are presented, including identified areas where technological improvements could be suggested

  17. Current status of nuclear safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Efforts at nuclear safety research have expanded year by year in Japan, in term of money and technical achievement. The Atomic Energy Commission set last year the five year nuclear safety research program, a guideline by which various research institutes will be able to develop their own efforts in a concerted manner. From the results of the nuclear safety research which cover very wide areas ranging from reactor engineering safety, safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, prevention of radiation hazards to the adequate treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, AIJ hereafter focuses of LWR engineering safety and prevents two articles, one introducing the current results of the NSSR program developed by JAERI and the other reporting the LWR reliability demonstration testing projects being promoted by MITI. The outline of these demonstration tests was reported in this report. The tests consist of earthquake resistance reliability test of nuclear power plants, steam generator reliability tests, valve integrity tests, fuel assembly reliability tests, reliability tests of heat affected zones and reliability tests of pumps. (Kobatake, H.)

  18. Current training initiatives at Nuclear Electric plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear Electric, one of the three generating companies to emerge from the demise of the U.K.'s Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB), owns and operates the commercial nuclear power stations in England and Wales. The U.K. government proscribed further construction beyond Sizewell B, the United Kingdom's first pressurized water reactor (PWR) station, pending the outcome of a review of the future of nuclear power to be held in 1994. The major challenges facing Nuclear Electric at its formation in 1990 were therefore to demonstrate that nuclear power is safe, economical, and environmentally acceptable and to complete the PWR station under construction on time and within budget. A significant number of activities were started that were designed to increase output, reduce costs, and ensure that the previous excellent safety standards were maintained. A major activity was to reduce the numbers of staff employed, with a recognition from the outset that this reduction could only be achieved with a significant human resource development program. Future company staff would have to be competent in more areas and more productive. This paper summarizes some of the initiatives currently being pursued throughout the company and the progress toward ensuring that staff with the required competences are available to commission and operate the Sizewell B program in 1994

  19. Implications of nuclear industry globalization for chinese nuclear industry: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhifeng; Ding Qihua; Wang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, globalization of the world nuclear industry has developed into a new phase. Chinese nuclear industry will be inevitably integrated into this trend. Globalization will bring both positive and adverse effects on Chinese nuclear industry. Facing the fierce competition, Chinese companies must rise to many challenges to enter the global nuclear market. And China need to make scientific decisions and take effective measures in various fields of nuclear industry to realized the goal of global development. (authors)

  20. Nuclear energy role and potential for global sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.; Matsui, K.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term energy supply simulation that optimizes the energy system cost until 2100 for the world is being performed, by using the energy module of GRAPE model, where energy demand under the C02 emission constraint etc. is assumed. The model has been taken up for the trial calculation in I PCC the third report . Role and potential of nuclear energy system in the energy options is discussed here from the viewpoint of sustainable development with protecting from global warming. Taking the effort for energy conservation as major premise, carbon-sequestration for fossil fuel, renewable energy and nuclear energy should be altogether developed under the C02 constraint. Especially, fast breeder reactor will be attached importance to, as the 22nd century is approaching, due to its carbon free and resource limitless features when the nuclear generation cost is cheap as a current light water reactor level. It takes time around 30 years in order for breeding of Pu, a fast breeder reactor will begin to be introduced from around 2030. If the period for the technology establish of nuclear fuel cycle is assumed to be 30 years, it is necessary to start technical development right now. If the Kyoto Protocol, the emission constraint on only the developed countries, is extended in 21st century, it will promote the growth of nuclear power in the developed countries in the first half of the century. After 2050, the developing countries will face the shortage of uranium and plutonium. Carbon emission constraint should be covered all countries in the World not only for the developed countries but also for the developing countries. Therefore, it is important that the developing countries will use nuclear power effectively from the viewpoint of harmonization of energy growth and global environment. The policy that nuclear power is considered as Clean Development Mechanism would mitigate such global warming problems

  1. Axial currents and nuclear spin orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamisono, T.; Nojiri, Y.; Matsuta, K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the symmetries in the phenomena in which weak interaction is involved are largely violated, and it is still the up-to-date fore-front to study the structure of the nuclear weak currents and to learn the limitations on the applicabilities of the various relevant conservation laws as well as the nuclear structures studied by the β-decay. In this meeting, research works on the β-decay processes for the past 10 years have focused on the recoil order experiments designed to determine the limits of validity of the conserved vector current (CVC) theory and to test the G parity conservation i.e. the search for the second class currents (SCC), as well as to study the structure of the axial currents. Concerning the SCC, after intensive studies, but with not conclusive results, on the ft values of mirror β-decays in the early seventies, the correlation-type measurements on mass A=8, 12, 19 and 20 systems have been also carried out in various laboratories from 1975. Among those, concerns have been with the mass A=12 nuclear triad, /sup 12/B-/sup 12/C-/sup 12/N, the energy diagram of which is well known. The choice of this triad is because of the test done for the strong CVC predictions using the spectrum shapes of β-rays combined with the experimental analogue γ-width in /sup 12/C as well as those relevant nuclear structures. Thus, this A=12 system provides the best testing ground for the research described above

  2. Global Ocean Currents Database (GOCD) (NCEI Accession 0093183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Ocean Currents Database (GOCD) is a collection of quality controlled ocean current measurements such as observed current direction and speed obtained from...

  3. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John

    2008-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  4. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John [Idaho National laboratory, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  5. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  6. Global warming---The role for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E. Jr.; Fulkerson, W.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear power is currently making an important contribution to our energy requirements. It provides 17% of the world's electricity today --- almost 20% in the US. Reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide over the next 30 to 50 years sufficiently to address the issue of global warming can only be accomplished by a combination of much improved energy efficiency, substantial growth in use of nuclear power, and substantial growth in use of renewable energy. This paper discusses new initiatives in the major nuclear technologies (LWR, HTGR, LMR) which are emerging from a fundamental reexamination of nuclear power in response to the challenges and opportunities in the 21st century. To fulfill its role, nuclear power must gain worldwide acceptance as a viable energy option. The use of modern technology and ''passive'' safety features in next-generation nuclear power plants offers the potential to simplify their design and operation, enhance their safety, and reduce the cost of electricity. With such improvements, we believe nuclear power can regain public confidence and make a significant contribution to our energy future. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. The global nuclear safety regime and its impact in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, C.

    2004-01-01

    This work describes the Global Nuclear Safety Regime that was established worldwide after the accident at the Tchernobyl nuclear power plant. This regime is composed of biding international safety conventions, globally accepted safety standard, and a voluntary peer review system. The impact of this Global Regime in Brazil is also discussed. (Author)

  8. Prevent, Counter, and Respond - A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats (FY 2016-FY2020)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s second core mission is reducing global nuclear dangers by preventing the acquisition of nuclear weapons or weapons-usable materials, countering efforts to acquire such weapons or materials, and responding to nuclear or radiological incidents. In 2015, NNSA reorganized its nonproliferation activities based on core competencies and realigned its counterterrorism and counterproliferation functions to more efficiently address both current and emerging threats and challenges. The reorganization accompanied the March 2015 release of the first ever Prevent, Counter, and Respond – A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats. This report, which NNSA will update annually, highlights key nuclear threat trends and describes NNSA’s integrated threat reduction strategy.

  9. Bracing up for a global nuclear renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autebert, Remy

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear new build market is dynamic: the nuclear renaissance is here. The challenge facing today the nuclear industry is to meet this strong demand: design and build new reactors..... and ensure an adequate fuel supply for the existing reactors and the new ones. AREVA is getting ready to meet those needs. To answer in the best possible way the call of several new customers, and to make the necessary investments AREVA has made the choice of complementing its own strength with new alliances. When it was created, AREVA has set a new model: an integrated group capable of supplying all parts of the nuclear cycle, from Uranium mining to reactor design construction and servicing, and then up to used fuel management and recycling. This merger of reactor activities and fuel cycle services has proved successful. Focused acquisitions have further strengthened our own capabilities. In addition, AREVA has set-up several alliances to further develop the nuclear market. In the United States, AREVA joined forces with the US utility Constellation to create Uni Star to promoting the EPR. Today, several US utilities are choosing the AREVA's US-EPR. They will benefit from the experience gained in licensing and building the EPR in Finland, in France and soon in China. And they will benefit of course from the unique features of the EPR: easier maintenance, shorter outage, enhanced safety. Willing to meet the growing demand of countries launching a new nuclear program, AREVA set up an alliance with MHI to design a mid-size reactor, ATEMEA 1. Such an alliance allows to speed-up time to market of this new product, which will offer the latest available technologies. In the fuel cycle, AREVA has also developed acquisitions and alliances. As an example, thanks to such an alliance, the new enrichment plant GB-2, could get access to the most efficient centrifugation process. In this fast growing global market, at AREVA we believe into the value of collaboration and partnership to best serve

  10. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities using current criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, E.Y.; Swift, J.J.; Malaro, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    When a licensed nuclear facility ceases operation, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for ensuring that the facility and its site are decontaminated to an acceptable level so that it is safe to release that facility and site for unrestricted public use. Currently, the NRC is developing decommissioning criteria based on reducing public doses from residual contamination in soils and structures at sites released for unrestricted use to as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). Plans are to quantify ALARA in terms of an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an average member of the most highly exposed population group. The NRC is working on a regulatory guidance document to provide a technical basis for translating residual contamination levels to annual dose levels. Another regulatory guide is being developed to provide guidance to the licensee on how to conduct radiological surveys to demonstration compliance with the NRC decommissioning criteria. The methods and approaches used in these regulatory guides on the decommissioning of a nuclear facility are discussed in the paper

  11. Abstracts of 3. congress of global anti-nuclear alliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The 3 congress of global anti-nuclear alliance was held on 18-20 May, 2000 in Astana. There were 55 reports on different aspects of nuclear disarmament; nuclear safeguards; safe operation of nuclear power plants; rehabilitation of population and lands, damaged from many-years tests in Semipalatinsk site; radiobiological monitoring of ecosystems and others presented at the congress

  12. An Overview of Global Nuclear Security Regime and Its Introduction into the Nigerian Educational System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear security is the prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material, other radioactive substances or their associated facilities. The responsibility for creating and sustaining a nuclear security regime for the protection of nuclear and other radiological material clearly belongs to the respective country. Within a State the nuclear security regime resembles layers of an onion with equipment and personnel securing the borders and ports representing the outer layer. Nuclear power, research reactor and nuclear medicine facilities constitute the various inner layers down to the actual target materials. Components of any nuclear security regime include not only technological systems, but the human resources needed to manage, operate, administer and maintain equipment, hardware and software. Nigeria is a non-nuclear weapons state and without a large-scale nuclear industry, but have a major role to play in preventing nuclear terrorism globally. It is pertinent to know that as the Fukushima accident and other nuclear accidents have demonstrated, nuclear crises do not respect borders. Therefore, nuclear threats must be addressed by all nations. Furthermore, to set the groundwork for the safe, peaceful and stable use of nuclear energy in Nigeria and all over the world, efforts must be made to enhance nuclear safety and security. This paper discusses the present international nuclear security regime and possibility of integrating it into the Nigerian educational system in view of current global perspectives and nuclear renaissance.

  13. Current status of nuclear physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4 He, 7 Li, 9 Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested

  14. Current status of nuclear physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, Carlos A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce (United States); Hussein, Mahir S., E-mail: hussein@if.usp.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2015-12-15

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate

  15. Transmutation and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresee, James

    2007-01-01

    In the January 2006 State of the Union address, President Bush announced a new Advanced Energy Initiative, a significant part of which is the Global Nuclear Energy Initiative. Its details were described on February 6, 2006 by the U.S. Secretary of Energy. In summary, it has three parts: (1) a program to expand nuclear energy use domestically and in foreign countries to support economic growth while reducing the release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. (2) an expansion of the U.S. nuclear infrastructure that will lead to the recycling of spent fuel and a closed fuel cycle and, through transmutation, a reduction in the quantity and radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and its proliferation concerns, and (3) a partnership with other fuel cycle nations to support nuclear power in additional nations by providing small nuclear power plants and leased fuel with the provision that the resulting spent fuel would be returned by the lessee to the lessor. The final part would have the effect of stabilizing the number of fuel cycle countries with attendant non-proliferation value. Details will be given later in the paper. Commercial spent fuel recycling, pioneered in the U.S., has not been carried out since the nineteen seventies following a decision by President Carter to forego fuel reprocessing and to recommend similar practices by other countries. However, many nations have continued spent fuel reprocessing, generally using the U.S.-developed PUREX process. The latest to do so are Japan, which began operations of an 800 metric tons (tonnes) per year PUREX reprocessing plant at Rokkasho-mura in northern Honshu in 2006 and China, which recently began operations of a separations pilot plant, also using PUREX. Countries using the PUREX process, recycle the separated plutonium to light water reactors (LWRs) in a mixed plutonium/uranium oxide fuel called MOX. Plutonium recycling in LWRs, which are used for electricity production in all nuclear power nations, reduces

  16. Global Sustainable Development: The Role of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, Stanley R.

    1990-01-01

    The inevitable growth in the world's population and the need for a reasonable standard of living for all nations will drive the demand for energy to much higher levels than the world has yet experienced. A radical improvement in energy efficiency and conservation could limit the global annual demand to 100 GJ per person. consumption of North America. With the developing nations achieving a standard of living commensurate with this level, the global energy demand would increase by a factor of 2.5 to 1000 EJ per year. Concern over the impact of CO 2 emissions on global warming will likely lead to an international consensus on some reduction in the use of fossil fuels. To maintain environmental sustainability, all nations of the world would need to limit their fossil fuel consumption, particularly those in North America and Europe. Other energy sources will play an important role in all regions. However, the main burden is likely to fall upon nuclear energy as an essential element of the total energy supply. The danger eliminated while sustaining global development if the governments of the world commit to the use of nuclear power on a global scale. The industrial intrastucture can be put in place for such a major international program. A more difficult question is the availability of the necessary financing. On a global scale the financial requirement is within the range of current military expenditures. However, it is clear that not all the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America will be able to finance their own needs. A new international cooperative program will be necessary. The needed change in energy patterns is dramatic and will take time to implement. The change should be underway by the beginning of the next century. Otherwise the world faces the prospect of environmental disaster and social disruption as the nations struggle to improve their living standards through the increased use of fossil fuels. The role of nuclear power in providing the energy for

  17. Current trends in nuclear material transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenscroft, Norman; Oshinowo, Franchone

    1997-01-01

    The business of radioactive material transportation has evolved considerably in the past 40 years. Current practices reflect extensive international experience in handling radioactive cargo within a mature and tested regulatory framework. Nevertheless, new developments continue to have an impact on how shipments of nuclear material are planned and carried out. Entities involved in the transport of radioactive materials must keep abreast of these developments and work together to find innovative solutions to ensure that safe, smooth transport activities may continue. Several recent trends in the regulatory environment and political atmosphere require attention. There are four key trends that we'll be examining today: 1) the reduction in the pool of available commercial carriers; 2) routing restrictions; 3) package validation issues; and 4) increasing political sensitivities. Careful planning and cooperative measures are necessary to alleviate problems in each of these areas. (author)

  18. Nuclear Winter: Global Consequences of Multiple Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Pollack, J. B.; Sagan, Carl

    1983-12-01

    The potential global atmospheric and climatic consequences of nuclear war are investigated using models previously developed to study the effects of volcanic eruptions. Although the results are necessarily imprecise, due to a wide range of possible scenarios and uncertainty in physical parameters, the most probable first-order effects are serious. Significant hemispherical attenuation of the solar radiation flux and subfreezing land temperatures may be caused by fine dust raised in high-yield nuclear surface bursts and by smoke from city and forest fires ignited by airbursts of all yields. For many simulated exchanges of several thousand megatons, in which dust and smoke are generated and encircle the earth within 1 to 2 weeks, average light levels can be reduced to a few percent of ambient and land temperatures can reach -15 degrees to -25 degrees C. The yield threshold for major optical and climatic consequences may be very low: only about 100 megatons detonated over major urban centers can create average hemispheric smoke optical depths greater than 2 for weeks and, even in summer, subfreezing land temperatures for months. In a 5000-megaton war, at northern mid-latitude sites remote from targets, radioactive fallout on time scales of days to weeks can lead to chronic mean doses of up to 50 rads from external whole-body gamma-ray exposure, with a likely equal or greater internal dose from biologically active radionuclides. Large horizontal and vertical temperature gradients caused by absorption of sunlight in smoke and dust clouds may greatly accelerate transport of particles and radioactivity from the Northern Hemisphere to the Southern Hemisphere. When combined with the prompt destruction from nuclear blast, fires, and fallout and the later enhancement of solar ultraviolet radiation due to ozone depletion, long-term exposure to cold, dark, and radioactivity could pose a serious threat to human survivors and to other species.

  19. Current status and improvement of the nuclear physics experiment course for speciality of nuclear physics and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Guopu; Guo Lanying

    1999-01-01

    The author reviews the current status of the nuclear physics experiment course for speciality of nuclear physics and nuclear technology in higher education and expresses author's views on the future improvement of the nuclear physics experiment course

  20. The current status and prospect of nuclear power in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, S. [State Nuclear Power Technology Corp., Beijing (China)

    2014-07-01

    'Full text:' China's nuclear power development has attracted world attention. This paper presented the current status of the nuclear power plant in China. By June 30, 2014, China has 20 operational units of 18.05GWe installed capacity, taking up 1.44% of the country's total. All the units have been operating well without any events above INES Level 1 in 2013. China also has 28 units of 30.5GWe installed capacity under construction, which accounts for around 40% of that in the world. The paper presented the progress of AP1000 in China. China made a national plan for 2011 to 2020 with the target to reach 58GWe operational nuclear power and 30GWe under construction by 2020. The Chinese President Xi Jinping urged recently to speed up the approval for new builds. This paper also presented the work of 'Go Global' by Chinese nuclear companies, i.e., their development of international market. (author)

  1. The current status and prospect of nuclear power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, S.

    2014-01-01

    'Full text:' China's nuclear power development has attracted world attention. This paper presented the current status of the nuclear power plant in China. By June 30, 2014, China has 20 operational units of 18.05GWe installed capacity, taking up 1.44% of the country's total. All the units have been operating well without any events above INES Level 1 in 2013. China also has 28 units of 30.5GWe installed capacity under construction, which accounts for around 40% of that in the world. The paper presented the progress of AP1000 in China. China made a national plan for 2011 to 2020 with the target to reach 58GWe operational nuclear power and 30GWe under construction by 2020. The Chinese President Xi Jinping urged recently to speed up the approval for new builds. This paper also presented the work of 'Go Global' by Chinese nuclear companies, i.e., their development of international market. (author)

  2. Key technologies for the current and future challenges of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Sancho, Lou; Roulleaux Dugage, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The current challenges of the nuclear industry are the result of too many uncertainties: low GDP growth of OECD countries, booming state debts, deregulated electricity markets, growing safety regulation and diminishing public support. As a result, nuclear technology companies tend to entrench in their current installed base, while attempting to develop global partnerships to market their products to new nuclear countries, along with viable financing schemes. But new opportunities are lying ahead. In a future context of effective and global climate policies, nuclear energy will have to play a key role in a new energy ecosystem aside the two other clean air energy production technologies: renewable energies and electricity storage. And still, the perspective of long-term sustainability of nuclear energy is still high. This paper explores the opportunity for key innovative technologies to shift the way we think about nuclear in the future energy system while addressing these major challenges. (author)

  3. Current status of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power is not a viable energy source for Sri Lanka at present because of a number of reasons, the main reason being the non-availability of small and economically viable nuclear power plants. However several suppliers of nuclear power plants are in the process of developing small and medium power plants (SMPRs) which could be economically competitive with coal. The paper deals with past and future trends of nuclear power plants, their economics and safety. It also deals with environmental effects and public acceptance of nuclear power plants

  4. Global Vigilence. Strengthening Nuclear Security Worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism is a continuing threat. Progress has been made in recent years in ensuring that nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as associated facilities, are properly protected everywhere in the world. But much remains to be done

  5. Current nuclear programmes in third world countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, Anna.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1964, when China became the fifth declared nuclear weapons state NWS (joining the US, Soviet Union, Britain and France), no other state has openly declared a nuclear capacity. But four states - Israel, South Africa, India and Pakistan - are now believed to have such a capacity. This chapter will briefly document the nuclear weapons programmes of these four 'threshold' countries which possess the industrial infrastructure to enable them to produce nuclear weapons' but assiduously refrain from publicly expressing any interest in acquiring such weapons. The chapter will go on to discuss those states which are not on the threshold but which are attempting to become nuclear-capable through building the necessary technology or acquiring it on the international market. The political motivation for these countries to 'go nuclear', and the assistance they have received in this endeavour from the NWSs themselves, will also be discussed. (author)

  6. Current assessment and future potential of the international nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    This is a study of the current and future situation of the international nuclear market. This paper highlights the projections as seen not only by Bechtel Power Corporation, but also by the international nuclear community. It covers in particular the electric power growth projection; the percentage of probable nuclear power generation; operating services for existing nuclear power plants; and the nuclear fuel cycle. (NEA) [fr

  7. Nuclear energy development in the 21st century: Global scenarios and regional trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    available nuclear power development modelling tools. The results of the study will constitute one of the inputs for formulating an INPRO vision on global nuclear energy sustainability in the twenty-first century, together with the results of several other studies currently being carried out in the framework of INPRO's Programme Area B, including the INPRO Collaborative Projects on Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Systems based on Thermal and Fast Reactors including a Closed Fuel Cycle (GAINS) and Fuel Cycles for Innovative Nuclear Systems through Integration of Technologies (FINITE), Investigations of the 233U/Th Fuel Cycle (ThFC) and Meeting Energy Needs in the Period of Raw Material Insufficiency during the 21st Century (RMI)

  8. Nuclear and global warming issues at a deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesarovic, M.

    2001-01-01

    The present challenge is to develop such an energy mix that best supports industrial and societal development and improves the quality of life, while simultaneously minimizing health and environmental impacts. Although two decades ago nuclear was considered to be the energy of the future, it is often overlooked in this context and is now even being questioned in many parts of the world. But, for a world facing increased energy demand and growing concerns about global warming due to the emissions of the 'greenhouse' gasses from burning fossil fuels, nuclear power may become the first priority again, since the nuclear power plants proved to be a reliable and safe source of electricity that produce no greenhouse or acid rain gases, and have already demonstrated their economic competitiveness with alternative generating sources of electrical energy. The competitiveness of nuclear power depends essentially on capital investments which must remain low enough to secure its competitive position. However, nuclear electricity in most countries is less competitive than coal and gas, particularly so after deregulation and liberalization of electricity markets have taken place. In the European Union (EU) there are at present 151 reactor blocks and 68 more in the rest of the European continent. Nuclear power plants in EU currently generate about 35% of electricity, but with the new competitive markets, a major decline in the use of coal is compensated for by an increase in gas because of its lower carbon content, and thus almost all new power stations fully or partially use gas as fuel. However, nuclear power is expected to remain a necessary component of the EU's energy mix for the next 20 years and beyond, and in Central and Eastern Europe it is continuing its growth. While Hungary recently gave up plans to construct two more blocks in its 'Pacs' plant, the Czech government agreed to continue construction of two blocks at its 'Temelin' plant. In Rumania, the second unit of

  9. Calculating the new global nuclear terrorism threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Experts from around the world are meeting at the IAEA on 29 October to 2 November at an international symposium on nuclear safeguards, verification, and security. A special session on 2 November focuses on the issue of combating nuclear terrorism. Although terrorists have never used a nuclear weapon, reports that some terrorist groups, particularly al-Qaeda, have attempted to acquire nuclear material is a cause of great concern. According to the IAEA, since 1993, there have been 175 cases of trafficking in nuclear material and 201 cases of trafficking in other radioactive sources (medical, industrial). However, only 18 of these cases have actually involved small amounts of highly enriched uranium or plutonium, the material needed to produce a nuclear bomb. IAEA experts judge the quantities involved to be insufficient to construct a nuclear explosive device. The IAEA experts have evaluated the risks for nuclear terrorism in these three categories: Nuclear facilities; Nuclear Material; Radioactive Sources. The IAEA is proposing a number of new initiatives, including strengthening border monitoring, helping States search for and dispose of orphan sources and strengthening the capabilities of the IAEA Emergency Response Centre to react to radiological emergencies following a terrorist attack. In the short term, the IAEA estimates that at least $30-$50 million annually will be needed to strengthen and expand its programs to meet this terrorist threat

  10. Current Comparison of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Piet; Trond Bjornard; Brent Dixon; Robert Hill; Gretchen Matthern; David Shropshire

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares potential nuclear fuel cycle strategies--once-through, recycling in thermal reactors, sustained recycle with a mix of thermal and fast reactors, and sustained recycle with fast reactors. Initiation of recycle starts the draw-down of weapons-usable material and starts accruing improvements for geologic repositories and energy sustainability. It reduces the motivation to search for potential second geologic repository sites. Recycle in thermal-spectrum nuclear reactors achieves several recycling objectives; fast nuclear reactors achieve all of them

  11. Current operating practices of nuclear insurance pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the nuclear pooling system and co-operation between the pools, present practice and capacity, with a breakdown of the limits for third party liability and material damage. The author also describes the relationship between the pools and the nuclear operators (the policyholders), and concludes that the nuclear pools have been successful in serving the interests of their member companies, their policyholders and the governments as they have provided a stable insurance market by making available capacity in amounts that had never before been assembled and placed at risk in a single location. 2 tabs

  12. Current trends in nuclear medicine in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, S.; Ahmed, S.

    1990-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of dissertations on research projects submitted by the fellows of M. Sc. (Nuclear Medicine) who undertook a two-year intensive course initiated in 1989 by the Centre for Nuclear Studies, PINSTECH, Islamabad. The project covered major aspects of nuclear medicine including the cardiovascular, endocrine, haematopoietic, hepatobiliary, immune and skeletal systems. The results obtained proved interesting and of significant clinical relevance. Majority of essays addressed some new aspects of the problems and the resultants information should prove interesting for both local and foreign enthusiasts. This book proves a reflection of the high quality of work done by the faculty and the fellows. (orig./A.B.)

  13. The global mission of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, J.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of nuclear power to satisfying the future energy needs of mankind and to alleviating the greenhouse effect problem is discussed. It is concluded that in addition to fossil fuels and the hydro-energy, nuclear power is the only macroeconomic source of energy for the majority of countries in this and the next centuries. In the first decade of the 21th century the production capacity of nuclear engineering shall roughly double, and high-temperature and fast-breeding reactors shall play an important role. It is expected that the research into nuclear fusion will progress. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 4 tabs., 8 refs

  14. Regulatory challenges facing the global nuclear energy partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, Edwin S.

    2007-01-01

    In January 2006 the Department of Energy (DOE) announced the creation of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), an ambitious plan to reshape the nuclear energy production sector both in the United States and worldwide. If fully realized in the United States, GNEP would entail the construction of a large number of sodium-cooled fast reactors utilizing actinide-based fuels, multiple commercial-scale reprocessing plants for both light-water and fast reactors, and fast reactor fuel fabrication plants. It appears likely that the first commercial-scale GNEP facilities, as well as a future full-scale GNEP complex, would fall under the licensing jurisdiction of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This will be a challenging endeavor for the NRC, primarily because the proposed GNEP facilities will in large part be based on novel and untested designs and processes that have not been developed on a commercial scale. In order to effectively regulate the GNEP complex, the NRC will have to quickly address the many technical and policy questions that will arise in any GNEP licensing scheme. This paper identifies some difficult issues that will be encountered in GNEP licensing by examining the potential implications of NRC's current policies and regulatory requirements, and analyzing the impacts of some emerging post-9/11 security issues. (author)

  15. Research in nuclear chemistry: current status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.

    2007-01-01

    Research in nuclear chemistry has seen a huge growth over the last few decades. The large umbrella of nuclear chemistry includes several research areas such as nuclear fission, reactions, spectroscopy, nuclear probes and nuclear analytical techniques. Currently, nuclear chemistry research has extended its horizon into various applications like nuclear medicine, isotopes for understanding physico chemical processes, and addressing environmental and biomedical problems. Tremendous efforts are going on for synthesizing new elements (isotopes), isolating physically or chemically wherever possible and investigating their properties. Theses studies are useful to understand nuclear and chemical properties at extreme ends of instability. In addition, nuclear chemists are making substantial contribution to astrophysics and other related areas. During this talk, a few of the contributions made by nuclear chemistry group of BARC will be discussed and possible future areas of research will be enumerated. (author)

  16. Investigation on Current Status of World Nuclear Education and Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J. Y.; Min, M. J.; Noh, B. C.

    2010-04-01

    All over the world, the interest of nuclear energy is increasing and the expectations of it are getting more as one of the most practical alternative energy resources. However, since 1990s, as a lot of nuclear specialists are being retired, now the problem of manpower shortage is taken into consideration for all of us and will be continued until 2011. In this point of view, the good quality of the professional nuclear training and education systems and the nuclear education centers are requested in order to breed and supply the next generation nuclear scientists and engineers. Thus, the objective of this study is to explore the current status of world nuclear education for both of nuclear power countries and potential nuclear power utilization countries in the near future. This report introduces the importance of nuclear energy, the current status of world nuclear power plants operation and the contribution of nuclear energy. Besides, it also includes the nuclear energy development plan of potential nuclear developing countries in the near future. In addition, this study also explores the nuclear training and education systems of the nuclear development countries and the current status of nuclear education in various fields such as government, industries, nuclear power plants ect. Especially, as considering the status of nuclear education classified such as Asia, the Americas, East and West Europe, the Middle East and Africa, it shows the different characteristics of nuclear education systems in each regions aimed to identify the good practices on the nuclear education systems. Finally, through observation of international cooperation and networks of the various nuclear organizations, this will be contributed to the development of nuclear education for member states and be suggested the various of the direction of development for nuclear education in Korea. The report presents in the basis of the recent status data of the world nuclear education systems collected

  17. Global movement in reviewing nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yoshiyasu

    2007-01-01

    The price of crude oil, natural gas and coal has increased since 2004 with the rapid increase of primary energy demand in China, India and other developing countries. Moreover due to the political uncertainty in the Middle East, and the state control of energy resources in countries like Russia, the issue of energy security has become a critical issue. Nuclear power has been reconsidered in recent years in the US and European countries, because nuclear power is one of the cheapest sources of low carbon energy and also has relatively stable costs, and is thereby useful to energy security and to prevent climate change. Electricity demand is growing very rapidly in China and additional reactors are planned to give a fivefold increase in nuclear capacity to 40,000 MWe by 2020. India has a largely indigenous nuclear power program and expects to have 20,000 MWe nuclear capacity by 2020. Russia is moving steadily forward with plans for a much expanded role of nuclear energy, and the restructuring of nuclear industries has begun to strengthen competitiveness in international nuclear markets. (author)

  18. Global fate of POPs: Current and future research directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Breivik, Knut; Dachs, Jordi; Muir, Derek

    2007-01-01

    For legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), surprisingly little is still known in quantitative terms about their global sources and emissions. Atmospheric transport has been identified as the key global dispersal mechanism for most legacy POPs. In contrast, transport by ocean currents may prove to be the main transport route for many polar, emerging POPs. This is linked to the POPs' intrinsic physico-chemical properties, as exemplified by the different fate of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Arctic. Similarly, our current understanding of POPs' global transport and fate remains sketchy. The importance of organic carbon and global temperature differences have been accepted as key drivers of POPs' global distribution. However, future research will need to understand the various biogeochemical and geophysical cycles under anthropogenic pressures to be able to understand and predict the global fate of POPs accurately. - Future studies into the global fate of POPs will need to pay more attention to the various biogeochemical and anthropogenic cycles to better understand emissions, transport and sinks

  19. Global fate of POPs: Current and future research directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Rainer [Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI 02882-1197 (United States)], E-mail: lohmann@gso.uri.edu; Breivik, Knut [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, PO Box 100, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 1033, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Dachs, Jordi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (IIQAB-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, Barcelona 08034 (Spain); Muir, Derek [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R4A6 (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    For legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), surprisingly little is still known in quantitative terms about their global sources and emissions. Atmospheric transport has been identified as the key global dispersal mechanism for most legacy POPs. In contrast, transport by ocean currents may prove to be the main transport route for many polar, emerging POPs. This is linked to the POPs' intrinsic physico-chemical properties, as exemplified by the different fate of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Arctic. Similarly, our current understanding of POPs' global transport and fate remains sketchy. The importance of organic carbon and global temperature differences have been accepted as key drivers of POPs' global distribution. However, future research will need to understand the various biogeochemical and geophysical cycles under anthropogenic pressures to be able to understand and predict the global fate of POPs accurately. - Future studies into the global fate of POPs will need to pay more attention to the various biogeochemical and anthropogenic cycles to better understand emissions, transport and sinks.

  20. Global study of nuclear modifications on parton distribution functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A global analysis of nuclear medium modifications of parton distributions is presented using deeply inelastic scattering data of various nuclear targets. Two obtained data sets are provided for quark and gluon nuclear modification factors, referred as nIMParton16. One is from the global fit only to the experimental data of isospin-scalar nuclei (Set A, and the other is from the fit to all the measured nuclear data (Set B. The scale-dependence is described by DGLAP equations with nonlinear corrections in this work. The Fermi motion and off-shell effect, nucleon swelling, and parton–parton recombination are taken into account together for modeling the complicated x-dependence of nuclear modification. The nuclear gluon shadowing in this paper is dynamically generated by the QCD evolution of parton splitting and recombination processes with zero gluon density at the input scale. Sophisticated nuclear dependence of nuclear medium effects is studied with only two free parameters. With the obtained free parameters from the global analysis, the nuclear modifications of parton distribution functions of unmeasured nuclei can be predicted in our model. Nuclear modification of deuteron is also predicted and shown with recent measurement at JLab.

  1. Fission nuclear power prospects and its role in meeting global energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power currently makes an important contribution to world's energy requirements providing 17% of its electricity. But as global warming becomes of greater concern, many ask whether nuclear power can and should contribute more. The author, who is involved in the nuclear power enterprise for 35 years, tries to answer this question affirmative. He holds the view that: a) nuclear fission power is essential to meeting world's energy needs without unduly impairing the global environment; b) by possessing the required attributes discussed in this paper, nuclear fission power can be made societally acceptable; c) the industrialized world should accelerate LMFR deployment while fostering more convenient energy alternatives for the developing world; and d) the HTGR is unique in its ability to augment non-electricity energy needs and could become the technology choice of developing countries for nuclear electricity production. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  2. A study on the globalization of nuclear development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hwan Sam; Kim, Hyun Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-05-01

    Nuclear power technology in Korea has been reached at about 95 % level to self-reliance, which has developed energetically since mid of 1980s. Nowadays, it is required to set up globalization of nuclear policy to ensure the introduction of more advanced technologies and to enlarge the use of their developed technologies. In this study, prospects of nuclear power and wastes management, international safeguards, and international co-operation were analyzed focusing on the International Atomic Energy Agency to support timely the introduction of advanced technologies and assure international nuclear communities of Korean nuclear transparency in order to enhance the national policy for self-reliance on their future technology development. This study can be applied to the efficient implementation of Korean nuclear development policy and globalization policy as well. 3 tabs., 1 fig., 13 refs. (Author).

  3. A study on the globalization of nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hwan Sam; Kim, Hyun Jun

    1996-05-01

    Nuclear power technology in Korea has been reached at about 95 % level to self-reliance, which has developed energetically since mid of 1980s. Nowadays, it is required to set up globalization of nuclear policy to ensure the introduction of more advanced technologies and to enlarge the use of their developed technologies. In this study, prospects of nuclear power and wastes management, international safeguards, and international co-operation were analyzed focusing on the International Atomic Energy Agency to support timely the introduction of advanced technologies and assure international nuclear communities of Korean nuclear transparency in order to enhance the national policy for self-reliance on their future technology development. This study can be applied to the efficient implementation of Korean nuclear development policy and globalization policy as well. 3 tabs., 1 fig., 13 refs. (Author)

  4. Nuclear medicine in South Africa : current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vangu, M.D.T.H.W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear medicine in South Africa has been a full specialty on its own since 1987. It is practiced in almost all teaching hospitals and within the private sector in larger cities. Most of the routine radiopharmaceuticals are domestically manufactured and the main isotope can be obtained from locally produced technetium generators. All the radionuclide imaging devices used in the country are imported. The main vendors are GE, Siemens and Phillips. The majority of radionuclide imaging comprises work from nuclear cardiology and nuclear oncology. Almost all the routine clinical nuclear medicine procedures are performed and some in vitro work is also done, however. Principal therapeutic agents used in the country include radioactive iodine, radioactive iodine MIBG and yttrium. The country still lacks experience in receptors imaging and radioimmunology work and no PET scanner has been purchased yet. The academic institutions are active with participation in national and international congresses and also with publications. Although much remains to be done, the future of nuclear medicine in South Africa does not appear gloomy. (author)

  5. Current concepts in nuclear pore electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, José Omar

    2006-01-01

    Over 4 decades ago, microelectrode studies of in situ nuclei showed that, under certain conditions, the nuclear envelope (NE) behaves as a barrier opposing the nucleocytoplasmic flow of physiological ions. As the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) of the NE are the only pathways for direct nucleocytoplasmic flow, those experiments implied that the NPCs are capable of restricting ion flow. These early studies validated electrophysiology as a useful approach to quantify some of the mechanisms by which NPCs mediate gene activity and expression. Since electron microscopy (EM) and other non-electrophysiological investigations, showed that the NPC lumen is a nanochannel, the opinion prevailed that the NPC could not oppose the flow of ions and, therefore, that electrophysiological observations resulted from technical artifacts. Consequently, the initial enthusiasm with nuclear electrophysiology faded out in less than a decade. In 1990, nuclear electrophysiology was revisited with patch-clamp, the most powerful electrophysiological technique to date. Patch-clamp has consistently demonstrated that the NE has intrinsic ion channel activity. Direct demonstrations of the NPC on-off ion channel gating behavior were published for artificial conditions in 1995 and for intact living nuclei in 2002. This on-off switching/gating behavior can be interpreted in terms of a metastable energy barrier. In the hope of advancing nuclear electrophysiology, and to complement the other papers contained in this special issue of the journal, here I review some of the main technical, experimental, and theoretical issues of the field, with special focus on NPCs.

  6. Nuclear power development: global challenges and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourogov, Victor M.; )

    1997-01-01

    This article highlights key factors that will determine today and tomorrow's optimal energy strategies. It addresses methods to utilize the high potential energy content of uranium. Plutonium used as fuel in a nuclear reactors is discussed as is the future potential of a thorium fuel cycle. Various strategies to increase the economic viability of nuclear power are brought out. Technological means to further minimize environmental impacts and to enhance safety are covered as they are a major factor in public acceptance. Also covered are advances anticipated by mid-century in nuclear reactor and fuel cycle technologies

  7. Nuclear energy and global governance to 2030 : an action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frechette, L.; Findlay, T.; Brem, M.; Hanson, J.; Bunch, M.; McCausland, T.

    2010-01-01

    This document presented the key findings of the Nuclear Energy Futures project that was initiated in May 2006 to consider global governance of nuclear energy. The five-point action plan presented in this document included: (1) nuclear safety whereby all nuclear states are committed to and capable of implementing the highest nuclear safety standards, (2) nuclear security whereby all nuclear material and facilities are secure from unauthorized access or terrorist seizure or attack, (3) nuclear nonproliferation whereby a nuclear revival does not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons, (4) the re-enforcement of the International Atomic Energy Agency's centrality through increased funding, modernization and reform, and (5) stakeholder involvement whereby all partners, especially industry, participate in judiciously managing a nuclear revival. This document suggested that despite some powerful drivers, the revival of nuclear energy faces too many barriers compared to other means of electricity production. These barriers include high costs; fewer subsidies; too slow for meeting the threat of climate change; inadequate power grids; unresolved nuclear waste issue; and fears about safety, security and nuclear weapons.

  8. Nuclear energy and global governance to 2030 : an action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frechette, L.; Findlay, T. (comps.); Brem, M.; Hanson, J.; Bunch, M.; McCausland, T. (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    This document presented the key findings of the Nuclear Energy Futures project that was initiated in May 2006 to consider global governance of nuclear energy. The five-point action plan presented in this document included: (1) nuclear safety whereby all nuclear states are committed to and capable of implementing the highest nuclear safety standards, (2) nuclear security whereby all nuclear material and facilities are secure from unauthorized access or terrorist seizure or attack, (3) nuclear nonproliferation whereby a nuclear revival does not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons, (4) the re-enforcement of the International Atomic Energy Agency's centrality through increased funding, modernization and reform, and (5) stakeholder involvement whereby all partners, especially industry, participate in judiciously managing a nuclear revival. This document suggested that despite some powerful drivers, the revival of nuclear energy faces too many barriers compared to other means of electricity production. These barriers include high costs; fewer subsidies; too slow for meeting the threat of climate change; inadequate power grids; unresolved nuclear waste issue; and fears about safety, security and nuclear weapons.

  9. Nuclear denotation: a topic for global public health concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2011-01-01

    In mid of March 2011, a big Tsunami attacked Japan and caused serious destruction. In addition to the destroyed infrastructure, disruption of the nuclear plants occurred and this is the origin of the big problem of nuclear denotation which is of present concern. Nuclear denotation is an actually interesting new problem that affects a large group of world population. This situation is new and requires our attention in a global level. In this article, the author summarizes and discusses this important topic

  10. Some global aspects regarding nuclear spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru; Postoaca, Marius Marcel

    2002-01-01

    The globalization means the worldwide extension of certain aspects of social or economic processes, structural or environmental changes, or concerning working methodologies, technical activity, industrial production, etc. At present the emergence of global aspects is more frequently observed, being determined by the rapid development of computerized systems and of transfer of information, by the development of big transnational companies and due to the increasing international co-operation. Some of the manifested global aspects could be beneficial for the development of the human society, other could be not. It is necessary to perform an adequate analysis from this view point and to promote appropriate measures to enhance the positive global aspects and to mitigate the negative global aspects. These measures can have a good efficiency only if they are pursued at global level, but for this it is necessary to build an adequate international coordinating body, having the corresponding instruments for action. The global aspects identified in the field of nuclear power may be divided into two categories, namely: - related to the main features of nuclear power; - regarding the specific features of some subdivisions of the field, as for example, spent fuel management. In the paper both categories are discussed. The influence of the global aspects on the development of nuclear power and particularly on the back end activities of the fuel cycle, is also presented. At the same time, some possible actions for enhancing nuclear power development are proposed

  11. Globalization of the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougeau, J.P. [Cogema, Corporate Strategy and International Development, Velizy (France)

    1996-07-01

    The article deals with the increased scale and sophistication of the markets in the nuclear fuel cycle, with the increased vulnerability to outside pressures, and with changes in the decision process.

  12. Global Lambda hyperon polarization in nuclear collisions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, P.; Federič, Pavol; Federičová, P.; Harlenderová, A.; Kocmánek, Martin; Kvapil, J.; Lidrych, J.; Rusňák, Jan; Rusňáková, O.; Šaur, Miroslav; Šimko, Miroslav; Šumbera, Michal; Trzeciak, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 548, č. 7665 (2017), č. článku 23004. ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15001; GA MŠk LM2015054 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : STAR collaboration * heavy ion collisions * vorticity Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016

  13. Terrorism and global security: The nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    In the seven years since this book was first published, the threat of nuclear terrorism has increased dramatically. The enormous destructive potential of nuclear technology inevitably raises the specter of the use of nuclear explosives or radioactivity by insurgent groups. The author explores the political bases of terrorism by considering the factors that might foster nuclear terrorism, the forms it could take, and the probable consequences of such acts. New to this edition is the author's examination of the essential distinctions between lawful insurgencies and terrorism, as well as his analysis of the impact of recent U.S. foreign policy. The author explores the United State's all-consuming rivalry with the Soviet Union, arguing that it has created an atmosphere ripe for anti-U.S. terrorism and that the only viable option for the super-powers is cooperation in an effort to control terrorist activities. He also discusses the ''Reagan doctrine,'' which he believes has increased the long-term threat of nuclear terrorism against the U.S. by its continuing support of authoritarian regimes and by its active opposition to Marxist regimes such as those in Nicaragua and Angola. The book concludes by presenting the first coherent strategy for countering nuclear terrorism-embracing both technological and behavioral measures. The proposal includes policies for deterrence and situation management on national and international scales and emphasizes the logic of a major reshaping of world order

  14. Current situation of nuclear engineering education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queral, C.; Minguez, E.

