WorldWideScience

Sample records for current food exchange

  1. Classification of exchange currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    After expansion of the vector and axial vector currents in powers of (v/c), a heretofore unremarked regularity results. Meson exchange currents can be classified into types I and II, according to the way they satisfy the constraints of special relativity. The archetypes of these two categories are the impulse approximation to the vector and axial vector currents. After a brief discussion of these constraints, the (rhoπγ) and (ωsigmaγ) exchange currents are constructed and classified, and used to illustrate a number of important points which are often overlooked

  2. Exchange currents in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truglik, Eh.

    1980-01-01

    Starting from Adler's low-energy theorem for the soft pion production amplitudes the predictions of the meson exchange currents theory for the nuclear physics are discussed. The results are reformulated in terms of phenomenological lagrangians. This method allows one to pass naturally to the more realistic case of hard mesons. The predictions are critically compared with the existing experimental data. The main processes in which vector isovector exchange currents, vector isoscalar exchange currents and axial exchange currents take place are pointed out

  3. Exchange currents for hypernuclear magnetic moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, K.; Oka, M.; Suzuki, T.

    1997-01-01

    The meson (K and π) exchange currents for the hypernuclear magnetic moments are calculated using the effective Lagrangian method. The seagull diagram, the mesonic diagram and the Σ 0 -excitation diagram are considered. The Λ-N exchange magnetic moments for 5 Λ He and A=6 hypernuclei are calculated employing the harmonic oscillator shell model. It is found that the two-body correction is about -9% of the single particle value for 5 Λ He. The π exchange current, induced only in the Σ 0 -excitation diagram, is found to give dominant contribution for the isovector magnetic moments of hypernuclei with A=6. (orig.)

  4. Exchange current contributions to isoscalar magnetic moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, A.; Bentz, W.; Ichii, S.

    1986-01-01

    In this work the authors have investigated two recent suggestions which indicated appreciable exchange current contributions to isoscalar magnetic moments. On account of gauge invariance the authors found that in both treatments certain important terms seem to be omitted. The authors then performed explicit calculations using a one-boson exchange model for the exchange current operator. The authors found that the results are sensitive to the ratio of coupling constants g/sub σNN///g/sub ωNN/. Due to this fact it is difficult to draw quantitative conclusions. In the present model calculation the authors found that both g/sub s/(0) and g/sub 1//sup 0/ are enhanced by about 3% to 4%, resulting in non-negligible corrections to isoscalar magnetic moments

  5. Eddy current testing of heat exchangers tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouez, J.F.; Rieusset, A.; Groix, F.

    An automatic system for Eddy Current testing of heat exchangers tubes of warships was developed. The advantages are an exposure of the controller limited at the time required to put in place the system and a reduced time of control [fr

  6. Ion exchange currents in vacuum accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Thorn, R.

    1978-01-01

    Ion exchange currents (microdischarges) have been observed in short lengths of accelerator tube. The occurrence of these discharges can be related to the trajectories of ions in the tube. High-resolution mass spectra of the negative and positive ion components have been obtained. (author)

  7. Ring current proton decay by charge exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. H.; Hoffman, R. A.; Fritz, T.

    1975-01-01

    Explorer 45 measurements during the recovery phase of a moderate magnetic storm have confirmed that the charge exchange decay mechanism can account for the decay of the storm-time proton ring current. Data from the moderate magnetic storm of 24 February 1972 was selected for study since a symmetrical ring current had developed and effects due to asymmetric ring current losses could be eliminated. It was found that after the initial rapid decay of the proton flux, the equatorially mirroring protons in the energy range 5 to 30 keV decayed throughout the L-value range of 3.5 to 5.0 at the charge exchange decay rate calculated by Liemohn. After several days of decay, the proton fluxes reached a lower limit where an apparent equilibrium was maintained, between weak particle source mechanisms and the loss mechanisms, until fresh protons were injected into the ring current region during substorms. While other proton loss mechanisms may also be operating, the results indicate that charge exchange can entirely account for the storm-time proton ring current decay, and that this mechanism must be considered in all studies involving the loss of proton ring current particles.

  8. Meson exchange and neutral weak currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, D.H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Measurements of parity-violating electron scattering asymmetries to determine weak neutral currents in nuclei will be effected by the presence of meson exchange currents. Present low momentum transfer calculations, based on a flavor independent framework, show these effects to be small. In general, however, as the momentum transfer increases to values typical of deep-inelastic scattering, fragmentation functions show a clear flavor dependence. It is suggested that a good experimental starting point for understanding the flavor dependence of meson production and exchange currents is the Q{sup 2} dependence of parity-violating asymmetry in inclusive single pion electroproduction. A CEBAF facility with doubled energy is necessary to approach momentum transfers where this process begins to scale.

  9. [Current issues regarding organic food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrariu, F D; Gavăt, Viorica; Cozma, A G T

    2005-01-01

    Destruction and pollution of soil and ground water resources is probably the most important ecological problem facing the next generation. Checkable standards which certify healthy food products are required by the regulation on organic farming of the EU and should also be applied for conventional food production. Ecological food contains at least 95% of ingredients from an organic farming environment, without interference from pesticides, herbicides, fungicides or other chemicals and it is totally different from dietary, functional, enriched, fortified, probiotic food. Ecological food is tastier and contains more essential amino-acids, vitamin C, and micro-nutriments than usual food. Two major effects generated by choosing ecological food are the environmental protection and human' health improvement. Buying an ecological product represents the effect of a certain attitude. Children's nutrition starts with the most genuine ecological product: breast milk. Every parent should give to his child healthy and tasty food, for proper development. Decreasing artificial chemicals in the diet and the environment represents the first step to a healthier life.

  10. Development of a Malian food exchange system based on local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No significant differences were found for the intakes of legumes, milk, vegetables and sugar-added foods. Conclusions: This study allowed the development of Malian food exchange lists and demonstrated their usefulness for the description of the dietary pattern and energy and macronutrient intakes of male and female ...

  11. Eddy current inspection on heat exchanger tubes - problems and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilham Mukriz; Zainal Abidin Mohamed; Hairul Hasmoni Khairul Anuar; Mohd Salleh; Mahmood Dollah

    2005-01-01

    This paper focus on problems associated to eddy current inspection of heat exchanger tubes. A brief review on heat exchanger design and operation is presented. Eddy current technique in identifying inhomogeneity in tested tubes is discussed, highlighting its limitation in distinguishing between real pit type defects and other mundane anomalies. The limitation of the eddy current probe and equipment pertinent to the inspection are identified and areas of improvement are discussed. (Author)

  12. Reciprocity on Demand : Sharing and Exchanging Food in Northwestern Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnegg, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Two competing models concerning food transfers prominent in the anthropological literature conceptualize such transfers either as sharing or as exchange. Sharing is understood as situational transactions formed through demands and unconditional giving, whereas reciprocal exchange is understood in terms of networking and keeping score. I propose that the picture is more complicated than these classifications suggests. Drawing on data collected in Northwestern Namibia, I show that sharing and reciprocal exchange are dynamically interrelated in actual food transfers. As a local norm, people can demand food from anyone, and they are typically given food in response to a demand. However, in practice, food transfer networks emerge (N = 62) that are highly reciprocal and fit the exchange model much better. Although the sharing norm makes no restrictions on whom to ask, in practice people often turn to their neighbors. Interpersonal dynamics account for why some of those ties become strongly reciprocal and others do not. Under these circumstances, unconditional sharing, a norm that has been viewed as an alternative to exchange, can lead to reciprocity via reciprocity on demand.

  13. Current Account and Real Exchange Rate Dynamics in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firman Mochtar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the role of both permanent and temporary factors in affecting the Indonesian current account and real exchange dynamics before and after 2000. Adopting Lee and Chinn (1998; 2006 approach as well as Chinn et al. (2007, two results stand out. First, we confirm that the behavior of the real exchange rate has altered since 2000. Identifications show that permanent shocks are the primary causes for the movement of the real exchange rate after 2000, while in the period before 2000, the Indonesian real exchange rate changes are characterized by greater dominance of temporary shocks. The apparent change in the real exchange rate behavior may be strongly justified by the implementation of free-floating exchange rate system since August 1997. Second, the shift of the real exchange rate behavior after 2000 does not necessarily affect the current account dynamics. Empirical evidence confirms that the variance of current account post 2000 remains largely due to temporary shocks. Albeit having increasing influence, permanent shocks have insignificant effect in explaining fluctuations of the current account. In this sense, the current account surplus after 2000 is attributed largely to nominal variables such as price increase, while the impact of productivity improvement is still limited.

  14. Towards transparent and consistent exchange of knowledge for improved microbiological food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaza-Rodrigues, Carolina; Ungaretti Haberbeck, Leticia; Desvignes, Virginie

    2018-01-01

    and exchange new tools and community resources are needed. These resources will promote the creation of a public microbiological food safety knowledge repository encompassing available data and models. However, essential components are currently missing, such as open data formats supported by different...... software tools and consistent rules for knowledge annotation. The knowledge repository would be a user friendly tool to benefit different users within the microbiological food safety community, especially users like risk assessors and managers, model developers and research scientists working...

  15. Developing Exchange in Short Local Foods Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Engelseth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The supply chain management of foods is commonly associated with modernistic large-scale production. This involves long transport distances of foods to reach consumers. In the case of local foods, supply chains are shorter. Based on a case study of five local foods producer's supply of their products to a common retailer, the supply chain of local foods is modelled conceptually and modes of development are pointed out based on contingency theory and supply chain management literature. Findings reveal that since these chains are transparent, reciprocal interdependency is abundant mainly because human perception creates a sufficient understanding of the operations management issues pertinent within this simple inter-organisational structure. Local foods supply chains are similar to service supply chains. This includes that both are short in nature and associated with bi-directional interaction between the customer and supplier. Developing short supply chains in local foods supply is associated with improving the exchange economy found in short supply chains. This also implies that development of local foods supply is associated with two paths which may be complementary. First, the use of improved intensive technology associated with reciprocal interdependency to develop efficiencies in the bi-directional and somewhat complex interaction. Alternatively local foods suppliers may seek to reduce this form of reciprocal interdependency thereby increasing the impact of pooled interdependencies and enabling using mediating technology involving standardising interaction such as through increased standardised products and packaging as well as automation of information connectivity.

  16. [Food allergies in paediatrics: Current concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Martin, Ana María

    2016-07-01

    The concept of allergic reaction currently includes all those where an immunological reaction depends on a reaction mediated by IgE, as well as those that involve other immune mechanisms, such as T-cell regulators. There are many different clinical situations, like the classic immediate reactions (IgE mediated) such as urticaria, angioedema, immediate vomiting, abdominal pain, both upper respiratory (aphonia or rhinitis) and lower (wheezing or dyspnoea) symptom, and cardiovascular symptoms. The reactions that involve more than one organ, such as anaphylaxis, which could be an anaphylactic shock if there is cardiovascular involvement. The clinical signs and symptoms produced by non-IgE mediated reactions are usually more insidious in how they start, such as vomiting hours after the ingestion of food in enterocolitis, diarrhoea after days or weeks from starting food, dermatitis sometime after starting food. In these cases it is more difficult to associate these clinical symptoms directly with food. In this article, we attempt to clarify some concepts such as sensitisation/allergy, allergen/allergenic source, or the relationship of different clinical situations with food allergy, in order to help the paediatrician on the one hand, to prescribe strict diets in case of a suspicion based on the cause/effect relationship with the food, and on the other hand not to introduce unnecessary diets that very often have to last an excessively long time, and could lead to nutritional deficiencies in the children. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Eddy current detection of corrosion damage in heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Drunen, G.; Cecco, V.S.; Carter, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    Eddy current is often the most effective nondestructive test method available for in-service inspection of small bore tubing in heat exchangers. The basic principles, advantages and shortcomings of the technique are outlined. Typical eddy current indications from corrosion-related defects such as stress corrosion cracks, pitting and tube denting under support plates are presented. Eddy current signals from features such as magnetite deposits and ferromagnetic inclusions which might be mistaken for defects are also discussed. (auth)

  18. Trends in the exchange current for hydrogen evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Bligaard, Thomas; Logadottir, Ashildur

    2005-01-01

    A density functional theory database of hydrogen chemisorption energies on close packed surfaces of a number of transition and noble metals is presented. The bond energies are used to understand the trends in the exchange current for hydrogen evolution. A volcano curve is obtained when measured...... exchange currents are plotted as a function of the calculated hydrogen adsorption energies and a simple kinetic model is developed to understand the origin of the volcano. The volcano curve is also consistent with Pt being the most efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution. (c) 2005...

  19. Pure spin current manipulation in antiferromagnetically exchange coupled heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Félix, L.; Butera, A.; González-Chávez, D. E.; Sommer, R. L.; Gómez, J. E.

    2018-03-01

    We present a model to describe the spin currents generated by ferromagnet/spacer/ferromagnet exchange coupled trilayer systems and heavy metal layers with strong spin-orbit coupling. By exploiting the magnitude of the exchange coupling (oscillatory RKKY-like coupling) and the spin-flop transition in the magnetization process, it has been possible to produce spin currents polarized in arbitrary directions. The spin-flop transition of the trilayer system originates pure spin currents whose polarization vector depends on the exchange field and the magnetization equilibrium angles. We also discuss a protocol to control the polarization sign of the pure spin current injected into the metallic layer by changing the initial conditions of magnetization of the ferromagnetic layers previously to the spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect experiments. The small differences in the ferromagnetic layers lead to a change in the magnetization vector rotation that permits the control of the sign of the induced voltage components due to the inverse spin Hall effect. Our results can lead to important advances in hybrid spintronic devices with new functionalities, particularly, the ability to control microscopic parameters such as the polarization direction and the sign of the pure spin current through the variation of macroscopic parameters, such as the external magnetic field or the thickness of the spacer in antiferromagnetic exchange coupled systems.

  20. Exchange current contributions to quasi-elastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, J.S. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Because electromagnetic interactions are weak and well understood, inelastic electron scattering has been very useful in elucidating aspects of nuclear structure. In the region of large electron energy loss, an extremely simple reaction picture (quasi-free knockout of a single nucleon or electroproduction of an isobar) and a simple nuclear model (Fermi gas) have provided both a good fit to experimental data and a dynamical determination of the nuclear Fermi momentum (k/sub F/). However, there exists an anomalous region where this picture fails. Two body correlations have not seemed to help give any better agreement. We have investigated the following questions: Do exchange current processes contribute importantly in this region. Do they help produce agreement with experiment. Also, how do they effect our previous picture of quasifree knockout. We calculate the effects of exchange currents in this region using the standard Feynman graph rules. We have included all important long range exchange currents: pair, pionic, and isobar exchange currents. We found it necessary to make non-relativistic reductions of these currents in order to facilitate calculations. The resulting multidimensional integrals were done using Monte Carlo techniques. All exchange currents which were investigated were found to be appreciable in the anomalous region, and also important in the quasi-free peak region. Inclusion of these amplitudes would supply all of the missing cross section in the anomalous region: however, it would destroy the agreement between theory and experiment in the region of the quasi-free nucleon peak, and thereby cast suspicion on the aforementioned dynamical determination of k/sub F/

  1. On the mesonic-exchange currents in the photomesic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazard, C.; Maric, Z.; Zivanovic, D.

    1979-02-01

    The γd→π 0 d reaction is analysed in the framework of the relativistic many-body theory with mesonic degrees of freedom explicitly present. It is shown that the mesonic correlations can be grouped into transition operators containing vertices of some elementary reactions between photon, nucleons and pions. The wave function corrections due to meson exchange currents are included in the transition operators and the S-matrix is obtained with the non relativistic deuteron wave function

  2. Food irradiation: current problems and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, D.

    1995-01-01

    Food irradiation is one of a set of processing technologies that can be used to increase the microbiological safety and shelf-life of a wide range of foods. Ionizing radiation is used to generate highly active chemical species within the food, which react with DNA. Under normal usage conditions, the food receives a pasteurizing treatment that gives a valuable reduction in common food-spoilage organisms and food pathogens. This review describes how the process is used in practice, including the benefits and limitations. The nature of changes to food components are outlined, together with the development of practical detection methods that utilize these changes. The legislative position of food irradiation is outlined, with the specific example of the introduction of the technology within the UK. The reasons for the slow uptake in the use of the technology are discussed, and the problem of consumer acceptance is addressed. (author)

  3. Review of current summary of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyakova, A.; Tsvetkova, E.; Miteva, D.; Dimov, K.

    2005-01-01

    The reasons about widely application of food irradiation as a technology for increasing food safety were presenting in this summary. Topics which are discussing are about: purpose of the irradiation, radiological safety, toxicology, microbiological conclusion, alimentary adequacy, packing, labeling, public acceptance, inspection of food irradiated plants

  4. Current applications of probiotic foods in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Natural Food Preservation Systems. In: Wood BJB (Ed). The Lactic. Acid Bacteria. Vol. 1 Elsevier Science Publishers, London. FAO/WHO (2001).Health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live Lactic acid bacteria. Cordoba,. Argentina: Food and Agriculture Organization ...

  5. Meson exchange current (MEC) models in neutrino interaction generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katori, Teppei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the so-called 2 particle-2 hole (2p-2h) effect is an urgent program in neutrino interaction physics for current and future oscillation experiments. Such processes are believed to be responsible for the event excesses observed by recent neutrino experiments. The 2p-2h effect is dominated by the meson exchange current (MEC), and is accompanied by a 2-nucleon emission from the primary vertex, instead of a single nucleon emission from the charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) interaction. Current and future high resolution experiments can potentially nail down this effect. For this reason, there are world wide efforts to model and implement this process in neutrino interaction simulations. In these proceedings, I would like to describe how this channel is modeled in neutrino interaction generators

  6. Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation of fresh foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Dong Soo; Hur, Sun Jin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g. active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), extends the shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high-quality product, reduces economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, in active packaging, several variables must be considered, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with different product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging facilitates data access and information exchange by altering conditions inside or outside the packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable and effective packaging systems for various foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Current strategies for improving food bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, O P; Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Novel concepts and methodologies are emerging that hold great promise for the directed improvement of food-related bacteria, specifically lactic acid bacteria. Also, the battle against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria can now be fought more effectively. Here we describe recent advances in

  8. Current status of food irradiation in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2007-01-01

    With respect to the safety of irradiated food, the Korean government has accepted in principle the recommendations of international organization (FAO, WHO, IAEA, CAC, etc) as well as the national-based evaluations. Gamma radiation from Co-60 is now authorized to be used for food irradiation of 26 food items (or classes). Two multipurpose gamma-irradiation facilities (Greenpia Tech. Inc. since 1987; SOYA Co. Ltd. since 2002) are now operating for the treatments of selected food items as well as medical supplies. At present, labeled-irradiated products are not yet being marketed at the consumer level. As an alternative process of chemical fumigants, however, irradiation is being partially utilized for the microbial decontamination and pest control of dried spices, vegetable ingredients, etc. for their use in processed foods as minor ingredients. Commercial applications of food irradiation, though small in number, have been steady ever since. This article introduces the commercial progress in food irradiation technology in Korea in terms of research activities, legislation, commercialization, and the control of irradiated foods. (author)

  9. The current legal situation relating to food irradiation as assessed by the Land Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frede, W.

    1994-01-01

    Discussed is the current legal situation of food irradiation procedures as assessed by the Government of Northrhine-Westfalia. The topics highest on the agenda are the unrestrained exchange of merchandise within the Internal Market and the problems arising from deviating legal stipulations in the individual EU member states. (vhe) [de

  10. The honey bee parasite Nosema ceranae: transmissible via food exchange?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Smith

    Full Text Available Nosema ceranae, a newly introduced parasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, is contributing to worldwide colony losses. Other Nosema species, such as N. apis, tend to be associated with increased defecation and spread via a fecal-oral pathway, but because N. ceranae does not induce defecation, it may instead be spread via an oral-oral pathway. Cages that separated older infected bees from young uninfected bees were used to test whether N. ceranae can be spread during food exchange. When cages were separated by one screen, food could be passed between the older bees and the young bees, but when separated by two screens, food could not be passed between the two cages. Young uninfected bees were also kept isolated in cages, as a solitary control. After 4 days of exposure to the older bees, and 10 days to incubate infections, young bees were more likely to be infected in the 1-Screen Test treatment vs. the 2-Screen Test treatment (P=0.0097. Young bees fed by older bees showed a 13-fold increase in mean infection level relative to young bees not fed by older bees (1-Screen Test 40.8%; 2-Screen Test 3.4%; Solo Control 2.8%. Although fecal-oral transmission is still possible in this experimental design, oral-oral infectivity could help explain the rapid spread of N. ceranae worldwide.

  11. Current status and regulation of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    It is estimated by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations that 25 to 35 percent of world food production is lost through natural causes such a pests, microbes, and insects. In the ASEAN countries alone, postharvest losses of cereals are estimated at 30 percent, fruits and vegetables at 20 to 40 percent, and up to 50 percent for fish. Some products in Africa suffer postharvest losses as high as 50 percent. One of the best responses to the problem of world hunger is preservation of what has already been grown. If postharvest losses worldwide could be minimized, food supply gains could be made without allocation of additional resources. The problems of food production, processing and storage require a continuing search for effective, technically and economically feasible alternative methods of food preservation. Food irradiation is not a panacea for this problem, however. Alone, it cannot change conditions or solve the problems of world hunger, but it can become a factor in the improvement of conditions where improved human nutrition is an immediate need. Food irradiation has progressed steadily over the past 40 years in terms of research, development, and legislative or regulatory activities

  12. Plutonium metal exchange program : current status and statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, L. (Lav); Eglin, J. L. (Judith Lynn); Michalak, S. E. (Sarah E.); Picard, R. R.; Temer, D. J. (Donald J.)

    2004-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plutonium (Pu) Metal Sample Exchange program was conducted to insure the quality and intercomparability of measurements such as Pu assay, Pu isotopics, and impurity analyses. The Rocky Flats program was discontinued in 1989 after more than 30 years. In 2001, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) reestablished the Pu Metal Exchange program. In addition to the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston, six Department of Energy (DOE) facilities Argonne East, Argonne West, Livermore, Los Alamos, New Brunswick Laboratory, and Savannah River are currently participating in the program. Plutonium metal samples are prepared and distributed to the sites for destructive measurements to determine elemental concentration, isotopic abundance, and both metallic and nonmetallic impurity levels. The program provides independent verification of analytical measurement capabilies for each participating facility and allows problems in analytical methods to be identified. The current status of the program will be discussed with emphasis on the unique statistical analysis and modeling of the data developed for the program. The discussion includes the definition of the consensus values for each analyte (in the presence and absence of anomalous values and/or censored values), and interesting features of the data and the results.

  13. 76 FR 6477 - Industry Exchange Workshop on Food and Drug Administration Drug and Device Requirements; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Industry Exchange Workshop on Food and Drug Administration Drug and Device Requirements; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  14. Eddy current test of fin tubes for a heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIm, Young Joo; Lee, Se Kyung; Chung, Min Hwa

    1992-01-01

    Eddy current probes were designed for the test of fin tubes. Fin tubes, often used for heat exchangers, have uneven outer and inner surfaces to enhance the heat emission. The surface roughness make it difficult to detect flaws employing eddy current test(ECT). In order to overcome the difficulties we performed two types of works, one is the delopment of ECT probes, and the other is the signal processing including fast Fourier transform and digital filtering. In the development of ECT probes, we adopted empirical design method. Our ECT probes for fin tubes are inside diameter type. And we are specially concerned about geometric features such as the widths of the coils composing an ECT probe. We fabricated four probes with various coil widths. Eddy current test was performed using those ECT probes on specimens with artificial flaws. After analyzing the output signals, we found that, in order for the effective testing, the width of a coil should be determined considering the pitch of the fins of a tube. And we also learned that the frequency filtering could improve the s/n ratio.

  15. Currently developing opportunities in food irradiation and modern irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanke, R.

    1997-01-01

    I. Factor currently influencing advancing opportunities for food irradiation include: heightened incidence and awareness of food borne illnesses and causes. Concerns about ensuring food safety in international as well as domestic trade. Regulatory actions regarding commonly used fumigants/pesticides e.g. Me Br. II. Modern irradiator design: the SteriGenics M ini Cell . A new design for new opportunities. Faster installation of facility. Operationally and space efficient. Provides local o nsite control . Red meat: a currently developing opportunity. (Author)

  16. Nanotechnology: current uses and future applications in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Chung, Ill-Min

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology intend new and innovative applications in the food industry. Nanotechnology exposed to be an efficient method in many fields, particularly the food industry and the area of functional foods. Though as is the circumstance with the growth of any novel food processing technology, food packaging material, or food ingredient, additional studies are needed to demonstrate the potential benefits of nanotechnologies and engineered nanomaterials designed for use in foods without adverse health effects. Nanoemulsions display numerous advantages over conventional emulsions due to the small droplets size they contain: high optical clarity, excellent physical constancy against gravitational partition and droplet accumulation, and improved bioavailability of encapsulated materials, which make them suitable for food applications. Nano-encapsulation is the most significant favorable technologies having the possibility to ensnare bioactive chemicals. This review highlights the applications of current nanotechnology research in food technology and agriculture, including nanoemulsion, nanocomposites, nanosensors, nano-encapsulation, food packaging, and propose future developments in the developing field of agrifood nanotechnology. Also, an overview of nanostructured materials, and their current applications and future perspectives in food science are also presented.

  17. Towards transparent and consistent exchange of knowledge for improved microbiological food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaza-Rodrigues, Carolina; Ungaretti Haberbeck, Leticia; Desvignes, Virginie

    2017-01-01

    software tools and consistent rules for knowledge annotation. The knowledge repository would be a user friendly tool to benefit different users within the microbiological food safety community, especially users like risk assessors and managers, model developers and research scientists working......Predictive microbial modelling and quantitative microbiological risk assessment, two important and complementary areas within the food safety community, are generating a variety of scientific knowledge (experimental data and mathematical models) and resources (databases and software tools......) for the exploitation of this knowledge. However, the application and reusability of this knowledge is still hampered as the access to this knowledge and the exchange of information between databases and software tools are currently difficult and time consuming. To facilitate transparent and consistent knowledge access...

  18. Current investigations of packaging materials used for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiszer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The article reviews current investigations of packaging materials applied for food irradiation. The increasing role of various synthetic materials is described. Author reviews radiation-induced damages in these materials. The article includes the list of materials accepted for food packaging and subsequent irradiation with different doses

  19. Currently developing opportunities in food irradiation and modern irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, R [Director Business Development. SteriGenics International Inc. 17901 East Warren Avenue No. 4, Detroit, Michigan 48224-1333 (United States)

    1998-12-31

    I. Factor currently influencing advancing opportunities for food irradiation include: heightened incidence and awareness of food borne illnesses and causes. Concerns about ensuring food safety in international as well as domestic trade. Regulatory actions regarding commonly used fumigants/pesticides e.g. Me Br. II. Modern irradiator design: the SteriGenics {sup M}ini Cell{sup .} A new design for new opportunities. Faster installation of facility. Operationally and space efficient. Provides local {sup o}nsite control{sup .} Red meat: a currently developing opportunity. (Author)

  20. Currently developing opportunities in food irradiation and modern irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, R. [Director Business Development. SteriGenics International Inc. 17901 East Warren Avenue No. 4, Detroit, Michigan 48224-1333 (United States)

    1997-12-31

    I. Factor currently influencing advancing opportunities for food irradiation include: heightened incidence and awareness of food borne illnesses and causes. Concerns about ensuring food safety in international as well as domestic trade. Regulatory actions regarding commonly used fumigants/pesticides e.g. Me Br. II. Modern irradiator design: the SteriGenics {sup M}ini Cell{sup .} A new design for new opportunities. Faster installation of facility. Operationally and space efficient. Provides local {sup o}nsite control{sup .} Red meat: a currently developing opportunity. (Author)

  1. Current Status of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Commodities in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Nleya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds, with subsequent production of mycotoxins posing health risks to both humans and animals. There is limited documentation on the occurrence of mycotoxins in sub-Saharan African countries, leading to the exposure of their populations to a wide variety of mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated foods. This review aims at highlighting the current status of mycotoxin contamination of food products in Zimbabwe and recommended strategies of reducing this problem. Zimbabwe is one of the African countries with very little information with regards to mycotoxin contamination of its food commodities, both on the market and at household levels. Even though evidence of multitoxin occurrence in some food commodities such as maize and other staple foods exist, available published research focuses only on Aspergillus and Fusarium mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON, trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone (ZEA. Occurrence of mycotoxins in the food chain has been mainly associated with poor agricultural practices. Analysis of mycotoxins has been done mainly using chromatographic and immunological methods. Zimbabwe has adopted European standards, but the legislation is quite flexible, with testing for mycotoxin contamination in food commodities being done voluntarily or upon request. Therefore, the country needs to tighten its legislation as well as adopt stricter standards that will improve the food safety and security of the masses.

  2. Current Status of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Commodities in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nleya, Nancy; Adetunji, Modupeade Christianah; Mwanza, Mulunda

    2018-05-03

    Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds, with subsequent production of mycotoxins posing health risks to both humans and animals. There is limited documentation on the occurrence of mycotoxins in sub-Saharan African countries, leading to the exposure of their populations to a wide variety of mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated foods. This review aims at highlighting the current status of mycotoxin contamination of food products in Zimbabwe and recommended strategies of reducing this problem. Zimbabwe is one of the African countries with very little information with regards to mycotoxin contamination of its food commodities, both on the market and at household levels. Even though evidence of multitoxin occurrence in some food commodities such as maize and other staple foods exist, available published research focuses only on Aspergillus and Fusarium mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone (ZEA). Occurrence of mycotoxins in the food chain has been mainly associated with poor agricultural practices. Analysis of mycotoxins has been done mainly using chromatographic and immunological methods. Zimbabwe has adopted European standards, but the legislation is quite flexible, with testing for mycotoxin contamination in food commodities being done voluntarily or upon request. Therefore, the country needs to tighten its legislation as well as adopt stricter standards that will improve the food safety and security of the masses.

  3. Meson exchange currents and two neutrino double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simkovic, F.

    1995-01-01

    By using a field theory approach a detailed analysis of the two neutrino double beta decay amplitude has been performed. We have shown that the summation over the intermediate nuclear states in the present two neutrino double beta decay studies corresponds to a summation over a class of meson exchange diagrams. We offer some arguments showing that the two nucleon mechanism considered at present does not provide the main contribution to the two neutrino double beta decay amplitude. A new electron-gamma exchange mechanism for this process is suggested. 31 refs., 1 fig

  4. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Woods, Stephen C; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  5. Food and Health Some Current Issues and Future Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan)

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with some of the many current issues and future trends in the area of food, diet and health in Europe. A complete coverage would be impossible in a short article in view of the extent and complexity of the food system and its major interaction with health. It is also important to stress at the outset that food/diet is only one component of health and other factors such as environment, overall lifestyle and genetics also play a major role. The genetic dimension is of particula...

  6. Nanomaterials in Food - Current and Future Applications and Regulatory Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschberger, K.; Gottardo, S.; Amenta, V.; Arena, M.; Botelho Moniz, F.; Bouwmeester, H.; Brandhoff, P.; Mech, A.; Quiros Pesudo, L.; Rauscher, H.; Schoonjans, R.; Vittoria Vettori, M.; Peters, R.

    2015-05-01

    Nanotechnology can contribute to the development of innovative applications in the agriculture, food and feed sector by e.g. enabling improved delivery of nutrients or increased efficacy of agrichemicals. It is expected that applications will increase in the near future and may therefore become a relevant source of human exposure to nanomaterials (NM). To gain more up-to date information, RIKILT and the Joint Research Centre (JRC) were commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to prepare an inventory of currently used and reasonably foreseen applications of NM in agriculture and food/feed production and carried out a review of regulatory aspects concerning NM in both EU and non-EU countries. An analysis of the information records in the inventory shows that nano-encapsulates, silver and titanium dioxide are the most frequent type of NM listed and that food additives and food contact materials are the most frequent types of application. A comparison between marketed applications and those in development indicates a trend from inorganic materials (e.g. silver) towards organic materials (nano-encapsulates, nanocomposites). Applications in novel food, feed additives, biocides and pesticides are currently mostly at a developmental stage. The review of EU and non-EU legislation shows that currently a few EU legal acts incorporate a definition of a nanomaterial and specific provisions for NM, whereas in many non-EU countries a broader approach is applied, which mainly builds on guidance for industry.

  7. Nanomaterials in Food - Current and Future Applications and Regulatory Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschberger, K; Gottardo, S; Amenta, V; Arena, M; Moniz, F Botelho; Mech, A; Pesudo, L Quiros; Rauscher, H; Bouwmeester, H; Brandhoff, P; Peters, R; Schoonjans, R; Vettori, M Vittoria

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology can contribute to the development of innovative applications in the agriculture, food and feed sector by e.g. enabling improved delivery of nutrients or increased efficacy of agrichemicals. It is expected that applications will increase in the near future and may therefore become a relevant source of human exposure to nanomaterials (NM). To gain more up-to date information, RIKILT and the Joint Research Centre (JRC) were commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to prepare an inventory of currently used and reasonably foreseen applications of NM in agriculture and food/feed production and carried out a review of regulatory aspects concerning NM in both EU and non-EU countries. An analysis of the information records in the inventory shows that nano-encapsulates, silver and titanium dioxide are the most frequent type of NM listed and that food additives and food contact materials are the most frequent types of application. A comparison between marketed applications and those in development indicates a trend from inorganic materials (e.g. silver) towards organic materials (nano-encapsulates, nanocomposites). Applications in novel food, feed additives, biocides and pesticides are currently mostly at a developmental stage. The review of EU and non-EU legislation shows that currently a few EU legal acts incorporate a definition of a nanomaterial and specific provisions for NM, whereas in many non-EU countries a broader approach is applied, which mainly builds on guidance for industry. (paper)

  8. Retrospective of exchange regimes in China and current crossroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Martínez Marca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The transforming process of the Chinese economy, from the economic overhaul of 1978 has been matter of interest and study for many; but the sustained growth and its export capacity achieved in the first decade of the XXI century overcomes with a large number of expectations that the international community could have foreseen. The export capacity, the entrance of the direct foreign investment and the capital speculative indicators show the growth of the Chinese economy, and makes it outstanding to analyze the circumstances under which China has achieved this position at world level. Of the previously mentioned, it stands out the exchange rate that maintains and locates it in a privileged position; so, the foreign exchange policy is a fundamental aspect to explain the situation that nowadays China keeps. The retrospective of the exchange regimens in China is the key to understand the present situation of China in the world context in order to forecast the Asian giant’s future development.

  9. Customer expectations and current offers from food trucks in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, An

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to determine whether there is a gap between what customers expect and what the food trucks in Helsinki offers in term of diversity of products, price, time and location of service. Do the current offers match with what customers would like to have? The food truck concept has a long history and since 2008 became an international phenomenon. However, it is still relatively young in Helsinki. There are concerted efforts from different parties included the city’s au...

  10. Symmetries, conservation principles, and the phenomenology of meson exchange currents. Chapter 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foldy, L.L.; Lock, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The authors show that as an alternative to one-pion exchange S-matrix calculations, one may learn quite a bit concerning meson exchange electromagnetic and weak currents by the application of various symmetries and conservation laws. In particular, one may determine the most general form that the exchange currents may take in the static approximation by the application of invariance under spatial translations, rotations, and space inversion, the electric charge superselection principle. Lorentz invariance, vector current conservation, time reversal invariance, Hermiticity of the interaction Hamiltonian, and invariance under coordinate interchange. (Auth.)

  11. One-pion exchange current corrections for nuclear magnetic moments in relativistic mean field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Yao, J.M.; Meng Jie; Arima, Akito

    2011-01-01

    The one-pion exchange current corrections to isoscalar and isovector magnetic moments of double-closed shell nuclei plus and minus one nucleon with A = 15, 17, 39 and 41 have been studied in the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory and compared with previous relativistic and non-relativistic results. It has been found that the one-pion exchange current gives a negligible contribution to the isoscalar magnetic moments but a significant correction to the isovector ones. However, the one-pion exchange current enhances the isovector magnetic moments further and does not improve the corresponding description for the concerned nuclei in the present work. (author)

  12. Current issues and perspectives in food safety and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrand, G

    2015-12-01

    In this review, current issues and opportunities in food safety assessment are discussed. Food safety is considered an essential element inherent in global food security. Hazard characterization is pivotal within the continuum of risk assessment, but it may be conceived only within a very limited frame as a true alternative to risk assessment. Elucidation of the mode of action underlying a given hazard is vital to create a plausible basis for human toxicology evaluation. Risk assessment, to convey meaningful risk communication, must be based on appropriate and reliable consideration of both exposure and mode of action. New perspectives, provided by monitoring human exogenous and endogenous exposure biomarkers, are considered of great promise to support classical risk extrapolation from animal toxicology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Influence of exchange coupling on current-driven domain wall motion in a nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Takashi; Takahashi, Kota; Murakami, Hiroshi; Sugita, Ryuji

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of exchange stiffness constant on current-driven domain wall motion in nanowires with in-plane magnetic anisotropy (IMA) and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) has been investigated using micromagnetic simulation. The critical current density in a nanowire with IMA decreases as the exchange stiffness constant decreases because the domain wall width at the upper edge of the nanowire narrows according to the decrease of the exchange stiffness constant. On the other hand, the critical current density in a nanowire with PMA slightly decreases contrary to that of IMA although the domain wall width reasonably decreases as the exchange stiffness constant decreases. The slight reduction rate of the critical current density is due to the increase of the effective hard-axis anisotropy of PMA nanowire.

  14. Dependence of the Spin Transfer Torque Switching Current Density on the Exchange Stiffness Constant

    OpenAIRE

    You, Chun-Yeol

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the dependence of the switching current density on the exchange stiffness constant in the spin transfer torque magnetic tunneling junction structure with micromagnetic simulations. Since the widely accepted analytic expression of the switching current density is based on the macro-spin model, there is no dependence of the exchange stiffness constant. When the switching is occurred, however, the spin configuration forms C-, S-type, or complicated domain structures. Since the spi...

  15. The Alginate Demonstration: Polymers, Food Science, and Ion Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Amy Sue; Schechinger, Linda; Govindarajoo, Geeta; Nowick, James S.; Pignolet, Louis H.

    1998-11-01

    We have recently devised a polymer demonstration involving the crosslinking and decrosslinking of alginate, a polysaccharide isolated from seaweed. The polymer is composed of D-mannuronic acid and L-guluronic acid subunits and is a component of cell walls. It is commonly used as a thickener in foods such as ice cream and fruit-filled snacks. For the demonstration, a 2% solution of sodium alginate is poured into a 1% solution of calcium chloride. Nontoxic calcium alginate "worms" form due to crosslinking of the polymer. Alternatively, the commercially available antacid Gaviscon can be used as a source of sodium alginate. The crosslinks can then be broken by shaking the worms in brine. The demonstration is a fine addition to any chemical educator's repertoire of polymer experiments.

  16. Harmonised information exchange between decentralised food composition database systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakkala, Heikki; Christensen, Tue; Martínez de Victoria, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    documentation and by the use of standardised thesauri. Subjects/Methods: The data bank is implemented through a network of local FCD storages (usually national) under the control and responsibility of the local (national) EuroFIR partner. Results: The implementation of the system based on the Euro......FIR specifications is under development. The data interchange happens through the EuroFIR Web Services interface, allowing the partners to implement their system using methods and software suitable for the local computer environment. The implementation uses common international standards, such as Simple Object...... Access Protocol, Web Service Description Language and Extensible Markup Language (XML). A specifically constructed EuroFIR search facility (eSearch) was designed for end users. The EuroFIR eSearch facility compiles queries using a specifically designed Food Data Query Language and sends a request...

  17. Weak interactions and exchange currents in light nuclei. Theoretical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guichon, P.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of meson exchange currents in the nuclear weak interaction is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The hypothesis of current algebra and partial conservation of axial current are used, through Adler-Dothan theorem, to derive the one pion exchange correction to the impulse approximation. Calculations are performed for partial transitions in the 1p-shell nuclei and in 16 O. The corrections are generally small except for the (0 + →0 - ) transition in 16 O where the large correction to the time component of the axial current can show up, due to selection rules. The measurement of the muon capture rate for this transition is described and an interpretation in term of exchange currents is proposed [fr

  18. Meson exchange currents in nuclei; the triton beta decay as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaus, W.

    1976-01-01

    The method used to reduce the four-dimensional Bethe-Salpeter equation to the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation, thus defining a potential in terms of the field theoretic interaction, can be generalized to define a consistent exchange by considering the relativistic interaction of a current with a bound state of nucleons. This covariant approach allows a unified treatment of exchange current effects, renormalization of the nuclear wave function due to meson exchange, relativistic corrections and negative energy contributions to the wave function and it is discussed in detail how these effects influence the Gamow-Teller matrix element for the decay 3 H→ 3 He + e + antiγ. One and two-meson exchange processes are calculated including nucleon resonances in intermediate states, and good agreement of theoretical and experimental predictions for the GT matrix element is found. (Auth.)

  19. Fingerprinting food: current technologies for the detection of food adulteration and contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David I; Brewster, Victoria L; Dunn, Warwick B; Allwood, J William; Golovanov, Alexander P; Goodacre, Royston

    2012-09-07

    Major food adulteration and contamination events seem to occur with some regularity, such as the widely publicised adulteration of milk products with melamine and the recent microbial contamination of vegetables across Europe for example. With globalisation and rapid distribution systems, these can have international impacts with far-reaching and sometimes lethal consequences. These events, though potentially global in the modern era, are in fact far from contemporary, and deliberate adulteration of food products is probably as old as the food processing and production systems themselves. This review first introduces some background into these practices, both historically and contemporary, before introducing a range of the technologies currently available for the detection of food adulteration and contamination. These methods include the vibrational spectroscopies: near-infrared, mid-infrared, Raman; NMR spectroscopy, as well as a range of mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, amongst others. This subject area is particularly relevant at this time, as it not only concerns the continuous engagement with food adulterers, but also more recent issues such as food security, bioterrorism and climate change. It is hoped that this introductory overview acts as a springboard for researchers in science, technology, engineering, and industry, in this era of systems-level thinking and interdisciplinary approaches to new and contemporary problems.

  20. Low flow velocity, fine-screen heat exchangers and vapor-cooled cryogenic current leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyert, W.A.; Stone, N.J.

    1978-09-01

    The design, construction, and testing of three compact, low temperature heat exchangers are reported. A method is given for the construction of a small (approximately = 20-cm 3 volume) exchanger that can handle 6 g/s helium flow with low pressure drops (ΔP/P = 10 percent) and adequate heat transfer (N/sub tu/ = 3). The use of screen for simple, vapor-cooled current leads into cryogenic systems is also discussed

  1. Food allergy and risk assessment: Current status and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Benjamin C.

    2017-09-01

    Risk analysis is a three part, interactive process that consists of a scientific risk assessment, a risk management strategy and an exchange of information through risk communication. Quantitative risk assessment methodologies are now available and widely used for assessing risks regarding the unintentional consumption of major, regulated allergens but new or modified proteins can also pose a risk of de-novo sensitization. The risks due to de-novo sensitization to new food allergies are harder to quantify. There is a need for a systematic, comprehensive battery of tests and assessment strategy to identify and characterise de-novo sensitization to new proteins and the risks associated with them. A risk assessment must be attuned to answer the risk management questions and needs. Consequently, the hazard and risk assessment methods applied and the desired information are determined by the requested outcome for risk management purposes and decisions to be made. The COST Action network (ImpARAS, www.imparas.eu) has recently started to discuss these risk management criteria from first principles and will continue with the broader subject of improving strategies for allergen risk assessment throughout 2016-2018/9.

  2. Family meal traditions. Comparing reported childhood food habits to current food habits among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if reported childhood food habits predict the food habits of students at present. Questions addressed are: does the memory of childhood family meals promote commensality among students? Does the memory of (grand)parents' cooking influence students' cooking? And, is there still a gender difference in passing on everyday cooking skills? Using a cross-sectional survey, 104 students were asked about their current eating and cooking habits, and their eating habits and the cooking behavior of their (grand)parents during their childhood. Results show that frequencies in reported childhood family meals predict frequencies of students' commensality at present. The effects appear for breakfast and dinner, and stay within the same meal: recalled childhood family breakfasts predict current breakfast commensality, recalled childhood family dinners predict current dinner commensality. In terms of recalled cookery of (grand)parents and the use of family recipes a matrilineal dominance can be observed. Mothers are most influential, and maternal grandmothers outscore paternal grandmothers. Yet, fathers' childhood cooking did not pass unnoticed either. They seem to influence male students' cookery. Overall, in a life-stage of transgression students appear to maintain recalled childhood food rituals. Suggestions are discussed to further validate these results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CURRENT STUDY ON THE FUNDING SOURCES COVERAGE OF CURRENT ASSETS TO COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor HADA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents issues about the coverage with financing sources of current assets for 64 companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The aim of the study is to see how to calculate indicators specific to current assets and the general framework offered as whole analysis of the financing sources of current assets. The introduction of the paper presents the objective, the research methodology and the novelties brought by this study. Further on, this study shows the various views of the authors about the concept of "current assets", financing sources of current assets, the calculation of net working capital, setting the limits of the normal working capital and determining the speed of rotation. After that was done, based on the theory, a case study was performed, for companies covered in this study. Conclusions focused on determining the final data about what was detailed in the previous paragraphs.

  4. Effects of core polarization and meson exchange currents on electromagnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arima, Akito [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ikegami, Hidetsugu; Muraoka, Mitsuo [eds.; Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    1980-01-01

    Magnetic form factors observed by electron scattering provide good evidence for core polarization and meson exchange currents. Their effects are discussed by taking /sup 17/O, /sup 51/V, /sup 207/Pb /sup 208/Pb, /sup 209/Bi and /sup 12/C.

  5. Government Spending Shocks, the Current Account and the Real Exchange Rate in OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Kim

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of government spending shocks on the current account and the real exchange rate for 20 OECD countries using panel VAR model, in order to provide empirical stylized facts. The countries were grouped based on openness and size, and the influence of openness and size on the effects of government spending shocks. The main findings are as follows. First, in the analysis of all 20 countries, in response to government spending shocks, the worsening of the current account is significant, but real exchange rate appreciation is not significant. Second, real exchange rate appreciation is more significant and worsening of the current account is more temporary in the group of countries with higher openness than in those with low openness. Third, the worsening of the current account is more significant in the group of large countries than in the group of small countries. Although real exchange rate depreciation under fiscal expansion is not consistent with traditional theories, the results are broadly consistent with the existing theories that incorporate openness and the size of the country.

  6. On the meson exchange currents contribution in deep inelastic scattering on deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaptar', L.P.; Titov, A.I.; Umnikov, A.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    The contribution of the one- and two-pion exchange currents to the deep inelastic deuteron structure function F 2 D (x) is considered. It is shown that the mesonic corrections do not restore the energy sum rule violated by the off-mass-shell properties of the bound nucleons

  7. High-dose irradiated food: Current progress, applications, and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Chitho P.

    2018-03-01

    Food irradiation as an established and mature technology has gained more attention in the food industry for ensuring food safety and quality. Primarily used for phytosanitary applications, its use has been expanded for developing various food products for varied purposes (e.g. ready-to-eat & ready-to-cook foods, hospital diets, etc.). This paper summarized and analyzed the recent progress and application of high-dose irradiation and discussed its prospects in the field of food product development, its safety and quality.

  8. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brodschneider

    Full Text Available We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis. Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80% intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5 or 45

  9. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodschneider, Robert; Libor, Anika; Kupelwieser, Vera; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-01-01

    We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera) under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis). Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80%) intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5) or 45% (20:20) of the

  10. MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

    Higher plants play an important role in closed ecological life support systems as oxygen pro-ducers, carbon dioxide and water recyclers, and as a food source. For an integration of higher plant chambers into the MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) loop, a detailed characterization and optimization of the full food production and preparation chain is needed. This implies the prediction and control of the nutritional quality of the final products consumed by the crew, the prediction of the wastes quality and quantity produced along the chain for further waste treatment (MELiSSA waste treatment) and the optimization of overall efficiencies. To reach this goal several issues have to be studied in an integrated manner: the physiological responses of crops to a range of environmental parameters, crop yield efficiencies and respective ratio and composition of edible and inedible biomass, the processability and storability of the produced food and last but not least composition of wastes in view of further degradation (fiber content). Within the Food Characterization (FC) project several compar-ative plant growth bench tests were carried out to obtain preliminary data regarding these aspects. Four pre-selected cultivars of each of the four energy-rich crops with worldwide usage -wheat, durum wheat, potato and soybean -were grown under well-characterized environmental conditions. The different cultivars of each species are screened for their performance in view of a closed loop application by parameter ranking. This comprises the characterization of edi-ble/inedible biomass ratio, nutritional quality, processability and overall performance under the specific conditions of hydroponic cultivation and artificial illumination. A second closely linked goal of the FC project is to develop a mechanistic physiological plant model, which will ease the integration of higher plants compartments in the MELiSSA concept by virtue of its predictive abilities

  11. Current status of uranium enrichment by way of chemical exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Basyouny, A.; Bechthold, H.C.; Knoechel, A.; Vollmer, H.J.

    1985-04-01

    For this report, conference proceedings, patents and other types of literature have been collected to present an account of the current status of uranium enrichment by way of chemical exchange reactions. The report further presents a new concept along with the relevant process strategy developed by the authors. The principal process of the new concept is a chemical exchange process with crown ethers, complexed or free, playing an important part in the reactions. The authors also describe their experiments carried out for establishing suitable chemical systems. (orig./PW) [de

  12. Developing a food exchange list for Middle Eastern appetizers and desserts commonly consumed in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawadi, Hiba A; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M; Tayyem, Reema F; Mekary, Rania; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2009-03-01

    AIM: This study was conducted to develop a meal-planning exchange list for Middle Eastern foods commonly included in the Jordanian cuisine. Forty types of appetizers and another 40 types of desserts were selected; with five different recipes for each item. Recipes were collected from different housewives and Arabic cookbooks. Ingredients' weight and dish net weight were recorded based on an average recipe, and dishes were prepared accordingly. Dishes were proximately analyzed following the AOAC procedures. Proximate analysis was compared to the WHO-food composition tables (FCT) for the use in the Middle East, and with food analysis software (ESHA). RESULTS: Significant correlations (P desserts and appetizers is now available and ready to be used by dietitians and health care providers in Jordan and Arab World.

  13. Current issues in the analysis of consumer food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    before or during purchase, and then have a quality experience after the purchase. However, an increasing role of credence characteristics in food choice assigns communication a stronger role in understanding food choice, and consumer concern for food production technologies gives prior attitudes...

  14. Current status of the EPR method to detect irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    This review gives a brief outline of the principles of the EPR detection method for irradiated foods by food type. For each food type, the scope, limitations and status of the method are given. The extensive reference list aims to include all which define the method, as well as some rarely cited works of historical importance. (author)

  15. Meson exchange currents in a relativistic model for electromagnetic one nucleon emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meucci, Andrea; Giusti, Carlotta; Pacati, Franco Davide

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the role of meson exchange currents (MECs) in photon- and electron-induced one nucleon emission reactions in a fully relativistic model. The relativistic mean-field theory is used for the bound state and the Pauli reduction for the scattering state. Direct one-body and exchange two-body terms in the nuclear current are considered. Results for the 12 C(γ,p) and 16 O(γ,p) differential cross sections and photon asymmetries are displayed in an energy range between 60 and 196 MeV. The two-body seagull current affects the cross section less than in nonrelativistic analyses. In the case of the 16 O(γ,n) differential cross section, MEC effects are large but not sufficient to reproduce the data. MECs have a small effect on (e,e ' p) calculations

  16. The Impact of the Current Food Crisis on the Nigerian Society ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is currently experiencing a serious food crisis in its history. The crisis manifests itself in the inability of the nation to produce enough food to feed its population and the need to import food at exorbitant prices. Food shortage and hunger have resulted in the incidence of malnutrition and kwashiorkor among its citizens.

  17. State of the safety assessment and current use of nanomaterials in food and food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, H.; Brandhoff, P.N.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Weigel, S.; Peters, R.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials are developed for and applied in food, food additives, supplements and food contact materials. In an inventory of internet databases 140 products in the food and food-related sectors were identified that claim to contain nanomaterials. A great diversity of nanomaterials is applied,

  18. Qualification of Fin-Type Heat Exchangers for the ITER Current Leads

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A; Bordini, B; Devred, A; Ding, K; Niu, E; Sitko, M; Taylor, T; Yang, Y; Zhou, T

    2015-01-01

    The ITER current leads will transfer large currents of up to 68 kA into the biggest superconducting magnets ever built. Following the development of prototypes and targeted trials of specific manufacturing processes through mock-ups, the ASIPP (Chinese Institute of Plasma Physics) is preparing for the series fabrication. A key component of the ITER HTS current leads are the resistive heat exchangers. Special R&D was conducted for these components at CERN and ASIPP in support of their designs. In particular several mock-ups were built and tested in room temperature gas to measure the dynamic pressure drop and compare to 3D CFD models.

  19. Crisis? What Crisis? The Normality of the Current Food Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, T.

    2010-01-01

    The 2005–8 food crisis was a shock to political elites, but in some respects the situation was normal. Food policies are failing to respond adequately to the squeeze on land, people, health and environment. Strong evidence of systems failure and stress, termed here New Fundamentals, ought to reframe twenty-first century food politics and effort. Yet so far, international discourse is too often narrow and technical. The paper suggests that 2005–8 reinforced how the dominant twentieth century p...

  20. Electrodisintegration of the deuteron near threshold with allowance for meson exchange currents. Retardation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burov, V.V.; Sus'kov, S.Eh.

    1992-01-01

    The electrodisintegration of the deuteron near threshold with allowance for retardation effects in meson exchange currents (MEC) has been investigated depending on vertex form factors and cut-off parameters. It is shown that the retardation effects should be taken into account in MEC at large transfer momenta (t>12 fm -2 ). It is found for the differential cross section that the contribution of MEC is strongly dependent on the vertex form factors and cut-off parameters. The role of p-meson contribution in MEC with allowance for retardation effects has been investigated. It is shown that the inclusion of retardation effects leads to the decrease of the p-meson influence at large transfer momenta. The radial dependence of the matrix elements with allowance for retardation effects has been studied. It was shown that the inclusion of meson exchange currents is essentially important in the range of r=1-1.5 fm when t -2 . 34 refs.; 12 figs

  1. Characterizing volumetric discontinuities present in NPP heat exchangers with EASY: an eddy current data analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Donizete A.; Silva Junior, Silverio F.

    2011-01-01

    Eddy current is a very important NDT inspection method widely used to perform integrity evaluation of tubes installed in heat exchangers. For nuclear power plants, a classical example is the remote inspection of steam generators and condensers, as well as other ordinary auxiliary equipment. Data evaluation can be performed by means of precise phase and amplitude measurements of complex impedance signals, represented as Lissajous figures plotted on the screen of the inspection systems. This paper presents the software EASY, a computer assisted analysis system developed at CDTN to help the characterization of volumetric discontinuities present in heat exchangers tubes. Data to be analyzed are obtained from commercial eddy current equipment data file, such as ECT MAD8D. Main advantage of that system is its portability and easy use, since it can be executed in ordinary PC, under Microsoft Windows operating system. (author)

  2. Characterizing volumetric discontinuities present in NPP heat exchangers with EASY: an eddy current data analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alencar, Donizete A.; Silva Junior, Silverio F., E-mail: daa@cdtn.b, E-mail: silvasf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Eddy current is a very important NDT inspection method widely used to perform integrity evaluation of tubes installed in heat exchangers. For nuclear power plants, a classical example is the remote inspection of steam generators and condensers, as well as other ordinary auxiliary equipment. Data evaluation can be performed by means of precise phase and amplitude measurements of complex impedance signals, represented as Lissajous figures plotted on the screen of the inspection systems. This paper presents the software EASY, a computer assisted analysis system developed at CDTN to help the characterization of volumetric discontinuities present in heat exchangers tubes. Data to be analyzed are obtained from commercial eddy current equipment data file, such as ECT MAD8D. Main advantage of that system is its portability and easy use, since it can be executed in ordinary PC, under Microsoft Windows operating system. (author)

  3. Review of Current Experience on Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) and A Recommended Code Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane Spencer; Kevin McCoy

    2010-02-02

    The purpose of the ASME/DOE Gen IV Task 7 Part I is to review the current experience on various high temperature reactor intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts. There are several different IHX concepts that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850C to 950C. The concepts that will be primarily discussed herein are: (1) Tubular Helical Coil Heat Exchanger (THCHE); (2) Plate-Stamped Heat Exchanger (PSHE); (3) Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger (PFHE); and (4) Plate-Machined Heat Exchanger (PMHE). The primary coolant of the NGNP is potentially subject to radioactive contamination by the core as well as contamination from the secondary loop fluid. To isolate the radioactivity to minimize radiation doses to personnel, and protect the primary circuit from contamination, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) have been proposed as a means for separating the primary circuit of the NGNP (Next Generation Nuclear Plant) or other process heat application from the remainder of the plant. This task will first review the different concepts of IHX that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850 to 950 C. This will cover shell-and-tube and compact designs (including the platefin concept). The review will then discuss the maturity of the concepts in terms of design, fabricability and component testing (or feedback from experience when applicable). Particular attention will be paid to the feasibility of developing the IHX concepts for the NGNP with operation expected in 2018-2021. This report will also discuss material candidates for IHX applications and will discuss specific issues that will have to be addressed in the context of the HTR design (thermal aging, corrosion, creep, creep-fatigue, etc). Particular attention will be paid to specific issues associated with operation at the upper end of the creep regime.

  4. Review of Current Experience on Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) and A Recommended Code Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Duane; McCoy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the ASME/DOE Gen IV Task 7 Part I is to review the current experience on various high temperature reactor intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts. There are several different IHX concepts that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850C to 950C. The concepts that will be primarily discussed herein are: (1) Tubular Helical Coil Heat Exchanger (THCHE); (2) Plate-Stamped Heat Exchanger (PSHE); (3) Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger (PFHE); and (4) Plate-Machined Heat Exchanger (PMHE). The primary coolant of the NGNP is potentially subject to radioactive contamination by the core as well as contamination from the secondary loop fluid. To isolate the radioactivity to minimize radiation doses to personnel, and protect the primary circuit from contamination, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) have been proposed as a means for separating the primary circuit of the NGNP (Next Generation Nuclear Plant) or other process heat application from the remainder of the plant. This task will first review the different concepts of IHX that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850 to 950 C. This will cover shell-and-tube and compact designs (including the platefin concept). The review will then discuss the maturity of the concepts in terms of design, fabricability and component testing (or feedback from experience when applicable). Particular attention will be paid to the feasibility of developing the IHX concepts for the NGNP with operation expected in 2018-2021. This report will also discuss material candidates for IHX applications and will discuss specific issues that will have to be addressed in the context of the HTR design (thermal aging, corrosion, creep, creep-fatigue, etc). Particular attention will be paid to specific issues associated with operation at the upper end of the creep regime.

  5. Meson exchange current corrections to magnetic moments in quantum hadro-dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, T M; Price, C E; Shepard, J R [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1990-11-15

    We have calculated pion exchange current corrections to the magnetic moments of closed shell {plus minus}1 particle nuclei near A=16 and 40 within the framework of quantum hadro-dynamics (QHD). We find that the correction is significant and that, in general, the agreement of the QHD isovector moments with experiment is worsened. Comparisons to previous non-relativistic calculations are also made. (orig.).

  6. Structure functions of the deuteron with allowance for meson exchange currents within QCD-VMD model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burov, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    The deuteron structure functions A(q 2 ), B(q 2 ) and tensor polarization T 20 (q 2 ) are studied within the QCD-VMD model. It is shown that the calculation of the structure functions with allowance for meson exchange currents does not allow us to improve the agreement with experiment at large transfer momenta where probably other degrees of freedom are to be taken into account. 24 refs.; 6 figs

  7. Climate change and food security in Tanzania: analysis of current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of literature was conducted in order to identify knowledge gaps in climate change and food security research in Tanzania. The review focused on published literature covering the past 20 years addressing climate change effects on various components of the food security. The review of literature reveals, among ...

  8. Environmental transparency of food supply chains - Current Status and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, N.; Bremmers, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food chains need to become more sustainable to regain and retain consumer trust after recent food incidents and scandals. One of the key components of sustainability is environmental care. To what extent do supply chains invest in environmental care and to what extent are consumers willing to pay

  9. Weak interactions in deuterons: exchange currents and nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautry, F.; Rho, M.; Riska, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    While the meson-exchange electromagnetic current has been tested with an impressive success in the two-nucleon system, nothing much is known about the reliability of the exchange currents in weak interactions. This question is studied using muon absorption in the deuteron, μ - + d→n + n + γ. The meson-exchange current, previously derived in parallel to those of the electromagnetic interaction, is checked for consistency against the p-wave piece of the p + p→d + π + process near threshold and then tested with the total capture rate for which some (though not so accurate) data are available. The same Hamiltonian is then used to calculate the matrix elements for the solar neutrino processes p + p→d + e + + γ and p + p + e - → d + γ in the hope that they would be measured and help resolve the solar neutrino puzzle. Finally a detailed analysis is made of the differential capture rate dGAMMA/dEsub(n), Esub(n) being the kinematic energy in the c.m. of the two neutrons, in the expectation that it will be used to pin down the ever elusive n-n scattering length. (Auth.)

  10. Reducing food wastage, improving food security? An inventory study on stakeholders’ perspectives and the current state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, J.; Candel, J.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study is concerned with the relation between food wastage reduction and the improvement of food security. The central question of this inventory study is to what extent interventions to reduce food wastage are effective contributions for food security, in particular for local access in

  11. Multifrequency Eddy current testing of heat exchange tubes with a rotating probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.

    1982-01-01

    Multi-frequency eddy current analyses have been used in France industrially since 1975. In light of the experienced gained during many steam generator inspections, this technique was applied to the examination of sheet and tube heat exchangers featuring tubes in very different materials such as copper, stainless steel and titanium. The principle of multi-frequency Eddy current inspection is first reviewed, using the example of a condenser with nickel alloy tubes (Inconel, Incoloy). This is followed by the description of a specific application of this technique to a condenser with titanium tubes, analyzed with a rotating local probe [fr

  12. Charge Exchange Contribution to the Decay of the Ring Current, Measured by Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, A. M.; Henderson, M. G.; Roelof, E. C.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we calculate the contribution of charge exchange to the decay of the ring current. Past works have suggested that charge exchange of ring current protons is primarily responsible for the decay of the ring current during the late recovery phase, but there is still much debate about the fast decay of the early recovery phase. We use energetic neutral atom (ENA) measurements from Polar to calculate the total ENA energy escape. To get the total ENA escape we apply a forward modeling technique, and to estimate the total ring current energy escape we use the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke relationship. We find that during the late recovery phase of the March 10, 1998 storm ENAs with energies greater than 17.5 keV can account for 75% of the estimated energy loss from the ring current. During the fast recovery the measured ENAs can only account for a small portion of the total energy loss. We also find that the lifetime of the trapped ions is significantly shorter during the fast recovery phase than during the late recovery phase, suggesting that different processes are operating during the two phases.

  13. Climate Change and Food Security in Tanzania: Analysis of Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food systems in Tanzania are highly vulnerable to climate change and variability due to poor adaptive capacity of ... available GCMs and downscaling techniques ... water for hydroelectric power generation ... for farm-level decision making.

  14. Meson-exchange-current corrections to magnetic moments in quantum hadrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Corrections to the magnetic moments of the non-relativistic shell model (Schmidt lines) have a long history. In the early fifties calculations of pion exchange and core polarization contributions to nuclear magnetic moments were initiated. These calculations matured by the early eighties to include other mesons and the delta isobar. Relativistic nuclear shell model calculations are relatively recent. Meson exchange and the delta isobar current contributions to the magnetic moments of the relativistic shell model have remained largely unexplored. The disagreement between the valence values of spherical relativistic mean-field models and experiment was a major problem with early (1975-1985) quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) calculations of magnetic moments. Core polarization calculations (1986-1988) have been found to resolve the large discrepancy, predicting isoscalar magnetic moments to within typically five percent of experiment. The isovector magnetic moments, however, are about twice as far from experiment with an average discrepancy of about ten percent. The pion, being the lightest of the mesons, has historically been expected to dominate isovector corrections. Because this has been found to be true in non-relativistic calculations, the author calculated the pion corrections in the framework of QHD. The seagull and in-flight pion exchange current diagram corrections to the magnetic moments of eight finite nuclei (plus or minus one valence nucleon from the magic A = 16 and A = 40 doubly closed shell systems) are calculated in the framework of QHD, and compared with earlier non-relativistic calculations and experiment

  15. The Use and Exchange of Biological Control Agents for Food and Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.C.van; Lenteren; M.J.W.Cock; J.Brodeur; B.Barratt; F.Bigler; K.Bolckmans; F.Haas; P.G.Mason; J.R.P.Parra

    2010-01-01

    The report sets out to summarize the past and current situation regarding the practice of biologicalcontrol inrelationtothe use and exchange of genetic resources relevant for BCAs.It considers the twomain categories of biological control:classical and augmentative.Allowing access to BCAs for use inanother country imposes no risk of liability to the source country.Local scientific knowledge abouthabitats,fauna andflora,can be helpful

  16. Current Demands for Food-Approved Liposome Nanoparticles in Food and Safety Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Shukla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Safety of food is a noteworthy issue for consumers and the food industry. A number of complex challenges associated with food engineering and food industries, including quality food production and safety of the food through effective and feasible means can be explained by nanotechnology. However, nanoparticles have unique physicochemical properties compared to normal macroparticles of the same composition and thus could interact with living system in surprising ways to induce toxicity. Further, few toxicological/safety assessments have been performed on nanoparticles, thereby necessitating further research on oral exposure risk prior to their application to food. Liposome nanoparticles are viewed as attractive novel materials by the food and medical industries. For example, nanoencapsulation of bioactive food compounds is an emerging application of nanotechnology. In several food industrial practices, liposome nanoparticles have been utilized to improve flavoring and nutritional properties of food, and they have been examined for their capacity to encapsulate natural metabolites that may help to protect the food from spoilage and degradation. This review focuses on ongoing advancements in the application of liposomes for food and pharma sector.

  17. An enzymatic method for the determination of fructans in foods and food products - Comparison of the results by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperemetric detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Sørensen, A.

    1999-01-01

    We report a new and non-equipment demanding method of measuring the content of fructans as well as the contents of free glucose, free fructose and sucrose in foods and food products enzymatically. This method comprises hydrolysis of fructans into D-glucose and D-fructose enzymatically...... effects than the fructanase reported as normally used. The method is tested on ten standard substances and five fructan products, and nine foods and food products are also analysed. The enzymatic measurement of the released sugars is confirmed by measurements done by high performance anion exchange...

  18. Antimicrobial Substances for Food Packaging Products: The Current Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerito, Alessandra; Ameen, Sara M; Micali, Maria; Caruso, Giorgia

    2018-04-04

    Antimicrobial substances are widely used in many anthropic activities, including sanitary and military services for the human population. These compounds are also known to be used in food production, agricultural activities, and partially correlated industrial sectors. However, there are concerns regarding the link between the abuse of antimicrobial agents in these ambits and the possible detection of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Modern food and beverage products are generally found on the market as prepackaged units, with several exceptions. Consequently, positive and negative features of a specific food or beverage should be considered as the result of the synergic action of different components, including the container (or the assembled sum of packaging materials). At present, the meaning of food container also includes the creation and development of new packaging materials that are potentially able to interact with the contained food. "Active" packaging systems can be realized with antimicrobial substances. On the other hand, a careful evaluation of risks and advantages correlated with antimicrobial agents is needed because of possible negative and/or unexpected failures.

  19. Current developments in food additive toxicology in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattan, David G.; Kahl, Linda S.

    2002-01-01

    A recently published proposal (Fed. Reg. 66 (2001) 4706) for mandatory submission of information on all plant-derived bioengineered foods fed to humans or animals will be reviewed. Under this proposal, information such as data on identity, level and function of the introduced substance(s); an estimate of dietary exposure; allergenic potential of the protein; data relevant to other safety issues that may be associated with the substance; selection of a comparable food; historic uses of comparable food; composition and characteristics of bioengineered food versus those of the comparable food should be provided. In addition, characterization of the parent plant; construction of the transformation vector and introduced genetic material along with number of insertion sites and genes; data on the genetic material and any newly inserted genes for antibiotic resistance should be submitted with the notification. The Interagency Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) was identified by the U.S. Congress as the organization to review and validate new alternative toxicological test methods for 14 U.S. government agencies. Validated and accepted alternative toxicity tests will be incorporated into toxicity testing recommendations for regulatory agencies

  20. Detection methods for irradiated foods: current status. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, C.H.; Gray, R.; Stewart, E.M.; Pearce, J.; Queen's Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland

    1996-01-01

    This book contains a scientific record of an international meeting on analytical detection methods for irradiation treatment of food. Apart from encouraging the basic development of detection tests, the meeting also aimed to assess the various test methods critically to determine their suitability for general use by public health laboratories and others concerned with trade in irradiated food. Two sets of criteria have been developed to assess test methods, technical criteria for a qualitative or quantitative test and practical criteria if a method is to be widely applied by food labelling authorities. Agreement has already been achieved for the use of electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence, hydrocarbons, 2-Alkylcyclobutanones, microbiological, viscometry and impedance tests. (UK)

  1. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  2. Current applications of probiotic foods in Africa | Ukeyima | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... microorganisms is receiving increasing attention. Various indigenous fermented foods containing probiotic bacteria have been part of local diet in Africa due to reported medicinal properties they possess. However, the usual challenge confronting the commercialization of the probiotic beverage drinks in Africa is the safety ...

  3. Nanomaterials in Food - Current and Future Applications and Regulatory Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aschberger, K.; Gottardo, S.; Amenta, V.; Arena, M.; Botelho Moniz, F.; Bouwmeester, Hans; Brandhoff, P.; Mech, A.; Quiros Pesudo, L.; Rauscher, H.; Schoonjans, R.; Vittoria Vettori, M.; Peters, R.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology can contribute to the development of innovative applications in the agriculture, food and feed sector by e.g. enabling improved delivery of nutrients or increased efficacy of agrichemicals. It is expected that applications will increase in the near future and may therefore become a

  4. Detection of irradiated food: current progress on the MAFF programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.M.; Holley, P.A.; Pryke, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    In their 1986 report the UK's Advisory Committee on Irradiated Food recognized that a generally applicable test was not available. In view of this the Committee advised that documentary control would have to be maintained throughout the processing chain. The Committee considered that detection tests would be an useful supplement for such a control system, and would do much to reassure consumers. In the following year MAFF initiated an R/D programme covering a wide variety of potential methods. The programme now focuses on developing and validating the most promising of these. Whilst it is unlikely that there will ever be an universal test covering all foods, this programme has now reached a point where tests are becoming available for a wide variety of foods. This paper reviews the progress on a number of last years projects of MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food). In addition to the existing MAFF collaboratively tested non-statutory method for herbs and spices, two other methods have now been published: electron spin resonance spectroscopy for meat, and detection of irradiated poultry using the limulus lyasate test based on the presence on 2-alkyl cyclobutanones in irradiated seafood, poultry and meat. The Ministry also takes an active interest in international programmes including European Community and IAEA/FAO initiatives. (author)

  5. Current status of food irradiation overseas. Data update from 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko

    2015-01-01

    As the movement of international standards and specifications, the treatment standards related to food irradiation have been summarized on the basis of the ISPM 28 Annex PT-19 of International Plant Protection Convention. As the movement in the United States, there are the following tables: (1) food and radiation dose approved by FDA, (2) lowest radiation dose for the pests of each quarantine target stipulated by the USDA/APHIS as the plant quarantine authorities of the United States Department of Agriculture, (3) items and production sites of vegetables/fruits about which irradiation treatment in import phytosanitary has been approved by USDA, and (4) import volume of irradiated fruits into the United States. The following statistics have also been summarized: (1) materials and irradiation dose permitted FSANZ, which is the food safety regulatory authorities of Australia and New Zealand, and (2) irradiation-treated amount of each food in the EU territory in 2013, and treated amount in each country. In Asia, the amount and facilities of irradiation treatment are described for ten countries including China, Thailand, India, etc. As the contents of the Coordinated Research Programs (CRPs) of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the following are introduced: (1) three items including 'Development of generic irradiation doses for quarantine treatments,' and (2) three items of the contents of 'The Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific: RCA).' (A.O.)

  6. Exchange-Dominated Pure Spin Current Transport in Alq3 Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S W; Liu, S; Wang, P; Luan, Z Z; Tao, X D; Ding, H F; Wu, D

    2015-08-21

    We address the controversy over the spin transport mechanism in Alq3 utilizing spin pumping in the Y3Fe5O12/Alq3/Pd system. An unusual angular dependence of the inverse spin Hall effect is found. It, however, disappears when the microwave magnetic field is fully in the sample plane, excluding the presence of the Hanle effect. Together with the quantitative temperature-dependent measurements, these results provide compelling evidence that the pure spin current transport in Alq3 is dominated by the exchange-mediated mechanism.

  7. Large Eddy Simulations of sediment entrainment induced by a lock-exchange gravity current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrousi, Foteini; Leonardi, A.; Roman, F.; Armenio, V.; Zanello, F.; Zordan, J.; Juez, C.; Falcomer, L.

    2018-04-01

    Large Eddy simulations of lock-exchange gravity currents propagating over a mobile reach are presented. The numerical setting allows to investigate the sediment pick up induced by the currents and to study the underlying mechanisms leading to sediment entrainment for different Grashof numbers and grain sizes. First, the velocity field and the bed shear-stress distribution are investigated, along with turbulent structures formed in the flow, before the current reaches the mobile bed. Then, during the propagation of the current above the erodible section of the bed the contour plots of the entrained material are presented as well as the time evolution of the areas covered by the current and by the sediment at this section. The numerical outcomes are compared with experimental data showing a very good agreement. Overall, the study confirms that sediment pick up is prevalent at the head of the current where the strongest turbulence occurs. Further, above the mobile reach of the bed, settling process seems to be of minor importance, with the entrained material being advected downstream by the current. Additionally, the study shows that, although shear stress is the main mechanism that sets particles in motion, turbulent bursts as well as vertical velocity fluctuations are also necessary to counteract the falling velocity of the particles and maintain them into suspension. Finally, the analysis of the stability conditions of the current shows that, from one side, sediment concentration gives a negligible contribution to the stability of the front of the current and from the other side, the stability conditions provided by the current do not allow sediments to move into the ambient fluid.

  8. Selected finelings on current research into applications of ionizing radiation in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkova, Z.

    1979-01-01

    A review is presented of research of the application of ionizing radiation in the food industry, mainly for the inhibition of potato and onion germination and for radappertization of soft fruits. Current laws governing the irradiation of food are described and the current knowledge of the practical application of the new technology is indicated. (author)

  9. Impression management and food intake. Current directions in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews recent research on consumption stereotypes (judgments of others based on what they eat) and impression management (modifying one's eating behavior in order to create a particular impression). A major recent focus in the literature has been on masculinity and meat eating, with research showing that meat is strongly associated with masculinity, and that individuals who follow a meat-based diet are perceived as more masculine than are individuals who follow a vegetarian diet. Although direct evidence for impression management through food intake remains sparse, a number of methodological approaches (including priming techniques and ecological valid assessments) are described that could be used in future research to identify the motives underlying people's eating behavior. Consumption stereotypes and impression management may be important influences on people's eating behavior, but the complexities of how, when, and for whom these factors influence food intake are still not well understood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Current issues in the understanding of consumer food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2002-01-01

    Consumer food choice is framed in terms of the formation of quality expectations before and quality experience after the purchase. For the formation of quality expectations, lack of consumer ability to form expectations that will be predictive of later experience is mentioned as a problem......-called credence qualities - qualities which are invisible to the consumer both before and after the purchase. Such qualities provide a challenge for communication about the product, not only to induce consumers to buy the product, but also to reinforce their choice after the purchase. Concerning experienced...... quality after the purchase, the role of home production - turning products into meals - is mentioned as important, but underresearced topic. Finally, differences in consumer behaviour between normal situations and situations of food crises are addressed. Udgivelsesdato: AUG...

  11. Applying computer modeling to eddy current signal analysis for steam generator and heat exchanger tube inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.P.; Cecco, V.S.; Carter, J.R.; Spanner, M.; McElvanney, M.; Krause, T.W.; Tkaczyk, R.

    2000-01-01

    Licensing requirements for eddy current inspections for nuclear steam generators and heat exchangers are becoming increasingly stringent. The traditional industry-standard method of comparing inspection signals with flaw signals from simple in-line calibration standards is proving to be inadequate. A more complete understanding of eddy current and magnetic field interactions with flaws and other anomalies is required for the industry to generate consistently reliable inspections. Computer modeling is a valuable tool in improving the reliability of eddy current signal analysis. Results from computer modeling are helping inspectors to properly discriminate between real flaw signals and false calls, and improving reliability in flaw sizing. This presentation will discuss complementary eddy current computer modeling techniques such as the Finite Element Method (FEM), Volume Integral Method (VIM), Layer Approximation and other analytic methods. Each of these methods have advantages and limitations. An extension of the Layer Approximation to model eddy current probe responses to ferromagnetic materials will also be presented. Finally examples will be discussed demonstrating how some significant eddy current signal analysis problems have been resolved using appropriate electromagnetic computer modeling tools

  12. Isovector meson-exchange currents in the light-front dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desplanques, B.; Karmanov, V.A.; Mathiot, J.F.

    1994-09-01

    In the light-front dynamics, there is no pair term that plays the role of the dominant isovector pion exchange current. This current gives rise to the large and experimentally observed contribution to the deuteron electrodisintegration cross-section near threshold for pseudo-scalar πNN coupling. It is analytically shown that in leading 1/m order the amplitude in the light-front dynamics coincides, however, with the one given by the pair term. At high Q 2 , it consists of two equal parts. One comes from extra components of the deuteron and final state relativistic wave functions. The other results from the contact NNπγ interaction which appears in the light-front dynamics. This provides a transparent link between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches. (author). 16 refs., 4 figs

  13. Calcium Transient and Sodium-Calcium Exchange Current in Human versus Rabbit Sinoatrial Node Pacemaker Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie O. Verkerk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate on the mechanism underlying the pacemaker activity of sinoatrial node (SAN cells, focusing on the relative importance of the “membrane clock” and the “Ca2+ clock” in the generation of the small net membrane current that depolarizes the cell towards the action potential threshold. Specifically, the debate centers around the question whether the membrane clock-driven hyperpolarization-activated current, If, which is also known as the “funny current” or “pacemaker current,” or the Ca2+ clock-driven sodium-calcium exchange current, INaCa, is the main contributor to diastolic depolarization. In our contribution to this journal’s “Special Issue on Cardiac Electrophysiology,” we present a numerical reconstruction of If and INaCa in isolated rabbit and human SAN pacemaker cells based on experimental data on action potentials, If, and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i that we have acquired from these cells. The human SAN pacemaker cells have a smaller If, a weaker [Ca2+]i transient, and a smaller INaCa than the rabbit cells. However, when compared to the diastolic net membrane current, INaCa is of similar size in human and rabbit SAN pacemaker cells, whereas If is smaller in human than in rabbit cells.

  14. Comparison of exact-exchange calculations for solids in current-spin-density- and spin-density-functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, S.; Pittalis, S.; Kurth, S.

    2007-01-01

    The relative merits of current-spin-density- and spin-density-functional theory are investigated for solids treated within the exact-exchange-only approximation. Spin-orbit splittings and orbital magnetic moments are determined at zero external magnetic field. We find that for magnetic (Fe, Co......, and Ni) and nonmagnetic (Si and Ge) solids, the exact-exchange current-spin-density functional approach does not significantly improve the accuracy of the corresponding spin-density functional results....

  15. Eddy current automatic inspection of heat exchangers in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazal, M.; Scopelliti, J.D.; Mendez, J.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation describes the eddy current tube inspection techniques for heavy heat exchangers in nuclear power stations. The purpose of these eddy current tests, is first to determine the integrity of the heat exchanger tubes, and to characterize the related types of defects in each case following to their analysis and cause determination and subsequent inspection planning. This task requires a group highly qualified personnel with high tech automate equipment. The organization of the group required a correct function and task assignment in order to achieve efficiency in scheduling, with simultaneous inspection to different components in a continuous base and uninterruptedly. A lead specialist is in charge of the group, which is set up by several shift supervisors, a qualified tele manipulator installation crew a number of qualified tele manipulator operators, and the specialist for data acquisition and certified eddy current signal evaluators plus some other support technicians and administrations helpers. In order to comply with inspection requirements, a bunch of technical procedures had to be developed. The following equipment is available nowadays: Zetec SM-13, SM-23 and SM-22 tele manipulators for inspection probes positioning, with different shapes and configuration (rotating probes, flexible probes for U-Bends, and magnetic saturation probes endowed with their own driving units) and remote data acquisition units identified as MIZ-18 A and MIZ-30, which are remotely operated from a mobile lab installed in a trailer, outside the reactor building. The available equipment allows a simultaneous inspection of three different plant components (two steam generators and a moderator heat exchanger). We are also in a position of performing eddy current tube inspection in more than a NSP at the same time. The Zetec Eddynet software is used in the manipulator operation and for the data acquisition and defect evaluation. This software operates within Windows

  16. Current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Yoon, Jihyun; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2012-12-01

    Recently the need to manage food allergies in schools has been growing. This study aimed to examine the current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea. A questionnaire survey was conducted in cooperation with the School Dietician Association during April 2009. Among the participating 154 schools, a total of 109 (71%) were determining students' food allergy status through parental surveys based on self-reported food allergies. A total of 72 (47%) had experienced student visits to a school health room due to food allergies within one year before the survey. Over 80 percent of the schools relied on self-care only without any school-wide measures for food allergies in place. Among the 890 menu items most frequently served in school lunch programs, a total of 664 (75%) were found to contain more than one food allergen. It is highly suggested that preventive plans and treatment measures should be established to manage food allergies in schools.

  17. Neutron radiography characterization of an operating proton exchange membrane fuel cell with localized current distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardo, J.J.; Owejan, J.P.; Trabold, T.A.; Tighe, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron radiography has proven to be a powerful tool to study and understand the effects of liquid water in an operating fuel cell. In the present work, this experimental method is coupled with locally resolved current and ohmic resistance measurements, giving additional insight into water management and fuel cell performance under a variety of conditions. The effects of varying the inlet humidification level and the current density of the 50 cm 2 cell are studied by simultaneously monitoring electrochemical performance with a 10x10 matrix of current sensors, and liquid water volumes are measured using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) neutron imaging facility. A counter flow, straight channel proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is used to demonstrate localized performance loss corresponds to water-filled channels that impede gas transport to the catalyst layer, thereby creating an area that has low current density. Furthermore, certain operating conditions causing excess water accumulation in the channels can result in localized proton resistance increase, a result that can only be accurately observed with combined radiography and distributed electrochemical measurements.

  18. Profile of currently employed European Food Scientists and Technologists: Education, experience and skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Flynn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The food & drink (F&D sector in Europe ranks low in innovation and the European F&D industry has been losing importance in the global market. The food professionals, i.e., food scientists and technologists (FSTs, may not be meeting the varied demands of the sector. Here, we identify education, experience and skills of current FSTs and compare  geographic regions and employment areas. Between 2009 and 2012, 287 questionnaires representing over 4000 FSTs were collected from employers in 16 countries. Analyses showed that more than 80% of FSTs have a university degree; but only in Industry in the Central European region are most degrees in food science/technology. More than half of FSTs, and almost 60% in the South, have less than 10 years’ experience. The most common FST job title is Quality Manager, but with several variations based on region and employment area. Among skills, the most common is Communicating; found in over 90% of FSTs in all regions and employment areas. Food Safety is the most common of the food sector-specific skills, present in more than 75% of FSTs, yet there are differences in food sector skills based on employment area. Overall, these data suggest similarities among currently employed food professionals throughout Europe; they are young and highly educated, but also differences, especially in their food sector-specific skills. An understanding of the current FST should contribute to the improvement of FST training and thus benefit the European food sector.

  19. Current status of food irradiation in overseas (2013). From the meeting report of RCA food irradiation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko

    2013-01-01

    The report introduces the activity of RCA (Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and Pacific) food irradiation project (RAS/5/057) and information obtained at the two workshops on current status of Asia and Pacific areas together with EU, USA and Japan. Also current trends of RAS/5/057 Implementing Best Practices for food irradiation for plant sanitary and phytosanitary purposes are described. Amount of food irradiation products of RCA member countries, minimum adopted doses for quarantine harmful insects (70 to 232 Gy) and import amount of fruits of USA (79 to 5500 tons) are tabulated. Finally current status of Japan is explained. (S. Ohno)

  20. Contribution of meson exchange currents to magnetic form factor of a few complex nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathiot, J.F.

    1981-12-01

    We were interested in the contribution of meson exchange currents (MEC) to the magnetic form factor (MFF) of 49 Ti, 51 V, 87 Sr, 93 Nb at high momentum transfer (1.8 fm -1 to 3.2 fm -1 ). We found that the contribution of tensor correlations to the 1 S 0 - 3 S 1 transition of MEC (adding the 3 D 1 tensor part to the 3 S 1 relative state) multiply the previous calculations by a factor of 2.5 to 4. The sensitivity of MEC to the hadronic form factor is also estimated. It remains of discrepancy of a factor 2 for the MFF at 3 fm -1 for the first three nuclei [fr

  1. INTESTINAL MICROBIOCENOSIS, FOOD TOLERANCE AND FOOD ALLERGY. CURRENT STATE OF A PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the review of modern literature the influence of a bacterial factor, first of all — indigenous microflora — on formation of food tolerance and immune answer of a child as a whole is in detail considered. Formation of a microbiocenosis, food and autogenic tolerance happens under the general laws. In this process the primary colonization of intestines and formation of a microflora variety which, as results of the last researches show, comes to an end by 2–4 years of life of a child has special value. In the review the major factors influencing the formation of a child intestinal microbiota both antenatal and postnatal and for the first years of life, and also their interaction are considered. The influence of a bacterial factor on formation of food tolerance and sensibilization processes, and also mechanisms of this influence is in detail discussed. The data on features of a structure of intestinal microflora at children with food allergy including the results of own researches devoted to microbiocenosis at children with food allergy and to development of tactics of management of children with this pathology are provided. The main directions and possibilities of dietary influence on biocenosis structure at children with this pathology are considered.

  2. Current (Food) Allergenic Risk Assessment: Is It Fit for Novel Foods? Status Quo and Identification of Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchelli, Gabriel; Holzhauser, Thomas; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja; Diaz-Perales, Araceli; Molina, Elena; Roncada, Paola; Rodrigues, Pedro; Verhoeckx, Kitty; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Food allergies are recognized as a global health concern. In order to protect allergic consumers from severe symptoms, allergenic risk assessment for well-known foods and foods containing genetically modified ingredients is installed. However, population is steadily growing and there is a rising need to provide adequate protein-based foods, including novel sources, not yet used for human consumption. In this context safety issues such as a potential increased allergenic risk need to be assessed before marketing novel food sources. Therefore, the established allergenic risk assessment for genetically modified organisms needs to be re-evaluated for its applicability for risk assessment of novel food proteins. Two different scenarios of allergic sensitization have to be assessed. The first scenario is the presence of already known allergenic structures in novel foods. For this, a comparative assessment can be performed and the range of cross-reactivity can be explored, while in the second scenario allergic reactions are observed toward so far novel allergenic structures and no reference material is available. This review summarizes the current analytical methods for allergenic risk assessment, highlighting the strengths and limitations of each method and discussing the gaps in this assessment that need to be addressed in the near future. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Entrainment and mixing in lock-exchange gravity currents using simultaneous velocity-density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Sridhar; Zhong, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    Gravity currents modify their flow characteristics by entraining ambient fluid, which depends on a variety of governing parameters such as the initial density, Δρ, the total initial height of the fluid, H, and the slope of the terrain, α, from where it is released. It is imperative to study the entrainment dynamics of a gravity current in order to have a clear understanding of mixing transitions that govern the flow physics, the velocity mixing layer thickness, δu, and the density mixing layer thickness, δρ. Experiments were conducted in a lock-exchange facility in which the dense fluid was separated from the ambient lighter fluid using a gate. As the gate is released instantaneously, an energy conserving gravity current is formed, for which the only governing parameter is the Reynolds number defined as R e =U/h ν , where U is the front velocity of the gravity current and h is the height of the current. In our study, the bulk Richardson number (inverse of Froude number, Fr), Rib = g/'H Ub2 = 1, takes a constant value for all the experiments, with Ub being the bulk velocity of the current defined as Ub = √{g'H }. Simultaneous particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence measurement techniques are employed to get the velocity and density statistics. Using the buoyancy conservation equation, a new flux-based method was formulated for calculating the entrainment coefficient, EF, near the front and head of the propagating gravity current for a Reynolds number range of Re ≈ 485-12 270 used in our experiments. At the head of the current, the results show a mixing transition at Re ≈ 2700 that is attributed to the flow transitioning from weak Holmboe waves to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, in the form of Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex rolls. Following this mixing transition, the entrainment coefficient continued to increase with increasing Reynolds number owing to the occurrence of three-dimensional Kelvin-Helmholtz billows that promote further

  4. Effect of roughness and porosity on geometry and kinematics of lock-exchange gravity currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Elena; Adduce, Claudia; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2017-04-01

    Gravity currents generated by lock-exchange are an important research tool to understand key features of flows driven by a density may be naturally caused by interaction of geophysical nature but may also be triggered by adverse anthropic actions, from oil spills to pollution related turbidity. Research on the fundamental geometrical and kinematic features of these currents is still necessary, especially when they propagate on complex geometries. The purpose of this work is to investigate the shape and the velocity of propagation of gravity currents over rough beds and over rough-porous beds. To attain this objective, different initial conditions were specified, namely smooth bed, rough bed composed of a single layer of 2 mm glass beads and rough and porous bed composed of 4 layers of the same beads. The dimensions of the channel are 300 × 19,6 × 40 cm in which a steel gate is inserted to define the lock. Two initial mixtures were tested: 1015 and 1030 kgm-3. The density is measured with a pycnometer on a high precision balance. The mixture is composed of fresh water, salt and rhodamine, to allow for visualization and measurements based on image analysis. A high-speed video system camera was used to record the motion of the current. The camera has a 50 mm lens and a sampling frequency of 100 fps. Gray-level images were obtained with 8 bit depth. Calibration of gray-levels was performed pixel by pixel to mixture concentrations. The current is examined in three positions: immediately after the gate ((x-x0)/x0 = 0 to 3), in the middle ((x-x0)/x0 = 5 to 8) and at the end of the channel((x - x0)/x0 = 10 to 13). It is shown that the celerity of the gravity current wave front varies with the different boundary conditions. Indeed, the current is faster for the smooth bed and slower for the rough bed conditions. No appreciable effects of porosity were registered on the wave celerity. The shape of the current varied slightly between the rough and the porous-rough tests

  5. On the Effect of Clamping Pressure and Method on the Current Mapping of Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Shakhshir, Saher; Zhou, Fan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    The degradation of the electrochemical reaction of the proton exchange membrane water electrolysis (PEMWE) can be characterized using in-situ current mapping measurements (CMM). CMM is significantly affected by the amount of clamping pressure and method. In this work the current is mapped...