    2001-01-01

    The last few years have seen a growing concern with the decreasing number of suitably qualified engineers and university graduates in the field of Nuclear Technology. The gap between supply and demand is now a fact in several countries, and for the reason the international community has prepared several reports on the issue that are summarized here. (Author) 4 refs

  15. Are world uranium resources sufficient to fuel global growth in nuclear generating capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Vance, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    Increased uranium prices since 2003 have produced more activity in the sector than the previous 20 years. Nuclear reactor construction is proceeding in some countries, ambitious expansion plans have been announced in others and several, particularly in the developing world, are considering introducing nuclear power as a means of meeting rising electricity demand without increasing greenhouse gas emissions. Others have recently decided to either withdraw from the use of nuclear power or not proceed with development plans following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Japan in March 2011. Since the mid-1960, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency have jointly prepared a comprehensive update of global uranium resources, production and demand (commonly known as the 'Red Book'. The Red Book is based on government responses to a questionnaire that requests information on uranium exploration and mine development activity, resources and plans for nuclear development to 2035. This presentation provides an overview of the global situation based on the recently published 2011 edition. It features a compilation of global uranium resources, projected mine development and production capability in all the countries currently producing uranium or with plans to do so in the near future. This is compared to updated, post-Fukushima demand projections, reflecting nuclear phase-out plans announced in some countries and ambitious expansion plans of others. The 2011 Red Book shows that currently defined uranium resources are sufficient to meet high case projections of nuclear power development to 2035. (authors)

  16. Nuclear Renaissance? Think Globally, Act Locally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    There is wide-scale belief in the nuclear industry that we are on the verge of a revival of nuclear power because of the projected large increase in the demand for non-carbon emitting electrical generating capacity. Energy consumption will at least double over the next 50 years as a result of population increase and the very real need to improve the standard of living particularly in developing countries. Growing acceptance of the need to reduce carbon emissions is positioning nuclear energy as a likely candidate to meet this increased demand provided valid concerns about economics, safety, proliferation and waste can be adequately resolved. While economics, safety, and proliferation resistance all can benefit from incremental improvement, a permanent waste disposal solution either exists or it doesn't. If a country cannot identify where it will dispose of its spent fuel or high-level nuclear waste, its further use of nuclear energy can be blocked. A number of countries today have generated significant quantities of spent fuel or high-level waste without firm plans or suitable geology for disposal of this material

  17. Current state of nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.

    1985-01-01

    During the past quarter century, plasma physics and nuclear fusion research have gone through impressive development. Tokamak, is realized to be the number one candidate for nuclear fusion reactor. Two large experiments, one called Joint European Torus (JET) at Culham, England, and the other JT-60 project in Japan have been completed and have reported preliminary results. In JET an average electron density of 4x10 13 pcls/ cm 3 , ion temperatures of 3Kev and energy confinement of 0.8 sec have been achieved. However, the Zeff has been even equal to 10 which unfortunately is a source of plasma energy loss. JT-60 has not offered any appreciable results yet, however, the objectives and initial tests promise long pulse duration, with very high ion and plasma densities. Both experiments have promised to achieve conditions approaching those needed in a fusion reactor. Other important experiments will be discussed and the role of third world countries will be emphasized. (Author)

  18. Current problems of Bulgarian nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, A.A.; Vapirev, E.I.

    1996-01-01

    The main unsolved problems of Bulgarian nuclear power industry now are: a serious trouble that the WWER-440 units will have to be phased out before the end of their projected life since they do not meet contemporary safety requirements; heavy economic difficulties with the construction of the new NPP 'Belene'; accumulation of a considerable amount of spent fuel because of its interrupted export to Russia

  19. Current trends in Nuclear Cardiology. Cuban scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peix González, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    The study concludes with the following recommendations. Nuclear Cardiology extend to the entire country. Conduct cost-effectiveness studies comparing different imaging techniques in cardiology. Develop metabolic studies and coronary flow by PET. Introducing the study of adrenergic innervation. Develop hybrid imaging in cardiology. Establish committees of experts to analyze the value of different imaging techniques in Cardiology According to our possibilities and resources, toward implementation of a medicine individualized for our patients

  20. Current problems of nuclear arms: some options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, I.F.

    1992-01-01

    Possible solutions of certain problems of the soviet nuclear weapons resulting from spontaneously changing military-political situation and social-economical living conditions on geostrategical space of the former USSR are discussed. Reliable stabilization of military-political situation on the former USSR territory is required for solving the above problems, which in its turn will possibly require active efforts of the international community. The idea on creation the Committee on non-prolifiration by the UN Security Council is proposed

  1. Reflections on current nuclear safety problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teillac, J.

    1981-01-01

    After operations totalling more than 2000 reactor-years, the safety balance is undeniably positive: no nuclear power plant in the world has so far caused significant damage to populations or to the environment. The paper reviews the darker and brighter aspects of recent analyses, in particular since the Harrisburg accident, and suggests three general lines of action: maintenance of a high level of technical competence in safety, systematic analysis of operational incidents and, finally, increased attention to the ''human factor'' as regards both the man/machine relationship and the training of personnel. With regard to the last-mentioned point, it is suggested that the greatest possible profit should be drawn from the tests carried out at the time of plant commissioning. International collaboration is particularly necessary both to ensure progress in the technical aspects of safety and to place the credibility of specialists on a firmer foundation. Finally, it is essential to assist countries which are embarking on nuclear power programmes. Nuclear safety is not always correctly perceived by public opinion, which will not definitively accept this new source of energy without having complete confidence in those who are promoting it. A clear and firm position on the part of those in positions of political responsibility is an important element in gaining public confidence. (author)

  2. Global Warming; Can Nuclear Energy Help?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    1998-01-01

    Kyoto conference is setting the targets and limits for CO 2 emission. In the same time energy consumption is increasing, especially in developing world. If developing countries attain even a moderate fraction of energy consumption of developed countries, this will lead into large increase of total CO 2 emission, unless there is a strong increase of energy production by CO 2 non-emitting sources. Of two major candidates, solar and nuclear energy, the second is technically and economically much closer to ability to accomplish the task. The requirements for a large scale use of nuclear energy and the role of IAEA are discussed. (author)

  3. Nuclear intrinsic vorticity and its coupling to global rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, I.N.; Quentin, P.; Samsoen, D.

    1997-01-01

    Important collective modes which are generally neglected within current descriptions of nuclear excitations in terms of fluid dynamics, are studied here. The intrinsic vortical modes are defined in a general way from which a specific mode, both simple and versatile enough, is particularly discussed. In this paper the main emphasis is made on the coupling of the chosen intrinsic mode to the rotation of the nuclear principal axes frame with respect to the laboratory system. A semi-quantal description of such excitations is proposed which is a generalization of the so-called routhian approach of global rotations. The results of a semiclassical treatment of the corresponding variational problem are presented. A simple mean field approach where the one-body potential is mocked up by a harmonic oscillator is discussed in a somewhat detailed fashion. The broad range of validity of a quadratic approximation for the collective energy in terms of the relevant angular velocities, is hinted from the previous simple model approach. Some general consequences of the latter are then drawn which have bearing on some possible fingerprints for the existence of such excitations, as the staggering phenomenon observed in gamma transition energies in some superdeformed states and the occurrence of identical rotational bands in neighbouring nuclei. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear Power: Global Trend and Outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holger Rogner, H.; Weisser, D.; )

    2006-01-01

    The increasing role of nuclear power in electricity production is described. Differences in countries and regions regarding their energy infrastructure, economic capacities, energy demand and supply patterns, energy market liberalization, environmental policy as well as socio-political aspects are taken into account

  5. Nuclear imaging technology and global requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lele, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    After a brief review of the present state of availability of nuclear medicine services in the countries of world, a mention has been made of WHO programme on nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine services in the developing countries are dependent on the availability of appropriate instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals at affordable costs and existence of basic infrastructure required for giving such services. Basic infrastructure requirements are stable power supplies, air-conditioning systems, preventive maintenance and repair facilities. These are discussed. It is pointed out that the use of rectilinear scanners with 113m In instead of costly gamma cameras is still relevant in the third world countries. Need to develop a too low-cost gamma camera is emphasized. Electronics Corporation of India Ltd has plans to manufacture such cameras. Design of this camera is described. Foreign collaboration or technology transfer through concerned governement department needs to be explored so that the benefits of nuclear medicine can be brought to the third world countries by 2000 AD. (M.G.B.). 2 tabs

  6. The US nuclear weapon infrastructure and a stable global nuclear weapon regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immele, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    US nuclear weapons capabilities -- extant force structure and nuclear weapons infrastructure as well as declared policy -- influence other nations' nuclear weapons postures, at least to some extent. This influence can be desirable or undesirable, and is, of course, a mixture of both. How strong the influence is, and its nature, are complicated, controversial, and -- in our view -- not well understood but often overstated. Divergent views about this influence and how it might shape the future global nuclear weapons regime seem to us to be the most serious impediment to reaching a national consensus on US weapons policy, force structure and supporting infrastructure. We believe that a paradigm shift to capability-based deterrence and dissuasion is not only consistent with the realities of the world and how it has changed, but also a desirable way for nuclear weapon postures and infrastructures to evolve. The US and other nuclear states could not get to zero nor even reduce nuclear arms and the nuclear profile much further without learning to manage latent capability. This paper has defined three principles for designing NW infrastructure both at the 'next plateau' and 'near zero.' The US can be a leader in reducing weapons and infrastructure and in creating an international regime in which capability gradually substitutes for weapons in being and is transparent. The current 'strategy' of not having policy or a Congressionally-approved plan for transforming the weapons complex is not leadership. If we can conform the US infrastructure to the next plateau and architect it in such a way that it is aligned with further arms reductions, it will have these benefits: The extant stockpile can be reduced in size, while the smaller stockpile still deters attack on the US and Allies. The capabilities of the infrastructure will dissuade emergence of new challenges/threats; if they emerge, nevertheless, the US will be able to deal with them in

  7. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E 3 (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E 3 model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E 3 model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues

  8. THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR SAFETY REGIME IN BRAZIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, C.

    2004-01-01

    A turning point of the world nuclear industry with respect to safety occurred due to the accident at Chernobyl, in 1986. A side from the tragic personal losses and the enormous financial damage, the Chernobyl accident has literally demonstrated that ''a nuclear accident anywhere is an accident everywhere''. The impact was felt immediately by the nuclear industry, with plant cancellations (e.g. Austria), elimination of national programs (e.g. Italy) and general construction delays. However, the reaction of the nuclear industry was equally immediate, which led to the proposal and establishment of a Global Nuclear Safety Regime. This regime is composed of biding international safety conventions, globally accepted safety standard, and a voluntary peer review system. In a previous work, the author has presented in detail the components of this Regime, and briefly discussed its impact in the Brazilian nuclear power organizations, including the Regulatory Body. This work, on the opposite, briefly reviews the Global Nuclear Safety Regime, and concentrates in detail in the discussion of its impact in Brazil, showing how it has produced some changes, and where the peer pressure regime has failed to produce real results

  9. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Technology and Safety Assessment Div.

    1997-09-24

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E{sup 3} (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E{sup 3} model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E{sup 3} model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues.

  10. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigeland, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President's Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle - in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository - to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  11. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Wigeland

    2008-10-01

    Abstract: The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President’s Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle—in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository—to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  12. Nuclear weapons and nuclear energy - A study in global governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, R.

    1999-01-01

    The projects of the two superpowers concerning the nuclear armament and intercontinental ballistic missiles, the policy of the two governments in monopoly of these armaments and prohibiting other countries from owning them, treaties signed by the governments, and the role of the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency were presented

  13. Neutrino neutral current interactions in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, C.J.; Wehrberger, K.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of neutrino transport properties in matter is crucial for an understanding of the evolution of supernovae and of neutron star cooling. We investigate screening of neutrino scattering from a dense degenerate gas of electrons, protons and neutrons. We take into account correlations induced by the Coulomb interactions of the electrons and protons, and the strong interactions of the protons and neutrons. Nuclear matter is described by the σω model of quantum hadrodynamics. Results are presented for typical astrophysical scenarios. The differential cross section is strongly reduced at large energy transfer, where electrons dominate, and slightly reduced for small energy transfer, where nucleons dominate. At large densities, the nucleon effective mass is considerably lower than the free mass, and the region dominated by nucleons extends to larger energy transfer than for free nucleons. (orig.)

  14. Global pyrogeography: the current and future distribution of wildfire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg A Krawchuk

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to alter the geographic distribution of wildfire, a complex abiotic process that responds to a variety of spatial and environmental gradients. How future climate change may alter global wildfire activity, however, is still largely unknown. As a first step to quantifying potential change in global wildfire, we present a multivariate quantification of environmental drivers for the observed, current distribution of vegetation fires using statistical models of the relationship between fire activity and resources to burn, climate conditions, human influence, and lightning flash rates at a coarse spatiotemporal resolution (100 km, over one decade. We then demonstrate how these statistical models can be used to project future changes in global fire patterns, highlighting regional hotspots of change in fire probabilities under future climate conditions as simulated by a global climate model. Based on current conditions, our results illustrate how the availability of resources to burn and climate conditions conducive to combustion jointly determine why some parts of the world are fire-prone and others are fire-free. In contrast to any expectation that global warming should necessarily result in more fire, we find that regional increases in fire probabilities may be counter-balanced by decreases at other locations, due to the interplay of temperature and precipitation variables. Despite this net balance, our models predict substantial invasion and retreat of fire across large portions of the globe. These changes could have important effects on terrestrial ecosystems since alteration in fire activity may occur quite rapidly, generating ever more complex environmental challenges for species dispersing and adjusting to new climate conditions. Our findings highlight the potential for widespread impacts of climate change on wildfire, suggesting severely altered fire regimes and the need for more explicit inclusion of fire in research

  15. Global pyrogeography: the current and future distribution of wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawchuk, Meg A; Moritz, Max A; Parisien, Marc-André; Van Dorn, Jeff; Hayhoe, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter the geographic distribution of wildfire, a complex abiotic process that responds to a variety of spatial and environmental gradients. How future climate change may alter global wildfire activity, however, is still largely unknown. As a first step to quantifying potential change in global wildfire, we present a multivariate quantification of environmental drivers for the observed, current distribution of vegetation fires using statistical models of the relationship between fire activity and resources to burn, climate conditions, human influence, and lightning flash rates at a coarse spatiotemporal resolution (100 km, over one decade). We then demonstrate how these statistical models can be used to project future changes in global fire patterns, highlighting regional hotspots of change in fire probabilities under future climate conditions as simulated by a global climate model. Based on current conditions, our results illustrate how the availability of resources to burn and climate conditions conducive to combustion jointly determine why some parts of the world are fire-prone and others are fire-free. In contrast to any expectation that global warming should necessarily result in more fire, we find that regional increases in fire probabilities may be counter-balanced by decreases at other locations, due to the interplay of temperature and precipitation variables. Despite this net balance, our models predict substantial invasion and retreat of fire across large portions of the globe. These changes could have important effects on terrestrial ecosystems since alteration in fire activity may occur quite rapidly, generating ever more complex environmental challenges for species dispersing and adjusting to new climate conditions. Our findings highlight the potential for widespread impacts of climate change on wildfire, suggesting severely altered fire regimes and the need for more explicit inclusion of fire in research on global

  16. Nuclear regulations: current status and proposed initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domondon, D.B.; Valdezco, E.M.; Mateo, A.J.; Parami, V.K.

    1996-01-01

    The science Act of 1958 created the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, presently known as the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). The PNRI is tasked with the dual role of promotion and control of the peaceful applications of atomic energy. To carry its mandate of regulation and control on the use of raioisotopes in various fields, the PNRI had promulgated and issued specific regulations known as the Code of PNRI regulations. This paper summarizes the activities undertaken by PNRI in the continuing process of review and subsequent revisions of the Code of PNRI regulations and related guidance documents. It highlights proposed modifications in the present regulations in an attempt to adopt the new international basic safety standards, the practical problems and related issues attendant to the implementation of these new standards, among others. In line with the overall objective of PNRI to ensure the safe application of nuclear energy and radiation technology in various fields, the institute conducted a series of regulatory information conferences to provide an opportunity for members of the regulatory staff of the PNRI and licenses to discuss safety initiatives and regulatory issues. This paper will also provide an in-depth assessment of the lessons learned from these conferences which were conducted by sector or by specific applications for a more focused approach, e.g. radiopharmaceuticals, industrial radiography, research, among others. Licensees' feedback on the PNRI regulatory process are presented as part of the overall objective of enhancing the operational experiences of the licensing, review and evaluation group as well as that of inspection, enforcement and compliance. Several proposed initiatives for consideration of the PNRI to further strengthen its regulatory functions are also briefly outlined. (author)

  17. Comment on 'Current Budget of the Atmospheric Electric Global Circuit'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kevin T.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, three major issues relevant to Kasemir's new model will be addressed. The first concerns Kasemir's assertion that there are significant differences between the potentials associated with the new model and the conventional model. A recalculation of these potentials reveals that both models provide equivalent results for the potential difference between the Earth and ionosphere. The second issue to be addressed is Kasemir's assertion that discrepancies in the electric potentials associated with both models can be attributed to modeling the Earth as a sphere, instead of as a planar surface. A simple analytical comparison will demonstrate that differences in the equations for the potentials of the atmosphere derived with a spherical and a planar Earth are negligible for applications to global current flow. Finally, the third issue to be discussed is Kasemir's claim that numerous aspects of the conventional model are incorrect, including the role of the ionosphere in global current flow as well as the significance of cloud-to-ground lightning in supplying charge to the global circuit. In order to refute these misconceptions, it will be shown that these aspects related to the flow of charge in the atmosphere are accurately described by the conventional model of the global circuit.

  18. Global patterns of current and future road infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Johan R.; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Schotten, Kees C. G. J.; Schipper, Aafke M.

    2018-06-01

    Georeferenced information on road infrastructure is essential for spatial planning, socio-economic assessments and environmental impact analyses. Yet current global road maps are typically outdated or characterized by spatial bias in coverage. In the Global Roads Inventory Project we gathered, harmonized and integrated nearly 60 geospatial datasets on road infrastructure into a global roads dataset. The resulting dataset covers 222 countries and includes over 21 million km of roads, which is two to three times the total length in the currently best available country-based global roads datasets. We then related total road length per country to country area, population density, GDP and OECD membership, resulting in a regression model with adjusted R 2 of 0.90, and found that that the highest road densities are associated with densely populated and wealthier countries. Applying our regression model to future population densities and GDP estimates from the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) scenarios, we obtained a tentative estimate of 3.0–4.7 million km additional road length for the year 2050. Large increases in road length were projected for developing nations in some of the world’s last remaining wilderness areas, such as the Amazon, the Congo basin and New Guinea. This highlights the need for accurate spatial road datasets to underpin strategic spatial planning in order to reduce the impacts of roads in remaining pristine ecosystems.

  19. Analysis by nuclear reactions and activations. A current bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujdoso, E.

    2001-01-01

    A current bibliography based on INIS Atomindex with 78 references on Analysis by nuclear reactions and activations has been prepared for year 1998. References are arranged by first authors' name. (N.T.)

  20. Nuclear power in the context of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodansky, D.

    1989-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which nuclear power could help ameliorate the greenhouse problem. Topics discussed include: (1) How serious is the environmental threat posed by the greenhouse effect? (2) How large a part do fossil fuels play in producing greenhouse gases? (3) Is it possible to prevent or abate the anticipated global warming? (4) Can nuclear power play a significant role? (5) What overall approached might best reduce greenhouse emissions? Global cooperativeness in addressing the problem will be essential. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  1. Estimating current and future global urban domestic material consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Timothy Malcolm; Kaviti Musango, Josephine

    2018-06-01

    Urban material resource requirements are significant at the global level and these are expected to expand with future urban population growth. However, there are no global scale studies on the future material consumption of urban areas. This paper provides estimates of global urban domestic material consumption (DMC) in 2050 using three approaches based on: current gross statistics; a regression model; and a transition theoretic logistic model. All methods use UN urban population projections and assume a simple ‘business-as-usual’ scenario wherein historical aggregate trends in income and material flow continue into the future. A collation of data for 152 cities provided a year 2000 world average DMC/capita estimate, 12 tons/person/year (±22%), which we combined with UN population projections to produce a first-order estimation of urban DMC at 2050 of ~73 billion tons/year (±22%). Urban DMC/capita was found to be significantly correlated (R 2 > 0.9) to urban GDP/capita and area per person through a power law relation used to obtain a second estimate of 106 billion tons (±33%) in 2050. The inelastic exponent of the power law indicates a global tendency for relative decoupling of direct urban material consumption with increasing income. These estimates are global and influenced by the current proportion of developed-world cities in the global population of cities (and in our sample data). A third method employed a logistic model of transitions in urban DMC/capita with regional resolution. This method estimated global urban DMC to rise from approximately 40 billion tons/year in 2010 to ~90 billion tons/year in 2050 (modelled range: 66–111 billion tons/year). DMC/capita across different regions was estimated to converge from a range of 5–27 tons/person/year in the year 2000 to around 8–17 tons/person/year in 2050. The urban population does not increase proportionally during this period and thus the global average DMC/capita increases from ~12 to ~14 tons

  2. The Global Geostationary Wildfire ABBA: Current Implementation and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, E.; Schmidt, C. C.; Hoffman, J.; Brunner, J.; Hyer, E. J.; Reid, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Wild Fire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA), developed at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS), has a long legacy of operational near real-time wildfire detection and characterization in the Western Hemisphere. The first phase of the global geostationary WF_ABBA was made operational at NOAA NESDIS in 2009 and currently includes diurnal active fire monitoring from GOES-East, GOES-South America, GOES-West, Meteosat-9 and MTSAT-1R/-2. This allows for near global active fire monitoring with coverage of Europe, Africa, Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific utilizing distinct geostationary sensors and a consistent algorithm. Version 6.5.006 of the WF_ABBA was specifically designed to address the capabilities and limitations of diverse geostationary sensors and requests from the global fire monitoring and user community. This presentation will provide an overview of version 6.5.006 of the global WF_ABBA fire product including the new fire and opaque cloud mask and associated metadata. We will demonstrate the WF_ABBA showing examples from around the globe with a focus on the capabilities and plans for integrating new geostationary platforms with coverage of Eastern Europe and Asia (INSAT-3D, Korean COMS, Russian GOMS Elektro-L MSU-GS). We are also preparing for future fire monitoring in the Western Hemisphere, Europe, and Africa utilizing the next generation GOES-R Imager and Meteosat Third Generation Flexible Combined Imager (MTG - FCI). The goal is to create a globally consistent long-term fire product utilizing the capabilities of each of these unique operational systems and a common fire detection algorithm. On an international level, development of a global geostationary fire monitoring system is supported by the IGOS GOFC/GOLD Fire Implementation Team. This work also generally supports Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) activities and the Group on Earth Observations (GEO).

  3. Current problems of the nuclear power - society relationship in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Marin

    2004-01-01

    The present work tries to make an analysis of the current aspects of the interaction between the nuclear field, environment and society. One starts from the general conception of sustainable development. The analysis focusses mainly the social side of the sustainable development and the environmental protection issues. As prominent appears the sensitive problem of radioactive waste management. The papers analyses the current public perception, the mutations expected in the public opinion as well as the problems which the nuclear industry and decision makers confront to harmonize the requirements in the nuclear power sector and those imposed by society. Particularly focused is the situation in Romania

  4. The nuclear, an efficient tool against global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Proposing and commenting some extracts of a book by Francis Sorin (Le nucleaire et la planete), this document aims at showing that nuclear energy production is a tool to struggle against global warming because of its low carbon emission. Some assessments of this characteristic are given and discussed, as well as figures on carbon emissions in different western countries. This document also criticises the statements made by ecologists against nuclear energy. The author put nuclear energy at the same level as energy savings and renewable energies, as means to reach the desirable CO 2 saving level

  5. Global nuclear waste repository proposal highlights Australia's nuclear energy vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The Pangea proposal is disscused and considered relevant to Australia. A five-year research program by the company has identified Australia and Argentina as having the appropriate geological, economic and democratic credentials for such a deep repository, with Australia being favoured. A deep repository would be located where the geology has been stable for several hundred million years, so that there need not be total reliance on a robust engineered barrier system to keep the waste securely isolated for thousands of years. It would be a commercial undertaking and would have dedicated port and rail infrastructure. It would take spent fuel and other wastes from commercial reactors, and possibly also waste from weapons disposal programs. Clearly, while the primary ethical and legal principle is that each country is entirely responsible for its own waste, including nuclear waste (polluter pays etc), the big question is whether the concept of an international waste repository is acceptable ethically. Political and economic questions are secondary to this. By taking a fresh look at the reasons for the difficulties which have faced most national repository programs, and discarding the preconception that each country must develop its own disposal facilities, it is possible to define a class of simple, superior high isolation sites which may provide a multi-national basis for solving the nuclear waste disposal problem. The relatively small volumes of high-level wastes or spent fuel which arise from nuclear power production make shared repositories a feasible proposition. For small countries, the economies of scale which can be achieved make the concept attractive. For all countries, objective consideration of the relative merits of national and multi-national solutions is a prudent part of planning the management of long-lived radioactive wastes

  6. International Conference on Nuclear Security: Enhancing Global Efforts. Summary of an International Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The International Conference on Nuclear Security: Enhancing Global Efforts was organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna on 1-5 July 2013. The conference was organized in cooperation with the following organizations and initiatives: the European Union; the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT); the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL); the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM); the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI); the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE); the Partnership for Global Security; the Police Community of the Americas (AMERIPOL); the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI); the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC); the World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS); the World Nuclear Association (WNA); and the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI). A total of 34 ministers participated in the ministerial session of the conference. Altogether, the conference attracted more than 1300 registered participants from 125 IAEA Member States and 21 organizations. The aim of the conference was to review the international community's experience and achievements to date in strengthening nuclear security, to enhance the understanding of current approaches to nuclear security worldwide and identify trends, and to provide a global forum for ministers, policymakers and senior officials to formulate views on future directions and priorities for nuclear security. This book contains the President's Summary of the conference and a summary of the ministerial session, the full text of the ministerial declaration adopted by the conference and summaries of the main conference sessions. The attached CD-ROM contains the full conference programme, the list of conference participants, the national statements from the ministerial session and a selection of papers

  7. Strengthening the Global Nuclear Safety Regime. INSAG-21. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Safety Regime is the framework for achieving the worldwide implementation of a high level of safety at nuclear installations. Its core is the activities undertaken by each country to ensure the safety and security of the nuclear installations within its jurisdiction. But national efforts are and should be augmented by the activities of a variety of international enterprises that facilitate nuclear safety - intergovernmental organizations, multinational networks among operators, multinational networks among regulators, the international nuclear industry, multinational networks among scientists, international standards setting organizations and other stakeholders such as the public, news media and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that are engaged in nuclear safety. All of these efforts should be harnessed to enhance the achievement of safety. The existing Global Nuclear Safety Regime is functioning at an effective level today. But its impact on improving safety could be enhanced by pursuing some measured change. This report recommends action in the following areas: - Enhanced use of the review meetings of the Convention on Nuclear Safety as a vehicle for open and critical peer review and a source for learning about the best safety practices of others; - Enhanced utilization of IAEA Safety Standards for the harmonization of national safety regulations, to the extent feasible; - Enhanced exchange of operating experience for improving operating and regulatory practices; and - Multinational cooperation in the safety review of new nuclear power plant designs. These actions, which are described more fully in this report, should serve to enhance the effectiveness of the Global Nuclear Safety Regime

  8. The global greenhouse effect and the advanced nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byong Whi Lee

    1998-01-01

    In spite of future uncertainty, Korea is very much committed to nuclear energy as a major source of electric power expansion, because of its lack of domestic energy resources. A long term nuclear power program has resulted in 11 nuclear power plants of 9.6 GWe in operation, 2 units under construction and 7 planned. This means that the share of nuclear power in Korean electricity production would be about 38% in 2006. Many other countries were faced with the problem of global warming which is related to carbondioxide emission from the use of fossil fuels. According to Korean experience, it could be concluded that substitution of fossil fuels would be the most efficient and economic means of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to nuclear and hydropower, the most promising other non-fossil sources are geothermal energy, biomass, solar thermal energy, photovoltaic systems, wind power, tidal power, wave power and ocean thermal electric conversion

  9. Global status of nuclear power and the needed human resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernido, Corazon C.

    2009-01-01

    According to projections of the OECD/IEA, the world energy demand will expand by 45% from now until 2030, with coal accounting for more than a third of the overall rise. To reduce greenhouse gases and mitigate climate change, many countries are resorting to renewables and nuclear power. Some statistics about nuclear energy in the global energy mix and about nuclear power plants worldwide, as well as the energy situation in the country are presented. According to sources from the Department of Energy on the Philippine Energy Plan, nuclear power is a long-term energy option and will likely enter the energy mix by 2025. Preparation of the infrastructure for nuclear power has to start ten to fifteen years before the first plant comes online. The needed human resources, the education and training required are present. (Author)

  10. Current Status of World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology (II): Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Ko, Won Il

    2007-06-01

    Japan needs to import around 80% of its energy requirements. In 1966, the first nuclear power plant began operation, nuclear energy has been a national strategic priority since 1973. Currently, 55 reactors provide around 30% of the country's electricity. Japanese energy policy has been conducted by the energy security and minimization of dependence of energy imports. The main factors regarding nuclear power are: - Continue to have nuclear power as a main factor of electricity production. - Recycle uranium and plutonium, and start domestic reprocessing from 2005. - Continue to develop fast breeder reactors to increase uranium utilization. - Promote the nuclear transparency to the public, emphasizing safety and non-proliferation. Also, the prospects of Asia's nuclear energy growth has been reviewed

  11. Nuclear energy as a contribution to the solution of energetic and environmental global problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttl, A.

    1993-01-01

    The sharp population growth has turned energy and environment problems into global problems. The yearly consumption of primary energy in the world is currently 11 billion TCE (Tons of Coal Equivalent). At the present time 88.1% of energy supply is produced by fossil fuels and nuclear only 5.2%. Fossil fuels are responsible for air pollutants like SO 2 , NO, NO 2 , CO 2 , and VOC. Most of them are responsible of the Greenhouse effect and global warming. Only two solutions may avoid this situation: Renewable energies (sun, water and wind) and Nuclear Energy. At the end of 1990 there were 424 nuclear power plants in the world with 1800 million Tu/year of CO 2 avoided (8% of the total emitted). New future scenarios of CO 2 avoided may only be reached with nuclear power contribution

  12. Nuclear power from a long term global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The global problem with energy, now and into the longer term, is the same as the global problem with food. There is no absolute shortage of either and nor is there likely to be. But the pattern of availability is such that large numbers of people have inadequate supplies of one or the other, or of both. Thus, in considering global energy futures the problems are more about energy distribution than about its absolute availability: it is important that in arguing its case for expansion the nuclear industry bears that fact in mind. (Author)

  13. Electronic constant current and current pulse signal generator for nuclear instrumentation testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Circuitry is described for testing the ability of an intermediate range nuclear instrument to detect and measure a constant current and a periodic current pulse. The invention simulates the resistance and capacitance of the signal connection of a nuclear instrument ion chamber detector and interconnecting cable. An LED flasher/oscillator illuminates an LED at a periodic rate established by a timing capacitor and circuitry internal to the flasher/oscillator. When the LED is on, a periodic current pulse is applied to the instrument. When the LED is off, a constant current is applied. An inductor opposes battery current flow when the LED is on. 1 figures

  14. Effect of the Fukushima nuclear disaster on global public acceptance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younghwan; Kim, Minki; Kim, Wonjoon

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear disaster has significantly changed public attitudes toward nuclear energy. It is important to understand how this change has occurred in different countries before the global community revises existing nuclear policies. This study examines the effect of the Fukushima disaster on public acceptance of nuclear energy in 42 countries. We find that the operational experience of nuclear power generation which has significantly affected positive public opinion about nuclear energy became considerably negative after the disaster, suggesting fundamental changes in public acceptance regardless of the level of acceptance before the disaster. In addition, contrary to our expectation, the proportion of nuclear power generation is positively and significantly related to public acceptance of nuclear energy after the Fukushima accident and government pressure on media content led to a greater decrease in the level of public acceptance after the accident. Nuclear energy policymakers should consider the varied factors affecting public acceptance of nuclear energy in each country depending on its historical, environmental, and geographical circumstances before they revise nuclear policy in response to the Fukushima accident. - Highlights: • Fukushima accident has negatively changed public attitudes toward nuclear energy. • Effect of operational experience became considerably negative after the accident. • Effect of proportion of nuclear power generation is positive after the accident. • Effect of government pressure on media content became negative after the accident. • Country specific policy responses on nuclear public acceptance are required

  15. The Current Global Financial Crisis 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albulena Shala

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current global financial crisis is considered as one of the biggest crises after the crisis of the years of 30’s. The global financial crisis has affected all countries including developed and developing ones. It also has affected all the industries. Population with the low-income faced the greatest consequences. The last hope for the survival of the market economy was to undertake important steps for the nationalization of bankrupted banks and companies, thereby developing policies for the preservation of jobs. Through this analysis, we have included briefly some of the development followed the period of 2008 and onwards. A summary of statistics for some important economic indicators such as employment, exporting and importing is covered in this study as well.

  16. Global panorama of energy access: Current situation, challenges and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galichon, Ines; Lacroix, Olivier; Wiedmer, Damien

    2014-07-15

    Globally 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. If this figure is projected to decline 1 billion by 2030, the global population who relies on the traditional use of biomass for cooking is expected to substantially increase, from 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion people. In its commitment to energy access, ENEA published a synthesis on the current situation and the further development perspectives of energy access worldwide, a crucial issue of human and economic development and an opportunity for the private sector. This synthesis present the ecosystem of the actors involved in the improvement of energy access and the technical solutions that serve the needs of this high-potential market. The five main challenges energy access has to address are presented in this publication: energy prices, equipment financing, distribution, change of scale and environmental performances.

  17. An innovative nuclear reactor as a solution to global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Robson Silva da; Sefidvash, Farhang

    2007-01-01

    The problem of global warming is no longer a philosophical discussion, but it is a fact seriously threatening the future of humanity. In this paper a practical solution to the problem of global warming resulting from the fossil fuelled energy suppliers is presented. The energy conservation and alternative forms of energy such as solar, wind, and bio even though having important roles, do not satisfy the energy demand generated by an increasing world population that desires to increase its standard of living. The fission process in the nuclear reactors does not produce greenhouse gases that cause global warming. The new paradigm in nuclear energy is the future innovative reactors that meet the new standards set by the INPRO Program of the IAEA. One such a reactor is presented in this paper, namely the Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR) that is supported by the International Atomic Energy (IAEA) in its program of Small Reactors Without On-Site Refuelling (SRWOSR), being one of the four water cooled reactors in this program. The other three reactor concepts are PFPWR50 of Japan, BWRPB of Russia and AFPR-100 of USA. It is shown that the nuclear energy of the future is totally different than what is today in respect to safety, economics, environmental impact and proliferation. In this manner, the public perception of nuclear energy will change and its acceptability is promoted. (author)

  18. On nuclear power, population and sustainable global civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    Humanity is facing a multitude of difficult problems that threaten not only human development but the very continuity of civilization. The fundamental cause is the size of the human population but at present the subject is not discussed in international fora. It is not clear if it is wishfully avoided or if it is not recognized as the fundamental problem. Without limiting fertility and population globally, there will be no future for civilization as we know it and there will be no need for nuclear power as a source of energy. Instead, nuclear power will be the principal agent of the end. The nuclear community is in a position to point out the problem and propose a solution. Principles of sustainability and a path to a sustainable global civilization are shown. (author)

  19. ASME nuclear codes and standards: Scope of coverage and current initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to address the broad scope of coverage of nuclear codes, standards and guides produced and administered by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). Background information is provided regarding the evolution of the present activities. Details are provided on current initiatives intended to permit ASME to meet the needs of a changing nuclear industry on a worldwide scale. During the early years of commercial nuclear power, ASME produced a code for the construction of nuclear vessels used in the reactor coolant pressure boundary, containment and auxiliary systems. In response to industry growth, ASME Code coverage soon broadened to include rules for construction of other nuclear components, and inservice inspection of nuclear reactor coolant systems. In the years following this, the scope of ASME nuclear codes, standards and guides has been broadened significantly to include air cleaning activities for nuclear power reactors, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, quality assurance programs, cranes for nuclear facilities, qualification of mechanical equipment, and concrete reactor vessels and containments. ASME focuses on globalization of its codes, standards and guides by encouraging and promoting their use in the international community and by actively seeking participation of international members on its technical and supervisory committees and in accreditation activities. Details are provided on current international representation. Initiatives are underway to separate the technical requirements from administrative and enforcement requirements, to convert to hard metric units, to provide for non-U. S. materials, and to provide for translations into non-English languages. ASME activity as an accredited ISO 9000 registrar for suppliers of mechanical equipment is described. Rules are being developed for construction of containment systems for nuclear spent fuel and high-level waste transport packagings. Intensive

  20. Global Λ hyperon polarization in nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alekseev, I.; Anderson, D. M.; Aoyama, R.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Ashraf, M. U.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Behera, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Brown, D.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; de La Barca Sánchez, M. Calderón; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chankova-Bunzarova, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; de Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Elsey, N.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Esumi, S.; Evdokimov, O.; Ewigleben, J.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Federicova, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Harlenderova, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, P.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Jowzaee, S.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Kocmanek, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulathunga, N.; Kumar, L.; Kvapil, J.; Kwasizur, J. H.; Lacey, R.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Lidrych, J.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, H.; Liu, P.; Liu, Y.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Mallick, D.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Miller, Z. W.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nie, M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Nonaka, T.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Ray, R. L.; Reed, R.; Rehbein, M. J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roth, J. D.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Saur, M.; Schambach, J.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Schweid, B. R.; Seger, J.; Sergeeva, M.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sugiura, T.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Taranenko, A.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Z.; Zyzak, M.

    2017-08-01

    The extreme energy densities generated by ultra-relativistic collisions between heavy atomic nuclei produce a state of matter that behaves surprisingly like a fluid, with exceptionally high temperature and low viscosity. Non-central collisions have angular momenta of the order of 1,000ћ, and the resulting fluid may have a strong vortical structure that must be understood to describe the fluid properly. The vortical structure is also of particular interest because the restoration of fundamental symmetries of quantum chromodynamics is expected to produce novel physical effects in the presence of strong vorticity. However, no experimental indications of fluid vorticity in heavy ion collisions have yet been found. Since vorticity represents a local rotational structure of the fluid, spin-orbit coupling can lead to preferential orientation of particle spins along the direction of rotation. Here we present measurements of an alignment between the global angular momentum of a non-central collision and the spin of emitted particles (in this case the collision occurs between gold nuclei and produces Λ baryons), revealing that the fluid produced in heavy ion collisions is the most vortical system so far observed. (At high energies, this fluid is a quark-gluon plasma.) We find that Λ and hyperons show a positive polarization of the order of a few per cent, consistent with some hydrodynamic predictions. (A hyperon is a particle composed of three quarks, at least one of which is a strange quark; the remainder are up and down quarks, found in protons and neutrons.) A previous measurement that reported a null result, that is, zero polarization, at higher collision energies is seen to be consistent with the trend of our observations, though with larger statistical uncertainties. These data provide experimental access to the vortical structure of the nearly ideal liquid created in a heavy ion collision and should prove valuable in the development of hydrodynamic models that

  1. Current nuclear non-proliferation policies in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Mitsuru

    1997-01-01

    Although a global nuclear confrontation between the U.S. and the Soviet Union has disappeared, many challenges to nuclear non-proliferation have emerged. Sources of concern, like a nuclear weapon program by Iraq and suspicions of North Korea have caused the adoption of a variety of political and technical measures in order to meet these challenges in the post-Cold War era. This paper describes the following ten policies for non-proliferation: 1) Strengthening the NPT; 2) Nuclear reduction; 3) CTBT and cut-off treaty; 4) Establishment of NWFZs; 5) Counterproliferation; 6) Strengthening the IAEA Safeguards; 7) Control and disposal of nuclear material from dismantled nuclear weapons; 8) Export control; 9) Registration of plutonium; and 10) Actions against nuclear smuggling. The first four measures can be said to be mainly political policies, the fifth measure (counterproliferation), can be categorized as basically a military policy, and the last five measures can be said to be technical. (J.P.N.)

  2. Nuclear proliferation in South Asia: current and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The security of all the countries in the world must be sought through general and complete disarmament. The longer the world waits, the more difficult will the eventual task become. The prime goal should be to make the world a safer place not just for the present, but also for future generations. What is needed is simultaneously a top down global approach and also a down up regional approach. Hence, that is all the more reason for greater realism, sensitivity and flexibility on part of both the nuclear weapon states and the non-nuclear weapon states to deal with what is basically a human problem. 40 refs

  3. Nuclear energy over the last 20 years and current developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The round-table debate was chaired by Jose Maria Fernandez-Rua, who began with a presentation of the current situation in the nuclear sector, namely the permanent shutdown of Lemoniz, Valdecaballeros and Trillo nuclear power plants, and continued with the introduction of the participants: Javier de Pinedo, Director of Generation for Iberdrola; Alberto Lopez, General Manager of Enresa; Guillermo Velarde, Director of the Institute of Nuclear Fusion of the ETSIIM; Adolfo Garcia Rodriguez, General Manager of Empresarios Agrupados; Enrique Garcia Alvarez, technical Director of the Endesa Group; Rafael Caro, Member of the Nuclear Safety Council; Juan Velarde Fuentes; Professor of Economics at the Universidad Complutense in Madrid, and Agustin Alonso, Professor of Nuclear Technology at ETSIIM (Author)

  4. ICNC2003: Proceedings of the seventh international conference on nuclear criticality safety. Challenges in the pursuit of global nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    This proceedings contain (technical, oral and poster papers) presented papers at the Seventh International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety ICNC2003 held on 20-24 October 2003, in Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan, following ICNC'99 in Versailles, France. The theme of this conference is 'Challenges in the Pursuit of Global Nuclear Criticality Safety'. This proceedings represent the current status of nuclear criticality safety research throughout the world. The 81 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  5. ICNC2003: Proceedings of the seventh international conference on nuclear criticality safety. Challenges in the pursuit of global nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    This proceedings contain (technical, oral and poster papers) presented papers at the Seventh International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety ICNC2003 held on 20-24 October 2003, in Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan, following ICNC'99 in Versailles, France. The theme of this conference is 'Challenges in the Pursuit of Global Nuclear Criticality Safety'. This proceedings represent the current status of nuclear criticality safety research throughout the world. The 79 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. Global radioxenon emission inventory based on nuclear power reactor reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Martin B; Tuma, Matthias P

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric radioactivity is monitored for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, with xenon isotopes 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe and 135Xe serving as important indicators of nuclear explosions. The treaty-relevant interpretation of atmospheric concentrations of radioxenon is enhanced by quantifying radioxenon emissions released from civilian facilities. This paper presents the first global radioxenon emission inventory for nuclear power plants, based on North American and European emission reports for the years 1995-2005. Estimations were made for all power plant sites for which emission data were unavailable. According to this inventory, a total of 1.3PBq of radioxenon isotopes are released by nuclear power plants as continuous or pulsed emissions in a generic year.

  7. Computers in nuclear medicine - current trends and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Previously, a decision to purchase computing equipment for nuclear medicine usually required evaluation of the 'local' needs. With the advent of Pacs and state of the art computer techniques for image acquisition and manipulation, purchase and subsequent application is to become much more complex. Some of the current trends and future possibilities which may influence the choice and operation of computers within and outside the nuclear medicine environment is discussed. (author)

  8. Current earthquake engineering practice for Japanese nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Park, Y.J.; Costello, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of seismic research being conducted in Japan and describes USNRC efforts to understand Japanese seismic practice. Current earthquake engineering practice for Japanese nuclear power plants is descried in JEAG 4601-1987, ''Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants.'' The USNRC has sponsored BNL to translate this document into English. Efforts are underway to study and understand JEAG 4601-1987 and make the translation more readily available in the United States

  9. Nuclear liability legislation in Russia - current status and expected developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, A. E.; Borisov, D. G.

    2000-01-01

    Present report is provided by the experts of the Russian insurance business, a company member of the Russian Nuclear Pool, and not the experts of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russian Federation (RF Minatom). Considering the above, the following document will outline the current status of nuclear liability legislation and insurance in Russia from a viewpoint of the insurance companies and not RF Minatom. (author)

  10. On the Measures to Strengthen the Global Nuclear Safety Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental safety objective to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The intent and purpose of safety principles are to be applicable throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce radiation risks. Now as the nuclear option is being revisited in many places, a variety of stake holders will seek participation in such decisions. Nuclear and radiological accidents occurred wide world have served to arouse public concern. The development of here-and-now media capabilities have created an awareness that may not have previously existed. Improvement in educational systems and the development of the internet have made technical information and expertise available to individuals and locations that were previously without them. The core of the Global Nuclear Safety Regime (INSAG Series No.21) for nuclear installations are the activities undertaken by each state to ensure the safety and security of the nuclear installations within its jurisdiction. National efforts can be strengthened by: intergovernmental organizations, multinational networks among operators, multinational networks among regulators, multinational networks among scientists, the international nuclear industry, and the stake holders (public, news media, NGO's) that are engaged in Nuclear Safety. All of these efforts should be harnessed to enhance the achievement of safety

  11. Historical construction costs of global nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovering, Jessica R.; Yip, Arthur; Nordhaus, Ted

    2016-01-01

    The existing literature on the construction costs of nuclear power reactors has focused almost exclusively on trends in construction costs in only two countries, the United States and France, and during two decades, the 1970s and 1980s. These analyses, Koomey and Hultman (2007); Grubler (2010), and Escobar-Rangel and Lévêque (2015), study only 26% of reactors built globally between 1960 and 2010, providing an incomplete picture of the economic evolution of nuclear power construction. This study curates historical reactor-specific overnight construction cost (OCC) data that broaden the scope of study substantially, covering the full cost history for 349 reactors in the US, France, Canada, West Germany, Japan, India, and South Korea, encompassing 58% of all reactors built globally. We find that trends in costs have varied significantly in magnitude and in structure by era, country, and experience. In contrast to the rapid cost escalation that characterized nuclear construction in the United States, we find evidence of much milder cost escalation in many countries, including absolute cost declines in some countries and specific eras. Our new findings suggest that there is no inherent cost escalation trend associated with nuclear technology. - Highlights: •Comprehensive analysis of nuclear power construction cost experience. •Coverage for early and recent reactors in seven countries. •International comparisons and re-evaluation of learning. •Cost trends vary by country and era; some experience cost stability or decline.

  12. Global prospects for nuclear power development in the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, Boris A.

    1994-01-01

    supply, in the world and by region. In the long term, up to 2100, the broad range of uncertainties with regard to population, economic growth and technology evolution prevent from any sound forecast in the field of energy and in particular of nuclear power. The scenario presented in the paper has been prepared for the Inter Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in order to illustrate the potential role of nuclear power in alleviating greenhouse gas emissions. The global energy demand projections established by IPCC, which serve as a basis for the nuclear power scenario, assume high economic growth, drastic energy efficiency improvement and the implementation of voluntary policies for greenhouse gas reduction. Under these assumptions, it is estimated that the total primary energy consumption in the world will reach some 660 EJ per annum in 2100 as compared to 330 EJ per annum in 1985. Since the world population is expected to more than double during this time frame, it means that the average energy consumption per capita will a sustained deployment of nuclear power worldwide as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector. Although this scenario would require strong commitment to the development of nuclear energy, technical and industrial capabilities would enable its implementation. In view of the potential role of nuclear power in sustainable energy supply strategies, there is a need for continued research and development aiming towards the design and implementation of advanced reactors with enhanced safety, technical and economic performance. Natural nuclear fuel resources could support a broad deployment of nuclear energy production as a major part of the mix of options for sustainable supply in the long term. The challenge for the nuclear industry is to restore the confidence in nuclear energy and enhance its social acceptability through the design and implementation of sound technical solutions for nuclear power plants, fuel cycle

  13. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemer, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations believes that it is important to provide the user with an evaluated nuclear database of the highest quality, dependability, and currency. It is also important that the evaluated nuclear data are easily accessible to the user. In the past the panel concentrated its concern on the cycle time for the publication of A-chain evaluations. However, the panel now recognizes that publication cycle time is no longer the appropriate goal. Sometime in the future, publication of the evaluated A-chains will evolve from the present hard-copy Nuclear Data Sheets on library shelves to purely electronic publication, with the advent of universal access to terminals and the nuclear databases. Therefore, the literature cut-off date in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is rapidly becoming the only important measure of the currency of an evaluated A-chain. Also, it has become exceedingly important to ensure that access to the databases is as user-friendly as possible and to enable electronic publication of the evaluated data files. Considerable progress has been made in these areas: use of the on-line systems has almost doubled in the past year, and there has been initial development of tools for electronic evaluation, publication, and dissemination. Currently, the nuclear data effort is in transition between the traditional and future methods of dissemination of the evaluated data. Also, many of the factors that adversely affect the publication cycle time simultaneously affect the currency of the evaluated nuclear database. Therefore, the panel continues to examine factors that can influence cycle time: the number of evaluators, the frequency with which an evaluation can be updated, the review of the evaluation, and the production of the evaluation, which currently exists as a hard-copy issue of Nuclear Data Sheets

  14. Current issues in nuclear power projects decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Y.; Rogner, H.

    2011-01-01

    Concluding Comments: Firm government commitment and support - imminent; New financing approaches/models are emerging, repackaging existing methods and combination of project finance/co-operative mode; Global financial crisis will make financing for investors very challenging, especially for large scale infrastructure projects like NNP –financial regulators to impose tougher rules (Basel III, UK bank levy, US Financial Regulatory Bill, etc; Pure project finance is still challenging for nuclear projects - the availability of finance for new NPPs will depend on the initial government support. This presentation presents a “free market” view on investment in nuclear power projects; If the public sector (governments) wishes to invest in nuclear power as part of its socioeconomic development priorities, finance is not a real obstacle; It becomes an issue in the presence of other equally important development needs and private sector participation is sought

  15. Traditional medicines and globalization: current and future perspectives in ethnopharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLeonti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethnopharmacological approach towards the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especially with respect to therapies related to ageing related, chronic and infectious diseases traditional medicines offer promising alternatives to biomedicine. Bioassays applied in ethnopharmacology represent the molecular characteristics and complexities of the disease or symptoms for which an indigenous drug is used in traditional medicine to variable depth and extent. One-dimensional in vitro approaches rarely cope with the complexity of human diseases and ignore the concept of polypharmacological synergies. The recent focus on holistic approaches and systems biology in medicinal plant research represents the trend towards the description and the understanding of complex multi-parameter systems.Ethnopharmacopoeias are non-static cultural constructs shaped by belief and knowledge systems. Intensified globalization and economic liberalism currently accelerates the interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias via international trade, television, the World Wide Web and print media. The increased infiltration of newly generated biomedical knowledge and introduction of foreign medicines into local pharmacopoeias leads to syncretic developments and generates a feedback loop. While modern and post-modern cultures and knowledge systems adapt and transform the global impact, they become more relevant for ethnopharmacology. Moreover, what is traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective.

  16. Traditional medicines and globalization: current and future perspectives in ethnopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Casu, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ethnopharmacological approach toward the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especially with respect to therapies related to aging related, chronic and infectious diseases traditional medicines offer promising alternatives to biomedicine. Bioassays applied in ethnopharmacology represent the molecular characteristics and complexities of the disease or symptoms for which an indigenous drug is used in "traditional" medicine to variable depth and extent. One-dimensional in vitro approaches rarely cope with the complexity of human diseases and ignore the concept of polypharmacological synergies. The recent focus on holistic approaches and systems biology in medicinal plant research represents the trend toward the description and the understanding of complex multi-parameter systems. Ethnopharmacopoeias are non-static cultural constructs shaped by belief and knowledge systems. Intensified globalization and economic liberalism currently accelerates the interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias via international trade, television, the World Wide Web and print media. The increased infiltration of newly generated biomedical knowledge and introduction of "foreign" medicines into local pharmacopoeias leads to syncretic developments and generates a feedback loop. While modern and post-modern cultures and knowledge systems adapt and transform the global impact, they become more relevant for ethnopharmacology. Moreover, what is traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective.

  17. Current Status of QA For Nuclear Power Plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagoshi, Hitohiko

    1986-01-01

    It is the current status of QA and our QA experiences with nuclear power plants against the background of the Japanese social and business environment. Accordingly, in 1972, 'The Guidance for Quality Assurance in Construction of Nuclear Power Plants' based on U. S. 10CEF50 Appendix B, was published by the Japan Electric Association. 'Jug-4101 The Guide for Quality Assurance of Nuclear Power Plants' has been prepared by referring to the IAEA QA code. The Guide has been accepted by the Japanese nuclear industry and applied to the QA programs of every organization concerned therewith. The Japanese approach to higher quality will naturally be different from that of other countries because of Japan's cultural, social, and economic conditions. Even higher quality is being aimed at through the LWR Improvement and Standardization Program and coordinated quality assurance efforts

  18. Nuclear power in the OECD countries results and current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    The first use of nuclear power for the generation of electricity on a commercial scale occurred in the United Kingdom in 1956. Today, 13 OECD countries have 318 nuclear units in operation and 66 more in construction or on order. This outstanding achievement is the result of the successful organization, start up, and operation of an industry to design, build, equip, fuel, and maintain these facilites. Nuclear power, however, is currently troubled by a number of issues that may impair its ability to reach its full potential. The industry has acknowledged problems that can be and are being managed. But the industry also has a number of political difficulties that could be beyond its ability to resolve with its own resources. These are issues common to the introduction of new technologies into a complex world. Nevertheless, nuclear power continues to be the means by which we can provide the electric power needed to raise the living standard of everyone on the globe

  19. Eliciting public preference for nuclear energy against the backdrop of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Shu-Yi; Tseng, Wei-Chun; Chen, Chi-Chung [Department of Applied Economics, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40246 (China)

    2010-11-15

    One of the most important issues related to sustainability is to reduce the use of fossil fuels due to the reduction in greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. Nuclear power results in low carbon emissions and is thus important to mitigating the adverse effects of global warming and climate change. However, the downside of nuclear power cannot be overlooked, and consequently nuclear power is a controversial issue in many countries around the world. Thus an important question concerns how people should support nuclear power. Do the climate and energy security benefits of nuclear power outweigh its risks and costs? Therefore, we use a modified double-bounded contingent valuation model to explore the attitudes and the willingness to pay (WTP) of a country in order to demonstrate its implications for policy. We confirm that supporters and opponents of nuclear power are balanced both in terms of their numbers and in terms of their WTP. The policy implication is that people do not support any dramatic increase or reduction in nuclear power, and that nuclear power should still be an important means of generating electricity in Taiwan. The current share of nuclear power in electricity generation of 20% should be maintained in the near future. (author)

  20. A lead for transvaluation of global nuclear energy research and funded projects in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Eriko; Kajikawa, Yuya; Fujita, Katsuhide; Iwata, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Chernobyl accident had limited influence on basic research in nuclear energy. • Budget allocation to R and D and number of published papers have recently decreased. • Citation network analysis revealed reactor safety and fusion as current research trend. • Nuclear energy research policy will change after Fukushima disaster. - Abstract: The decision-making process that precedes the introduction of a new energy system should strive for a balance among human security, environmental safeguards, energy security, proliferation risk, economic risks, etc. For nuclear energy, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (Fukushima disaster) has brought forth a strong need for transvaluation of the present technology. Here, we analyzed bibliographic records of publications in nuclear science and technology to illustrate an overview and trends in nuclear energy technology and related fields by using citation network analysis. We also analyzed funding data and keywords assigned for each project by co-occurrence network analysis. This research integrates citation network analysis and bibliometric keyword analysis to compare the global trends in nuclear energy research and characteristics of research conducted at universities and institutes in Japan. We show that the Chernobyl accident had only a limited influence on basic research. The results of papers are dispersed in diverse areas of nuclear energy technology research, and the results of KAKEN projects in Japan are highly influenced by national energy policy with a focus on nuclear fuel cycle for energy security, although KAKEN allows much freedom in the selection of research projects to academic community

  1. Canada's nuclear industry - a leader in the global market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, G.

    1994-01-01

    The successes of the Canadian nuclear industry at home and abroad are recounted and extolled in this address. It is argued that the industry must become more global in order to compete more effectively in the export market. This means not only setting up operating bases (rather than mere marketing offices) abroad, but also employing nationals of prospective overseas purchasing countries in the headquarters of Canadian companies. Partnership with one or more Asian country may be the key to success

  2. A Uniform Framework of Global Nuclear Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupree, S.A.; Mangan, D.L.; Sanders, T.L; Sellers, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Global Nuclear Materials Management (GNMM) anticipates and supports a growing international recognition of the importance of uniform, effective management of civilian, excess defense, and nuclear weapons materials. We expect thereto be a continuing increase in both the number of international agreements and conventions on safety, security, and transparency of nuclear materials, and the number of U.S.-Russian agreements for the safety, protection, and transparency of weapons and excess defense materials. This inventory of agreements and conventions may soon expand into broad, mandatory, international programs that will include provisions for inspection, verification, and transparency, To meet such demand the community must build on the resources we have, including State agencies, the IAEA and regional organizations. By these measures we will meet the future expectations for monitoring and inspection of materials, maintenance of safety and security, and implementation of transparency measures

  3. A Uniform Framework of Global Nuclear Materials Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupree, S.A.; Mangan, D.L.; Sanders, T.L; Sellers, T.A.

    1999-04-20

    Global Nuclear Materials Management (GNMM) anticipates and supports a growing international recognition of the importance of uniform, effective management of civilian, excess defense, and nuclear weapons materials. We expect thereto be a continuing increase in both the number of international agreements and conventions on safety, security, and transparency of nuclear materials, and the number of U.S.-Russian agreements for the safety, protection, and transparency of weapons and excess defense materials. This inventory of agreements and conventions may soon expand into broad, mandatory, international programs that will include provisions for inspection, verification, and transparency, To meet such demand the community must build on the resources we have, including State agencies, the IAEA and regional organizations. By these measures we will meet the future expectations for monitoring and inspection of materials, maintenance of safety and security, and implementation of transparency measures.

  4. 'What's happening at the Canadian Nuclear Association (CNA): current priorities'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of current CNA programs, particularly focused on communications and advertising, regulatory affairs, climate change, and government relations. The presentation will address the principal messages that Canada's nuclear technology sector is endeavouring to get across to the public and to government policy makers. (author)

  5. Current experience with nuclear power plant simulators and analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozd, A.

    1998-01-01

    Topics of a Specialist Meeting are presented on Simulators and Plant Analyzers: Current Issues in Nuclear Power Plant Simulation (Espoo, Finland). They dealt with the need for maintaining expertise, training and education, control rooms and operator support tools, simulators as tools for plant safety analysis. The major conclusions of the payers and the meeting are discussed. (R.P.)

  6. The recent activities of nuclear power globalization. Our provision against global warming by global deployment of our own technologies as integrated nuclear power plant supply company'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Shigemitsu

    2008-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) is striving to expand and spread nuclear power plants as an 'Integrated Nuclear Power Plant Supply Company' based on its engineering, manufacturing, and technological support capabilities. The company also has ample experience in the export of major components. MHI is accelerating its global deployment through the market introduction of large-sized strategic reactor US-APWR, the joint development of a mid-sized strategic reactor ATMEA1 with AREVA, and a small strategic reactor PBMR. The company also plans to internationally deploy technologies for the nuclear fuel cycle. We present here the leading-edge trends in the global deployment of these nuclear businesses, all of which help to solve the energy and environmental issues in the world. (author)

  7. A Single Global Small-User Nuclear Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conca, J.L.; Wright, J.

    2009-01-01

    Global energy partnerships in nuclear power, proposed by France, Russia, U.S. and England, seek to address the proliferation issue by controlling fuel production and nuclear materials, removing the need for each country to develop enrichment, fabrication, recycling or disposal capabilities. Several of the large generator countries such as France, the U.S., Japan, S. Korea, Russia, the U.K., China and India, all have plans for deep geologic repositories because they anticipate sufficient waste over the next century to justify the expense of a repository. However, countries having, or planning, less than five reactors, such as Egypt, Iran, Indonesia, Brazil and about 30 other countries, will not have sufficient waste generation, or a favorable geologic site, to justify the economic and environmental issues of developing their own repository. The Salado salt formation in New Mexico, set aside for nuclear waste disposal within the 16 square-mile area by the Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, is the most optimal geologic formation for the permanent disposal of any nuclear waste and is easily able to host all of the commercial nuclear waste that will be generated in the next thousand years. The U.S. commercial nuclear waste needs presently surpass all others, and will for the foreseeable future. Hosting the relatively small amount of waste from these small-user nations will add little to U.S. waste stream while the cost/benefit analysis from the standpoint of operations, safety, geology, cost and proliferation is overwhelmingly positive for developing such a global repository. Oceanic and overland transportation, high-level disposal logistics and costs from several programs, including WIPP, have demonstrated that the operation would pay for itself from international user fees with no U.S. taxpayer dollars required and still save the world about $400 billion over 100 years. The ethical considerations alone are compelling. (authors)

  8. The impact of global nuclear mass model uncertainties on r-process abundance predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumpower M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid neutron capture or ‘r-process’ nucleosynthesis may be responsible for half the production of heavy elements above iron on the periodic table. Masses are one of the most important nuclear physics ingredients that go into calculations of r-process nucleosynthesis as they enter into the calculations of reaction rates, decay rates, branching ratios and Q-values. We explore the impact of uncertainties in three nuclear mass models on r-process abundances by performing global monte carlo simulations. We show that root-mean-square (rms errors of current mass models are large so that current r-process predictions are insufficient in predicting features found in solar residuals and in r-process enhanced metal poor stars. We conclude that the reduction of global rms errors below 100 keV will allow for more robust r-process predictions.

  9. Role of nuclear energy in the global energy picture of the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizia, K.; Schwarz, D.

    1991-01-01

    Problems associated with fossil fuel (Gulf crisis, ecology, conservation, global warming) cannot be solved with saving and renewables alone. A larger nuclear share of electricity, electricity for more applications, and nuclear heat are needed. For the last, the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is best suited. Its most important contribution would be the production of methanol as a motor fuel. Also nuclear steel-making, H 2 and CO for chemistry and refineries, A1 2 O 3 kilns, process steam for industry, oil production and desalination, district heating or production of H 2 , substitute natural gas, and liquefied coal for space heating should be considered. Later on, nuclear current and HTGR heat can be used to split water to produce hydrogen. An international effort is recommended to exploit these possibilities. (Author)

  10. Global warming and oil: Can nuclear power make a difference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodansky, D.

    1991-01-01

    A responsible energy policy, for the United States and the world, must address two needs: to restrain the rate of fossil fuel consumption, and to reduce the consumption of oil. Unless the first is accomplished, the world may experience major climate changes, some perhaps disastrous, from the buildup of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Unless the second is met, we face recurring threats of economic disruption and war, due to the dangerous concentration of the world's oil resources in the Persian Gulf region. Nuclear power has long been cited as a possible answer to these needs. Mr. Bodansky takes a fresh look at the contribution nuclear power could make, in the light of our increased awareness of global warming dangers and the renewed reminders of the instabilities of oil markets. He notes, however, that the basic objections to nuclear power remain. They are well-known, stemming from concerns about reactor safety, waste disposal, nuclear proliferation, and cost. These are old but continuing controversies, involving a tangle of technical, political, social, and economic issues. If nuclear power is to be revived, these concerns clearly must be addressed. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  11. History and current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funasaka, Hideyuki; Nagai, Toshihisa; Washiya, Tadahiro

    2008-01-01

    History and present state of fast breeder reactor was reviewed in series. As a history and current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, this ninth lecture presented the progress of the FBR fuel reprocessing technology and advanced reprocessing processes. FBR fuel reprocessing technology had been developed to construct the reprocessing equipment test facilities (RETF) based on PUREX process technologies. With economics, reduction of environmental burdens and proliferation resistance taken into consideration, advanced aqueous method for nuclear fuel cycle activities has been promoted as the government's basic policy. Innovative technologies on mechanical disassembly, continuous rotary dissolver, crystallizer, solvent extraction and actinides recovery have been mainly studied. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Current status of the nuclear medicine in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, K.

    1974-01-01

    A brief survey of the current status of Japan nuclear medicine is given. The following data are described (from the material of the 11th Japan Conference of Radioisotopes): 1. the increase of the number of nuclear instruments between 1971 and 1973; 2. the total amount of the cobalt radiation apparatur (inclusive of the cesium apparatus) in the hospitals in 1971- and 1972; 3. the radioactive medicines and nuclids used in Japan; 4. the radioactive isotopes used generally in the therapeutics in 1971 and 1972; 5. the question of labour. (K.A.)

  13. Nuclear power systems: Their safety. Current issue review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.C.

    1994-04-01

    Human beings utilize energy in many forms and from a variety of sources. A number of countries have chosen nuclear-electric generation as a component of their energy system. At the end of 1992, there were 419 power reactors operating in 29 countries, accounting for more than 15% of the world's production of electricity. In 1992, 13 countries derived at least 25% of their electricity from nuclear units, with Lithuania leading at just over 78%, followed closely by France at 72%. In the same year, Canada produced about 16% of its electricity from nuclear units. Some 53 power reactors are under construction in 14 countries outside the former USSR. Within the ex-USSR countries, six new reactors are currently under construction. No human endeavour carries the guarantee of perfect safety and the question of whether of not nuclear-electric generation represents an 'acceptable' risk to society has long been vigorously debated. Until the events of late April 1986 in the then Soviet Union, nuclear safety had indeed been an issue for discussion, for some concern, but not for alarm. The accident at the Chernobyl reactor irrevocably changed all that. This disaster brought the matter of nuclear safety into the public mind in a dramatic fashion. Subsequent opening of the ex-Soviet nuclear power program to outside scrutiny has done little to calm people's concerns about the safety of nuclear power in that part of the world. This paper discusses the issue of safety in complex energy systems and provides brief accounts of some of the most serious reactor accidents that have occurred to date, as well as more recent, less dramatic events touching on the safety issue. (author). 7 refs

  14. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by ''rare''? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate "1"3"7Cs and gaseous "1"3"1I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted "1"3"7Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"1I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  15. Double or quits?: The global future of civil nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Peter; Grimston, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    Among the many disputes in the field of energy, in many countries none appear to be as acrimonious as those surrounding nuclear power. Its supporters are confident that nuclear power will have an important long-term future on the global energy scene, while its critics are equally confident that its days are numbered and that it was only developed to provide a political fig-leaf for a nuclear weapons programme. Both sides believe the other to be thoroughly biased or stupid and there is little constructive debate between them. As the disputes rage, especially over such issues as the management of nuclear waste, the economics and safety of nuclear power compared with other sources of electricity, the possible links with nuclear weapons and the attitude of the public towards the industry, decision-making is either paralysed or dominated by those who shout loudest. As a result, governments, industry and the financial sector have in recent years found it increasingly difficult to develop policy in this field. Deciding about future energy developments requires balanced and trustworthy information about issues such as the relative environmental effects of different options, the safety of installations, economics and the availability of resources. This is of particular importance now because world energy use is expected to continue to grow significantly during this century, particularly in less developed countries. In the same period, global emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, will have to be severely curbed. To meet both these requirements may well involve a step change away from being able to meet growing energy needs by depending on an ever increasing supply of carboniferous fossil fuel. To address this situation, the Royal Institute of International Affairs undertook a two-year research project, aimed at providing information from the standpoint of an organization with no vested interest in either the pro or the anti camp, but close connections to

  16. Why the Japanese Nuclear Power Plants are not trusted? Verification of current nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Since the liberalization of electric power following the trend of structural reform and government's economic and financial rebuild had impacted the management of electric utilities in 1990, current nuclear power comes to be subject to government's leadership and support to promote nuclear energy. The Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy Japan of atomic energy commission in 2005 aims to (1) maintain the 30 to 40% or more share of nuclear energy in electricity generation up to 2030 and afterwards, (2) promote the nuclear fuel cycle and (3) commercialize the fast-breeder reactors. Nuclear Energy National Plan of ministry of economy, trade and industry in 2006 makes reference to construction of FBR demonstration reactor by 2025, development of Japanese next-generation LWR and also construction of second reprocessing plant. Major stakeholders related with nuclear power generation such as politicians, government (the authorities concerned), electric utilities and local governments play respective important role in nuclear policy as 'a tetrahedral structure'. The Niigataken Chuets-oki earthquake reminded risk problems of nuclear power management and shook the nuclear tetrahedron structure, which might collapse with loss of public trust. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Nuclear reactor fuel rod behavior modelling and current trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, Ue.

    2001-01-01

    Safety assessment of nuclear reactors is carried out by simulating the events to taking place in nuclear reactors by realistic computer codes. Such codes are developed in a way that each event is represented by differential equations derived based on physical laws. Nuclear fuel is an important barrier against radioactive fission gas release. The release of radioactivity to environment is the main concern and this can be avoided by preserving the integrity of fuel rod. Therefore, safety analyses should cover an assessment of fuel rod behavior with certain extent. In this study, common approaches for fuel behavior modeling are discussed. Methods utilized by widely accepted computer codes are reviewed. Shortcomings of these methods are explained. Current research topics to improve code reliability and problems encountered in fuel rod behavior modeling are presented

  18. Current USAEC seismic requirements for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    The principal seismic and geologic considerations which guide the USAEC in its evaluation of the suitability of proposed sites for nuclear power plants and plant design bases are set forth as design criteria in the AEC regulatory guides. The basic requirements of seismic design and analysis for seismic Category I structures, components, and systems important to public safety have been established in the USAEC regulatory guides and Code of Federal Regulations. It is pointed out that the current state-of-art techniques, best available technology, and additional studies in the field of earthquake engineering can be utilized to resolve seismic concerns. The seismic design requirements for nuclear plants to withstand postulated earthquakes can be standardized and this will be a significant milestone in the continuation of the Nuclear Standardization Program. (author)

  19. Nuclear disasters: current plans and future directions for oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    To show that there is a significant role for oncologists in the event of a terrorist nuclear disaster. Professionals need data on current political issues regarding a nuclear attack already put in place by the administration and the military. Review of what actually occurs during a fission bomb's explosion helps to point out what medical care will be most needed. The author contends that those trained in the oncologies could play a major part. Modern-day America. Potential civilian survivors. Large gaps noted in statewide disaster plans in the public domain. Oncologists must get involved now in disaster planning; statewide plans are necessary throughout the nation; the public needs to know the basics of what to do in the advent of a nuclear bomb explosion.

  20. KEYNOTE: Simulation, computation, and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Victor, Dr.

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Victor Reis delivered the keynote talk at the closing session of the conference. The talk was forward looking and focused on the importance of advanced computing for large-scale nuclear energy goals such as Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). Dr. Reis discussed the important connections of GNEP to the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program and the SciDAC research portfolio. In the context of GNEP, Dr. Reis talked about possible fuel leasing configurations, strategies for their implementation, and typical fuel cycle flow sheets. A major portion of the talk addressed lessons learnt from ‘Science Based Stockpile Stewardship’ and the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) initiative and how they can provide guidance for advancing GNEP and SciDAC goals. Dr. Reis’s colorful and informative presentation included international proverbs, quotes and comments, in tune with the international flavor that is part of the GNEP philosophy and plan. He concluded with a positive and motivating outlook for peaceful nuclear energy and its potential to solve global problems. An interview with Dr. Reis, addressing some of the above issues, is the cover story of Issue 2 of the SciDAC Review and available at http://www.scidacreview.org This summary of Dr. Reis’s PowerPoint presentation was prepared by Institute of Physics Publishing, the complete PowerPoint version of Dr. Reis’s talk at SciDAC 2006 is given as a multimedia attachment to this summary.

  1. The World Nuclear University: Addressing global needs. London, 4 September 2003. Inauguration ceremony, World Nuclear University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    For some time, there has been a growing awareness of the need for succession planning in the nuclear industry, to ensure that we cultivate a new generation of young people with the proper education and skills to replace the aging nuclear workforce as its members retire. Today's inauguration of the 'World Nuclear University' (WNU) is the most substantive action taken to date to address this need. This is a challenge, because the widespread perception clearly exists that nuclear energy is a dying field. The IAEA, with its constituency of 135 Member States, is hopeful that this will truly become a World Nuclear University. Almost 2 billion people, nearly one third of the population of the planet, remain without access to modern energy supplies - a shortfall that could be addressed, at least in part, by nuclear energy. But any major expansion in the future use of nuclear power will only be feasible if the nuclear industry is successful in developing innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology - as well as operational and regulatory approaches - that effectively address concerns related to cost competitiveness, safety and security, proliferation resistance and waste disposal. And global development needs go well beyond the electricity sector. The IAEA's recognition of these situations underlies our assistance to Member States, through which we try to address areas of high national priority wherever nuclear technology provides the best option for success. A significant part of that effort lies in the development of human capacity - through training and education in how to apply nuclear technology safely and effectively. 'Atoms for Peace' is a vision nearly five decades old, focused on using nuclear science for the advancement of humankind. It is my hope that this 'World Nuclear University' can be an effective instrument towards the achievement of that vision

  2. Development or Deployment of 'Grid-Appropriate' Reactors for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D. T.

    2008-01-01

    The world energy demand is expected to nearly double by 2030, largely driven by rapidly increasing demand in the developing parts of the world. Many of the countries that will experience the greatest growth in energy demand have little or no current nuclear power experience and have significant constraints on the size and type of power plant that can be accommodated. Although a few reactor vendors are beginning to address this market need, most traditional vendors continue to offer only very large nuclear power plants with capacities exceeding 1500 MWe per unit. The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), which was initiated in the United States and now includes a partnership of 20 countries, seeks to facilitate the large-scale global growth in nuclear power. Within the GNEP program, the 'grid-appropriate' reactors (GAR) campaign has been initiated to coordinate and facilitate the development, demonstration, and deployment of reactor designs that are better suited for those countries that need or prefer smaller power plant capacities. The GNEP/GAR program addresses the full spectrum of issues for the deployment of new reactor designs to new nuclear power countries, including: reactor technology and engineering, licensing and regulatory impacts, and infrastructure needs (physical, workforce, and institutional). Initially, the program is focused on meeting the current global demand for small or medium-sized reactors using demonstrated technologies. The program will also address the development of new reactor technologies that will further enhance the safety, security, and proliferation resistance of future designs. International collaborations are being established to: (1) develop suitable requirements and criteria for GAR designs, (2) conduct R and D for longer-term reactor technologies and innovative designs, and (3) assisting new nuclear power countries in assessing their infrastructure needs. The status of these activities will be presented and future program

  3. Geography of current and future global mammal extinction risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana D Davidson

    Full Text Available Identifying which species are at greatest risk, what makes them vulnerable, and where they are distributed are central goals for conservation science. While knowledge of which factors influence extinction risk is increasingly available for some taxonomic groups, a deeper understanding of extinction correlates and the geography of risk remains lacking. Here, we develop a predictive random forest model using both geospatial and mammalian species' trait data to uncover the statistical and geographic distributions of extinction correlates. We also explore how this geography of risk may change under a rapidly warming climate. We found distinctive macroecological relationships between species-level risk and extinction correlates, including the intrinsic biological traits of geographic range size, body size and taxonomy, and extrinsic geographic settings such as seasonality, habitat type, land use and human population density. Each extinction correlate exhibited ranges of values that were especially associated with risk, and the importance of different risk factors was not geographically uniform across the globe. We also found that about 10% of mammals not currently recognized as at-risk have biological traits and occur in environments that predispose them towards extinction. Southeast Asia had the most actually and potentially threatened species, underscoring the urgent need for conservation in this region. Additionally, nearly 40% of currently threatened species were predicted to experience rapid climate change at 0.5 km/year or more. Biological and environmental correlates of mammalian extinction risk exhibit distinct statistical and geographic distributions. These results provide insight into species-level patterns and processes underlying geographic variation in extinction risk. They also offer guidance for future conservation research focused on specific geographic regions, or evaluating the degree to which species-level patterns mirror spatial

  4. Geography of current and future global mammal extinction risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ana D; Shoemaker, Kevin T; Weinstein, Ben; Costa, Gabriel C; Brooks, Thomas M; Ceballos, Gerardo; Radeloff, Volker C; Rondinini, Carlo; Graham, Catherine H

    2017-01-01

    Identifying which species are at greatest risk, what makes them vulnerable, and where they are distributed are central goals for conservation science. While knowledge of which factors influence extinction risk is increasingly available for some taxonomic groups, a deeper understanding of extinction correlates and the geography of risk remains lacking. Here, we develop a predictive random forest model using both geospatial and mammalian species' trait data to uncover the statistical and geographic distributions of extinction correlates. We also explore how this geography of risk may change under a rapidly warming climate. We found distinctive macroecological relationships between species-level risk and extinction correlates, including the intrinsic biological traits of geographic range size, body size and taxonomy, and extrinsic geographic settings such as seasonality, habitat type, land use and human population density. Each extinction correlate exhibited ranges of values that were especially associated with risk, and the importance of different risk factors was not geographically uniform across the globe. We also found that about 10% of mammals not currently recognized as at-risk have biological traits and occur in environments that predispose them towards extinction. Southeast Asia had the most actually and potentially threatened species, underscoring the urgent need for conservation in this region. Additionally, nearly 40% of currently threatened species were predicted to experience rapid climate change at 0.5 km/year or more. Biological and environmental correlates of mammalian extinction risk exhibit distinct statistical and geographic distributions. These results provide insight into species-level patterns and processes underlying geographic variation in extinction risk. They also offer guidance for future conservation research focused on specific geographic regions, or evaluating the degree to which species-level patterns mirror spatial variation in the

  5. Global nuclear markets in the context of climate change and sustainable development. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article (Chapter Two) focuses on the global nuclear markets in the context of policies regarding climate change and sustainable development. The global market realities and the export potential of the canadian nuclear industry are becoming crucial features of the nuclear political economy. The article examines the role of exports in the evolution of nuclear policy in Canada, and looks more closely at nuclear power and CANDU projects in the specific context of global competitive markets. It examines the trends in electricity and nuclear energy in the market for nuclear reactors. Finally, this article locates these changes in the context of the issues that are inherent in climate change and sustainable development

  6. Examination of the Current Approaches to State-Level Nuclear Security Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan; Yim, Mansung; Kim, So Young

    2014-01-01

    An effective global nuclear materials security system will cover all materials, employ international standards and best practices, and reduce risks by reducing weapons-usable nuclear material stocks and the number of locations where they are found. Such a system must also encourage states to accept peer reviews by outside experts in order to demonstrate that effective security is in place. It is thus critically important to create an integrative framework of state-level evaluation of nuclear security as a basis for measuring the level and progress of international effort to secure and control all nuclear materials. There have been studies to represent state-level nuclear security with a quantitative metric. A prime example is the Nuclear Materials Security Index (NMSI) by the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI). Another comprehensive study is the State Level Risk Metric by Texas A and M University (TAMU). This paper examines the current methods with respect to their strengths and weaknesses and identifies the directions for future research to improve upon the existing approaches

  7. Nuclear Fuel Leasing, Recycling and proliferation: Modeling a Global View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crozat, M P; Choi, J; Reis, V H; Hill, R

    2004-01-01

    would extend the spirit of President Eisenhower's ''Atoms for Peace'' vision toward solving some of the major international problems of the 21st Century--global climate change and the creation of a peaceful and stable world political regime. Needless to say, this is a very complex problem, encompassing all of the issues involved in nuclear power--economics, proliferation, waste management and safety--and a myriad of public and diplomatic policy issues as well. To gain a better understanding of the leasing concept we have built an interactive system dynamics model, Multinuke, using STELLA software. (STELLA is particularly useful for this type of analysis because of its capability to create user-friendly interfaces.) Multinuke simulates two separate nuclear entities and possible interactions between them, and therefore can be used to investigate the fuel-leasing concept. In this paper we will apply the results of Multinuke to a few simplified scenarios to help understand how fuel leasing might affect the future global growth of nuclear power, proliferation concern and spent fuel management

  8. Current experience with central-station nuclear cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    In considering the potential of the HTGR for nuclear cogeneration, a logical element for investigation is the recent history of nuclear cogeneration experience. Little is found in recent literature; however, the twin nuclear cogeneration plant at Midland is nearing completion and this milestone will no doubt be the basis for a number of reports on the unique cogeneration facility and operating experiences with it. Less well known in the US is the Bruce Nuclear Power Development in Ontario, Canada. Originally designed to cogenerate steam for heavy water production, the Bruce facility is the focus of a major initiative to create an energy park on the shores of Lake Huron. To obtain an improved understanding of the status and implications of current nuclear cogeneration experience, GCRA representatives visited the Ontario Hydro offices in Toronto and subsequently toured the Midland site near Midland, Michigan. The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the results of those visits and to develop a series of conclusions regarding the implications for HTGR cogeneration concepts

  9. Current status and future prospects of nuclear industry in Europe and in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Because we are now in Europe and the world at a defining moment in the history of nuclear energy, facing great opportunities, when everybody is striving to access a safe, reliable and sustainable energy supply, in order to meet the rising global demand. We are currently living through a real nuclear renaissance, driven by the increase of the price of oil and gas, the effect on the environment of CO 2 emissions, and the need of people to have access to energy in order to attain a better standard of living. Nuclear energy is thus considered as one intangible component of any energy mix seeking sustainable development. It is thus a very appropriate time to take stock and evaluate the current situation in France and Europe, and look at the challenges nuclear energy will have to face in the near future. After addressing these issues, if you allow me, I would like in my conclusion to indulge in a brief overview of the world situation and global challenges

  10. Global zero-carbon energy pathways using viable mixes of nuclear and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sanghyun; Bradshaw, Corey J.A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A proper mix of nuclear power and renewables achieves sustainable energy future. • A high nuclear share provides cost and land effectiveness compared to nuclear-free. • Only-renewable mix will increase negative economic and environmental impacts. • A deployment of advanced reactor technologies is essential to overcome limitations. - Abstract: What are the most viable global pathways for a major expansion of zero-carbon emissions electricity sources given the diversity of regional technical, socio-political and economic constraints? We modelled a range of zero-emissions energy scenarios across nations that were designed to meet projected final energy demand in 2060, and optimised to derive the best globally aggregated results in terms of minimising costs and land use (a surrogate for environmental impacts). We found that a delayed energy transition to a zero-emissions pathway will decrease investment costs (−$3,431 billion), but increase cumulative CO 2 emissions (additional 696 Gt). A renewable-only scenario would convert >7.4% of the global land area to energy production, whereas a maximum nuclear scenario would affect <0.4% of land area, including mining, spent-fuel storage, and buffer zones. Moreover, a nuclear-free pathway would involve up to a 50% greater cumulative capital investment compared to a high nuclear penetration scenario ($73.7 trillion). However, for some nations with a high current share of renewables and a low projected future energy demand (e.g., Norway), pursuit of a higher nuclear share is suboptimal. In terms of the time frame for replacement of fossil fuels, achieving a global nuclear share of about 50% by 2060 would be a technically and economically plausible target if progressing at a pace of the average historical growth of nuclear power penetration in France from 1970 to 1986 (0.28 MWh person −1 year -1 ). For effective climate-change mitigation, a high penetration of nuclear in association with a nationally

  11. Current approaches to nuclear power plant life management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, T.; Tajima, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Koyama, M.

    2002-01-01

    extracted additional maintenance measures and incorporated them into their long-term maintenance plans, thereby reinforcing their current maintenance activities. Considering the latest information including domestic and overseas operating experiences and knowledge of academics and experts consigned by the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), the Nuclear and Industry Safety Agency (NISA) of the METI reviewed and studied the technical evaluation and long-term maintenance plans of these electric utility companies. This paper describes the outlines of the NISA's report and related activities on current approaches to cope with the ageing of nuclear power plants in Japan. (Note) In 2001, the MITI was reorganized to the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). (author)

  12. Nuclear energy: The need for responsible global management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.; Mechelynck, A.

    1999-01-01

    The problems posed by nuclear power generation have been discussed in earlier Pugwash meetings and, more recently, participants in at least one working group (Hiroshima, 1995) have urged that the issue should be taken up again in a specially convened workshop. Subsequently, at Lahti in 1996, Working Group 6 (Global action on the energy/climate interaction) asked the present authors to follow up this recommendation. The present paper reports on the modest progress that has been made in this direction. It is intended to form the basis for discussion, in Lillehammer Working Group 6, on whether further Pugwash action should be taken and, if so, how?

  13. Nuclear energy - the global solution for sustainable development in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorea, Valica; Popescu, Dan; Cristescu, Catalin

    2006-01-01

    The global population growth of the planet during the next 50 years will be accompanied by a dramatic increase in the demand for energy. Almost two-thirds of the world's population today has no access to electricity in developing countries. Without energy, the entire infrastructure would collapse: agriculture, transportation, waste collection. Developing and industrialized nations alike must address - both individually and collectively - how they can achieve sustainable growth. To date about 16 % of the world's electricity is produced by 443 reactors in 31 countries. They have a combined total capacity of 362 GW of electricity and produced a combined total of 2618 TWh in 2004, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency statistics. These reactors produce electricity for their respective countries safely, reliably and with the lowest environmental impact of any major energy source. Nuclear power provides steady energy at a consistent price without competing for resources from other countries. Some deficient in fossil fuels large countries (like France) rely on nuclear power up to about 80 % of their power necessities. United States (US) has the greatest number of commercial reactors in operation, but the share of nuclear power doesn't exceed 20 %, because of their abundant oil resources. On a percentage basis, Romania is one of the smaller users of nuclear energy. In Romania, according to the official data of the Romanian Ministry of Economy and Trade, nuclear energy share is only 10% of the gross power generation structure, with 5.560 GWh during the year 2004. Construction of the first unit of the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Cernavoda started in 1980 and of units 2-5 in 1982. Unit 1 was connected to the grid in mid of 1996 and entered commercial operation in December 1996. The state nuclear power corporation, Societatea Nationala Nuclearelectrica (SNN), established in 1998, operates Cernavoda NPP. Its capacity factor has averaged over 86 % so far and

  14. China's spent nuclear fuel management: Current practices and future strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yun

    2011-01-01

    Although China's nuclear power industry is relatively young and the management of its spent nuclear fuel is not yet a concern, China's commitment to nuclear energy and its rapid pace of development require detailed analyses of its future spent fuel management policies. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of China's fuel cycle program and its reprocessing policy, and to suggest strategies for managing its future fuel cycle program. The study is broken into four sections. The first reviews China's current nuclear fuel cycle program and facilities. The second discusses China's current spent fuel management methods and the storage capability of China's 13 operational nuclear power plants. The third estimates China's total accumulated spent fuel, its required spent fuel storage from present day until 2035, when China expects its first commercialized fast neutron reactors to be operational, and its likely demand for uranium resources. The fourth examines several spent fuel management scenarios for the present period up until 2035; the financial cost and proliferation risk of each scenario is evaluated. The study concludes that China can and should maintain a reprocessing operation to meet its R and D activities before its fast reactor program is further developed. - Highlights: → This study provides an overview of China's fuel cycle program and its reprocessing policy.→ This study suggests strategies for managing its future fuel cycle program.→ China will experience no pressure to lessen the burden of spent fuel storage in the next 30 years.→ China should maintain sufficient reprocessing operations to meet its demands for R and D activities.→ China should actively invest on R and D activities of both fuel cycling and fast reactor programs.

  15. Drought Duration Biases in Current Global Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Heewon; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Seneviratne, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Several droughts in the recent past are characterized by their increased duration and intensity. In particular, substantially prolonged droughts have brought major societal and economic losses in certain regions, yet climate change projections of such droughts in terms of duration is subject to large uncertainties. This study analyzes the biases of drought duration in state-of-the-art global climate model (GCM) simulations from the 5th phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Drought durations are defined as negative precipitation anomalies and evaluated with three observation-based datasets in the period of 1901-2010. Large spread in biases of GCMs is commonly found in all regions, with particular strong biases in North East Brazil, Africa, Northern Australia, Central America, Central and Northern Europe, Sahel and Asia. Also in most regions, the interquartile range of bias lies below 0, meaning that the GCMs tend to underestimate drought durations. Meanwhile in some regions such as Western South America, the Amazon, Sahel, West and South Africa, and Asia, considerable inconsistency among the three observation-based datasets were found. These results indicate substantial uncertainties and errors in current GCMs for simulating drought durations as well as a large spread in observation-based datasets, both of which are found to be particularly strong in those regions that are often considered to be hot spots of projected future drying. The underlying sources of these uncertainties need to be identified in further study and will be applied to constrain GCM-based drought projections under climate change.

  16. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzlova, Daniela; Kouzes, R.; McElroy, R.; Peerani, P.; Baird, K.; Bakel, A.; Borella, M.; Bourne, M.; Bourva, L.; Cave, F.; Chandra, R.; Chernikova, D.; Croft, S.; Dermody, G.; Dougan, A.; Ely, J.; Fanchini, E.; Finocchiaro, P.; Gavron, Victor; Kureta, M.; Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Ishiyama, K.; Lee, T.; Martin, Ch.; McKinny, K.; Menlove, Howard Olsen; Orton, Ch.; Pappalardo, A.; Pedersen, B.; Plenteda, R.; Pozzi, S.; Schear, M.; Seya, M.; Siciliano, E.; Stave, S.; Sun, L.; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Tagziria, H.; Takamine, J.; Weber, A.-L.; Yamaguchi, T.; Zhu, H.

    2015-01-01

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3 He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3 He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3 He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3 He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3 He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3 He-alternative technologies.

  17. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kouzes, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peerani, P. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Aspinall, M. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Baird, K. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Bakel, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Borella, M. [SCK.CEN, Mol (Belgium); Bourne, M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bourva, L. [Canberra Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Cave, F. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Chandra, R. [Arktis Radiation Detectors Ltd., Zurich (Sweden); Chernikova, D. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dermody, G. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Dougan, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Ely, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fanchini, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Finocchiaro, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Gavron, Victor [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kureta, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ishiyama, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Lee, T. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Martin, Ch. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); McKinny, K. [GE Reuter-Stokes, Twinsburg, OH (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Orton, Ch. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Pappalardo, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Peranteau, D. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Plenteda, R. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Pozzi, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schear, M. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Seya, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Siciliano, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stave, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, L. [Proportional Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tagziria, H. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Vaccaro, S. [DG Energy (Luxembourg); Takamine, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Weber, A. -L. [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Yamaguchi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Zhu, H. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency {IAEA}, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3

  18. Current issues and challenges in global analysis of parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, Wu-Ki

    2007-01-01

    A new implementation of precise perturbative QCD calculation of deep inelastic scattering structure functions and cross sections, incorporating heavy quark mass effects, is applied to the global analysis of the full HERA I data sets on NC and CC cross sections, in conjunction with other experiments. Improved agreement between the NLO QCD theory and the global data sets are obtained. Comparison of the new results to that of previous analysis based on conventional zero-mass parton formalism is made. Exploratory work on implications of new fixed-target neutrino scattering and Drell-Yan data on global analysis is also discussed. (author)

  19. The IAEA international project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO): current and future activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, J.; Depisch, F.; Kuznetsov, V.