  6. Two-nucleon electromagnetic current in chiral effective field theory: One-pion exchange and short-range contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelling, S.; Epelbaum, E.; Krebs, H.; Meissner, U.-G.

    2011-01-01

    We derive the leading one-loop contribution to the one-pion exchange and short-range two-nucleon electromagnetic current operator in the framework of chiral effective field theory. The derivation is carried out using the method of unitary transformation. Explicit results for the current and charge densities are given in momentum and coordinate space.

  7. THE CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT AND THE FIXED EXCHANGE RATE. ADJUSTING MECHANISMS AND MODELS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HATEGAN D.B. Anca

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to explain what measures can be taken in order to fix the trade deficit, and the pressure that is upon a country by imposing such measures. The international and the national supply and demand conditions change rapidly, and if a country doesn’t succeed in keeping a tight control over its deficit, a lot of factors will affect its wellbeing. In order to reduce the external trade deficit, the government needs to resort to several techniques. The desired result is to have a balanced current account, and therefore, the government is free to use measures such as fixing its exchange rate, reducing government spending etc. We have shown that all these measures will have a certain impact upon an economy, by allowing its exports to thrive and eliminate the danger from excessive imports, or vice-versa. The main conclusion our paper is that government intervention is allowed in order to maintain the balance of the current account.

  8. Estimation of the exchange current density and comparative analysis of morphology of electrochemically produced lead and zinc deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nebojša D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes of lead and zinc electrodeposition from the very dilute electrolytes were compared by the analysis of polarization characteristics and by the scanning electron microscopic (SEM analysis of the morphology of the deposits obtained in the galvanostatic regime of electrolysis. The exchange current densities for lead and zinc were estimated by comparison of experimentally obtained polarization curves with the simulated ones obtained for the different the exchange current density to the limiting diffusion current density ratios. Using this way for the estimation of the exchange current density, it is shown that the exchange current density for Pb was more than 1300 times higher than the one for Zn. In this way, it is confirmed that the Pb electrodeposition processes are considerably faster than the Zn electrodeposition processes. The difference in the rate of electrochemical processes was confirmed by a comparison of morphologies of lead and zinc deposits obtained at current densities which corresponded to 0.25 and 0.50 values of the limiting diffusion current densities. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172046

  9. Proteomics of Important Food Crops in the Asia Oceania Region: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Subhra; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Yang, Pingfang; Woo, Sun-Hee; Chin, Chiew Foan; Gehring, Christoph A; Haynes, Paul A.; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-01-01

    In the rapidly growing economies of Asia and Oceania, food security has become a primary concern. With the rising population, growing more food at affordable prices is becoming even more important. In addition, the predicted climate change will lead to drastic changes in global surface temperature and changes in rainfall patterns that in turn would pose a serious threat to plant vegetation worldwide. As a result, understanding how plants will survive in a changing climate will be increasingly important. Such challenges require integrated approaches to increase agricultural production and cope with environmental threats. Proteomics can play a role in unravel the underlying mechanisms for food production to address the growing demand for food. In this review, the current status of food crop proteomics is discussed, especially in regards to the Asia and Oceania regions. Furthermore, the future perspective in relation to proteomic techniques for the important food crops is highlighted.

  10. Proteomics of Important Food Crops in the Asia Oceania Region: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Subhra

    2015-06-02

    In the rapidly growing economies of Asia and Oceania, food security has become a primary concern. With the rising population, growing more food at affordable prices is becoming even more important. In addition, the predicted climate change will lead to drastic changes in global surface temperature and changes in rainfall patterns that in turn would pose a serious threat to plant vegetation worldwide. As a result, understanding how plants will survive in a changing climate will be increasingly important. Such challenges require integrated approaches to increase agricultural production and cope with environmental threats. Proteomics can play a role in unravel the underlying mechanisms for food production to address the growing demand for food. In this review, the current status of food crop proteomics is discussed, especially in regards to the Asia and Oceania regions. Furthermore, the future perspective in relation to proteomic techniques for the important food crops is highlighted.

  11. Exchange currents in low-energy nucleon capture by 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wervelman, Rob.

    1991-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis concern absolute cross-section measurements of the radiative neutron capture reactions 3 He (n,γ) 4 He and 3 He(n,γγ) 4 He, and are complements with shell-model calculations on the radiative thermal neutron capture reaction by 3 He and on the weak 3 He(p,e + ν e ) 4 He reaction. The experiments have been performed at two neutron energies, with sub-thermal neutrons where s-wave capture is dominant, and with a quasi-monochromatic 24.5 keV neutron beam (p-wave capture). It has been found that the thermal neutron capture cross section of 3 He is 55±3 μb. Measured at 24.5 keV-neutron energy, the radiative capture cross section for p-wave neutrons turned out to be 9.1±0.8 μb. A measurement on the double-photon reaction 3 He(n th ,γγ) has yielded a cross-section value of 30±80 μb. In the theoretical part of the work a standard model of nuclear weak and electromagnetic interaction currents, consisting of a one-body impulse approximation and a two-body meson-exchange current part, has been applied to the process of nucleon capture by 3 He. Within the framework of a (0+2) (h/2π)ω shell-model calculation, using Sussex matrix elements for the 3 He and 4 He ground state wave functions, the empirical radiative cross sections for thermal neutrons of 3 He could be reproduced with satisfactory agreement. The total MEC correction to the radiative thermal neutron capture cross section is rather small because large cancellations occur between the various contributions. In the 3 He(p,e + ν e ) 4 He reaction meson-exchange contributions enlarge the astrophysical S-factor by more than a factor two. The matrix element ratio of the weak 3 He+p and the electromagnetic 3 He+n reaction is calculated to be (4.3±0.6)g A C 0 . This ratio has been found to be fairly insensitive to the percentage D-state admixtures in the 3 He and 4 He ground state wave functions. (author). 129 refs.; 24 figs.; 5 tabs

  12. Fried Food Consumption and Cardiovascular Health: A Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraka V. Gadiraju

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fried food consumption and its effects on cardiovascular disease are still subjects of debate. The objective of this review was to summarize current evidence on the association between fried food consumption and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and obesity and to recommend directions for future research. We used PubMed, Google Scholar and Medline searches to retrieve pertinent publications. Most available data were based on questionnaires as a tool to capture fried food intakes, and study design was limited to case-control and cohort studies. While few studies have reported a positive association between frequencies of fried food intake and risk of coronary artery disease, heart failure, diabetes or hypertension, other investigators have failed to confirm such an association. There is strong evidence suggesting a higher risk of developing chronic disease when fried foods are consumed more frequently (i.e., four or more times per week. Major gaps in the current literature include a lack of detailed information on the type of oils used for frying foods, stratification of the different types of fried food, frying procedure (deep and pan frying, temperature and duration of frying, how often oils were reused and a lack of consideration of overall dietary patterns. Besides addressing these gaps, future research should also develop tools to better define fried food consumption at home versus away from home and to assess their effects on chronic diseases. In summary, the current review provides enough evidence to suggest adverse health effects with higher frequency of fried food consumption. While awaiting confirmation from future studies, it may be advisable to the public to consume fried foods in moderation while emphasizing an overall healthy diet.

  13. Eddy current technology for heat exchanger and steam generator tube inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrutsky, L.; Lepine, B.; Lu, J.; Cassidy, R.; Carter, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    A variety of degradation modes can affect the integrity of both heat exchanger (HX) and balance of plant tubing, resulting in expensive repairs, tube plugging or replacement of tube bundles. One key component for ensuring tube integrity is inspection and monitoring for detection and characterization of the degradation. In-service inspection of HX and balance of plant tubing is usually carried out using eddy current (EC) bobbin coils, which are adequate for the detection of volumetric degradations. However, detection and quantification of additional modes of degradation such as pitting, intergranular attack (IGA), axial cracking and circumferential cracking require specialized probes. The need for timely, reliable detection and characterization of these modes of degradation is especially critical in Nuclear Generating Stations. Transmit-receive single-pass array probes, developed by AECL, offer high defect detectability in conjunction with fast and reliable inspection capabilities. They have strong directional properties, permitting probe optimization for circumferential or axial crack detection. Compared to impedance probes, they offer improved performance in the presence of variable lift-off. This EC technology can help resolve critical detection issues at susceptible areas, such as the rolled-joint transitions at the tubesheet, U-bends and tube-support intersections. This paper provides an overview of the operating principles and the capabilities of advanced ET inspection technology available for HX tube inspection. Examples of recent application of this technology in Nuclear Generating Stations (NGSs) are discussed. (author)

  14. Eddy current technology for heat exchanger and steam generator tube inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.; Lepine, B.; Lu, J.; Cassidy, R.; Carter, J.

    2004-01-01

    A variety of degradation modes can affect the integrity of both heat exchanger (HX) and balance of plant tubing, resulting in expensive repairs, tube plugging or replacement of tube bundles. One key component for ensuring tube integrity is inspection and monitoring for detection and characterization of the degradation. In-service inspection of HX and balance of plant tubing is usually carried out using eddy current (EC) bobbin coils, which are adequate for the detection of volumetric degradations. However, detection and quantification of additional modes of degradation such as pitting, intergranular attack (IGA), axial cracking and circumferential cracking require specialized probes. The need for timely, reliable detection and characterization of these modes of degradation is especially critical in Nuclear Generating Stations. Transmit-receive single-pass array probes, developed by AECL, offer high defect detectability in conjunction with fast and reliable inspection capabilities. They have strong directional properties, permitting probe optimization for circumferential or axial crack detection. Compared to impedance probes, they offer improved performance in the presence of variable lift-off. This EC technology can help resolve critical detection issues at susceptible areas, such as the rolled-joint transitions at the tubesheet, U-bends and tube-support intersections. This paper provides an overview of the operating principles and the capabilities of advanced ET inspection technology available for HX tube inspection. Examples of recent application of this technology in Nuclear Generating Stations (NGSs) are discussed. (author)

  15. Topsy-turvy: Turning the counter-current heat exchange of leatherback turtles upside down

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, John; Jones, T. Todd; Work, Thierry M.; Balazs, George H.

    2015-01-01

    Counter-current heat exchangers associated with appendages of endotherms feature bundles of closely applied arteriovenous vessels. The accepted paradigm is that heat from warm arterial blood travelling into the appendage crosses into cool venous blood returning to the body. High core temperature is maintained, but the appendage functions at low temperature. Leatherback turtles have elevated core temperatures in cold seawater and arteriovenous plexuses at the roots of all four limbs. We demonstrate that plexuses of the hindlimbs are situated wholly within the hip musculature, and that, at the distal ends of the plexuses, most blood vessels supply or drain the hip muscles, with little distal vascular supply to, or drainage from the limb blades. Venous blood entering a plexus will therefore be drained from active locomotory muscles that are overlaid by thick blubber when the adults are foraging in cold temperate waters. Plexuses maintain high limb muscle temperature and avoid excessive loss of heat to the core, the reverse of the accepted paradigm. Plexuses protect the core from overheating generated by muscular thermogenesis during nesting.

  16. Interface modulated currents in periodically proton exchanged Mg doped lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie, E-mail: gallo@kth.se [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia, E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie, E-mail: gallo@kth.se [Department of Applied Physics, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Kholkin, Andrei L. [Department of Physics and CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal and Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-21

    Conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) plays a key role in the reduction of photorefraction and is therefore widely exploited in optical devices. However, charge transport through Mg:LN and across interfaces such as electrodes also yields potential electronic applications in devices with switchable conductivity states. Furthermore, the introduction of proton exchanged (PE) phases in Mg:LN enhances ionic conductivity, thus providing tailorability of conduction mechanisms and functionality dependent on sample composition. To facilitate the construction and design of such multifunctional electronic devices based on periodically PE Mg:LN or similar ferroelectric semiconductors, fundamental understanding of charge transport in these materials, as well as the impact of internal and external interfaces, is essential. In order to gain insight into polarization and interface dependent conductivity due to band bending, UV illumination, and chemical reactivity, wedge shaped samples consisting of polar oriented Mg:LN and PE phases were investigated using conductive atomic force microscopy. In Mg:LN, three conductivity states (on/off/transient) were observed under UV illumination, controllable by the polarity of the sample and the externally applied electric field. Measurements of currents originating from electrochemical reactions at the metal electrode–PE phase interfaces demonstrate a memresistive and rectifying capability of the PE phase. Furthermore, internal interfaces such as domain walls and Mg:LN–PE phase boundaries were found to play a major role in the accumulation of charge carriers due to polarization gradients, which can lead to increased currents. The insight gained from these findings yield the potential for multifunctional applications such as switchable UV sensitive micro- and nanoelectronic devices and bistable memristors.

  17. Evaluating humidity recovery efficiency of currently available heat and moisture exchangers: a respiratory system model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Janaina Jaber Lucato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the efficiency of humidification in available heat and moisture exchanger models under conditions of varying tidal volume, respiratory rate, and flow rate. INTRODUCTION: Inspired gases are routinely preconditioned by heat and moisture exchangers to provide a heat and water content similar to that provided normally by the nose and upper airways. The absolute humidity of air retrieved from and returned to the ventilated patient is an important measurable outcome of the heat and moisture exchangers' humidifying performance. METHODS: Eight different heat and moisture exchangers were studied using a respiratory system analog. The system included a heated chamber (acrylic glass, maintained at 37°C, a preserved swine lung, a hygrometer, circuitry and a ventilator. Humidity and temperature levels were measured using eight distinct interposed heat and moisture exchangers given different tidal volumes, respiratory frequencies and flow-rate conditions. Recovery of absolute humidity (%RAH was calculated for each setting. RESULTS: Increasing tidal volumes led to a reduction in %RAH for all heat and moisture exchangers while no significant effect was demonstrated in the context of varying respiratory rate or inspiratory flow. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that heat and moisture exchangers are more efficient when used with low tidal volume ventilation. The roles of flow and respiratory rate were of lesser importance, suggesting that their adjustment has a less significant effect on the performance of heat and moisture exchangers.

  18. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally...... validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant...

  19. Food waste-to-energy conversion technologies: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kaushik, Rajni; Parshetti, Ganesh K; Mahmood, Russell; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-04-01

    Food waste represents a significantly fraction of municipal solid waste. Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste are required to reduce its environmental burdens and to minimize risks to human health. Food waste is indeed an untapped resource with great potential for energy production. Utilization of food waste for energy conversion currently represents a challenge due to various reasons. These include its inherent heterogeneously variable compositions, high moisture contents and low calorific value, which constitute an impediment for the development of robust, large scale, and efficient industrial processes. Although a considerable amount of research has been carried out on the conversion of food waste to renewable energy, there is a lack of comprehensive and systematic reviews of the published literature. The present review synthesizes the current knowledge available in the use of technologies for food-waste-to-energy conversion involving biological (e.g. anaerobic digestion and fermentation), thermal and thermochemical technologies (e.g. incineration, pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal oxidation). The competitive advantages of these technologies as well as the challenges associated with them are discussed. In addition, the future directions for more effective utilization of food waste for renewable energy generation are suggested from an interdisciplinary perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CSF-2F control apparatus using eddy currents of two frequencies. Case of the Fessenheim 1 exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeon, Michel; Saglio, Robert.

    1976-01-01

    The CFS-2F is a control apparatus using eddy currents which, through a proper choice of two frequencies can eliminate non-essential defects given by dimensional variations, plates, dudgeoning, etc... which could hide actual defects. An application of this apparatus for the control of exchanger tubes for Fessenheim 1 is then described [fr

  1. Structure functions of the deuteron with allowance for meon-exchange currents within the QCD-VMD model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burov, V.V.; Dostovalov, V.N.; Sus'kov, S.Eh.

    1993-01-01

    The deuteron structure functions and tensor polarization are studied within the QCD-VMD model. It is shown that the calculation of the structure functions with allowance for meson-exchange currents does not allow to improve the agreement with experiment at large transfer momenta where probably other degrees of freedom are to be taken into accout

  2. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consumption and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa-bolic risk factors. Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google scholar with related key words including "fast foods", "processed foods", "obesity", "overweight", "insulin resistance", "diabetes", "cardiovascular disease", "metabolic syndrome", "dyslipidemia" and "hypertension". Fast food consumption and out-of-home eating behavior is a main risk factor for lower diet quality, higher calorie and fat intake and lower micronutrients density of diet. Frequent consumption of fast foods was accompanied with overweight and abdominal fat gain, impaired insulin and glucose homeostasis, lipid and lipoprotein disorders, induction of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher fast food consumption also increases the risk of developmental diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. This review provides further evidence warning us against the irreparable effects of fast food consumption on public health especially the increasing global burden of obesity and cardiovascu-lar diseases.

  3. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahadoran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google scholar with related key words including "fast foods", "processed foods", "obesity", "overweight", "insulin resistance", "diabetes", "cardiovascular disease", "metabolic syndrome", "dyslipidemia" and "hypertension". Results: Fast food consumption and out-of-home eating behavior is a main risk factor for lower diet quality, higher calorie and fat intake and lower micronutrients density of diet. Frequent consumption of fast foods was accompanied with overweight and abdominal fat gain, impaired insulin and glucose homeostasis, lipid and lipoprotein disorders, induction of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher fast food consumption also increases the risk of developmental diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: This review provides further evidence warning us against the irreparable effects of fast food consumption on public health especially the increasing global burden of obesity and cardiovascu­lar diseases.

  4. I. Exchange currents in electron scattering from light nuclei. II. Heavy-ion scattering at intermediate and high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubach, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a formalism that will allow one to search the wide variety of transitions presented by nuclei in order to locate situations in which the exchange-current effects are important or dominant and thus allow one to study the contributions of the meson exchanges to the electromagnetic densities within the nucleus. The nuclei studied are assumed to be described in a shell model using harmonic oscillator wave functions. The formalism needed to allow one to do a multipole analysis of these exchange currents within 1s and 1p nuclei is developed. This formalism is then applied to an examination of electron scattering from a series of light nuclei: 3 He, 6 Li, 7 Li, 9 Be, and 10 B. Three significant effects due to the inclusion of exchange currents are seen: (1) The exchange currents can often introduce new structure into the form factors. (2) At larger momentum transfer (700 to 1000 MeV/c) the exchange current contributions to the form factor dominate the simpler one-body form factor by a few orders of magnitude. (3) The exchange currents can excite E4 and M5 multipoles in the p shell which are forbidden to the simpler one-body currents. The elastic scattering of two heavy ions at intermediate and high energies (compared to the Coulomb barrier) is examined in the formalism of the WKB and ''Glauber theory'' approximations. As a concrete example, the scattering of 16 O from 60 Ni is studied assuming an optical-model potential that fits elastic scattering data at low energies. One immediate result is that the WKB approximation agrees quite well with ''exact'' numerical calculations at energies as low as 60 MeV. The Glauber theory fails below about 1 GeV but correction terms are developed that can extend the usefulness of the Glauber theory to much lower energies. The model problem of scattering from a black-sphere model of the nucleus is briefly examined

  5. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert; López-Expósito, Iván; Bouchaud, Grégory; Blanchard, Carine; Bodinier, Marie; Smit, Joost; Pieters, Raymond; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; de Wit, Nicole; Untersmayr, Eva; Adel-Patient, Karine; Knippels, Leon; Epstein, Michelle M; Noti, Mario; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Kimber, Ian; Verhoeckx, Kitty; O'Mahony, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem of increasing concern. The insufficiency of protein sources for human nutrition in a world with a growing population is also a significant problem. The introduction of new protein sources into the diet, such as newly developed innovative foods or foods produced using new technologies and production processes, insects, algae, duckweed, or agricultural products from third countries, creates the opportunity for development of new food allergies, and this in turn has driven the need to develop test methods capable of characterizing the allergenic potential of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant controls and endpoints measured.

  6. A Pilot Study on the Effects of Slow Paced Breathing on Current Food Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Kübler, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) involves slow paced breathing (approximately six breaths per minute), thereby maximizing low-frequent heart rate oscillations and baroreflex gain. Mounting evidence suggests that HRV-BF promotes symptom reductions in a variety of physical and mental disorders. It may also positively affect eating behavior by reducing food cravings. The aim of the current study was to investigate if slow paced breathing can be useful for attenuating momentary food craving. Female students performed paced breathing either at six breaths per minute (n = 32) or at nine breaths per minute (n = 33) while watching their favorite food on the computer screen. Current food craving decreased during a first resting period, increased during paced breathing, and decreased during a second resting period in both conditions. Although current hunger increased in both conditions during paced breathing as well, it remained elevated after the second resting period in the nine breaths condition only. Thus, breathing rate did not influence specific food craving, but slow paced breathing appeared to have a delayed influence on state hunger. Future avenues are suggested for the study of HRV-BF in the context of eating behavior.

  7. Brain PET imaging in obesity and food addiction: current evidence and hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iozzo, Patricia; Guiducci, Letizia; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Pagotto, Uberto

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing epidemics of obesity is one main health concern of the present time. Overeating in some obese individuals shares similarities with the loss of control and compulsive behavior observed in drug-addicted subjects, suggesting that obesity may involve food addiction. Here, we review the contributions provided by the use of positron emission tomography to the current understanding of the cerebral control of obesity and food intake in humans. The available studies have shown that multiple areas in the brain are involved with the reward properties of food, such as prefrontal, orbitofrontal, somatosensory cortices, insula, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and others. This review summarizes the current evidence, supporting the concepts that i) regions involved in the somatosensory response to food sight, taste, and smell are activated by palatable foods and may be hyperresponsive in obese individuals, ii) areas controlling executive drive seem to overreact to the anticipation of pleasure during cue exposure, and iii) those involved in cognitive control and inhibitory behavior may be resistant to the perception of reward after food exposure in obese subjects. All of these features may stimulate, for different reasons, ingestion of highly palatable and energy-rich foods. Though these same regions are similarly involved in drug abusers and game-addicted individuals, any direct resemblance may be an oversimplification, especially as the heterogeneities between studies and the prevalent exclusion of sensitive groups still limit a coherent interpretation of the findings. Further work is required to comprehensively tackle the multifaceted phenotype of obesity and identify the role of food dependency in its pathophysiology. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  8. Feeding and stocking up: radio-labelled food reveals exchange patterns in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffin, Aurélie; Denis, Damien; Van Simaeys, Gaetan; Goldman, Serge; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2009-06-17

    Food sharing is vital for a large number of species, either solitary or social, and is of particular importance within highly integrated societies, such as in colonial organisms and in social insects. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that govern the distribution of food inside a complex organizational system remain unknown. Using scintigraphy, a method developed for medical imaging, we were able to describe the dynamics of food-flow inside an ant colony. We monitored the sharing process of a radio-labelled sucrose solution inside a nest of Formica fusca. Our results show that, from the very first load that enters the nest, food present within the colony acts as negative feedback to entering food. After one hour of the experiments, 70% of the final harvest has already entered the nest. The total foraged quantity is almost four times smaller than the expected storage capacity. A finer study of the spatial distribution of food shows that although all ants have been fed rapidly (within 30 minutes), a small area representing on average 8% of the radioactive surface holds more than 25% of the stored food. Even in rather homogeneous nests, we observed a strong concentration of food in few workers. Examining the position of these workers inside the nest, we found heavily loaded ants in the centre of the aggregate. The position of the centre of this high-intensity radioactive surface remained stable for the three consecutive hours of the experiments. We demonstrate that the colony simultaneously managed to rapidly feed all workers (200 ants fed within 30 minutes) and build up food stocks to prevent food shortage, something that occurs rather often in changing environments. Though we expected the colony to forage to its maximum capacity, the flow of food entering the colony is finely tuned to the colony's needs. Indeed the food-flow decreases proportionally to the food that has already been harvested, liberating the work-force for other tasks.

  9. Roles of configuration mixing and exchange currents in nuclear magnetic moments and beta decays. Chapter 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, A.; Hyuga, H.

    1979-01-01

    The authors review systematically several important mechanisms which affect magnetic moments, magnetic dipole transitions and allowed beta-decays. They are first order configuration mixing, second order configuration mixing, the Sachs moment and other exchange magnetic moments, the contribution of the Sachs moment and other exchange magnetic moments with first order configuration mixing. It is shown that first order configuration mixing and the Sachs moment are important for heavy nuclei, and that all the effects except first order mixing are important for light nuclei. (Auth.)

  10. Feeding and stocking up: radio-labelled food reveals exchange patterns in ants.

    OpenAIRE

    Aurélie Buffin; Damien Denis; Gaetan Van Simaeys; Serge Goldman; Jean-Louis Deneubourg

    2009-01-01

    Food sharing is vital for a large number of species, either solitary or social, and is of particular importance within highly integrated societies, such as in colonial organisms and in social insects. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that govern the distribution of food inside a complex organizational system remain unknown. Using scintigraphy, a method developed for medical imaging, we were able to describe the dynamics of food-flow inside an ant colony. We monitored the sharing process of a radi...

  11. Multicomponent ion transport in a mono and bilayer cation-exchange membrane at high current density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshtari Khah, S.; Oppers, N.A.W.; de Groot, M.T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Schouten, J.C.; van der Schaaf, J.

    2017-01-01

    This work describes a model for bilayer cation-exchange membranes used in the chlor-alkali process. The ion transport inside the membrane is modeled with the Nernst–Planck equation. A logistic function is used at the boundary between the two layers of the bilayer membrane to describe the change in

  12. Exchange currents in the radiative capture of thermal neutrons by protons and deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijnenberg, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements are presented about the ratio between the contributions to the radiative neutron capture process by deuterons from states with total spin J = 1/2 and J = 3/2. It is shown that the outcome of these experiments can only be understood from the electromagnetic interaction with nucleons, mesons and nucleon resonances involving meson exchange. (author). 112 refs.; 27 figs.; 7 tabs

  13. Current status and development of heat exchangers for boiling water reactor nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yoshio; Nishioka, Shuji; Ito, Shizuo

    1975-01-01

    More efficient and reliable operation is required for BWR heat exchangers because of nuclear plant safety and other reasons. Heat exchangers are classified into two categories of systems, the system for normal operation and the system for emergency operation. The present state and future improvement of heat exchangers are described in view of heat transfer performance, material selection, structural design, vibration, and so on. When noncondensing gas exists in vapour, heat transfer performance deteriorates, so that the heat transfer characteristics should be corrected by the adaption of venting the non condensing gas from the system. Heat transfer tubes should have high corrosion resistance to working fluid as well as high thermal conductivity, strength and economy. From that point of view, 30% cupro-nickel tubes will be replaced with 10% cupro-nickel tubes or titanium tubes though some technical development is necessary. These heat exchangers are now designed according to the MITI criteria for the technology concerning nuclear and thermal power generation, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Sec. III and some other criteria. Most of heat transfer tube failures are caused from the tube vibration induced by working fluid flow, so that the vibration test and analysis were performed on U-tube elements. Some correction was obtained for design and fabrication techniques. (Iwase, T.)

  14. Current status of food irradiation in the world. Trend in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2002-01-01

    This review describes the current status of food irradiation in the world and particularly, its trends in Asia, based on the report of the economic scale investigation on the irradiation in United States and Japan (2001) and on the information of 12th International Meeting on Radiation Processing in France in 2001 and on personal communications. International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation promotes its activities of irradiation globally and 46 countries are affiliated. Food irradiation is allowed in 52 countries. In 1999, 257,000 t of food is irradiated in the world, of which 1/3 is due to spice. The facilities for the irradiation have such sources as 60 Co and 137 Cs γ-rays, electron beam of <10 MeV and X-ray with <5 MeV. Detection methods of irradiated foods are summarized by the project of Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Foods. The US is the most advanced country in the irradiation and, in Japan, only irradiation of potato is permitted. The detailed present status is also described of Bangladesh, China (the irradiation is most widely conducted in the world), India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. Recently Australia and New Zealand have started the irradiation. (K.H.)

  15. The role of business in addressing the long-term implications of the current food crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yach Derek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before the onset of the current food crisis, the evidence of a severely neglected nutrition crisis was starting to receive attention. Increased food prices are having severe impacts on the nutritional status of populations. Our current food system has evolved over decades in a largely unplanned manner and without consideration for the complexity and implications of linkages between health, nutrition, agricultural, economic, trade and security issues. The underlying causes for the nutrition crisis include the above, as well as decades of neglect with regard to nutrition, and agricultural science (especially in emerging markets; a failure of governance with respect to the major players involved in nutrition, a weak response by government donors and Foundations to invest in basic nutrition (in contrast to growing support for humanitarian aspects of food aid, and a reluctance to develop private-public partnerships. The emergence of new business models that tackle social problems while remaining profitable offers promise that the long term nutrition needs of people can be met. Businesses can have greater impact acting collectively than individually. Food, retail, food service, chemical and pharmaceutical companies have expertise, distribution systems and customers insights, if well harnessed, could leapfrog progress in addressing the food and nutrition crises. While business can do lots more, its combined impact will be minimal if a range of essential government actions and policies are not addressed. Governments need to create innovative and complementary opportunities that include incentives for businesses including: setting clear nutritional guidelines for fortification and for ready-to eat products; offering agreements to endorse approved products and support their distribution to clinics and schools; eliminating duties on imported vitamins and other micronutrients; and providing tax and other incentives for industry to invest with

  16. The role of business in addressing the long-term implications of the current food crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, Derek

    2008-12-05

    Before the onset of the current food crisis, the evidence of a severely neglected nutrition crisis was starting to receive attention. Increased food prices are having severe impacts on the nutritional status of populations. Our current food system has evolved over decades in a largely unplanned manner and without consideration for the complexity and implications of linkages between health, nutrition, agricultural, economic, trade and security issues. The underlying causes for the nutrition crisis include the above, as well as decades of neglect with regard to nutrition, and agricultural science (especially in emerging markets); a failure of governance with respect to the major players involved in nutrition, a weak response by government donors and Foundations to invest in basic nutrition (in contrast to growing support for humanitarian aspects of food aid), and a reluctance to develop private-public partnerships. The emergence of new business models that tackle social problems while remaining profitable offers promise that the long term nutrition needs of people can be met. Businesses can have greater impact acting collectively than individually. Food, retail, food service, chemical and pharmaceutical companies have expertise, distribution systems and customers insights, if well harnessed, could leapfrog progress in addressing the food and nutrition crises. While business can do lots more, its combined impact will be minimal if a range of essential government actions and policies are not addressed. Governments need to create innovative and complementary opportunities that include incentives for businesses including: setting clear nutritional guidelines for fortification and for ready-to eat products; offering agreements to endorse approved products and support their distribution to clinics and schools; eliminating duties on imported vitamins and other micronutrients; and providing tax and other incentives for industry to invest with donors in essential nutrition

  17. Dressed dibaryon production as a new mechanism for basic nuclear force and meson-exchange currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukulin, V.I.

    2003-01-01

    A novel concept for the nuclear force is introduced. The approach assumes that a specific dressed six-quark state (dressed dibaryon) is generated in NN collision at intermediate and short ranges. The new dressing mechanism providing π-, σ-, ρ- and ω-meson clouds around the six quark core is discussed. These novel components produce both strong intermediate-range attraction and short-range repulsion in the NN sector due to the s-channel exchange mechanism which is supplemented with conventional π- and 2π- Yukawa exchanges at intermediate and long ranges. The model developed is demonstrated to lead to numerous new effects and contributions in many fields of nuclear physics. (author)

  18. Expansion of the public sector, the current account and the exchange rate

    OpenAIRE

    Ohr, Renate

    1985-01-01

    Attributing the foreign trade effects of an expansion in the state budget to a single cause cannot do justice to the multitude of macro-economic interrelationships. Both theory and observation can reveal quite differing links between the public sector financial balance, the balance of payments and the exchange rate. The financing and nature of additional budgetary expenditure and the pattern of private investors’ expectations therefore have to be taken into consideration to obtain a clear pic...

  19. Current status and prospect of radiation technology for the safety and security of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo

    2009-01-01

    Since 1960, radiation technology (RT), which had been known as the method eliminating the biologically hazardous factors of the products in the food, medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, was comprehensively investigated. The safety of food irradiation has been throughout evaluated with scientific experiments. Recently, RT has been associated with other high technologies such as biotechnology and nanotechnology, and resulted in the innovative products. Through these fusion technology with RT, the new items with high functionality and value will be shown. But, until now, consumers' acceptance on radiation is still the problem to be solved for further development. To make the consumer correctly understand RT, the benefits and defects of RT should be informed and there should be the legislated policy for the industrialization of RT by government. Therefore, this review will introduce the current status of food irradiation in the world, the safety and national agreements and the recent results from radiation fusion technology, and suggest the further work

  20. Measurement of current distribution in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with various flow arrangements – A parametric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaefour, Ibrahim; Karimi, G.; Jiao, Kui; Li, X.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spatial local current distributions in a single PEMFC are measured. ► Effects of key operating conditions on the local current density are investigated. ► Increasing air and hydrogen stoichiometries improves local current density distributions. ► Operating pressure and temperature have negligible impact on local current distribution. - Abstract: Understanding of current distributions in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is crucial for designing cell components such as the flow field plates and the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). In this study, the spatial current density distributions in a single PEMFC with three serpentine flow channels are measured using a segmented bipolar plate and printed circuit board technique. The effects of key operating conditions such as stoichiometry ratios, inlet humidity levels, cell pressure and temperature on the local current density distributions for co-, counter-, and cross-flow arrangements are examined. It is observed that the local current density distribution over the MEA is directly affected by the cell operating conditions along with the configuration of the flow arrangement. It is also found that among the different flow configurations tested under the various operating conditions, the counter flow arrangement provides the optimum average current density and the lowest variations in the local current densities along the flow channels.

  1. Investigating onychophoran gas exchange and water balance as a means to inform current controversies in arthropod physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clusella-Trullas, Susana; Chown, Steven L

    2008-10-01

    Several controversies currently dominate the fields of arthropod metabolic rate, gas exchange and water balance, including the extent to which modulation of gas exchange reduces water loss, the origins of discontinuous gas exchange, the relationship between metabolic rate and life-history strategies, and the causes of Palaeozoic gigantism. In all of these areas, repeated calls have been made for the investigation of groups that might most inform the debates, especially of taxa in key phylogenetic positions. Here we respond to this call by investigating metabolic rate, respiratory water loss and critical oxygen partial pressure (Pc) in the onychophoran Peripatopsis capensis, a member of a group basal to the arthropods, and by synthesizing the available data on the Onychophora. The rate of carbon dioxide release (VCO2) at 20 degrees C in P. capensis is 0.043 ml CO2 h(-1), in keeping with other onychophoran species; suggesting that low metabolic rates in some arthropod groups are derived. Continuous gas exchange suggests that more complex gas exchange patterns are also derived. Total water loss in P. capensis is 57 mg H2O h(-1) at 20 degrees C, similar to modern estimates for another onychophoran species. High relative respiratory water loss rates ( approximately 34%; estimated using a regression technique) suggest that the basal condition in arthropods may be a high respiratory water loss rate. Relatively high Pc values (5-10% O2) suggest that substantial safety margins in insects are also a derived condition. Curling behaviour in P. capensis appears to be a strategy to lower energetic costs when resting, and the concomitant depression of water loss is a proximate consequence of this behaviour.

  2. Current issues and uncertainties in the measurement and modelling of air-vegetation exchange and within-plant processing of POPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Jonathan L.; Thomas, Gareth O.; Kerstiens, Gerhard; Jones, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Air-vegetation exchange of POPs is an important process controlling the entry of POPs into terrestrial food chains, and may also have a significant effect on the global movement of these compounds. Many factors affect the air-vegetation transfer including: the physicochemical properties of the compounds of interest; environmental factors such as temperature, wind speed, humidity and light conditions; and plant characteristics such as functional type, leaf surface area, cuticular structure, and leaf longevity. The purpose of this review is to quantify the effects these differences might have on air/plant exchange of POPs, and to point out the major gaps in the knowledge of this subject that require further research. Uptake mechanisms are complicated, with the role of each factor in controlling partitioning, fate and behaviour process still not fully understood. Consequently, current models of air-vegetation exchange do not incorporate variability in these factors, with the exception of temperature. These models instead rely on using average values for a number of environmental factors (e.g. plant lipid content, surface area), ignoring the large variations in these values. The available models suggest that boundary layer conductance is of key importance in the uptake of POPs, although large uncertainties in the cuticular pathway prevents confirmation of this with any degree of certainty, and experimental data seems to show plant-side resistance to be important. Models are usually based on the assumption that POP uptake occurs through the lipophilic cuticle which covers aerial surfaces of plants. However, some authors have recently attached greater importance to the stomatal route of entry into the leaf for gas phase compounds. There is a need for greater mechanistic understanding of air-plant exchange and the 'scaling' of factors affecting it. The review also suggests a number of key variables that researchers should measure in their experiments to allow comparisons

  3. Probes for inspections of heat exchanges installed at nuclear power plants type PWR by eddy current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Alonso F.O.

    2007-01-01

    From all non destructive examination methods usable to perform integrity evaluation of critical equipment installed at nuclear power plants (NPP), eddy current test (ET) may be considered the most important one, when examining heat exchangers. For its application, special probes and reference calibration standards are employed. In pressurized water reactor (PWR) NPPs, a particularly critical equipment is the steam generator (SG), a huge heat exchanger that contains thousands of U-bend thin wall tubes. Due to its severe working conditions (pressure and temperature), that component is periodically examined by means of ET. In this paper a revision of the operating fundamentals of the main ET probes, used to perform SG inspections is presented. (author)

  4. Current food classifications in epidemiological studies do not enable solid nutritional recommendations for preventing diet-related chronic diseases: the impact of food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond; Bassama, Joseph; Bohuon, Philippe; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Monteiro, Carlos; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Achir, Nawel

    2015-11-01

    To date, observational studies in nutrition have categorized foods into groups such as dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. However, the strength of the association between food groups and chronic diseases is far from convincing. In most international expert surveys, risks are most commonly scored as probable, limited, or insufficient rather than convincing. In this position paper, we hypothesize that current food classifications based on botanical or animal origins can be improved to yield solid recommendations. We propose using a food classification that employs food processes to rank foods in epidemiological studies. Indeed, food health potential results from both nutrient density and food structure (i.e., the matrix effect), both of which can potentially be positively or negatively modified by processing. For example, cereal-based foods may be more or less refined, fractionated, and recombined with added salt, sugars, and fats, yielding a panoply of products with very different nutritional values. The same is true for other food groups. Finally, we propose that from a nutritional perspective, food processing will be an important issue to consider in the coming years, particularly in terms of strengthening the links between food and health and for proposing improved nutritional recommendations or actions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Current Food Classifications in Epidemiological Studies Do Not Enable Solid Nutritional Recommendations for Preventing Diet-Related Chronic Diseases: The Impact of Food Processing12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond; Bassama, Joseph; Bohuon, Philippe; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Monteiro, Carlos; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Achir, Nawel

    2015-01-01

    To date, observational studies in nutrition have categorized foods into groups such as dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. However, the strength of the association between food groups and chronic diseases is far from convincing. In most international expert surveys, risks are most commonly scored as probable, limited, or insufficient rather than convincing. In this position paper, we hypothesize that current food classifications based on botanical or animal origins can be improved to yield solid recommendations. We propose using a food classification that employs food processes to rank foods in epidemiological studies. Indeed, food health potential results from both nutrient density and food structure (i.e., the matrix effect), both of which can potentially be positively or negatively modified by processing. For example, cereal-based foods may be more or less refined, fractionated, and recombined with added salt, sugars, and fats, yielding a panoply of products with very different nutritional values. The same is true for other food groups. Finally, we propose that from a nutritional perspective, food processing will be an important issue to consider in the coming years, particularly in terms of strengthening the links between food and health and for proposing improved nutritional recommendations or actions. PMID:26567188

  6. THE EARNINGS PER SHARE AND INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIOS IN THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR FOOD AND TEXTILE SECTORS IN ISTANBUL STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudi APAK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing financial crisis in the global markets, which originated in the US subprime mortgage segment (real estate and quickly spread into other market segments and countries, is already seen today as one of the biggest financial crises in history. Underlying the subprime crisis had essentially two interrelated factors; the boom in US real estate markets, and the high liquidity demand in the global financial markets. The later period was, in turn, fuelled by the significant easing of US monetary policy over an extended period of time and by the additional boost to global liquidity as many emerging markets had tied their exchange rates to the US dollar and therefore had to match the expansive US monetary policy. The occurrence of market crash or financial crisis is possible key factor of earning per share (EPS and inventory turnover ratios (ITR inefficiency. This paper empirically investigates that the effects of the current financial crisis on the efficiency -earning per share (EPS and inventory turnover ratios- listed food and textile companies in Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE. The EPS and inventory turnover ratios, applying the multivariate test statistics for the two sub-periods of pre-crisis and the crisis time. The article proceeds in the following manner. Firstly, the study will explain main reasons of global financial crises. Secondly the study will analyze all EPS and inventory turnover ratios changing are of related companies. Finally, that will be argued for adjustment of related ratios of sectors.

  7. Current and future benefits from the use of GM technology in food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, K-H; Frenzel, Th; Miller, A

    2002-02-28

    For the current generation of genetically modified (GM) crops the improvement of agronomic traits (e.g. herbicide tolerance, insect resistance) has been a major objective. The lack of obvious and direct benefits for the consumer has been a main point of criticism. Future trends will increasingly encompass the modification of quality traits, such as the improvement of sensory and especially nutritional properties. Some of the ongoing developments try to meet the desire of consumers for 'healthy' or 'high-tech' foods in developed countries. Others are intended to assist in adjusting the nutritional status of foods to the needs of consumers in developing countries. Considering the increasing world population and the limited amount of arable land, GM technology may also become a valuable tool to ensure food security. The major prerequisite for the applicability of the technique is the safety of the resulting products. The increasing complexity of modifications intended might require adjustments and improvements of the strategies applied to the safety assessment of GM foods. Present research activities try to meet these new challenges.

  8. Marine phospholipids: The current understanding of their oxidation mechanisms and potential uses for food fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    2017-01-01

    reactions, namely, Strecker aldehydes, pyrroles, oxypolymers, and other impurities that may positively or negatively affect the oxidative stability and quality of marine PL. This review was undertaken to provide the industry and academia with an overview of the current understanding of the quality changes......There is a growing interest in using marine phospholipids (PL) as ingredient for food fortification due to their numerous health benefits. However, the use of marine PL for food fortification is a challenge due to the complex nature of the degradation products that are formed during the handling...... and storage of marine PL. For example, nonenzymatic browning reactions may occur between lipid oxidation products and primary amine group from phosphatidylethanolamine or amino acid residues that are present inmarine PL. Therefore, marine PL contain products from nonenzymatic browning and lipid oxidation...

  9. Current status and future prospects of an automated sample exchange system PAM for protein crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, M.; Yamada, Y.; Chavas, L. M. G.; Matsugaki, N.; Igarashi, N.; Wakatsuki, S.

    2013-03-01

    To achieve fully-automated and/or remote data collection in high-throughput X-ray experiments, the Structural Biology Research Centre at the Photon Factory (PF) has installed PF automated mounting system (PAM) for sample exchange robots at PF macromolecular crystallography beamlines BL-1A, BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. We are upgrading the experimental systems, including the PAM for stable and efficient operation. To prevent human error in automated data collection, we installed a two-dimensional barcode reader for identification of the cassettes and sample pins. Because no liquid nitrogen pipeline in the PF experimental hutch is installed, the users commonly add liquid nitrogen using a small Dewar. To address this issue, an automated liquid nitrogen filling system that links a 100-liter tank to the robot Dewar has been installed on the PF macromolecular beamline. Here we describe this new implementation, as well as future prospects.

  10. Analysis of food advertisements on cable television directed to children based on the food guide for the Brazilian population and current legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya da Rocha BRITTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study examined food product advertisements directed to children and aired on closed television channels in Brazil, according to the types of foods and beverages advertised and the advertising content. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted on the adequacy of food commercials directed to children and aired by six pay-television broadcasters according to two parameters: "The Food Guide for the Brazilian Population, 2014", and the National Council on Children's and Adolescents' Rights Resolution nº 163 of 2014 about food advertising. The advertisements were recorded in July 2015, at different times and days of the week. Results: One hundred and sixty-two hours were recorded, registering 3,468 commercials: 1,850 were related to internal programming and 1,618 advertised toys (22.15%, food and beverages (5.61%, applications for electronic devices (5.58%, and entertainment/events (5.56%. The Fisher exact test showed fewer number of food commercials compared to other types of commercials (p<0.001. The main food items advertised by all television stations were ultraprocessed foods and no advertisements of fresh food were observed (p<0.001. Most of the food commercials (64.30% used children's language and characters; 43.00% used songs in children's voices, and 21.40% linked gift distribution to food. Conclusion: The number of food commercials observed was lower than in previous national studies. However, the advertisements did not follow current legislation, indicating the abuse of marketing communication to children. More effective public policies and the respect and enforcement of legislation on child advertising could protect children from high consumption of ultraprocessed foods.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of current and temperature distributions in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell during cold start processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Kui; Alaefour, Ibrahim E.; Karimi, Gholamreza; Li Xianguo

    2011-01-01

    Cold start is critical to the commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) in automotive applications. Dynamic distributions of current and temperature in PEMFC during various cold start processes determine the cold start characteristics, and are required for the optimization of design and operational strategy. This study focuses on an investigation of the cold start characteristics of a PEMFC through the simultaneous measurements of current and temperature distributions. An analytical model for quick estimate of purging duration is also developed. During the failed cold start process, the highest current density is initially near the inlet region of the flow channels, then it moves downstream, reaching the outlet region eventually. Almost half of the cell current is produced in the inlet region before the cell current peaks, and the region around the middle of the cell has the best survivability. These two regions are therefore more important than other regions for successful cold start through design and operational strategy, such as reducing the ice formation and enhancing the heat generation in these two regions. The evolution of the overall current density distribution over time remains similar during the successful cold start process; the current density is the highest near the flow channel inlets and generally decreases along the flow direction. For both the failed and the successful cold start processes, the highest temperature is initially in the flow channel inlet region, and is then around the middle of the cell after the overall peak current density is reached. The ice melting and liquid formation during the successful cold start process have negligible influence on the general current and temperature distributions.

  12. The effects of prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on food craving and temporal discounting in women with frequent food cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekic, Maria; McClelland, Jessica; Campbell, Iain; Nestler, Steffen; Rubia, Katya; David, Anthony S; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2014-07-01

    Bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and some forms of obesity are characterised by compulsive overeating that is often precipitated by food craving. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used to suppress food cravings, but there is insufficient evidence to support its application in clinical practice. Furthermore, the potential moderating role of impulsivity has not been considered. This study used a randomised within-subjects crossover design to examine whether a 20-minute session of sham-controlled bilateral tDCS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (anode right/cathode left) would transiently modify food cravings and temporal discounting (TD; a measure of choice impulsivity) in 17 healthy women with frequent food cravings. Whether the effects of tDCS on food craving were moderated by individual differences in TD behaviour was also explored. Participants were exposed to food and a film of people eating, and food cravings and TD were assessed before and after active and sham stimulation. Craving for sweet but not savoury foods was reduced following real tDCS. Participants that exhibited more reflective choice behaviour were more susceptible to the anti-craving effects of tDCS than those that displayed more impulsive choice behaviour. No differences were seen in TD or food consumption after real versus sham tDCS. These findings support the efficacy of tDCS in temporarily lowering food cravings and identify the moderating role of TD behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The relative validity of a retrospective estimate of food consumption based on a current dietary history and a food frequency list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkum, A; Bloemberg, B; van Staveren, W A; Verschuren, M; West, C E

    1988-01-01

    The relative validity of information and food consumption in the distant past was assessed by combining a dietary history (referring to the recent past) with a food frequency list (monitoring major changes over the past 12-14 years). This approach was evaluated in a study of two groups of apparently healthy elderly people (mean age 80 years) who had participated in a food consumption study 12-14 years before the start of the present study. One group consisted of 18 harbor employees who retired subsequent to the initial assessment of food intake. On the average, each member of this group had reduced his food consumption by about 1,000 kcal. The other group consisted of 46 elderly men and women who had retired before their food consumption was measured initially. This group had not markedly changed their food intake. The results showed that both groups overestimated changes in their food intake and that the systematic overestimation and random error were similar for both groups. If the men in both groups were combined to form one group, a valid ranking of subjects in small and large consumers of energy and most of the selected nutrients was possible. However, current food intake influenced the accuracy of the measurement of past food intake.

  14. Determination of a seasonal variation in the food exchanges between worker honeybees (Apis mellifica ligustica S.) by means of a radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douault, Philippe; Roger, Bernard; Pain, Janine

    1975-01-01

    Food exchanges have been studied during the whole year between workers of unknown age and 4-days old workers. Variations exist between both groups. The mean percentage of shared food is 27% in the group of honeybees of unknown age and 40% in the group of 4-days old workers with respect to the initial intake of the giver. The effect of the season appears among workers of unknown are particularly [fr

  15. Current status and emerging role of glutathione in food grade lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pophaly Sarang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lactic acid bacteria (LAB have taken centre stage in perspectives of modern fermented food industry and probiotic based therapeutics. These bacteria encounter various stress conditions during industrial processing or in the gastrointestinal environment. Such conditions are overcome by complex molecular assemblies capable of synthesizing and/or metabolizing molecules that play a specific role in stress adaptation. Thiols are important class of molecules which contribute towards stress management in cell. Glutathione, a low molecular weight thiol antioxidant distributed widely in eukaryotes and Gram negative organisms, is present sporadically in Gram positive bacteria. However, new insights on its occurrence and role in the latter group are coming to light. Some LAB and closely related Gram positive organisms are proposed to possess glutathione synthesis and/or utilization machinery. Also, supplementation of glutathione in food grade LAB is gaining attention for its role in stress protection and as a nutrient and sulfur source. Owing to the immense benefits of glutathione, its release by probiotic bacteria could also find important applications in health improvement. This review presents our current understanding about the status of glutathione and its role as an exogenously added molecule in food grade LAB and closely related organisms.

  16. Development of oral food-grade delivery systems: current knowledge and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benshitrit, Revital Cohen; Levi, Carmit Shani; Tal, Sharon Levi; Shimoni, Eyal; Lesmes, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the development of new and efficient oral food delivery systems as tools to prevent disease and promote human health and well-being. Such vehicles are sought to protect bioactive ingredients added to food while controlling and targeting their release as they pass through the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This review aims to summarize the key concepts of food delivery systems, their characterization and evaluation. Particularly, evaluation of their performance within the human GIT is discussed. To this end an overview of several in vivo and in vitro methods currently applied for the study of such systems is given. Although considered to be still in its infancy, this promising field of research is likely to infiltrate into real products through rational design. In order for such efforts to materialize into real products some challenges still need to be met and are discussed herein. Overall, it seems that adopting a comprehensive pharmacological approach and relevant cutting edge tools are likely to facilitate innovations and help elucidate and perhaps tailor delivery systems' behavior in the human GIT.

  17. Determination of mycotoxins in foods: current state of analytical methods and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen, Robert; Koch, Matthias; Siegel, David; Merkel, Stefan; Maul, Ronald; Nehls, Irene

    2010-05-01

    Mycotoxins are natural contaminants produced by a range of fungal species. Their common occurrence in food and feed poses a threat to the health of humans and animals. This threat is caused either by the direct contamination of agricultural commodities or by a "carry-over" of mycotoxins and their metabolites into animal tissues, milk, and eggs after feeding of contaminated hay or corn. As a consequence of their diverse chemical structures and varying physical properties, mycotoxins exhibit a wide range of biological effects. Individual mycotoxins can be genotoxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and oestrogenic. To protect consumer health and to reduce economic losses, surveillance and control of mycotoxins in food and feed has become a major objective for producers, regulatory authorities and researchers worldwide. However, the variety of chemical structures makes it impossible to use one single technique for mycotoxin analysis. Hence, a vast number of analytical methods has been developed and validated. The heterogeneity of food matrices combined with the demand for a fast, simultaneous and accurate determination of multiple mycotoxins creates enormous challenges for routine analysis. The most crucial issues will be discussed in this review. These are (1) the collection of representative samples, (2) the performance of classical and emerging analytical methods based on chromatographic or immunochemical techniques, (3) the validation of official methods for enforcement, and (4) the limitations and future prospects of the current methods.

  18. ORGANIC FOODfood quality and potential health effects. A review of current knowledge, and a discussion of uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Mie, Axel; Wivstad, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we try to approach the question “Is organic food healthier than conventional food?” from a scientific perspective. We can conclude that science does not provide a clear answer to this question. A small number of animal studies and epidemiological studies on health effects from the consumption of organic vs. conventional feed/food have been performed. These studies indicate that the production system of the food has some influence on the immune system of the consuming animal or...

  19. An overview of food waste management in developing countries: Current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Ngoc Bao Dung; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2015-07-01

    Food waste (FW) related issues in developing countries is currently considered to be a major threatening factor for sustainable development and FW management systems. Due to incomplete FW management systems, many developing countries are facing challenges, such as environmental and sanitary problems that are caused by FW. The difference in FW generation trends between developing countries and developed countries was reviewed in this work, which demonstrated that the effects of income level, population growth, and public participation in FW management are very important. Thus, this work aimed to provide an overview of recycling activities, related regulations, and current FW treatment technology in developing countries by following some case studies. Taiwan, has been suggested as being a successful case in terms of FW management, and is therefore a typical model for developing countries to follow. Finally, an integrative management system as a suitable model for FW management has been suggested for developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Current Density Functional Theory Using Meta-Generalized Gradient Exchange-Correlation Functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, James W; Verbeke, Joachim; Tellgren, Erik I; Stopkowicz, Stella; Ekström, Ulf; Helgaker, Trygve; Teale, Andrew M

    2015-09-08

    We present the self-consistent implementation of current-dependent (hybrid) meta-generalized gradient approximation (mGGA) density functionals using London atomic orbitals. A previously proposed generalized kinetic energy density is utilized to implement mGGAs in the framework of Kohn-Sham current density functional theory (KS-CDFT). A unique feature of the nonperturbative implementation of these functionals is the ability to seamlessly explore a wide range of magnetic fields up to 1 au (∼235 kT) in strength. CDFT functionals based on the TPSS and B98 forms are investigated, and their performance is assessed by comparison with accurate coupled-cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) data. In the weak field regime, magnetic properties such as magnetizabilities and nuclear magnetic resonance shielding constants show modest but systematic improvements over generalized gradient approximations (GGA). However, in the strong field regime, the mGGA-based forms lead to a significantly improved description of the recently proposed perpendicular paramagnetic bonding mechanism, comparing well with CCSD(T) data. In contrast to functionals based on the vorticity, these forms are found to be numerically stable, and their accuracy at high field suggests that the extension of mGGAs to CDFT via the generalized kinetic energy density should provide a useful starting point for further development of CDFT approximations.

  1. European seismological data exchange, access and processing: current status of the Research Infrastructure project NERIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardini, D.; van Eck, T.; Bossu, R.; Wiemer, S.

    2009-04-01

    The EC Research infrastructure project NERIES, an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative in seismology for 2006-2010 has passed its mid-term point. We will present a short concise overview of the current state of the project, established cooperation with other European and global projects and the planning for the last year of the project. Earthquake data archiving and access within Europe has dramatically improved during the last two years. This concerns earthquake parameters, digital broadband and acceleration waveforms and historical data. The Virtual European Broadband Seismic Network (VEBSN) consists currently of more then 300 stations. A new distributed data archive concept, the European Integrated Waveform Data Archive (EIDA), has been implemented in Europe connecting the larger European seismological waveform data. Global standards for earthquake parameter data (QuakeML) and tomography models have been developed and are being established. Web application technology has been and is being developed to make a jump start to the next generation data services. A NERIES data portal provides a number of services testing the potential capacities of new open-source web technologies. Data application tools like shakemaps, lossmaps, site response estimation and tools for data processing and visualisation are currently available, although some of these tools are still in an alpha version. A European tomography reference model will be discussed at a special workshop in June 2009. Shakemaps, coherent with the NEIC application, are implemented in, among others, Turkey, Italy, Romania, Switzerland, several countries. The comprehensive site response software is being distributed and used both inside and outside the project. NERIES organises several workshops inviting both consortium and non-consortium participants and covering a wide range of subjects: ‘Seismological observatory operation tools', ‘Tomography', ‘Ocean bottom observatories', 'Site response software training

  2. Interplay of light transmission and catalytic exchange current in photoelectrochemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountaine, Katherine T., E-mail: kfountai@caltech.edu [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Lewerenz, Hans J. [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Atwater, Harry A. [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    We develop an analytic current-voltage expression for a variable junction photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell and use it to investigate and illustrate the influence of the optical and electrical properties of catalysts on the optoelectronic performance of PEC devices. Specifically, the model enables a simple, yet accurate accounting of nanostructured catalyst optical and electrical properties through incorporation of an optical transmission factor and active catalytic area factor. We demonstrate the utility of this model via the output power characteristics of an exemplary dual tandem solar cell with indium gallium phosphide and indium gallium arsenide absorbers with varying rhodium catalyst nanoparticle loading. The approach highlights the importance of considering interactions between independently optimized components for optimal PEC device design.

  3. Interplay of light transmission and catalytic exchange current in photoelectrochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fountaine, Katherine T.; Lewerenz, Hans J.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    We develop an analytic current-voltage expression for a variable junction photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell and use it to investigate and illustrate the influence of the optical and electrical properties of catalysts on the optoelectronic performance of PEC devices. Specifically, the model enables a simple, yet accurate accounting of nanostructured catalyst optical and electrical properties through incorporation of an optical transmission factor and active catalytic area factor. We demonstrate the utility of this model via the output power characteristics of an exemplary dual tandem solar cell with indium gallium phosphide and indium gallium arsenide absorbers with varying rhodium catalyst nanoparticle loading. The approach highlights the importance of considering interactions between independently optimized components for optimal PEC device design.

  4. Nondestructive inspection of the tubes of TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor heat exchanger by eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, Silverio F.; Silva, Roger F.; Oliveira, Paulo F.; Barreto, Erika S.; Ribeiro, Isabela G.; Fraiz, Felipe C.

    2013-01-01

    The IPR-R1 TRIGA MARK 1 reactor is an open pool type reactor, cooled light water. It is used for research activities, personnel training and radioisotopes production, in operation since 1960 at the Nuclear Technology Development Center - CDTN/CNEN. It operates at a maximum thermal power of 100 kW and usually, the fuel cooling is done by natural circulation. If necessary, an external auxiliary cooling system, with a shell-and-tube type heat exchanger, can be used to improve the water heat removal. As part of the ageing management program of the reactor, a nondestructive evaluation of their heat exchanger stainless steel tubes will be performed, in order to verify its integrity. The examinations will be performed using the eddy current test method, which allows the detection and characterization of structural discontinuities in the wall of the tubes, if existing. For this purpose, probes and reference standards were designed and manufactured at CDTN facilities and test procedures were established and validated. In this paper, a description of the proposed infrastructure as well as the test methodology to be used in the examinations are presented and discussed. (author)

  5. Study of the seasonal variation in the exchanges of food labelled with 198Au from a worker bee to a queen (Apis mellifica ligustica S.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, Janine; Roger, Bernard; Douault, Philippe

    1975-01-01

    Food exchanges from a worker giver to a queen receiver were quantified throughout the year. 4 days old workers distribute great amounts of food to queens, about 74% in average, but variations are low. On the other hand workers of unknown age distribute amounts that are less high and varying in terms of the season. A parallelism exists between percentage variations of food shared by workers of unknown age and the seasonal cycle of the 9-oxodec-2-enoic acid content of queens [fr

  6. Exchanging a few commercial, regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulven, Stine M; Leder, Lena; Elind, Elisabeth; Ottestad, Inger; Christensen, Jacob J; Telle-Hansen, Vibeke H; Skjetne, Anne J; Raael, Ellen; Sheikh, Navida A; Holck, Marianne; Torvik, Kristin; Lamglait, Amandine; Thyholt, Kari; Byfuglien, Marte G; Granlund, Linda; Andersen, Lene F; Holven, Kirsten B

    2016-10-01

    The healthy Nordic diet has been previously shown to have health beneficial effects among subjects at risk of CVD. However, the extent of food changes needed to achieve these effects is less explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exchanging a few commercially available, regularly consumed key food items (e.g. spread on bread, fat for cooking, cheese, bread and cereals) with improved fat quality on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and inflammatory markers in a double-blind randomised, controlled trial. In total, 115 moderately hypercholesterolaemic, non-statin-treated adults (25-70 years) were randomly assigned to an experimental diet group (Ex-diet group) or control diet group (C-diet group) for 8 weeks with commercially available food items with different fatty acid composition (replacing SFA with mostly n-6 PUFA). In the Ex-diet group, serum total cholesterol (PLDL-cholesterol (Pcholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. No difference in change in plasma levels of inflammatory markers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, IL-6, soluble TNF receptor 1 and interferon-γ) was observed between the groups. In conclusion, exchanging a few regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol, with no negative effect on levels of inflammatory markers. This shows that an exchange of a few commercially available food items was easy and manageable and led to clinically relevant cholesterol reduction, potentially affecting future CVD risk.

  7. NutriSonic web expert system for meal management and nutrition counseling with nutrient time-series analysis, e-food exchange and easy data transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon-Myung; Cho, Jee-Ye; Lee, Jin-Hee; Kim, Gon; Kim, Min-Chan

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop the NutriSonic Web Expert System for Meal Management and Nutrition Counseling with Analysis of User's Nutritive Changes of selected days and food exchange information with easy data transition. This program manipulates a food, menu and meal and search database that has been developed. Also, the system provides a function to check the user's nutritive change of selected days. Users can select a recommended general and therapeutic menu using this system. NutriSonic can analyze nutrients and e-food exchange ("e" means the food exchange data base calculated by a computer program) in menus and meals. The expert can insert and store a meal database and generate the synthetic information of age, sex and therapeutic purpose of disease. With investigation and analysis of the user's needs, the meal planning program on the internet has been continuously developed. Users are able to follow up their nutritive changes with nutrient information and ratio of 3 major energy nutrients. Also, users can download another data format like Excel files (.xls) for analysis and verify their nutrient time-series analysis. The results of analysis are presented quickly and accurately. Therefore it can be used by not only usual people, but also by dietitians and nutritionists who take charge of making a menu and experts in the field of food and nutrition. It is expected that the NutriSonic Web Expert System can be useful for nutrition education, nutrition counseling and expert meal management.

  8. Global food and fibre security threatened by current inefficiencies in fungal identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Fungal pathogens severely impact global food and fibre crop security. Fungal species that cause plant diseases have mostly been recognized based on their morphology. In general, morphological descriptions remain disconnected from crucially important knowledge such as mating types, host specificity, life cycle stages and population structures. The majority of current fungal species descriptions lack even the most basic genetic data that could address at least some of these issues. Such information is essential for accurate fungal identifications, to link critical metadata and to understand the real and potential impact of fungal pathogens on production and natural ecosystems. Because international trade in plant products and introduction of pathogens to new areas is likely to continue, the manner in which fungal pathogens are identified should urgently be reconsidered. The technologies that would provide appropriate information for biosecurity and quarantine already exist, yet the scientific community and the regulatory authorities are slow to embrace them. International agreements are urgently needed to enforce new guidelines for describing plant pathogenic fungi (including key DNA information), to ensure availability of relevant data and to modernize the phytosanitary systems that must deal with the risks relating to trade-associated plant pathogens. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience’. PMID:28080994

  9. Real-Time Microscopic Monitoring of Flow, Voltage and Current in the Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Li, Shih-Chun; Chen, Chia-Hung; Huang, Yen-Ting; Wang, Yu-Syuan

    2018-03-15

    Looking for alternative energy sources has been an inevitable trend since the oil crisis, and close attentioned has been paid to hydrogen energy. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolyzer is characterized by high energy efficiency, high yield, simple system and low operating temperature. The electrolyzer generates hydrogen from water free of any carbon sources (provided the electrons come from renewable sources such as solar and wind), so it is very clean and completely satisfies the environmental requirement. However, in long-term operation of the PEM water electrolyzer, the membrane material durability, catalyst corrosion and nonuniformity of local flow, voltage and current in the electrolyzer can influence the overall performance. It is difficult to measure the internal physical parameters of the PEM water electrolyzer, and the physical parameters are interrelated. Therefore, this study uses micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology to develop a flexible integrated microsensor; internal multiple physical information is extracted to determine the optimal working parameters for the PEM water electrolyzer. The real operational data of local flow, voltage and current in the PEM water electrolyzer are measured simultaneously by the flexible integrated microsensor, so as to enhance the performance of the PEM water electrolyzer and to prolong the service life.

  10. Distribution and air-sea exchange of current-use pesticides (CUPs) from East Asia to the high Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guangcai; Xie, Zhiyong; Cai, Minghong; Möller, Axel; Sturm, Renate; Tang, Jianhui; Zhang, Gan; He, Jianfeng; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2012-01-03

    Surface seawater and marine boundary layer air samples were collected on the ice-breaker R/V Xuelong (Snow Dragon) from the East China Sea to the high Arctic (33.23-84.5° N) in July to September 2010 and have been analyzed for six current-use pesticides (CUPs): trifluralin, endosulfan, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, and dicofol. In all oceanic air samples, the six CUPs were detected, showing highest level (>100 pg/m(3)) in the Sea of Japan. Gaseous CUPs basically decreased from East Asia (between 36.6 and 45.1° N) toward Bering and Chukchi Seas. The dissolved CUPs in ocean water ranged widely from air. Trifluralin in seawater was relatively high in the Sea of Japan (35.2° N) and evenly distributed between 36.9 and 72.5° N, but it remained below the detection limit at the highest northern latitudes in Chukchi Sea. In contrast with other CUPs, concentrations of chlorothalonil and dacthal were more abundant in Chukchi Sea and in East Asia. The air-sea gas exchange of CUPs was generally dominated by net deposition. Latitudinal trends of fugacity ratios of α-endosulfan, chlorothalonil, and dacthal showed stronger deposition of these compounds in East Asia than in Chukchi Sea, while trifluralin showed stronger deposition in Chukchi Sea (-455 ± 245 pg/m(2)/day) than in the North Pacific (-241 ± 158 pg/m(2)/day). Air-sea gas exchange of chlorpyrifos varied from net volatilizaiton in East Asia (<40° N) to equilibrium or net deposition in the North Pacific and the Arctic.

  11. Horizon Scanning: How Will Metabolomics Applications Transform Food Science, Bioengineering, and Medical Innovation in the Current Era of Foodomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Mustafa; Gökırmaklı, Çağlar

    2018-03-01

    Food and engineering sciences have tended to neglect the importance of human nutrition sciences and clinical study of new molecules discovered by food engineering community, and vice versa. Yet, the value of systems thinking and use of omics technologies in food engineering are rapidly emerging. Foodomics is a new concept and practice to bring about "precision nutrition" and integrative bioengineering studies of food composition, quality, and safety, and applications to improve health of humans, animals, and other living organisms on the planet. Foodomics signals a three-way convergence among (1) food engineering; (2) omics systems science technologies such as proteomics, metabolomics, glycomics; and (3) medical/life sciences. This horizon scanning expert review aims to challenge the current practices in food sciences and bioengineering so as to adopt foodomics and systems thinking in foodstuff analysis, with a focus on possible applications of metabolomics. Among the omics biotechnologies, metabolomics is one of the prominent analytical platforms of interest to both food engineers and medical researchers engaged in nutritional sciences, precision medicine, and systems medicine diagnostics. Medical and omics system scientists, and bioengineering scholars can mutually learn from their respective professional expertise. Moving forward, establishment of "Foodomics Think Tanks" is one conceivable strategy to integrate medical and food sciences innovation at a systems scale. With its rich history in food sciences and tradition of interdisciplinary scholarship, the Silk Road countries offer notable potential for synthesis of diverse knowledge strands necessary to realize the prospects of foodomics from Asia and Middle East to Europe.

  12. "Current Good Manufacturing Practices" and the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Beth F.

    1995-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (hereinafter, FDA) regulates food, drugs, and cosmetics in order to ensure that these products are safe and truthfully labelled. As part of its responsibilities under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (hereinafter, Act), the FDA monitors the manufacturing practices of companies involved in the production of food, drugs, and medical devices. The manufacturing practices used by these companies must comply with certain standards, identified in the Act as "...

  13. Analysis of current trends on the Czech food market with a focus on a healthy lifestyle.

    OpenAIRE

    Bartůňková, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The thesis of this work is to map current trends on the Czech food market with focus on a healthy lifestyle. In particular, it focuses on foodstuff labelling and GDA labels. The paper begins by surveying the development of the healthy lifestyle trend, as well as the activities of the Federation of the Food and Drink Industries of the Czech Republic involved in a healthy lifestyle; furthermore, the work elaborates on segmentation of the consumer and evaluation of a healthy lifestyle, obesity a...

  14. Current situation of food irradiation practice in U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu

    1996-01-01

    It is essential that private food companies adopt the process and retail stores sell irradiated food products in order to popularize food irradiation among consumers. FOOD TECHnology Inc. (former Vindicator Inc.), which is founded in Florida 1992 for the purpose of decontamination of fruit flies infected in Oranges using 60 Co gamma-irradiation, and Carrot Top, which has been selling irradiated foods since 1992, are well known to be actively involved in PA activity of irradiated foods. Carrot Top is now strongly interested in selling tropical fruits from Hawaii, which has been prohibited to ship from Hawaii to the mainland without decontamination treatment by US government because of fruit fly infestation. They got a temporal permit for the shipment of those fruits with irradiation at Chicago. FOOD TECHnology Inc. irradiates chicken, tomatoes, strawberries and mushrooms. Foods for hospitalized patients and astronauts are also irradiated at FOOD TECHnology Inc.. All food supply for the 'Space Shuttle' program has been provided. Recently they began to irradiate frozen shrimps and salmons. Carrot Top says that irradiated food items gain popularity among their customers although they changed the information transfer method from news letter to news paper advertisement as well as minimizing the description in the store. They noted that the goods sold well whether or not they are irradiated if they are fresh, good-looking and reasonable in price. FOOD TECHnology also commented that food industries has become more friendly towards food irradiation and they petitioned FDA for clearance of beef irradiation to decontaminate E. coli 0157:H7, but the private companies still hesitated to pick up this process therefore we need more efforts of PR. (J.P.N.)

  15. Current status of information transfer activity on food irradiation and consumer attitudes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu E-mail: mfuruta@riast.osakafu-u.ac.jp

    2004-10-01

    For the purpose of public education of radiation and radiation-related technology towards school kids and their parents through efficient information transfer, 'RADIATION FAIR - the relationship between daily life and radiation' has been successfully held at Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major departmental stores in downtown Osaka, the second largest city in Japan during summer vacation in every August for 19 years. Currently various irradiated products available in our daily life including irradiated potatoes and spices were displayed together with explanatory panels and attractions. The number of participants has increased every year and constantly exceeded 20,000 in recent years. This activity has become a good medium for the consumer to recognize the quality of the irradiated potatoes which has been distributed in the market since 1974, and irradiated spices, the next candidate for the clearance under examination by Japanese government. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we have demonstrated toward the participants that irradiation-decontaminated spices are superior to conventional heat-treated ones in aromatic quality as well as conducting survey of the visitor's feeling on radiation and irradiated foods. These activities would be potentially effective to facilitate public acceptance of irradiation decontamination of spices.

  16. Current status of information transfer activity on food irradiation and consumer attitudes in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Masakazu

    2004-09-01

    For the purpose of public education of radiation and radiation-related technology towards school kids and their parents through efficient information transfer, ''RADIATION FAIR—the relationship between daily life and radiation" has been successfully held at Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major departmental stores in downtown Osaka, the second largest city in Japan during summer vacation in every August for 19 years. Currently various irradiated products available in our daily life including irradiated potatoes and spices were displayed together with explanatory panels and attractions. The number of participants has increased every year and constantly exceeded 20,000 in recent years. This activity has become a good medium for the consumer to recognize the quality of the irradiated potatoes which has been distributed in the market since 1974, and irradiated spices, the next candidate for the clearance under examination by Japanese government. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we have demonstrated toward the participants that irradiation-decontaminated spices are superior to conventional heat-treated ones in aromatic quality as well as conducting survey of the visitor's feeling on radiation and irradiated foods. These activities would be potentially effective to facilitate public acceptance of irradiation decontamination of spices.

  17. [The health food product Noni--does marketing harmonize with the current status of research?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Rolf

    2008-03-13

    Norwegian cancer patients frequently use Noni. The objective of this study was to find out whether the way noni is marketed in Norway and the health claims made about the product harmonize with current scientific knowledge of its benefits/adverse effects. An overview of medical research on noni was obtained from three databases. Web sites for private persons and for companies that sell noni in Norway were examined. Books, pamphlets etc. from a company specializing in selling information material about noni, were also examined. 48 scientific articles were included in the study, but none of these were clinical studies of humans. Several pharmacological effects of noni have been shown in vitro and in animal models (e.g., increased survival for animals with cancer). Information material describes noni as a health-promoting product that patients with most diseases will benefit from. Noni is to a great extent sold by multi-level marketing, but is also commonly sold by health food stores. There is no scientific basis for claiming that patients will benefit from using noni for any diseases. The way this product is sold has several worrying aspects.

  18. Current status of information transfer activity on food irradiation and consumer attitudes in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu

    2004-01-01

    For the purpose of public education of radiation and radiation-related technology towards school kids and their parents through efficient information transfer, 'RADIATION FAIR - the relationship between daily life and radiation' has been successfully held at Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major departmental stores in downtown Osaka, the second largest city in Japan during summer vacation in every August for 19 years. Currently various irradiated products available in our daily life including irradiated potatoes and spices were displayed together with explanatory panels and attractions. The number of participants has increased every year and constantly exceeded 20,000 in recent years. This activity has become a good medium for the consumer to recognize the quality of the irradiated potatoes which has been distributed in the market since 1974, and irradiated spices, the next candidate for the clearance under examination by Japanese government. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we have demonstrated toward the participants that irradiation-decontaminated spices are superior to conventional heat-treated ones in aromatic quality as well as conducting survey of the visitor's feeling on radiation and irradiated foods. These activities would be potentially effective to facilitate public acceptance of irradiation decontamination of spices

  19. Food traceability systems in China: The current status of and future perspectives on food supply chain databases, legal support, and technological research and support for food safety regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Li, Jiajia; Sun, Mei; Lv, Jun; Gai, Ruoyan; Mei, Lin; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-02-01

    Over the past few decades, the field of food security has witnessed numerous problems and incidents that have garnered public attention. Given this serious situation, the food traceability system (FTS) has become part of the expanding food safety continuum to reduce the risk of food safety problems. This article reviews a great deal of the related literature and results from previous studies of FTS to corroborate this contention. This article describes the development and benefits of FTS in developed countries like the United States of America (USA), Japan, and some European countries. Problems with existing FTS in China are noted, including a lack of a complete database, inadequate laws and regulations, and lagging technological research into FTS. This article puts forward several suggestions for the future, including improvement of information websites, clarification of regulatory responsibilities, and promotion of technological research.

  20. The impact of climate change on food security in South Africa: Current realities and challenges ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshepo S. Masipa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the impact of climate change on food security in South Africa. For this purpose, the article adopted a desktop study approach. Previous studies, reports, surveys and policies on climate change and food (insecurity. From this paper’s analysis, climate change presents a high risk to food security in sub-Saharan countries from crop production to food distribution and consumption. In light of this, it is found that climate change, particularly global warming, affects food security through food availability, accessibility, utilisation and affordability. To mitigate these risks, there is a need for an integrated policy approach to protect the arable land against global warming. The argument advanced in this article is that South Africa’s ability to adapt and protect its food items depends on the understanding of risks and the vulnerability of various food items to climate change. However, this poses a challenge in developing countries, including South Africa, because such countries have weak institutions and limited access to technology. Another concern is a wide gap between the cost of adapting and the necessary financial support from the government. There is also a need to invest in technologies that will resist risks on food systems.

  1. Current food chain information provides insufficient information for modern meat inspection of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felin, Elina; Jukola, Elias; Raulo, Saara; Heinonen, Jaakko; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Meat inspection now incorporates a more risk-based approach for protecting human health against meat-borne biological hazards. Official post-mortem meat inspection of pigs has shifted to visual meat inspection. The official veterinarian decides on additional post-mortem inspection procedures, such as incisions and palpations. The decision is based on declarations in the food chain information (FCI), ante-mortem inspection and post-mortem inspection. However, a smooth slaughter and inspection process is essential. Therefore, one should be able to assess prior to slaughter which pigs are suitable for visual meat inspection only, and which need more profound inspection procedures. This study evaluates the usability of the FCI provided by pig producers and considered the possibility for risk ranking of incoming slaughter batches according to the previous meat inspection data and the current FCI. Eighty-five slaughter batches comprising 8954 fattening pigs were randomly selected at a slaughterhouse that receives animals from across Finland. The mortality rate, the FCI and the meat inspection results for each batch were obtained. The current FCI alone provided insufficient and inaccurate information for risk ranking purposes for meat inspection. The partial condemnation rate for a batch was best predicted by the partial condemnation rate calculated for all the pigs sent for slaughter from the same holding in the previous year (p<0.001) and by prior information on cough declared in the current FCI (p=0.02) statement. Training and information to producers are needed to make the FCI reporting procedures more accurate. Historical meat inspection data on pigs slaughtered from the same holdings and well-chosen symptoms/signs for reporting, should be included in the FCI to facilitate the allocation of pigs for visual inspection. The introduced simple scoring system can be easily used for additional information for directing batches to appropriate meat inspection procedures. To

  2. Land use competition for production of food and liquid biofuels. An analysis of the arguments in the current debate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, Regis; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto [Energy Planning Program, Graduate School of Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco C, Sala 211, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    This article analyses the current state of the debate over competition for land use, by means of an index of the main arguments in favor and against the production of liquid biofuels and the impacts on food production. Based on this index, an analytic framework is constructed to establish the causal relations indicated by the existing studies on this competition. We find that the emergence of agro-energy has altered the land use dynamic, albeit not yet significantly, with a shift of areas traditionally used to grow foods over to crops to produce biofuels. This has been contributing to raise food prices in the short run. However, it is probable that this is not the only factor determining this trend, nor will it last over the long run. The challenge is to conciliate the production of biofuels with the production of foods in sustainable form. (author)

  3. Evidence for pion exchange currents in the analysis of the /sup 4/He(p,d)/sup 3/He reaction at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, J R; Rost, E; Smith, G R [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Nuclear Physics Lab.

    1979-12-01

    Previous unsuccessful analyses of /sup 4/He(p,d)/sup 3/He at intermediate energies have employed densities based directly on the measured e/sup -/ + /sup 4/He elastic scattering. When the effects of pion exchange currents are removed, the resulting DWBA analysis is in qualitative agreement with the experimental data.

  4. Ethical rooms for maneuver and theirprospects vis á vis the current ethical food policies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I want to show that consumer concerns can be implemented in food chains by organizing ethical discussions of conflicting values that include them as participators. First, it is argued that there are several types of consumer concerns about food and agriculture that are

  5. Development of a universally applicable household food insecurity measurement tool: process, current status, and outstanding issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindale, Anne; Bilinsky, Paula

    2006-05-01

    The United States Public Law 480 Title II food aid program is the largest U.S. government program directed at reducing hunger, malnutrition, and food insecurity in the developing world. USAID and Title II implementing partners face challenges in measuring the success of Title II programs in reducing household food insecurity because of the technical difficulty and cost of collecting and analyzing data on traditional food security indicators, such as per capita income and caloric adequacy. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) holds promise as an easier and more user-friendly approach for measuring the access component of household food security. To support the consistent and comparable collection of the HFIAS, efforts are under way to develop a guide with a standardized questionnaire and data collection and analysis instructions. A set of domains have been identified that is deemed to capture the universal experience of the access component of household food insecurity across countries and cultures. Based on these domains, a set of questions has been developed with wording that is deemed to be universally appropriate, with minor adaptation to local contexts. These underlying suppositions, based on research in multiple countries, are being verified by potential users of the guide. The key remaining issue relates to the process for creating a categorical indicator of food insecurity status from the HFIAS.

  6. Household food security in Isfahan based on current population survey adapted questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Rafiei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food security is a state in which all people at every time have physical and economic access to adequate food to obviate nutritional needs and live a healthy and active life. Therefore, this study was performed to quantitatively evaluate the household food security in Esfahan using the localized version of US Household Food Security Survey Module (US HFSSM. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in year 2006 on 3000 households of Esfahan. The study instrument used in this work is 18-item US food security module, which is developed into a localized 15-item questionnaire. This study is performed in two stages of families with no children (under 18 years old and families with children over 18 years old. Results: The results showed that item severity coefficient, ratio of responses given by households and item infit and outfit coefficient in adult′s and children′s questionnaire respectively. According to obtained data, scale score of +3 in adults group is described as determination limit of slight food insecurity and +6 is stated as the limit for severe food insecurity. For children′s group, scale score of +2 is defined to be the limit of slight food insecurity and +5 is the determination limit of severe food insecurity. Conclusions: The main hypothesis of this survey analysis is based on the raw scale score of USFSSM The item of "lack of enough money for buying food" (item 2 and the item of "lack of balanced meal" (3 rd item have the lowest severity coefficient. Then, the ascending rate of item severity continues in first item, 4 th item and keeps increasing into 10 th item.

  7. Host and food searching in a parasitic wasp Venturia canescens: a trade-off between current and future reproduction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desouhant, E.; Driessen, G.J.J.; Amat, I.; Bernstein, C.

    2005-01-01

    Whether to invest in current or future reproduction is an important trade-off in life history evolution. For insect parasitoids, this trade-off is determined, among other factors, by the decision whether to search for hosts (immediate gain of fitness) or food (delayed fitness gains). Although host

  8. Current net ecosystem exchange of CO2 in a young mixed forest: any heritage from the previous ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violette, Aurélie; Heinesch, Bernard; Erpicum, Michel; Carnol, Monique; Aubinet, Marc; François, Louis

    2013-04-01

    For 15 years, networks of flux towers have been developed to determine accurate carbon balance with the eddy-covariance method and determine if forests are sink or source of carbon. However, for prediction of the evolution of carbon cycle and climate, major uncertainties remain on the ecosystem respiration (Reco, which includes the respiration of above ground part of trees, roots respiration and mineralization of the soil organic matter), the gross primary productivity (GPP) and their difference, the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of forests. These uncertainties are consequences of spatial and inter-annual variability, driven by previous and current climatic conditions, as well as by the particular history of the site (management, diseases, etc.). In this study we focus on the carbon cycle in two mixed forests in the Belgian Ardennes. The first site, Vielsalm, is a mature stand mostly composed of beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) from 80 to 100 years old. The second site, La Robinette, was covered before 1995 with spruces. After an important windfall and a clear cutting, the site was replanted, between 1995 and 2000, with spruces (Piceas abies) and deciduous species (mostly Betula pendula, Aulnus glutinosa and Salix aurita). The challenge here is to highlight how initial conditions can influence the current behavior of the carbon cycle in a growing stand compared to a mature one, where initial conditions are supposed to be forgotten. A modeling approach suits particularly well for sensitivity tests and estimation of the temporal lag between an event and the ecosystem response. We use the forest ecosystem model ASPECTS (Rasse et al., Ecological Modelling 141, 35-52, 2001). This model predicts long-term forest growth by calculating, over time, hourly NEE. It was developed and already validated on the Vielsalm forest. Modelling results are confronted to eddy-covariance data on both sites from 2006 to 2011. The main difference between both

  9. Paradoxes in current civilization in the context of sociology of food

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtíšková, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    I deal with the relation between food and society in this work. I write about foodways influenced by society and culture, where are these foodways occured. I mention development of food since antique period till this time. I mention role, which played diet in the relation between nations, but even within one society. There are few sociologist, who are interested in food, but in spite of this, this work points out some of them, especially Norbert Elias. I place emphasis on actual themes associ...

  10. [Current progress in food geographical origin traceability by near infrared spectroscopy technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dong-Hong; Wang, Xi-Chang; Liu, Li-Ping; Liu, Yuan

    2011-04-01

    The geographical origin traceability of food, an important part of traceability system, is effective in protecting the quality and safety of foodstuffs. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), which is a powerful technique for geographical origin traceability, has attracted extensive attention by scientists due to its speediness, non-pollution and simple operation. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of techniques that have been used for food geographical origin traceability. The basic principles of NIR and its applications in different food geographical origin traceability are presented too. Furthermore, problems in applications are analyzed and the future development trends are discussed.

  11. Global food and fibre security threatened by current inefficiencies in fungal identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, Pedro W.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal pathogens severely impact global food and fibre crop security. Fungal species that cause plant diseases have mostly been recognized based on their morphology. In general, morphological descriptions remain disconnected from crucially important knowledge such as mating types, host specificity,

  12. The emergence of international food safety standards and guidelines: understanding the current landscape through a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsingh, Brigit

    2014-07-01

    Following the Second World War, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) teamed up to construct an International Codex Alimentarius (or 'food code') which emerged in 1963. The Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) was charged with the task of developing microbial hygiene standards, although it found itself embroiled in debate with the WHO over the nature these standards should take. The WHO was increasingly relying upon the input of biometricians and especially the International Commission on Microbial Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) which had developed statistical sampling plans for determining the microbial counts in the final end products. The CCFH, however, was initially more focused on a qualitative approach which looked at the entire food production system and developed codes of practice as well as more descriptive end-product specifications which the WHO argued were 'not scientifically correct'. Drawing upon historical archival material (correspondence and reports) from the WHO and FAO, this article examines this debate over microbial hygiene standards and suggests that there are many lessons from history which could shed light upon current debates and efforts in international food safety management systems and approaches.

  13. Tank-connected food waste disposer systems--current status and potential improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, A; Davidsson, A; Tsai, J; Persson, E; Bissmont, M; la Cour Jansen, J

    2013-01-01

    An unconventional system for separate collection of food waste was investigated through evaluation of three full-scale systems in the city of Malmö, Sweden. Ground food waste is led to a separate settling tank where food waste sludge is collected regularly with a tank-vehicle. These tank-connected systems can be seen as a promising method for separate collection of food waste from both households and restaurants. Ground food waste collected from these systems is rich in fat and has a high methane potential when compared to food waste collected in conventional bag systems. The content of heavy metals is low. The concentrations of N-tot and P-tot in sludge collected from sedimentation tanks were on average 46.2 and 3.9 g/kg TS, equalling an estimated 0.48 and 0.05 kg N-tot and P-tot respectively per year and household connected to the food waste disposer system. Detergents in low concentrations can result in increased degradation rates and biogas production, while higher concentrations can result in temporary inhibition of methane production. Concentrations of COD and fat in effluent from full-scale tanks reached an average of 1068 mg/l and 149 mg/l respectively over the five month long evaluation period. Hydrolysis of the ground material is initiated between sludge collection occasions (30 days). Older food waste sludge increases the degradation rate and the risks of fugitive emissions of methane from tanks between collection occasions. Increased particle size decreases hydrolysis rate and could thus decrease losses of carbon and nutrients in the sewerage system, but further studies in full-scale systems are needed to confirm this. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Traditional and Current Food Use of Wild Plants Listed in the Russian Pharmacopoeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikov, Alexander N; Tsitsilin, Andrey N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Heinrich, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Historically Russia can be regarded as a "herbophilious" society. For centuries the multinational population of Russia has used plants in daily diet and for self-medication. The specificity of dietary uptake of medicinal plants (especially those in the unique and highly developed Russian herbal medical tradition) has remained mostly unknown in other regions. Based on 11th edition of the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR, we selected 70 wild plant species which have been used in food by local Russian populations. Empirical searches were conducted via the Russian-wide applied online database E-library.ru, library catalogs of public libraries in St-Petersburg, the databases Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and search engine Google Scholar. The large majority of species included in Russian Pharmacopoeia are used as food by local population, however, aerial parts are more widely used for food. In this review, we summarize data on medicinal species published in Russia and other countries that are included in the Russian Pharmacopoeia and have being used in food for a long time. Consequently, the Russian Pharmacopoeia is an important source of information on plant species used traditionally at the interface of food and medicine. At the same time, there are the so-called "functional foods", which denotes foods that not only serves to provide nutrition but also can be a source for prevention and cure of various diseases. This review highlights the potential of wild species of Russia monographed in its pharmacopeia for further developing new functional foods and-through the lens of their incorporation into the pharmacopeia-showcases the species' importance in Russia.

  15. Molecular-Based Identification and Detection of Salmonella in Food Production Systems: Current Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, Steven C; Kim, Sun Ae; Shi, Zhaohao; Park, Si Hong

    2018-04-19

    Salmonella remains a prominent cause of foodborne illnesses and can originate from a wide range of food products. Given the continued presence of pathogenic Salmonella in food production systems, there is a consistent need to improve identification and detection methods that can identify this pathogen at all stages in food systems. Methods for subtyping have evolved over the years, and the introduction of whole genome sequencing and advancements in PCR technologies has greatly improved the resolution for differentiating strains within a particular serovar. This, in turn, has led to the continued improvement in Salmonella detection technologies for utilization in food production systems. In this review, the focus will be on recent advancements in these technologies, as well as potential issues associated with the application of these tools in food production. In addition, the recent and emerging research developments on Salmonella detection and identification methodologies and their potential application in food production systems will be discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. DNA Analyses in Food Safety and Quality: Current Status and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchelli, Rosangela; Tedeschi, Tullia; Tonelli, Alessandro

    Food safety and quality are very important issues receiving a lot of attention in most countries by producers, consumers and regulatory and control authorities. In particular, DNA analysis in food is becoming popular not only in relation to genetically modified products (GMOs), in which DNA modification is the "clue" of the novelty, but also in other fields like microbiology and pathogen detection, which require long times for the cultivation and specially in cases in which the microorganisms are not cultivable like some viruses, as well as for authenticity and allergen detection. A new topic concerning "nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics" has also been mentioned, very important but still in its infancy, which could lead in the future to a personalized diet. In this chapter we have described the main areas of food research and fields of application where DNA analysis is being performed and the relative methods of detection, which are generally based on PCR. The possibility/opportunity to detect DNA without previous amplification (PCR-free) will be discussed. We have examined the following areas: (1) genetically modified foods (GMOs); (2) food allergens; (3) microbiological contaminations; (4) food authenticity; (5) nutrigenetics/nutrigenomics.

  17. Current Knowledge on Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms in Food-Related Environments: Incidence, Resistance to Biocides, Ecology and Biocontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodríguez-López

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although many efforts have been made to control Listeria monocytogenes in the food industry, growing pervasiveness amongst the population over the last decades has made this bacterium considered to be one of the most hazardous foodborne pathogens. Its outstanding biocide tolerance capacity and ability to promiscuously associate with other bacterial species forming multispecies communities have permitted this microorganism to survive and persist within the industrial environment. This review is designed to give the reader an overall picture of the current state-of-the-art in L. monocytogenes sessile communities in terms of food safety and legislation, ecological aspects and biocontrol strategies.