    2004-01-01

    Upon resolutions of the IAEA General Conference in 2000, the IAEA initiated International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). The objective of INPRO, which comprises two phases, is to support sustainable deployment and use of nuclear technology to meet the global energy needs in the next 50 years and beyond. During Phase I, work is subdivided into two sub phases. Phase 1A focused on determining user requirements in the areas of economics, environment, safety, proliferation resistance, and recommendations in the area of so-called crosscutting issues, which are legal, institutional, and infrastructure issues accompanying the deployment of nuclear power, and is targeted at developing a methodology and guidelines for the assessment of various nuclear reactor and fuel cycle concepts and approaches. Phase 1A was finalised in June 2003 with its results now available as IAEA TECDOC-1362. Phase 1B has started in July 2003. During this phase interested Member States are performing case studies to validate the INPRO methodology and, later on, to assess selected innovative nuclear energy systems using the updated INPRO methodology. In accordance with the INPRO Terms of Reference, after successful completion of Phase I, Phase II may be initiated to examine the feasibility of commencing international projects on innovative nuclear energy systems. The paper contains a description of the current and future activities of INPRO and summarizes the outcome of the project.(author)

  20. Current nuclear employees with psychological difficulties: prevalence, assessment, and disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajwaj, T.; Chardos, S.; Lavin, P.; Ford, T.; McGee, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Although industry standards and federal regulations require employees of nuclear power plants to demonstrate psychological stability and sound judgment before being initially granted unescorted access to the plant, it is obvious that emotional difficulties can develop subsequently. The development of emotional problems in current plant employees raises concerns about the safety of the public and the plant, the effectiveness of the organizations, the loss of important technical skills and experience, and the human cost to the employee and his/her family. This paper reports the experience of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in cases of reconsideration of psychological clearance of unescorted access, i.e., the review of psychological clearances of nuclear plant employees who have developed psychological difficulties

  1. Outlook for Global Nuclear Power: Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the Period up to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritsevskyi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear power's global expansion is projected to continue in the coming decades - albeit at a slowing pace - amid challenges including low fossil fuel prices, a sluggish world economy and the legacy of Japan's Fukushima Daiichi accident. Each year, the IAEA publishes projections of the world's nuclear power generating capacity in Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the Period up to 2050, now in its 35th edition.The latest projections point to slower growth in nuclear power, in keeping with the trend since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accident. The world's nuclear power generating capacity is projected to expand by 2.4 percent by 2030, according to the low projections, compared with 7.7 percent estimated in 2014. In the high case, generating capacity is estimated to grow by 68 percent by 2030, versus 88 percent forecast last year. Uncertainty related to energy policy, license renewals, shutdowns and future constructions accounts for the wide range.The estimates also factor in the likely future retirement of many of the world's 438 nuclear reactors currently in operation, more than half of which are over 30 years old. Despite the need to replace scores of retiring reactors, nuclear power is still set to maintain - and possibly increase - its role in the world's low-carbon energy mix. It's important to understand that these projections, while carefully derived, are not predictions.The estimates should be viewed as very general growth trends, whose validity must be constantly subjected to critical review.(author).

  2. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technologies: Current Challenges and Future Plans - 12558

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Andrew [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The mission of the Office of Nuclear Energy's Fuel Cycle Technologies office (FCT program) is to provide options for possible future changes in national nuclear energy programs. While the recent draft report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future stressed the need for organization changes, interim waste storage and the establishment of a permanent repository for nuclear waste management, it also recognized the potential value of alternate fuel cycles and recommended continued research and development in that area. With constrained budgets and great expectations, the current challenges are significant. The FCT program now performs R and D covering the entire fuel cycle. This broad R and D scope is a result of the assignment of new research and development (R and D) responsibilities to the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), as well as reorganization within NE. This scope includes uranium extraction from seawater and uranium enrichment R and D, used nuclear fuel recycling technology, advanced fuel development, and a fresh look at a range of disposal geologies. Additionally, the FCT program performs the necessary systems analysis and screening of fuel cycle alternatives that will identify the most promising approaches and areas of technology gaps. Finally, the FCT program is responsible for a focused effort to consider features of fuel cycle technology in a way that promotes nonproliferation and security, such as Safeguards and Security by Design, and advanced monitoring and predictive modeling capabilities. This paper and presentation will provide an overview of the FCT program R and D scope and discuss plans to analyze fuel cycle options and support identified R and D priorities into the future. The FCT program is making progress in implanting a science based, engineering driven research and development program that is evaluating options for a sustainable fuel cycle in the U.S. Responding to the BRC recommendations, any resulting legislative

  3. The current state of FPGA technology in the nuclear domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, J.

    2012-07-01

    Field programmable gate arrays are a form of programmable electronic device used in various applications including automation systems. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of FPGA-based systems also for safety automation of nuclear power plants. The interest is driven by the need for reliable new alternatives to replace, on one hand, the aging technology currently in use and, on the other hand, microprocessor and software-based systems, which are seen as overly complex from the safety evaluation point of view. This report presents an overview of FPGA technology, including hardware aspects, the application development process, risks and advantages of the technology, and introduces some of the current systems. FPGAs contain an interesting combination of features from software-based and fully hardware-based systems. Application development has a great deal in common with software development, but the final product is a hardware component without the operating system and other platform functions on which software would execute. Currently the number of FPGA-based applications used for safety functions of nuclear power plants is rather limited, but it is growing. So far there is little experience or common solid understanding between different parties on how FPGAs should be evaluated and handled in the licensing process. (orig.)

  4. The current state of FPGA technology in the nuclear domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranta, J.

    2012-01-01

    Field programmable gate arrays are a form of programmable electronic device used in various applications including automation systems. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of FPGA-based systems also for safety automation of nuclear power plants. The interest is driven by the need for reliable new alternatives to replace, on one hand, the aging technology currently in use and, on the other hand, microprocessor and software-based systems, which are seen as overly complex from the safety evaluation point of view. This report presents an overview of FPGA technology, including hardware aspects, the application development process, risks and advantages of the technology, and introduces some of the current systems. FPGAs contain an interesting combination of features from software-based and fully hardware-based systems. Application development has a great deal in common with software development, but the final product is a hardware component without the operating system and other platform functions on which software would execute. Currently the number of FPGA-based applications used for safety functions of nuclear power plants is rather limited, but it is growing. So far there is little experience or common solid understanding between different parties on how FPGAs should be evaluated and handled in the licensing process. (orig.)

  5. Total kinetic energy in four global eddying ocean circulation models and over 5000 current meter records

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Robert B.; Arbic, Brian K.; Chassignet, Eric P.; Coward, Andrew C.; Maltrud, Mathew; Merryfield, William J.; Srinivasan, Ashwanth; Varghese, Anson

    2010-01-01

    We compare the total kinetic energy (TKE) in four global eddying ocean circulation simulations with a global dataset of over 5000, quality controlled, moored current meter records. At individual mooring sites, there was considerable scatter between

  6. High current proton linear accelerators and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnicliffe, P.R.; Chidley, B.G.; Fraser, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible role that high-current proton linear accelerators might play as ''electrical breeders'' in the forthcoming nuclear-power economy. A high-power beam of intermediate energy protons delivered to an actinide-element target surrounded by a blanket of fertile material may produce fissile material at a competitive cost. Criteria for technical performance and, in a Canadian context, for costs are given and the major problem areas outlined not only for the accelerator and its associated rf power source but also for the target assembly. (author)

  7. Useful global-change scenarios: current issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parson, E A

    2008-01-01

    Scenarios are increasingly used to inform global-change debates, but their connection to decisions has been weak and indirect. This reflects the greater number and variety of potential users and scenario needs, relative to other decision domains where scenario use is more established. Global-change scenario needs include common elements, e.g., model-generated projections of emissions and climate change, needed by many users but in different ways and with different assumptions. For these common elements, the limited ability to engage diverse global-change users in scenario development requires extreme transparency in communicating underlying reasoning and assumptions, including probability judgments. Other scenario needs are specific to users, requiring a decentralized network of scenario and assessment organizations to disseminate and interpret common elements and add elements requiring local context or expertise. Such an approach will make global-change scenarios more useful for decisions, but not less controversial. Despite predictable attacks, scenario-based reasoning is necessary for responsible global-change decisions because decision-relevant uncertainties cannot be specified scientifically. The purpose of scenarios is not to avoid speculation, but to make the required speculation more disciplined, more anchored in relevant scientific knowledge when available, and more transparent.

  8. Nuclear power a viable alternative in global warming context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretu, Ileana; Balan, Iosif Bogdan; Ionila, Maria; Petra, Nicoleta Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    Energy sources available in the world include: coal, oil, gas, biomass, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, solar, refuse-based, and hydrogen. In addition, fusion had been originally proposed as the long-term source. Every form of energy generation has both advantages and disadvantages. Burning fuel for energy requirements represent about 88% from the total emission of NO x and CO 2 , and about 90% from SO 2 respectively, and about 72% from suspension powder evacuated into the atmosphere. Global warming represents a real threat and is the most visible sign of the climatic changes which take place all over the world. To reduce the emission of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), the 'Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations framework convention on climate change' has been adopted in 1997. According to this protocol European countries must reduce their overall emissions of greenhouse gases by at least 5% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 -- 2012. In this context, because the natural resources for power generation based on the fossil fuels are decreasing and their prices are rising, nuclear power has become a real alternative for classical energy sources. It is indicated by: - Fuel is inexpensive because uranium represents a very small part of nuclear power cost and uranium sediment is found on a large scale all over the world; - No greenhouse emission or acid rain effects occur during a normal operation. Nuclear power is also named 'clean energy'; - Wastes are more compact than those of any source of energy and are stored in underground and secured deposits; - Nuclear energy has a number of advantages which warrant its use as one of the many methods of fulfilling the energy-demand of the world. Even with conservation efforts, energy demand increased and will continue to increase. Using each and every one of these forms of energy

  9. Comparison of the Overall Environmental Footprint between Current and Future Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Bourg, S.; Ouvrier, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Nuclear energy is anticipated to be one of the possible energy sources which can allow the production of energy at high load with a high level of reliability without significant impact on the environment. Nowadays, most of the countries have chosen an open fuel cycle which basically considers spent nuclear fuel as a waste, whereas others like France, the United Kingdom, Japan and soon China reprocess their spent fuel to recover the plutonium (and partially U) to produce mixed oxide fuel to be irradiated in a second cycle. In a second step, considering the possibility of fertilising 238 U to 239 Pu in fast reactors, recycling major actinides is thought to be a major improvement towards the global sustainability of the nuclear energy: It will indeed allow the natural resource efficiency to be increased by orders of magnitude by consuming quantitatively the natural uranium resource involved. Driven by the Fukushima accident, nuclear energy is currently questioned about its overall environmental impact and footprint. However, very little information is available on the actual footprint of current and future nuclear systems. In order to bring insights on this issue, a life cycle assessment simulation tool NELCAS was developed based on the French nuclear closed fuel cycle. It allows the calculation of representative key environmental indicators and potential impact indicators for the whole nuclear systems. The very good consistency of the results with the literature data confirms the relevance and robustness of NELCAS. It was subsequently used to derive representative indicators for open and future potential fuel cycles, i.e. mixed GEN3 and GEN4 reactors fleet and full GEN4 reactors fleet. The results demonstrate the very significant improvement brought by the actinides recycling and the future fuel cycle. Most of the indicators are very significantly decreased with the implementation of long-term recycling strategies. This paper will

  10. Assessing thermochromatography as a separation method for nuclear forensics. Current capability vis-a-vis forensic requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.E.; Garrison, J.R.; Hall, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security. However, many current laboratory analysis techniques are based on methods developed without the imperative for timely analysis that underlies the post-detonation forensics mission requirements. Current analysis of actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials requires time-consuming chemical separation coupled with nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. High-temperature gas-phase separations have been used in the past for the rapid separation of newly created elements/isotopes and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. We are assessing the utility of this method for rapid separation in the gas-phase to accelerate the separations of radioisotopes germane to post-detonation nuclear forensic investigations. The existing state of the art for thermo chromatographic separations, and its applicability to nuclear forensics, will be reviewed. (author)

  11. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations believes that it is of paramount importance to achieve as short a cycle time as is reasonably possible in the evaluation and publication of the A-chains. The panel, therefore, has concentrated its efforts on identifying those factors that have tended to increase the cycle time and on finding ways to remove the obstacles. An important step was made during the past year to address reduction of the size of the published evaluations - another factor that can reduce cycle time. The Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) network adopted new format guidelines, which generated a 30% reduction by eliminating redundancy and/or duplication. A current problem appears to be the rate at which the A-chains are being evaluated, which, on the average, is only about one-half of what it could be. It is hoped that the situation will improve with an increase in the number of foreign centers and an increase in efficiency as more A-chains are recycled by the same evaluator who did the previous evaluation. Progress has been made in the area of on-line access to the nuclear data files in that a subcommittee report describing the requirements of an on-line system has been produced. 2 tabs

  12. Strengthening global practices for protecting nuclear material (NUMAT). Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaeusler, F.; Heissl, C.

    2002-08-01

    The International Conference on Physical Protection 'Strengthening Global Practices for Protecting Nuclear Material' was organized by the Institute of Physics and Biophysics, Salzburg University in cooperation with/supported by the European Commission, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, European Forum of the Stanford University's Institute for International Studies and Austria Institute for European Security. Its purpose was fostering exchange of information on the policy and technical aspects require to ensure the security of nuclear material around the world. There is a general concern that the international community needs to establish effective measures to counter theft, sabotage, and other illicit uses of nuclear fissile and other radioactive materials. The main subjects addressed by this conference were: a) global and local threat development and 'design basis'; b) standards for physical protection (PP), its adequacy and future needs; c) national practices in PP of nuclear materials (how to strengthen national security culture?); d) current R and D in security and detection technologies (identification of focus points for future R and D); e) programmes to aid in training, design, and implementation of physical protection systems (how to improve efficiency and assure sustainability of assistance programmes?). (nevyjel)

  13. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position

  14. Origin, dispersal and current global distribution of cacao genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is cultivated globally as the unique source of cocoa butter and powder for the confectionery industries. In spite of its economical importance, cocoa was and continues to be dominantly produced in low-input and low-output systems. Production constraints, including depletio...

  15. Watch: Current knowledge of the terrestrial Global Water Cycle"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harding, R.; Best, M.; Hagemann, S.; Kabat, P.; Tallaksen, L.M.; Warnaars, T.; Wiberg, D.; Weedon, G.P.; Lanen, van H.A.J.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.

    2011-01-01

    Water-related impacts are among the most important consequences of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Changes in the global water cycle will also impact the carbon and nutrient cycles and vegetation patterns. There is already some evidence of increasing severity of floods and droughts and

  16. Global surgery: current evidence for improving surgical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jennifer C; Shaye, David A

    2017-08-01

    The field of global surgery is undergoing rapid transformation, owing to several recent prominent reports positioning it as a cost-effective means of relieving global disease burden. The purpose of this article is to review the recent advances in the field of global surgery. Efforts to grow the global surgical workforce and procedural capacity have focused on innovative methods to increase surgeon training, enhance international collaboration, leverage technology, optimize existing health systems, and safely implement task-sharing. Computer modeling offers a novel means of informing policy to optimize timely access to care, equitably promote health and financial protection, and efficiently grow infrastructure. Tools and checklists have recently been developed to enhance data collection and ensure methodologically rigorous publications to inform planning, benchmark surgical systems, promote accurate modeling, track key health indicators, and promote safety. Creation of institutional partnerships and trainee exchanges can enrich training, stimulate commitment to humanitarian work, and promote the equal exchange of ideas and expertise. The recent body of work creates a strong foundation upon which work toward the goal of universal access to safe, affordable surgical care can be built; however, further collection and analysis of country-specific data is necessary for accurate modeling and outcomes research into the efficacy of policies such as task-sharing is greatly needed.

  17. Current Practices in Defining Seismic Input for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-05-01

    This report has been written in the framework of seismic subgroup of the OECD/NEA CSNI Working Group on Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures (WGIAGE) to provide a brief review of current practices regarding the definition of the seismic input for design and reevaluation of nuclear power plants. It is taken for granted that, prior to conducting the seismic design of a nuclear facility, a seismic hazard analysis (SHA) has been conducted for the site where the facility is located. This provides some reference motions for defining those that will later be used as input for the dynamic analyses of the facility. The objective of the report is to clarify the current practices in various OECD Member States for defining the seismic input to be used in the dynamic calculations of NPPs, once the SHA results are already at hand. Current practices have been summarized for Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands, United Kingdom and United States. The main findings of the report are: a) The approaches followed by the regulatory bodies of OECD Member States differ substantially, certainly in relation with the consideration of site effects, but also in the probability level of the event that a nuclear facility should be required to withstand. b) In many countries a probabilistic approach is adopted for the design, in some cases combined with a deterministic one; in other cases, like France, Japan or South Korea, a deterministic approach is followed. c) The US and Japan have the more complete guidelines in relation with site effects. The former provide specific approaches for definition of the seismic input. The latter clearly recognizes the need to propagate the bedrock motion to foundation level, thereby introducing the site effect in some way. d) The definition of bedrock is very heterogeneous in the various countries, although this should not constitute a serious problem if the starting

  18. International conference on nuclear security: Global directions for the future. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This volume includes contributed papers presented during sessions named as follows: Efforts to strengthen the global security framework, Efforts to strengthen nuclear security in Member states, role of the IAEA underpinning the global efforts, and looking forward: sustaining progress

  19. International conference on nuclear security: Global directions for the future. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This volume includes contributed papers presented during sessions named as follows: Efforts to strengthen the global security framework, Efforts to strengthen nuclear security in Member states, role of the IAEA underpinning the global efforts, and looking forward: sustaining progress.

  20. Nuclear energy - a green energy solution to global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    The manner in which the world has conducted itself in exploiting energy resources so far particularly in the post industrial revolution period, is now looming as one of the greatest challenges to the sustainability of development or even sustainability of life. Global climate change is no more a perceived threat, it is now a reality and we are not in a position to engage ourselves to debate on the issue. It is in fact a little late in taking the right corrective action if we have any concern for our future generations. The efforts of the scientists and engineers are to gradually replace the energy from burning of carbonaceous material to clean and intense source of energy i.e. nuclear fission and fusion

  1. Nuclear energy the best alternative in alleviating global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaki Khoshkbijari, M.; Moghadam, M. Kh.

    2008-01-01

    During the last century, the average temperature of the earth has abnormally increased by 0.74 c, causing concern among scientists. Some experts believe that the earth has experienced the warmest years during the last decades of 20 century, to the extent that the last 400 years have been the warmest years. The reports 2007 suggest that the hottest periods recorded occur a 1990 - 2007 which was a record high during the past 150 years. It seems that industrialization has contributed significantly to the global warming. The measurement of earth temperature dates hack to 1880 which has continued up to the present time. It is also predicted that the year 2014 would witness an unprecedented high air temperature. Moreover, scientists have expressed grave concern about the occurrence of severe droughts, scorching heat and formidable storms which are yet to strike the earth in the year 2100. According to the I nternational atomic agency , nuclear energy is by far, the best and safest production source of electricity in the future due to it's low emission rate of carbon dioxide. However , prior to making any commitment, it seem imperative to increase public awareness about the dire consequences of the continued utilization of fossil fuels. Based on research carried out by International atomic agency, nuclear energy is superior to other sources of energy in two major respects: lack of any so-called greenhouse gas emission and the utilization of uranium as the single source the energy production. The study aims at first; probing into the causes of global warming, the outcomes and ultimately provision of a way out of the problem and identifying the means to seriously cope with the problem. 5

  2. Is nuclear power part of Australia's global warming solutions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, I.

    2007-01-01

    Forty years ago, I was preparing for my final exams. Having studied electrical engineering and science part-time for seven years at the University of New South Wales, I did well enough to spend the following year doing honours in physics. I then went to the United Kingdom for doctoral studies at the University of York, supported by the UK Atomic Energy Authority. At the time, like most young physicists, I saw nuclear power as the clean energy source of the future. Here, I want to tell you why my professional experience has led me to reject that view. There is no serious doubt that climate change is real, it is happening now and its effects are accelerating. It is already causing serious economic impacts: reduced agricultural production, increased costs of severe events like fires and storms, and the need to consider radical, energy-intensive and costly water supply measures such as desalination plants. The alarming consequences of climate change have driven distinguished scientists like James Lovelock to conclude that the situation is desperate enough to reconsider our attitude to nuclear power. I agree with Lovelock about the urgency of the situation, but not about the response. The science is very clear. We need to reduce global greenhouse pollution by about 60%, ideally by 2050. To achieve that global target, allowing for the legitimate material expectations of poorer countries, Australia's quota will need to be at least as strong as the UK's goal of 60% by 2050 and preferably stronger. Our eventual goal will probably be to reduce our greenhouse pollution by 80-90%. How can we reach this ambitious target?

  3. Proceedings of GLOBAL 2007 conference on advanced nuclear fuel cycles and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In keeping with the 12-year history of this conference, GLOBAL 2007 focuses on future nuclear energy systems and fuel cycles. With the increasing public acceptance and political endorsement of nuclear energy, it is a pivotal time for nuclear energy research. Significant advances have been made in development of advanced nuclear fuels and materials, reactor designs, partitioning, transmutation and reprocessing technologies, and waste management strategies. In concert with the technological advances, it is more important than ever to develop sensible nuclear proliferation policies, to promote sustainability, and to continue to increase international collaboration. To further these aims, GLOBAL 2007 highlights recent developments in the following areas: advanced integrated fuel cycle concepts, spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, advanced reprocessing technology, advanced fuels and materials, advanced waste management technology, novel concepts for waste disposal and repository development, advanced reactors, partitioning and transmutation, developments in nuclear non-proliferation technology, policy, and implementation, sustainability and expanded global utilization of nuclear energy, and international collaboration on nuclear energy

  4. Currents, Geostrophic, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Meridional

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Meridional Geostrophic Current is inferred from Sea Surface Height Deviation, climatological dynamic height, and basic fluid mechanics.

  5. Currents, Geostrophic, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Zonal Geostrophic Current is inferred from Sea Surface Height Deviation, climatological dynamic height, and basic fluid mechanics.

  6. Global impact of carbon-14 from nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Carter, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    Carbon-14 is produced by nuclear power reactors, predominently as a result of the interaction of a neutron and nitrogen-14 both in the fuel and in the coolant. Several other reactions also contribute to the production of carbon-14. Present operational procedures, in general, for reactors and fuel reprocessing plants result in the release of carbon-14 into the environment. Combustion of fossil fuels and certain industrial operations contribute to the supply of CO 2 in the atmosphere and this contribution is essentially free of carbon-14. Future carbon-14 burdens by assuming a thorough mixing of all CO 2 in the atmosphere is predicted. Available data on electric power generation, fossil fuel combustion and certain other information are used to calculate the projected specific activity of carbon-14 by the year 2000 and the twenty-first century. According to these calculations, the global population dose from carbon-14 can be substantial. Also, carbon-14 in the vicinity of nuclear power reactors is considered. Because of the chemistry of carbon-14, it is shown that local problems may be more significant around BWR's as compared to PWR's. Based on environmental considerations of carbon-14, its increasing production and discharge into the atmosphere, and available control technology, it is recommended that nitrogen use and its presence be minimized in pertinent reactor components and operations

  7. Massive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Michael J.; Toon, Owen B.; Turco, Richard P.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Garcia, Rolando R.

    2008-01-01

    We use a chemistry-climate model and new estimates of smoke produced by fires in contemporary cities to calculate the impact on stratospheric ozone of a regional nuclear war between developing nuclear states involving 100 Hiroshima-size bombs exploded in cities in the northern subtropics. We find column ozone losses in excess of 20% globally, 25–45% at midlatitudes, and 50–70% at northern high latitudes persisting for 5 years, with substantial losses continuing for 5 additional years. Column ozone amounts remain near or <220 Dobson units at all latitudes even after three years, constituting an extratropical “ozone hole.” The resulting increases in UV radiation could impact the biota significantly, including serious consequences for human health. The primary cause for the dramatic and persistent ozone depletion is heating of the stratosphere by smoke, which strongly absorbs solar radiation. The smoke-laden air rises to the upper stratosphere, where removal mechanisms are slow, so that much of the stratosphere is ultimately heated by the localized smoke injections. Higher stratospheric temperatures accelerate catalytic reaction cycles, particularly those of odd-nitrogen, which destroy ozone. In addition, the strong convection created by rising smoke plumes alters the stratospheric circulation, redistributing ozone and the sources of ozone-depleting gases, including N2O and chlorofluorocarbons. The ozone losses predicted here are significantly greater than previous “nuclear winter/UV spring” calculations, which did not adequately represent stratospheric plume rise. Our results point to previously unrecognized mechanisms for stratospheric ozone depletion. PMID:18391218

  8. Global Survey of the Concepts and Understanding of the Interfaces Between Nuclear Safety, Security, and Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacic, Don N.; Stewart, Scott; Erickson, Alexa R.; Ford, Kerrie D.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2015-07-15

    There is increasing global discourse on how the elements of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards can be most effectively implemented in nuclear power programs. While each element is separate and unique, they must nevertheless all be addressed in a country’s laws and implemented via regulations and in facility operations. This topic is of particular interest to countries that are currently developing the infrastructure to support nuclear power programs. These countries want to better understand what is required by these elements and how they can manage the interfaces between them and take advantages of any synergies that may exist. They need practical examples and guidance in this area in order to develop better organizational strategies and technical capacities. This could simplify their legal, regulatory, and management structures and avoid inefficient approaches and costly mistakes that may not be apparent to them at this early stage of development. From the perspective of IAEA International Safeguards, supporting Member States in exploring such interfaces and synergies provides a benefit to them because it acknowledges that domestic safeguards in a country do not exist in a vacuum. Instead, it relies on a strong State System of Accounting and Control that is in turn dependent on a capable and independent regulatory body as well as a competent operator and technical staff. These organizations must account for and control nuclear material, communicate effectively, and manage and transmit complete and correct information to the IAEA in a timely manner. This, while in most cases also being responsible for the safety and security of their facilities. Seeking efficiencies in this process benefits international safeguards and nonproliferation. This paper will present the results of a global survey of current and anticipated approaches and practices by countries and organizations with current or future nuclear power programs on how they are implementing, or

  9. Conflict nuclear power. Theses for current supply with and without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of a lecture at the 2nd Internationally Renewable Energy Storage Conference at 19th to 21st November, 2007, in Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany), the author of the contribution under consideration reports on theses for current supply with and without nuclear power. (1) Theses for current supply with nuclear energy: Due to a relative amount of 17 % of nuclear energy in the world-wide energy production and due to the present reactor technology, the supplies of uranium amount nearly 50 to 70 years. The security of the nuclear power stations is controversially judged in the public and policy. In a catastrophic accident in a nuclear power station, an amount of nearly 2.5 billion Euro is available for adjustment of damages (cover note). The disposal of radioactive wastes is not solved anywhere in the world. The politically demanded separation between military and civilian use of the nuclear energy technology is not possible. The exit from the nuclear energy is fixed in the atomic law. By any means, the Federal Republic of Germany is not insulated in the European Union according to its politics of nuclear exit. After legal adjustment of the exit from the nuclear energy the Federal Republic of Germany should unfold appropriate activities for the re-orientation of Euratom, Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The consideration of the use of nuclear energy in relation to the risks has to result that its current kind of use is not acceptable and to be terminated as fast as possible. (2) Theses for current supply without nuclear energy: The scenario technology enables a transparency of energy future being deliverable for political decisions. In accordance with this scenario, the initial extra costs of the development of the renewable energies and the combined heat and power generation amount approximately 4 billion Euro per year. The conversion of the power generation to renewable energies and combined heat and power generation

  10. Heterogeneous world model and collaborative scenarios of transition to globally sustainable nuclear energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO is to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to meeting global energy needs of the 21st century in a sustainable manner. The INPRO task titled “Global scenarios” is to develop global and regional nuclear energy scenarios that lead to a global vision of sustainable nuclear energy in the 21st century. Results of multiple studies show that the criteria for developing sustainable nuclear energy cannot be met without innovations in reactor and nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Combining different reactor types and associated fuel chains creates a multiplicity of nuclear energy system arrangements potentially contributing to global sustainability of nuclear energy. In this, cooperation among countries having different policy regarding fuel cycle back end would be essential to bring sustainability benefits from innovations in technology to all interested users. INPRO has developed heterogeneous global model to capture countries’ different policies regarding the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in regional and global scenarios of nuclear energy evolution and applied in a number of studies performed by participants of the project. This paper will highlight the model and major conclusions obtained in the studies.

  11. Heterogeneous world model and collaborative scenarios of transition to globally sustainable nuclear energy systems - 15483

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.; Fesenko, G.

    2015-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to meeting global energy needs of the 21. century in a sustainable manner. The INPRO task titled 'Global scenarios' is to develop global and regional nuclear energy scenarios that lead to a global vision of sustainable nuclear energy in the 21. century. Results of multiple studies show that the criteria for developing sustainable nuclear energy cannot be met without innovations in reactor and nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Combining different reactor types and associated fuel chains creates a multiplicity of nuclear energy system arrangements potentially contributing to global sustainability of nuclear energy. In this, cooperation among countries having different policy regarding fuel cycle back end would be essential to bring sustainability benefits from innovations in technology to all interested users. INPRO has developed heterogeneous global model to capture countries' different policies regarding the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in regional and global scenarios of nuclear energy evolution and applied in a number of studies performed by participants of the project. This paper will highlight the model and major conclusions obtained in the studies. (authors)

  12. Global Economy under the Current Economic Crisis Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Voicu Ioana-Iulica; Talmaciu Iuliana

    2010-01-01

    In the current context in which countries in the world search new solutions and strategies to counteract the negative effects generated by the worst economic crisis in the last 80 years, the globalisation rises polemics and controversies regarding the causes that lead to the expansion of the crisis. May it be, the current economic crisis, a consequence of the globalisation? Beyond the contradictory answers, the globalisation must be seen in essence as a stimulating and expansion factor of the...

  13. Global Energy-saving Map of Strong Ocean Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Current (SEC) current, which extends from the surface to about 100 m depth, approaches the Brazilian coast. The SEC splits into two branches near 10°S...19477–19498. FAO (2012). The state of world fisheries and Aquaculture 2012, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. ISBN 978-92-5...World Bank and FAO. (2009). The sunken billions. The economic justification for fisheries reform. Washington, DC, Agriculture and Rural Development

  14. Globalization of Gerontology Education: Current Practices and Perceptions for Graduate Gerontology Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Samuel M.; Yamashita, Takashi; Ewen, Heidi H.; Manning, Lydia K.; Kunkel, Suzanne R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level…

  15. Commercialization of the global nuclear energy partnership (GNEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewen Eric P.; Boaz, Jeffery; Saito, Earl; Boardman, Chuck

    2007-01-01

    In February 2006 President Bush announced the Advanced Energy Initiative, which included the Department of Energy's (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). GNEP has seven broad goals, one of the major elements being to develop and deploy advanced nuclear fuel recycling technology. DOE is contemplating accelerating the deployment of these technologies to achieve the construction of a commercial scale application of these technologies. DOE now defines this approach as 'two simultaneous tracks: (1) deployment of commercial scale facilities for which advanced technologies are available now or in the near future, and (2) further research and development of transmutation fuels technologies'. GE believes an integrated technical solution, using existing reactor and fuel reprocessing technologies, is achievable in the near term to accelerate the commercial demonstration of GNEP infrastructure. The concept involves a single, integrated, commercial scale, recycling facility consisting of the Consolidated Fuel Treatment Center (CFTC), capable of processing LWR and fast reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and fabricating Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) actinide fuel. The integrated facility would include a fast reactor that uses actinide-bearing fuel to produce electricity. For optimal performance, GE believes this integrated facility should be co-located to eliminate transportation between the CFTC and ARR, and enhance proliferation resistance. This Advanced Recycling Center takes advantage of previous investments by government and industry in fast reactor technology research and development. To allow for commercial acceptance, a prototypical demonstration reactor and associated fuel cycle facility will be constructed, tested, and licensed. Taking advantage of GE's NRC-reviewed modular sodium-cooled PRISM reactor, only a single reactor will be needed and the cost and risk minimized in the initial phase of the program. This paper outlines a process and a schedule to

  16. Asbestos case and its current implications for global health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marsili

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding a major body of evidence on the carcinogenicity of all asbestos fibres and a general consensus of the scientific community on the health impact of this agent, asbestos is still produced and used in a large number of countries, thus determining further harm for future generations. Prevention of asbestos-related disease requires international cooperation, transfer of know-how and dissemination of successful procedures in order to contrast asbestos exposure in the frame of a global environmental health approach.

  17. Globalization of the nuclear industry: Developing technology - Framatome ANP's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluzny, Y.; Dams, W.; Reynolds, R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the last 15 years, Framatome ANP has moved from being a purely national player to being a global market leader. This is due to a series of successful mergers and acquisitions, including the acquisition of the nonmilitary nuclear activity of Babcock and Wilcox in the late 1980s and, more recently, the merger with Siemens-KWU's nuclear activities. Integration presented a number of challenges. There were undeniable cultural differences, reorganization was required to bring the business under control and a number of activities, such as finance, sales, R and D, marketing, engineering and manufacturing, and information systems had to be rationalized and integrated. The key factors that contributed to the success of this integration included a management team that was clearly committed to the success of the merger and the quick and clear definition of the strategy, vision and values of the new company, which had to be effectively communicated. A global organization which was not simply a group of three companies, each working in its own corner, was quickly established and multiregional task forces were appointed to identify possible synergies and propose how they could be put into practice. One of the key issues is R and D, which will be discussed as an example of what has been achieved. This activity is essential when preparing the future of the company as a whole, and one of the major challenges that had to be met was to find the best way of making use of all the skills available in it. A special multiregional, multi-activity organization has identified the existing skills and potential synergies in each of the technical areas and core businesses. A global R and D management process has been put in place under the strong leadership of the corporate R and D function. This process involves all the business units worldwide and has made it possible to set R and D objectives and identify the action to be taken in line with the group's strategic objectives

  18. Bipolar programmable current supply for superconducting nuclear magnetic resonance magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivuniemi, Jaakko; Luusalo, Reeta; Hakonen, Pertti

    1998-09-01

    In high resolution continuous-wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) work well-reproducible, linear sweeps of current are needed. We have developed a microcontroller based programmable current supply, tested with superconducting magnets with inductance of 10 mH and 10 H. We achieved a resolution and noise of 4 ppm. The supply has an internal sweep with programmable ramping rate and a possibility for remote operation from a computer with either GPIB or RS232 interface. It is based on an 18-bit D/A converter. The maximum output current is ±10 A, the sweep rate can be set between 1 μA/s-140 mA/s, and the maximum output voltage is ±2.5 V. In work at ultralow temperatures, especially in superconducting quantum interference device NMR, all rf interference to the experiment should be avoided. One of the sources of this kind of unwanted input is the digital switching noise of fast logic devices. We discuss this problem in the context of our design.

  19. Thorium-based nuclear fuel: current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    Until the present time considerable efforts have already been made in the area of fabrication, utilization and reprocessing of Th-based fuels for different types of reactors, namely: by FRG and USA - for HTRs; FRG and Brazil, Italy - for LWRs; India - for HWRs and FBRs. Basic research of thorium fuels and thorium fuel cycles are also being undertaken by Australia, Canada, China, France, FRG, Romania, USSR and other countries. Main emphasis has been given to the utilization of thorium fuels in once-through nuclear fuel cycles, but in some projects closed thorium-uranium or thorium-plutonium fuel cycles are also considered. The purpose of the Technical Committee on the Utilization of Thorium-Based Nuclear Fuel: Current Status and Perspective was to review the world thorium resources, incentives for further exploration, obtained experience in the utilization of Th-based fuels in different types of reactors, basic research, fabrication and reprocessing of Th-based fuels. As a result of the panel discussion the recommendations on future Agency activities and list of major worldwide activities in the area of Th-based fuel were developed. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers in this proceedings series

  20. Zika virus: Global health challenge, threat and current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hafsa; Zia, Aadarash; Anwer, Amania; Aziz, Muneeba; Fatima, Shazia; Faheem, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    ZIKV has emerged as grave global health issue in the past few years. ZIKV was firstly isolated in 1947 from a rhesus sentinel monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda. It is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes and infects skin fibroblasts, skin keratinocytes, etc. ZIKV until now was under reported because of its clinical similarity with the dengue and chikungunya. It is usually spread through the course of the sylvatic cycle. In this cycle, the virus or pathogen lifespan is spent between the wild animal and vectors. The intrinsic incubation period is not yet fully known but it is observed that the very first symptoms of ZIKV infection can appear or develop within 3-12 days of time period and usually subside within 7 days of time. There is a strong relationship between prenatal Zika virus infection and microcephaly; other serious brain anomalies to the infant or newborn are Guillain-Barré syndrome. To date no vaccines are available for ZIKV prevention hence only symptomatic treatment is recommended in infected patients. Usually ZIKV is detected by serologic (IgM ELISA), plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) along with in-house" molecular techniques (RT-PCR). ZIKV infection being imminent global health issue warrants strong protective measures to prevent it from becoming an epidemic. Early detection and prevention is the key to tackle this grave potential health hazard. J. Med. Virol. 89:943-951, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Complexity of the Implications of Globalization in the Context of the Current Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Ionela CREŢOIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization represents a controversial phenomenon both because of its complexity and because of the various implications it has on the global economy. Globalization will act simultaneously on many levels, its effects being correlated with the diversity of the angles from which this phenomenon can be approached from – economic, social, politic, cultural, philosophic etc. The article represents an incursion into the issue regarding the implications and effects of globalization grouped in several areas of analysis such as the disappearance of borders, the effects on culture, the effects on the education, the impact on labour market impact and the phenomenon of immigration, the effects of globalization in the context of the food crisis underdevelopment and poverty. To complete the analysis that points out enough elements considered to be negative, at the end of the article, there are also approached the development opportunities that globalization can offer in terms of boosting the economic exchanges, the exchange of genuine cultural values and ensuring a transfer of information at a global scale, so necessary for the scientific and technological progress.  The conclusions of the article weighs the many aspects highlighted, both negative and positive, and suggests a series of useful research directions in order to fathom the complex features of this concept so controversial – globalization.

  2. Current NDT activities at Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekinci, S.

    2004-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) activities at Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (CNAEM) has been initiated in the Industrial Application Department of the Center which was established in 1976 as the Radioisotope Applications Group for Industry. The Department started its first NDT activity with industrial radiography. The NDT activities have been developed by the support of various national (State Planning Organization (DPT)) and international (IAEA and UNDP) projects. Today, there are five basic NDT techniques (radiography, ultrasonic, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant and eddy current) used in the Industrial Application Department. The Department arranges routinely NDT qualification courses according to ISO 9712 and TS EN 473 standards for level 1 and 2 for Turkish Industry. It also carries out national DPT and IAEA Technical Co-operation projects and gives NDT services in the laboratory and in the field. Digital radiography and digital ultrasonic techniques are being used in advanced NDT applications. This paper describes the NDT activities of CNAEM. (author)

  3. Can pervasive sensing address current challenges in global healthcare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Atallah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Important challenges facing global healthcare include the increase in the number of people affected by escalating healthcare costs, chronic and infectious diseases, the need for better and more affordable elderly care and expanding urbanisation combined with air and water pollution. Recent advances in pervasive sensing technologies have led to miniaturised sensor networks that can be worn or integrated within the living environment without affecting a person’s daily patterns. These sensors promise to change healthcare from snapshot measurements of physiological parameters to continuous monitoring enabling clinicians to provide guidance on a daily basis. This article surveys several of the solutions provided by these sensor platforms from elderly care to neonatal monitoring and environmental mapping. Some of the opportunities available and the challenges facing the adoption of such technologies in large-scale epidemiological studies are also discussed.

  4. Training Solutions to the Global Challenges of a Nuclear Renaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, M.; Chan, S.; Leo, C.; Garcia, S.; Vidal, B.

    2010-07-01

    From East Asia to the United States and all over Europe, the nuclear re-birth is generating demands the training simulation vendors had not faced before. Companies involved in the planning, design, construction and operation of new plants increasingly require simulation tools to satisfy very different needs, all of them on a large scale: education and support of inexperienced newcomer staff, human factors analysis and control room design, e-learning, verification and validation of I and C systems or training and licensing of crews before the actual installations are complete. There is a full set of applications already available to the whole industry to satisfy these needs. End-user friendly Thunder Real-Time Executive (T-REX), poised to become the standard simulation platform for U.S. plants, makes it possible to provide full-scope simulator and simulator exercises to students and others on a memory stick or over the internet. AREVA EPR full-scope training simulator, based on the ALICES integrated object-oriented simulation environment, becomes an engineering simulator for the Flamanville 3 plant under construction in Normandy; the same will happen to the Taishan 1 and 2 simulators in Guangdong (China) while UniStar plans to apply this approach to the future EPR's to be built in the United States. SIREP PWR Basic Principle Simulator, with simplified models which can run on an ordinary PC, is used at GDF SUEZ offices in Brussels to implement their Nuclear Trainees Program. EDF Training Department chooses On-line Micro Simulation (MicroSel), which can be managed with Learning Management Systems, for classroom and stand-alone learning of the basic characteristics of French reactors. All these are examples of how extensive R and D and innovation programs implemented by the simulator providers, some of them under way here in Spain, will help to overcome some of the challenges of the current nuclear expansion.

  5. Training Solutions to the Global Challenges of a Nuclear Renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces, M.; Chan, S.; Leo, C.; Garcia, S.; Vidal, B.

    2010-01-01

    From East Asia to the United States and all over Europe, the nuclear re-birth is generating demands the training simulation vendors had not faced before. Companies involved in the planning, design, construction and operation of new plants increasingly require simulation tools to satisfy very different needs, all of them on a large scale: education and support of inexperienced newcomer staff, human factors analysis and control room design, e-learning, verification and validation of I and C systems or training and licensing of crews before the actual installations are complete. There is a full set of applications already available to the whole industry to satisfy these needs. End-user friendly Thunder Real-Time Executive (T-REX), poised to become the standard simulation platform for U.S. plants, makes it possible to provide full-scope simulator and simulator exercises to students and others on a memory stick or over the internet. AREVA EPR full-scope training simulator, based on the ALICES integrated object-oriented simulation environment, becomes an engineering simulator for the Flamanville 3 plant under construction in Normandy; the same will happen to the Taishan 1 and 2 simulators in Guangdong (China) while UniStar plans to apply this approach to the future EPR's to be built in the United States. SIREP PWR Basic Principle Simulator, with simplified models which can run on an ordinary PC, is used at GDF SUEZ offices in Brussels to implement their Nuclear Trainees Program. EDF Training Department chooses On-line Micro Simulation (MicroSel), which can be managed with Learning Management Systems, for classroom and stand-alone learning of the basic characteristics of French reactors. All these are examples of how extensive R and D and innovation programs implemented by the simulator providers, some of them under way here in Spain, will help to overcome some of the challenges of the current nuclear expansion.

  6. Proceedings of the GLOBAL 2009 congress - The Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Sustainable Options and Industrial Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    GLOBAL 2009 is the ninth bi-annual scientific world meeting on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) that started in 1993 in Seattle. This meeting has established itself as a dedicated international forum for experts, to provide an overall review of the status and new trends of research applications and policies related to the fuel cycle. The international nuclear community is actively developing advanced processes and innovative technologies that enhance economic competitiveness of nuclear energy and ensure its sustainability, through optimized utilization of natural resources, minimization of nuclear wastes, resistance to proliferation and compliance with safety requirements. In this context, and under the profound evolutions concerning energy supply, GLOBAL 2009 is a great opportunity for sharing ideas and visions on the NFC. Special emphasis are placed on the results of the international studies for developing next generation systems. GLOBAL 2009 highlights the technical challenges and successes involved in closing the NFC and recycling long lived nuclear waste. It is also an excellent occasion to review and discuss social and regulatory aspects as well as national plans and international policies and decision affecting the future of nuclear energy. This meeting provides a forum for the exchange of the newest ideas and developments related to the initiatives at of establishing an acceptable, reliable and universal international non proliferation regime. The congress, organized by the French Nuclear Energy Society (SFEN), under the aegis of the IAEA, NEA of the OECD and the UE Commission with the basic sponsorships of ANS, ENS and AESJ, combines plenary sessions, general panel sessions, parallel sessions and technical visits. The program has full length technical papers, which are peer reviewed and published in conference proceedings. A large industrial exhibition takes place to complement the congress. The GLOBAL 2009 congress is organized in coordination with the 2009

  7. Proceedings of the GLOBAL 2009 congress - The Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Sustainable Options and Industrial Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    GLOBAL 2009 is the ninth bi-annual scientific world meeting on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) that started in 1993 in Seattle. This meeting has established itself as a dedicated international forum for experts, to provide an overall review of the status and new trends of research applications and policies related to the fuel cycle. The international nuclear community is actively developing advanced processes and innovative technologies that enhance economic competitiveness of nuclear energy and ensure its sustainability, through optimized utilization of natural resources, minimization of nuclear wastes, resistance to proliferation and compliance with safety requirements. In this context, and under the profound evolutions concerning energy supply, GLOBAL 2009 is a great opportunity for sharing ideas and visions on the NFC. Special emphasis are placed on the results of the international studies for developing next generation systems. GLOBAL 2009 highlights the technical challenges and successes involved in closing the NFC and recycling long lived nuclear waste. It is also an excellent occasion to review and discuss social and regulatory aspects as well as national plans and international policies and decision affecting the future of nuclear energy. This meeting provides a forum for the exchange of the newest ideas and developments related to the initiatives at of establishing an acceptable, reliable and universal international non proliferation regime. The congress, organized by the French Nuclear Energy Society (SFEN), under the aegis of the IAEA, NEA of the OECD and the UE Commission with the basic sponsorships of ANS, ENS and AESJ, combines plenary sessions, general panel sessions, parallel sessions and technical visits. The program has full length technical papers, which are peer reviewed and published in conference proceedings. A large industrial exhibition takes place to complement the congress. The GLOBAL 2009 congress is organized in coordination with the 2009

  8. The brief description in the current nuclear power development trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yong.

    1986-01-01

    There are two important factors for evaluating nuclear electricity,: that is safety and economy. Nowadays the key points for evaluating nuclear power safety are focused on system failure analysis, human factors and operating experiences, transients and ruptures, the integrity of the primary circuit, radioactivity releases and their impact on environment, risk assessment, the nuclear fuel safety and fuel reprocessing. The nuclear power markets will gradually be diverted from the Developed Countries to the Third World Countries. The price of the nuclear power will keep competitive ability continuously. By 2000 year, any major changes will not have occurred in the reactor type of the nuclear power plant

  9. Global Trends and Current Status of Commercial Urban Rooftop Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Devi Buehler; Ranka Junge

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze current practices in commercial urban rooftop farming (URF). In recent years, URF has been experiencing increasing popularity. It is a practice that is well-suited to enhancing food security in cities and reducing the environmental impact that results from long transportation distances that are common in conventional agriculture. To date, most URF initiatives have been motivated by social and educational factors rather than the aim of creating large sustai...

  10. Challenges to Global Implementation of Infrared Thermography Technology: Current Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Shterenshis

    2017-01-01

    Medical infrared thermography (IT) produces an image of the infrared waves emitted by the human body as part of the thermoregulation process that can vary in intensity based on the health of the person. This review analyzes recent developments in the use of infrared thermography as a screening and diagnostic tool in clinical and nonclinical settings, and identifies possible future routes for improvement of the method. Currently, infrared thermography is not considered to be a fully reliable d...

  11. Global Current Circuit Structure in a Resistive Pulsar Magnetosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yugo. E.

    2017-12-01

    Pulsar magnetospheres have strong magnetic fields and large amounts of plasma. The structures of these magnetospheres are studied using force-free electrodynamics. To understand pulsar magnetospheres, discussions must include their outer region. However, force-free electrodynamics is limited in it does not handle dissipation. Therefore, a resistive pulsar magnetic field model is needed. To break the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) condition E\\cdot B=0, Ohm’s law is used. This work introduces resistivity depending upon the distance from the star and obtain a self-consistent steady state by time integration. Poloidal current circuits form in the magnetosphere while the toroidal magnetic field region expands beyond the light cylinder and the Poynting flux radiation appears. High electric resistivity causes a large space scale poloidal current circuit and the magnetosphere radiates a larger Poynting flux than the linear increase outside of the light cylinder radius. The formed poloidal-current circuit has width, which grows with the electric conductivity. This result contributes to a more concrete dissipative pulsar magnetosphere model.

  12. Unrealized Global Temperature Increase: Implications of Current Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2018-04-01

    Unrealized increase in global mean surface air temperature (GMST) may result from the climate system not being in steady state with forcings and/or from cessation of negative aerosol forcing that would result from decreases in emissions. An observation-constrained method is applied to infer the dependence of Earth's climate sensitivity on forcing by anthropogenic aerosols within the uncertainty on that forcing given by the Fifth (2013) Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Within these uncertainty ranges the increase in GMST due to temperature lag for future forcings held constant is slight (0.09-0.19 K over 20 years; 0.12-0.26 K over 100 years). However, the incremental increase in GMST that would result from a hypothetical abrupt cessation of sources of aerosols could be quite large but is highly uncertain, 0.1-1.3 K over 20 years. Decrease in CO2 abundance and forcing following abrupt cessation of emissions would offset these increases in GMST over 100 years by as little as 0.09 K to as much as 0.8 K. The uncertainties quantified here greatly limit confidence in projections of change in GMST that would result from any strategy for future reduction of emissions.

  13. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate; Laboratory Implementation and Current Global Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Greg; Jones, Graham R D

    2018-01-01

    In 2002, the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines for identifying and treating CKD recommended that clinical laboratories report estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with every creatinine result to assist clinical practitioners to identify people with early-stage CKD. At that time, the original Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation based on serum creatinine measurements was recommended for calculating eGFR. Because the MDRD Study equation was developed using a nonstandardized creatinine method, a Laboratory Working Group of the National Kidney Disease Education program was formed and implemented standardized calibration traceability for all creatinine methods from global manufacturers by approximately 2010. A modified MDRD Study equation for use with standardized creatinine was developed. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration developed a new equation in 2009 that was more accurate than the MDRD Study equation at values above 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . As of 2017, reporting eGFR with creatinine is almost universal in many countries. A reference system for cystatin C became available in 2010, and manufacturers are in the process to standardize cystatin C assays. Equations for eGFR based on standardized cystatin C alone and with creatinine are now available from the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration and other groups. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nuclear Power Learning and Deployment Rates; Disruption and Global Benefits Forgone

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Lang

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of the disruption of a transition from fossil fuels to nuclear power, and finds the benefits forgone as a consequence are substantial. Learning rates are presented for nuclear power in seven countries, comprising 58% of all power reactors ever built globally. Learning rates and deployment rates changed in the late-1960s and 1970s from rapidly falling costs and accelerating deployment to rapidly rising costs and stalled deployment. Historical nuclear global capacit...

  15. Global trends in nuclear education at the tertiary level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    2001-01-01

    The public perception of nuclear science and engineering and the nuclear industry is today, primarily shaped by radical greens, nuclear-opponents, the media and socio-political opportunists. Only countries with a well diversified tertiary education system embracing all aspects of nuclear science and engineering can counter efficiently the pseudo-science and socio-political manipulation which has severely restricted nuclear energy development over the past three decades. National laboratories alone find this task extremely difficult, if not impossible

  16. L'energia nuclear: pot resoldre el problema de l'escalfament global?

    OpenAIRE

    Puig, Josep

    2006-01-01

    Sovint es diu que l'energia nuclear pot ser la solució pel problema de l'escalfament global: l'article presenta dades i raonaments per concloure que, si tota l'electricitat mundial fos d'origen nuclear, l'escalfament global es reduiria tan sols en un 12%. També s'analitzen els subproductes militars de la indústria de l'energia nuclear "civil" i la problemàtica dels residus radioactius de l'energia nuclear de fissió. També s'analitza l'alt grau de dificultats que presenta l'energia nuclear de ...

  17. The status and prospects of the debate upon the global warming and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Possible climate change caused by global warming becomes one of the most serious challenges that mankind shall tackle in 21 st century. Nuclear power, which doesn't emit any greenhouse gas during the generation of electricity, is a promising solution to mitigate the global warming. However, there are still debates about the role of nuclear power related to the subjects such as safety, radioactive waste management and nuclear proliferation risk in the international climate change talks. This paper introduces on-going negotiation focused on the nuclear power and then, gives some prospects on the future negotiations. Finally the brief analysis of their impacts on domestic nuclear industry is carried out

  18. Passport of global nuclear business. ASME code certificate acquirement and inspection practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Hiroyuki; Terajima, Makoto; Anami, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    There are possibilities of Japanese nuclear industries to participate in global business such as new and additional construction of nuclear power plants in US and also Asian and other developing countries in the world. It is requisite to acquire ASME code certificate for global business participation, just as passport. This article consists of five papers on present status of ASME code certificate acquirement and inspection practices of nuclear components vendors in the area of Japanese nuclear business. Activities of JSME Committee on Power Generation Facility Codes to make JSME codes corresponded to ASME nuclear codes and standards for their international deployment are also described. (T. Tanaka)

  19. The future role of nuclear power in the global energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, B.A.; Guthrie, D.; Tatsuta, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A sound judgement on the role of nuclear power in the global energy balance within the time span of the next 30 years should logically be based on the consideration of at least a number of factors such as global trends in energy and electricity demand, practically available or estimated sources of supply, major requirements that these energy sources should meet, nuclear power's own potential, a realistic assessment of nuclear power's present status, and problems related to nuclear power. The conclusion of such an analysis is that nuclear power will retain, and may even enhance, its position as an important element in the world's energy supply mix

  20. Awareness structure of the people with opinion that nuclear power is effective for preventing global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukae, Chiyokazu

    2006-01-01

    Most of people think that nuclear power generation is not effective for preventing global warming. In this research, the reason why people think so was investigated with using questionnaire survey. As a result, the misunderstanding, the thermal effluent and radioactive substance etc. produced from a nuclear plant promotes global warming, has influenced on this issue. People have negative image against nuclear power in the background of this idea. This negative image is a factor to decrease the evaluation that nuclear power is useful for preventing global warming regardless of the presence of the misunderstanding. By the fear that the accident of the nuclear plant brings the environmental destruction, people evaluate that nuclear power doesn't have the capabilities for environmental preservation. Especially young people have such awareness. It is necessary to learn energy and environmental issues including the merits and demerits of nuclear power objectively in the academic training. (author)

  1. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed include: the status of mass-chain evaluations, remote terminal access, other US Nuclear Data Network publications, formats and procedures subcommittee report, keyword follow-up (Phys. Rev. C), and atomic data and nuclear data tables

  2. Is there a technological fix for the current global stagnation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt Åke

    2017-01-01

    Daniele Archibugi asks whether the 2007–8 financial and economic crisis was brought about by the exhaustion of the current techno-economic paradigm, and whether a new paradigm will lead to eventual recovery. My answer to both questions is ‘No’. Whilst it is useful to think in terms of techno-econ...... and ICTs. This regime might actually slow down the formation of a new techno-economic paradigm based around Blade Runner technologies such as genetic engineering, artificial intelligence and nanotechnology....

  3. Challenges to Global Implementation of Infrared Thermography Technology: Current Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shterenshis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Medical infrared thermography (IT) produces an image of the infrared waves emitted by the human body as part of the thermoregulation process that can vary in intensity based on the health of the person. This review analyzes recent developments in the use of infrared thermography as a screening and diagnostic tool in clinical and nonclinical settings, and identifies possible future routes for improvement of the method. Currently, infrared thermography is not considered to be a fully reliable diagnostic method. If standard infrared protocol is established and a normative database is available, infrared thermography may become a reliable method for detecting inflammatory processes.

  4. Challenges to Global Implementation of Infrared Thermography Technology: Current Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Shterenshis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical infrared thermography (IT produces an image of the infrared waves emitted by the human body as part of the thermoregulation process that can vary in intensity based on the health of the person. This review analyzes recent developments in the use of infrared thermography as a screening and diagnostic tool in clinical and nonclinical settings, and identifies possible future routes for improvement of the method. Currently, infrared thermography is not considered to be a fully reliable diagnostic method. If standard infrared protocol is established and a normative database is available, infrared thermography may become a reliable method for detecting inflammatory processes.

  5. Nuclear safeguards in challenging times [Experts on nuclear safeguards and verification assess the global picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.S.; Hillerman, J.

    2007-01-01

    Meeting at the IAEA's International Safeguards Symposium in October 2006, more than 500 experts from 60-plus countries and organizations addressed current and future challenges related to safeguards concepts, approaches, technologies, and experience. Sessions addressed five main issues driving developments: Current challenges to the safeguards system; Further strengthening safeguards practices and approaches; Improving the collection and analysis of safeguards information; Advances in safeguards techniques and technology; and Future challenges. Every four to five years, the IAEA brings together safeguards experts from all over the world at international symposia. In October 2001, they met in the shadow of 9/11 and the symposium included a special session on the prevention of nuclear terrorism

  6. Generation IV nuclear reactors: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, Giorgio; Mancini, Mauro; Todeschini, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Generation IV nuclear power plants (GEN IV NPPs) are supposed to become, in many countries, an important source of base load power in the middle–long term (2030–2050). Nowadays there are many designs of these NPPs but for political, strategic and economic reasons only few of them will be deployed. International literature proposes many papers and reports dealing with GEN IV NPPs, but there is an evident difference in the types and structures of the information and a general unbiased overview is missing. This paper fills the gap, presenting the state-of-the-art for GEN IV NPPs technologies (VHTR, SFR, SCWR, GFR, LFR and MSR) providing a comprehensive literature review of the different designs, discussing the major R and D challenges and comparing them with other advanced technologies available for the middle- and long-term energy market. The result of this research shows that the possible applications for GEN IV technologies are wider than current NPPs. The economics of some GEN IV NPPs is similar to actual NPPs but the “carbon cost” for fossil-fired power plants would increase the relative valuation. However, GEN IV NPPs still require substantial R and D effort, preventing short-term commercial adoption. - Highlights: • Generation IV reactors are the middle–long term technology for nuclear energy. • This paper provides an overview and a taxonomy for the designs under consideration. • R and D efforts are in the material, heat exchangers, power conversion unit and fuel. • The life cycle costs are competitive with other innovative technologies. • The hydrogen economy will foster the development of Generation IV reactors

  7. Recognition of people with an opinion that nuclear power generation causes global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukue, Chiyokazu

    2004-01-01

    Almost a half of the people are thinking that nuclear power generation causes global warming. We conducted a survey in order to explore the recognition and background for the thinking of people. Consequently, the existence of the right knowledge ''nuclear power generation does not discharge carbon dioxide at the time of power generation'' influenced most the idea which nuclear power generation prevents global warming. On the other hand, the misunderstanding as ''the radioactive material produced from a nuclear power plant advances global warming'' has influenced the idea considered as a cause, and it is though that this misunderstanding depend on the negative image to nuclear power generation. Moreover, many people do not recognize the mechanism of global warming, and it is thought that they confuse global warming with the other global environment problems, such as acid rain or ozone layer destruction. Therefore, it is required to spread the knowledge that nuclear power generation does not discharge carbon dioxide, and to promote the understanding that a radioactive material is not related to global warming. Furthermore, it is required to distinguish global warming from the other global environment problems, and to explain them intelligibly. (author)

  8. A current global view of environmental and occupational cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mihi

    2011-07-01

    This review is focused on current information of avoidable environmental pollution and occupational exposure as causes of cancer. Approximately 2% to 8% of all cancers are thought to be due to occupation. In addition, occupational and environmental cancers have their own characteristics, e.g., specific chemicals and cancers, multiple factors, multiple causation and interaction, or latency period. Concerning carcinogens, asbestos/silica/wood dust, soot/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [benzo(a) pyrene], heavy metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), aromatic amines (4-aminobiphenyl, benzidine), organic solvents (benzene or vinyl chloride), radiation/radon, or indoor pollutants (formaldehyde, tobacco smoking) are mentioned with their specific cancers, e.g., lung, skin, and bladder cancers, mesothelioma or leukemia, and exposure routes, rubber or pigment manufacturing, textile, painting, insulation, mining, and so on. In addition, nanoparticles, electromagnetic waves, and climate changes are suspected as future carcinogenic sources. Moreover, the aspects of environmental and occupational cancers are quite different between developing and developed countries. The recent follow-up of occupational cancers in Nordic countries shows a good example for developed countries. On the other hand, newly industrializing countries face an increased burden of occupational and environmental cancers. Developing countries are particularly suffering from preventable cancers in mining, agriculture, or industries without proper implication of safety regulations. Therefore, industrialized countries are expected to educate and provide support for developing countries. In addition, citizens can encounter new environmental and occupational carcinogen nominators such as nanomaterials, electromagnetic wave, and climate exchanges. As their carcinogenicity or involvement in carcinogenesis is not clearly unknown, proper consideration for them should be taken into account. For these purposes, new

  9. The Current Status and Implications of Nuclear Energy Cultural Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Won

    2006-01-01

    The Korean nuclear energy community paid a high price in terms of the tremendous social costs incurred in the process of securing a site for mid-to-low radioactive waste disposal facility, indicating that interest in the technical danger of nuclear energy has spread to the realm of people's daily lives. Under the circumstances it is important to raise rational public awareness of nuclear science as a foundation of everyday life through nuclear cultural activities. This study examines the various types of public relations activities of the Korea Nuclear Energy Foundation, an organization in charge of promoting nuclear energy, and explores what activities are required to ensure efficient promotion in accordance with development of nuclear culture

  10. Globalization of Gerontology Education: Current Practices and Perceptions for Graduate Gerontology Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    MWANGI, SAMUEL M.; YAMASHITA, TAKASHI; EWEN, HEIDI H.; MANNING, LYDIA K.; KUNKEL, SUZANNE R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level degree programs. The authors conducted qualitative interviews with representatives of the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education, the major national organization supporting higher education in gerontology, graduate program directors, and students. Although all respondents expressed their interest in globalizing gerontology education, actual practices are diverse. The authors discuss suggested conceptualization and strategies for globalizing gerontology education. PMID:22490075

  11. Globalization of gerontology education: current practices and perceptions for graduate gerontology education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Samuel M; Yamashita, Takashi; Ewen, Heidi H; Manning, Lydia K; Kunkel, Suzanne R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level degree programs. The authors conducted qualitative interviews with representatives of the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education, the major national organization supporting higher education in gerontology, graduate program directors, and students. Although all respondents expressed their interest in globalizing gerontology education, actual practices are diverse. The authors discuss suggested conceptualization and strategies for globalizing gerontology education.

  12. Development of a model to optimize global use of nuclear energy considering competition of seawater uranium and reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undarmaa, Baatarkhuu; Horio, Kenta; Fujii, Yasumasa; Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2017-01-01

    In order to sustain long-term energy security and to mitigate the climate change, nuclear power remains an important baseload option for the global power generation mix. To utilize nuclear power in long-term, some important concerns such as economics, stability of fuel supply and spent fuel amount should be evaluated. Model developed in this study optimizes the global use nuclear power considering such issues. The Model is based on linear programming and calculates the best mix of nuclear reactor types by minimizing the current value of total power generation cost within the target period (next 100 years). Possibility of fuel cycle options such as reprocessing, seawater uranium and thorium utilization are also taken in to account, along with remaining spent fuel and plutonium stock. As result. reprocessing and uranium from seawater become essential part of nuclear fuel cycle in the long run. Amount of stored spent fuel is reduced following the deployment of Fast Breeder Reactor. Also, as an extension of current model, a baseload power generation mix model, which estimates the optimal mix of nuclear and coal-fired power generation will be introduced. (author)

  13. Keratoprosthesis: Current global scenario and a broad Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Geetha; Srinivasan, Bhaskar; Agarwal, Shweta; Talele, Deepti; Rishi, Ekta; Rishi, Pukhraj; Krishnamurthy, Sripriya; Vijaya, Lingam; Subramanian, Nirmala; Somasundaram, Shanmugasundaram

    2018-01-01

    Keratoprosthesis (Kpro) forms the last resort for bilateral end-stage corneal blindness. The Boston Type 1 and 2 Kpros, the modified osteo-odonto Kpro and the osteo-Kpro are the more frequently and commonly performed Kpros, and this review attempts to compile the current data available on these Kpros worldwide from large single-center studies and compare the indications and outcomes with Kpros in the Indian scenario. Although the indications have significantly expanded over the years and the complications have reduced with modifications in design and postoperative regimen, these are procedures that require an exclusive setup, and a commitment toward long-term follow-up and post-Kpro care. The last decade has seen a surge in the number of Kpro procedures performed worldwide as well as in India. There is a growing need in our country among ophthalmologists to be aware of the indications for Kpro to facilitate appropriate referral as well as of the procedure to enable basic evaluation during follow-ups in case the need arises, and among corneal specialists interested to pursue the field of Kpros in understanding the nuances of these surgeries and to make a judicious decision regarding patient and Kpro selection and more importantly deferral. PMID:29676302

  14. Keratoprosthesis: Current global scenario and a broad Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Iyer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoprosthesis (Kpro forms the last resort for bilateral end-stage corneal blindness. The Boston Type 1 and 2 Kpros, the modified osteo-odonto Kpro and the osteo-Kpro are the more frequently and commonly performed Kpros, and this review attempts to compile the current data available on these Kpros worldwide from large single-center studies and compare the indications and outcomes with Kpros in the Indian scenario. Although the indications have significantly expanded over the years and the complications have reduced with modifications in design and postoperative regimen, these are procedures that require an exclusive setup, and a commitment toward long-term follow-up and post-Kpro care. The last decade has seen a surge in the number of Kpro procedures performed worldwide as well as in India. There is a growing need in our country among ophthalmologists to be aware of the indications for Kpro to facilitate appropriate referral as well as of the procedure to enable basic evaluation during follow-ups in case the need arises, and among corneal specialists interested to pursue the field of Kpros in understanding the nuances of these surgeries and to make a judicious decision regarding patient and Kpro selection and more importantly deferral.

  15. Current global status of carotid artery stent placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, M H; Wholey, M; Bergeron, P; Diethrich, E B; Henry, M; Laborde, J C; Mathias, K; Myla, S; Roubin, G S; Shawl, F; Theron, J G; Yadav, J S; Dorros, G; Guimaraens, J; Higashida, R; Kumar, V; Leon, M; Lim, M; Londero, H; Mesa, J; Ramee, S; Rodriguez, A; Rosenfield, K; Teitelbaum, G; Vozzi, C

    1998-05-01

    Our purpose was to review the current status of carotid artery stent placement throughout the world. Surveys were sent to major interventional centers in Europe, North and South America, and Asia. Information from peer-reviewed journals was also included and supplemented the survey. The survey asked various questions regarding the patients enrolled, procedure techniques, and results of carotid stenting, including complications and restenosis. Of the centers which were sent surveys, 24 responded. The total number of endovascular carotid stent procedures that have been performed worldwide to date included 2,048 cases, with a technical success of 98.6%. Complications that occurred during carotid stent placement or within a 30-day period following placement were recorded. Overall, there were 63 minor strokes, with a rate of occurrence of 3.08%. The total number of major strokes was 27, for a rate of 1.32%. There were 28 deaths within a 30-day postprocedure period, resulting in a mortality rate of 1.37%. Restenosis rates of carotid stenting have been 4.80% at 6 mo. Endovascular stent treatment of carotid artery atherosclerotic disease is growing as an alternative to vascular surgery, especially for patients that are at high risk for standard carotid endarterectomy. The periprocedural risks for major and minor strokes and death are generally acceptable at this early stage of development.

  16. Establishment of the National Nuclear Regulatory Portal (NNRP) as the key element of the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Network and Regulatory Network (GNSSN/RegNet) for sharing of nuclear safety information and knowledge among the Global Expert Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinnikov, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Safety and Security Network (GNSSN) implements the concept of the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Framework (GNSSF) as outlined in INSAG 21. This is the framework of instruments and resources for achieving and maintaining worldwide a high level of safety and security at nuclear facilities and activities as stated in SF-1 and supporting safety standards or recommendations such as INSAG-12. National efforts are and should be augmented by the activities of a variety of international enterprises that facilitate safety and security. The IAEA standard GS-R-3 requires that information and knowledge is managed as a resource. Further strengthening of GNSSN in particular regulatory networking as intended by GNSSN/RegNet has to be based on current national priorities, on existing regional and thematic networks and on the established mechanisms of international co-operation as presented for example on the websites of the IAEA or the OECD-NEA. Current design and operation of RegNet are flexible enough to accommodate differences in national and international approaches and practices and to facilitate exchange and cooperation on regulatory matters. The main role of GNSSN/RegNet is sharing knowledge and bringing people together to enhance and promote nuclear safety and security. The objectives of GNSSN/RegNet: enhancing safety and security by international cooperation, sharing information and best practices, enabling adequate access to relevant safety and security information and promoting the dissemination of this information, implementing active collaboration in the relevant areas related to safety and security, such as joint projects, peer reviews, enabling synergies among existing networks and initiatives, informing the public on the relevant safety and security areas and the related international collaboration. In the RegNet part of the GNSSN exist the National Nuclear Regulatory Portal (NNRP) which is on one hand a part of the global RegNet and on the

  17. Nuclear power reactor core melt accidents. Current State of Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemain, Didier; Cenerino, Gerard; Corenwinder, Francois; Raimond, Emmanuel IRSN; Bentaib, Ahmed; Bonneville, Herve; Clement, Bernard; Cranga, Michel; Fichot, Florian; Koundy, Vincent; Meignen, Renaud; Corenwinder, Francois; Leteinturier, Denis; Monroig, Frederique; Nahas, Georges; Pichereau, Frederique; Van-Dorsselaere, Jean-Pierre; Couturier, Jean; Debaudringhien, Cecile; Duprat, Anna; Dupuy, Patricia; Evrard, Jean-Michel; Nicaise, Gregory; Berthoud, Georges; Studer, Etienne; Boulaud, Denis; Chaumont, Bernard; Clement, Bernard; Gonzalez, Richard; Queniart, Daniel; Peltier, Jean; Goue, Georges; Lefevre, Odile; Marano, Sandrine; Gobin, Jean-Dominique; Schwarz, Michel; Repussard, Jacques; Haste, Tim; Ducros, Gerard; Journeau, Christophe; Magallon, Daniel; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Tourniaire, Bruno; Durin, Michel; Andreo, Francois; Atkhen, Kresna; Daguse, Thierry; Dubreuil-Chambardel, Alain; Kappler, Francois; Labadie, Gerard; Schumm, Andreas; Gauntt, Randall O.; Birchley, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    For over thirty years, IPSN and subsequently IRSN has played a major international role in the field of nuclear power reactor core melt accidents through the undertaking of important experimental programmes (the most significant being the Phebus-FP programme), the development of validated simulation tools (the ASTEC code that is today the leading European tool for modelling severe accidents), and the coordination of the SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network) international network of excellence. These accidents are described as 'severe accidents' because they can lead to radioactive releases outside the plant concerned, with serious consequences for the general public and for the environment. This book compiles the sum of the knowledge acquired on this subject and summarises the lessons that have been learnt from severe accidents around the world for the prevention and reduction of the consequences of such accidents, without addressing those from the Fukushima accident, where knowledge of events is still evolving. The knowledge accumulated by the Institute on these subjects enabled it to play an active role in informing public authorities, the media and the public when this accident occurred, and continues to do so to this day. Following the introduction, which describes the structure of this book and highlights the objectives of R and D on core melt accidents, this book briefly presents the design and operating principles (Chapter 2) and safety principles (Chapter 3) of the reactors currently in operation in France, as well as the main accident scenarios envisaged and studied (Chapter 4). The objective of these chapters is not to provide exhaustive information on these subjects (the reader should refer to the general reference documents listed in the corresponding chapters), but instead to provide the information needed in order to understand, firstly, the general approach adopted in France for preventing and mitigating the consequences of core melt

  18. Commercial US nuclear reactors and waste: the current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, A.M.; Robinson, J.V.

    1980-09-01

    Between March 1 and June 15, 1980, the declared size of the commercial light waste reactor (LWR) nuclear power industry in the US has decreased another 9 GWe. For the presently declared size: the 165 declared reactors will peak at a capacity of 153 GWe in 2001 and will consume about 870,000 MTU as enrichment feed; the theoretical rate of enrichment requirements will peak at about 19,000,000 SWUs/y in the year 2014; as few as two repositories each with capacity equivalent to 100,000 MTU would hold the waste; and predisposal storage reactor basins and AFRs (away-from-reactor basins) would peak at <85,000 MTU in the year 2020 if the two respositories were commissioned in the years 1997 and 2020. It should be noted that the number of declared LWRs has dropped from 226 on December 31, 1974 to 165 as of this writing. The oil equivalent of the energy loss, assuming a 50% efficiency in use as in cars, is 17,000 million barrels. This is about 10 years of the current rate of US consumption of OPEC oil

  19. Commercial US nuclear reactors and waste: the current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Robinson, J.V.

    1980-09-01

    Between March 1 and June 15, 1980, the declared size of the commercial light waste reactor (LWR) nuclear power industry in the US has decreased another 9 GWe. For the presently declared size: the 165 declared reactors will peak at a capacity of 153 GWe in 2001 and will consume about 870,000 MTU as enrichment feed; the theoretical rate of enrichment requirements will peak at about 19,000,000 SWUs/y in the year 2014; as few as two repositories each with capacity equivalent to 100,000 MTU would hold the waste; and predisposal storage reactor basins and AFRs (away-from-reactor basins) would peak at <85,000 MTU in the year 2020 if the two respositories were commissioned in the years 1997 and 2020. It should be noted that the number of declared LWRs has dropped from 226 on December 31, 1974 to 165 as of this writing. The oil equivalent of the energy loss, assuming a 50% efficiency in use as in cars, is 17,000 million barrels. This is about 10 years of the current rate of US consumption of OPEC oil.

  20. Commercial nuclear reactors and waste: the current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, A.M.; Robinson, J.V.

    1980-04-01

    During the last five years, the declared size of the commercial light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power industry in the US has steadily decreased. As of January 1980, the total number of power plants had dropped to 191 from the 226 in December 31, 1974. At least another nine were cancelled in the last few months. This report was developed as the first of a series to track implications to waste management due to such changes in the declared size of the industry. For the presently declared size, key conclusions are: the declared reactors will peak at a capacity of 162 GWe and consume about 10 6 MTU as enrichment feed. As few as two repositories of about 100,000 MTHM capacity each would hold the waste. Predisposal storage (reactor basins and AFRs) would peak at less than 100,000 MTHM (in the year 2020) with one repository opening in the year 1997 and the other in the year 2020. Most of the 100,000 MTHM would have to be in AFR storage unless current practice regarding reactor basin size was radically changed

  1. Rosatom Comprehensive Approach to Support Global Nuclear Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artisiuk, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Challenges in Human Resources Management for Sustainable Nuclear Power Generation: •Lack of competence in embarking states •Aging of nuclear workforce in nuclear developed countries •Language barrier in knowledge transfer form vendor to recipient countries •Multicultural environment in knowledge transfer •Large number of safety related jobs needed in embarking states •New area of knowledge transfer – nuclear infrastructure development

  2. Global Trends and Current Status of Commercial Urban Rooftop Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Buehler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze current practices in commercial urban rooftop farming (URF. In recent years, URF has been experiencing increasing popularity. It is a practice that is well-suited to enhancing food security in cities and reducing the environmental impact that results from long transportation distances that are common in conventional agriculture. To date, most URF initiatives have been motivated by social and educational factors rather than the aim of creating large sustainable food production systems in cities. The commercial operation of urban rooftop farms, should they become profitable, is likely to attract notable private investment, allowing a significant level of high quality urban food production to be achieved. There is a reasonable amount of literature available on urban farming that deals with its potential, and its limitations. However, it does not focus on commercial operations. In contrast to other surveys and theoretical papers, this study of URF focuses on large and commercial operations. The analysis showed that commercial URFs can be grouped into two main types: Firstly, hydroponic systems in greenhouses where mostly leafy greens, tomatoes, and herbs are grown; secondly, soil-based open-air farms that grow a large variety of vegetables. Hydroponics is frequently seen as the key technology for commercial urban food production. While the technology is not in and of itself sustainable, hydroponic farms often make an effort to implement environmentally friendly technologies and methods. However, there is still untapped potential to systemically integrate farms into buildings. The findings of this study identified where future research is needed in order to make URF a widespread sustainable solution.

  3. Acceleration toward the conclusion negotiation of bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements indispensable for globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumata, Hiroki; Hattori, Takuya; Ake, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    According to Japan's basic policies of new growth strategy, it would be one option of the economic growth to increase exports of nuclear power plant system or its equipments. However, bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements are indispensable for business activities on nuclear power. Recently signature of agreement with Jordan, agreed conclusion negotiation with Vietnam and Korea, under negotiation with India and expected negotiation with Indonesia and Malaysia. Signed agreements with Russia and Kazakhstan will be coming into effect and contribute nuclear fuel supply at export of nuclear power system. This special article consists of four expert's papers titled as (1) necessity of conclusion negotiation of nuclear cooperation agreements with several countries simultaneously and in parallel, (2) Japan's nuclear cooperation in new era, (3) desirable acceleration of conclusion negotiation of nuclear cooperation agreements and (4) insurance of nuclear fuel supply fundamental for global business activities of Japan's nuclear industries-best choice to establish cooperative relations with US and Russia. (T. Tanaka)

  4. The convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage (CSC). A cornerstone of a global nuclear liability regime?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    International discussions on compensation of nuclear damage seem to be governed by the magic word ''global nuclear liability regime''. It is said that only such regime promises to guarantee full and timely compensation at conditions acceptable and favourable for both the victims and the operator liable and at the same time promotes nuclear industry. Surely, nuclear incidents may have worldwide implications, and a globally unified legal framework appears to be desirable or is even necessitated. But until today we have not yet achieved a global regime. There are international nuclear liability conventions some of which may be qualified to form such regime. But which of them is best qualified and which one could be accepted by all States? Mainly the USA opt for, and strongly support, the 1997 ''Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage'' (CSC) to be the only international instrument which is apt to form a global regime. This paper will deal with the question whether this assertion is convincing. It will also be asked whether we need a global regime.

  5. The convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage (CSC). A cornerstone of a global nuclear liability regime?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelzer, Norbert

    2015-06-15

    International discussions on compensation of nuclear damage seem to be governed by the magic word ''global nuclear liability regime''. It is said that only such regime promises to guarantee full and timely compensation at conditions acceptable and favourable for both the victims and the operator liable and at the same time promotes nuclear industry. Surely, nuclear incidents may have worldwide implications, and a globally unified legal framework appears to be desirable or is even necessitated. But until today we have not yet achieved a global regime. There are international nuclear liability conventions some of which may be qualified to form such regime. But which of them is best qualified and which one could be accepted by all States? Mainly the USA opt for, and strongly support, the 1997 ''Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage'' (CSC) to be the only international instrument which is apt to form a global regime. This paper will deal with the question whether this assertion is convincing. It will also be asked whether we need a global regime.

  6. Nuclear power in the Asia-Pacific region. Current status and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Jia; Otsuki, Takashi; Irie, Kazutomo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the current status and future perspective of nuclear power in the APEC region. We design three scenarios, including Low-nuclear Scenario, Business-as-Usual Scenario (BAU) as well as High-nuclear Scenario, in order to quantitatively evaluate contribution of nuclear power to the low-carbon energy system. Preliminary results from the modeling are presented in the paper, and the drivers and challenges for nuclear power development in the APEC region are discussed. (author)

  7. Current Status and Future Prospects for Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhn, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    In the past 50 years, nuclear power has grown from a new scientific development to become a major part of the energy mix in over 30 countries. In 1998, 434 power reactors worldwide produced 2294 billion kWh of electricity, slightly up on 1997 output. Sixteen countries relied on nuclear power for 25 percent or more of their electricity. Accumulated operating experience for nuclear power plants reached over 9,000 reactor-years. In 1998, 36 nuclear power plants were under construction: 14 in Eastern Europe, 12 in the Fat East; 7 in the Middle East and South Asia, 2 in Latin America, 1 in stern Europe (France)

  8. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  9. Report on the Current Technical Issues on ASME Nuclear Code and Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2008-11-01

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  10. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-15

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  11. Prospective of Transformation of Current Models of the Global Pharmaceutical Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Solodkovskyy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article thoroughly analyzes the current state of the global pharmaceutical market, defines the key factors for its development and outlines the promising areas of transformation of existing business models of top companies. The forecasted data relating to the market development until 2015 have been investigated. The global, market, technological and organizational factors of transformation of modern model of the global pharmaceutical market have been identified.

  12. The Indian nuclear test in a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, K.

    1974-01-01

    A peaceful nuclear explosion test was carried out by India on 18 May, 1974 at Pokharan in the Rajasthan Desert. The test was carried out as a part of India's steady programme to develop nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and there was no diversion of resources from development as is charged by some nations. The test has broken the monopoly of the nuclear superpowers to conduct nuclear tests for which they are entiltled by the Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and at the same time, sharply focussed the attention on the discriminatory character of the NPT which does not allow non-nuclear states to carry out nuclear tests even for peaceful purposes. It is argued that India's going nuclear may prove, in the long run, beneficial to the cause of disarmament. (M.G.B.)

  13. Management of technical knowledge in strengthening the global nuclear safety regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.-S.

    2006-01-01

    The management of technical knowledge is becoming one of the key issues and challenges in strengthening global nuclear safety. The success of the industry depends on how to optimize knowledge acquisition, transfer and deployment. In this presentation, joint conduct of large-scale R and D work, assurance of free flow of safety-related knowledge from developed to developing nations, and potential imposition of a trade agreement between nuclear exporting and importing nations are discussed. The introduction of a 'Global Nuclear Safety Treaty' could be an excellent mechanism for achieving effective knowledge management and eventually enforcing a global safety regime. (author)

  14. Current status of Chinese nuclear power industry and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Min; Kim, Min; Jeong, Hee Jong; Hwang, Jeong Ki; Cho, Chung Hee

    1996-10-01

    China has been carrying out active international cooperation aiming to be a country where is to be an economical super power and an advanced country in nuclear power technology by the year early 2000, and China also has begun to be recognized as the largest potential market for the construction of nuclear power plants(NPPs) expecting to construct more than thirty nuclear power units by the year 2020. China has advanced technology in the basic nuclear science including liquid metal breeder reactor technology, nuclear material, medium and small size power plants, and isotope production technology, and also China has complete nuclear fuel cycle technology. However, China still has low NPP technology. Therefore, it is expected that China may have complementary cooperative relationship with China, it is expected that Korea may have an access to the advanced Chinese nuclear science technology, and may have a good opportunity to explore the Chinese market actively exporting excellent Korean NPP technology, and further may have a good position to the neighboring Asian countries' NPP markets. From this perspective, general Chinese social status, major nuclear R and D activity status, and correct NPP and technology status have been analyzed in this report, and this report is expected to be a useful resource for cooperating with China in future. 10 tabs., 6 figs., 16 refs. (Author)

  15. Nuclear energy industry in Russia promoting global strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masaharu

    2001-01-01

    Since former USSR disintegrated to birth new Russia on December, 1991, it already passed ten years. As Russian economic hardship affected its nuclear energy development, No.1 reactor of the Rostov nuclear power station (VVER-1000) established its full power operation on September, 2001 after passing eight years of pausing period as a Russian nuclear power station, at dull development of nuclear energy in the world. When beginning of its commercial operation, scale of nuclear power generation under operation in Russia will reach to the fourth one in the world by getting over the one in Germany. Russia also begins international business on reprocessing of spent fuel and intermittent storage. And, Russia positively develops export business of concentrated uranium and nuclear fuel, too. Furthermore, Russia shows some positive initiatives on export of nuclear power station to China, Iran and India, and development on advanced nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle forecast to future. Here was introduced on international developmental development of nuclear energy industry activated recently at delayed time for this ten years. (G.K.)

  16. A Case Study of the Global Group for Sharing Knowledge and Efforts in Human Resources within the Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: One of the main conclusions from the IAEA’s HRD Conference in 2014 was that people and organisations in the global nuclear industry could cooperate more in sharing information and efforts. This was an inspiring conclusion, and there seemed an especially great opportunity for such sharing of information and efforts related to the attraction, recruitment, development and retention of people within the nuclear workforce. Founding members include people from the IAEA, WNA, WANO, EDF and OPG amongst others, the global working group for Human Resource matters aimed at “Building and Sustaining a Competent Nuclear Workforce” was established. This global working group is free to join and is open to anyone concerned with Building and Sustaining a Competent NuclearWorkforce. The objectives of the group are to share useful information, find others with similar objectives to cooperate with, ask questions, share opinions and crucially to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts. The group already has 160 members from more than 15 countries and is currently hosted as a group on the LinkedIn website. The vision for the group is that it will become an invaluable resource for people across the world in the nuclear industry for sharing information and efforts. (author

  17. Current Status of The Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Chang Soon

    1977-01-01

    As the application of nuclear medicine to clinics became generalized and it held an important position, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine was founded in 1961, and today it has become known as one of the oldest nuclear medicine societies not only to Asian nations but also to other advanced countries all over the world. Now it has 100 or so regular members composed of students of each medicine filed unlike other medical societies. Only nuclear medicine research workers are eligible for its membership. The Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine holds its regular general meeting and symposium twice per annom respectively in addition to occasional group gatherings and provincial lectures on nuclear medicine. With an eye to exchanging information on symposium, research and know-how, KSNM issued its initial magazine in 1967. Every year two editions are published. Year after year the contents of treatises are getting elevated with researches on each field including the early study on morphology-greatly improved both in quality and quantity. Of late, a minute and fixed quantity of various matters by dynamical research and radioimmunoassay of every kind has become visibly active. In particular, since KSNM, unlike other local societies, keeps close and frequent contact with the nuclear medicine researchers of world-wide fame, monographs by eminent scholars of the world are carried in its magazine now internationally and well received in foreign countries. Now the magazine has been improved to such an extent that foreign authors quote its contents. KSNM invited many a foreign scholar with a view to exchanging the knowledge of nuclear medicine. Sponsored by nuclear energy institute, the nuclear medicine symposium held in Seoul in October of 1966 was a success with Dr. Wagner participating, a great scholar of world wide fame: It was the first international symposium ever held in Korea, and the Korea Japan symposium held in Seoul 1971 was attended by all distinguished nuclear

  18. The Global Nuclear Futures Model: A Dynamic Simulation Tool for Energy Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixler, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Futures Model (GNFM) is a dynamic simulation tool that provides an integrated framework to model key aspects of nuclear energy, nuclear materials storage and disposition, global nuclear materials management, and nuclear proliferation risk. It links nuclear energy and other energy shares dynamically to greenhouse gas emissions and twelve other measures of environmental impact. It presents historical data from 1990 to 2000 and extrapolates energy demand through the year 2050. More specifically, it contains separate modules for energy, the nuclear fuel cycle front end, the nuclear fuel cycle back end, defense nuclear materials, environmental impacts, and measures of the potential for nuclear proliferation. It is globally integrated but also breaks out five regions of the world so that environmental impacts and nuclear proliferation concerns can be evaluated on a regional basis. The five regions are the United States of America (USA), The Peoples Republic of China (China), the former Soviet Union (FSU), the OECD nations excluding the USA, and the rest of the world (ROW). (author)

  19. Why do they think nuclear power is origin of global warming effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukae, Chiyokazu

    2005-01-01

    A questionnaire on nuclear power was conducted on 1500 adults in Kansai area, Japan, from October 9 to November 9, 2003. The recovery ratio was 71.0%. The results showed that 34% of them thought the nuclear power was protection of the global warming effect and 35% it was origin of the effect. It was analyzed by the logistic regression analysis method on whether the nuclear power was protection of global warming effect or not. About 43% of them recognized the nuclear power contributed to control carbon dioxide emission, and the mechanism of global warming effect. However, 35% of them did not recognize the mechanism and thought radioactive materials emission gave bad effects on the global environment. To make recognize the nuclear power is a good power source for protection of the global warming effect, the amount of reduction of carbon dioxide emission by nuclear power had to be shown. It is the shortest way for solution of the global warming problem to prove worthy of nuclear power's trust by safety and stable operation. (S.Y.)

  20. Characterizing noise in the global nuclear weapon monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-03-01

    Under the auspices of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, a worldwide monitoring system designed to detect the illegal testing of nuclear weaponry has been under construction since 1999. The International Monitoring System is composed of a range of sensors, including detectors for hydroacoustic and seismic signals, and when completed, will include 60 infrasound measurement arrays set to detect low-frequency sound waves produced by an atmospheric nuclear detonation.

  1. Attracting and Retaining Talent in the Global Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recruiting 'non-nuclear' candidates: → Analysis of supply and demand; → Identify differentiators (longevity of project, interesting nature of work etc); → Online and offline recruitment (local and international) managed by recruiters; → Efficient and timely interview process; → Time and cost advantages through volume. Recruiting 'nuclear experts': → Detailed job descriptions written by nuclear experts; → People with strong nuclear knowledge involved throughout recruitment process (internal and external) - 'Excellence attracts exellence'; → 'Best Athlete' recruitment approach - passive and active candidates; → International search; → Higher investment in each case

  2. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat, Sorghum (sorghum, Pennisetum (pearl millet, Eleusine (finger millet, Cicer (chickpea and Lens (lentil exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth, Chenopodium (quinoa, Eragrostis (teff and Abelmoschus (okra. In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  3. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  4. Accelerating the global nuclear renaissance: the central challenge of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritch, J.

    2006-01-01

    The rebirth of nuclear energy has become an unmistakable reality that is gathering speed and momentum on the full world stage. All around the world, old-school anti-nuclear environmentalism is being eclipsed by a new realism that recognises nuclear energy's essential virtue: its capacity to deliver cleanly generated power safely, reliably, and on a massive scale. For serious environmentalists, the real challenge is that nuclear energy is not yet growing fast enough to play its needed role in the clean-energy revolution our world so desperately needs. A fair assessment shows that not one of the commonly cited ''public concerns'' poses a reasonable obstacle to a global expansion of nuclear power: Proliferation, Operational Safety, Cost Reduction, Waste Management. In three areas, governments must take decisive action to grow the nuclear industry: (1) Construct a comprehensive global regime to curtail greenhouse emissions; (2) Elevate nuclear investment to a national and international policy priority; and (3) Support educational development of the nuclear profession for an expanded global role. The global nuclear industry will be indispensable if humanity is to preserve the environment that enabled civilisation to evolve. Governments must emerge from postures of timidity and equivocation to act decisively in support of that industry. Our world is in dire peril, and we have no time to lose

  5. Current Status and Future Perspective of Nuclear Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June Key

    2009-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is on the rise over the world. Myocardial perfusion SPECT is a well established technique to detect coronary artery disease and to assess left ventricular function. In addition, it has the unique ability to predict the prognosis of the patients. Moreover, the application of ECG-gated images provided the quantitative data and improved the accuracy. This approach has been proved to be cost-effective and suitable for the emerging economies as well as developed countries. However, the utilization of nuclear cardiology procedures vary widely considering the different countries and region of the world. Korea exits 2-3 times less utilization than Japan, and 20 times than the United States. Recently, with the emerging of new technology, namely cardiac CT, cardiac MR and stress echocardiography, the clinical usefulness of nuclear cardiology has been called in question and its role has been redefined. For the proper promotion of nuclear cardiology, special educations should be conducted since the nuclear cardiology has the contact points between nuclear medicine and cardiology. Several innovations are in horizon which will impact the diagnostic accuracy as well as imaging time and cost savings. Development of new tracers, gamma camera technology and hybrid systems will open the new avenue in cardiac imaging. The future of nuclear cardiology based on molecular imaging is very exciting. The newly defined biologic targets involving atherosclerosis and vascular vulnerability will allow the answers for the key clinical questions. Hybrid techniques including SPECT/CT indicate the direction in which clinical nuclear cardiology may be headed in the immediate future. To what extent nuclear cardiology will be passively absorbed by other modalities, or will actively incorporate other modalities, is up to the present and next generation of nuclear cardiologists

  6. Current Status and Future Perspective of Nuclear Cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, June Key [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Coronary artery disease is on the rise over the world. Myocardial perfusion SPECT is a well established technique to detect coronary artery disease and to assess left ventricular function. In addition, it has the unique ability to predict the prognosis of the patients. Moreover, the application of ECG-gated images provided the quantitative data and improved the accuracy. This approach has been proved to be cost-effective and suitable for the emerging economies as well as developed countries. However, the utilization of nuclear cardiology procedures vary widely considering the different countries and region of the world. Korea exits 2-3 times less utilization than Japan, and 20 times than the United States. Recently, with the emerging of new technology, namely cardiac CT, cardiac MR and stress echocardiography, the clinical usefulness of nuclear cardiology has been called in question and its role has been redefined. For the proper promotion of nuclear cardiology, special educations should be conducted since the nuclear cardiology has the contact points between nuclear medicine and cardiology. Several innovations are in horizon which will impact the diagnostic accuracy as well as imaging time and cost savings. Development of new tracers, gamma camera technology and hybrid systems will open the new avenue in cardiac imaging. The future of nuclear cardiology based on molecular imaging is very exciting. The newly defined biologic targets involving atherosclerosis and vascular vulnerability will allow the answers for the key clinical questions. Hybrid techniques including SPECT/CT indicate the direction in which clinical nuclear cardiology may be headed in the immediate future. To what extent nuclear cardiology will be passively absorbed by other modalities, or will actively incorporate other modalities, is up to the present and next generation of nuclear cardiologists.