  18. Traditional and Current Food Use of Wild Plants Listed in the Russian Pharmacopoeia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Shikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Historically Russia can be regarded as a “herbophilious” society. For centuries the multinational population of Russia has used plants in daily diet and for self-medication. The specificity of dietary uptake of medicinal plants (especially those in the unique and highly developed Russian herbal medical tradition has remained mostly unknown in other regions. Based on 11th edition of the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR, we selected 70 wild plant species which have been used in food by local Russian populations. Empirical searches were conducted via the Russian-wide applied online database E-library.ru, library catalogs of public libraries in St-Petersburg, the databases Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and search engine Google Scholar. The large majority of species included in Russian Pharmacopoeia are used as food by local population, however, aerial parts are more widely used for food. In this review, we summarize data on medicinal species published in Russia and other countries that are included in the Russian Pharmacopoeia and have being used in food for a long time. Consequently, the Russian Pharmacopoeia is an important source of information on plant species used traditionally at the interface of food and medicine. At the same time, there are the so-called “functional foods”, which denotes foods that not only serves to provide nutrition but also can be a source for prevention and cure of various diseases. This review highlights the potential of wild species of Russia monographed in its pharmacopeia for further developing new functional foods and—through the lens of their incorporation into the pharmacopeia—showcases the species' importance in Russia.

  19. Exchange processes at geosphere-biosphere interface. Current SKB approach and example of coupled hydrological-ecological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerman, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Biometry and Technology

    2003-09-01

    The design of the repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel proposed by SKB is based on a multi-barrier system, in which the geosphere and biosphere are the utmost barrier surrounding the engineer barriers. This report briefly reviews the current approach taken by SKB to account for hydrological and ecological processes at the geosphere-biosphere interface (GBI) and their future plans in this area. A simple analysis was performed to shift the focus of performance assessment involving geosphere-biosphere interface modelling from the very simplistic assumption that the quaternary sediments are bypassed to one in which a more detailed model for sub-surface flows is included. This study indicated that, for many assumed ecosystem descriptions, the presence of the GBI leads to lower maximum doses to individual humans compared to a case when the GBI is neglected. This effect is due to the additional 'barrier' offered by the GBI. The main exposure pathways were assumed to occur through the food web. However, particularly the leakage on land through the stream-network and lakes can lead to higher doses due to ecosystem interaction with arable land. A scenario that gives particularly long duration of doses occurs due to land rise and with the transformation of the former bay and lake bed sediments into agricultural land. This effect is due to the significant retention or accumulation in aquatic sediment, which causes high activities to build up with time. Particularly, in combination with changing conditions in climate, humans life-style or geographic conditions (land rise, deforestation,etc.) doses to individual humans can be large.

  20. Exchange processes at geosphere-biosphere interface. Current SKB approach and example of coupled hydrological-ecological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerman, Anders

    2003-09-01

    The design of the repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel proposed by SKB is based on a multi-barrier system, in which the geosphere and biosphere are the utmost barrier surrounding the engineer barriers. This report briefly reviews the current approach taken by SKB to account for hydrological and ecological processes at the geosphere-biosphere interface (GBI) and their future plans in this area. A simple analysis was performed to shift the focus of performance assessment involving geosphere-biosphere interface modelling from the very simplistic assumption that the quaternary sediments are bypassed to one in which a more detailed model for sub-surface flows is included. This study indicated that, for many assumed ecosystem descriptions, the presence of the GBI leads to lower maximum doses to individual humans compared to a case when the GBI is neglected. This effect is due to the additional 'barrier' offered by the GBI. The main exposure pathways were assumed to occur through the food web. However, particularly the leakage on land through the stream-network and lakes can lead to higher doses due to ecosystem interaction with arable land. A scenario that gives particularly long duration of doses occurs due to land rise and with the transformation of the former bay and lake bed sediments into agricultural land. This effect is due to the significant retention or accumulation in aquatic sediment, which causes high activities to build up with time. Particularly, in combination with changing conditions in climate, humans life-style or geographic conditions (land rise, deforestation,etc.) doses to individual humans can be large

  1. A review of the current state of research on the water, energy, and food nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Endo

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights: Through selected 37 projects, four types of nexus research were identified including water–food, water–energy–food, water–energy, and climate related. Among them, six projects (16% had a close linkage with water–food, 11 (30% with water–energy–food, 12 (32% with water–energy, and eight (22% with climate. The regions were divided into Asia, Europe, Oceania, North America, South America, Middle East and Africa. North America and Oceania had a tendency to focus on a specific nexus type, water–energy (46% and climate (43%, while Africa had less focus on water–energy (7%. Regarding keywords, out of 37 nexus projects, 16 projects listed keywords in their articles. There were 84 keywords in total, which were categorized by the author team depending on its relevance to water, food, energy, climate, and combination of water–food–energy–climate, and 40 out of 84 keywords were linked with water and only 4 were linked with climate. As for stakeholders, 77 out of 137 organizations were related to research and only two organizations had a role in media.

  2. Assessing Food Preferences in Dogs and Cats: A Review of the Current Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Tobie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Food is a major aspect of pet care; therefore, ensuring that pet foods are not only healthful but attractive to companion animals and their owners is essential. The petfood market remains active and requires ongoing evaluation of the adaptation and efficiency of the new products. Palatability—foods’ characteristics enticing animals and leading them to consumption—is therefore a key element to look at. Based on the type of information needed, different pet populations (expert or naïve can be tested to access their preference and acceptance for different food products. Classical techniques are the one-bowl and two-bowl tests, but complementary (i.e., operant conditioning and novel (i.e., exploratory behavior approaches are available to gather more information on the evaluation of petfood palatability.

  3. Food webs of the Delta, Suisun Bay and Suisun Marsh: an update on current understanding and possibilities for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry R.; Kimmerer, Wim J.; Conrad, Louise; Lesmeister, Sarah; Mueller-Solger, Anke

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews and highlights recent research findings on foodweb processes since an earlier review by Kimmerer et al. (2008). We conduct this review within a conceptual framework of the Delta-Suisun food web, which includes both temporal and spatial components. The temporal component is based on knowledge that the landscape has changed markedly from historical conditions. The spatial component of our framework acknowledges that the food web is not spatially static; it varies regionally and across habitat types within regions. The review highlights the idea of a changing baseline with respect to foodweb function. New research also indicates that interactions between habitat-specific food webs vary across the current landscape. For example, based on early work in the South Delta, the food web associated with submerged aquatic vegetation was thought to provide little support to species of concern; however, data from other regions of the estuary suggest that this conceptual model may not apply across the entire region. Habitat restoration has been proposed as a method of re-establishing historic foodweb processes to support species of concern. Benefits are likely for species that directly access such restored habitats, but are less clear for pelagic species. Several topics require attention to further improve the knowledge of food webs needed to support effective management, including: 1) synthesis of factors responsible for low pelagic biomass; 2) monitoring and research on effects of harmful algal blooms; 3) broadening the scope of long-term monitoring; 4) determining benefits of tidal wetland restoration to species of concern, including evaluations of interactions of habitat-specific food webs; and 5) interdisciplinary analysis and synthesis. The only certainty is that food webs will continue to change in response to the changes in the physical environment and new species invasions.

  4. Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces food-craving and measures of hyperphagia behavior in participants with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Gabriela L; Poje, Albert B; Perissinotti, Iago; Marcondes, Bianca F; Villamar, Mauricio F; Manzardo, Ann M; Luque, Laura; LePage, Jean F; Stafford, Diane; Fregni, Felipe; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disabilities and insatiable appetite with compulsive eating leading to severe obesity with detrimental health consequences. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modulate decision-making and cue-induced food craving in healthy adults. We conducted a pilot double blind, sham-controlled, multicenter study of tDCS modulation of food drive and craving in 10 adult PWS participants, 11 adult obese (OB) and 11 adult healthy-weight control (HWC) subjects. PWS and OB subjects received five consecutive daily sessions of active or sham tDCS over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), while HWC received a single sham and active tDCS in a crossover design. Standardized psychometric instruments assessed food craving, drive and hyperphagia by self-report and caregiver assessment over 30 days. Robust baseline differences were observed in severity scores for the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Dykens Hyperphagia Questionnaire (DHQ) for PWS compared to HWC while obese participants were more similar to HWC. Active tDCS stimulation in PWS was associated with a significant change from baseline in TFEQ Disinhibition (Factor II) (Ƶ = 1.9, P food drive and behaviors impacting hyperphagia in PWS. Transcranial direct current stimulation may represent a straight-forward, low risk and low cost method to improve care, management and quality of life in PWS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Prediction of porosity of food materials during drying: Current challenges and directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joardder, Mohammad U H; Kumar, C; Karim, M A

    2017-07-18

    Pore formation in food samples is a common physical phenomenon observed during dehydration processes. The pore evolution during drying significantly affects the physical properties and quality of dried foods. Therefore, it should be taken into consideration when predicting transport processes in the drying sample. Characteristics of pore formation depend on the drying process parameters, product properties and processing time. Understanding the physics of pore formation and evolution during drying will assist in accurately predicting the drying kinetics and quality of food materials. Researchers have been trying to develop mathematical models to describe the pore formation and evolution during drying. In this study, existing porosity models are critically analysed and limitations are identified. Better insight into the factors affecting porosity is provided, and suggestions are proposed to overcome the limitations. These include considerations of process parameters such as glass transition temperature, sample temperature, and variable material properties in the porosity models. Several researchers have proposed models for porosity prediction of food materials during drying. However, these models are either very simplistic or empirical in nature and failed to consider relevant significant factors that influence porosity. In-depth understanding of characteristics of the pore is required for developing a generic model of porosity. A micro-level analysis of pore formation is presented for better understanding, which will help in developing an accurate and generic porosity model.

  6. Food safety and ecologization: practical solutions to problems at the regional level in current economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysochenko Alla, A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food security and greening both at the level of the country, and at the level of regions are main objectives of modern agroeconomic policy. The state support creates favorable conditions for dynamic development of agrarian and industrial complex, raises investment opportunities and competitiveness of agricultural producers. A realization of the actions directed on assistance to the enterprises making import-substituting production of the regional agro-industrial complex is actual in modern economic conditions. The solution of this problem consists of investment projects implementation and production expansion of the operating enterprises. Considering new economic conditions, the ensuring financial stability of agricultural producers, availability of the food to needy segments of the population, production of valeologically safe food, and also increase efficiency of use of natural resources and conditions along with preservation of quality of environment at the local, regional and global levels are particularly acute challenges. State regulation of development of an agrofood complex of Russia remains a necessary condition for its reproduction functioning, and the social and economic policy has to provide economic availability of the food to all groups of the population that causes need of standard and legal fixing of mechanisms offood security achievement at the regional level.

  7. The CALUX bioassay: current status of its application to screening food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Goeyens, L.; Carbonnelle, S.; Loco, van J.; Beernaert, H.; Baeyens, W.; Traag, W.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Jacobs, G.; Schoeters, G.

    2006-01-01

    The CALUX bioassay is at present the best screening method for dioxins and dioxin-like (dl) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food and feed, and the only assay used in routine monitoring and during larger incidents. Furthermore, the use of bioassays in addition to chemical reference methods allows

  8. THE CURRENT STATE OF SEED PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLES AND GOURDS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION; NATIONAL FOOD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of seed market of vegetable and gourds in Russian Federation in the frame of national food safety program is given in the article. Russia as a country with well-developed  seed production  in the last century has now  ceded  its  position,  and according  to  last experts’ association estimations the 80%  of  required volume of seeds of vegetables and gourds, amounting from 8 to 12 thousand per year is imported.  Not  less than 15 thousands  of  hectares  are  needed  to  be  necessary  for demand  of  Russian seed  production  sector,  however, presently only 2 thousands of hectares is a total certified land used for seed production.  Moreover, the seed production sector of some countries that export seeds rises becoming a profitable branch of agriculture, and providing local employment. The lack of competitiveness in Russia causes that many foreign companies increase annually purchasing prices for seeds and their production services. Therefore, now the total volume of seeds imported  in  Russian Federation has nearly been  twice less for the last years than in 2012, but in currency earnings in exporting countries the insignificant changes can be seen, where deviation is only 19-25%  from  average annual value, that means 1675 thousand dollars per year. Besides, for the Russian budget in the ruble currency the total cost of imported seeds has become 2.5 times more expensive since 2012, but the increase of combined cost of  marketable  vegetables  has been  over  2.7  billion  of rubles.  The  main  idea  that  the  seed  production  is  a process requiring the participation of breeders, seed producers and seed companies is main factor to succeed in recovering seed production sector. Exception of any participant or ignoring his interests may destroy all process. For instance, there is a chronic problem of plagiarism and royalty nonpayment causes the break between the business and

  9. A current approach to using additional foods for the early prevention of deficiency states in infants during the first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Levchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers how to organize properly balanced feeding in infants during the first year of life, by using additional foods. It highlights current approaches to using the latter in the babies and provides a rationale for the tune of giving additional foods, by taking into account the readiness of an infant to eat new foods and the need to incorporate micronutrients for the prevention of anemia, rickets, and food allergy. The benefits of using commercial products are discussed.

  10. Mycotoxin problem in Africa: current status, implications to food safety and health and possible management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagacha, J M; Muthomi, J W

    2008-05-10

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungal origin and contaminate agricultural commodities before or under post-harvest conditions. They are mainly produced by fungi in the Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium genera. When ingested, inhaled or absorbed through the skin, mycotoxins will cause lowered performance, sickness or death on humans and animals. Factors that contribute to mycotoxin contamination of food and feed in Africa include environmental, socio-economic and food production. Environmental conditions especially high humidity and temperatures favour fungal proliferation resulting in contamination of food and feed. The socio-economic status of majority of inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa predisposes them to consumption of mycotoxin contaminated products either directly or at various points in the food chain. The resulting implications include immuno-suppression, impaired growth, various cancers and death depending on the type, period and amount of exposure. A synergistic effect between mycotoxin exposure and some important diseases in the continent such as malaria, kwashiorkor and HIV/AIDS have been suggested. Mycotoxin concerns have grown during the last few decades because of their implications to human and animal health, productivity, economics of their management and trade. This has led to development of maximum tolerated limits for mycotoxins in various countries. Even with the standards in place, the greatest recorded fatal mycotoxin-poisoning outbreak caused by contamination of maize with aflatoxins occurred in Africa in 2004. Pre-harvest practices; time of harvesting; handling of produce during harvesting; moisture levels at harvesting, transportation, marketing and processing; insect damage all contribute to mycotoxin contamination. Possible intervention strategies include good agricultural practices such as early harvesting, proper drying, sanitation, proper storage and insect management among others. Other possible interventions

  11. Current status and emerging role of glutathione in food grade lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Pophaly Sarang; Singh Rameshwar; Pophaly Saurabh; Kaushik Jai K; Tomar Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have taken centre stage in perspectives of modern fermented food industry and probiotic based therapeutics. These bacteria encounter various stress conditions during industrial processing or in the gastrointestinal environment. Such conditions are overcome by complex molecular assemblies capable of synthesizing and/or metabolizing molecules that play a specific role in stress adaptation. Thiols are important class of molecules which contribute towards stres...

  12. Influence of meson-exchange currents of the second kind on the characteristics of the β/sup +- / decay of light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsonenko, N.V.; Samgin, A.L.; Katkhat, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    We study the influence of meson-exchange currents of the second kind on the e-ν angular correlation, on the coefficients of charge asymmetry, and on the degree of longitudinal polarization of electrons (positrons) in the β/sup +- / decay of mirror light nuclei. The expressions for these characteristics obtained within the framework of the Kubodera-Delorme-Rho model are compared with the results of the impulse approximation. The mutual influence of the currents of the second kind and the neutrino mass is considered. The expected effects due to the influence of the Kubodera-Delorme-Rho parameters zeta and λ are estimated

  13. Tannins: current knowledge of food sources, intake, bioavailability and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, José; Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Dauer, Andreas; Aura, Anna-Marja; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2009-09-01

    Tannins are a unique group of phenolic metabolites with molecular weights between 500 and 30 000 Da, which are widely distributed in almost all plant foods and beverages. Proanthocyanidins and hydrolysable tannins are the two major groups of these bioactive compounds, but complex tannins containing structural elements of both groups and specific tannins in marine brown algae have also been described. Most literature data on food tannins refer only to oligomeric compounds that are extracted with aqueous-organic solvents, but a significant number of non-extractable tannins are usually not mentioned in the literature. The biological effects of tannins usually depend on their grade of polymerisation and solubility. Highly polymerised tannins exhibit low bioaccessibility in the small intestine and low fermentability by colonic microflora. This review summarises a new approach to analysis of extractable and non-extractable tannins, major food sources, and effects of storage and processing on tannin content and bioavailability. Biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiviral effects are also described. In addition, the role of tannins in diabetes mellitus has been discussed.

  14. The fetal programming of food preferences: current clinical and experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Molle, R; Bischoff, A R; Portella, A K; Silveira, P P

    2015-09-28

    Increased energy consumption is one of the major factors implicated in the epidemic of obesity. There is compelling evidence, both clinical and experimental, that fetal paucity of nutrients may have programming effects on feeding preferences and behaviors that can contribute to the development of diseases. Clinical studies in different age groups show that individuals born small for their gestational age (SGA) have preferences towards highly caloric foods such as carbohydrates and fats. Some studies have also shown altered eating behaviors in SGA children. Despite an apparent discrepancy in different age groups, all studies seem to converge to an increased intake of palatable foods in SGA individuals. Small nutrient imbalances across lifespan increase the risk of noncommunicable diseases in adult life. Homeostatic factors such as altered responses to leptin and insulin and alterations in neuropeptides associated with appetite and satiety are likely involved. Imbalances between homeostatic and hedonic signaling are another proposed mechanism, with the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathway having differential reward and pleasure responses when facing palatable foods. Early exposure to undernutrition also programs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, with SGA having higher levels of cortisol in different ages, leading to chronic hyperactivity of this neuroendocrine axis. This review summarizes the clinical and experimental evidence related to fetal programming of feeding preferences by SGA.

  15. Current issues surrounding the definition of trans-fatty acids: implications for health, industry and food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Proctor, Spencer D

    2013-10-01

    The definition of trans-fatty acids (TFA) was established by the Codex Alimentarius to guide nutritional and legislative regulations to reduce TFA consumption. Currently, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is excluded from the TFA definition based on evidence (primarily preclinical studies) implying health benefits on weight management and cancer prevention. While the efficacy of CLA supplements remains inconsistent in randomised clinical trials, evidence has emerged to associate supplemental CLA with negative health outcomes, including increased subclinical inflammation and oxidative stress (particularly at high doses). This has resulted in concerns regarding the correctness of excluding CLA from the TFA definition. Here we review recent clinical and preclinical literature on health implications of CLA and ruminant TFA, and highlight several issues surrounding the current Codex definition of TFA and how it may influence interpretation for public health. We find that CLA derived from ruminant foods differ from commercial CLA supplements in their isomer composition/distribution, consumption level and bioactivity. We conclude that health concerns associated with the use of supplemental CLA do not repudiate the exclusion of all forms of CLA from the Codex TFA definition, particularly when using the definition for food-related purposes. Given the emerging differential bioactivity of TFA from industrial v. ruminant sources, we advocate that regional nutrition guidelines/policies should focus on eliminating industrial forms of trans-fat from processed foods as opposed to all TFA per se.

  16. Review of comparative LCAs of food waste management systems – Current status and potential improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstad, A.; Cour Jansen, J. la

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► GHG-emissions from different treatment alternatives vary largely in 25 reviewed comparative LCAs of bio-waste management. ► System-boundary settings often vary largely in reviewed studies. ► Existing LCA guidelines give varying recommendations in relation to several key issues. - Abstract: Twenty-five comparative cycle assessments (LCAs) addressing food waste treatment were reviewed, including the treatment alternatives landfill, thermal treatment, compost (small and large scale) and anaerobic digestion. The global warming potential related to these treatment alternatives varies largely amongst the studies. Large differences in relation to setting of system boundaries, methodological choices and variations in used input data were seen between the studies. Also, a number of internal contradictions were identified, many times resulting in biased comparisons between alternatives. Thus, noticed differences in global warming potential are not found to be a result of actual differences in the environmental impacts from studied systems, but rather to differences in the performance of the study. A number of key issues with high impact on the overall global warming potential from different treatment alternatives for food waste were identified through the use of one-way sensitivity analyses in relation to a previously performed LCA of food waste management. Assumptions related to characteristics in treated waste, losses and emissions of carbon, nutrients and other compounds during the collection, storage and pretreatment, potential energy recovery through combustion, emissions from composting, emissions from storage and land use of bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizers and eco-profiles of substituted goods were all identified as highly relevant for the outcomes of this type of comparisons. As the use of LCA in this area is likely to increase in coming years, it is highly relevant to establish more detailed guidelines within this field in order to

  17. Review of comparative LCAs of food waste management systems - Current status and potential improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstad, A., E-mail: anna.bernstad@chemeng.lth.se [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Chemical Centre, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Cour Jansen, J. la [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Chemical Centre, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHG-emissions from different treatment alternatives vary largely in 25 reviewed comparative LCAs of bio-waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System-boundary settings often vary largely in reviewed studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Existing LCA guidelines give varying recommendations in relation to several key issues. - Abstract: Twenty-five comparative cycle assessments (LCAs) addressing food waste treatment were reviewed, including the treatment alternatives landfill, thermal treatment, compost (small and large scale) and anaerobic digestion. The global warming potential related to these treatment alternatives varies largely amongst the studies. Large differences in relation to setting of system boundaries, methodological choices and variations in used input data were seen between the studies. Also, a number of internal contradictions were identified, many times resulting in biased comparisons between alternatives. Thus, noticed differences in global warming potential are not found to be a result of actual differences in the environmental impacts from studied systems, but rather to differences in the performance of the study. A number of key issues with high impact on the overall global warming potential from different treatment alternatives for food waste were identified through the use of one-way sensitivity analyses in relation to a previously performed LCA of food waste management. Assumptions related to characteristics in treated waste, losses and emissions of carbon, nutrients and other compounds during the collection, storage and pretreatment, potential energy recovery through combustion, emissions from composting, emissions from storage and land use of bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizers and eco-profiles of substituted goods were all identified as highly relevant for the outcomes of this type of comparisons. As the use of LCA in this area is likely to increase in coming years, it is highly

  18. Microarray technology for major chemical contaminants analysis in food: current status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  19. Determination of vitamin C in foods: current state of method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, Vítor; Llorent-Martínez, Eulogio J; Castilho, Paula C

    2014-11-21

    Vitamin C is one of the most important vitamins, so reliable information about its content in foodstuffs is a concern to both consumers and quality control agencies. However, the heterogeneity of food matrixes and the potential degradation of this vitamin during its analysis create enormous challenges. This review addresses the development and validation of high-performance liquid chromatography methods for vitamin C analysis in food commodities, during the period 2000-2014. The main characteristics of vitamin C are mentioned, along with the strategies adopted by most authors during sample preparation (freezing and acidification) to avoid vitamin oxidation. After that, the advantages and handicaps of different analytical methods are discussed. Finally, the main aspects concerning method validation for vitamin C analysis are critically discussed. Parameters such as selectivity, linearity, limit of quantification, and accuracy were studied by most authors. Recovery experiments during accuracy evaluation were in general satisfactory, with usual values between 81 and 109%. However, few methods considered vitamin C stability during the analytical process, and the study of the precision was not always clear or complete. Potential future improvements regarding proper method validation are indicated to conclude this review. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Nanobody Technology for Mycotoxin Detection in the Field of Food Safety: Current Status and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ting; Zhu, Jiang; Nie, Yao; Hu, Rui; Wang, Ting; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Yunhuang

    2018-04-29

    Mycotoxins, which are toxic, carcinogenic, and/or teratogenic, have posed a threat to food safety and public health. Sensitive and effective determination technologies for mycotoxin surveillance are required. Immunoassays have been regarded as useful supplements to chromatographic techniques. However, conventional antibodies involved in immunoassays are difficult to be expressed recombinantly and are susceptible to harsh environments. Nanobodies (or VHH antibodies) are antigen-binding sites of the heavy-chain antibodies produced from Camelidae. They are found to be expressed easily in prokaryotic or eukaryotic expression systems, more robust in extreme conditions, and facile to be used as surrogates for artificial antigens. These properties make them the promising and environmentally friendly immunoreagents in the next generation of immunoassays. This review briefly describes the latest developments in the area of nanobodies used in mycotoxin detection. Moreover, by integrating the introduction of the principle of nanobodies production and the critical assessment of their performance, this paper also proposes the prospect of nanobodies in the field of food safety in the foreseeable future.

  1. Food deprivation and nicotine correct akinesia and freezing in Na(+) -leak current channel (NALCN)-deficient strains of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, K; Zweig, R; Aamodt, E J; Dwyer, D S

    2014-09-01

    Mutations in various genes adversely affect locomotion in model organisms, and thus provide valuable clues about the complex processes that control movement. In Caenorhabditis elegans, loss-of-function mutations in the Na(+) leak current channel (NALCN) and associated proteins (UNC-79 and UNC-80) cause akinesia and fainting (abrupt freezing of movement during escape from touch). It is not known how defects in the NALCN induce these phenotypes or if they are chronic and irreversible. Here, we report that akinesia and freezing are state-dependent and reversible in NALCN-deficient mutants (nca-1;nca-2, unc-79 and unc-80) when additional cation channels substitute for this protein. Two main measures of locomotion were evaluated: spontaneous movement (traversal of >2 head lengths during a 5 second observation period) and the touch-freeze response (movement greater than three body bends in response to tail touch). Food deprivation for as little as 3 min stimulated spontaneous movement and corrected the touch-freeze response. Conversely, food-deprived animals that moved normally in the absence of bacteria rapidly reverted to uncoordinated movement when re-exposed to food. The effects of food deprivation were mimicked by nicotine, which suggested that acetylcholine mediated the response. Nicotine appeared to act on interneurons or motor neurons rather than directly at the neuromuscular junction because levamisole, which stimulates muscle contraction, did not correct movement. Neural circuits have been proposed to account for the effects of food deprivation and nicotine on spontaneous movement and freezing. The NALCN may play an unrecognized role in human movement disorders characterized by akinesia and freezing gait. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  2. The neuroendocrine regulation of food intake in fish: a review of current knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Volkoff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish are the most diversified group of vertebrates and, although progress has been made in the past years, only relatively few fish species have been examined to date, with regards to the endocrine regulation of feeding in fish. In fish, as in mammals, feeding behavior is ultimately regulated by central effectors within feeding centers of the brain, which receive and process information from endocrine signals from both brain and peripheral tissues. Although basic endocrine mechanisms regulating feeding appear to be conserved among vertebrates, major physiological differences between fish and mammals and the diversity of fish, in particular in regard to feeding habits, digestive tract anatomy and physiology, suggest the existence of fish- and species-specific regulating mechanisms. This review provides an overview of hormones known to regulate food intake in fish, emphasizing on major hormones and the main fish groups studied to date.

  3. Influence of current velocity and wind speed on air-water gas exchange in a mangrove estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, David T.; Coffineau, Nathalie; Hickman, Benjamin; Chow, Nicholas; Koffman, Tobias; Schlosser, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of air-water gas transfer velocities and water residence times is necessary to study the fate of mangrove derived carbon exported into surrounding estuaries and ultimately to determine carbon balances in mangrove ecosystems. For the first time, the 3He/SF6 dual tracer technique, which has been proven to be a powerful tool to determine gas transfer velocities in the ocean, is applied to Shark River, an estuary situated in the largest contiguous mangrove forest in North America. The mean gas transfer velocity was 3.3 ± 0.2 cm h-1 during the experiment, with a water residence time of 16.5 ± 2.0 days. We propose a gas exchange parameterization that takes into account the major sources of turbulence in the estuary (i.e., bottom generated shear and wind stress).

  4. Comparison and analysis of the efficiency of heat exchange of copper rod and copper wires current lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.; Yu, T.; Li, Z.M.; Wei, B.; Qiu, M.; Zhang, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •An optimized design of HTS binary current leads is proposed. •Temperature distributions of two different current leads are calculated. •Experiments are done to certify the calculated temperature distributions. •The experiments proved that the copper wires increase security margins. -- Abstract: Current leads are the key components that connect the low-temperature and high temperature parts of the cryogenic system. Owing to the wide range of temperatures, current leads are the main sources of heat leakage. Since the HTS tapes have no resistance and the generated Joule heat is almost zero, HTS binary current leads can reduce heat leakage compared to the conventional leads. However, heat will still be generated and conducted to the cryogenic system through the copper parts of the HTS current leads. In order to reduce heat leakage by the copper parts of the HTS current leads, this paper presents an optimized design of the copper parts of HTS binary current leads. Inside the leads, the copper wires were applied as an alternative to the copper rod without changing the overall dimensions. Firstly, the differential function of heat transfer was derived. By solving the function, the optimum number of the copper wires and the temperature distribution of two different current leads were gotten. Then the experiment of the temperature distribution was done, and the experimental results were basically the same with the calculative results. The simulation and related experiments proved that the copper wire can increase security margins and reduce maximum temperatures under the same shunt current

  5. Comparison and analysis of the efficiency of heat exchange of copper rod and copper wires current lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J., E-mail: fangseer@sina.com [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); Yu, T. [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); Li, Z.M.; Wei, B.; Qiu, M.; Zhang, H.J. [China Electric Power Research Institute, Haidian District, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •An optimized design of HTS binary current leads is proposed. •Temperature distributions of two different current leads are calculated. •Experiments are done to certify the calculated temperature distributions. •The experiments proved that the copper wires increase security margins. -- Abstract: Current leads are the key components that connect the low-temperature and high temperature parts of the cryogenic system. Owing to the wide range of temperatures, current leads are the main sources of heat leakage. Since the HTS tapes have no resistance and the generated Joule heat is almost zero, HTS binary current leads can reduce heat leakage compared to the conventional leads. However, heat will still be generated and conducted to the cryogenic system through the copper parts of the HTS current leads. In order to reduce heat leakage by the copper parts of the HTS current leads, this paper presents an optimized design of the copper parts of HTS binary current leads. Inside the leads, the copper wires were applied as an alternative to the copper rod without changing the overall dimensions. Firstly, the differential function of heat transfer was derived. By solving the function, the optimum number of the copper wires and the temperature distribution of two different current leads were gotten. Then the experiment of the temperature distribution was done, and the experimental results were basically the same with the calculative results. The simulation and related experiments proved that the copper wire can increase security margins and reduce maximum temperatures under the same shunt current.

  6. Trait- and size-based descriptions of trophic links in freshwater food webs: current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Boukal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biotic interactions in aquatic communities are dominated by predation, and the distribution of trophic link strengths in aquatic food webs crucially impacts their dynamics and stability. Although individual body size explains a large proportion of variation in trophic link strengths in aquatic habitats, current predominately body size-based views can gain additional realism by incorporating further traits. Functional traits that potentially affect the strength of trophic links can be classified into three groups: i body size, ii traits that identify the spatiotemporal overlap between the predators and their prey, and iii predator foraging and prey vulnerability traits, which are readily available for many taxa. Relationship between these trait groups and trophic link strength may be further modified by population densities, habitat complexity, temperature and other abiotic factors. I propose here that this broader multi-trait framework can utilize concepts, ideas and existing data from research on metabolic ecology, ecomorphology, animal personalities and role of habitats in community structuring. The framework can be used to investigate non-additive effects of traits on trophic interactions, shed more light on the structuring of local food webs and evaluate the merits of taxonomic and functional group approaches in the description of predator-prey interactions. Development of trait- and size-based descriptions of food webs could be particularly fruitful in limnology given the relative paucity of well resolved datasets in standing waters. 

  7. Observations of an early Agulhas current retroflection event in 2001: a temporary cessation of inter-ocean exchange south of Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aken, HM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available -1 Deep-Sea Research Part 1: Oceanographic Research Papers February 2013/Vol. 72, pp 1-8 Observations of an early Agulhas current retroflection event in 2001: A temporary cessation of inter-ocean exchange south of Africa? H.M. van Akena,*, J.R.E.... Lutjeharms b, M. Rouault b,c, C. Whittle d,b, W.P.M. de Ruijter e aNIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, PO Box 59, Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands bDepartment of Oceanography, Mare Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South...

  8. Gelatin controversies in food, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products: Authentication methods, current status, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eaqub; Sultana, Sharmin; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, Motalib; Yehya, Wageeh A; Kader, Abdul; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2018-06-13

    Gelatin is a highly purified animal protein of pig, cow, and fish origins and is extensively used in food, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. However, the acceptability of gelatin products greatly depends on the animal sources of the gelatin. Porcine and bovine gelatins have attractive features but limited acceptance because of religious prohibitions and potential zoonotic threats, whereas fish gelatin is welcomed in all religions and cultures. Thus, source authentication is a must for gelatin products but it is greatly challenging due to the breakdown of both protein and DNA biomarkers in processed gelatins. Therefore, several methods have been proposed for gelatin identification, but a comprehensive and systematic document that includes all of the techniques does not exist. This up-to-date review addresses this research gap and presents, in an accessible format, the major gelatin source authentication techniques, which are primarily nucleic acid and protein based. Instead of presenting these methods in paragraph form which needs much attention in reading, the major methods are schematically depicted, and their comparative features are tabulated. Future technologies are forecasted, and challenges are outlined. Overall, this review paper has the merit to serve as a reference guide for the production and application of gelatin in academia and industry and will act as a platform for the development of improved methods for gelatin authentication.

  9. Modifications in agricultural and animal breeding current operations to reduce the contamination of food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubert, Henry; Renard, Philippe

    1997-01-01

    After a nuclear accident it is compulsory to reduce as much as possible the population exposure to radioactive aerosols deposed upon soils and different surfaces. The radio-agronomic countermeasures are protection directives applicable to the agricultural system and agro-alimentary chain which enable to implement this commandment. Their intrinsic and cumulated efficiency, the conditions and preoccupations of implementation are now better recognized especially now by their large scale application after the Chernobyl accident. As modifications in the current agricultural operation two procedures are mentioned: the rehabilitation techniques and the utilization of adjuvants. Concerning modifications in the current animal breeding methodology in the specific conditions of animal production and restricted pasturage there are discussed methods of diminishing the metabolic transfer to milk and meat and removing radioactivity by proper and simpler agro-alimentary processing and culinary preparations

  10. Bias in the exchange of arguments: the case of scientists' evaluation of lay viewpoints on GM food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppen, Eefje; Hisschemøller, Matthijs; Midden, Cees

    2009-09-01

    Most perspectives on public participation share the notion that dialogues should be open, allowing participants to articulate and evaluate different views and knowledge claims. We hypothesize that participants' evaluation of claims may be biased because participants have a preference for a particular type or source of a claim. This would hamper an open dialogue. We tested the effect of three variables on scientists' evaluation of claims of the general public about GM food: the claim's favorability towards GM food, the phrasing, and the source of the claim. Results are based on a survey-experiment among 73 biotechnology-scientists. Biased processing occurred when scientists evaluated claims. Claims that were corresponding with the attitude of the scientists and that were phrased in a cognitive way were evaluated more positively than claims that were contrasting the attitude of the scientists and that were phrased in an affective way. Contrary to our expectation, scientists evaluated claims of the public more positively than claims of experts.

  11. Mechanistic model coupling gas exchange dynamics and Listeria monocytogenes growth in modified atmosphere packaging of non respiring food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, E; Broyart, B; Couvert, O; Guillaume, C; Gontard, N; Guillard, V

    2015-10-01

    A mechanistic model coupling O2 and CO2 mass transfer (namely diffusion and solubilisation in the food itself and permeation through the packaging material) to microbial growth models was developed aiming at predicting the shelf life of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) systems. It was experimentally validated on a non-respiring food by investigating concomitantly the O2/CO2 partial pressure in packaging headspace and the growth of Listeria monocytogenes (average microbial count) within the food sample. A sensitivity analysis has revealed that the reliability of the prediction by this "super-parametrized" model (no less than 47 parameters were required for running one simulation) was strongly dependent on the accuracy of the microbial input parameters. Once validated, this model was used to decipher the role of O2/CO2 mass transfer on microbial growth and as a MAP design tool: an example of MAP dimensioning was provided in this paper as a proof of concept. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Current density and polarization curves for radial flow field patterns applied to PEMFCs (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano-Andrade, S.; Hernandez-Guerrero, A.; Spakovsky, M.R. von; Damian-Ascencio, C.E.; Rubio-Arana, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical solution of the current density and velocity fields of a 3-D PEM radial configuration fuel cell is presented. The energy, momentum and electrochemical equations are solved using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code based on a finite volume scheme. There are three cases of principal interest for this radial model: four channels, eight channels and twelve channels placed in a symmetrical path over the flow field plate. The figures for the current-voltage curves for the three models proposed are presented, and the main factors that affect the behavior of each of the curves are discussed. Velocity contours are presented for the three different models, showing how the fuel cell behavior is affected by the velocity variations in the radial configuration. All these results are presented for the case of high relative humidity. The favorable results obtained for this unconventional geometry seems to indicate that this geometry could replace the conventional commercial geometries currently in use.

  13. Analysis of food advertisements on cable television directed to children based on the food guide for the Brazilian population and current legislation

    OpenAIRE

    BRITTO,Soraya da Rocha; VIEBIG,Renata Furlan; MORIMOTO,Juliana Masami

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study examined food product advertisements directed to children and aired on closed television channels in Brazil, according to the types of foods and beverages advertised and the advertising content. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted on the adequacy of food commercials directed to children and aired by six pay-television broadcasters according to two parameters: "The Food Guide for the Brazilian Population, 2014", and the National Council on Children's and...

  14. 76 FR 68808 - Exchange Visitor Program-Cap on Current Participant Levels and Moratorium on New Sponsor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... participants for whom sponsors are responsible and the third parties that sponsors rely upon to assist them in administering their programs (i.e., U.S. employers and foreign agents); (b) requires that participants from non... sponsors to fully vet employers and all SWT job offers; and, (d) requires sponsors to contact current...

  15. A Quantitative Tunneling/Desorption Model for the Exchange Current at the Porous Electrode/Beta - Alumina/Alkali Metal Gas Three Phase Zone at 700-1300K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. M.; Ryan, M. A.; Saipetch, C.; LeDuc, H. G.

    1996-01-01

    The exchange current observed at porous metal electrodes on sodium or potassium beta -alumina solid electrolytes in alkali metal vapor is quantitatively modeled with a multi-step process with good agreement with experimental results.

  16. Changes in gas exchange characteristics during the life span of giant sequoia: Implications for response to current and future concentrations of atmospheric ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grulke, N.E.; Miller, P.R. (USDA Forest Service, Riverside, CA (United States))

    Native stands of giant sequoia are being exposed to relatively high concentrations of atmospheric ozone produced in urban and agricultural areas upwind. The expected change in environmental conditions over the next 100 y is likely to be unprecendented in the life span (ca 2,500 y) of giant sequoia. Changes in the physiological responses of three age classes of giant sequoia (current year, 12 y and 25 y) to different concentrations of ozone were determined, and age-related differences in sensitivity to pollutants were assessed by examining physiological changes (gas exchange, water use efficiency) across the life span of giant sequoia. The CO[sub 2] exchange rate (CER) was greater in current year (12.1 [mu]mol CO[sub 2]/m[sup 2]s) and 2 year old seedlings (4.8 [mu]mol CO[sub 2]/m[sup 2]s) than in all older trees (average of 3.0 [mu]mol CO[sub 2]/m[sup 2]s). Dark respiration was highest for current year seedlings and was increased twofold in symptotic individuals exposed to elevated ozone concentrations. Stomatal conductance was greater in current-year and 2 year old seedlings (335 and 200 mmol H[sub 2]O/m[sup 2]s), respectively, than in all older trees (50 mmol H[sub 2]O/m[sup 2]s), indicating that the ozone concentration in substomatol cavities is higher in young seedlings than in older trees. Significant changes in water use efficiency occurred in trees between ages 5 and 20 years. It is concluded that giant sequoia seedlings are sensitive to atmospheric ozone until they are ca 5 y old. Low conductance, high water use efficiency, and compact mesophyll all contribute to a natural ozone tolerance, or defense, or both, in foliage of older trees. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Fast analysis of quaternary ammonium pesticides in food and beverages using cation-exchange chromatography coupled with isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardin, Tiziana; Barnaba, Chiara; Abballe, Franco; Trenti, Gianmaria; Malacarne, Mario; Larcher, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    A fast separation based on cation-exchange liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry is proposed for simultaneous determination of chlormequat, difenzoquat, diquat, mepiquat and paraquat in several food and beverage commodities. Solid samples were extracted using a mixture of water/methanol/formic acid (69.6:30:0.4, v/v/v), while liquid samples were ten times diluted with the same solution. Separation was carried out on an experimental length-modified IonPac CS17 column (2 × 15 mm 2 ) that allowed the use of formic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Detection limits for food and beverage matrices were established at 1.5 μg/L for chlormequat, difenzoquat and mepiquat, and 3 μg/L for diquat and paraquat, while for drinking water a pre-analytical sample concentration allowed detection limits of 9 and 20 ng/L, respectively. Precision, as repeatability (RSD%), ranged from 0.2 to 24%, with a median value of 6%, and trueness, as recovery, ranged from 64 to 118%, with a median value of 96%. The method developed was successfully applied to investigate the presence of herbicide residues in commercial commodities (mineral water, orange juice, beer, tea, green coffee bean, toasted coffee powder, cocoa bean, white corn flour, rice and sugar samples). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Competitive Interactions between Invasive Nile Tilapia and Native Fish: The Potential for Altered Trophic Exchange and Modification of Food Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles W.; Valentine, Marla M.; Valentine, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted both the positive and negative impacts of species invasions. Most of these studies have been conducted on either immobile invasive plants or sessile fauna found at the base of food webs. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of vagile invasive consumers on native competitors. This is an issue of some importance given the controlling influence that consumers have on lower order plants and animals. Here, we present results of laboratory experiments designed to assess the impacts of unintended aquaculture releases of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), in estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico, on the functionally similar redspotted sunfish (Lepomis miniatus). Laboratory choice tests showed that tilapia prefer the same structured habitat that native sunfish prefer. In subsequent interspecific competition experiments, agonistic tilapia displaced sunfish from their preferred structured habitats. When a piscivore (largemouth bass) was present in the tank with both species, the survival of sunfish decreased. Based on these findings, if left unchecked, we predict that the proliferation of tilapia (and perhaps other aggressive aquaculture fishes) will have important detrimental effects on the structure of native food webs in shallow, structured coastal habitats. While it is likely that the impacts of higher trophic level invasive competitors will vary among species, these results show that consequences of unintended releases of invasive higher order consumers can be important. PMID:21200433

  19. Competitive interactions between invasive Nile tilapia and native fish: the potential for altered trophic exchange and modification of food webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W Martin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have highlighted both the positive and negative impacts of species invasions. Most of these studies have been conducted on either immobile invasive plants or sessile fauna found at the base of food webs. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of vagile invasive consumers on native competitors. This is an issue of some importance given the controlling influence that consumers have on lower order plants and animals. Here, we present results of laboratory experiments designed to assess the impacts of unintended aquaculture releases of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, in estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico, on the functionally similar redspotted sunfish (Lepomis miniatus. Laboratory choice tests showed that tilapia prefer the same structured habitat that native sunfish prefer. In subsequent interspecific competition experiments, agonistic tilapia displaced sunfish from their preferred structured habitats. When a piscivore (largemouth bass was present in the tank with both species, the survival of sunfish decreased. Based on these findings, if left unchecked, we predict that the proliferation of tilapia (and perhaps other aggressive aquaculture fishes will have important detrimental effects on the structure of native food webs in shallow, structured coastal habitats. While it is likely that the impacts of higher trophic level invasive competitors will vary among species, these results show that consequences of unintended releases of invasive higher order consumers can be important.

  20. Food Crises and Food Safety Incidents in European Union, United States, and Maghreb Area: Current Risk Communication Strategies and New Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammem, Nadia; Issaoui, Manel; De Almeida, Ana Isabel Dâmaso; Delgado, Amélia Martins

    2018-03-22

    Globalization has created a dynamic market, which has dramatically intensified interchanges of goods and information as well as the flow of people among nations. This international phenomenon offers the consumer a choice between a wide variety of foods from diverse locations. However, there are challenges to improving food security and safety on a global scale; the major question is how food safety can be guaranteed while increasing the complexity of food supply chains. A food produced in a certain location usually contains ingredients, additives, and preservatives from different and distant origins. Although countries take several food control measures, their institutional and regulatory frameworks diverge widely, as do the definitions of food crisis, food incidents, and risk management approaches. The present review discusses some past food safety issues and lessons learned. Convergences and differences in the regulatory framework of food control agencies in different regions of the world are herein revealed. Emerging risks are also discussed, particularly the spread of antibiotic resistance in the food chain and the environment, as well as the rise of new antibiotic-resistant pathogenic strains with broader tolerance to environmental factors.

  1. Reduced translocation of current photosynthate precedes changes in gas exchange for Quercus rubra seedlings under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Joshua L; Islam, M Anisul; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2016-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings are frequently planted on suboptimal sites in their native range in North America, subjecting them to environmental stresses, such as flooding, for which they may not be well adapted. Members of the genus Quercus exhibit a wide range of responses to flooding, and responses of northern red oak to flooding remain inadequately described. To better understand the physiological effects of root system inundation in post-transplant northern red oak seedlings and the effects of flooding on endogenous patterns of resource allocation within the plant, we observed the effects of short-term flooding initiated at the linear shoot growth stage on net photosynthetic rates, dark respiration, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate. Downward translocation of current photosynthate declined after 4 days of flooding and was the first measured physiological response to flooding; net photosynthetic rates decreased and dark respiration rates increased after 7 days of flooding. Short-term flooding did not affect maximal potential efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The finding that decreased downward translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate preceded reduced net photosynthesis and increased dark respiration during flooding suggests the occurrence of sink-limited photosynthesis under these conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Risks of ocean acidification in the California Current food web and fisheries: ecosystem model projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kristin N; Kaplan, Isaac C; Hodgson, Emma E; Hermann, Albert; Busch, D Shallin; McElhany, Paul; Essington, Timothy E; Harvey, Chris J; Fulton, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    The benefits and ecosystem services that humans derive from the oceans are threatened by numerous global change stressors, one of which is ocean acidification. Here, we describe the effects of ocean acidification on an upwelling system that already experiences inherently low pH conditions, the California Current. We used an end-to-end ecosystem model (Atlantis), forced by downscaled global climate models and informed by a meta-analysis of the pH sensitivities of local taxa, to investigate the direct and indirect effects of future pH on biomass and fisheries revenues. Our model projects a 0.2-unit drop in pH during the summer upwelling season from 2013 to 2063, which results in wide-ranging magnitudes of effects across guilds and functional groups. The most dramatic direct effects of future pH may be expected on epibenthic invertebrates (crabs, shrimps, benthic grazers, benthic detritivores, bivalves), and strong indirect effects expected on some demersal fish, sharks, and epibenthic invertebrates (Dungeness crab) because they consume species known to be sensitive to changing pH. The model's pelagic community, including marine mammals and seabirds, was much less influenced by future pH. Some functional groups were less affected to changing pH in the model than might be expected from experimental studies in the empirical literature due to high population productivity (e.g., copepods, pteropods). Model results suggest strong effects of reduced pH on nearshore state-managed invertebrate fisheries, but modest effects on the groundfish fishery because individual groundfish species exhibited diverse responses to changing pH. Our results provide a set of projections that generally support and build upon previous findings and set the stage for hypotheses to guide future modeling and experimental analysis on the effects of OA on marine ecosystems and fisheries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Semiquantitative analysis of gaps in microbiological performance of fish processing sector implementing current food safety management systems: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onjong, Hillary Adawo; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau

    2014-08-01

    Fish processing plants still face microbial food safety-related product rejections and the associated economic losses, although they implement legislation, with well-established quality assurance guidelines and standards. We assessed the microbial performance of core control and assurance activities of fish exporting processors to offer suggestions for improvement using a case study. A microbiological assessment scheme was used to systematically analyze microbial counts in six selected critical sampling locations (CSLs). Nine small-, medium- and large-sized companies implementing current food safety management systems (FSMS) were studied. Samples were collected three times on each occasion (n = 324). Microbial indicators representing food safety, plant and personnel hygiene, and overall microbiological performance were analyzed. Microbiological distribution and safety profile levels for the CSLs were calculated. Performance of core control and assurance activities of the FSMS was also diagnosed using an FSMS diagnostic instrument. Final fish products from 67% of the companies were within the legally accepted microbiological limits. Salmonella was absent in all CSLs. Hands or gloves of workers from the majority of companies were highly contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus at levels above the recommended limits. Large-sized companies performed better in Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and S. aureus than medium- and small-sized ones in a majority of the CSLs, including receipt of raw fish material, heading and gutting, and the condition of the fish processing tables and facilities before cleaning and sanitation. Fish products of 33% (3 of 9) of the companies and handling surfaces of 22% (2 of 9) of the companies showed high variability in Enterobacteriaceae counts. High variability in total viable counts and Enterobacteriaceae was noted on fish products and handling surfaces. Specific recommendations were made in core control and assurance activities

  4. Effect of Family Ownership towards Tax Aggressiveness on Food and Beverages Industrial Company Listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaryo Sunaryo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objectives of this research were to learn the effects of family ownership, return on assets, leverage, property plant, and equipment with tax aggressiveness, either simultaneously or partially. This research used quantitative method with secondary data collected by purposive sampling from foods and beverages industrial companies group listed in IDX and preceding journals of scientific articles research. This research used simple regression to test the hypothesis simultaneously with F test and t test for testing the partial hypothesis. Results of this research show that family ownership, return on assets, leverage, and property, plat, and equipment have affected tax aggressiveness simultaneously and significantly. The family ownership and property, plant and equipment have significant effects to tax aggressiveness, but the return on assets and leverage do not have significant effects to tax aggressiveness.

  5. Effects of transient bottom water currents and oxygen concentrations on benthic exchange rates as assessed by eddy correlation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Moritz; Glud, Ronnie N.; Doris, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Eddy correlation (EC) measurements in the benthic boundary layer (BBL) allow estimating benthic O2 uptake from a point distant to the sediment surface. This noninvasive approach has clear advantages as it does not disturb natural hydrodynamic conditions, integrates the flux over a large foot-print...... area and allows many repetitive flux measurements. A drawback is, however, that the measured flux in the bottom water is not necessarily equal to the flux across the sediment-water interface. A fundamental assumption of the EC technique is that mean current velocities and mean O2 concentrations...... in the bottom water are in steady state, which is seldom the case in highly dynamic environments like coastal waters. Therefore, it is of great importance to estimate the error introduced by nonsteady state conditions. We investigated two cases of transient conditions. First, the case of transient O2...

  6. Modeling and control of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with the air compressor according to requested electrical current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekbala Mohammad Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and investigate the dynamic behavior of a PEM fuel cell system. Dynamic analysis of a PEM fuel cell system has been done in Matlab\\Simulink software according to electrical current that has been applied from hybrid system. In addition, dynamical fuel cell system has been explained according to oriented control that is started from air injection compressor model. Also hydrogen valve actuator has been controlled according to the compressor model. The results of the fuel cell dynamic model as well as the applied compressor model are fully validated based on the available results in the open literature. Finally, the effects of several operating parameters of the fuel cell system such as anode and cathode pressures, cell voltage, compressor voltage, compressor mass flow rate variation with respect to inlet pressure ratio, net and stack powers on the dynamic behavior of the hybrid system are investigated. The results show that the model can predict the dynamic behavior of the fuel cell system accurately and it can be used directly for any control purposes.

  7. Computational thermal-fluid dynamics analysis of the laminar flow regime in the meander flow geometry characterizing the heat exchanger used in high temperature superconducting current leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, Enrico; Heller, Reinhard; Richard, Laura Savoldi; Zanino, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The laminar regime in the meander flow geometry has been analysed with a previously validated computational strategy. • Several meander flow geometries as well as flow conditions have been analysed. • A range for the Reynolds number has been defined in which the flow can be considered laminar. • Correlations for the pressure drop and the heat transfer coefficients in the laminar regime have been derived. • A comparison between the computed the experimental pressure drop of the W7-X HTS current lead prototype is presented. -- Abstract: The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Politecnico di Torino have developed and validated a computational thermal-fluid dynamics (CtFD) strategy for the systematic analysis of the thermal-hydraulics inside the meander flow heat exchanger used in high-temperature superconducting current leads for fusion applications. In the recent past, the application of this CtFD technique has shown that some operating conditions occurring in these devices may not reach the turbulent regime region. With that motivation, the CtFD analysis of the helium thermal-fluid dynamics inside different meander flow geometries is extended here to the laminar flow regime. Our first aim is to clarify under which operative conditions the flow regime can be considered laminar and how the pressure drop as well as the heat transfer are related to the geometrical parameters and to the flow conditions. From the results of this analysis, correlations for the pressure drop and for the heat transfer coefficient in the meander flow geometry have been derived, which are applicable with good accuracy to the design of meander flow heat exchangers over a broad range of geometrical parameters

  8. Computational thermal-fluid dynamics analysis of the laminar flow regime in the meander flow geometry characterizing the heat exchanger used in high temperature superconducting current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Enrico, E-mail: enrico.rizzo@kit.edu [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Heller, Reinhard [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Richard, Laura Savoldi; Zanino, Roberto [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • The laminar regime in the meander flow geometry has been analysed with a previously validated computational strategy. • Several meander flow geometries as well as flow conditions have been analysed. • A range for the Reynolds number has been defined in which the flow can be considered laminar. • Correlations for the pressure drop and the heat transfer coefficients in the laminar regime have been derived. • A comparison between the computed the experimental pressure drop of the W7-X HTS current lead prototype is presented. -- Abstract: The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Politecnico di Torino have developed and validated a computational thermal-fluid dynamics (CtFD) strategy for the systematic analysis of the thermal-hydraulics inside the meander flow heat exchanger used in high-temperature superconducting current leads for fusion applications. In the recent past, the application of this CtFD technique has shown that some operating conditions occurring in these devices may not reach the turbulent regime region. With that motivation, the CtFD analysis of the helium thermal-fluid dynamics inside different meander flow geometries is extended here to the laminar flow regime. Our first aim is to clarify under which operative conditions the flow regime can be considered laminar and how the pressure drop as well as the heat transfer are related to the geometrical parameters and to the flow conditions. From the results of this analysis, correlations for the pressure drop and for the heat transfer coefficient in the meander flow geometry have been derived, which are applicable with good accuracy to the design of meander flow heat exchangers over a broad range of geometrical parameters.

  9. Long-Term Effects of Repeated Prefrontal Cortex Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Food Craving in Normal and Overweight Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubisavljevic, M; Maxood, K; Bjekic, J; Oommen, J; Nagelkerke, N

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays an important role in the regulation of food intake. Several previous studies demonstrated that a single session of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the DLPFC reduces food craving and caloric intake. We hypothesized that repeated tDCS of the right DLPFC cortex may exert long-term changes in food craving in young, healthy adults and that these changes may differ between normal and overweight subjects. Thirty healthy individuals who reported frequent food cravings without a prior history of eating disorders were initially recruited. Subjects were randomized into an ACTIVE group who received 5 days of real tDCS (20 minutes, anode right-cathode left montage, 2 mA with current density kept at 0.06 mA/cm2, 1 min ramp-up/ramp-down), and a SHAM group, who received one day of real tDCS, on the first day (same parameters), followed by 4 days of sham tDCS. Food craving intensity was examined by Food Craving Questionnaires State and Trait and Food Craving Inventory before, during, (5-days) and one month (30-days) after tDCS. Single session of tDCS significantly reduced the intensity of current food craving (FCQ-S). Five days of active tDCS significantly reduced habitual experiences of food craving (FCQ-T), when compared to baseline pre-stimulation levels. Furthermore, both current (FCQ-S) and habitual craving (FCQ-T) were significantly reduced 30 days after active tDCS, while sham tDCS, i.e. a single tDCS session did not have significant effects. Also, active tDCS significantly decreased craving for fast food and sweets, and to a lesser degree for fat, while it did not have significant effects on craving for carbohydrates (FCI). There were no significant differences between individual FCQ-T subscales (craving dimensions) after 5 or 30 days of either sham or active tDCS. Changes in craving were not significantly associated with the initial weight, or with weight changes 30 days after the stimulation in the

  10. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  11. Healthy dining. Subtle diet reminders at the point of purchase increase low-calorie food choices among both chronic and current dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papies, Esther K; Veling, Harm

    2013-02-01

    There is a growing consensus that our food-rich living environment contributes to rising numbers of people with overweight and obesity. Low-cost, effective intervention tools are needed to facilitate healthy eating behavior, especially when eating away from home. Therefore, we present a field experiment in a restaurant that tested whether providing subtle environmental diet reminders increases low-calorie food choices among both chronic and current dieters. For half of the participants, the menu was supplemented with diet-related words, as reminders of healthy eating and dieting. We recorded customers' choices of low-calorie or high-calorie items from the menu, and we assessed chronic and current dieting. Consistent with our hypotheses, we found that diet reminders increased choices for low-calorie foods, among both chronic and current dieters. After a diet reminder, around half of dieters made a healthy menu choice. This study demonstrates the efficacy of providing subtle diet reminders as a low-cost practical intervention to increase low-calorie food choices among weight-concerned individuals, who are motivated to regulate their eating behavior but have been found to often fail in food-rich environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reactivity to smoking- and food-related cues in currently dieting and non-dieting young women smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Rebecca A; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-04-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that young women dieters who smoke experience greater cigarette cravings in the presence of food-related related cues. The aim of this experiment was to examine reactivity to both smoking-related and water cues by dieting and non-dieting women smokers in the presence or absence of food cues. Eighteen female undergraduates attended two sessions (food present and food absent). At each session, participants were presented with a cigarette and water cue in a counterbalanced order. Pre- and post-cue measures included the brief version of the Questionnaire for Smoking Urges, heart rate and self-reported mood. All smokers showed enhanced reactivity (increased craving and heart rate) to smoking versus water cues. For dieters there was a larger increase in cigarette craving and heart rate in response to the smoking-related cues in the presence of food compared with the absence of food, whereas for non-dieters there was a smaller increase in cigarette craving and heart rate in response to the smoking-related cues in the presence of food compared with the absence of food. Mood and appetite ratings were not significantly affected by either cue type or session. The results suggest that cue reactivity to smoking-related cues is modulated by the presence of incentive stimuli relevant to the individual.

  13. A study on the effect of free cash flow and profitability current ratio on dividend payout ratio: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Parsian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making about dividend payout is one of the most important decision that companies should encounter. Identifying factors that influence dividends can help managers in making an appropriate dividend policy. In the other side, companies’ dividend payouts over time and with a stable manner may influence on stock price, future earnings growth and finally investor's evaluation about owners' equity. Hence, investigating the factors influencing dividend payout ratio is of high importance. In this research, we investigate the effects of various factors on dividend payout ratio of Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE listed companies. We use time series regression (panel data in order to test the hypothesis of this study. This study provides empirical evidences by choosing a sample of 102 companies over the time span of 2005-2010. The result shows that independent variables of free cash flow and profitability current ratio have negative and significant impact on dividend payout ratio; whereas, the independent variable of leverage ratio has a positive and significant impact on dividend payout ratio. The other independent ratio such as size of the company, growth opportunities and systematic risk do not have any significant influence on dividend payout ratio.

  14. Quantum Chemical and FTIR Spectroscopic Studies on the Linkage Isomerism of Carbon Monoxide in Alkali-Metal-Exchanged Zeolites: A Review of Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Garrone

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: When adsorbed (at a low temperature on alkali-metal-exchanged zeolites, CO forms both M(CO+ and M(OC+ carbonyl species with the extra-framework alkali-metal cation of the zeolite. Both quantum chemical and experimental results show that C-bondend adducts are characterized by a C−O stretching IR band at a frequency higher than that of 2143 cm-1 for free CO, while for O-bonded adducts this IR band appears below 2143 cm-1. The cation-CO interaction energy is higher for M(CO+ than for M(OC+ carbonyls, although the corresponding difference decreases substantially when going from Li+ to Cs+. By means of variable-temperature FTIR spectroscopy, this energy difference was determined for several alkali-metal cations, and the existence of a thermal equilibrium between M(CO+ and M(OC+ species was established. The current state of research in this field is reviewed here, with a view to gain more insight into the thermal isomerization process.

  15. Passive restriction of blood flow and counter-current heat exchange via lingual retia in the tongue of a neonatal gray whale Eschrichtius robustus (Cetacea, Mysticeti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdale, Eric G; Kienle, Sarah S

    2015-04-01

    Retia mirabilia play broad roles in cetacean physiology, including thermoregulation during feeding and pressure regulations during diving. Vascular bundles of lingual retia are described within the base of the tongue of a neonatal female gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). Each rete consists of a central artery surrounded by four to six smaller veins. The retia and constituent vessels decrease in diameter as they extend anteriorly within the hyoglossus muscle from a position anterior to the basihyal cartilage toward the apex of the tongue. The position of the retia embedded in the hyoglossus and the anterior constriction of the vessels differs from reports of similar vascular bundles that were previously identified in gray whales. The retia likely serve as a counter-current heat exchange system to control body temperature during feeding. Cold blood flowing toward the body center within the periarterial veins would accept heat from warm blood in the central artery flowing toward the anterior end of the tongue. Although thermoregulatory systems have been identified within the mouths of a few mysticete species, the distribution of such vascular structures likely is more widespread among baleen whales than has previously been described. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Absorbed zinc and exchangeable zinc pool size are significantly greater in Pakistani infants receiving traditional complementary foods with zinc fortified micronutrient powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariff, Shabina; Soofi, Sajid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Krebs, Nancy; Westcott, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Adequacy of zinc intake from breast milk alone becomes marginal in relation to infant requirements by around six months of age. Simple and cost effective strategies are needed at population level to ensure adequate intakes of zinc in infants and toddlers in populations at risk of zinc deficiency. We determined the amount of absorbed zinc (AZ) from a micronutrient powder (MNP) without and with 10 mg of zinc (MNP, MNP+Zn, respectively) added to local complementary foods used in Pakistan, and the impact on the exchangeable zinc pool (EZP) size. As a nested study within a large prospective cluster randomized trial, 6 month old infants were randomized to receive MNP or MNP+Zn. Stable isotope methodology was applied after ~ 3 and 9 months of use to measure AZ from MNP-fortified test meals of rice-lentils (khitchri) and EZP. Nineteen infants per group completed the first metabolic studies; 14 and 17 infants in MNP and MNP+Zn groups, completed the follow-up studies. Mean (±SD) AZs were 0.1± 0.1 and 1.2±0.5 mg at the first point for the MNP and MNP+Zn groups, respectively (p <0.001); results were nearly identical at the follow-up measurement. EZP did not differ between groups at the first measurement but was less in the MNP group (3.7±0.6 mg/kg) than in the MNP+Zn group (4.5±1.0 mg/kg) at the second measurement (P = 0.01). These data confirm that the MNP+Zn in khitchri were well absorbed, and after a year of home fortification, zinc status assessed by EZP was significantly better for the MNP+Zn group. Additional field studies may be necessary to ascertain the adequacy of this dose for infants at high risk of deficiency. (author)

  17. Investigation of the primary plasticisers present in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products currently authorised as food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Katherine S; de Jager, Lowri S; Begley, Timothy H

    2018-03-15

    PVC is a common food contact material that is usually plasticised to increase its flexibility. Phthalates are one class of chemical compounds that are often used as plasticisers in PVC in a wide range of industries. They may be used in packaging materials for foods and can also be found in components of certain food processing equipment such as conveyor belts and tubing. Transfer of plasticisers from packaging to foods can occur. In recent years, there has been increased interest in understanding the health effects of phthalates, as well as the possible human exposure levels. However, there is limited information available about the routes of exposure to phthalates. In July 2014, the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) produced a report for the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission detailing the potential health hazards of phthalates and phthalate alternatives. This report listed diet as one factor contributing greater than or equal to 10% of total phthalate exposure. As a result of this report, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is interested in determining the types of the primary plasticiser present in food packaging and processing materials as well as their concentrations. An investigation was conducted of 56 different samples of PVC food packaging and food processing materials available in the US market using a solvent extraction and GC-MS analysis. Nine different plasticisers including three phthalates, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, diisononyl phthalate and diisodecyl phthalate, were identified in the products tested. The plasticiser concentrations ranged from 1 to 53% depending on the types of food contact materials and the type of plasticiser. Overall, it appears that manufacturers are switching away from phthalates as their primary plasticiser to alternate compounds such as ESBO, ATBC, DEHT, DINCH, DEHA and DINA.

  18. Scale of production and implementation of food safety programs influence the performance of current food safety management systems: Case of dairy processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Opiyo, Beatrice; Wangoh, John

    2017-01-01

    An FSMS-Diagnostic Instrument was used to evaluate fifteen Kenyan dairy processors based on indicators and descriptive grids for context riskiness, FSMS activities, and microbial food safety (FS) output with respect to scale of production. Contextual riskiness was diagnosed as low, moderate or hi....... FSMS activities were diagnosed as absent, basic, average or advanced. FS output was diagnosed as not performed, poor, moderate or good. Four clusters with significantly different (p ...

  19. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1,3-galactose, a carbohydrate found on mammalian meat, and is associated with being bitten by the ... home. Treating Food Allergies There is currently no cure for food allergy, but there are many promising ...

  20. Effect of wind and currents on gas exchange in an estuarine system. Final technical report, 1 August 1986-31 July 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, W.S.; Ledwell, J.R.; Bopp, R.

    1987-11-01

    The objectives were to develop a non-volatile tracer to use in gas exchange experiments in laterally unconfined systems and to study applications of deliberate tracers in limnology and oceanography. Progress was made on both fronts but work on the development of the non-volatile tracer proved to be more difficult and labor intensive that anticipated so no field experiments using non-volatile tracers was performed as yet. In the search for a suitable non-volatile tracer for an ocean scale gas exchange experiment a tracer was discovered which does not have the required sensitivity for a large scale experiment, but is very easy to analyze and will be well suited for smaller experiments such as gas exchange determinations on rivers and streams. Sulfur hexafluoride, SF 6 , was used successfully as a volatile tracer along with tritium as a non-volatile tracer to study gas exchange rates from a primary stream. This is the first gas exchange experiment in which gas exchange rates were determined on a head water stream where significant groundwater input occurs along the reach. In conjunction with SF 6 , Radon-222 measurements were performed on the groundwater and in the stream. The feasibility of using a combination of SF 6 and radon is being studied to determine groundwater inputs and gas exchange of rates in streams with significant groundwater input without using a non-volatile tracer

  1. Relationship Between Equilibrium Hydrogen Pressure and Exchange Current for the Hydrogen Electrode-Reaction at Mmni(3.9-X)Mn(0.4)A1(X)Co(0.7) Alloy Electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senoh, H.; Morimoto, K.; Inoue, H.; Iwakura, C.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2000-01-01

    We present a theoretical relationship between equilibrium hydrogen pressure and exchange current for the hydrogen electrode reaction which considers the degree of hydrogen coverage at the electrode surface. Electrochemical measurements at MmNi3.9–xMn0.4AlxCo0.7 (0 x 0.8) electrodes were performed to

  2. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  3. A 13 kA current lead, measuring 1.5 m in length. The lower part consists of a high-temperature superconductor (Bi-2223), operating at between 50 K and 4.5 K, while the heat-exchanger upper part allows the current to be brought from room temperature to 50 K.

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A 13 kA current lead, measuring 1.5 m in length. The lower part consists of a high-temperature superconductor (Bi-2223), operating at between 50 K and 4.5 K, while the heat-exchanger upper part allows the current to be brought from room temperature to 50 K.

  4. A Review of Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications in Agriculture and Food Industry: State of the Art and Current Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Garcia, Luis; Lunadei, Loredana; Barreiro, Pilar; Robla, Jose Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the technical and scientific state of the art of wireless sensor technologies and standards for wireless communications in the Agri-Food sector. These technologies are very promising in several fields such as environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, cold chain control or traceability. The paper focuses on WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), presenting the different systems available, recent developments and examples of applications, including ZigBee based WSN and passive, semi-passive and active RFID. Future trends of wireless communications in agriculture and food industry are also discussed. PMID:22408551

  5. A Review of Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications in Agriculture and Food Industry: State of the Art and Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Robla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to review the technical and scientific state of the art of wireless sensor technologies and standards for wireless communications in the Agri-Food sector. These technologies are very promising in several fields such as environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, cold chain control or traceability. The paper focuses on WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification, presenting the different systems available, recent developments and examples of applications, including ZigBee based WSN and passive, semi-passive and active RFID. Future trends of wireless communications in agriculture and food industry are also discussed.

  6. Obtaining consumer perspectives using a citizens' jury: does the current country of origin labelling in Australia allow for informed food choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withall, Elizabeth; Wilson, Annabelle M; Henderson, Julie; Tonkin, Emma; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha B; Clark, Jacinta; McCullum, Dean; Ankeny, Rachel; Ward, Paul R

    2016-12-09

    Contemporary food systems are vast and complex, creating greater distance between consumers and their food. Consequently, consumers are required to put faith in a system of which they have limited knowledge or control. Country of origin labelling (CoOL) is one mechanism that theoretically enables consumer knowledge of provenance of food products. However, this labelling system has recently come under Australian Government review and recommendations for improvements have been proposed. Consumer engagement in this process has been limited. Therefore this study sought to obtain further consumer opinion on the issue of CoOL and to identify the extent to which Australian consumers agree with Australian Government recommendations for improvements. A citizens' jury was conducted with a sample of 14 South Australian consumers to explore their perceptions on whether the CoOL system allows them to make informed food choices, as well as what changes (if any) need to be made to enable informed food choices (recommendations). Overall, jurors' perception of usefulness of CoOL, including its ability to enable consumers to make informed food choices, fluctuated throughout the Citizens' Jury. Initially, the majority of the jurors indicated that the labels allowed informed food choice, however by the end of the session the majority disagreed with this statement. Inconsistencies within jurors' opinions were observed, particularly following delivery of information from expert witnesses and jury deliberation. Jurors provided recommendations for changes to be made to CoOL, which were similar to those provided in the Australian Government inquiry. Consumers in this study engaged with the topical issue of CoOL and provided their opinions. Overall, consumers do not think that the current CoOL system in Australia enables consumers to make informed choices. Recommendations for changes, including increasing the size of the label and the label's font, and standardising its position, were made.

  7. Food allergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maleki, Soheila J; Burks, A. Wesley; Helm, Ricki M

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Exploring Current and Novel Methods for the Detection and Diagnosis of Food Allergy: the Clinical Approach * Adriano Mari and Enrico Scala...

  8. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP mediates slow delayed-rectifier current remodeling by sustained β-adrenergic activation in guinea pig hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflaki, Mona; Qi, Xiao-Yan; Xiao, Ling; Ordog, Balazs; Tadevosyan, Artavazd; Luo, Xiaobin; Maguy, Ange; Shi, Yanfen; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Nattel, Stanley

    2014-03-14

    β-Adrenoceptor activation contributes to sudden death risk in heart failure. Chronic β-adrenergic stimulation, as occurs in patients with heart failure, causes potentially arrhythmogenic reductions in slow delayed-rectifier K(+) current (IKs). To assess the molecular mechanisms of IKs downregulation caused by chronic β-adrenergic activation, particularly the role of exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac). Isolated guinea pig left ventricular cardiomyocytes were incubated in primary culture and exposed to isoproterenol (1 μmol/L) or vehicle for 30 hours. Sustained isoproterenol exposure decreased IKs density (whole cell patch clamp) by 58% (P<0.0001), with corresponding decreases in potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E member 1 (KCNE1) mRNA and membrane protein expression (by 45% and 51%, respectively). Potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1) mRNA expression was unchanged. The β1-adrenoceptor antagonist 1-[2-((3-Carbamoyl-4-hydroxy)phenoxy)ethylamino]-3-[4-(1-methyl-4-trifluoromethyl-2-imidazolyl)phenoxy]-2-propanol dihydrochloride (CGP-20712A) prevented isoproterenol-induced IKs downregulation, whereas the β2-antagonist ICI-118551 had no effect. The selective Epac activator 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP decreased IKs density to an extent similar to isoproterenol exposure, and adenoviral-mediated knockdown of Epac1 prevented isoproterenol-induced IKs/KCNE1 downregulation. In contrast, protein kinase A inhibition with a cell-permeable highly selective peptide blocker did not affect IKs downregulation. 1,2-Bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate-AM acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), cyclosporine, and inhibitor of nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT)-calcineurin association-6 (INCA6) prevented IKs reduction by isoproterenol and INCA6 suppressed isoproterenol-induced KCNE1 downregulation, consistent with signal-transduction via the Ca(2+)/calcineurin/NFAT pathway. Isoproterenol induced nuclear NFATc3/c4

  9. Update on eating disorders: current perspectives on avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in children and youth

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Mark L; Spettigue, Wendy J; Katzman, Debra K

    2016-01-01

    Mark L Norris,1 Wendy J Spettigue,2 Debra K Katzman3 1Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 3Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Avoidant/restrictive food intak...

  10. A Review of Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications in Agriculture and Food Industry: State of the Art and Current Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Garcia, Luis; Lunadei, Loredana; Barreiro, Pilar; Robla, Jose Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the technical and scientific state of the art of wireless sensor technologies and standards for wireless communications in the Agri- Food sector. These technologies are very promising in several fields such as environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, cold chain control or traceability. The paper focuses on WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), presenting the different systems available, recent developments a...

  11. A study on current risk assessments and guidelines on the use of food animal products derived from cloned animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun Jin

    2017-10-01

    The author widely surveyed and analyzed the food safety issues, ethical issues, permits, and approval of animal products from animals cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer worldwide. As a result of a 2-year survey, the author found that there is no evidence that meat and milk derived from cloned animals or their progeny pose a risk to food safety in terms of genotoxicity, adverse reproductive effects, or allergic reactions. Most countries have not approved meat and milk derived from cloned animals, and their progeny are entering the food supply. To establish the guidelines, the author suggests four principles of safety assessment for meat and milk derived from cloned animals. The four main principles for safety assessment are similarities of chemical composition, adverse reproductive effects, genotoxicity, and allergic reactions under the influence of meat and milk from cloned animals and noncloned counterparts. This principle means that meat and milk derived from a cloned animal are safe if there are no differences in the four safety assessments of meat and milk between cloned animal's progeny and noncloned counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioethics Symposium: The ethical food movement: What does it mean for the role of science and scientists in current debates about animal agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croney, C C; Apley, M; Capper, J L; Mench, J A; Priest, S

    2012-05-01

    Contemporary animal agriculture is increasingly criticized on ethical grounds. Consequently, current policy and legislative discussions have become highly controversial as decision makers attempt to reconcile concerns about the impacts of animal production on animal welfare, the environment, and on the efficacy of antibiotics required to ensure human health with demands for abundant, affordable, safe food. Clearly, the broad implications for US animal agriculture of what appears to be a burgeoning movement relative to ethical food production must be understood by animal agriculture stakeholders. The potential effects of such developments on animal agricultural practices, corporate marketing strategies, and public perceptions of the ethics of animal production must also be clarified. To that end, it is essential to acknowledge that people's beliefs about which food production practices are appropriate are tied to diverse, latent value systems. Thus, relying solely on scientific information as a means to resolve current debates about animal agriculture is unlikely to be effective. The problem is compounded when scientific information is used inappropriately or strategically to advance a political agenda. Examples of the interface between science and ethics in regards to addressing currently contentious aspects of food animal production (animal welfare, antimicrobial use, and impacts of animal production practices on the environment) are reviewed. The roles of scientists and science in public debates about animal agricultural practices are also examined. It is suggested that scientists have a duty to contribute to the development of sound policy by providing clear and objectively presented information, by clarifying misinterpretations of science, and by recognizing the differences between presenting data vs. promoting their own value judgments in regard to how and which data should be used to establish policy. Finally, the role of the media in shaping public opinions

  13. Analysis of influence of heat exchange conditions on the outer surface of the lithium-ion battery to electrolyte temperature under the conditions of high current loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoshlykov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of thermal conditions of a lithium-ion battery using the software package ANSYS Electric and ANSYS Fluent has been carried out. Time dependence of the electrolyte temperature on the various heat exchange conditions on the outer surface has been obtained.

  14. The Analysis Methods Of 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-Diol and Glycydyl Esters in Foods, Mitigation Studies, and Current Developments About their Effects on Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Yıldırım

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chloropropanols are known as undesired food contaminants liberated during the processing of various food products. When the adverse effects of chloropropanols, especially 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD, 2-monochloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD and glycidols along with their esters were first understood, the studies about the detection and mitigation of these compounds were accelerated. 3-MCPD, which was detected in food products in higher amounts when compared to other chloropropanols, usually occurs during refining process of vegetable oils, especially in deodorisation step. The novel methods in terms of the analysis of 3-MCPD and other chloropropanols are continuously updated. However, there are two basic methods today namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods enable to detect all of the esters individually, yet, due to the necessity of a huge number of reference standards, indirect methods are currently more preferred. The first essential step of reducing chloropropanols in food products is to determine the proper analysis method. In this review, general information, new developments in analysis methods, mitigation studies and the toxigolocial data about various chloropropanols were summarized.

  15. Multi-functionality of the few: current and past uses of wild plants for food and healing in Liubań region, Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Hrynevich, Yanina; Vasilyeva, Iryna; Prakofjewa, Julia; Vnukovich, Yuriy; Paciupa, Jury; Hlushko, Aliaksei; Knureva, Yana; Litvinava, Yulia; Vyskvarka, Siarhei; Silivonchyk, Hanna; Paulava, Alena; Kõiva, Mare; Kalle, Raivo

    2017-02-08

    This study examined the use of wild plants in the food, medicinal and veterinary areas within a small territory limited to one village council in the Liubań district of Belarus. The objectives of the research were to document the current and past uses of wild plants in this region for food and human/animal medication; to analyse the food, medicinal and veterinary areas in the context of wild plants; and to qualitatively compare the results with relevant publications concerning the wild food plants of Belarus. Fieldwork was carried out as a practical part of a development cooperation project in May 2016 in 11 villages of the Liubań district. One hundred thirty-four respondents were selected randomly. Information about local uses of wild plants was obtained via semi-structured interviews and the folk-history method. Interview records were digitalized and the data structured in Detailed Use Records (DUR), which were divided into food, medicinal and veterinary areas and then analysed to ascertain local perceptions. A total of 2252 DUR of wild plants were recorded. Eighty-eight wild plant taxa belonging to 45 plant families were used across all three areas. Of these, 58 taxa were used in the food, 74 in the medicinal and 23 in the veterinary areas. A relatively high percentage of the taxa were used in both the food and medicinal areas (55%) and an even greater percentage in both the medicinal and veterinary areas (87%). Comparison with earlier research on wild food plants shows the considerable difference among seldom-mentioned taxa or uses, showing possible regional differences despite the homogenization of the population during the Soviet era. As the majority of taxa with overlapping uses belonged to the most utilized plants, there appears to be clear a tendency to use plants in several different areas once they are brought into the home. This may be due to the need to maximize the versatility of limited resources. While the number of wild taxa used is relatively

  16. Role of food preoccupation and current dieting in the associations of parental feeding practices to emotional eating in young adults: A moderated mediation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Natalie A; Dev, Dipti A; Hankey, Maren; Blitch, Kimberly

    2017-04-01

    Parental feeding practices reflecting coercive control are related to children's later eating behaviors, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. This study examined the relationships between recalled childhood experiences of parental pressure to eat and restriction and current food preoccupation, dieting, and emotional eating in a racially diverse sample of college students (N = 711). Results revealed that parental restriction, but not pressure to eat, was associated with more emotional eating (r = 0.18, p Food preoccupation mediated the association between restriction and emotional eating (95% CI [3.6495-7.2231]); however, a moderated mediation model revealed that the strength of the indirect effect of restrictive feeding on emotional eating through food preoccupation was significantly different for dieters and non-dieters (index of moderated mediation = 1.79, Boot SE = 0.79; 95% bias-corrected bootstrap CI [-3.5490 to -0.4515]). These findings provide unique insight into the mechanisms linking parental feeding practices with emotional eating in young adulthood. Future studies attempting to clarify the processes through which child feeding practices impact later eating behaviors should consider the role of current dieting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Update on eating disorders: current perspectives on avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in children and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris ML

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mark L Norris,1 Wendy J Spettigue,2 Debra K Katzman3 1Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 3Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID is a new eating disorder diagnosis that was introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM fifth edition. The fourth edition of the DSM had failed to adequately capture a cohort of children, adolescents, and adults who are unable to meet appropriate nutritional and/or energy needs, for reasons other than drive for thinness, leading to significant medical and/or psychological sequelae. With the introduction of ARFID, researchers are now starting to better understand the presentation, clinical characteristics, and complexities of this disorder. This article outlines the diagnostic criteria for ARFID with specific focus on children and youth. A case example of a patient with ARFID, factors that differentiate ARFID from picky eating, and the estimated prevalence in pediatric populations are discussed, as well as clinical and treatment challenges that impact health care providers providing treatment for patients. Keywords: avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, ARFID, eating disorder, picky eating, prevalence, treatment

  18. An update discussion on the current assessment of the safety of veterinary antimicrobial drug residues in food with regard to their impact on the human intestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerniglia, Carl E; Pineiro, Silvia A; Kotarski, Susan F

    2016-05-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract ecosystem consists of complex and diverse microbial communities that have now been collectively termed the intestinal microbiome. Recent scientific breakthroughs and research endeavours have increased our understanding of the important role the intestinal microbiome plays in human health and disease. The use of antimicrobial new animal drugs in food-producing animals may result in the presence of low levels of drug residues in edible foodstuffs. There is concern that antimicrobial new animal drugs in or on animal-derived food products at residue-level concentrations could disrupt the colonization barrier and/or modify the antimicrobial resistance profile of human intestinal bacteria. Therapeutic doses of antimicrobial drugs have been shown to promote shifts in the intestinal microbiome, and these disruptions promote the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. To assess the effects of antimicrobial new animal drug residues in food on human intestinal bacteria, many national regulatory agencies and international committees follow a harmonized process, VICH GL36(R), which was issued by a trilateral organization of the European Union, the USA, and Japan called the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH). The guidance describes a general approach currently used by national regulatory agencies and international committees to assess the effects of antimicrobial new animal drug residues in animal-derived food on human intestinal bacteria. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this current approach as part of the antimicrobial new animal drug approval process in participating countries, give insights on the microbiological endpoints used in this safety evaluation, and discuss the availability of new information. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostatni, A.W.; Dostatni, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    In the main patent, a description was given of a heat exchanger with an exchange surface in preformed sheet metal designed for the high pressure and temperature service particularly encountered in nuclear pressurized water reactors and which is characterised by the fact that it is composed of at least one exchanger bundle sealed in a containment, the said bundle or bundles being composed of numerous juxtaposed individual compartments whose exchange faces are built of preformed sheet metal. The present addendun certificate concerns shapes of bundles and their positioning methods in the exchanger containment enabling its compactness to be increased [fr

  20. The critical role of cognitive-based trait differences in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) suppression of food craving and eating in frank obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary Katherine; Sylvester, Maria D; Osborn, Lauren; Helms, Joel; Turan, Bulent; Burgess, Emilee E; Boggiano, Mary M

    2017-09-01

    Obesity remains a major public health concern and novel treatments are needed. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation technique shown to reduce food craving and consumption, especially when targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) with a right anode/left cathode electrode montage. Despite the implications to treat frank (non-bingeeating) obesity, no study has tested the right anode/left cathode montage in this population. Additionally, most tDCS appetite studies have not controlled for differences in traits under DLPFC control that may influence how well one responds to tDCS. Hence, N = 18 (10F/8M) adults with frank obesity completed the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire-Restraint and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and received 20 min of 2 mA active tDCS and control tDCS session. Craving and eating was assessed at both sessions with a food photo "wanting" test and in-lab measures of total, preferred, and less-preferred kilocalories consumed of three highly palatable snack foods. While main effects of tDCS vs. control were not found, significant differences emerged when trait scores were controlled. tDCS reduced food craving in females with lower attention-type impulsiveness (p = 0.047), reduced preferred-food consumption in males with lower intent to restrict calories (p = 0.024), and reduced total food consumption in males with higher non-planning-type impulsiveness (p = 0.009) compared to control tDCS. This is the first study to find significant reductions in food craving and consumption in a sample with frank obesity using the most popular tDCS montage in appetite studies. The results also highlight the cognitive-based heterogeneity of individuals with obesity and the importance of considering these differences when evaluating the efficacy of DLPFC-targeted tDCS in future studies aimed at treating obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Update on eating disorders: current perspectives on avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Mark L; Spettigue, Wendy J; Katzman, Debra K

    2016-01-01

    Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a new eating disorder diagnosis that was introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) fifth edition. The fourth edition of the DSM had failed to adequately capture a cohort of children, adolescents, and adults who are unable to meet appropriate nutritional and/or energy needs, for reasons other than drive for thinness, leading to significant medical and/or psychological sequelae. With the introduction of ARFID, researchers are now starting to better understand the presentation, clinical characteristics, and complexities of this disorder. This article outlines the diagnostic criteria for ARFID with specific focus on children and youth. A case example of a patient with ARFID, factors that differentiate ARFID from picky eating, and the estimated prevalence in pediatric populations are discussed, as well as clinical and treatment challenges that impact health care providers providing treatment for patients.

  2. Use of a polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column and propionic acid as an eluent in ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography of aliphatic carboxylic acids and ethanol in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masanobu; Hironaga, Takahiro; Kajiwara, Hiroe; Nakatani, Nobutake; Kozaki, Daisuke; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We developed an ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography (IEAC) method employing a polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin (PS-WCX) column with propionic acid as the eluent for the simultaneous determination of multivalent aliphatic carboxylic acids and ethanol in food samples. The PS-WCX column well resolved mono-, di-, and trivalent carboxylic acids in the acidic eluent. Propionic acid as the eluent gave a higher signal-to-noise ratio, and enabled sensitive conductimetric detection of analyte acids. We found the optimal separation condition to be the combination of a PS-WCX column and 20-mM propionic acid. Practical applicability of the developed method was confirmed by using a short precolumn with a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H(+)-form connected before the separation column; this was to remove cations from food samples by converting them to hydrogen ions. Consequently, common carboxylic acids and ethanol in beer, wine, and soy sauce were successfully separated by the developed method.

  3. Global Cropland Area Database (GCAD) derived from Remote Sensing in Support of Food Security in the Twenty-first Century: Current Achievements and Future Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Xiong, Jun N.; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Giri, Chandra; Milesi, Cristina; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Congalton, Russ; Tilton, James; Sankey, Temuulen Tsagaan; Massey, Richard; Phalke, Aparna; Yadav, Kamini

    2015-01-01

    The precise estimation of the global agricultural cropland- extents, areas, geographic locations, crop types, cropping intensities, and their watering methods (irrigated or rainfed; type of irrigation) provides a critical scientific basis for the development of water and food security policies (Thenkabail et al., 2012, 2011, 2010). By year 2100, the global human population is expected to grow to 10.4 billion under median fertility variants or higher under constant or higher fertility variants (Table 1) with over three quarters living in developing countries, in regions that already lack the capacity to produce enough food. With current agricultural practices, the increased demand for food and nutrition would require in about 2 billion hectares of additional cropland, about twice the equivalent to the land area of the United States, and lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas productions (Tillman et al., 2011). For example, during 1960-2010 world population more than doubled from 3 billion to 7 billion. The nutritional demand of the population also grew swiftly during this period from an average of about 2000 calories per day per person in 1960 to nearly 3000 calories per day per person in 2010. The food demand of increased population along with increased nutritional demand during this period (1960-2010) was met by the “green revolution” which more than tripled the food production; even though croplands decreased from about 0.43 ha/capita to 0.26 ha/capita (FAO, 2009). The increase in food production during the green revolution was the result of factors such as: (a) expansion in irrigated areas which increased from 130 Mha in 1960s to 278.4 Mha in year 2000 (Siebert et al., 2006) or 399 Mha when you do not consider cropping intensity (Thenkabail et al., 2009a, 2009b, 2009c) or 467 Mha when you consider cropping intensity (Thenkabail et al., 2009a; Thenkabail et al., 2009c); (b) increase in yield and per capita food production (e.g., cereal production

  4. Quantum Chemical and FTIR Spectroscopic Studies on the Linkage Isomerism of Carbon Monoxide in Alkali-Metal-Exchanged Zeolites: A Review of Current Research

    OpenAIRE

    E. Garrone; A. A. Tsyganenko; G. Turnes Palomino; C. Otero Areán

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: When adsorbed (at a low temperature) on alkali-metal-exchanged zeolites, CO forms both M(CO)+ and M(OC)+ carbonyl species with the extra-framework alkali-metal cation of the zeolite. Both quantum chemical and experimental results show that C-bondend adducts are characterized by a C−O stretching IR band at a frequency higher than that of 2143 cm-1 for free CO, while for O-bonded adducts this IR band appears below 2143 cm-1. The cation-CO interaction energy is higher for M(CO)+ t...

  5. Getting emotional: historic and current changes in food consumption practices viewed through the lens of cultural theories

    OpenAIRE

    Sahakian, Marlyne

    2015-01-01

    Social practice theory has brought new perspectives to ‘sustainable consumption’ studies in terms of both conceptual developments and rich empirical research. One appealing and shared understanding is that practices change over time, suggesting that shifts away from current unsustainable practices toward more environmentally sound and socially just alternatives are possible. Much work has focused on how to recruit new practitioners to more ‘sustainable’ practices (Jack 2013; Plessz et al. 201...

  6. Current food safety management systems in fish-exporting companies require further improvements to adequately cope with contextual pressure: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onjong, Hillary Adawo; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau

    2014-10-01

    Fish-processing plants still face food safety (FS) challenges worldwide despite the existence of several quality assurance standards and food safety management systems/s (FSMSs). This study assessed performance of FSMS in fish exporting sector considering pressure from the context in which they operate. A FSMS diagnostic tool with checklist was used to assess the context, FSMS, and FS output in 9 Kenyan fish exporting companies. Majority (67%) companies operated at moderate- to high-risk context but with an average performance in control and assurance activities. This situation could be insufficient to deal with ambiguity, uncertainty, and vulnerability issues in the context characteristics. Contextual risk posed by product characteristics (nature of raw materials) and chain environment characteristics was high. Risk posed by the chain environment characteristics, low power in supplier relationships, and low degree of authority in customer relationships was high. Lack of authority in relationship with suppliers would lead to high raw material risk situation. Even though cooling facilities, a key control activity, was at an advanced level, there was inadequate packaging intervention equipment which coupled with inadequate physical intervention equipment could lead to further weakened FSMS performance. For the fish companies to improve their FSMS to higher level and enhance predictability, they should base their FSMS on scientific information sources, historical results, and own experimental trials in their preventive, intervention, and monitoring systems. Specific suggestions are derived for improvements toward higher FSMS activity levels or lower risk levels in context characteristics. Weak areas in performance of control and assurance activities in export fish-processing sector already implementing current quality assurance guidelines and standards were studied taking into consideration contextual pressure wherein the companies operate. Important mitigation

  7. Irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrington, Hugh

    1988-06-01

    This special edition of 'Food Manufacture' presents papers on the following aspects of the use of irradiation in the food industry:- 1) an outline view of current technology and its potential. 2) Safety and wholesomeness of irradiated and non-irradiated foods. 3) A review of the known effects of irradiation on packaging. 4) The problems of regulating the use of irradiation and consumer protection against abuse. 5) The detection problem - current procedures. 6) Description of the Gammaster BV plant in Holland. 7) World outline review. 8) Current and future commercial activities in Europe. (U.K.)