  7. The current and perspective problems of nuclear power fuel supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonin, M.I.; Konovalov, I.I.

    2003-01-01

    Conception of fuel supply is comprised of supplying of natural uranium resources, nuclear fuel production including engineering stages of refining, enriching, production, use of secondary uranium and plutonium raw materials. The structure of nuclear fuel cycle is considered. Enterprises of the Russian nuclear fuel cycle, world recourses and fundamental producers of uranium are performed, demands in natural uranium of Russian and frontier NPP to 2010 are demonstrated. Dynamics of the development of separate methods - diffusion and centrifugal is presented as well as parameters of fuel supply at Russian and frontier NPP are compared [ru

  8. Current status nuclear training and education in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsono

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear technology was officially recognized through the setting up Panitia Negara untuk Penyelidikan Radioaktivitet in 1954, and the founding of Dewan Tenaga Atom Nasional and Lembaga Tenaga Atom (National Atomic Energy Board) in 1958 which then further reorganized and named BATAN (National Atomic Energy Agency) in 1964. Since the construction of the first research reactor in 1965, BATAN has been operating 3 research reactors. The application of nuclear technology in research, which was started in 1960's, was followed by application in non energy sectors such as agriculture and industries, and the utilization of radiation and radioisotopes in medical therapy and diagnostic. In 1997, in order to separate the control function and the promotion function of the application of nuclear energy in Indonesia, the Government set up two nuclear administrative agencies, i.e. the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) and the Nuclear Energy Control Board (BAPETEN). To provide well-educated and well-trained personnel in the fields of research, development, and application of nuclear technology, BATAN implementing its education and training program through the ETC (BATAN Education and Training Center) and STTN (Polytechnic Institute of Nuclear Technology), which were set up in 1981 and 1991, respectively. While STTN, formerly known as PATN, offers formal education at D3-level and D4-level in Technophysics and Techno-chemistry, the ETC is responsible for implementing education and training program, mainly in nuclear science and technology. In conducting education and training, ETC cooperates also with other education and training institutions, domestic as well as overseas institutions. ETC has set up a national network of nuclear education and training which involves some state universities and school, such as University of Indonesia, University of Gadjah Mada, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bogor Agriculture Institute, University of Pajajaran, and School of Medical

  9. Current Ground Test Options for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    (approximately 1 GW) with a maximum burn time of 1 hour. The concept utilized lessons learned from NF-1. The strategy breaks down the exhaust into parallel paths to allow flexibility with engine size and mass flow of exhaust. Similar to NF-1, the exhaust is slowed down, cooled, filtered of particulates, filtered of noble gases, and then the clean hydrogen is flared to open air. Another concept proposed by Steve Howe (currently Director of the Center for Space Nuclear Research) to simplify the NTP exhaust filtering is to run the hydrogen exhaust into boreholes underground to filter the exhaust. The two borehole site locations proposed are at the NTS and at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). At NTS, the boreholes are 8' diameter and 1200' deep. The permeability of hydrogen through the soil and its buoyancy will allow it to rise up through the soil and allow the filtering of noble gases and radioactive particulates. The exhaust needs to be cooled to 600C before entering the borehole to avoid soil glazing. Preliminary analysis shows a small buildup of back pressure with time which depends on permeability. Noble gases entering the borehole walls deep can take a long time before reaching the surface. Other factors affecting permeability include borehole pressure, water saturation, and turbulence. Also, a possible need to pump out contaminated water collected at the bottom of the borehole. At INL, the borehole concept is slightly different. The underground borehole has openings to the soil at special depths which have impermeable interbeds above the water table and below the surface to allow the exhaust to travel horizontal between the impermeable layers. Preliminary results indicate better permeability than at NTS. The last option is total containment of the exhaust during the test run. The concept involves slowing down the flow to subsonic in a water cooled diffuser. The hydrogen is burned off in an oxygen rich afterburner with the only products being steam, oxygen, and some noble

  10. International Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Safety Regulation: Current Status and Way Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J. W.; Byeon, M. J.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Global effort and initiatives undertaken after the Fukushima Daiichi accident was the adoption of the Vienna Declaration on Nuclear Safety in February 2015. The Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) collaboratively prepared the documentation of the Declaration and unanimously adopted it with the idea to prevent accidents with radiological consequences and to mitigate such consequences should they occur. The OECD/NEA has been working closely with its member and partner countries to identify lessons learnt and follow-up actions at the national and international levels so as to maintain and enhance the level of safety at nuclear facilities following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. In 2013, the NEA published a report entitled The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: OECD/NEA Nuclear Safety Response and Lessons Learnt detailing the key immediate responses of the NEA and its member countries. Subsequent to the publish of the report and based on the lessons presented, NEA published a new report entitled Five Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Accident: Nuclear Safety Improvements and Lessons Learnt, focusing on what has been done by the Agency and its member countries to improve safety since the accident in 2011. cooperation based on the needs of technical area would further enhance effectiveness of cooperative activities and would enable to foresee future regulatory needs which can be considered when establishing a strategy. Since the establishment of NSSC in 2011, NSSC has played a major role in concluding agreements with regulatory bodies of other countries. Despite of the change, KINS, yet, is able to pursue technical-specified cooperation as a TSO under the umbrella of agreements between governments or regulatory bodies. establishment of expert pool and systematic mid- and long-term capacity building framework of relevant experts would enhance continuity and expertise. Currently, most of the participants or

  11. The necessity of nuclear power: a global human and environmental imperative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritch, J.

    2008-01-01

    Humankind cannot conceivably achieve a global clean-energy revolution without a huge expansion of nuclear power to generate electricity; to produce battery power and possibly hydrogen for tomorrow's vehicles; to desalinate seawater in response to the worlds rapidly emerging fresh-water crisis. Factors for accelerating the nuclear renaissance are: comprehensive post-Kyoto agreement all major nations, with appropriate obligations, strong political and economic incentives and goal to achieve 60% cut in global emissions by 2050; harness UN system to one clean-energy vision nuclear power at centre of global strategy; national incentive policies not for subsidy but for acceleration; education policies public's better understanding of nuclear energy new generation of nuclear professionals

  12. Current status of neutron activation analysis and applied nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    A review of recent scientometric studies of citations and publication data shows the present state of NAA and applied nuclear chemistry as compared to other analytical techniques. (author) 9 refs.; 7 tabs

  13. Brief history and current developments of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    The history of nuclear fusion is briefly outlined, the ITER project is described, the advantages of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator are described, alternative projects and mentioned, and prospects for the nearest time to come are shown. (P.A.)

  14. Current problems associated with nuclear plant construction contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albano, Raffaele.

    1977-01-01

    The expansion of nuclear electricity generating programmes has brought to the fore the problems associated with construction of this type of power plant. The paper analyses the contracts for such construction and describes the most common, the turnkey contract. The present tendency is to limit the scope of turnkey contracts to the nuclear system or simply to the reactor and this is especially common in advanced nuclear countries such as the US, Canada, Japan, UK and France, and this is also the case in Italy where the question of contracting nuclear plants is debated. In Germany the power utilities hold a large number of shares in the manufacturing industry and the turnkey contract is therefore more economically attractive. A detailed description of the contracting procedure is provided, including the suppliers' and purchasers' responsibilities, plant commissioning tests and handing over of the plant to the operator. (NEA) [fr

  15. Nuclear Education and training: addressing a global need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn Lee, Janice

    2008-01-01

    There is growing concern about the difficulties nuclear institutions in many OECD/NEA member countries are experiencing in recruiting qualified specialists. Recent studies have also shown that nuclear education and training have been suffering declines of various degrees. If no action is taken on this issue, the nuclear sector risks facing a shortage of qualified human resources to ensure the appropriate regulation and operation of existing nuclear facilities as well as the construction of new ones in those countries wishing to do so. The NEA Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy issued a statement on this subject in October 2007, the complete text of which is available at: www.nea.fr/html/general/press/2007/2007-05.html. The NEA has for many years been involved in efforts to define and address the need for qualified human resources. In this regard, the Agency: 1- carries out assessments of requirements and availability of qualified human resources in the nuclear field, 2- enhances nuclear education programmes, such as the International School of Nuclear Law, and 3- encourages large, high-profile international research and development programmes. These areas are addressed in the NEA Strategic Plan as well as in the specific NEA programmes discussed below. The presentation will focus on ways to address the issue of qualified human resources, share information about what others are doing, and discuss what we might do collectively. (author)

  16. N. Sarkosy calls for a global development of civil nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The President Sarkosy called to develop the nuclear power and ask to international financing institutions to resolutely engage in financing nuclear energy power. Mister Yukiya Amano, chief of IAEA declared that:' nuclear power can make a major contribution to economic development and help mitigate climate change'. Mister Manuel Barroso, president of European Commission, said: 'We are confident that the new economy of the European Union will involve the decarbonization of our electricity supply and has announced an initiative to raise European safety standards and international safety and make them legally binding throughout the world '. Mister Daniel Poneman, U.S. Assistant Secretary of Energy said that the United States is working domestically to reinvigorate the nuclear industry and ensure that alongside all countries can have access to nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, in a manner that minimizes proliferation. (N.C.)

  17. Tupperware's Strategy and Current Status of Nuclear Power Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Eng

    1986-01-01

    Taiwan is poorly endowed with indigenous energy resources. At the present time, its domestic energy consumption is depending over 80% on energy imports. The government energy policy is to diversify the sources and the forms of the imported energy emphasizing the reduction of dependence on oil and the promotion of the peaceful uses of atomic energy. Following this policy and guiding principles for the management of the company, Tupperware has formulated and has been implementing its nuclear power development program very diligently and vigorously. Nuclear power generation is seen as a reliable alternative to oil before other new energy sources are commercialized. The generation cost of nuclear power is only one-third of advantage will certainly attract either our country or other countries in the world with similar energy resources situation to make full utilization of nuclear power. In aggressively pursuing the nuclear generation program, Tupperware has made considerable efforts in the following aspects to further assure safety, reliability and also economy of nuclear power operation

  18. Current status of SMPRs and manpower development for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    The development of SMPRs could make it possible for countries with small electrical grids to use nuclear power. SMPRs are still in the developing stages and none of them have the capability of good plant performance. Most of the SMPRs are in the 300 MWe range and a grid capacity of at least 2000 MWe would be required before such a power plant can be connected to the grid. There is a possibility that SMPRs could generate electricity cheaper coal plants requiring desulphurization. An unexpected increase in coal price and adverse environmental effects could make it necessary to use nuclear power in the future. Qualified manpower is required to plan, build and properly operate a nuclear power plant; and the availability of qualified manpower is a pre-condition for deciding to use nuclear power. There is a possibility that Sri Lanka would be able to use nuclear power in the next 15-20 years and a total dependence upon foreign expertise is neither possible nor desirable. Therefore pre-project activities should be considering such things as teaching nuclear science and engineering in the universities and retraining existing professionals, say from the coal power industry. Adequate emphasis must be given to manpower development and to the need to scheduling this development

  19. Current status of nuclear power generation in Japan and directions in water cooled reactor technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, T.

    1991-01-01

    Electric power demand aspects and current status of nuclear power generation in Japan are outlined. Although the future plan for nuclear power generation has not been determined yet the Japanese nuclear research centers and institutes are investigating and developing some projects on the next generation of light water reactors and other types of reactors. The paper describes these main activities

  20. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  1. Terrestrial ring current - from in situ measurements to global images using energetic neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelof, E.C.; Williams, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Electrical currents flowing in the equatorial magnetosphere, first inferred from ground-based magnetic disturbances, are carried by trapped energetic ions. Spacecraft measurements have determined the spectrum and composition of those currents, and the newly developed technique of energetic-neutral-atom imaging allows the global dynamics of that entire ion population to be viewed from a single spacecraft. 71 references

  2. Skill Testing a Three-Dimensional Global Tide Model to Historical Current Meter Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    breaking internal gravity waves generated over rough topography. The strength of the globally averaged wave drag is tuned to minimize the RMS...Ross Sea SO 02 39 83 Drake Passage SO 03 15 30 Weddell Sea SO 04 45 127 Antarctic Circumpolar Current SP 01 19 49 East Auckland Current SP 02 28 75 East

  3. Nuclear fuel manufacturing. Current activities and prospects at INR Pitesti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horhoianu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    Development of the CANDU nuclear fuel is currently conducted world wide onto two principal directions: - increasing the service span of the current type of fuel and improving the efficiency of burnup in reactor; - reducing the costs of fuel manufacturing by improving the design and manufacturing technologies in condition of increasing fuel performance. In parallel, a research program, RAAN, is undergoing, concerning the development of advanced CANDU type fuels (SEU, RU, DUPIC, Th), aiming at reducing the overall costs per fuel cycle. In the INR TRIGA reactor a large number of experimental fuel elements manufactured in INR were irradiated under different conditions specific to the CANDU reactor operation. Post irradiation investigations both destructive and non-destructive were carried out in the hot cells at INR Pitesti. The experimental results were used in order to optimize and evaluate the fuel project, to check the fuel manufacturing technologies as well as to certify the computational codes. The local thermo-mechanical analyses by final element methods, modelling the SCC phenomenon, probabilistic evaluation of performance parameters of the fuel, constitute new directions in the modelling and developing computational code. The developed codes were submitted to a thorough validation process to comply with the quality assurance. The excellent results obtained in INR were confirmed by participation in the FUMEX International Exercises of computer code intercomparison, organized by IAEA Vienna. Progress was also recorded in establishing the behaviour of fuel elements failed during reactor operation and the effect their maintenance in the reactor core could have upon the power reactor operation. A system-expert variant was worked out able for a short term analysis of the decisions referring to removing the failing element at Cernavoda NPP. As advanced CANDU fuel is concerned, until now preliminary variants for a fuel bundle with 43 elements containing slightly

  4. Current Status of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Lee, Jong Hyun

    2009-07-01

    To expand the use of nuclear energy, SNF from nuclear power plants must be managed in a safe and environmental friendly and the problem of decreasing uranium should be solved. To resolve this, a dry processing technology Pyroprocessing is focused on. The government started to develop of Pyroprocessing technology in 1997. According to the decision of government based of Atomic Energy Commission in December 2008, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute will construct PRIDE (Pyroprocess Integrated Inactive DEmonstration Facility) by 2011 to prove a consistent process. If Pyroprocessing technology will be developed in the near future, the size of radioactive waste disposal site can be reduced to 100 times compared to the direct disposal. When this technology will be connected to Fast Reactor. high level nuclear waste management of Hundreds of thousands of years may be reduced to hundreds years. However for the commercialization of Pyroprocessing technology, there are some problems to solve. First, because of none commercial facilities in the world of executive experience, so that the facility design, measurement. management and material flow, the critical need for data accumulation. Second, High-level nuclear waste have been known to generate more than the wet methods, it should continue to reduce technology development. In addition, a careful consideration of the residual uranium generating on process also can maximize the efficiency of reducing. The new concept is being developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Pyroprocessing technology and nuclear waste processing technology to overcome these drawbacks sUQQested a way

  5. Current Status of the Cyber Threat Assessment for Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Doo [KINAC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In December 2014, unknown hackers hacked internal documents sourced from Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) and those electronic documents were posted five times on a Social Network Service (SNS). The data included personal profiles, flow charts, manuals and blueprints for installing pipes in the nuclear power plant. Although the data were not critical to operation or sabotage of the plant, it threatened people and caused social unrest in Korea and neighboring countries. In December 2015, cyber attack on power grid caused a blackout for hundreds of thousands of people in Ukraine. The power outage was caused by a sophisticated attack using destructive malware called 'BlackEnergy'. Cyber attacks are reality in today's world and critical infrastructures are increasingly targeted. Critical infrastructures, such as the nuclear power plant, need to be proactive and protect the nuclear materials, assets and facilities from potential cyber attacks. The threat assessment document and its detailed procedure are confidential for the State. Nevertheless, it is easy to find cooperation on assessing and evaluating the threats of nuclear materials and facilities with other government departments or agencies including the national police. The NSSC and KINAC also cooperated with the National Intelligence Service (NIS) and National Security Research Institute (NSR). However, robust cyber threat assessment system and regular consultative group should be established with domestic and overseas organization including NIS, NSR, the National Police Agency and the military force to protect and ensure to safety of people, public and environment from rapidly changing and upgrading cyber threats.

  6. Current Status of the Cyber Threat Assessment for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Doo

    2016-01-01

    In December 2014, unknown hackers hacked internal documents sourced from Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) and those electronic documents were posted five times on a Social Network Service (SNS). The data included personal profiles, flow charts, manuals and blueprints for installing pipes in the nuclear power plant. Although the data were not critical to operation or sabotage of the plant, it threatened people and caused social unrest in Korea and neighboring countries. In December 2015, cyber attack on power grid caused a blackout for hundreds of thousands of people in Ukraine. The power outage was caused by a sophisticated attack using destructive malware called 'BlackEnergy'. Cyber attacks are reality in today's world and critical infrastructures are increasingly targeted. Critical infrastructures, such as the nuclear power plant, need to be proactive and protect the nuclear materials, assets and facilities from potential cyber attacks. The threat assessment document and its detailed procedure are confidential for the State. Nevertheless, it is easy to find cooperation on assessing and evaluating the threats of nuclear materials and facilities with other government departments or agencies including the national police. The NSSC and KINAC also cooperated with the National Intelligence Service (NIS) and National Security Research Institute (NSR). However, robust cyber threat assessment system and regular consultative group should be established with domestic and overseas organization including NIS, NSR, the National Police Agency and the military force to protect and ensure to safety of people, public and environment from rapidly changing and upgrading cyber threats

  7. Climatic and other global effects of nuclear war: Summary of a United Nations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A major nuclear war would entail the high risk of disruption to the global environment, and the risk would be greatest if large cities and industrial centres in the northern hemisphere were to be targeted in the summer months. The report of the UN Study Group confirms that a nuclear war could not be won and must not be fought, and thus makes a strong argument for the pursuit of sharp reductions in, and the ultimate eradication of, nuclear weapons

  8. Current emergency programs for nuclear installations in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chino, Masamichi

    2007-01-01

    Large effort has been taken for nuclear emergency programs in Japan especially after the JCO accident. A special law for nuclear emergency was established after the accident. The law extended the scope of emergency preparedness to fuel cycle facilities, research reactors, etc. and clarified the roles and responsibilities of the national government, local governments and license holders. For initial responses, the action levels and action procedures are defined based on environmental doses and specific initial events of NPPs. A senior specialist was dispatched to each site for nuclear emergency and a facility 'Off-site center' to be used as the local emergency headquator was designated at each site. This paper describes the structure of emergency program, responsibility of related organizations and the definition of unusual events for notification and emergency. Emergency preparedness, emergency radiation monitoring and computer-based prediction of on- and off-site situation are also addressed. (author)

  9. Current activities on nuclear desalination in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranaev, Y.D.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the RF desalination programme has been to develop small power floating nuclear seawater desalination complex based on KLT-40 reactor, originally developed for ship propulsion, as an energy source. Russia has sufficient fresh water resource rather evenly distributed over country territory (except for several specific conditions where sea or brackish water desalination is required for reliable long term potable water supply) and only limited internal deployment of this system is expected. Therefore, the development programme is mostly oriented to external market. Development of the floating nuclear desalination complex goes in parallel and is backed by the project of floating nuclear electricity and heat cogeneration plant using two KLT-40 reactors. This plant producing up to 70 MW(e) of electricity and up to 50 Gcal/of heat for district heating is now at the basic design stage and planned to be implemented around the year 2000 in Russia, at the Arctic Sea area

  10. Our global energy future and the role of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    An extension in the use of energy, on even a fairly moderate basis, will, for several decades at least, require the use of all our present energy sources at rates that are a natural extension of historical rates, trending toward maximum practicable exploitation for all but nuclear energy. Regardless of what happens with the fossil hydrocarbons nuclear energy will play a major role in the supply of energy. When the fossil hydrocarbons have run their course nuclear and possibly some solar energy, through the media of electricity, hydrogen and synthetic hydrocarbons, will provide the bulk of the world's controlled energy and in sufficient quantity to provide ample energy for all. The burning question, however, is what will happen in the next few decades. There is a wonderful opportunity for nuclear energy, as the world requirement for energy, and particularly electrical energy, grows

  11. Measurement of Nuclear Dependence in Inclusive Charged Current Neutrino Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, Brian George [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Neutrino experiments use heavy nuclei (C, Fe, Pb) to achieve necessary statistics. However, the use of heavy nuclei exposes these experiments to the nuclear dependence of neutrino-nucleus cross sections, which are poorly known and difficult to model. This dissertation presents an analysis of the nuclear dependence of inclusive chargedcurrent neutrino scattering using events in carbon, iron, lead, and scintillator targets of the MINERvA detector. MINERvA (Main INjector ExpeRiment for -A) is a few-GeV neutrinonucleus scattering experiment at Fermilab.

  12. The current status of nuclear research reactor in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sittichai, C; Kanyukt, R; Pongpat, P [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1998-10-01

    Since 1962, the Thai Research Reactor has been serving for various kinds of activities i.e. the production of radioisotopes for medical uses and research and development on nuclear science and technology, for more than three decades. The existing reactor site should be abandoned and relocated to the new suitable site, according to Thai cabinet`s resolution on the 27 December 1989. The decommissioning project for the present reactor as well as the establishment of new nuclear research center were planned. This paper discussed the OAEP concept for the decommissioning programme and the general description of the new research reactor and some related information were also reported. (author)

  13. Nuclear Power – current status and future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, A.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions • Nuclear energy is extensively used in the world today as reliable base-load energy • Nuclear energy planning at the low level demand involves building of significant number of new NPPs around the world • Highest rate of new builds is expected in Eastern Asia • New advanced reactor designs known as Gen 3 and 3+ have emerged in recent years • As a result of the Fukushima event in Japan, the advanced reactors will be subjected to additional level of scrutiny and design improvements and changes • As a result of the Fukushima event, the regulatory requirements will become more stringent and demanding

  14. Current Status of Non-Electric Applications of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Joon; Lee, Jun; Lee, Tae Hoon

    2009-05-01

    IAEA Technical Meeting(I3-TM-37394) on 'Non-Electric Applications of Nuclear Energy' has been successfully held from March 3 to 6 in 2009 at KAERI/INTEC. The 24 experts from 12 countries participated in this meeting and provided 17 presentations and their opinions and comments in desalination, hydrogen production, and heat application sessions. All of the participants from 12 countries agreed that nuclear power should be the potential carbon-free energy source to replace crude oil and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the fields of non-electric applications such as desalination, hydrogen production, district heating, and industrial processes applications

  15. Nuclear English: Language skills for a globalizing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlin, S

    2005-07-01

    Nuclear English is a new course designed for English language learners working in the nuclear industry and in other fields of nuclear science and technology. The textbook is composed of 12 units, each covering a different aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle or a relevant topic such as non-proliferation, safety and the use of radioisotopes in medicine. Nuclear English offers a flexible approach, allowing learners to: Study the units in any order according to professional need or interest; Focus on listening, grammar and pronunciation tasks, which are clearly signposted; Work independently or with other students in a classroom. The other main features of the course are: A audio CD containing authentic interviews with industry specialists. The course covers various accents, including British, American, Australian, South African and Indian; Transcripts of the listening materials; A language orientation test, which learners can take at the start of the course to identify their grammar weaknesses; Teacher-led exercises for working in pairs or groups; A glossary of key terms; An answer key; a downloadable teacher's guide to help teachers maximize the learning potential of the materials (available at: www.world-nuclear-university.org)

  16. Nuclear English: Language skills for a globalizing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear English is a new course designed for English language learners working in the nuclear industry and in other fields of nuclear science and technology. The textbook is composed of 12 units, each covering a different aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle or a relevant topic such as non-proliferation, safety and the use of radioisotopes in medicine. Nuclear English offers a flexible approach, allowing learners to: Study the units in any order according to professional need or interest; Focus on listening, grammar and pronunciation tasks, which are clearly signposted; Work independently or with other students in a classroom. The other main features of the course are: A audio CD containing authentic interviews with industry specialists. The course covers various accents, including British, American, Australian, South African and Indian; Transcripts of the listening materials; A language orientation test, which learners can take at the start of the course to identify their grammar weaknesses; Teacher-led exercises for working in pairs or groups; A glossary of key terms; An answer key; a downloadable teacher's guide to help teachers maximize the learning potential of the materials (available at: www.world-nuclear-university.org)

  17. Nuclear medicine in Tunisia : current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammami, Hatem

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is concerned with the utilisation of radioactivity in vivo or in vitro for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. In Tunisia, there are four public departments of nuclear medicine and seven private clinics. 50% of the population is localized in the north, which justifies the existence of 7 public and private departments of nuclear medicine with nine gamma cameras in this region. In the south, there are 30 pour cent of the population that goes to Sfax and 20 pour cent to Sousse where we count two departments with gamma cameras in public services and one in the private sector. The nuclear medicine services in the public sector have 4 SPECT / CT. Siemens is the leading provider of gamma cameras and occupies 73 pour cent of market share, subsequently ranks SMV (13 pour cent) and (GE and GAEDE) have the same proportion of the market share (7 pour cent). For radio-protected rooms, there is a single center with a single chamber from four public services. On the other hand, there are 2/7 private centers that are equipped with five radio-protected electrically rooms. Concerning the human resources, there are 26 doctors and 24 technicians in the public sector. The private sector has 6 doctors and 12 technicians. In 2012, there has been 22000 examinations (diagnostic and therapeutic procedures) in which 14,600 in nuclear medicine departments of public hospitals. Bone scintigraphy ranks first, with a relative frequency of 40-80 pour cent thereafter ranks renal scintigraphy (10-15 pour cent) and then the thyroid scintigraphy (8-12 pour cent). The waiting period is a major problem, especially in the public sector. Taking as an example, for the therapy of thyroid, injection of 100 mCi of I-131 requires a period of waiting more than six months and waiting more than three months for the bone scan. The second problem for patient with cancer is the distance, there are 11 centers concentrated in 3 coastal cities and none in the inner areas of the country, no regional

  18. The nuclear force and the electromagnetic current operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riska, D.O.

    1985-01-01

    The relation between the electromagnetic current operator and the nucleon-nucleon interaction is discussed. The assumptions needed for the construction of the two-body current operator directly from the isospin- and velocity dependent components of the interaction potential are described. The observable consequences of the exchange current operator that is constructed from the interaction are reviewed. (orig.)

  19. Past, current and future aspects of nuclear medicine in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmalingam, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine in Malaysia began initially with the use of radioiodine and radiophosphorous for the investigation and treatment of thyroid and blood disorders around 1960. Following this we went through a phase of organ imaging using radioiodine and radiogold using an early generation Phillips Scanner. In terms of Medical usefulness this proved a big step forward in Malaysian Medicine, basic though the techniques were. The third phase of this speciality came on in the 1970s with the availability of generator scanners. A tremendous spurt in Nuclear Imaging and thyroid function studies took place. We have now together with the University Hospital Gamma Cameras which have considerably widened the scope of Nuclear Medicine especially in the field of cardiovascular studies. Further advances are expected in the future with the availability of medical cyclotrons, positron cameras and emission tomography. However yesterdays problems have not disappeared completely and the training of personnel and provision of up to date Nuclear Medicine laboratories with the latest equipment should be given top priority so as to assure progress in this speciality. (author)

  20. Crisis Communication of Nuclear Regulatory Organisations: Towards global thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, Meritxell; Menendez, Susan; Calvo, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) Working Group on Public Communication of Nuclear Regulatory Organisations (WGPC) organised the workshop 'Crisis communication: facing the challenges' on 9-10 May 2012 in Madrid to address the international dimension of the communicative responses to crises by assessing the experience of Nuclear Regulatory Organisations of the NEA member countries and their stakeholders. The CNRA/WGPC also prepared in 2011, before the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident occurred, a Road Map for Crisis Communication of Nuclear Regulatory Organisations which focused only on national aspects. This 'road map' had not considered the international dimension. CNRA mandated the WGPC to expand the Road Map so as to conclude the follow-up activity on crisis communication. The objective of the present document is to firstly, identify the key messages which can be extracted from three surveys carried out among the WGPC members after Fukushima-Daiichi's accident (Appendices II, III and IV), and incorporate them into the Road Map for Crisis Communication. Secondly, the good practices on public communication of NROs, which were presented during the OECD/NEA Workshop on Crisis Communication: Facing the Challenges, are reported. Following the structure of the road map for public communication responses during crisis included in the NEA report entitled 'Road Map for Crisis Communication of Nuclear Regulatory Organisations - National aspects', the good practices on communication before, during and after a crisis are provided. Overall, the emphasis of this report is on the international aspects of crisis communication, rather than the national dimension. (authors)

  1. Current research and development at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.

    1982-01-01

    The Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe (KfK) is funded to 90% by the Federal Republic of Germany and to 10% by the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Since its foundation in 1956 the main objective of the Center is research and development (R and D) in the aera of the nuclear technology and about 2/3 of the research capacity is now devoted to this field. Since 1960 a major activity of KfK is R and D work for the design of fast breeder reactors, including material research, physics, and safety investigations; a prototype of 300 MWe is under construction now in the lower Rhine Valley. For enrichment of 235 U fissile material KfK developed the separation nozzle process; its technical application is realized within an international contract between the Federal Republic of Germany and Brazil. Within the frame of the European Programme on fusion technology KfK develops and tests superconducting magnets for toroidal fusion systems; a smaller activity deals with research on inertial confinement fusion. A broad research programme is carried through for safety investigations of nuclear installations, especially for PWRs; this activity is supplemented by research and development in the field of nuclear materials' safeguards. Development of fast reactors has to initiate research for the reprocessing of spent fuel and waste disposal. In the pilot plant WAK spent fuel from LKWs is reprocessed; research especially tries e.g. to improve the PUREX-process by electrochemical means, vitrification of high active waste is another main activity. First studies are being performed now to clarify the necessary development for reprocessing fast reactor fuel. About 1/3 of the research capacity of KfK deals with fundamental research in nuclear physics, solid state physics, biology and studies on the impact of technology on environment. Promising new technologies as e.g. the replacement of gasoline by hydrogen cells as vehicle propulsion are investigated. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear security. IAEA: Working to build a global response to a global threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    The IAEA helps to ensure that measures are taken to control and protect nuclear and radioactive materials from falling into the wrong hands. The IAEA delivers training, technical assistance, and equipment to States, and provides international guidance on improving nuclear security. IAEA nuclear security activities include: · Risk reduction (such as repatriating research reactor fuel and strengthening border monitoring) · International legal instruments and supporting their implementation · Internationally accepted guidance and benchmarks for nuclear security · Information exchange · Human Resource Development programmes · Research and development

  3. Nuclear energy: Between global electricity demand, worldwide decarbonisation imperativeness, and planetary environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prăvălie, Remus; Bandoc, Georgeta

    2018-03-01

    For decades, nuclear energy has been considered an important option for ensuring global energy security, and it has recently started being promoted as a solution for climate change mitigation. However, nuclear power remains highly controversial due to its associated risks - nuclear accidents and problematic radioactive waste management. This review aims to assess the viability of global nuclear energy economically (energy-wise), climatically and environmentally. To this end, the nuclear sector's energy- and climate-related advantages were explored alongside the downsides that mainly relate to radioactive pollution. Economically, it was found that nuclear energy is still an important power source in many countries around the world. Climatically, nuclear power is a low-carbon technology and can therefore be a viable option for the decarbonization of the world's major economies over the following decades, if coupled with other large-scale strategies such as renewable energies. These benefits are however outweighed by the radioactive danger associated to nuclear power plants, either in the context of the nuclear accidents that have already occurred or in that of the large amounts of long-lived nuclear waste that have been growing for decades and that represent a significant environmental and societal threat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Global economics/energy/environmental (E3) modeling of long-term nuclear energy futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Davidson, J.W.; Bathke, C.G.; Arthur, E.D.; Wagner, R.L. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A global energy, economics, environment (E 3 ) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Using this model, consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed. A spectrum of future is examined at two levels in a hierarchy of scenario attributes in which drivers are either external or internal to nuclear energy. Impacts of a range of nuclear fuel-cycle scenarios are reflected back to the higher-level scenario attributes. An emphasis is placed on nuclear materials inventories (in magnitude, location, and form) and their contribution to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy and the future competitiveness of both conventional and advanced nuclear reactors

  5. Italian nuclear power industry after nuclear power moratorium: Current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, R.; Previti, G.

    1992-01-01

    Following Italy's nuclear power referendum results and their interpretation, all construction and operation activities in the field of nuclear power were suspended by a political decision with consequent heavy impacts on Italian industry. Nevertheless, a 'nuclear presidium' has been maintained, thanks to the fundamental contribution of activities abroad, succeeding in retaining national know-how and developing the new technologies called for the new generation of nuclear power plants equipped with intrinsic and/or passive reactor safety systems

  6. Nuclear power prospects up to 2020 in global energy context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.; Capron, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Today nuclear energy is a significant component of the electricity generation in the world; its role in the future has to be estimated as an answer to the issues concerning both energy supply and atmosphere pollution. Taking into account the lead-times observed in the energy field, the year 2020 appears a convenient time horizon to appreciate the contrast of significant differences in nuclear power expansion. The approach consists in considering one by one all the countries which have already implemented a nuclear program or could be able to launch a program before this date. However, to be clear, the results are presented according to either the five regions defined in appendix or the World Energy Council regions for comparison with the WEC results. (author). 8 tabs., 2 figs

  7. The nuclear safeguards system and the process of global governance accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Roberto Salles

    2011-01-01

    Due to rising energy costs and climate concerns, nuclear energy is again being seriously considered as an energy source for several countries. Along with the resurgence of nuclear energy comes the concern of the world if these countries will develop their programs for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. If on one hand the growth potential of nuclear energy should not be stifled, on the other hand it is imperative that a climate of mutual trust is developed, respecting the right of each country to develop its nuclear program without taking a climate of mistrust to a possible 'intention' behind the pursuit of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Therefore, it is essential that appropriate mechanisms of accountability of global governance are institutionalized at the institutional architecture of the international process of nuclear safeguards, more specifically to the nuclear fuel cycle, so that abuses of power in this sphere does not happen, both by countries that aspire to develop projects nuclear, and by the suppliers of technology. In this context, the case study of Brazil and Argentina gained importance, because these two countries have a single binational organization of nuclear safeguards in the world: Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials - ABACC. In the theoretical question, the paper tries to understand what happens with the process of legitimacy and authority of the organizations of global governance by analyzing the degree of publicness and constrictiveness. This work intends to focus on the role of ABACC as an interstate institution of accountability, which has a key role to control the nation States of Brazil and Argentina regarding the appropriate use of nuclear material used in their programs, and analyze how this Agency behaves within of tension legitimacy-authority, taking into account existing studies on accountability in global governance. (author)

  8. The nuclear safeguards system and the process of global governance accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Roberto Salles, E-mail: xavier@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Planejamento e Avaliacao

    2011-07-01

    Due to rising energy costs and climate concerns, nuclear energy is again being seriously considered as an energy source for several countries. Along with the resurgence of nuclear energy comes the concern of the world if these countries will develop their programs for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. If on one hand the growth potential of nuclear energy should not be stifled, on the other hand it is imperative that a climate of mutual trust is developed, respecting the right of each country to develop its nuclear program without taking a climate of mistrust to a possible 'intention' behind the pursuit of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Therefore, it is essential that appropriate mechanisms of accountability of global governance are institutionalized at the institutional architecture of the international process of nuclear safeguards, more specifically to the nuclear fuel cycle, so that abuses of power in this sphere does not happen, both by countries that aspire to develop projects nuclear, and by the suppliers of technology. In this context, the case study of Brazil and Argentina gained importance, because these two countries have a single binational organization of nuclear safeguards in the world: Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials - ABACC. In the theoretical question, the paper tries to understand what happens with the process of legitimacy and authority of the organizations of global governance by analyzing the degree of publicness and constrictiveness. This work intends to focus on the role of ABACC as an interstate institution of accountability, which has a key role to control the nation States of Brazil and Argentina regarding the appropriate use of nuclear material used in their programs, and analyze how this Agency behaves within of tension legitimacy-authority, taking into account existing studies on accountability in global governance. (author)

  9. Overview of nuclear new build projects and global perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poncelet, Jean-Pol [FORATOM, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-05-15

    Nuclear power is an important source for electricity production in Europe: today 131 reactors are operated in 14 EU Member States, delivering 28 % of the European power and one half of its low-carbon electricity. The turnover of the sector is about 70 billion Euro and there are about 800,000 high qualified jobs. Worldwide the capacities of nuclear power are extending. New build activities are moving to the Eastern countries. Today, the whole electricity market in Europe is characterised by uncertainties for all investments due to political market interventions. A common European energy policy does not appear to exist.

  10. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    response, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States warned of consequences if North Korea conducted a test; South Korea expressed “deep regret and... Unicorn ,” was conducted in a “down-hole” or vertical shaft configuration similar to an underground nuclear test...26; 2003: Piano, September 19; 2004: Armando, May 25; 2006: Krakatau (jointly with UK), February 23; Unicorn , August 30; 2010: Bacchus, September 15

  11. Some current engineering topics in nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amana, M.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis based on the principle of fracture mechanics, is presented for several engineering problems occuring in nuclear power plant components. The specific problems covered are: underclad cracking; stress corrosion cracking; cracks in HAZ of nozzle weld; feedwater nozzle corner crack; shift of transition temperature due to neutron irradiation; LWR local-ECC thermal shock experiment; and design and material selection of RPV in terms of fracture mechanics. (B.R.H.)

  12. Understanding nuclear 'pasta': current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Gentaro

    2007-01-01

    In cores of supernovae and crusts of neutron stars, nuclei can adopt interesting shapes, such as rods or slabs, etc., which are referred to as nuclear 'pasta'. In recent years, we have studied the pasta phases focusing on their dynamical aspects with a quantum molecular dynamic (QMD) approach. In this article, we review these works. We also focus on the treatment of the Coulomb interaction

  13. Some current aspects of the staff protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudzietzova, J.; Sabol, J.

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses some specific questions of irradiation of workers in various professions on typical nuclear medicine workplace in connection with the performance of their specific tasks. There are also given the results of the monitoring of individual doses, which show the significant differences in exposure of personnel groups. Special attention is paid to the protection of workers and others who come into contact with patients who received high-level radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutic purposes. (authors)

  14. Current status of international cooperation on nuclear safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuragi, Satoru

    1984-01-01

    JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute), as a representative organization in Japan, has been participating in many international cooperations on nuclear safety research. This report reviews the recent achievement and evolution of the international cooperative safety studies. Twelve projects that are based on the agreements between JAERI and foreign organizations are reviewed. As the fuel irradiation studies, the recent achievement of the OECD Halden Reactor Project and the agreement between Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Battelle Memorial Institute, and JAERI are explained. As for the study of reactivity accident, the cooperation of the NSRR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor) project in Japan with PBF, PNS and PHEBUS projects in the U.S., West Germany and France, respectively, are now in progress. The fuel performance in abnormal transient and the experiment and analysis of severe fuel damage are the new areas of international interest. The OECD/LOFT project and ROSA-4 projects are also explained in connection with the FP source term problem and the analysis codes such as RELAP-5 and TRAC. As the safety studies associated with the downstream of the nuclear fuel cycle, the BEFAST project of IAEA and the ISIRS project of OECD/NEA are shortly reviewed. (Aoki, K.)

  15. Quantifying the Global Fresh Water Budget: Capabilities from Current and Future Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter; Zaitchik, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    The global water cycle is complex and its components are difficult to measure, particularly at the global scales and with the precision needed for assessing climate impacts. Recent advances in satellite observational capabilities, however, are greatly improving our knowledge of the key terms in the fresh water flux budget. Many components of the of the global water budget, e.g. precipitation, atmospheric moisture profiles, soil moisture, snow cover, sea ice are now routinely measured globally using instruments on satellites such as TRMM, AQUA, TERRA, GRACE, and ICESat, as well as on operational satellites. New techniques, many using data assimilation approaches, are providing pathways toward measuring snow water equivalent, evapotranspiration, ground water, ice mass, as well as improving the measurement quality for other components of the global water budget. This paper evaluates these current and developing satellite capabilities to observe the global fresh water budget, then looks forward to evaluate the potential for improvements that may result from future space missions as detailed by the US Decadal Survey, and operational plans. Based on these analyses, and on the goal of improved knowledge of the global fresh water budget under the effects of climate change, we suggest some priorities for the future, based on new approaches that may provide the improved measurements and the analyses needed to understand and observe the potential speed-up of the global water cycle under the effects of climate change.

  16. Global occupational health: current challenges and the need for urgent action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Roberto G; London, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Global occupational health and safety (OHS) is strictly linked to the dynamics of economic globalization. As the global market is increasing, the gap between developed and underdeveloped countries, occupational diseases, and injuries affect a vast number of workers worldwide. Global OHS issues also become local in developed countries due to many factors, including untrained migrant workers in the informal sector, construction, and agriculture. To identify the current status and challenges of global occupational health and safety and the needs for preventive action. Absence of OHS infrastructure amplifies the devastating consequences of infectious outbreaks like the Ebola pandemic and tuberculosis. Interventions in global OHS are urgently needed at various levels: 1. Increased governmental funding is needed for international organizations like the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization to face the increasing demand for policies, guidance, and training. 2. Regulations to ban and control dangerous products are needed to avoid the transfer of hazardous production to developing countries. 3. The OHS community must address global OHS issues through advocacy, position papers, public statements, technical and ethical guidelines, and by encouraging access of OHS professionals from the developing countries to leadership positions in professional and academic societies. 4. Research, education, and training of OHS professionals, workers, unions and employers are needed to address global OHS issues and their local impact. 5. Consumers also can influence significantly the adoption of OHS practices by demanding the protection of workers who are producing he goods that are sold in the global market. Following the equation of maximized profits prompted by the inhibition of OHS is an old practice that has proven to cause significant costs to societies in the developed world. It is now an urgent priority to stop this process and promote a harmonized global

  17. Quark condensates in nuclear matter in the global color symmetry model of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuxin; Gao Dongfeng; Guo Hua

    2003-01-01

    With the global color symmetry model being extended to finite chemical potential, we study the density dependence of the local and nonlocal scalar quark condensates in nuclear matter. The calculated results indicate that the quark condensates increase smoothly with the increasing of nuclear matter density before the critical value (about 12ρ 0 ) is reached. It also manifests that the chiral symmetry is restored suddenly as the density of nuclear matter reaches its critical value. Meanwhile, the nonlocal quark condensate in nuclear matter changes nonmonotonously against the space-time distance among the quarks

  18. What role can nuclear power play in mitigating global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to look at nuclear fission, as one of the available options, and evaluate qualitatively the extent to which it can play a role in greenhouse gas reduction strategies during the next three decades. No attempt will be made here to make a quantitative comparison with alternative energy supplies, or with energy efficiency measures

  19. The nuclear fuel cycle on a global scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrisch, W.

    1991-01-01

    The lecture deals with the energy carriers available and their geographic distribution. In particular the energy carrier uranium, uranium mining and the production and price levels of uranium are discussed. In addition, the socio-economic and ecological aspects of uranium, the uranium processing industry and the cost of nuclear waste disposal are discussed. 6 tabs., 27 refs

  20. At the heart of the global nuclear news flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuz, P.

    1997-01-01

    The dual role of NUCNET is discussed: - exchange of news and other information within the world's nuclear community for use by top managers and executives and public communicators, and - distribution of news of interest to the public to wire agency journalists and other sections of the media

  1. Role of nuclear produced hydrogen for global environment and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashimo, M.; Kurosawa, A.; Ikeda, K.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability on economical growth, energy supply and environment are major issues for the 21. century. Within this context, one of the promising concepts is the possibility of nuclear-produced hydrogen. In this study, the effect of nuclear-produced hydrogen on the environment is discussed, based on the output of the computer code 'Grape', which simulates the effects of the energy, environment and economy in 21. century. Five cases are assumed in this study. The first case is 'Business as usual by Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)', the second 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by ICE', the third 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by Hybrid Car', the fourth 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) with Hydrogen produced by conventional Steam Methane Reforming (SMR)' and the fifth 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by FCV with Nuclear Produced-Hydrogen'. The energy used for transportation is at present about 25% of the total energy consumption in the world and is expected to be the same in the future, if there is no improvement of energy efficiency for transportation. On this point, the hybrid car shows the much better efficiency, about 2 times better than traditional internal combustion engines. Fuel Cell powered Vehicles are expected to be a key to resolving the combined issue of the environment and energy in this century. The nuclear-produced hydrogen is a better solution than conventional hydrogen production method using steam methane reforming. (author)

  2. Current status of countermeasures for ageing of nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, M.; Ishikawa, M.; Tajima, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes ageing coutermeasure program of the nuclear power plants performed by the Japanese Government and industries and related activities, and describes current research program and utilization of the research results for the aged nuclear power plants. Regulatory bodies (NISA of METI: Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) reviewed the ageing issues of nuclear power plants to enhance countermeasures for the aged plants. Nuclear Power Plant Life Engineering Center (PLEC) entrusted by NISA is carrying out the task relating to the aged plants. (orig.)

  3. Global nuclear energy partnership fuels transient testing at the Sandia National Laboratories nuclear facilities : planning and facility infrastructure options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, John E.; Wright, Steven Alan; Tikare, Veena; MacLean, Heather J.; Parma, Edward J.Jr; Peters, Curtis D.; Vernon, Milton E.; Pickard, Paul S.

    2007-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership fuels development program is currently developing metallic, oxide, and nitride fuel forms as candidate fuels for an Advanced Burner Reactor. The Advance Burner Reactor is being designed to fission actinides efficiently, thereby reducing the long-term storage requirements for spent fuel repositories. Small fuel samples are being fabricated and evaluated with different transuranic loadings and with extensive burnup using the Advanced Test Reactor. During the next several years, numerous fuel samples will be fabricated, evaluated, and tested, with the eventual goal of developing a transmuter fuel database that supports the down selection to the most suitable fuel type. To provide a comparative database of safety margins for the range of potential transmuter fuels, this report describes a plan to conduct a set of early transient tests in the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories. The Annular Core Research Reactor is uniquely qualified to perform these types of tests because of its wide range of operating capabilities and large dry central cavity which extents through the center of the core. The goal of the fuels testing program is to demonstrate that the design and fabrication processes are of sufficient quality that the fuel will not fail at its design limit--up to a specified burnup, power density, and operating temperature. Transient testing is required to determine the fuel pin failure thresholds and to demonstrate that adequate fuel failure margins exist during the postulated design basis accidents

  4. Global nuclear energy partnership fuels transient testing at the Sandia National Laboratories nuclear facilities : planning and facility infrastructure options.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, John E.; Wright, Steven Alan; Tikare, Veena; MacLean, Heather J. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Parma, Edward J., Jr.; Peters, Curtis D.; Vernon, Milton E.; Pickard, Paul S.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership fuels development program is currently developing metallic, oxide, and nitride fuel forms as candidate fuels for an Advanced Burner Reactor. The Advance Burner Reactor is being designed to fission actinides efficiently, thereby reducing the long-term storage requirements for spent fuel repositories. Small fuel samples are being fabricated and evaluated with different transuranic loadings and with extensive burnup using the Advanced Test Reactor. During the next several years, numerous fuel samples will be fabricated, evaluated, and tested, with the eventual goal of developing a transmuter fuel database that supports the down selection to the most suitable fuel type. To provide a comparative database of safety margins for the range of potential transmuter fuels, this report describes a plan to conduct a set of early transient tests in the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories. The Annular Core Research Reactor is uniquely qualified to perform these types of tests because of its wide range of operating capabilities and large dry central cavity which extents through the center of the core. The goal of the fuels testing program is to demonstrate that the design and fabrication processes are of sufficient quality that the fuel will not fail at its design limit--up to a specified burnup, power density, and operating temperature. Transient testing is required to determine the fuel pin failure thresholds and to demonstrate that adequate fuel failure margins exist during the postulated design basis accidents.

  5. Managing plutonium in Britain. Current options[Mixed oxide nuclear fuels; Nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the report of a two day meeting to discuss issues arising from the reprocessing of plutonium and production of mixed oxide nuclear fuels in Britain. It was held at Charney Manor, near Oxford, on June 25 and 26, 1998, and was attended by 35 participants, including government officials, scientists, policy analysts, representatives of interested NGO's, journalists, a Member of Parliament, and visiting representatives from the US and Irish governments. The topic of managing plutonium has been a consistent thread within ORG's work, and was the subject of one of our previous reports, CDR 12. This particular seminar arose out of discussions earlier in the year between Dr. Frank Barnaby and the Rt. Hon. Michael Meacher MP, Minister for the Environment. With important decisions about the management of plutonium in Britain pending, ORG undertook to hold a seminar at which all aspects of the subject could be aired. A number of on-going events formed the background to this initiative. The first was British Nuclear Fuels' [BNFL] application to the Environment Agency to commission a mixed oxide fuel [MOX] plant at Sellafield. The second was BNFL's application to vary radioactive discharge limits at Sellafield. Thirdly, a House of Lords Select Committee was in process of taking evidence, on the disposal of radioactive waste. Fourthly, the Royal Society, in a recent report entitled Management of Separated Plutonium, recommended that 'the Government should commission a comprehensive review... of the options for the management of plutonium'. Four formal presentations were made to the meeting, on the subjects of Britain's plutonium policy, commercial prospects for plutonium use, problems of plutonium accountancy, and the danger of nuclear terrorism, by experts from outside the nuclear industry. It was hoped that the industry's viewpoint would also be heard, and BNFL were invited to present a paper, but declined on the grounds that they

  6. A global view of shifting cultivation: Recent, current, and future extent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Heinimann

    Full Text Available Mosaic landscapes under shifting cultivation, with their dynamic mix of managed and natural land covers, often fall through the cracks in remote sensing-based land cover and land use classifications, as these are unable to adequately capture such landscapes' dynamic nature and complex spectral and spatial signatures. But information about such landscapes is urgently needed to improve the outcomes of global earth system modelling and large-scale carbon and greenhouse gas accounting. This study combines existing global Landsat-based deforestation data covering the years 2000 to 2014 with very high-resolution satellite imagery to visually detect the specific spatio-temporal pattern of shifting cultivation at a one-degree cell resolution worldwide. The accuracy levels of our classification were high with an overall accuracy above 87%. We estimate the current global extent of shifting cultivation and compare it to other current global mapping endeavors as well as results of literature searches. Based on an expert survey, we make a first attempt at estimating past trends as well as possible future trends in the global distribution of shifting cultivation until the end of the 21st century. With 62% of the investigated one-degree cells in the humid and sub-humid tropics currently showing signs of shifting cultivation-the majority in the Americas (41% and Africa (37%-this form of cultivation remains widespread, and it would be wrong to speak of its general global demise in the last decades. We estimate that shifting cultivation landscapes currently cover roughly 280 million hectares worldwide, including both cultivated fields and fallows. While only an approximation, this estimate is clearly smaller than the areas mentioned in the literature which range up to 1,000 million hectares. Based on our expert survey and historical trends we estimate a possible strong decrease in shifting cultivation over the next decades, raising issues of livelihood security

  7. Finding synergy between local competitiveness and global sustainability to provide a future to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Durpel, Luc; Yacout, Abdellatif; Wade, Dave

    2008-01-01

    The world's future energy needs will require a mix of energy conversion technologies matched to the local energy market needs while also responding to both local and global socio-political concerns, e.g. energy security, environmental impact, safety and non-proliferation. There is growing recognition worldwide that nuclear energy should not only be part of the solution but maybe as well play a larger share in future's energy supply. The sustainability of future nuclear energy systems is hereby important and a variety of studies have already shown that sustainability of nuclear energy from a resource perspective is achievable via the nuclear fuel cycle though where economic sustainability is essentially defined by the nuclear power plants. The main challenge in deploying sustainable nuclear energy systems will be to find synergies between this local competitiveness of nuclear power plants and the global resource sustainability defined via the nuclear fuel cycle. Both may go hand-in-hand in the long-term but may need government guidance in starting the transition towards such future sustainable nuclear energy systems. (authors)

  8. Current trends in nuclear borehole logging techniques for elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report is the result of a consultants' meeting organized by the IAEA and held in Ottawa, Canada, 2-6 November 1987 in order to assess the present technical status of nuclear borehole logging techniques, to find out the well established applications and the development trends. It contains a summary report giving a comprehensive overview of the techniques and applications and a collection of research papers describing work done in industrial institutes. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 9 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Transmutation potential of current and innovative nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M.; Uematsu, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the present paper we have investigated the transmutation potential of different nuclear systems from a physical point of view. Transuranium (TRU) elements have been considered, but also long lived fission products (LLFP). The potential for transmutation has to take into account not only the consumption of a specific nucleus (or of a specific 'family' of nuclei), but also the reproduction of other nuclei of higher masses. The present study allows an intercomparison taking into account both aspects. Technological, safety and design constraints were not considered at this stage. However strategic indications for future studies have been obtained. 3 refs., 3 tabs

  10. The 19th KAIF/KNS annual conference growth of nuclear industry and its current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhn, Poong Eil

    2004-01-01

    After the president Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' speech at the UN general Conference in December 1953, nuclear industry for peaceful uses of nuclear energy has been developed steadily worldwide through international co-operation and collaboration during last half a century. However, from late 1980s, in particular, after Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 and growing public opposition on nuclear waste management and disposal, the growth of nuclear power plants worldwide, except some Asian countries, has been slowed down. Nuclear power currently supplies about 16 % of the world's electricity. In the next 50 years, it is expected that the world energy demand will increase about two times comparing current level while electricity demand will be tripled. Therefore, the nuclear industry should be expanded significantly in the next 50 years to meet the role for 'Prosperity beyond Peace'. The main issues for nuclear industry to take this important role are to increase in economics of nuclear power, and to resolve nuclear waste management and disposal. Some of these issues have been resolved mainly through international co-operation. For example, there are significant efforts to improve economics of nuclear power. This paper reviews worldwide efforts to resolve these issues and mentions what are the remaining ones

  11. The global environment effects of fossil and nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    The relative risks and environmental impacts of coal and uranium fueled power plants are dicussed. Fossil-fuel power plants are associated with a build-up of carbon dioxide levels and consequent climatic changes, release of sulphur dioxide and resultant acid rains and radioactive emissions. In comparing the discharges per megawatt year of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and radioactive Ra-226 and Ra-225 in fly ash from coal and other fossil plants with Kr-85 and I-131 from nuclear plants, the fossil plants have a much poorer performance. Estimates indicate that nuclear energy can be adopted on a large scale as an alternative to coal without any increase in hazards and with a probability of a substantial reduction

  12. Global Electric Circuit Implications of Total Current Measurements over Electrified Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2009-01-01

    We determined total conduction (Wilson) currents and flash rates for 850 overflights of electrified clouds spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive and negative Wilson currents. We combined these individual storm overflight statistics with global diurnal lightning variation data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) to estimate the thunderstorm and electrified shower cloud contributions to the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit. The contributions to the global electric circuit from lightning producing clouds are estimated by taking the mean current per flash derived from the overflight data for land and ocean overflights and combining it with the global lightning rates (for land and ocean) and their diurnal variation derived from the LIS/OTD data. We estimate the contribution of non-lightning producing electrified clouds by assuming several different diurnal variations and total non-electrified storm counts to produce estimates of the total storm currents (lightning and non-lightning producing storms). The storm counts and diurnal variations are constrained so that the resultant total current diurnal variation equals the diurnal variation in the fair weather electric field (+/-15%). These assumptions, combined with the airborne and satellite data, suggest that the total mean current in the global electric circuit ranges from 2.0 to 2.7 kA, which is greater than estimates made by others using other methods.

  13. Nuclear fuel for WWER reactors. Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molchanov, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the following results from the JSC TVEL post-irradiation studies of full-scale fuel assemblies are discussed: 1) Oxide layer on fuel rod (FR) cladding does not exceed 15 μm; 2) Fission Gas Release does not exceed 3%; 3) Satisfactory condition of cladding. Concerning the operating experience it is noticed that: 1) Design criteria are fulfilled; 2) 5 TVSA are stayed at Kalinin-1 for 6 years up to burnup of 59 MWxdays/kgU; 3) 12 working assemblies (WA) are operated at Kola-3 for 6 years up to burnup of 57 MWxdays/kgU. At the end the following conclusions are made: 1) The main task of further development of nuclear fuel for WWER-1000 reactors is the increasing fuel rod burnup up to 72 MWxdays/kgU and operating life up to 6 years through the increase in uranium load in FA and maximum use of potential built-in in the designs of TVSA and TVS-2; 2) In the nearest future R and D in the field of nuclear fuel for WWER will be directed at justification of maneuvering fuel characteristics as well as at introducing of optimized zirconium alloys

  14. Current status and prospects on Rokkasho nuclear fuel cycle project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    JNFL has been established aiming at fulfillment of Nuclear Fuel Cycle, as well as to contribute to the long-term and stable supply of nuclear power in Japan. 'Uranium Enrichment Plant' with its production of 1,050 SWU/y and planned to be expand to 1,500 SWU/y, 'Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center' with 150,000/200 l drums stored, out of its 400,000 drums capacity, and 'Vitrified Waste Storage Center' with 760 canisters stored, out of its 1440 canisters capacity, are already in its operation. It is now preparing for the operation of '800 t/y Reprocessing Plant' and construction of '130t HM/y MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant'. As for the Reprocessing Plant, 780t of spent fuels has been already received and stored in the storage pools. Main plant is now in the course of test operation and planned to start the commercial operation by July 2006. Due to some defects found during the course of its construction, JNFL is now reviewing the Total Quality Assurance Structure to improve and reinforce its system. And for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant, activities towards obtaining the local autonomy's agreement for the construction are being made energetically. It is essential to obtain the good understanding of the public community to promote these projects successfully; JNFL is putting its best efforts to dispatch all the necessary information to the public in a timely manner. (author)

  15. The Effects of Bursty Bulk Flows on Global-Scale Current Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Cao, J.; Fu, H.; Lu, H.; Yao, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Using a global magnetospheric MHD model coupled with a kinetic ring current model, we investigate the effects of magnetotail dynamics, particularly the earthward bursty bulk flows (BBFs) produced by the tail reconnection, on the global-scale current systems. The simulation results indicate that after BBFs brake around X = -10 RE due to the dipolar "magnetic wall," vortices are generated on the edge of the braking region and inside the inner magnetosphere. Each pair of vortex in the inner magnetosphere disturbs the westward ring current to arc radially inward as well as toward high latitudes. The resultant pressure gradient on the azimuthal direction induces region-1 sense field-aligned component from the ring current, which eventually is diverted into the ionosphere at high latitudes, giving rise to a pair of field-aligned current (FAC) eddies in the ionosphere. On the edge of the flow braking region where vortices also emerge, a pair of region-1 sense FACs arises, diverted fromthe cross-tail duskward current, generating a substorm current wedge. This is again attributed to the increase of thermal pressure ahead of the bursty flows turning azimuthally. It is further found that when multiple BBFs, despite their localization, continually and rapidly impinge on the "wall," carrying sufficient tail plasma sheet population toward the Earth, they can lead to the formation of a new ring current. These results indicate the important role that BBFs play in bridging the tail and the inner magnetosphere ring current and bring new insight into the storm-substorm relation.

  16. 75 FR 34171 - Trueheat, Inc., a Subsidiary of Global Heating Solutions, Inc., Currently Known as Truheat, a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ..., Inc., a Subsidiary of Global Heating Solutions, Inc., Currently Known as Truheat, a Division of Three Heat LLC, Allegan, MI; Electro-Heat, Inc., a Subsidiary of Global Heating Solutions, Inc., Currently... subsidiary of Global Heating Solutions, Inc., Allegan, Michigan and Electro-Heat, Inc., a subsidiary of...

  17. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, J. M.; Travnikov, O.; De Simone, F.; Hedgecock, I. M.; Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, E. G.; Steenhuisen, F.; Pirrone, N.; Munthe, J.; Kindbom, K.

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  18. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of mercury world-wide are presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  19. Globalisation and the foreignisation of space: The seven processes driving the current global land grab.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoomers, E.B.

    2010-01-01

    The current global land grab is causing radical changes in the use and ownership of land. The main process driving the land grab, or ‘foreignisation of space’, as highlighted in the media and the emerging literature is the production of food and biofuel for export in the aftermath of recent food

  20. Special course for global nuclear human resource development in cooperation with Hitachi-GE nuclear energy in Tokyo institute of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.; Futami, T.; Saito, M.; Murata, F.; Shimizu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Many Asian countries are willing to learn Japanese nuclear power plants experiences, and are interested in introducing nuclear power generation to meet their future energy demand. Special course for Global Nuclear Human Resource Development was established in April, 2011 in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at Graduate School of Tokyo Institute of Technology in cooperation with Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy. Purpose of the special course is to develop global nuclear engineers and researchers not only in the Tokyo Institute of Technology but also in the educational institutes of Southeast Asian countries

  1. Methodology for global nonlinear analysis of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacuci, D.G.; Cacuci, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines a general method for globally computing the crucial features of nonlinear problems: bifurcations, limit points, saddle points, extrema (maxima and minima); our method also yields the local sensitivities (i.e., first order derivatives) of the system's state variables (e.g., fluxes, power, temperatures, flows) at any point in the system's phase space. We also present an application of this method to the nonlinear BWR model discussed in Refs. 8 and 11. The most significant novel feature of our method is the recasting of a general mathematical problem comprising three aspects: (1) nonlinear constrained optimization, (2) sensitivity analysis, into a fixed point problem of the form F[u(s), λ(s)] = 0 whose global zeros and singular points are related to the special features (i.e., extrema, bifurcations, etc.) of the original problem

  2. Are current processes for nuclear emergency management in Europe adequate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, E; French, S [Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, Booth Street West, Manchester M15 6PB (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    We describe the results of process mapping of nuclear emergency management procedures in four European countries. We find clear differences and explore these in relation to their suitability for building a shared understanding across the emergency management team of the evolving situation and a balanced appreciation of the uncertainties. Our findings indicate that there are some issues that cause concern in that the procedures may run smoothly and efficiently but they may also risk underestimating uncertainty or ignore key issues that have only been identified by a minority of experts or models. We are concerned that they do not facilitate the building of shared mental models that the literature such as that on highly reliable organisations has shown is important.

  3. Results and current trends of nuclear methods used in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1983-01-01

    The significance is evaluated of nuclear methods for agricultural research. The number of breeds induced by radiation mutations is increasing. The main importance of radiation mutation breeding consists in obtaining sources of the desired genetic properties for further hybridization. Radiostimulation is conducted with the aim of increasing yields. The irradiation of foods has not substantially increased worldwide. Very important is the irradiation of excrements and sludges which after such inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms may be used as humus-forming manure or as feed additives. In some countries the method is successfully being used of sexual sterilization for eradication of insect pests. The application of labelled compounds in the nutrition, physiology and protection of plants, farm animals and in food hygiene makes it possible to acquire new and accurate knowledge very quickly. Radioimmunoassay is a highly promising method in this respect. Labelling compounds with the stable 15 N isotope is used for the research of nitrogen metabolism. (M.D.)

  4. Are current processes for nuclear emergency management in Europe adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, E; French, S

    2006-01-01

    We describe the results of process mapping of nuclear emergency management procedures in four European countries. We find clear differences and explore these in relation to their suitability for building a shared understanding across the emergency management team of the evolving situation and a balanced appreciation of the uncertainties. Our findings indicate that there are some issues that cause concern in that the procedures may run smoothly and efficiently but they may also risk underestimating uncertainty or ignore key issues that have only been identified by a minority of experts or models. We are concerned that they do not facilitate the building of shared mental models that the literature such as that on highly reliable organisations has shown is important

  5. Assessing the vertical structure of baroclinic tidal currents in a global model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Patrick; Arbic, Brian; Scott, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Tidal forcing plays an important role in many aspects of oceanography. Mixing, transport of particulates and internal wave generation are just three examples of local phenomena that may depend on the strength of local tidal currents. Advances in satellite altimetry have made an assessment of the global barotropic tide possible. However, the vertical structure of the tide may only be observed by deployment of instruments throughout the water column. Typically these observations are conducted at pre-determined depths based upon the interest of the observer. The high cost of such observations often limits both the number and the length of the observations resulting in a limit to our knowledge of the vertical structure of tidal currents. One way to expand our insight into the baroclinic structure of the ocean is through the use of numerical models. We compare the vertical structure of the global baroclinic tidal velocities in 1/12 degree HYCOM (HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model) to a global database of current meter records. The model output is a subset of a 5 year global simulation that resolves the eddying general circulation, barotropic tides and baroclinic tides using 32 vertical layers. The density structure within the simulation is both vertically and horizontally non-uniform. In addition to buoyancy forcing the model is forced by astronomical tides and winds. We estimate the dominant semi-diurnal (M2), and diurnal (K1) tidal constituents of the model data using classical harmonic analysis. In regions where current meter record coverage is adequate, the model skill in replicating the vertical structure of the dominant diurnal and semi-diurnal tidal currents is assessed based upon the strength, orientation and phase of the tidal ellipses. We also present a global estimate of the baroclinic tidal energy at fixed depths estimated from the model output.

  6. A TRMM/GPM retrieval of the total mean generator current for the global electric circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael; Deierling, Wiebke; Liu, Chuntao; Mach, Douglas; Kalb, Christina

    2017-09-01

    A specialized satellite version of the passive microwave electric field retrieval algorithm (Peterson et al., 2015) is applied to observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellites to estimate the generator current for the Global Electric Circuit (GEC) and compute its temporal variability. By integrating retrieved Wilson currents from electrified clouds across the globe, we estimate a total mean current of between 1.4 kA (assuming the 7% fraction of electrified clouds producing downward currents measured by the ER-2 is representative) to 1.6 kA (assuming all electrified clouds contribute to the GEC). These current estimates come from all types of convective weather without preference, including Electrified Shower Clouds (ESCs). The diurnal distribution of the retrieved generator current is in excellent agreement with the Carnegie curve (RMS difference: 1.7%). The temporal variability of the total mean generator current ranges from 110% on semi-annual timescales (29% on an annual timescale) to 7.5% on decadal timescales with notable responses to the Madden-Julian Oscillation and El Nino Southern Oscillation. The geographical distribution of current includes significant contributions from oceanic regions in addition to the land-based tropical chimneys. The relative importance of the Americas and Asia chimneys compared to Africa is consistent with the best modern ground-based observations and further highlights the importance of ESCs for the GEC.

  7. Multi-Decadal Global Cooling and Unprecedented Ozone Loss Following a Regional Nuclear Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, M. J.; Toon, O. B.; Lee-Taylor, J. M.; Robock, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present the first study of the global impacts of a regional nuclear war with an Earth system model including atmospheric chemistry, ocean dynamics, and interactive sea-ice and land models (Mills et al., 2014). A limited, regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan in which each side detonates 50 15-kt weapons could produce about 5 Tg of black carbon. This would self-loft to the stratosphere, where it would spread globally, producing a sudden drop in surface temperatures and intense heating of the stratosphere. Using the Community Earth System Model with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (CESM1(WACCM)), we calculate an e-folding time of 8.7 years for stratospheric black carbon, compared to 4-6.5 years for previous studies (figure panel a). Our calculations show that global ozone losses of 20-50% over populated areas, levels unprecedented in human history, would accompany the coldest average surface temperatures in the last 1000 years (figure panel c). We calculate summer enhancements in UV indices of 30-80% over Mid-Latitudes, suggesting widespread damage to human health, agriculture, and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Killing frosts would reduce growing seasons by 10-40 days per year for 5 years. Surface temperatures would be reduced for more than 25 years, due to thermal inertia and albedo effects in the ocean and expanded sea ice. The combined cooling and enhanced UV would put significant pressures on global food supplies and could trigger a global nuclear famine. Knowledge of the impacts of 100 small nuclear weapons should motivate the elimination of the more than 17,000 nuclear weapons that exist today. Mills, M. J., O. B. Toon, J. Lee-Taylor, and A. Robock (2014), Multidecadal global cooling and unprecedented ozone loss following a regional nuclear conflict, Earth's Future, 2(4), 161-176, doi:10.1002/2013EF000205.

  8. Key role for nuclear energy in global biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Barry W; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2015-06-01

    Modern society uses massive amounts of energy. Usage rises as population and affluence increase, and energy production and use often have an impact on biodiversity or natural areas. To avoid a business-as-usual dependence on coal, oil, and gas over the coming decades, society must map out a future energy mix that incorporates alternative sources. This exercise can lead to radically different opinions on what a sustainable energy portfolio might entail, so an objective assessment of the relative costs and benefits of different energy sources is required. We evaluated the land use, emissions, climate, and cost implications of 3 published but divergent storylines for future energy production, none of which was optimal for all environmental and economic indicators. Using multicriteria decision-making analysis, we ranked 7 major electricity-generation sources (coal, gas, nuclear, biomass, hydro, wind, and solar) based on costs and benefits and tested the sensitivity of the rankings to biases stemming from contrasting philosophical ideals. Irrespective of weightings, nuclear and wind energy had the highest benefit-to-cost ratio. Although the environmental movement has historically rejected the nuclear energy option, new-generation reactor technologies that fully recycle waste and incorporate passive safety systems might resolve their concerns and ought to be more widely understood. Because there is no perfect energy source however, conservation professionals ultimately need to take an evidence-based approach to consider carefully the integrated effects of energy mixes on biodiversity conservation. Trade-offs and compromises are inevitable and require advocating energy mixes that minimize net environmental damage. Society cannot afford to risk wholesale failure to address energy-related biodiversity impacts because of preconceived notions and ideals. © 2014 The Authors Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. The global impact of ozone on agricultural crop yields under current and future air quality legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dingenen, Rita; Dentener, Frank J.; Raes, Frank; Krol, Maarten C.; Emberson, Lisa; Cofala, Janusz

    In this paper we evaluate the global impact of surface ozone on four types of agricultural crop. The study is based on modelled global hourly ozone fields for the year 2000 and 2030, using the global 1°×1° 2-way nested atmospheric chemical transport model (TM5). Projections for the year 2030 are based on the relatively optimistic "current legislation (CLE) scenario", i.e. assuming that currently approved air quality legislation will be fully implemented by the year 2030, without a further development of new abatement policies. For both runs, the relative yield loss due to ozone damage is evaluated based on two different indices (accumulated concentration above a 40 ppbV threshold and seasonal mean daytime ozone concentration respectively) on a global, regional and national scale. The cumulative metric appears to be far less robust than the seasonal mean, while the seasonal mean shows satisfactory agreement with measurements in Europe, the US, China and Southern India and South-East Asia. Present day global relative yield losses are estimated to range between 7% and 12% for wheat, between 6% and 16% for soybean, between 3% and 4% for rice, and between 3% and 5% for maize (range resulting from different metrics used). Taking into account possible biases in our assessment, introduced through the global application of "western" crop exposure-response functions, and through model performance in reproducing ozone-exposure metrics, our estimates may be considered as being conservative. Under the 2030 CLE scenario, the global situation is expected to deteriorate mainly for wheat (additional 2-6% loss globally) and rice (additional 1-2% loss globally). India, for which no mitigation measures have been assumed by 2030, accounts for 50% of these global increase in crop yield loss. On a regional-scale, significant reductions in crop losses by CLE-2030 are only predicted in Europe (soybean) and China (wheat). Translating these assumed yield losses into total global economic

  10. Global evaluation of nuclear infrastructure utilization scenarios (GENIUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    unzik-Gougar, Mary Lou; Juchau, Christopher A.; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal; Wilson, Paul P.H.; Oliver, Kyle M.; Turinsky, Paul J.; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Hays, Ross; Stover, Tracy E.

    2007-01-01

    A new and unique fuel cycle systems code has been developed. Need for this analysis tool was established via methodical development of technical functions and requirements followed by an evaluation of existing fuel cycle codes. As demonstrated by analysis of GNEP-type scenarios, the GENIUS code discretely tracks nuclear material from beginning to end of the fuel cycle and among any number of independent regions. Users can define scenarios starting with any/all existing reactors and fuel cycle facilities or with an ideal futuristic arrangement. Development and preliminary application of GENIUS capabilities in uncertainty analysis/propagation and multi-parameter optimization have also been accomplished. (authors)

  11. Advanced passive technology: A global standard for nuclear plant requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, V.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1984, Westinghouse has been developing AP8OO, a 800 MW, two-loop advanced passive plant, in response to an initiative established by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy' (DOE). The preliminary design was cornpleved in 1989. AP6OO's Standard Safety Analysis and Probabilistic Risk analysis Reports were submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for design certification in 1992. Design simplification is the key strategy behind the AP6OO. The basic technical concept Of simplification has resulted in a simplified reactor coolant systems, simplified plant systems, a simplified plant arrangement, reduced number of components, simplified operation and maintenance

  12. Current status and future program for nuclear power education in the State University of Skopje

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causevski, A.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear Education in the State University 'Ss. Cyril and Methodius' in Skopje, Macedonia is takes place in few Departments and Faculties. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Reactors for electricity generation are the fields studied in the Department of Electric Power Systems and Power Plants in the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Skopje. The paper gives the overview of the current status of nuclear education on the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, as well as the future perspectives and programs for improving. In the current module of Power Engineering, the Nuclear Power is studied in two subjects: Basics of Nuclear Energy, and the second one is Nuclear Power Reactors and Nuclear Power Plants. The new concept of studying will include the new module of 'Power Engineering and Energy Management' with 4 subjects, and some of them are modified, transformed or innovated from the old ones, and the others are totally new courses. In the paper also will include some steps that should be done in order to achieve the targets for new improved nuclear education in the field of nuclear power. (author)

  13. Global risk from the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides by nuclear power plant accidents in the coming decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoudias, T.; Proestos, Y. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Lelieveld, J. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    We estimate the global risk from the release and atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides from nuclear power plant accidents using the EMAC atmospheric chemistry-general circulation model. We included all nuclear reactors that are currently operational, under construction and planned or proposed. We implemented constant continuous emissions from each location in the model and simulated atmospheric transport and removal via dry and wet deposition processes over 20 years (2010-2030), driven by boundary conditions based on the IPCC A2 future emissions scenario. We present global overall and seasonal risk maps for potential surface layer concentrations and ground deposition of radionuclides, and estimate potential doses to humans from inhalation and ground-deposition exposures to radionuclides. We find that the risk of harmful doses due to inhalation is typically highest in the Northern Hemisphere during boreal winter, due to relatively shallow boundary layer development and limited mixing. Based on the continued operation of the current nuclear power plants, we calculate that the risk of radioactive contamination to the citizens of the USA will remain to be highest worldwide, followed by India and France. By including stations under construction and those that are planned and proposed, our results suggest that the risk will become highest in China, followed by India and the USA.

  14. Nuclear Energy is the Answer to Cope with the Lack of Energy and Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisnu Arya Wardhana

    2009-01-01

    This paper of nuclear energy is the answer to cope with the lack of energy and global warming based on the analysis of energy demand which is increasing rapidly, meanwhile the energy reserve is limited and decreased. Mostly world′s energy is generated by fossil fuel energy, mainly oil and coal. Fossil fuel energy and industrial activities produce green house gases (GHG) such as : COx, CH 4 , N 2 O, and CFC which cause of global warming. Global warming gives bad impact to environment and to human being. Every country in the world needs sufficient energy, but the energy resources is limited and decreased. The answer for this solution must be an energy source which does not produce green house gases. Why nuclear energy is chosen to cope with the lack of energy and global warming will be explained briefly in this paper. (author)

  15. Global nuclear renaissance - today's issues, challenges and differences relative to the first wave of nuclear plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, William N.

    2010-01-01

    The development and negotiation of an Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contract is a multi-disciplined and time consuming process. Relative to the first wave on new nuclear build projects of the 1950's - 1970's, today's EPC contracts are more complex for a variety of reasons including more demanding regulatory and environmental requirements, global supply chain versus localization issues and different world wide economic considerations. This paper discusses the impacts of some of these challenges on developing an EPC contract in today's Nuclear Renaissance. (authors)

  16. A weak current amplifier and output circuit used in nuclear weighing scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jinhua; Zheng Mingquan; Wang Mingqian; Jia Changchun; Jin Hanjuan; Shi Qicun; Tang Ke

    1998-01-01

    A weak current amplifier and output circuit with a maximum nonlinear error of +-0.06% has been developed. Experiments show that it can work stably and therefore be used in nuclear industrial instruments

  17. Nuclear energy and global warming: a new economic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokhshad Hejazi

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to state energy situation and then energy policy globally in economic view and then offer the practical solution. Besides above questions, the most important questions that will be answered are: What is the energy position, in economic view? and what is the most important priority among environmental issues? According to present conditions and environmental challenges what is the way map for energy supply? Is the priority for environment and energy with an economic sight, in present and future, same as the past? (Author)

  18. A global-scale dispersion analysis of iodine-129 from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Masato; Suzuki, Takashi; Nagai, Haruyasu; Togawa, Orihiko

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional global chemical transport model, MOZART-2, is applied to investigate the global-sale dispersion of Iodine-129 from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The concentration and deposition of 129 I obtained by MOZART-2 are dispersed all over the Northern Hemisphere. The emission of 129 I to the atmosphere is thus important in considering the transport of 129 I to remote sites. (author)

  19. Current status and future prospective of nuclear industry in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaciu, Gheorghe; Chirica, Teodor

    2004-01-01

    After the collapse, in 1989, of the centralized communist regimes in the Central and Eastern Europe, the Romanian economy experienced significant changes. By 2001 the industrial production decline caused a dramatic drop in the country's electricity consumption. Despite it, the power sector has to cope with many difficulties to cover the electricity demand. Under the circumstances of the economy restructuring, the problems of the Romanian power sector became acute: most of thermal power units are aged (older than 20 years), with low efficiency, low performance indicators, high costs, large staff number; the dependence on imported fossil fuel is high; the environment protection requirements - emphasized by the European institutions - not met; lack of the capital required for fixing these questions. The lack of financial sources at the thermal power plants made the purchase of fuel from import extremely complicated; also, the maintenance programs at the power plants could not be accomplished. It was very difficult to attract investment funds for rehabilitation work or for construction of new capacities in the power plants. Meanwhile, in the last three years, a gradual recovery of the Romanian industry occurred. Now, it becomes less energy intensive, but the growth of the industrial production and the increasing household electricity demand induced higher energy consumption. The development of the nuclear power sector enhances these tendencies. The entire sector is under a reorganization process, with the final purpose to increase efficiency, privatizing the electrical distribution, thermal power plants, and some hydro and support services

  20. Somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning: practical applications and current legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Lucas-Hahn, A

    2012-08-01

    Somatic cloning is emerging as a new biotechnology by which the opportunities arising from the advances in molecular genetics and genome analysis can be implemented in animal breeding. Significant improvements have been made in SCNT protocols in the past years which now allow to embarking on practical applications. The main areas of application of SCNT are: Reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and basic research. A great application potential of SCNT based cloning is the production of genetically modified (transgenic) animals. Somatic cell nuclear transfer based transgenic animal production has significant advances over the previously employed microinjection of foreign DNA into pronuclei of zygotes. This cell based transgenesis is compatible with gene targeting and allows both, the addition of a specific gene and the deletion of an endogenous gene. Efficient transgenic animal production provides numerous opportunities for agriculture and biomedicine. Regulatory agencies around the world have agreed that food derived from cloned animals and their offspring is safe and there is no scientific basis for questioning this. Commercial application of somatic cloning within the EU is via the Novel Food regulation EC No. 258/97. Somatic cloning raises novel questions regarding the ethical and moral status of animals and their welfare which has prompted a controversial discussion in Europe which has not yet been resolved. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Nuclear Power Reactor Core Melt Accidents. Current State of Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentaib, Ahmed; Bonneville, Herve; Clement, Bernard; Cranga, Michel; Fichot, Florian; Koundy, Vincent; Meignen, Renaud; Corenwinder, Francois; Leteinturier, Denis; Monroig, Frederique; Nahas, Georges; Pichereau, Frederique; Van-Dorsselaere, Jean-Pierre; Cenerino, Gerard; Jacquemain, Didier; Raimond, Emmanuel; Ducros, Gerard; Journeau, Christophe; Magallon, Daniel; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Tourniaire, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    For over thirty years, IPSN and subsequently IRSN has played a major international role in the field of nuclear power reactor core melt accidents through the undertaking of important experimental programmes (the most significant being the Phebus- FP programme), the development of validated simulation tools (the ASTEC code that is today the leading European tool for modelling severe accidents), and the coordination of the SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network) international network of excellence. These accidents are described as 'severe accidents' because they can lead to radioactive releases outside the plant concerned, with serious consequences for the general public and for the environment. This book compiles the sum of the knowledge acquired on this subject and summarises the lessons that have been learnt from severe accidents around the world for the prevention and reduction of the consequences of such accidents, without addressing those from the Fukushima accident, where knowledge of events is still evolving. The knowledge accumulated by the Institute on these subjects enabled it to play an active role in informing public authorities, the media and the public when this accident occurred, and continues to do so to this day

  2. Extended global symmetries of the bosonic string. Their current algebra and anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piguet, O.; Schwarz, D.; Schweda, M.

    1990-01-01

    The quantization of the bosonic string is discussed in a class of general homogeneous gauges. The corresponding bosonic string model may be characterized effectively by three global symmetries: the linearized BRS symmetry, the ghost-number symmetry, and the Lagrange-multiplier-field symmetry. In order to discuss the possible gauge (in)dependence of Noether currents and anomalies consistently, we enlarge these rigid symmetries to extended ones. In addition we construct the local version of the above global symmetries in a systematic way, by introducing appropriate external gauge fields. The possible anomalies are analysed with the help of Wess-Zumino consistency relations. (orig.)

  3. Consideration of the legal system required for achievement of current nuclear power plant construction programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellon Fernandez, E.; Forum Atomico Espanol, Madrid)

    1976-01-01

    The extensive nuclear power plant construction programmes currently in progress in western countries require updating of the legislation in force in this field, especially as regards the following: acquisition of the sites necessary by means of a national planning programme of available sites; simplification of formalities concerning issuance of administrative licenses; revision of the principle of absolute and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator which forms the basis of the third party liability system for nuclear damage; radioactive waste management and decommissioning of nuclear plants. Furthermore, this new legislation should be harmonized between the different countries concerned. (N.E.A.) [fr

  4. From the nuclear frying pan into the global fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, S.

    1992-01-01

    The paper compares the history of and attitudes towards radioactivity and the greenhouse effect, both discovered in 1896. Through the 1930s-'50s nuclear energy was much more topical and popular than the greenhouse effect. In the late 1950s radiation was no longer seen as benign, and the idea that the world was getting warmer was becoming familiar to the public. In 1961 it was proven that atmospheric CO 2 was increasing. But climate research has been dispersed among many disciplines. If climate science had received even a tenth of the support that situation today would be very different. The failure to prepare for possible climate change has come from a deliberate ignorance. 3 figs

  5. Advanced passive technology: A global standard for nuclear plant requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, V

    1994-12-31

    Since 1984, Westinghouse has been developing AP8OO, a 800 MW, two-loop advanced passive plant, in response to an initiative established by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy` (DOE). The preliminary design was cornpleved in 1989. AP6OO`s Standard Safety Analysis and Probabilistic Risk analysis Reports were submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for design certification in 1992. Design simplification is the key strategy behind the AP6OO. The basic technical concept Of simplification has resulted in a simplified reactor coolant systems, simplified plant systems, a simplified plant arrangement, reduced number of components, simplified operation and maintenance.

  6. Earthquake and nuclear explosion location using the global seismic network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    The relocation of nuclear explosions, aftershock sequence and regional seismicity is addressed by using joint hypocenter determination, Lomnitz' distance domain location, and origin time and earthquake depth determination with local observations. Distance domain and joint hypocenter location are used for a stepwise relocation of nuclear explosions in the USSR. The resulting origin times are 2.5 seconds earlier than those obtained by ISC. Local travel times from the relocated explosions are compared to Jeffreys-Bullen tables. P times are found to be faster at 9-30 0 distances, the largest deviation being around 10 seconds at 13-18 0 . At these distances S travel times also are faster by approximately 20 seconds. The 1977 Sumba earthquake sequence is relocated by iterative joint hypocenter determination of events with most station reports. Simultaneously determined station corrections are utilized for the relocation of smaller aftershocks. The relocated hypocenters indicate that the aftershocks were initially concentrated along the deep trench. Origin times and depths are recalculated for intermediate depth and deep earthquakes using local observations in and around the Japanese Islands. It is found that origin time and depth differ systematically from ISC values for intermediate depth events. Origin times obtained for events below the crust down to 100 km depth are earlier, whereas no general bias seem to exist for origin times of events in the 100-400 km depth range. The recalculated depths for earthquakes shallower than 100 km are shallower than ISC depths. The depth estimates for earthquakes deeper than 100 km were increased by the recalculations

  7. Earthquake and nuclear explosion location using the global seismic network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    The relocation of nuclear explosions, aftershock sequence and regional seismicity is addressed by using joint hypocenter determination, Lomnitz' distance domain location, and origin time and earthquake depth determination with local observations. Distance domain and joint hypocenter location are used for a stepwise relocation of nuclear explosions in the USSR. The resulting origin times are 2.5 seconds earlier than those obtained by ISC. Local travel times from the relocated explosions are compared to Jeffreys-Bullen tables. P times are found to be faster at 9-30/sup 0/ distances, the largest deviation being around 10 seconds at 13-18/sup 0/. At these distances S travel times also are faster by approximately 20 seconds. The 1977 Sumba earthquake sequence is relocated by iterative joint hypocenter determination of events with most station reports. Simultaneously determined station corrections are utilized for the relocation of smaller aftershocks. The relocated hypocenters indicate that the aftershocks were initially concentrated along the deep trench. Origin times and depths are recalculated for intermediate depth and deep earthquakes using local observations in and around the Japanese Islands. It is found that origin time and depth differ systematically from ISC values for intermediate depth events. Origin times obtained for events below the crust down to 100 km depth are earlier, whereas no general bias seem to exist for origin times of events in the 100-400 km depth range. The recalculated depths for earthquakes shallower than 100 km are shallower than ISC depths. The depth estimates for earthquakes deeper than 100 km were increased by the recalculations.

  8. Global initiatives to prevent nuclear terrorism; Globalt initiativ for aa hindre nukleaer terrorisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The fight against nuclear and radiological terrorism - someone to blow up a nuclear weapon or spread radioactive material as a 'dirty bomb' that act of terrorism - is one of the most serious threats to international security. The Global Initiative to prevent nuclear terrorism is a Norwegian-sponsored initiative that is aimed directly at combating terrorism by non-state actors. NRPA follow up Norwegian measures, including in Kazakhstan, and verifies that they are implemented and functioning as intended. (AG)

  9. Training enhancement of Japanese nuclear international talented staffs hurried by rushing in global age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Saito, Masaki; Ahn, Joonhong

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power has attracted international attention with its beneficial roles in realizing a low-carbon society and serving as an energy source. Many countries would expect cooperation with Japanese nuclear industry continuing construction of nuclear power plants. Such global requests would inevitably require training enhancement of Japanese international talented staffs and establishment of human networks in younger generation. This feature article collected related activities of academia and electric utilities, status of Asian trainee acceptance and proposals from persons with experience of studying abroad and staying overseas organization. Issues related with training enhancement and their countermeasures were broadly discussed. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Applications of a global nuclear-structure model to studies of the heaviest elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    We present some new results on heavy-element nuclear-structure properties calculated on the basis of the finite-range droplet model and folded-Yukawa single-particle potential. Specifically, we discuss calculations of nuclear ground-state masses and microscopic corrections, α-decay properties, β-decay properties, fission potential-energy surfaces, and spontaneous-fission half-lives. These results, obtained in a global nuclear-structure approach, are particularly reliable for describing the stability properties of the heaviest elements

  11. Global risks due to illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    The global widespread applications of of the peaceful uses of atomic energy resulted in the production and accumulation of huge amounts of dangerous nuclear wastes and nuclear materials, the greater part of which is left either unattended or insufficiently protected. In the mean time, many terrorist groups appeared in the international arena aiming at fighting against all forms of pressure, discrimination or injustice in the international relations among developed and developing countries particularly in politically unstable regions of the world. Unfortunately, these terrorist groups were inclined to adopt the use of nuclear or radiological rather crude weapons to improve their methods and efforts in imposing situations of maximum horror possible to subjected communities. In the present work a brief study of the dimensions of nuclear terrorism, its forms and means directed to its support , has been carried out. The efforts to combat against nuclear proliferation in Central Asia as a region in which most of the violations of the non proliferation efforts occurred has been treated. In contrast, the prevailing conditions and efforts in the Americas region are discussed being a region in which combined efforts of the united states with other American countries were rather successful in combating nuclear proliferation. Some recommendations have been given concerning the necessary measures to face the global risk of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials all over the world. (author)

  12. Global Developmental Gene Programing Involves a Nuclear Form of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 (FGFR1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Terranova

    Full Text Available Genetic studies have placed the Fgfr1 gene at the top of major ontogenic pathways that enable gastrulation, tissue development and organogenesis. Using genome-wide sequencing and loss and gain of function experiments the present investigation reveals a mechanism that underlies global and direct gene regulation by the nuclear form of FGFR1, ensuring that pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells differentiate into Neuronal Cells in response to Retinoic Acid. Nuclear FGFR1, both alone and with its partner nuclear receptors RXR and Nur77, targets thousands of active genes and controls the expression of pluripotency, homeobox, neuronal and mesodermal genes. Nuclear FGFR1 targets genes in developmental pathways represented by Wnt/β-catenin, CREB, BMP, the cell cycle and cancer-related TP53 pathway, neuroectodermal and mesodermal programing networks, axonal growth and synaptic plasticity pathways. Nuclear FGFR1 targets the consensus sequences of transcription factors known to engage CREB-binding protein, a common coregulator of transcription and established binding partner of nuclear FGFR1. This investigation reveals the role of nuclear FGFR1 as a global genomic programmer of cell, neural and muscle development.