  8. The effects of exchange rate on balance trade and on monetary aggregates of macedonia and the impact of the current world crisis in its economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Kadishe Limani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Macedonia is a country that is close related to the European Union countries where the majority of the Macedonian foreign trade is with the European Union countries (52%. So the Macedonian economy is in a high level dependency of Euro.  Since Denar is connected closely to Euro, and the level of its usage in everyday economic activity is close to the usage of Denar, it is obvious to be discussed as a dilemma whether Macedonia should have Euro as its currency. However, the problem lies in that whether it is the right time for such action as the best solution for Macedonian economy, keeping in mind the fact that in the international arena there is present a second crisis that is the crisis of Euro-Zone. Based on various sources and on our econometric results, in this paper is argued and supported the main hypothesis that the fix exchange rate for Macedonia is a more optimal choice in comparison with the unilateral euroisation and flexible exchange rate. Thus, during the research we found out some arguments that support the existing regime, such as: under a flexible regime an eventual devaluation of the Denar is more possible, which can lead to more negative effects on the economy than benefits. Thus, devaluation of the Denar will have no significant effects on the balance trade (export and imports and GDP. This means that the competitiveness of a country relies on the other factors. In addition an eventual devaluation of the Denar, it will not have significant effects on monetary aggregates (M2 and M4 due to the asset substitution from Denar deposits to foreign deposits and vice-versa.

  9. Part-II: Exchange current density and ionic diffusivity studies on the ordered and disordered spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Belharouak, Ilias

    2017-04-01

    Additive-free pellets of Li1-xNi0.5Mn1.5O4 have been prepared for the purpose of performing ionic diffusivity and exchange current density studies. Here we report on the characterization of interfacial charge transfer kinetics and ionic diffusivity of ordered (P4332) and disordered (Fd 3 bar m) Li1-xNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a function of lithium content at ambient temperature. The exchange current density at the electrode/electrolyte interface is found to be continuously increased with increasing the degree of delithiation for ordered phase (∼0.21-6.5 mA/cm2) at (x = 0.01-0.60), in contrast the disordered phase exhibits gradually decrease of exchange current density in the initial delithiation at the 4 V plateau regime (x = 0.01-0.04) and again monotonously increases (0.65-6.8 mA/cm2) with further delithiation at (x = 0.04-0.60). The ionic diffusivity of ordered and disordered phase is found to be ∼5 × 10-10cm2s-1 and ∼10-9cm2s-1, respectively, and does not vary much with the degree of delithiation. From the obtained results it appears that the chemical diffusivity during electrochemical use is limited by lithium transport, but is fast enough over the entire state-of-charge range to allow charge/discharge of micron-scale particles at practical C-rates.

  10. Food for Thought: A Critical Overview of Current Practical and Conceptual Challenges in Trace Element Analysis in Natural Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Filella

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The practical and conceptual challenges faced by the analysis of trace elements present in natural waters are not merely, as is often thought, an endless race towards lower detection limits or to the development of techniques allowing the determination of any possible chemical species formed by all chemical elements. Rather, as discussed in this paper, they include the development of (i robust, cheap, and reliable methods that could also be used by laypeople (the experience gained in the development of field kits for As is discussed as an example from which similar developments for other elements may be drawn; (ii more environmentally-friendly methods (the current guiding criteria probably being too simplistic; and (iii methods making it possible to follow diel concentration changes and sharp concentration variations caused by the probable increase of heavy rainfall events. This paper also claims that neither the measurement of total concentrations (reliable methods are lacking for many elements of the periodic table of trace elements, as illustrated through the cases of Bi, Te, and Sb, nor chemical speciation analysis, are as mature as often thought. In particular, chemical speciation studies demand the development of a better, comprehensive conceptual framework. A trial is carried out to lay the basis of such a framework.

  11. 21 CFR 173.21 - Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes. 173.21... ion exchange membranes. Substances identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as ion exchange membranes intended for use in the treatment of bulk quantities of liquid food under the...

  12. The study of electroplating trivalent CrC alloy coatings with different current densities on stainless steel 304 as bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Cheng; Hou, Kung-Hsu; Lu, Chen-En; Ger, Ming-Der

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the trivalent Cr–C coatings were electroplated on stainless steel 304 (SS304) substrates for an application in bipolar plates (BPPs) that was because of coating's excellent electric conductivity and corrosion resistance. The images of scanning electron microscope showed that the thickness of the coatings was between 1.4 and 11.4 μm, which increased with increase of coating current density. The surface morphology of Cr–C plated at coating current density of 10 A/dm 2 was smooth, crack- and pinhole-free, while cracks and pinholes appearing in networks were observed apparently in the deposits plated at a higher coating current density. Additionally, the C content in the coating decreased with increasing the coating current density. Moreover, the polarization curve with different coating current densities (10, 30, 50 A/dm 2 ) exhibited the coating prepared at 10 A/dm 2 and 10 min possessing the best corrosion resistance (I corr = 9.360 × 10 −8 A/cm 2 ). The contact resistance of Cr–C plated at coating current density of 10 A/dm 2 was the lowest (16.54 mΩ cm 2 at 150 N cm −2 ), which showed great potential of application. The single cell test with Cr–C coated SS304 prepared at coating current density of 10 A/dm 2 as BPPs showed the highest current density (about 791.532 mA/cm 2 ) and power density (about 270.150 mW/cm 2 ). - Highlights: • The Cr–C coatings on steel are electroplated for utilization as bipolar plate. • The electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance increase with carbon content. • The power density of Cr–C coated steel is superior to the bare steel

  13. The study of electroplating trivalent CrC alloy coatings with different current densities on stainless steel 304 as bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hsiang-Cheng [Graduate School of Defense Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hou, Kung-Hsu, E-mail: khou@ndu.edu.tw [Department of Power Vehicle and Systems Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lu, Chen-En [Graduate School of Defense Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Ger, Ming-Der [Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    In this study, the trivalent Cr–C coatings were electroplated on stainless steel 304 (SS304) substrates for an application in bipolar plates (BPPs) that was because of coating's excellent electric conductivity and corrosion resistance. The images of scanning electron microscope showed that the thickness of the coatings was between 1.4 and 11.4 μm, which increased with increase of coating current density. The surface morphology of Cr–C plated at coating current density of 10 A/dm{sup 2} was smooth, crack- and pinhole-free, while cracks and pinholes appearing in networks were observed apparently in the deposits plated at a higher coating current density. Additionally, the C content in the coating decreased with increasing the coating current density. Moreover, the polarization curve with different coating current densities (10, 30, 50 A/dm{sup 2}) exhibited the coating prepared at 10 A/dm{sup 2} and 10 min possessing the best corrosion resistance (I{sub corr} = 9.360 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}). The contact resistance of Cr–C plated at coating current density of 10 A/dm{sup 2} was the lowest (16.54 mΩ cm{sup 2} at 150 N cm{sup −2}), which showed great potential of application. The single cell test with Cr–C coated SS304 prepared at coating current density of 10 A/dm{sup 2} as BPPs showed the highest current density (about 791.532 mA/cm{sup 2}) and power density (about 270.150 mW/cm{sup 2}). - Highlights: • The Cr–C coatings on steel are electroplated for utilization as bipolar plate. • The electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance increase with carbon content. • The power density of Cr–C coated steel is superior to the bare steel.

  14. Current-use pesticides in seawater and their bioaccumulation in polar bear-ringed seal food chains of the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adam D; Muir, Derek C G; Solomon, Keith R; Letcher, Robert J; McKinney, Melissa A; Fisk, Aaron T; McMeans, Bailey C; Tomy, Gregg T; Teixeira, Camilla; Wang, Xiaowa; Duric, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in seawater and their trophodynamics were investigated in 3 Canadian Arctic marine food chains. The greatest ranges of dissolved-phase concentrations in seawater for each CUP were endosulfan sulfate (less than method detection limit (MDL) to 19 pg L(-1) ) > dacthal (0.76-15 pg L(-1) ) > chlorpyrifos (less than MDL to 8.1 pg L(-1) ) > pentachloronitrobenzene (less than MDL to 2.6 pg L(-1) ) > α-endosulfan (0.20-2.3 pg L(-1) ). Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs, water-respiring organisms) were greatest in plankton, including chlorothalonil (log BAF = 7.4 ± 7.1 L kg(-1) , mean ± standard error), chlorpyrifos (log BAF = 6.9 ± 6.7 L kg(-1) ), and α-endosulfan (log BAF = 6.5 ± 6.0 L kg(-1) ). The largest biomagnification factors (BMFs) were found for dacthal in the capelin:plankton trophic relationship (BMF = 13 ± 5.0) at Cumberland Sound (Nunvavut), and for β-endosulfan (BMF = 16 ± 4.9) and α-endosulfan (BMF = 9.3 ± 2.8) in the polar bear-ringed seal relationship at Barrow and Rae Strait (NU), respectively. Concentrations of endosulfan sulfate exhibited trophic magnification (increasing concentrations with increasing trophic level) in the poikilothermic portion of the food web (trophic magnification factor = 1.4), but all of the CUPs underwent trophic dilution in the marine mammal food web, despite some trophic level-specific biomagnification. Together, these observations are most likely indicative of metabolism of these CUPs in mammals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1695-1707. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  16. The Northern Climate Exchange Gap Analysis Project : an assessment of the current state of knowledge about the impacts of climate change in northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Northern Climate ExChange (NCE) Gap Analysis Project was launched in 1999 with an objective to assess the state of knowledge on climate change in northern Canada. Resulting products of the project have included the Infosource Database, an on-line database of published climate change research related to the Canadian North, the Directory of Contacts, another on-line database of interested parties to climate change issues, and a set of tables that rate the level of available information on climate change as it relates to natural, economic and community systems. Other products include a report of a workshop on climate change research, 2 reports assessing the level of traditional northern knowledge about climate change, 2 reports assessing the completeness and value of the Infosource Database, a web site for NCE, and this report. All products are available to the public on the Internet or on a CD-ROM. The NCE Gap Analysis Project has shown there are inequalities in the amount of information across different systems, and that there is more knowledge on predicted temperature changes than for other climate components. The study notes that there are strong regional trends for compiled knowledge, with some regions having been better studied than others. The project revealed that traditional knowledge of climate change has not been well documented, and that more information exists about climate change impacts on biological systems with an economic component than those without economic significance. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Different Densities of Na-Ca Exchange Current in T-Tubular and Surface Membranes and Their Impact on Cellular Activity in a Model of Rat Ventricular Cardiomyocyte

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pásek, Michal; Šimurda, J.; Christé, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 2017 (2017), č. článku 6343821. ISSN 2314-6133 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : rat ventricular cell * mathematical model * Na-Ca current * t-tubules Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 2.476, year: 2016

  18. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a device, consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood or... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240...

  19. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  20. High-performance liquid chromatography - Ultraviolet method for the determination of total specific migration of nine ultraviolet absorbers in food simulants based on 1,1,3,3-Tetramethylguanidine and organic phase anion exchange solid phase extraction to remove glyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianling; Xiao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Tong; Liu, Tingfei; Tao, Huaming; He, Jun

    2016-06-17

    The glyceride in oil food simulant usually causes serious interferences to target analytes and leads to failure of the normal function of the RP-HPLC column. In this work, a convenient HPLC-UV method for the determination of the total specific migration of nine ultraviolet (UV) absorbers in food simulants was developed based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG) and organic phase anion exchange (OPAE) SPE to efficiently remove glyceride in olive oil simulant. In contrast to the normal ion exchange carried out in an aqueous solution or aqueous phase environment, the OPAE SPE was performed in the organic phase environments, and the time-consuming and challenging extraction of the nine UV absorbers from vegetable oil with aqueous solution could be readily omitted. The method was proved to have good linearity (r≥0.99992), precision (intra-day RSD≤3.3%), and accuracy(91.0%≤recoveries≤107%); furthermore, the lower limit of quantifications (0.05-0.2mg/kg) in five types of food simulants(10% ethanol, 3% acetic acid, 20% ethanol, 50% ethanol and olive oil) was observed. The method was found to be well suited for quantitative determination of the total specific migration of the nine UV absorbers both in aqueous and vegetable oil simulant according to Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011. Migration levels of the nine UV absorbers were determined in 31 plastic samples, and UV-24, UV-531, HHBP and UV-326 were frequently detected, especially in olive oil simulant for UV-326 in PE samples. In addition, the OPAE SPE procedure was also been applied to efficiently enrich or purify seven antioxidants in olive oil simulant. Results indicate that this procedure will have more extensive applications in the enriching or purification of the extremely weak acidic compounds with phenol hydroxyl group that are relatively stable in TMG n-hexane solution and that can be barely extracted from vegetable oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum characterization and sensitive quantification in food matrices by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection--validation using accuracy profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, G; Campargue, C

    2012-11-02

    Interest concerning functional ingredients and especially dietary fibres has been growing in recent years. At the same time, the variety of ingredient accepted as dietary fibres and their mixing at low level in complex matrices have considerably complicated their quantitative analysis by approved AOAC methods. These reasons have led to the specific development of an innovative analytical method performed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) to detect and quantify partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) in fruit preparation and dairy matrices. The analytical methodology was divided in two steps which could be deployed separately or in conjunction. The first, consists in a complete characterization of PHGG by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with multi-angle light scattering and refractive index detection and HPAEC-PAD to determine its physico-chemical properties and galactomannans content, and the second step is the development of a new HPAEC-PAD method for PHGG direct quantification in complex matrices (dairy product). Validation in terms of detection and quantification limits, linearity of the analytical range, average accuracy (recovery, trueness) and average uncertainty were statistically carried out with accuracy profile. Overall, this new chromatographic method has considerably improved the possibility to quantify without fractionation treatment, low level of dietary fibres emerging from specific galactomannans, in complex matrices and many foodstuffs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summary herein

  3. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4kA was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized herein

  4. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized

  5. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  6. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections

  7. Co{sub 2} exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of opuntia ficus-indica under current and elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations. Carbon Dioxide Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1992-12-31

    This project involved placing mature cladodes (flattened stem segments) of Opuntia ficus-indica in growth chambers containing 360 or 720 ppM CO{sub 2}. After nine weeks, the new daughter cladodes initiated on the planted cladodes averaged 7% higher in biomass but 8% less is area, leading to a specific stem mass for this Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species that was 16% higher under the elevated CO{sub 2} condition. This is similar to be less dramatic than the increase in specific leaf mass for C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} plants under elevated CO{sub 2}, which generally ranges from 28% to 40%. Another contrast with C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} Plants was the reliance of the new organs of the CAM plant on biomass translocated from existing organs instead of derived directly from current photosynthate. In this regard, 18% less dry weight was translocated from basal cladodes into daughter cladodes of Q. ficus-indica at 720 ppM CO{sub 2} compared with 360 ppM.

  8. Co[sub 2] exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of opuntia ficus-indica under current and elevated CO[sub 2] concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1992-01-01

    This project involved placing mature cladodes (flattened stem segments) of Opuntia ficus-indica in growth chambers containing 360 or 720 ppM CO[sub 2]. After nine weeks, the new daughter cladodes initiated on the planted cladodes averaged 7% higher in biomass but 8% less is area, leading to a specific stem mass for this Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species that was 16% higher under the elevated CO[sub 2] condition. This is similar to be less dramatic than the increase in specific leaf mass for C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] plants under elevated CO[sub 2], which generally ranges from 28% to 40%. Another contrast with C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] Plants was the reliance of the new organs of the CAM plant on biomass translocated from existing organs instead of derived directly from current photosynthate. In this regard, 18% less dry weight was translocated from basal cladodes into daughter cladodes of Q. ficus-indica at 720 ppM CO[sub 2] compared with 360 ppM.

  9. Insect food for astronauts: gas exchange in silkworms fed on mulberry and lettuce and the nutritional value of these insects for human consumption during deep space flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, L; Yu, X; Liu, H

    2011-10-01

    In this study, silkworm moth (Bombyx mori L.) larvae were regarded as an animal protein source for astronauts in the bioregenerative life support system during long-term deep space exploration in the future. They were fed with mulberry and stem lettuce leaves during the first three instars and the last two instars, respectively. In addition, this kind of environmental approach, which utilised inedible biomass of plants to produce animal protein of high quality, can likewise be applied terrestrially to provide food for people living in extreme environments and/or impoverished agro-ecosystems, such as in polar regions, isolated military bases, ships, submarines, etc. Respiration characteristics of the larvae during development under two main physiological conditions, namely eating and not-eating of leaves, were studied. Nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP), ground and freeze-dried silkworms on the 3rd day of the 5th instar larvae, including protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, were measured using international standard methods. Silkworms' respiration rates, measured when larvae were eating mulberry leaves, were higher than those of similar larvae that hadn't eaten such leaves. There was a significant difference between silkworms fed on mulberry leaves and those fed on stem lettuce in the 4th and 5th instars (Pinsects were under the two physiological statuses (P<0.01). Moreover, silkworms' respiration quotient under the eating regime was larger than when under the not-eating regime. The SP was found to be rich in protein and amino acids in total; 12 essential vitamins, nine minerals and twelve fatty acids were detected. Moreover, 359 kcal could be generated per 100 gram of SP (dry weight).

  10. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in behavioral and food addiction: A systematic review of efficacy, technical and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eSauvaget

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives.Behavioral addictions (BA are complex disorders for which pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments have shown their limits. Non-invasive brain stimulation, among which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, has opened up new perspectives in addiction treatment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a critical and systematic review of tDCS efficacy, and of technical and methodological considerations in the field of BA.Methods.A bibliographic search has been conducted on the Medline and ScienceDirect databases until December 2014, based on the following selection criteria: clinical studies on tDCS and BA (namely eating disorders, compulsive buying, Internet addiction, pathological gambling, sexual addiction, sports addiction, video games addiction. Study selection, data analysis and reporting were conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines.Results.Out of 402 potential articles, seven studies were selected. So far focusing essentially on abnormal eating, these studies suggest that tDCS (right prefrontal anode / left prefrontal cathode reduces food craving induced by visual stimuli.ConclusionsDespite methodological and technical differences between studies, the results are promising. So far, only few studies of tDCS in BA have been conducted. New research is recommended on the use of tDCS in BA, other than eating disorders.

  11. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowodiuk, Walter

    1976-01-06

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  12. Heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The tubes of a heat exchanger tube bank have a portion thereof formed in the shape of a helix, of effective radius equal to the tube radius and the space between two adjacent tubes, to tangentially contact the straight sections of the tubes immediately adjacent thereto and thereby provide support, maintain the spacing and account for differential thermal expansion thereof

  13. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  14. Exchange rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Bev

    2003-09-01

    IN MAY this year, I was lucky enough to go to Larissa in northern Greece as part of Hope Exchange 2003, an annual study tour organised by the European Union's hospital committee and administered by the Institute of Healthcare Management (IHM).

  15. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  16. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type is described in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab [de

  19. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief review summarizes current scientific information on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of foods. Attention is focused on: specifics of the irradiation process and its effectiveness in food preservation; the historical development of food irradiation technology in the US; the response of the Institute of Food Technologists to proposed FDA guidelines for food irradiation; the potential uses of irradiation in the US food industry; and the findings of the absence of toxins and of unaltered nutrient density (except possibly for fats) in irradiated foods. The misconceptions of consumers concerning perceived hazards associated with food irradiation, as related to consumer acceptance, also are addressed

  20. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  1. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A heat exchanger such as forms, for example, part of a power steam boiler is made up of a number of tubes that may be arranged in many different ways, and it is necessary that the tubes be properly supported. The means by which the tubes are secured must be as simple as possible so as to facilitate construction and must be able to continue to function effectively under the varying operating conditions to which the heat exchanger is subject. The arrangement described is designed to meet these requirements, in an improved way. The tubes are secured to a member extending past several tubes and abutment means are provided. At least some of the abutment means comprise two abutment pieces and a wedge secured to the supporting member, that acts on these pieces to maintain the engagement. (U.K.)

  2. Heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E L; Eisenmann, G; Hahne, E [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1976-04-01

    A survey is presented on publications on design, heat transfer, form factors, free convection, evaporation processes, cooling towers, condensation, annular gap, cross-flowed cylinders, axial flow through a bundle of tubes, roughnesses, convective heat transfer, loss of pressure, radiative heat transfer, finned surfaces, spiral heat exchangers, curved pipes, regeneraters, heat pipes, heat carriers, scaling, heat recovery systems, materials selection, strength calculation, control, instabilities, automation of circuits, operational problems and optimization.

  3. Current knowledge, attitude and behaviour of hand and food hygiene in a developed residential community of Singapore: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Junxiong; Chua, Shao Wei Jonathan Lumen; Hsu, Liyang

    2015-06-21

    Diarrhoea incidence has been increasing progressively over the past years in developed countries, including Singapore, despite the accessibility and availability to clean water, well-established sanitation infrastructures and regular hygiene promotion. The aim of this study is to determine the current knowledge, attitude and behaviour of hand and food hygiene, and the potential risk factors of diarrhoea in a residential community of Singapore. A cross-sectional study was conducted within a residential area in the west of Singapore from June to August 2013. A total of 1,156 household units were randomly sampled and invited to participate in an interviewer-assisted survey using standardised questionnaires. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, Fisher's Exact test and multivariate logistic regression modelling, respectively. R program was used for all statistical analysis. All tests were conducted at 5% level of significance with 95% confidence intervals (CI) reported where applicable. A total of 240 units (20.8%) consented and responded to the survey invitation. About 77% of the expected knowledge and attitude were observed in at least 80% of the participants, compared to only about 31% of the expected behaviours and practises. Being single [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.16-4.48], having flu in the past six month (AOR = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.74-6.06), preferred self-medication (AOR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.06-4.12) were risk factors of diarrhoea. Washing hands with water before attending to children or sick persons (AOR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.11-0.82), washing hands with water (AOR = 0.16; 95% CI = 0.05-0.45) and water with soap (AOR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.12-0.72) after attending to children or sick persons, and hand washing between 30 s to a minute (AOR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.20-0.90) were protective factors against diarrhoea. Good knowledge and attitude of the

  4. Exchange of current BPA surplus power for future power from certain companies' share of WNP-3 to settle a dispute over construction delay. Record of decision. Volume II. Exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This exchange is between BPA and Portland General Electric Company, Puget Sound Power and Light Company, and the Washington Water Power Company. Pacific Power and Light Company (Pacific) is not initially a party to the exchange. Pacific may at any time prior to January 1, 1994 elect on at least 12 months notice to enter the exchange provided that if BPA determines to resume full plant construction Pacific must elect or forego the option within 6 months after construction is resumed. If the plant is terminated at a time when the option has not been exercised, the option may not thereafter be exercised. If Pacific elects to make the exchange effective and the plant is later terminated prior to the effective data of the exchange, the exchange will become effective on the specified data, unless, prior to such data. Pacific notifies BPA that is rescinds such prior election

  5. Current status and future advancements in analytical post-factum detection of food irradiation within the EU and in global trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegl, K.W.

    1999-01-01

    The paper summarizes and explains officially approved methods for reliable analytical detection of illegal or non-labelled treatment of foods with ionizing radiation, referring inter alia to a German study published in 1997. (orig./CB) [de

  6. Exchanging information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The Agency has a statutory mandate to foster 'the exchange of scientific and technical information on the peaceful uses of atomic energy'. The prime responsibility for this work within the Agency lies with the Division of Scientific and Technical Information, a part of the Department of Technical Operations. The Division accomplishes its task by holding conferences and symposia (Scientific Conferences Section), through the Agency Library, by publishing scientific journals, and through the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The Computer Section of the Division, which offers services to the Agency as a whole, provides resources for the automation of data storage and retrieval. (author)

  7. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  8. Materialism and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M W; Wilson, M

    2005-12-01

    The present studies examined if materialists have an elevated concern about food availability, presumably stemming from a general survival security motivation. Study 1 found that materialists set a greater life goal of food security, and reported more food insecurity during their childhood. Materialists reported less present-day food insecurity. Study 2 revealed that materialists stored/hoarded more food at home, and that obese persons endorsed materialism more than low/normal weight persons. Study 3 found that experimentally decreasing participants' feelings of survival security (via a mortality salience manipulation) led to greater endorsement of materialism, food security as goal, and using food for emotional comfort. The results imply that materialists overcame the food insecurity of their childhood by making food security a top life goal, but that materialists' current concerns about food security may not wholly stem from genuine threats to their food supply.

  9. Heat exchanger vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, D.J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration

  10. Heat exchanger vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, D J.W. [CERL, CEGB, Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1977-12-01

    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration.

  11. Matchmaker Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreira, Nara L M; Arachchi, Harindra; Buske, Orion J; Chong, Jessica X; Hutton, Ben; Foreman, Julia; Schiettecatte, François; Groza, Tudor; Jacobsen, Julius O B; Haendel, Melissa A; Boycott, Kym M; Hamosh, Ada; Rehm, Heidi L

    2017-10-18

    In well over half of the individuals with rare disease who undergo clinical or research next-generation sequencing, the responsible gene cannot be determined. Some reasons for this relatively low yield include unappreciated phenotypic heterogeneity; locus heterogeneity; somatic and germline mosaicism; variants of uncertain functional significance; technically inaccessible areas of the genome; incorrect mode of inheritance investigated; and inadequate communication between clinicians and basic scientists with knowledge of particular genes, proteins, or biological systems. To facilitate such communication and improve the search for patients or model organisms with similar phenotypes and variants in specific candidate genes, we have developed the Matchmaker Exchange (MME). MME was created to establish a federated network connecting databases of genomic and phenotypic data using a common application programming interface (API). To date, seven databases can exchange data using the API (GeneMatcher, PhenomeCentral, DECIPHER, MyGene2, matchbox, Australian Genomics Health Alliance Patient Archive, and Monarch Initiative; the latter included for model organism matching). This article guides usage of the MME for rare disease gene discovery. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

  12. Heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, F; Yanagida, T; Fujie, K; Futawatari, H

    1975-04-30

    The purpose of this construction is the improvement of heat transfer in finned tube heat exchangers, and therefore the improvement of its efficiency or its output per unit volume. This is achieved by preventing the formation of flow boundary layers in gaseous fluid. This effect always occurs on flow of smooth adjacent laminae, and especially if these have pipes carrying liquid passing through them; it worsens the heat transfer of such a boundary layer considerably compared to that in the turbulent range. The fins, which have several rows of heat exchange tubes passing through them, are fixed at a small spacing on theses tubes. The fins have slots cut in them by pressing or punching, where the pressed-out material remains as a web, which runs parallel to the level of the fin and at a small distance from it. These webs and slots are arranged radially around every tube hole, e.g. 6 in number. For a suitable small tube spacing, two adjacent tubes opposite each other have one common slot. Many variants of such slot arrangements are illustrated.

  13. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  14. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  15. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  16. Networks an Food System Performance: How do networks contribute to performance of the food & agricultural system in the face of current challenges of high levels of change and uncertainty?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, S.; Dentoni, D.; Lombardi, A.; Cembalo, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of Food Community Network (FCN) in credence transactions. A FCN could be defined as a governance structure where consumers and producers strongly integrate their functions (goals) by organizing a 'club'. It is based on pooling specific resources and using membership

  17. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

  18. Healthy dining: Subtle diet reminders at the point of purchase increase low-calorie food choices among both chronic and current dieters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papies, E.K.; Veling, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that our food-rich living environment contributes to rising numbers of people with overweight and obesity. Low-cost, effective intervention tools are needed to facilitate healthy eating behavior, especially when eating away from home. Therefore, we present a field

  19. "On-off" switchable tool for food sample preparation: merging molecularly imprinting technology with stimuli-responsive blocks. Current status, challenges and highlighted applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Raquel; Gomes da Silva, Marco D R; Cabrita, Maria João

    2018-01-01

    Sample preparation still remains a great challenge in the analytical workflow representing the most time-consuming and laborious step in analytical procedures. Ideally, sample pre-treatment procedures must be more selective, cheap, quick and environmental friendly. Molecular imprinting technology is a powerful tool in the development of highly selective sample preparation methodologies enabling to preconcentrate the analytes from a complex food matrix. Actually, the design and development of molecularly imprinted polymers-based functional materials that merge an enhancement of selectivity with a controllable and switchable mode of action by means of specific stimulus constitutes a hot research topic in the field of food analysis. Thus, combining the stimuli responsive mechanism and imprinting technology a new generation of materials are emerging. The application of these smart materials in sample preparation is in early stage of development, nevertheless new improvements will promote a new driven in the demanding field of food sample preparation. The new trends in the advancement of food sample preparation using these smart materials will be presented in this review and highlighted the most relevant applications in this particular area of knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Getting Started for Preparing Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers in Terms of Sustainable Food Consumption: The Current Situation at a Public University in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacam, Nur; Sahin, Elvan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the food consumption and nutrition perceptions of pre-service early childhood teachers using a mixed method research design. Data was gathered from 37 pre-service early childhood teachers through survey consisting of items in rating scale and open-ended questions. Descriptive analyses were conducted to report pre-service…

  1. Sirio.NET: A new tool for managing results in eddy current inspection of steam generators and heat exchangers; Sirio.NET: Una nueva herramienta para la gestion de resultados en las inspecciones por Corrientes Inducidas de los Generadores de Vapor y Cambiadores de Calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, M.; Marquez, A.; Rodriguez, A. L.

    2014-07-01

    The results management and control of the inspections by currents induced of tube bundles of components such as steam generators, heat exchangers, etc., by the large volume of data generated, requires the use of highly specialized tools of information management, based on database structures. (Author)

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoerr, M.; Ehlermann, D.A.E.; Delincee, H.

    1999-01-01

    The conference was a combined event and at the same time was a meeting of the FAIR programme of the EU, under the responsibility of the General Directorate XII, participating countries including Iceland, Norway, Hungary, and Switzerland in addition to the 15 EU member states. Under this roof, research work is sponsored in the fields of food technology, fishing industry, agriculture, forestry, and water resources management. Also, financial support is available for the mid-range food and agricultural industry, or for projects promoting rural development. There currently are over 120 transnational FAIR projects, involving more than 2000 researchers in 233 EU-sponsored research projects devoted to food aspects, some having been presented at the conference. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Modeling of processing technologies in food industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, V. G.; Sagitov, R. F.; Popov, V. P.; Bachirov, V. D.; Akhmadieva, Z. R.; TSirkaeva, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    Currently, the society is facing an urgent need to solve the problems of nutrition (products with increased nutrition value) and to develop energy-saving technologies for food products. A mathematical modeling of heat and mass transfer of polymer materials in the extruder is rather successful these days. Mathematical description of movement and heat exchange during extrusion of gluten-protein-starch-containing material similar to pasta dough in its structure, were taken as a framework for the mathematical model presented in this paper.

  4. Food irradiation: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Rosanna M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent regulatory and commercial activity regarding food irradiation is highlighted. The effects of irradiation, used to kill insects and microorganisms which cause food spoilage, are discussed. Special attention is given to the current regulatory status of food irradiation in the USA; proposed FDA regulation regarding the use of irradiation; pending irradiation legislation in the US Congress; and industrial applications of irradiation

  5. Strategies for food longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Genuchten, E.J.S.; Mulder, I.J.; Schaaf, N.; Bakker, C.; Mugge, R.

    2017-01-01

    Although food has been circular by nature, the current food supply chain has turned into an unfortunate linear system. The challenges of transitioning towards a sustainable food eco-system requires radical changes and new perspectives, where things are done differently. Starting with related work in

  6. Management of Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Maleknejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine.   Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.  

  7. Observed Food Safety Practices in the Summer Food Service Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Emily Vaterlaus; Alcorn, Michelle; Watkins, Tracee; Cole, Kerri; Paez, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this exploratory, observational study was three-fold: 1) Determine current food safety practices at Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) sites; 2) Identify types of food served at the sites and collect associated temperatures; and 3) Establish recommendations for food safety training in the SFSP.…

  8. Reframing convenience food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Peter; Viehoff, Valerie

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides a critical review of recent research on the consumption of 'convenience' food, highlighting the contested nature of the term and exploring its implications for public health and environmental sustainability. It distinguishes between convenience food in general and particular types of convenience food, such as ready-meals, tracing the structure and growth of the market for such foods with a particular emphasis on the UK which currently has the highest rate of ready-meal consumption in Europe. Having established the definitional complexities of the term, the paper presents the evidence from a systematic review of the literature, highlighting the significance of convenience food in time-saving and time-shifting, the importance of recent changes in domestic labour and family life, and the way the consumption of convenience food is frequently moralized. The paper shows how current debates about convenience food are part of a longer discursive history about food, health and nutrition. It discusses current levels of public understanding about the links between convenience food, environmental sustainability and food waste. The paper concludes by making a case for understanding the consumption of convenience food in terms of everyday social practices, emphasising its habitual and routine character. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exchange market pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, H.; Klaassen, F.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Currencies can be under severe pressure in the foreign exchange market, but in a fixed (or managed) exchange rate regime that is not fully visible via the change in the exchange rate. Exchange market pressure (EMP) is a concept developed to nevertheless measure the pressure in such cases. This

  10. Development of heat exchangers for nuclear service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, R.I.; Dalrymple, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    Unusual design constraints, due to tube vibration, are called for when tube-in-shell heat exchangers are incorporated into CANDU type reactor power plants. CRNL has programs studying tube excitation and response, flow conditions, and the fretting process in such exchangers, tube plugging techniques, and eddy current scanning systems for inside bores of full-length tubes. (E.C.B.)

  11. Model Uncertainty and Exchange Rate Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenberg, R.; Markiewicz, A.; Verhoeks, R.; Zwinkels, R.C.J.

    2017-01-01

    Exchange rate models with uncertain and incomplete information predict that investors focus on a small set of fundamentals that changes frequently over time. We design a model selection rule that captures the current set of fundamentals that best predicts the exchange rate. Out-of-sample tests show

  12. The Foreign Exchange Rate Exposure of Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Moebert, Jochen; Sonderhof, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Following the well-known approach by Adler and Dumas (1984), we evaluate the foreign exchange rate exposure of nations. Results based on data from 27 countries show that national foreign exchange rate exposures are significantly related to the current trade balance variables of corresponding economies.

  13. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Food Allergies What's in this ... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system makes ...

  14. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  15. Adaptive Strategies in the Iterated Exchange Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraov, Arthur

    2011-03-01

    We argue for clear separation of the exchange problem from the exchange paradox to avoid confusion about the subject matter of these two distinct problems. The exchange problem in its current format belongs to the domain of optimal decision making—it doesn't make any sense as a game of competition. But it takes just a tiny modification in the statement of the problem to breathe new life into it and make it a practicable and meaningful game of competition. In this paper, we offer an explanation for paradoxical priors and discuss adaptive strategies for both the house and the player in the restated exchange problem.

  16. UVB exposure of farm animals: study on a food-based strategy to bridge the gap between current vitamin D intakes and dietary targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schutkowski

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of ultraviolet (UV B radiation for improving vitamin D3 content of eggs and meat. In a two-factorial design hens that received diets with 0 (-D3 or 3,000 IU (+D3 vitamin D3/kg were non-exposed (-UVB or exposed to UVB radiation (+UVB for 3 h daily over 4 weeks. Data show that UVB radiation was very effective in raising the vitamin D3 content of egg yolk and meat. Egg yolk from +UVB/-D3 hens had a higher vitamin D3 content (17.5±7.2 µg/100 g dry matter (DM than those from the -UVB/+D3 group (5.2±2.4 µg/100 g DM, p<0.01. Vitamin D3 content in egg yolk of vitamin D3-supplemented hens could be further increased by UVB radiation (32.4±10.9 µg/100 g DM. The content of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3 in the egg yolk also increased in response to UVB, although less pronounced than vitamin D3. Meat revealed about 4-fold higher vitamin D3 contents in response to UVB than to dietary vitamin D3 (p<0.001. In conclusion, exposure of hens to UVB is an efficient approach to provide consumers with vitamin D3-enriched foods from animal sources.

  17. Assessment of possible allergenicity of hypothetical ORFs in common food crops using current bioinformatic guidelines and its implications for the safety assessment of GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gregory J; Zhang, Shiping; Mirsky, Henry P; Cressman, Robert F; Cong, Bin; Ladics, Gregory S; Zhong, Cathy X

    2012-10-01

    Before a genetically modified (GM) crop can be commercialized it must pass through a rigorous regulatory process to verify that it is safe for human and animal consumption, and to the environment. One particular area of focus is the potential introduction of a known or cross-reactive allergen not previously present within the crop. The assessment of possible allergenicity uses the guidelines outlined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization's (WHO) Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) to evaluate all newly expressed proteins. Some regulatory authorities have broadened the scope of the assessment to include all DNA reading frames between stop codons across the insert and spanning the insert/genomic DNA junctions. To investigate the utility of this bioinformatic assessment, all naturally occurring stop-to-stop frames in the non-transgenic genomes of maize, rice, and soybean, as well as the human genome, were compared against the AllergenOnline (www.allergenonline.org) database using the Codex criteria. We discovered thousands of frames that exceeded the Codex defined threshold for potential cross-reactivity suggesting that evaluating hypothetical ORFs (stop-to-stop frames) has questionable value for making decisions on the safety of GM crops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 78 FR 58359 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Exchange, therefore, opted to provide a higher introductory rate for Maker Rebates in order to attract... rate of fees and rebates the Exchange currently provides for trading in Standard Options. The Exchange... order flow to another exchange if they deem rebates at a particular exchange to be too low. For the...

  19. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Cees; Kok, Frans J

    2010-05-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake.

  20. Minimising food waste: a call for multidisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamar, Maria Del Carmen; Falagán, Natalia; Aktas, Emel; Terry, Leon A

    2018-01-01

    Food losses and waste have always been a significant global problem for mankind, and one which has become increasingly recognised as such by policy makers, food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers. It is, however, an emotive subject whereby the extent, accuracy and resolution of available data on postharvest loss and waste are questionable, such that key performance indicators on waste can be misinformed. The nature and extent of food waste differ among developed economies, economies in transition and developing countries. While most emphasis has been put on increasing future crop production, far less resource has been and is still channelled towards enabling both established and innovative food preservation technologies to reduce food waste while maintaining safety and quality. Reducing food loss and waste is a more tractable problem than increasing production in the short to medium term, as its solution is not directly limited, for instance, by available land and water resources. Here we argue the need for a paradigm shift of current funding strategies and research programmes that will encourage the development, implementation and translation of collective biological, engineering and management solutions to better preserve and utilise food. Such multidisciplinary thinking across global supply chains is an essential element in the pursuit of achieving sustainable food and nutritional security. The implementation of allied technological and management solutions is reliant on there being sufficient skilled human capital and resources. There is currently a lack of robust postharvest research networks outside of the developed world, and insufficient global funding mechanisms that can support such interdisciplinary collaborations. There is, thus, a collective need for schemes that encourage inter-supply chain research, knowledge exchange and capacity building to reduce food losses and waste. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical

  1. Mobile food ordering application

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to build a food ordering client server application for Tom Yum Thai Oy, which is a Thai restaurant in Vaasa. For the customer, this application provides a view of current food information (category, name, image,price, description etc.) on the website and Android application. The customer can order food from these two platforms. For the administrator in restaurant, this application offers a series of operations to add, update, delete and query the information of ...

  2. Analytical models of Ohmic heating and conventional heating in food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serventi, A.; Bozzoli, F.; Rainieri, S.

    2017-11-01

    Ohmic heating is a food processing operation in which an electric current is passed through a food and the electrical resistance of the food causes the electric power to be transformed directly into heat. The heat is not delivered through a surface as in conventional heat exchangers but it is internally generated by Joule effect. Therefore, no temperature gradient is required and it origins quicker and more uniform heating within the food. On the other hand, it is associated with high energy costs and its use is limited to a particular range of food products with an appropriate electrical conductivity. Sterilization of foods by Ohmic heating has gained growing interest in the last few years. The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits of Ohmic heating with respect to conventional heat exchangers under uniform wall temperature, a condition that is often present in industrial plants. This comparison is carried out by means of analytical models. The two different heating conditions are simulated under typical circumstances for the food industry. Particular attention is paid to the uniformity of the heat treatment and to the heating section length required in the two different conditions.

  3. Food advertising and eating behavior in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkvord, F.; Anschutz, D.J.; Boyland, E.J.; Kelly, B.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic research reviews have repeatedly shown that food advertising affects children's eating behavior. Given that most food advertising promotes unhealthy, palatable, and rewarding food products, it is considered to be a significant contributor to the current obesity epidemic. This review

  4. Isotopically exchangeable phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, N.O.

    1984-01-01

    A critique revision of isotope dilution is presented. The concepts and use of exchangeable phosphorus, the phosphate adsorption, the kinetics of isotopic exchange and the equilibrium time in soils are discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. NCHRP peer exchange 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Peer exchanges for state department of transportation (DOT) research programs originated with : the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). That federal legislation : required the states to conduct periodic peer exchanges to...

  6. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  7. Fundamentals of ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the fundamentals of ion exchange mechanisms and their thermodynamics are described. A range of ion exchange materials is considered and problems of communication and technology transfer between scientists working in the field are discussed. (UK)

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  9. Food Service Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappole, C. L.; Louvier, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    A study to design a food service system using current technology to serve a small scale Space Station was conducted. The psychological, sociological and nutritional factors affecting feeding in microgravity conditions was investigated. The logistics of the food service system was defined.

  10. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue

  11. Trends in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  12. Essential Specification Elements for Heat Exchanger Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, L.

    2015-07-01

    Performance upgrade and equipment degradation are the primary impetuses for a nuclear power plant to engage in the large capital cost project of heat exchanger replacement. Along with attention to these issues, consideration of heat exchanger Codes and Standards, material improvements, thermal redesign, and configuration are essential for developing User’s Design Specifications for successful replacement projects. The User’s Design Specification is the central document in procuring ASME heat exchangers. Properly stated objectives for the heat exchanger replacement are essential for obtaining the materials, configurations and thermal designs best suited for the nuclear power plant. Additionally, the code of construction required and the applied manufacturing standard (TEMA or HEI) affects how the heat exchanger may be designed or configured to meet the replacement goals. Knowledge of how Codes and Standards affect design and configuration details will aid in writing the User’s Design Specification. Joseph Oat Corporation has designed and fabricated many replacement heat exchangers for the nuclear power industry. These heat exchangers have been constructed per ASME Section III to various Code-Years or ASME Section VIII-1 to the current Code-Year also in accordance with TEMA and HEI. These heat exchangers have been a range of like-for-like replacement to complete thermal, material and configuration redesigns. Several examples of these heat exchangers with their Code, Standard and specification implications are presented. (Author.

  13. Biodegradation of ion-exchange media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowerman, B.S.; Clinton, J.H.; Cowdery, S.R.

    1988-08-01

    Ion-exchange media, both bead resins and powdered filter media, are used in nuclear power plants to remove radioactivity from process water prior to reuse or environmental discharge. Since the ion- exchange media are made from synthetic hydrocarbon-based polymers, they may be susceptible to damage from biological activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate some of the more basic aspects of biodegradation of ion-exchange media, specifically to evaluate the ability of microorganisms to utilize the ion-exchange media or materials sorbed on them as a food source. The ASTM-G22 test, alone and combined with the Bartha Pramer respirometric method, failed to indicate the biodegradability of the ion-exchange media. The limitation of these methods was that they used a single test organism. In later phases of this study, a mixed microbial culture was grown from resin waste samples obtained from the BNL High Flux Beam Reactor. These microorganisms were used to evaluate the susceptibility of different types of ion-exchange media to biological attack. Qualitative assessments of biodegradability were based on visual observations of culture growths. Greater susceptibility was associated with increased turbidity in solution indicative of bacterial growth, and more luxuriant fungal mycelial growth in solution or directly on the ion-exchange resin beads. 21 refs., 9 figs., 18 tabs

  14. A review on food safety and food hygiene studies in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ababio, P. F.; Lovatt, P.

    2015-01-01

    Food safety and hygiene in Ghana was studied using desk top literature review. Food research was highly concentrated in the capital city of the country and most research focus were on commercial food operations specifically street foods and microbiological safety with limited information from institutional catering and other forms of food hazards. The media currently serves as the main source for reporting of food borne diseases. Food establishments and other sources contributing to food born...

  15. Food irradiation and packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, David

    1988-01-01

    This outline review was written for 'Food Manufacture'. It deals with the known effects of irradiation on current packaging materials (glass, cellulosics, organic polymers and metals), and their implications for the effective application of the process. (U.K.)