  13. Global flow of glasma in high energy nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guangyao; Fries, Rainer J., E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.edu

    2013-06-25

    We discuss the energy flow of the classical gluon fields created in collisions of heavy nuclei at collider energies. We show how the Yang–Mills analog of Faraday's Law and Gauss' Law predicts the initial gluon flux tubes to expand or bend. The resulting transverse and longitudinal structure of the Poynting vector field has a rich phenomenology. Besides the well-known radial and elliptic flow in transverse direction, classical quantum chromodynamics predicts a rapidity-odd transverse flow that tilts the fireball for non-central collisions, and it implies a characteristic flow pattern for collisions of non-symmetric systems A+B. The rapidity-odd transverse flow translates into a directed particle flow v{sub 1} which has been observed at RHIC and LHC. The global flow fields in heavy ion collisions could be a powerful check for the validity of classical Yang–Mills dynamics in high energy collisions.

  14. Analysis on long-term perspectives of sustainable nuclear energy towards global warming protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazawa, M.; Ichimura, E.; Shibata, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Wajima, T.

    1998-01-01

    Study of long-term perspectives of the nuclear power generation was made from the point of views of both CO 2 emission constraints and sustainability of nuclear energy. To this end, STREAM (Semi-empirical TRiple E Analysis Model) program, as a social model, has been developed by Tokyo Electric Power Co. and Hitachi, Ltd. Using this program, long-term world demands of primary and nuclear energy were deduced, in view of the protection against the global warming due to the CO 2 gas accumulation. The inevitable conclusion has been drawn that nuclear energy plays an indispensable role in the reduction of green house effect. Evaluations were then made on conditions that the nuclear power system would be the long-term major sustainable energy source. (author)

  15. Current status of international training center for nuclear security and security issues in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-UK; Sin, Byung Woo

    2013-01-01

    During the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) President Lee declared that Korea will establish an international training center (ITC) for nuclear security near the Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC). It will be open to the world in 2014. The government's long term goal is to make the center a hub for education and training in the nuclear field in Asia. The ITC will accomplish this by establishing facilities for practical and realistic exercises through the use of a test bed and various other experiments. The center will also provide comprehensive educational programs for nuclear newcomers. Its main programs include: a well designed educational program, customized training courses, and on-the-job training. This paper will discuss the current status of the ITC and describe practical plans for solving current security issues in Korea. (authors)

  16. Edge fluctuations and global confinement with lower hybrid current drive in the ASDEX tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeckel, J; Soeldner, F X; Giannone, L.; Leuterer, F; Steuer, K H [Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); ASDEX Team

    1992-03-01

    Electrostatic edge fluctuations were investigated by means of Langmuir probes on the ASDEX tokamak in lower hybrid current drive regimes, simultaneously with the global particle and energy balances. It was found that the edge fluctuations are reduced and the global particle/energy confinement improves when the LH power is below the initial ohmic power. The maximum reduction of the fluctuations and the best confinement occur when the total power input (OH + LH) is minimum. With a LH power higher than the initial OH value, the fluctuation level increases noticeably, while no improvement of the global confinement is observed. The increase of the edge fluctuations seems to be poloidally localized and caused by local power deposition in front of the grill antenna. Therefore, the relative positions of the probe and antenna structure have to be taken account for correct interpretation of the fluctuation data. (orig.).

  17. Edge fluctuations and global confinement with lower hybrid current drive in the ASDEX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckel, J.; Soeldner, F.X.; Giannone, L.; Leuterer, F.; Steuer, K.H.

    1992-03-01

    Electrostatic edge fluctuations were investigated by means of Langmuir probes on the ASDEX tokamak in lower hybrid current drive regimes, simultaneously with the global particle and energy balances. It was found that the edge fluctuations are reduced and the global particle/energy confinement improves when the LH power is below the initial ohmic power. The maximum reduction of the fluctuations and the best confinement occur when the total power input (OH + LH) is minimum. With a LH power higher than the initial OH value, the fluctuation level increases noticeably, while no improvement of the global confinement is observed. The increase of the edge fluctuations seems to be poloidally localized and caused by local power deposition in front of the grill antenna. Therefore, the relative positions of the probe and antenna structure have to be taken account for correct interpretation of the fluctuation data. (orig.)

  18. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-10-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013) and future (2035) air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal) for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions), including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year-1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %), followed by biomass burning (9 %). A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT) have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has proved to be a very important

  19. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Pacyna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013 and future (2035 air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions, including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year−1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %, followed by biomass burning (9 %. A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has

  20. Development and future perspective of nuclear power plants. Current status and future prospect of world nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi NPS accidents occurred on 11 March 2011 brought about great effects on nuclear development not only in Japan but also in the world. In Japan restart of operation of periodically inspected nuclear power plants (NPPs) could not be allowed except Oi NPPs two units and most parties except Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) pledged to possibly phasing out nuclear power at House of Councillors election in July and public opinion was mostly against nuclear power after the accident. LDP clearly stated that, with the inauguration of new government last December, Japan would not pursuing the policy of the prior government of possibly phasing out nuclear power by the 2030s, but would instead make a 'zero-base' review of energy policy. Germany decided to close eight reactors immediately and remaining nine by the end of 2022. For many countries, nuclear power would play an important role in achieving energy security and sustainable development goals. In 2011 NPPs 6 units started operation with 2 units under construction, and in 2012 NPPs 3 units started operation with 7 units under construction. At present there are now over 400 NPPs operating in 31 countries and world trend seemed nuclear development was continued and number of countries newly deploying NPPs was increasing as much as eighteen. This article presented current status and future prospect of world NPPs in details. Japan would like to share its experiences and information obtained from the accident with the world and also promote NPPs overseas to meet the world's expectations. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Current status and issues of nuclear human resource development/General activities of Japan nuclear human resource development network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki; Hino, Sadami; Tsuru, Hisanori

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Human Resource Development Network (JN-HRD Net) was established in November 2010 with the aim of developing a framework for mutual cooperation and information sharing among nuclear-related organizations. Although the tasks and goals of developing human resources in the nuclear field have been shifted since the accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the necessity of fostering capable personnel in this field stays unchanged and the importance of our network activities has further emphasized. The meeting of JN-HRD Net was held on the 5th of February 2013, where its activities by each field were reported and views and opinions were actively exchanged between more than 90 participants. This paper briefly describes current status and issues of JN-HRD Net and its general activities conducted by the JN-HRD Net secretariat. (J.P.N.)

  2. Nuclear Security Education in “non-Nuclear” Countries – Inseparable Component of Global Nuclear Security Scheme. Example of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.

    2014-01-01

    Global regime of nuclear security cannot be complete and functional if all countries are not involved; • Apart from the fact that developed nuclear countries are crucial in this sense (and determining the system), due attention should be paid to small, developing, “nonnuclear” ones; • Small problems in big countries are often big problems in small countries – so it is with HRD in nuclear related fields; • Everything is based on competence, with education being fundamental for building it up; • To that aim, the role of universities is of utmost importance, while networking is another corner stone; • Experience of Montenegro, perhaps exemplary in the above context, is discussed. (author)

  3. The Fukushima nuclear accident and its effect on global energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masatsugu; Hughes, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The March 2011 nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station affected both short- and long-term energy-security in Japan, resulting in crisis-driven, ad hoc energy policy and, because of the decision to shutter all nuclear reactors, increased the country’s demand for fossil fuels, primarily natural gas. However, the effects of the accident on energy security were not restricted to Japan; for example, the worldwide availability and affordability of liquefied natural gas were affected by Japan’s increased demand; while the accident itself resulted in the loss of public acceptability of nuclear power and led countries, such as Germany and Italy, to immediately shut down some of the nuclear reactors or abandon plans to build new ones. This paper examines some of the short-term effects on global energy security following the accident at Fukushima, focusing on the main replacement fuel, liquefied natural gas. It shows, amongst other things, that the accident increased investment in liquefied natural gas projects around the world. The paper shows that despite Fukushima contributing to nuclear power’s loss of acceptability in most developed countries, it is still seen as an essential way of improving energy security in many countries and, despite what its critics may say, will probably continue to be used as a significant source of low-carbon electricity. - Highlights: ► Japan’s demands for fossil fuels raised the price of LNG and low-sulfur crudes. ► The accident affected the global price of uranium and producer share prices. ► The accident accelerated foreign-direct investment in LNG projects worldwide. ► The change in public perception toward nuclear power was relatively limited. ► A radical shift in global nuclear policy seems to be unrealistic after Fukushima

  4. Global warming precipitation accumulation increases above the current-climate cutoff scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahany, Sandeep; Stechmann, Samuel N.; Bernstein, Diana N.

    2017-01-01

    Precipitation accumulations, integrated over rainfall events, can be affected by both intensity and duration of the storm event. Thus, although precipitation intensity is widely projected to increase under global warming, a clear framework for predicting accumulation changes has been lacking, despite the importance of accumulations for societal impacts. Theory for changes in the probability density function (pdf) of precipitation accumulations is presented with an evaluation of these changes in global climate model simulations. We show that a simple set of conditions implies roughly exponential increases in the frequency of the very largest accumulations above a physical cutoff scale, increasing with event size. The pdf exhibits an approximately power-law range where probability density drops slowly with each order of magnitude size increase, up to a cutoff at large accumulations that limits the largest events experienced in current climate. The theory predicts that the cutoff scale, controlled by the interplay of moisture convergence variance and precipitation loss, tends to increase under global warming. Thus, precisely the large accumulations above the cutoff that are currently rare will exhibit increases in the warmer climate as this cutoff is extended. This indeed occurs in the full climate model, with a 3 °C end-of-century global-average warming yielding regional increases of hundreds of percent to >1,000% in the probability density of the largest accumulations that have historical precedents. The probabilities of unprecedented accumulations are also consistent with the extension of the cutoff. PMID:28115693

  5. Global warming precipitation accumulation increases above the current-climate cutoff scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelin, J David; Sahany, Sandeep; Stechmann, Samuel N; Bernstein, Diana N

    2017-02-07

    Precipitation accumulations, integrated over rainfall events, can be affected by both intensity and duration of the storm event. Thus, although precipitation intensity is widely projected to increase under global warming, a clear framework for predicting accumulation changes has been lacking, despite the importance of accumulations for societal impacts. Theory for changes in the probability density function (pdf) of precipitation accumulations is presented with an evaluation of these changes in global climate model simulations. We show that a simple set of conditions implies roughly exponential increases in the frequency of the very largest accumulations above a physical cutoff scale, increasing with event size. The pdf exhibits an approximately power-law range where probability density drops slowly with each order of magnitude size increase, up to a cutoff at large accumulations that limits the largest events experienced in current climate. The theory predicts that the cutoff scale, controlled by the interplay of moisture convergence variance and precipitation loss, tends to increase under global warming. Thus, precisely the large accumulations above the cutoff that are currently rare will exhibit increases in the warmer climate as this cutoff is extended. This indeed occurs in the full climate model, with a 3 °C end-of-century global-average warming yielding regional increases of hundreds of percent to >1,000% in the probability density of the largest accumulations that have historical precedents. The probabilities of unprecedented accumulations are also consistent with the extension of the cutoff.

  6. Global physical and numerical stability of a nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Sandoval, Jaime; Hernandez-Solis, Augusto

    2005-01-01

    Low order models are used to investigate the influence of integration methods on observed power oscillations of some nuclear reactor simulators. The zero-power point reactor kinetics with six-delayed neutron precursor groups are time discretized using explicit, implicit and Crank-Nicholson methods, and the stability limit of the time mesh spacing is exactly obtained by locating their characteristic poles in the z-transform plane. These poles are the s to z mappings of the inhour equation roots and, except for one of them, they show little or no dependence on the integration method. Conditions for stable power oscillations can be also obtained by tracking when steady state output signals resulting from reactivity oscillations in the s-Laplace plane cross the imaginary axis. The dynamics of a BWR core operating at power conditions is represented by a reduced order model obtained by adding three ordinary differential equations, which can model void and Doppler reactivity feedback effects on power, and collapsing all delayed neutron precursors in one group. Void dynamics are modeled as a second order system and fuel heat transfer as a first order system. This model shows rich characteristics in terms of indicating the relative importance of different core parameters and conditions on both numerical and physical oscillations observed by large computer code simulations. A brief discussion of the influence of actual core and coolant conditions on the reduced order model is presented

  7. Globally optimal superconducting magnets part I: minimum stored energy (MSE) current density map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieng, Quang M; Vegh, Viktor; Brereton, Ian M

    2009-01-01

    An optimal current density map is crucial in magnet design to provide the initial values within search spaces in an optimization process for determining the final coil arrangement of the magnet. A strategy for obtaining globally optimal current density maps for the purpose of designing magnets with coaxial cylindrical coils in which the stored energy is minimized within a constrained domain is outlined. The current density maps obtained utilising the proposed method suggests that peak current densities occur around the perimeter of the magnet domain, where the adjacent peaks have alternating current directions for the most compact designs. As the dimensions of the domain are increased, the current density maps yield traditional magnet designs of positive current alone. These unique current density maps are obtained by minimizing the stored magnetic energy cost function and therefore suggest magnet coil designs of minimal system energy. Current density maps are provided for a number of different domain arrangements to illustrate the flexibility of the method and the quality of the achievable designs.

  8. Nuclear power: renaissance or relapse? Global climate change and long-term Three Mile Island activists' narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Marci R; Angelique, Holly

    2010-06-01

    Community narratives are increasingly important as people move towards an ecologically sustainable society. Global climate change is a multi-faceted problem with multiple stakeholders. The voices of affected communities must be heard as we make decisions of global significance. We document the narratives of long-term anti-nuclear activists near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant who speak out in the dawn of a nuclear renaissance/relapse. While nuclear power is marketed as a "green" solution to global warming, their narratives reveal three areas for consideration; (1) significant problems with nuclear technology, (2) lessons "not" learned from the TMI disaster, and (3) hopes for a sustainable future. Nuclear waste, untrustworthy officials and economic issues were among the problems cited. Deceptive shaping of public opinion, nuclear illiteracy, and an aging anti-nuclear movement were reasons cited for the lessons not learned. However, many remain optimistic and envision increased participation to create an ecologically-balanced world.

  9. The Phenomenon of Financial Economics: Russia and the World Are in Current Global Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine P. Akinina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the current situation on the global financial arena, analyzing the chain of cause and effect of the origins of the economic crisis and providing its possible logical outcomes. We are trying to prove here that the way the world economic situation develops will lead to either further growth or stagnation of national economies and define their position in the global business, financial, and social spheres.

    We provide an analysis of the serious transformations financial economics have been undergoing at the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries. All these changes, such as the development of international fusions on financial markets, the creation of new financial instruments, products and services, and others, have been caused largely by (and also have led to significant events in the global political arena. However, regardless of the transformations, world leadership remains in the hands of US government and business and that of their closest partners, while those societies that are not willing to support the “Americanized” world order end up on the blacklist of the World Bank, the IMF, and other international financial institutions.

    Finally, the article provides our views of the possible ways of dealing with the global economic stagnation. We highlight the importance of the strong and careful supervision of any global as well as national financial activities, the education of the public on the issues of wise investments, and the dangers of living on credit.

  10. The global nuclear energy partnership and the spent fuel take-back provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresee, James C.

    2007-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) was announced by Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman in February 2006 (1). Its purpose is to expand the use of nuclear energy throughout the world under conditions which would help reduce the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. Its success would be based on agreements among certain nations that are signatories to the Non- Proliferation Treaty and have extensive current fuel cycle capabilities. The agreements would be for such fuel cycle nations to provide other non-fuel cycle nations with power reactors sized to match their energy needs and power distribution characteristics, fresh nuclear reactor fuel (perhaps under a leasing arrangement), and waste management services, provided that the non-fuel cycle countries agree to refrain from obtaining fuel cycle capabilities. The waste management services would include taking back the non-fuel cycle spent nuclear fuel for processing within the fuel cycle country followed by fast spectrum power reactor consumption of the spent fuel's contained transuranic elements (TRU, including neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium). All agreements between fuel cycle countries and non-fuel cycle countries would be under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and may involve three-party contracts involving the fuel-cycle state, the non-fuel cycle state and the IARA (2). To be a full participant in such a world-wide program, the United States will need to add to its current uranium enrichment and reactor construction capabilities two no-longer available capabilities: a facility or facilities for reprocessing of spent power reactor fuel and fast spectrum reactors to fission the spent fuel's transuranic contents. In addition, an Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility at a national laboratory will be needed to provide research and development support for the closed fuel cycles of the future. Ironically, both the processing of irradiated nuclear fuel and the operation of fast

  11. Introduction of nuclear power plant for mitigating the impact of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida Nuryatin Finahari

    2008-01-01

    Energy utilization for power plants in Indonesia is still highly depending on the burning of fossil fuel like coal, oil, and gas. From the combustion of fossil fuel, greenhouse gases such as CO 2 and N 2 O are produced. An increase of CO 2 gas emission to the atmosphere can block the heat loss from the earth surface and will increase the greenhouse effect that results in the temperature increase of the earth surface (global warming). Global warming can cause a very extreme climate change on earth. One of the solutions to reduce CO 2 gas emission produced by fossil fuel power plants is to utilize the plants with flue gas treatment facility. At such facility, CO 2 gas is reacted with certain mineral based substances thus can be used as base material in food-, pharmaceutical-, construction-, and cosmetic industry. Another alternative to reduce CO 2 gas emission is by replacing fossil fuel power plants with nuclear power plants. Considering the environmental and economic aspects, the nuclear power plant does not emit CO 2 gas, so that the use of nuclear power plant can mitigate the impact of global warming. Based on the operational experience of nuclear power plants in advanced countries, the cost of generating electricity from nuclear power plants is more competitive than that of fossil fuel power plant. (author)

  12. The Current State of Global Activities Related to Deep-sea Mineral Exploration and Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Sven; Krätschell, Anna; Hannington, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea mining is seen as a potential way to provide future secure metal supply to global markets. The current rush to the seafloor in areas beyond national jurisdiction indicates that sound knowledge of the geological characteritics of the various commodities, a realistic resource assessment, and a social and political discussion about the cons and pros of their exploitation that is based on facts, not myths, is required. This contribution provides the most recent information on...

  13. Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Policy Implications of Expanding Global Access to Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    However, the case of Iran raises perhaps the most critical question in this decade for strengthening the nuclear nonproliferation regime: How can...enrichment process can take advantage of the slight difference in atomic mass between 235U and 238U. The typical enrichment process requires about 10 lbs of...neutrons but can induce fission in all actinides , including all plutonium isotopes. Therefore, nuclear fuel for a fast reactor must have a higher

  14. Nuclear energy and global warning - looking ahead to the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, M.

    1994-01-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use of energy. These include the fossil fuels consumption and nuclear energy proliferation, local and original environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect. Having in view the world population dynamics the future of energy use, and supply is less clear and predictable. Energy scenarios assuming explicit contributions from nuclear power to energy supply clearly show that global emissions of CO 2 - one of the most important gases linked to the greenhouse effect - can be substantially reduced if nuclear energy can further penetrate the electricity market. (Author)

  15. Nuclear energy, a solution in the struggle against global warming in quest of recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faudon, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author first comments assessments of the continuous increase of greenhouse gas emissions as they appear in the IPCC report of September 2013 and in the results published by the Global Carbon Project. She also evokes the commitments in emission reductions in compliance with the Kyoto Protocol and some dramatic consequences global warming may have according to the IPCC scenarios. Then, she addresses the share of nuclear energy in energy production and outlines its stakes and benefits in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. She notices that international bodies (European Commission, World Bank) do not mention nuclear energy in their plan for energy production development, but mainly rely on the development of renewable energies. The author then outlines the reasons why the development of renewable energies does not necessarily goes with the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. She also notices that a new generation of ecologists considers nuclear energy as a tool to struggle against climate warming

  16. An overlook of the new global nuclear scenario and the emergent challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanilla, Roberto B.A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to make a short overlook of the world nuclear renaissance and point out some emergent challenges. The presentation covers different subjects in which the nuclear energy shows great advantage to face concerns about climate change, energy demand growth, and relative cost of competing technologies in a global scenario. Additionally nuclear technology can deploy in a middle term an important potential development oriented to improve even more that nuclear design, safety, environment protection, economic and sustainability of the present nuclear reactors generation. The world nuclear energy scenario reveals a renaissance after a long period of lethargy. Now is the focus of considerable attention and debate about the risks and benefits of its expansion. Many countries are again planning ambitious nuclear programs. In the case of Argentina, a decision was taken to end the construction of Atucha 750 MWe power plant (NPP) and to begin the construction of another two NPP in the next decade. In the middle term and expansion of 60 % of the present world nuclear capabilities is foreseen. For the long term there could be much more if today's performance data is maintained or improved. It would require the nuclear industry to return immediately to the most rapid period of growth experienced in the past. The training of the young people is also an important challenge. But some countries are still reluctant due to the adverse local public opinion. In spite of the great accessibility and availability of the NPP confirmed by the global experience of the 350 operating nuclear power plants, the public acceptability is not confirmed. Some sectors of the society -with the support in some case of the media- are against the use of the nuclear energy. In this paper some reasons of the public concerns is explained and actions are mentioned to change its perceptions. At the end, the global society in front of the real means available to fulfill the growing energy

  17. Sovereignty and Nuclear Weapons: The Need for Real Sovereign Authority Rooted in the People’s Global Expectations about Survival, Peace and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The current international security framework is based on an incomplete, anachronistic conception of sovereignty shaped largely by historical circumstance rather than principles of universal justice. Evolution of the global community over the past half century necessitates a reformulation of the concept to justly represent the rights of individual citizens and the global community as a whole. The reconceptualization of sovereignty is an essential condition for the elimination of major threats to global security, most especially those arising from the continued existence and proliferation of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.

  18. Multidecadal global cooling and unprecedented ozone loss following a regional nuclear conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Michael J.; Toon, Owen B.; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Robock, Alan

    2014-04-01

    We present the first study of the global impacts of a regional nuclear war with an Earth system model including atmospheric chemistry, ocean dynamics, and interactive sea ice and land components. A limited, regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan in which each side detonates 50 15 kt weapons could produce about 5 Tg of black carbon (BC). This would self-loft to the stratosphere, where it would spread globally, producing a sudden drop in surface temperatures and intense heating of the stratosphere. Using the Community Earth System Model with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, we calculate an e-folding time of 8.7 years for stratospheric BC compared to 4-6.5 years for previous studies. Our calculations show that global ozone losses of 20%-50% over populated areas, levels unprecedented in human history, would accompany the coldest average surface temperatures in the last 1000 years. We calculate summer enhancements in UV indices of 30%-80% over midlatitudes, suggesting widespread damage to human health, agriculture, and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Killing frosts would reduce growing seasons by 10-40 days per year for 5 years. Surface temperatures would be reduced for more than 25 years due to thermal inertia and albedo effects in the ocean and expanded sea ice. The combined cooling and enhanced UV would put significant pressures on global food supplies and could trigger a global nuclear famine. Knowledge of the impacts of 100 small nuclear weapons should motivate the elimination of more than 17,000 nuclear weapons that exist today.

  19. Atmospheric solar tides and their electrodynamic effects. I. The global Ssub(q) current system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, J M; Lindzen, R S [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. (USA)

    1976-09-01

    This paper is Part I of a study dealing with the electrodynamic consequences of solar tides in the E-region of the Earth's atmosphere. The major result to emerge from Part I is that E-region dynamo action of combined diurnal and semidiurnal winds consistent with measurements is found to account for the Ssub(q) variations in ground magnetic data, without having to resort to electric fields of plasmaspheric origin as suggested in the recent literature. Real discrepancies of the order of 20% in amplitude and 1 to 2 h in phase still exist between the data and the present theoretical model. The model couples a global thin-shell dynamo solution which takes into account the vertical structure of the winds with a full three-dimensional model of the equatorial electrojet. Part I is primarily concerned with the classical thin-shell global solution, whereas Part II (Forbes et al., J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.; 38:911 (1976)) deals solely with the equatorial electrojet; however, the equatorial magnetic variations to be presented here are taken from Part II. Previous global dynamo models have utilized winds which are shown to be unrealistic by recent measurements and dissipative tidal theory, and do not include the important effects of vertical current flow at the magnetic equator. Inclusion of vertical current effects, which are discussed in detail in Part II, relaxes the need for E-region diurnal wind speeds as large as those required by previous workers to reproduce the Ssub(q) current system. Computed vertical structures of the Ssub(q) currents explain some puzzling features of the few midlatitude rocket magnetometer measurements that are available. The Joule heating by Ssub(q) currents is comparable to solar EUV heating above 60/sup 0/N, but contribute negligibly to the total heat budget of the thermosphere.

  20. Current status and prospects of the nuclear industry in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulke, Larry

    2004-01-01

    On December 8, 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower captured the desires and hopes of the nations of the world in his 'Atoms for Peace' speech to the United Nations General Assembly. In the last 50 years, many nations have transformed Eisenhower's General Assembly. In the last 50 years, many nations have transformed Eisenhower's dream of the future the peaceful power of the atom into everyday reality. Civilian nuclear power reactors provide electricity without adding to global warming or air pollution. Radioisotopes have proven to be invaluable in medicine, agriculture, industry, and space exploration. It is not coincidental that the origin of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) is closely related to the 'Atoms for Peace' initiative. Two days after the Atoms for Peace address, asmall group of engineers and scientists from the infant atomic energy field met in New York City. They were to consider forming what they were calling an institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering. Such an organization--they would write in the invitation for the next meeting--would, in part, stimulate the declassification of nuclear information, in line with Eisenhower's plan. The next year, on October 11, 1954, after a heated discussion, the group settled on a name: the American Nuclear Society. The ANS treasures its association with the Korean Atomic Industrial Forum and the Korean Nuclear Societuy in mutual efforts to extend the benefits of nuclear science and technology

  1. Global Risks as Factors that Affect the Current system of international Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Zaitseva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the globalization of risks is examined in this article. Based on the World Economic Forum (WEF report on global risks 2015-2017, the impact of global risks on the social and economic development of countries is examined. Economic, social, environmental, geopolitical, technological risks are analyzed in a coordinated fashion. The article notes that the main risks are in the field of environment and ecology. Anthropogenic pressure amplification, scientific and technological advance have an influence on the natural environment. The risks of infrastructure and environmental damage in danger zone are increased because of the growth of the frequency of extreme weather events. The measures for the protection of the environment are examined. The unilateral approach to solving international issues, instead of the collective efforts of the international community; the deployment of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical, biological and technologies for the production of radioactive materials; escalation of economic and resource nationalization (the desire of States to expropriate or restrict the export of important for the world economy of resources, etc. promote the increasing geopolitical risks.Economic risks include the risk in terms of their likelihood their impact on the macroeconomic, as from the financial systems and infrastructure to price volatility and regulatory issues. Social risks are the risks relating to instability of population dynamics, social crises and human survival.Technological risks include such problems as software defects, failure of important information systems, upon which today industrial production is depended, the services and communications sector; the escalation of large-scale cyber-attacks; theft of electronic information and the illegal usage of personal data. The trends that can intensify the global risks or to change the correlation between them are analyzed in this article.

  2. Technical Requirements For Reactors To Be Deployed Internationally For the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) seeks to create an international regime to support large-scale growth in the worldwide use of nuclear energy. Fully meeting the GNEP vision may require the deployment of thousands of reactors in scores of countries, many of which do not use nuclear energy currently. Some of these needs will be met by large-scale Generation III and III+ reactors (>1000 MWe) and Generation IV reactors when they are available. However, because many developing countries have small and immature electricity grids, the currently available Generation III(+) reactors may be unsuitable since they are too large, too expensive, and too complex. Therefore, GNEP envisions new types of reactors that must be developed for international deployment that are 'right sized' for the developing countries and that are based on technologies, designs, and policies focused on reducing proliferation risk. The first step in developing such systems is the generation of technical requirements that will ensure that the systems meet both the GNEP policy goals and the power needs of the recipient countries. Reactor systems deployed internationally within the GNEP context must meet a number of requirements similar to the safety, reliability, economics, and proliferation goals established for the DOE Generation IV program. Because of the emphasis on deployment to nonnuclear developing countries, the requirements will be weighted differently than with Generation IV, especially regarding safety and non-proliferation goals. Also, the reactors should be sized for market conditions in developing countries where energy demand per capita, institutional maturity and industrial infrastructure vary considerably, and must utilize fuel that is compatible with the fuel recycle technologies being developed by GNEP. Arrangements are already underway to establish Working Groups jointly with Japan and Russia to develop requirements for reactor systems. Additional bilateral and multilateral

  3. Treaties against nuclear terrorism. The global legal framework can make a difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    Two international treaties, one being drafted and the other already on the books, specifically address nuclear terrorism. The first Treaty known as the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material was adopted in 1980 under auspices of the IAEA. The second Treaty for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism is being drafted as part of the UN global campaign against terrorism. Both could require that specific measures be taken worldwide to protect and secure nuclear facilities from terrorist attack and sabotage. But neither one does. Efforts to include such requirements, before the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, have not borne fruit. Now, in the wake of lessons learned, is the time to revive and support them

  4. Nuclear energy-an essential option for sustainable development of global economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokio Kanoh

    2005-01-01

    Increased use of nuclear energy is an essential option for us to take the sustainable development of the global economy. The reasons are as follows: 1. Energy demand, especially in oil demand; 2. Environmental impact, especially greenhouse effect and carbon dioxide emissions, CO 2 emissions to be reduced 40% by increased use of nuclear power; 3. In the era of hydrogen, nuclear power can contribute in two ways. One is hydrogen production by electrolysis of water in conventional light water reactors powered by less costly late night electricity and the other by paralysis using high temperature gas produced in a high temperature testing reactor, Electric power consumption will increase 50% from 1990 to 2050. What is striking about his projection is types of fuels in use for power generation at that time which will consist of 60% nuclear, 10% hydro and 10% of other renewable energies. In other words, nearly 80% of fuels will be non-fossil sources

  5. Current globalization of drug interventional clinical trials: characteristics and associated factors, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sohyun; Sohn, Minji; Kim, Jae Hyun; Ko, Minoh; Seo, Hee-Won; Song, Yun-Kyoung; Choi, Boyoon; Han, Nayoung; Na, Han-Sung; Lee, Jong Gu; Kim, In-Wha; Oh, Jung Mi; Lee, Euni

    2017-06-21

    Clinical trial globalization is a major trend for industry-sponsored clinical trials. There has been a shift in clinical trial sites towards emerging regions of Eastern Europe, Latin America, Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Our study objectives were to evaluate the current characteristics of clinical trials and to find out the associated multiple factors which could explain clinical trial globalization and its implications for clinical trial globalization in 2011-2013. The data elements of "phase," "recruitment status," "type of sponsor," "age groups," and "design of trial" from 30 countries were extracted from the ClinicalTrials.gov website. Ten continental representative countries including the USA were selected and the design elements were compared to those of the USA. Factors associated with trial site distribution were chosen for a multilinear regression analysis. The USA, Germany, France, Canada, and United Kingdom were the "top five" countries which frequently held clinical trials. The design elements from nine continental representative countries were quite different from those of the USA; phase 1 trials were more prevalent in India (OR 1.517, p globalization of clinical trials in the emerging regions of Asia, South Africa, and Eastern Europe developed in parallel with the factors of economic drive, population for recruitment, and regulatory constraints.

  6. Critical carbon input to maintain current soil organic carbon stocks in global wheat systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guocheng; Luo, Zhongkui; Han, Pengfei; Chen, Huansheng; Xu, Jingjing

    2016-01-13

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in croplands is a crucial component of global carbon (C) cycle. Depending on local environmental conditions and management practices, typical C input is generally required to reduce or reverse C loss in agricultural soils. No studies have quantified the critical C input for maintaining SOC at global scale with high resolution. Such information will provide a baseline map for assessing soil C dynamics under potential changes in management practices and climate, and thus enable development of management strategies to reduce C footprint from farm to regional scales. We used the soil C model RothC to simulate the critical C input rates needed to maintain existing soil C level at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution in global wheat systems. On average, the critical C input was estimated to be 2.0 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), with large spatial variability depending on local soil and climatic conditions. Higher C inputs are required in wheat system of central United States and western Europe, mainly due to the higher current soil C stocks present in these regions. The critical C input could be effectively estimated using a summary model driven by current SOC level, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and soil clay content.

  7. COIN Goes GLOCAL: Traditional COIN With a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-17

    COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles? A...TITLE AND SUBTITLE COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global P ti D th C t US St t R fl t COIN 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Perspective: Does...Monograph: COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles

  8. Controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic: current status and global challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten eDemberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of the current status of the global HIV pandemic and strategies to bring it under control. It updates numerous preventive approaches including behavioral interventions, male circumcision, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, vaccines, and microbicides. The manuscript summarizes current anti-retroviral treatment options, their impact in the western world, and difficulties faced by emerging and resource-limited nations in providing and maintaining appropriate treatment regimens. Current clinical and pre-clinical approaches towards a cure for HIV are described, including new drug compounds that target viral reservoirs and gene therapy approaches aimed at altering susceptibility to HIV infection. Recent progress in vaccine development is summarized, including novel approaches and new discoveries.

  9. Application of a global magnetospheric-ionospheric current model for dayside and terminator Pi2 pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imajo, S.; Yoshikawa, A.; Uozumi, T.; Ohtani, S.; Nakamizo, A.; Chi, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Pi2 magnetic oscillations on the dayside are considered to be produced by the ionospheric current that is driven by Pi2-associated electric fields from the high-latitude region, but this idea has not been quantitatively tested. The present study numerically tested the magnetospheric-ionospheric current system for Pi2 consisting of field-aligned currents (FACs) localized in the nightside auroral region, the perpendicular magnetospheric current flowing in the azimuthal direction, and horizontal ionospheric currents driven by the FACs. We calculated the spatial distribution of the ground magnetic field produced by these currents using the Biot-Savart law in a stationary state. The calculated magnetic field reproduced the observational features reported by previous studies; (1) the sense of the H component does not change a wide range of local time sectors at low latitudes; (2) the amplitude of the H component on the dayside is enhanced at the equator; (3) The D component reverses its phase near the dawn and dusk terminators; (4) the meridian of the D-component phase reversal near the dusk terminator is shifted more sunward than that near the dawn terminator; (5) the amplitude of the D component in the morning is larger than that in the early evening. We also derived the global distributions of observed equivalent currents for two Pi2 events. The spatial patterns of dayside equivalent currents were similar to the spatial pattern of numerically derived equivalent currents. The results indicate that the oscillation of the magnetospheric-ionospheric current system is a plausible explanation of Pi2s on the dayside and near the terminator. These results are included in an accepted paper by Imajo et al. [2017JGR, DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024246].

  10. GNES-R: Global nuclear energy simulator for reactors task 1: High-fidelity neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarno, K.; De Almeida, V.; D'Azevedo, E.; De Oliveira, C.; Hamilton, S.

    2006-01-01

    A multi-laboratory, multi-university collaboration has formed to advance the state-of-the-art in high-fidelity, coupled-physics simulation of nuclear energy systems. We are embarking on the first-phase in the development of a new suite of simulation tools dedicated to the advancement of nuclear science and engineering technologies. We seek to develop and demonstrate a new generation of multi-physics simulation tools that will explore the scientific phenomena of tightly coupled physics parameters within nuclear systems, support the design and licensing of advanced nuclear reactors, and provide benchmark quality solutions for code validation. In this paper, we have presented the general scope of the collaborative project and discuss the specific challenges of high-fidelity neutronics for nuclear reactor simulation and the inroads we have made along this path. The high-performance computing neutronics code system utilizes the latest version of SCALE to generate accurate, problem-dependent cross sections, which are used in NEWTRNX - a new 3-D, general-geometry, discrete-ordinates solver based on the Slice-Balance Approach. The Global Nuclear Energy Simulator for Reactors (GNES-R) team is embarking on a long-term simulation development project that encompasses multiple laboratories and universities for the expansion of high-fidelity coupled-physics simulation of nuclear energy systems. (authors)

  11. Current status of nuclear power in the United States and around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKlveen, J W

    1990-09-01

    Nuclear energy's share of the world electricity market has been growing over the past 35 years. In 1989, eight generating units entered commercial operation abroad and three new units were licensed in the U.S. In early 1990, Mexico became the 26th country to produce electricity from nuclear power. Currently the 426 operating reactors supply one sixth of the world's total electrical capacity. Fourteen countries have now operated nuclear plants for 20 or more years. Since 1980, France has been the leader in the use of nuclear power and currently generates three quarters of its electricity from 54 nuclear plants. The U.S. has 112 nuclear plants, the largest number of any country in the world. These plants satisfy almost 20 percent of U.S. electrical energy requirements. Last year Three Mile Island, the would-be icon for everything that is wrong with the nuclear industry was rated as the most efficient nuclear plant in the world. The worldwide trend toward acceptance of nuclear is improving slightly, but many political and societal issues need to be resolved. Whereas recent polls indicate that a majority of the people realize nuclear must be a major contributor to the energy mix of the future, many are reluctant to support the technology until the issue of waste disposal has been resolved. Fears of another Chernobyl, lack of capital, and a new anti-nuclear campaign by Greenpeace will keep the nuclear debate alive in many countries. Additional stumbling blocks in the U.S. include the need to develop a new generation of improved reactor designs which emphasize passive safety features, standardized designs and a stream-lined federal licensing process. Nuclear power is really not dead. Even environmentalists are starting to give it another look. A nuclear renaissance will occur in the U.S. How soon or under what conditions remain to be seen. The next crisis in the U.S. will not be a shortage of energy, rather a shortage of electricity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Climate change and the role of nuclear power - contributions to a global solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKechnie, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The threat of global climate change is a challenge to those who decide on energy policy. If we are complacent and the worst case scenario materializes, our descendants could be faced with unprecedented problems that would impose massive costs. On the other hand, it is our generation which would suffer if substantial resources were devoted to addressing a problem that did not turn out to be serious. Fortunately, the choice is not a stark as this. There are options such as increased energy efficiency and clean fuels that are economically justified before their environmental benefits are considered. These options are the first priority for addressing climate change. What will be the contribution of nuclear energy? In developing countries it is likely to be small. In the industrialized world, where the cost of capital is lower, the role of nuclear will depend on construction and operating performance of the industry, and the level of public confidence. New nuclear technologies that are inherently safe and small modular designs could transform the nuclear option if costs are competitive with other energy sources. The nuclear option is one that should be kept alive in case a global environmental crisis is forced upon us. (orig.)

  13. The current situation and prospect of fundamental research about nuclear logging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng; Wang Xinguang; Yuan Chao

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear logging technology is one of the important methods to evaluate complex hydrocarbon reservoir in the process of petroleum exploration and development. The fundamental research of nuclear logging is an important step of logging technology innovation. Through analyzing the current situation of the development of nuclear logging technology at home and abroad in recent years, the problems and gaps are pointed out in the field of fundamental research of nuclear logging at home, and the future development of new nuclear logging technologies is concisely analyzed. Therefore, the optimal design and processing are conducted from aspects of ray source, detector, data acquisition and processing method. In addition, the fundamental research of LWD and pulsed neutron logging technology is taken as the main breach. In the fundamental research of nuclear logging technology, innovative thinking should be expressed and the innovation should be achieved in every field of the development of nuclear logging technology. Meanwhile, the logging key lab should be taken as the platform and the latest achievement in the field of nuclear logging technology should be fully utilized. Thus, the level of independent R and D and technology innovation of logging tools will be raised and service for the exploration and development of petroleum and other mineral resources. (authors)

  14. Conflict between civil liberties and nuclear energy safeguards: an analysis of current and prospective Federal regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.N.

    1977-01-01

    The high regard that the U.S. has traditionally placed on individual rights and liberties makes it imperative that nuclear-safeguards measures currently in use or suggested by evaluated in terms of their social costs. A nuclear-safeguards strategy that minimizes civil-liberties impacts as a social cost and allows adequate protection against the threats of nuclear theft and sabotage in the rapidly developing nuclear energy industry must be arrived at. This study explores the possible civil-liberties impacts and the effectiveness of nuclear-safeguards measures which may be or are being used. Case law and statutory law are extensively analyzed to classify the type of civil-liberties impacts that particular nuclear-safeguards measures may impose. Literature addressing the effectiveness of safeguards measures is examined in various contexts often completely outside of the ''security'' disciplines. A comparison of both the civil liberties impact and effectiveness of each nuclear safeguards measure reveals a cost/benefit factor from which conclusions may be drawn. The real issue is whether or not a nuclear safeguards system will interfere with historic respect governmental institutions have given rights and liberties guaranteed in the U.S. It is concluded that physical access controls present only minor civil liberties costs while providing substantial protection against theft and sabotage. Recommendations are made in the form of suggested statutes, regulations, and regulatory guides. Certain inter-agency relationships and methods for establishing those relationships are also suggested

  15. AAPM/SNMMI Joint Task Force: report on the current state of nuclear medicine physics training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Jerry D.; Clements, Jessica B.; Coffey, Charles W.; Fahey, Frederic H.; Gress, Dustin A.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Nickoloff, Edward L.; Mawlawi, Osama R.; MacDougall, Robert D.; Pizzuitello, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) recognized the need for a review of the current state of nuclear medicine physics training and the need to explore pathways for improving nuclear medicine physics training opportunities. For these reasons, the two organizations formed a joint AAPM/SNMMI Ad Hoc Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Physics Training. The mission of this task force was to assemble a representative group of stakeholders to: Estimate the demand for board‐certified nuclear medicine physicists in the next 5–10 years,Identify the critical issues related to supplying an adequate number of physicists who have received the appropriate level of training in nuclear medicine physics, andIdentify approaches that may be considered to facilitate the training of nuclear medicine physicists. As a result, a task force was appointed and chaired by an active member of both organizations that included representation from the AAPM, SNMMI, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine (ABSNM), and the Commission for the Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs (CAMPEP). The Task Force first met at the AAPM Annual Meeting in Charlotte in July 2012 and has met regularly face‐to‐face, online, and by conference calls. This manuscript reports the findings of the Task Force, as well as recommendations to achieve the stated mission. PACS number: 01.40.G‐ PMID:26699325

  16. The US Department of Energy Nuclear Data and Low Energy Physics Programs: Aspects of current operational status and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetstone, S.L.; Meyer, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Data and Low-Energy Programs are operated within the Division of Nuclear Physics of the US Department of Energy. The data program supports a range of activities including large scale data measurements, nuclear cross section modelling, and nuclear data compilation and dissemination. The US nuclear data needs and prospects for the future of this effort are currently being addressed and its present status is reviewed. Possibilities for the next generation nuclear data accessibility will be discussed and examples presented. The Low-Energy Nuclear Physics Program supports investigations into low-energy nuclear structure and neutrino physics. Among examples of the latter that are covered is the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  17. International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). 2011 Progress Report. Enhancing Global Nuclear Energy Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    When INPRO was established in 2000, some key characteristics and main objectives for the project were determined and remain basically unchanged to this day: to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to satisfying energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner and to bring together technology holders, technology users and other stakeholders to consider jointly the national and international actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. I wish to use the occasion of this INPRO Progress Report to review some of the key highlights of the past year and share with you my views and vision of INPRO's future. The ''Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami'' and the resulting accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant occurred on 11 March 2011. In response to this accident and at the request of its Member States, the IAEA drafted an Action Plan which defines a programme of work o strengthen the global nuclear safety framework. The activities proposed in the Action Plan are meant to be implemented in the near term, to assess the safety of operating nuclear power plants n the light of lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The assessment covers both technical elements, specifically the design of nuclear power plants with regard to site specific extreme natural hazards, and institutional elements, such as the effectiveness of regulatory bodies, operating organizations and the international legal framework in regard to the implementation of IAEA Safety tandards and Conventions. The lessons learned in the medium and long terms will also be reflected n a periodic update of the design requirements for nuclear power plants, international safety tandards, regulations issued by national supervisory authorities, operational procedures, emergency planning and safety assessment methodologies. INPRO has a long term perspective and provides an assessment of the whole nuclear system. Ensuring

  18. International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). 2011 Progress Report. Enhancing Global Nuclear Energy Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    When INPRO was established in 2000, some key characteristics and main objectives for the project were determined and remain basically unchanged to this day: to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to satisfying energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner and to bring together technology holders, technology users and other stakeholders to consider jointly the national and international actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. I wish to use the occasion of this INPRO Progress Report to review some of the key highlights of the past year and share with you my views and vision of INPRO's future. The ''Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami'' and the resulting accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant occurred on 11 March 2011. In response to this accident and at the request of its Member States, the IAEA drafted an Action Plan which defines a programme of work o strengthen the global nuclear safety framework. The activities proposed in the Action Plan are meant to be implemented in the near term, to assess the safety of operating nuclear power plants n the light of lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The assessment covers both technical elements, specifically the design of nuclear power plants with regard to site specific extreme natural hazards, and institutional elements, such as the effectiveness of regulatory bodies, operating organizations and the international legal framework in regard to the implementation of IAEA Safety tandards and Conventions. The lessons learned in the medium and long terms will also be reflected n a periodic update of the design requirements for nuclear power plants, international safety tandards, regulations issued by national supervisory authorities, operational procedures, emergency planning and safety assessment methodologies. INPRO has a long term perspective and provides an assessment of the whole nuclear system. Ensuring

  19. A study on the promotion of cooperation with 'women in nuclear (WIN)- global'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byung Joo; Kim, K. R.; Kim, D. Y.

    2001-04-01

    International collaboration with WIN-Global. 1) Evaluation on current status for the foundation of WIN-Korea and investigation on the 1st to 8th WIN-Global conferences for the arrangement of 9th WIN-Global conferences 2) Manifestation on the roles of WIN-Korea and WIN-Global 3) Encouragement of active participation for WIN-Global activies -Establishment of internet net working for effective communication through the internet net working between women in science in Korea and other foreign countries. 1) Preparation and Organization of Women in Korea 2) Foundation of WIN-Korea Home Page in Net 3) Assembly of data for the net work construction in Korea - Enhancement of international cooperation between WIN-Korea and WIN-Global 1) Invitation of 9th WIN-Global</