  16. NKS FOOD Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikelmann, I.M.H.

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to share national practice and experience on the use of different tools (handbooks, late phase models etc.) during a crisis with focus on operational implementation and use, interpretation and verification of results and production of decision basis. The main goal was to establish a common ground to better understand how these are used in the different countries, identify differences and exchange knowledge to increase competence. Second goal was to gather stakeholders and authorities with interest or responsibility for countermeasures against radioactive contamination of food products to share experience in different topics as: 1) Cooperation among stakeholders and organisations responsible for food safety in each country. 2) Adaptation of the Euranos handbook ''Countermeasures for the management of food production systems'' to national conditions and implementation of the handbook in each country. 3) Establishing a Nordic network for food authorities and radiation protection authorities responsible for food safety with respect to radioactivity. There were 23 participants representing all the Nordic countries. Some of the speakers present were Klas Rosen (SLU), Kasper Andersson (RISOe), representatives from the Nordic food authorities and Ministries, representatives from the radiation protection authorities and one speaker from the food industry. (Author)

  17. NKS FOOD Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikelmann, I.M.H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, OEsteraas (Norway))

    2011-11-15

    The purpose of the workshop was to share national practice and experience on the use of different tools (handbooks, late phase models etc.) during a crisis with focus on operational implementation and use, interpretation and verification of results and production of decision basis. The main goal was to establish a common ground to better understand how these are used in the different countries, identify differences and exchange knowledge to increase competence. Second goal was to gather stakeholders and authorities with interest or responsibility for countermeasures against radioactive contamination of food products to share experience in different topics as: 1) Cooperation among stakeholders and organisations responsible for food safety in each country. 2) Adaptation of the Euranos handbook ''Countermeasures for the management of food production systems'' to national conditions and implementation of the handbook in each country. 3) Establishing a Nordic network for food authorities and radiation protection authorities responsible for food safety with respect to radioactivity. There were 23 participants representing all the Nordic countries. Some of the speakers present were Klas Rosen (SLU), Kasper Andersson (RISOE), representatives from the Nordic food authorities and Ministries, representatives from the radiation protection authorities and one speaker from the food industry. (Author)

  18. Food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... questions about the food you are served. When buying food, read package ingredients carefully. ... allergies in breastfed or other children to prevent future food allergies. Always discuss this with your child's ...

  19. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  20. The Estimation of the Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate for Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Andrei Dumitrescu; Vasile Dedu

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to estimate the equilibrium real exchange rate for Romania, respectively the real exchange rate consistent with the macroeconomic balance, which is achieved when the economy is operating at full employment and low inflation (internal balance) and has a current account that is sustainable (external balance). This equilibrium real exchange rate is very important for an economy because deviations of the real exchange rate from its equilibrium value can affect the competitiveness ...

  1. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  2. Active food packaging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Murat; Floros, John D

    2004-01-01

    Active packaging technologies offer new opportunities for the food industry, in the preservation of foods. Important active packaging systems currently known to date, including oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide emitters/absorbers, moisture absorbers, ethylene absorbers, ethanol emitters, flavor releasing/absorbing systems, time-temperature indicators, and antimicrobial containing films, are reviewed. The principle of operation of each active system is briefly explained. Recent technological advances in active packaging are discussed, and food related applications are presented. The effects of active packaging systems on food quality and safety are cited.

  3. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  4. Exchange rate policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plačkov Slađana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small oscillations of exchange rate certainly affect the loss of confidence in the currency (Serbian dinar, CSD and because of the shallow market even the smallest change in the supply and demand leads to a shift in exchange rate and brings uncertainty. Some economists suggest that the course should be linked to inflation and thus ensure predictable and stable exchange rates. Real exchange rate or slightly depressed exchange rate will encourage the competitiveness of exporters and perhaps ensure the development of new production lines which, in terms of overvalued exchange rate, had no economic justification. Fixed exchange rate will bring lower interest rates, lower risk and lower business uncertainty (uncertainty avoidance, but Serbia will also reduce foreign exchange reserves by following this trend. On the other hand, a completely free exchange rate, would lead to a (real fall of Serbian currency, which in a certain period would lead to a significant increase in exports, but the consequences for businessmen and citizens with loans pegged to the euro exchange rate, would be disastrous. We will pay special attention to the depreciation of the exchange rate, as it is generally favorable to the export competitiveness of Serbia and, on the other hand, it leads to an increase in debt servicing costs of the government as well as of the private sector. Oscillations of the dinar exchange rate, appreciation and depreciation, sometimes have disastrous consequences on the economy, investors, imports and exports. In subsequent work, we will observe the movement of the dinar exchange rate in Serbia, in the time interval 2009-2012, in order to strike a balance and maintain economic equilibrium. A movement of foreign currencies against the local currency is controlled in the foreign exchange market, so in case economic interests require, The National Bank of Serbia (NBS, on the basis of arbitrary criteria, can intervene in the market.

  5. Exchange rate regulation, the behavior of exchange rates, and macroeconomic stability in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eduardo Pires de Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades an entirely new set of rules governing the foreign exchange transactions was established in Brazil, substituting for the framework inherited from the 1930s. Foreign exchange controls were dismantled and a floating exchange rate regime replaced different forms of peg. In this paper we argue that although successful by comparison to previous experiences, the current arrangement has important flaws that should be addressed. We discuss how it first led to high volatility and extremely high interest rates, which, when overcome, gave way to a long lasting appreciation of the real exchange rate with adverse consequences to industry.

  6. News about ionized food identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.

    1995-01-01

    The ionizing radiations are used to clean food and increase their preservation life. If a lot of countries permits ionized products commercialization, others are opposed to it. To control the commercial exchanges, check the applied treatment aim and give to the consumers a better information, several ionized food identification methods were perfected and several are about to be recognized as european standards. 4 refs. 3 figs, 1 tab

  7. Investigation of Chemical Exchange at Intermediate Exchange Rates using a Combination of Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) and Spin-Locking methods (CESTrho)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Feliks; Singh, Anup; Cai, Keija; Haris, Mohammad; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

    2011-01-01

    Proton exchange imaging is important as it allows for visualization and quantification of the distribution of specific metabolites with conventional MRI. Current exchange mediated MRI methods suffer from poor contrast as well as confounding factors that influence exchange rates. In this study we developed a new method to measure proton exchange which combines chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and T1ρ magnetization preparation methods (CESTrho). We demonstrated that this new CESTrho sequence can detect proton exchange in the slow to intermediate exchange regimes. It has a linear dependence on proton concentration which allows it to be used to quantitatively measure changes in metabolite concentration. Additionally, the magnetization scheme of this new method can be customized to make it insensitive to changes in exchange rate while retaining its dependency on solute concentration. Finally, we showed the feasibility of using CESTrho in vivo. This sequence is able to detect proton exchange at intermediate exchange rates and is unaffected by the confounding factors that influence proton exchange rates thus making it ideal for the measurement of metabolites with exchangeable protons in this exchange regime. PMID:22009759

  8. Investigation of chemical exchange at intermediate exchange rates using a combination of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and spin-locking methods (CESTrho).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Feliks; Singh, Anup; Cai, Keija; Haris, Mohammad; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

    2012-07-01

    Proton exchange imaging is important as it allows for visualization and quantification of the distribution of specific metabolites with conventional MRI. Current exchange mediated MRI methods suffer from poor contrast as well as confounding factors that influence exchange rates. In this study we developed a new method to measure proton exchange which combines chemical exchange saturation transfer and T(1)(ρ) magnetization preparation methods (CESTrho). We demonstrated that this new CESTrho sequence can detect proton exchange in the slow to intermediate exchange regimes. It has a linear dependence on proton concentration which allows it to be used to quantitatively measure changes in metabolite concentration. Additionally, the magnetization scheme of this new method can be customized to make it insensitive to changes in exchange rate while retaining its dependency on solute concentration. Finally, we showed the feasibility of using CESTrho in vivo. This sequence is able to detect proton exchange at intermediate exchange rates and is unaffected by the confounding factors that influence proton exchange rates thus making it ideal for the measurement of metabolites with exchangeable protons in this exchange regime. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Hans; Dekkers, Susan; Noordam, Maryvon Y; Hagens, Werner I; Bulder, Astrid S; de Heer, Cees; ten Voorde, Sandra E C G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Marvin, Hans J P; Sips, Adriënne J A M

    2009-02-01

    Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As with most new and evolving technologies, potential benefits are emphasized, while little is known on safety of the application of nanotechnologies in the agro-food sector. This review gives an overview of scientific issues that need to be addressed with priority in order to improve the risk assessment for nanoparticles in food. The following research topics are considered to contribute pivotally to risk assessment of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in food products. Set a definition for NPs to facilitate regulatory discussions, prioritization of research and exchange of study results. Develop analytical tools for the characterization of nanoparticles in complex biological matrices like food. Establish relevant dose metrics for nanoparticles used for both interpretation of scientific studies as well as regulatory frameworks. Search for deviant behavior (kinetics) and novel effects (toxicity) of nanoparticles and assess the validity of currently used test systems following oral exposure. Estimate the consumer exposure to nanoparticles.

  10. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Food crises, food regimes and food movements: rumblings of reform or tides of transformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt Giménez, Eric; Shattuck, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the potential for food movements to bring about substantive changes to the current global food system. After describing the current corporate food regime, we apply Karl Polanyi's 'double-movement' thesis on capitalism to explain the regime's trends of neoliberalism and reform. Using the global food crisis as a point of departure, we introduce a comparative analytical framework for different political and social trends within the corporate food regime and global food movements, characterizing them as 'Neoliberal', 'Reformist', 'Progressive', and 'Radical', respectively, and describe each trend based on its discourse, model, and key actors, approach to the food crisis, and key documents. After a discussion of class, political permeability, and tensions within the food movements, we suggest that the current food crisis offers opportunities for strategic alliances between Progressive and Radical trends within the food movement. We conclude that while the food crisis has brought a retrenchment of neoliberalization and weak calls for reform, the worldwide growth of food movements directly and indirectly challenge the legitimacy and hegemony of the corporate food regime. Regime change will require sustained pressure from a strong global food movement, built on durable alliances between Progressive and Radical trends.

  12. The food metabolome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scalbert, Augustin; Brennan, Lorraine; Manach, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    to the diet. By its very nature it represents a considerable and still largely unexploited source of novel dietary biomarkers that could be used to measure dietary exposures with a high level of detail and precision. Most dietary biomarkers currently have been identified on the basis of our knowledge of food......The food metabolome is defined as the part of the human metabolome directly derived from the digestion and biotransformation of foods and their constituents. With >25,000 compounds known in various foods, the food metabolome is extremely complex, with a composition varying widely according...... by the recent identification of novel biomarkers of intakes for fruit, vegetables, beverages, meats, or complex diets. Moreover, examples also show how the scrutiny of the food metabolome can lead to the discovery of bioactive molecules and dietary factors associated with diseases. However, researchers still...

  13. Mediated cross-cultural learning through exchange in higher agricultural education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wals, A.E.J.; Sriskandarajah, N.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the long-term impact of an intensive European Union-Australia student exchange programme that took place in 2004 and 2005. The programme, Learning through Exchange about Agriculture, Food Systems and Environment (LEAFSE), was designed to facilitate exchange of post-graduate

  14. "Everyone just ate good food": 'Good food' in Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Saher

    2018-08-01

    In recent years, consumption of alternatively produced foods has increased in popularity in response to the deleterious effects of rapidly globalising and industrialised food systems. Concerns over food safety in relation to these changes may result from elevated levels of risk and changing perceptions associated with food production practices. This paper explores how the middle class residents of Islamabad, Pakistan, use the concept of 'good food' to reconnect themselves with nature, changing food systems, and traditional values. The paper also demonstrates how these ideas relate to those of organic, local, and traditional food consumption as currently used in more economically developed states in the Global North. Through research based on participant observation and semi-structured interviews, this paper illustrates that besides price and convenience, purity, freshness, association with specific places, and 'Pakistani-ness' were considered as the basis for making decisions about 'good food'. The results show that while individuals are aware of and have some access to imported organic and local food, they prefer using holistic and culturally informed concepts of 'good food' instead that reconnect them with food systems. I argue that through conceptualisations of 'good food', the urban middle class in Islamabad is reducing their disconnection and dis-embeddedness from nature, the food systems, and their social identities. The paper contributes to literature on food anxieties, reconnections in food geography, and 'good food' perceptions, with a focus on Pakistan. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Automated exchange transfusion and exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funato, M; Shimada, S; Tamai, H; Taki, H; Yoshioka, Y

    1989-10-01

    An automated blood exchange transfusion (BET) with a two-site technique has been devised by Goldmann et al and by us, using an infusion pump. With this method, we successfully performed exchange transfusions 189 times in the past four years on 110 infants with birth weights ranging from 530 g to 4,000 g. The exchange rate by the automated method was compared with the rate by Diamond's method. Serum bilirubin (SB) levels before and after BET and the maximal SB rebound within 24 hours after BET were: 21.6 +/- 2.4, 11.5 +/- 2.2, and 15.0 +/- 1.5 mg/dl in the automated method, and 22.0 +/- 2.9, 11.2 +/- 2.5, and 17.7 +/- 3.2 mg/dl in Diamond's method, respectively. The result showed that the maximal rebound of the SB level within 24 hours after BET was significantly lower in the automated method than in Diamond's method (p less than 0.01), though SB levels before and after BET were not significantly different between the two methods. The exchange rate was also measured by means of staining the fetal red cells (F cells) both in the automated method and in Diamond's method, and comparing them. The exchange rate of F cells in Diamond's method went down along the theoretical exchange curve proposed by Diamond, while the rate in the automated method was significantly better than in Diamond's, especially in the early stage of BET (p less than 0.01). We believe that the use of this automated method may give better results than Diamond's method in the rate of exchange, because this method is performed with a two-site technique using a peripheral artery and vein.

  16. Risk and the evolution of human exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Hillard S; Schniter, Eric; Smith, Vernon L; Wilson, Bart J

    2012-08-07

    Compared with other species, exchange among non-kin is a hallmark of human sociality in both the breadth of individuals and total resources involved. One hypothesis is that extensive exchange evolved to buffer the risks associated with hominid dietary specialization on calorie dense, large packages, especially from hunting. 'Lucky' individuals share food with 'unlucky' individuals with the expectation of reciprocity when roles are reversed. Cross-cultural data provide prima facie evidence of pair-wise reciprocity and an almost universal association of high-variance (HV) resources with greater exchange. However, such evidence is not definitive; an alternative hypothesis is that food sharing is really 'tolerated theft', in which individuals possessing more food allow others to steal from them, owing to the threat of violence from hungry individuals. Pair-wise correlations may reflect proximity providing greater opportunities for mutual theft of food. We report a laboratory experiment of foraging and food consumption in a virtual world, designed to test the risk-reduction hypothesis by determining whether people form reciprocal relationships in response to variance of resource acquisition, even when there is no external enforcement of any transfer agreements that might emerge. Individuals can forage in a high-mean, HV patch or a low-mean, low-variance (LV) patch. The key feature of the experimental design is that individuals can transfer resources to others. We find that sharing hardly occurs after LV foraging, but among HV foragers sharing increases dramatically over time. The results provide strong support for the hypothesis that people are pre-disposed to evaluate gains from exchange and respond to unsynchronized variance in resource availability through endogenous reciprocal trading relationships.

  17. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  19. Food Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, H.; Warnaar, M.; Methorst, B.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Dagevos, H.; Onwezen, M.C.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Kortstee, H.J.M.; Genderen, van R.A.

    2017-01-01

    These days many innovations are taking place through and in the food system. There is quite a debate about our food and how it is produced. Although this process is a slow one, more and more consumers are willing to make a conscious choice for healthier and more sustainable food. A healthier food

  20. 75 FR 3281 - Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... members of the retail public (i.e., ``retail forex transactions''). The Commodity Exchange Act, as amended... forex transactions offered by NFA's members. Additionally, the Proposal would amend existing regulations... forex. \\1\\ Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, Pub. L. 110-246, 122 Stat. 1651, 2189-2204 (2008...

  1. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments.

  2. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...

  3. Outlook for ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunin, R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the history and theory of ion exchange technology and discusses the usefulness of ion exchange resins which found broad applications in chemical operations. It is demonstrated that the theory of ion exchange technology seems to be moving away from the physical chemist back to the polymer chemist where it started originally. This but confronted the polymer chemists with some knotty problems. It is pointed out that one has still to learn how to use ion exchange materials as efficiently as possible in terms of the waste load that is being pumped into the environment. It is interesting to note that, whereas ion exchange is used for abating pollution, it is also a polluter. One must learn how to use ion exchange as an antipollution device, and at the same time minimize its polluting properties

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  5. International information exchange in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickler, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    Formal and informal agreements exist between the US and several other countries, assuring the unrestricted exchange of magnetic fusion information. The Fusion Energy Library at Oak Ridge National Laboratory uses the US Department of Energy standard distribution system and exchange agreements to ensure the receipt of current reports. Selective dissemination of information, computer networks, and exchange programs are additional means for information gathering. The importance of these means as they relate to the fusion program in the US and specifically at ORNL is discussed

  6. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed

  7. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed dose estimations for

  8. Microsoft Exchange 2013 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horenbeeck, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of clear, step-by-step exercises.""Microsoft Exchange 2013 Cookbook"" is targeted at network administrators who deal with the Exchange server in their day-to-day jobs. It assumes you have some practical experience with previous versions of Exchange (although this is not a requirement), without being a subject matter expert.

  9. Food nanotechnology – an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder S Sekhon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bhupinder S SekhonInstitute of Pharmacy and Department of Biotechnology, Punjab College of Technical Education, Jhande, Ludhiana, IndiaAbstract: Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity.Keywords: nanotechnology, nanofood, food packaging, nanoparticles, nanoencapsulation

  10. Reactor fuel exchanging facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shin-ichi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable operation of an emergency manual operating mechanism for a fuel exchanger with all operatorless trucks and remote operation of a manipulator even if the exchanger fails during the fuel exchanging operation. Constitution: When a fuel exchanging system fails while connected to a pressure tube of a nuclear reactor during a fuel exchanging operation, a stand-by self-travelling truck automatically runs along a guide line to the position corresponding to the stopping position at that time of the fuel exchanger based on a command from a central control chamber. At this time the truck is switched to manual operation, and approaches the exchanger while being monitored through a television camera and then stops. Then, a manipurator is connected to the emergency manual operating mechanism of the exchanger, and is operated through necessary emergency steps by driving the snout, the magazine, the grab or the like in the exchanger in response to the problem, and necessary operations for the emergency treatment are thus performed. (Sekiya, K.)

  11. Food ionizing treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasser, A.; Raffi, J.; Hasselmann, C.

    1997-01-01

    Treatment of food with ionizing radiation is increasingly being recognized as a means of reducing food-borne illnesses and associated medical and other costs. In addition, the process may contribute to food security by preventing post-harvest losses, thereby making more food available to more people, eventually at lower cost. An ever increasing number of countries has approved the irradiation of a long and growing list of different food items, groups of classes, ranging from spices to grains to fruit and vegetables to meats and poultry and seafood. However, perception by consumers has been controversial and concerns have been expressed, particularly related to the safety of irradiated food. Therefore, the toxicological aspects of irradiated food are addressed in this dossier. It should be recognized that food irradiation is perhaps the most thoroughly investigated food processing technology. According to the World Health Organization 'irradiated food produced in accordance with established Good Manufacturing Practice can be considered safe and nutritionally adequate'. A recent evaluation by a WHO/FAO/IAEA study group (Geneva, Sept. 1997) even came to the conclusion, 'that as long as sensory qualities of food are retained and harmful microorganisms are destroyed, the actual amount of ionizing radiation applied is of secondary consideration'. Thus, also treatment of food with doses greater than the currently recommended upper level of 10 kGy by the Codex Alimentarius Commission will not lead to changes in the composition of the food that, from a toxicological point of view, would have an adverse effect on human health. (author)

  12. Current state of waste and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1979-01-01

    Research and industrial applications are briefly described of irradiation technology in Czechoslovakia and in other countries. Intensive research into the irradiation of meat, grain, fruit and vegetables is going on; it has not, however, been widely applied in practice. The objective of the research into industrial and agricultural waste irradiation is to make the wastes usable as fertilizers or feed additives for farm animals. (M.S.)

  13. 40 CFR 63.1409 - Heat exchange system provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... detect leaks. (2)(i) For recirculating heat exchange systems (cooling tower systems), the monitoring of...-through heat exchange systems, the monitoring of speciated HAP or total HAP refers to the HAP listed in... operator shall maintain, at all times, the monitoring plan that is currently in use. The current plan shall...

  14. Current status of restoration work for obstacle and supper core structure in reactor vessel of experimental fast reactor 'JOYO'. 3. Sodium purification operation after MARICO recovery and UCS exchange work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shunji; Izawa, Osamu; Ishizaki, Kazuhiko; Takeishi, Tsuyoshi; Oowada, Ryohei; Yoshihara, Shizuya; Michino, Masanobu

    2015-01-01

    At fast-breeder reactor 'Joyo', in order to restore the partial inhibition of the rotating plug fuel exchange function due to interference with 'experimental apparatus with instrumentation lines (MARICO-2)', which occurred in May 2007, a recovery work was performed. The replacement work of the upper core structure and the recovery of sample part of the experimental apparatus with instrumentation lines were carried out under conditions where the primary system sodium was drained and the liquid level of reactor vessel was lowered. During the pulling-up work of upper core structure, an increase in nitrogen and hydrogen concentrations in the reactor vessel cover gas (argon) was confirmed through the measurement of the primary system gas chromatograph. This was due to the intrusion of air caused by the opening of the cover gas boundary. Since entrained oxygen reacted with sodium in the reactor, the purity of sodium was reduced. When this sodium is purified according to common method, the sodium with decreased purity defuses through the entire primary cooling system, causing various adverse effects. A safe and reliable procedure to purify sodium while preventing the adverse effects was examined and practiced. (A.O.)

  15. 75 FR 64767 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Y-Exchange Rules To Conform to the Current Rules of BATS Exchange October 13, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b... hereby given that on October 4, 2010, BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BYX'') filed with the...

  16. Climate change and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, P.J; Ingram, J.S.I; Brklacich, M

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their

  17. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  18. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  19. GRUNDTVIG in transnational exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg.......Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg....

  20. Building Relationships through Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Angi; Hall, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    From the moment of birth, children form and develop relationships with others in their world based on exchange. Children recognize that engaging in such encounters offers them the opportunity to enter into a relationship with another individual and to nurture that relationship through the exchange of messages and gifts, items and ideas. At Boulder…

  1. Exotic baryonium exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolescu, B.

    1978-05-01

    The prominent effects supposed to be associated with the exchange of exotic baryonium Regge trajectories are reviewed. The experimental presence of all expected effects leads to suggest that the baryonium exchange mechanism is a correct phenomenological picture and that mesons with isospin 2 or 3/2 or with strangeness 2, strongly coupled to the baryon-antibaryon channels, must be observed

  2. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catton, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics (pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger design.

  3. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  4. Standardizing exchange formats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    An international network of co-operating data centres is described who maintain identical data bases which are simultaneously updated by an agreed data exchange procedure. The agreement covers ''data exchange formats'' which are compatible to the centres' internal data storage and retrieval systems which remain different, optimized at each centre to the available computer facilities and to the needs of the data users. Essential condition for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data compilation, including critical data analysis and validation. The systems described (''EXFOR'', ''ENDF'', ''CINDA'') are used for ''nuclear reaction data'', but the principles used for data compilation and exchange should be valid also for other data types. (author). 24 refs, 4 figs

  5. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook and Twitter . Play our Food Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge ... oral allergy syndrome? » Video: What is a red meat allergy? » Vitamin D and Food Allergy » When Should ...

  6. The potential of food preservation to reduce food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Wayne

    2017-02-01

    While we state it seems unthinkable to throw away nearly a third of the food we produce, we still continue to overlook that we are all very much part of this problem because we all consume meals. The amount of food wasted clearly has an impact on our view of what we think a sustainable meal is and our research suggests food waste is a universal function that can help us determine the sustainability of diets. Achieving sustainability in food systems depends on the utilisation of both culinary skills and knowledge of how foods make meals. These are overlooked by the current food waste debate that is concerned with communicating the problem with food waste rather than solutions to it. We aim to change this oversight with the research presented here that demonstrates the need to consider the role of food preservation to reduce food waste and the requirement for new marketing terms associated with sustainability actions that can be used to stimulate changes in consumption behaviours. We have chosen frozen food to demonstrate this because our research has shown that the use of frozen foods results in 47 % less household food waste than fresh food categories. This has created a step-change in how we view food consumption and has stimulated consumer movements that act across different products and supply chains to enable the consumption of the sustainable meal.

  7. The impact of food preservation on food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Wayne; Schiebel, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the relationship between food preservation and reducing consumer waste is of value in developing sustainable meal options. The research reports insights into Austrian marketplace for frozen and fresh foods that have been obtained from a consumer survey. The consumer survey methodologies indicate how preservation can change meal planning and lower food waste across frozen and fresh and ambient food purchases using freezing preservation methods. The results show food waste can be reduced by six-fold when frozen foods are compared with fresh foods. This study highlights the requirement for a greater understanding of the probability that specific foods will be wasted with respect to the frequency of purchase. This is a limitation of the current study that has been investigated by other researchers. This research has enabled the identification of different food waste amounts for different food product categories. The data presented could be used to guide food product development so that less consumer waste is produced. The research suggests a decision matrix approach can be used to can guide new product development and a model of this matrix is presented so that it may provide fit-for-purpose food preservation options for consumers. This paper will continue to highlight the overlooked value of food preservation during processing and manufacturing of foods and their preparation in households.

  8. Issues in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.

    1987-04-01

    This discussion paper has two goals: first, to raise public awareness of food irradiation, an emerging technology in which Canada has the potential to build a new industry, mainly oriented to promising overseas markets; and second, to help build consensus among government and private sector decision makers about what has to be done to realize the domestic and export potential. The following pages discuss the potential of food irradiation; indicate how food is irradiated; outline the uses of food irradiation; examine questions of the safety of the equipment and both the safety and nutritional value of irradiated food; look at international commercial developments; assess the current and emerging domestic scene; and finally, draw some conclusions and offer suggestions for action

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed

  10. The relationship between the forward– and the realized spot exchange rate in South Africa / Petrus Marthinus Stephanus van Heerden

    OpenAIRE

    Van Heerden, Petrus Marthinus Stephanus

    2010-01-01

    The inability to effectively hedge against unfavourable exchange rate movements, using the current forward exchange rate as the only guideline, is a key inhibiting factor of international trade. Market participants use the current forward exchange rate quoted in the market to make decisions regarding future exchange rate changes. However, the current forward exchange rate is not solely determined by the interaction of demand and supply, but is also a mechanistic estimation, whi...

  11. Searching for an Appropriate Exchange Rate Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjong Wang

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to survey current debates on the choice of exchange rate regime in emerging market economies. The issue of choosing an appropriate exchange rate regime is being actively discussed since the recent Asian crisis. As a lesson from the recent crises, one widely shared conclusion is that soft peg exchange rate regimes are extremely vulnerable in a world of volatile capital movements. Consequently, new orthodoxy based on the impossible trinity hypothesis favours two corner solutions ― greater flexibility or credible institutional assurance, like a currency board system or dollarization. Nevertheless, questions whether such corner solutions are adequate for developing countries are rising of late. "Fear of floating" is still conspicuous in many developing countries having adopted nominally a free-floating exchange rate regime. Developing countries are sensitive to exchange rate fluctuations because the cost of exchange rate volatility is greater than the benefit when compared to developed countries. Monitoring bands is a compromise solution, but it still needs further enhancement of estimation techniques for fundamental equilibrium exchange rates in order to make those estimation results more workable in practice. Other alternatives include the creation of soft peg of the G-3 currencies. Despite counterarguments, the stability of G-3 currencies could prove to be beneficial to emerging market economies.

  12. Ensuring Food Integrity by Metrology and FAIR Data Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rychlik

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Food integrity is a general term for sound, nutritive, healthy, tasty, safe, authentic, traceable, as well as ethically, safely, environment-friendly, and sustainably produced foods. In order to verify these properties, analytical methods with a higher degree of accuracy, sensitivity, standardization and harmonization and a harmonized system for their application in analytical laboratories are required. In this view, metrology offers the opportunity to achieve these goals. In this perspective article the current global challenges in food analysis and the principles of metrology to fill these gaps are presented. Therefore, the pan-European project METROFOOD-RI within the framework of the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI was developed to establish a strategy to allow reliable and comparable analytical measurements in foods along the whole process line starting from primary producers until consumers and to make all data findable, accessible, interoperable, and re-usable according to the FAIR data principles. The initiative currently consists of 48 partners from 18 European Countries and concluded its “Early Phase” as research infrastructure by organizing its future structure and presenting a proof of concept by preparing, distributing and comprehensively analyzing three candidate Reference Materials (rice grain, rice flour, and oyster tissue and establishing a system how to compile, process, and store the generated data and how to exchange, compare them and make them accessible in data bases.

  13. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized [af

  15. Food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safety URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002434.htm Food safety To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food. These practices prevent contamination and foodborne ...

  16. Food jags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  17. The applications of nanotechnology in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Ladan; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush

    2011-09-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential of application in the food industry and processing as new tools for pathogen detection, disease treatment delivery systems, food packaging, and delivery of bioactive compounds to target sites. The application of nanotechnology in food systems will provide new methods to improve safety and the nutritional value of food products. This article will review the current advances of applications of nanotechnology in food science and technology. Also, it describes new current food laws for nanofood and novel articles in the field of risk assessment of using nanotechnology in the food industry.

  18. Key Exchange Trust Evaluation in Peer-to-Peer Sensor Networks With Unconditionally Secure Key Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elias; Kish, Laszlo B.

    2016-03-01

    As the utilization of sensor networks continue to increase, the importance of security becomes more profound. Many industries depend on sensor networks for critical tasks, and a malicious entity can potentially cause catastrophic damage. We propose a new key exchange trust evaluation for peer-to-peer sensor networks, where part of the network has unconditionally secure key exchange. For a given sensor, the higher the portion of channels with unconditionally secure key exchange the higher the trust value. We give a brief introduction to unconditionally secured key exchange concepts and mention current trust measures in sensor networks. We demonstrate the new key exchange trust measure on a hypothetical sensor network using both wired and wireless communication channels.

  19. The magic of knowledge exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange these apples then you and I will still each have one apple. But if you have an idea and I have an idea and we exchange these ideas, then each of us will have two ideas”. (George Bernard Shaw). The CERN Global Network is a new, ideal place for past and present members of the CERN community to share ideas and create new links.   On 29 April, CERN’s Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) Group launched the CERN Global Network, a tool whose aim is to facilitate knowledge exchanges inside and outside CERN. "Among the greatest ambassadors of knowledge are people who have been trained and educated at CERN and also at other institutes: here is where the Global Network comes into play", says Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General. “During the first phase, the Network will be open to current and former members of the CERN personnel, that is, staff, fellows, apprentices, associates, students a...

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined

  1. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, M.

    1989-01-01

    This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

  2. Compact heat exchanger for fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, P.A.H.

    1975-01-01

    The invention concerns a welded heat exchanger with two or more fluids which can be used counter current. The principle of the apparatus allows the use of rolled welded concentric metal strips as well as spiral rolled metal strips. The ring sheets are kept apart either by their rigidity due to the cylindrical shape or by deformations in the sheets themselves or yet again by spacers or chequered and/or perforated sheets forming for instance corrugated spacers, the end sheet being thick enough to take the pressure strain [fr

  3. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beishon, J.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Evaluation of presenting conserved foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asl Soleimani H

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Food, it's production and preserving has been one of the most important problems in human life. Limitation of production due to climatic, geographic and papulational situations and conservation due to providance and prosecting for solution of one of the most fundamental human needs, has been discussed much. Difference between the lands, temperature, humidity and rainfall on one hand and texture and accumulation of papulation on the other hand, not only has limited the amount and kind of food production but also has improved the preserving methods as much as possible. Extra production in fertile lands and confirmed need for receiving food in deserts and dry areas, makes the need of exchanging and transfer of food inevitable because of economic and ethical matters and sanitation of food. Avoidance of being contaminated and resistance against decay seems very important and vital. So process of preserving and conserving of eaw or cooked food became a fundamental problem. In previous 200 years, many advanced methods have been designed for preserving food in which the role of conserving and packing in vital often. Because of industrial production, conserved food have a great influence on sanitation of people nutrition, and herefor the rate of diseases from consumption of contaminated food has been reduced in industrial countries and the tensancy of people to use conventional food has been decreased gradually. Because of high cost of industrial conserved food production some people produce conserved foods in the way which is not hygienic. That may have a high risk when ingested. In this article we discuss about unwarranted conserved foods productions.

  7. Food, novel foods, and allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; LPI

    2002-01-01

    Certain foods lead may to allergic responses in certain individuals. Main allergenic foods are Crustacea (shrimp, lobster, crab), egg, fish, milk, peanuts, soybeans, tree nuts, and wheat, and allergens are always proteins. A wide array of symptoms can result from food allergy (gastrointestinal,

  8. Disruptive Effects of Contingent Food on High-Probability Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Borrero, John C.; Nguyen, Linda; Leon-Enriquez, Yanerys; Carreau-Webster, Abbey B.; DeLeon, Iser G.

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of food contingent on 10 s of consecutive toy engagement resulted in a decrease in engagement and a corresponding increase in other responses that had been previously reinforced with food. Similar effects were not observed when tokens exchangeable for the same food were delivered, suggesting that engagement was disrupted by the…

  9. Data Exchange Inventory System (DEXI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Enterprise tool used to identify data exchanges occurring between SSA and our trading partners. DEXI contains information on both incoming and outgoing exchanges and...

  10. Pion double charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    The pion double charge exchange data on the oxygen isotopes is reviewed and new data on 9 Be, 12 C, 24 Mg, and 28 Si are presented. Where theoretical calculations exist, they are compared to the data. 9 references

  11. Research peer exchange, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The WSDOT Research Peer Exchange was held in Olympia, Washington on May 13 and 14, 2014 and addressed Research Program and Project Management as described in the following paragraphs: Program Management There are numerous funding programs, standing c...

  12. Cation Exchange Water Softeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense released a notice of intent to develop a specification for cation exchange water softeners. The program has made the decision not to move forward with a spec at this time, but is making this information available.

  13. Exchange Risk Management Policy

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    At the Finance Committee of March 2005, following a comment by the CERN Audit Committee, the Chairman invited the Management to prepare a document on exchange risk management policy. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this document.

  14. HUD Exchange Grantee Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The About Grantees section of the HUD Exchange brings up contact information, reports, award, jurisdiction, and location data for organizations that receive HUD...

  15. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  16. 77 FR 72894 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... by Members. As is currently the case, orders subject to the Tool will be validated by the Exchange... Change To Expand the Availability of Risk Management Tools November 30, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1... Exchange's Risk Management Tool (the ``Tool'') to all Exchange Members.\\3\\ The Tool is currently available...

  17. 77 FR 28643 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Exchange, Inc. (the ``Current Bylaws'') to conform with the Exchange's current corporate governance... concerning the purpose of, and basis for, the proposed rule change and discussed any comments it received on... governance practices. In addition, the Exchange proposes to address other non- substantive revisions to...

  18. 77 FR 28649 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Exchange, Inc. (the ``Current Bylaws'') to conform with the Exchange's current corporate governance... concerning the purpose of, and basis for, the proposed rule change and discussed any comments it received on... governance practices. In addition, the Exchange proposes to address other non- substantive revisions to...

  19. Floating Exchange Rate Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Quader, Syed Manzur

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many developing countries having a history of high inflation, unfavorable balance of payment situation and a high level of foreign currencies denominated debt, have switched or are in the process of switching to a more flexible exchange rate regime. Therefore, the stability of the exchange rate and the dynamics of its volatility are more crucial than before to prevent financial crises and macroeconomic disturbances. This paper is designed to find out the reasons behind Bangla...

  20. Heat exchange apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurston, G.C.; McDaniels, J.D.; Gertsch, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention relates to heat exchangers used for transferring heat from the gas cooled core of a nuclear reactor to a secondary medium during standby and emergency conditions. The construction of the heat exchanger described is such that there is a minimum of welds exposed to the reactor coolant, the parasitic heat loss during normal operation of the reactor is minimized and the welds and heat transfer tubes are easily inspectable. (UK)

  1. Hibernation and gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, William K; Jackson, Donald C

    2011-01-01

    Hibernation in endotherms and ectotherms is characterized by an energy-conserving metabolic depression due to low body temperatures and poorly understood temperature-independent mechanisms. Rates of gas exchange are correspondly reduced. In hibernating mammals, ventilation falls even more than metabolic rate leading to a relative respiratory acidosis that may contribute to metabolic depression. Breathing in some mammals becomes episodic and in some small mammals significant apneic gas exchange may occur by passive diffusion via airways or skin. In ectothermic vertebrates, extrapulmonary gas exchange predominates and in reptiles and amphibians hibernating underwater accounts for all gas exchange. In aerated water diffusive exchange permits amphibians and many species of turtles to remain fully aerobic, but hypoxic conditions can challenge many of these animals. Oxygen uptake into blood in both endotherms and ectotherms is enhanced by increased affinity of hemoglobin for O₂ at low temperature. Regulation of gas exchange in hibernating mammals is predominately linked to CO₂/pH, and in episodic breathers, control is principally directed at the duration of the apneic period. Control in submerged hibernating ectotherms is poorly understood, although skin-diffusing capacity may increase under hypoxic conditions. In aerated water blood pH of frogs and turtles either adheres to alphastat regulation (pH ∼8.0) or may even exhibit respiratory alkalosis. Arousal in hibernating mammals leads to restoration of euthermic temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange and occurs periodically even as ambient temperatures remain low, whereas body temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange of hibernating ectotherms are tightly linked to ambient temperature. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  2. Real exchange rate misalignments

    OpenAIRE

    Terra, Maria Cristina T.; Valladares, Frederico Estrella Carneiro

    2003-01-01

    This paper characterizes episodes of real appreciations and depreciations for a sample of 85 countries, approximately from 1960 to 1998. First, the equilibrium real exchange rate series are constructed for each country using Goldfajn and Valdes (1999) methodology (cointegration with fundamentals). Then, departures from equilibrium real exchange rate (misalignments) are obtained, and a Markov Switching Model is used to characterize the misalignments series as stochastic autor...

  3. Heat exchanger cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatewood, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the various types of heat-exchange equipment that is cleaned routinely in fossil-fired generating plants, the hydrocarbon-processing industry, pulp and paper mills, and other industries; the various types, sources, and adverse effects of deposits in heat-exchange equipment; some details of the actual procedures for high-pressure water jetting and chemical cleaning of some specific pieces of equipment, including nuclear steam generators. (DN)

  4. Cryptographic Combinatorial Securities Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    We present a useful new mechanism that facilitates the atomic exchange of many large baskets of securities in a combinatorial exchange. Cryptography prevents information about the securities in the baskets from being exploited, enhancing trust. Our exchange offers institutions who wish to trade large positions a new alternative to existing methods of block trading: they can reduce transaction costs by taking advantage of other institutions’ available liquidity, while third party liquidity providers guarantee execution—preserving their desired portfolio composition at all times. In our exchange, institutions submit encrypted orders which are crossed, leaving a “remainder”. The exchange proves facts about the portfolio risk of this remainder to third party liquidity providers without revealing the securities in the remainder, the knowledge of which could also be exploited. The third parties learn either (depending on the setting) the portfolio risk parameters of the remainder itself, or how their own portfolio risk would change if they were to incorporate the remainder into a portfolio they submit. In one setting, these third parties submit bids on the commission, and the winner supplies necessary liquidity for the entire exchange to clear. This guaranteed clearing, coupled with external price discovery from the primary markets for the securities, sidesteps difficult combinatorial optimization problems. This latter method of proving how taking on the remainder would change risk parameters of one’s own portfolio, without revealing the remainder’s contents or its own risk parameters, is a useful protocol of independent interest.

  5. Radial flow heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Javier

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  6. Food irradiation: contaminating our food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)

  7. Giant spin torque in systems with anisotropic exchange interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, Vladimir L.

    2012-01-01

    Control of magnetic domain wall movement by the spin-polarized current looks promising for creation of a new generation of magnetic memory devices. A necessary condition for this is the domain wall shift by a low-density current. Here I show that a strongly anisotropic exchange interaction between mobile heavy holes and localized magnetic moments enormously increases the current-induced torque on the domain wall as compared to systems with isotropic exchange. This enables one to control the d...

  8. Safer food means food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this article the author presents the sanitary advantages that are brought by food irradiation. OMS experts state that this technique is safe and harmless for any average global dose between 10 KGy and 100 KGy. Whenever a seminar is held on the topic, it is always concluded that food irradiation should be promoted and favoured. In France food irradiation is authorized for some kinds of products and exceptionally above a 10 KGy dose. Historically food irradiation has been hampered in its development by its classification by American Authorities as food additives in 1958 (Delanay clause). The author draws a parallel between food irradiation and pasteurization or food deep-freezing in their beginnings. (A.C.)

  9. Predictability of Exchange Rates in Sri Lanka: A Test of the Efficient Market Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Guneratne B Wickremasinghe

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the validity of the weak and semi-strong forms of the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) for the foreign exchange market of Sri Lanka. Monthly exchange rates for four currencies during the floating exchange rate regime were used in the empirical tests. Using a battery of tests, empirical results indicate that the current values of the four exchange rates can be predicted from their past values. Further, the tests of semi-strong form efficiency indicate that exchange rate pa...

  10. The Relationship Between the Foreign Exchange Regime and Macroeconomic Performance in Eastern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Gale Stotsky; Manuk Ghazanchyan; Olumuyiwa S Adedeji; Nils Øvind Maehle

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the foreign exchange regime and macroeconomic performance in Eastern Africa. The study focuses on seven countries, five of which decisively liberalized their foreign exchange regimes. The study assesses the relationship between (i) growth and various determinants, including the exchange regime, the real exchange rate, and current account liberalization; and (ii) inflation and various determinants, including lagged inflation, the nominal exchange ra...

  11. The rho-exchange isovector parity-violating potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, B.H.J.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the rho-exchange isovector parity-violating potential is constrained by PCAC to be much weaker than the π-exchange potential and much weaker than recently proposed by Galic et al (J. Phys. G.; 5: L113 (1979)). This potential does not therefore provide a mechanism for suppressing enhanced neutral-current effects in the π-exchange potential. (author)

  12. Boulder Food Rescue: An Innovative Approach to Reducing Food Waste and Increasing Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewald, Craig A; Kuo, Elena S; Dansky, Hana

    2018-05-01

    Food waste and food insecurity are both significant issues in communities throughout the U.S., including Boulder, Colorado. As much as 40% of the food produced in the U.S. goes uneaten and ends up in landfills. Nearly 13% of people in the Boulder region experience some level of food insecurity. Founded in 2011, Boulder Food Rescue supports community members to create their own food security through a participatory approach to an emergency food system. The organization uses a web-application "robot" to manage a schedule of volunteers. They coordinate with individuals at low-income senior housing sites, individual housing sites, family housing sites, after-school programs, and pre-schools to set up no-cost grocery programs stocked with food from local markets and grocers that would otherwise go to waste. Each site coordinator makes decisions about how, when, and where food delivery and distribution will occur. The program also conducts robust, real-time data collection and analysis. Boulder Food Rescue is a member and manager of the Food Rescue Alliance, and its model has been replicated and adapted by other cities, including Denver, Colorado Springs, Seattle, Jackson Hole, Minneapolis, Binghamton, and in the Philippines. Information for this special article was collected through key informant interviews with current and former Boulder Food Rescue staff and document review of Boulder Food Rescue materials. Boulder Food Rescue's open source software is available to other communities; to date, 40 cities have used the tool to start their own food rescue organizations. Boulder Food Rescue hopes to continue spreading this model to other cities that are considering ways to reduce food waste and increase food security. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is sponsored by Kaiser Permanente, Community Health. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by

  13. Reconstruction of Cell Surface Densities of Ion Pumps, Exchangers, and Channels from mRNA Expression, Conductance Kinetics, Whole-Cell Calcium, and Current-Clamp Voltage Recordings, with an Application to Human Uterine Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Atia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Uterine smooth muscle cells remain quiescent throughout most of gestation, only generating spontaneous action potentials immediately prior to, and during, labor. This study presents a method that combines transcriptomics with biophysical recordings to characterise the conductance repertoire of these cells, the 'conductance repertoire' being the total complement of ion channels and transporters expressed by an electrically active cell. Transcriptomic analysis provides a set of potential electrogenic entities, of which the conductance repertoire is a subset. Each entity within the conductance repertoire was modeled independently and its gating parameter values were fixed using the available biophysical data. The only remaining free parameters were the surface densities for each entity. We characterise the space of combinations of surface densities (density vectors consistent with experimentally observed membrane potential and calcium waveforms. This yields insights on the functional redundancy of the system as well as its behavioral versatility. Our approach couples high-throughput transcriptomic data with physiological behaviors in health and disease, and provides a formal method to link genotype to phenotype in excitable systems. We accurately predict current densities and chart functional redundancy. For example, we find that to evoke the observed voltage waveform, the BK channel is functionally redundant whereas hERG is essential. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that activation of calcium-activated chloride conductances by intracellular calcium release is the key factor underlying spontaneous depolarisations.

  14. Sleeving repair of heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Street, Michael D.; Schafer, Bruce W.

    2000-01-01

    Defective heat exchanger tubes can be repaired using techniques that do not involve the cost and schedule penalties of component replacement. FTI's years of experience repairing steam generator tubes have been successfully applied to heat exchangers. Framatome Technologies heat exchanger sleeves can bridge defective areas of the heat exchanger tubes, sleeves have been designed to repair typical heat exchanger tube defects caused by excessive tube vibration, stress corrosion cracking, pitting or erosion. By installing a sleeve, the majority of the tube's heat transfer and flow capacity is maintained and the need to replace the heat exchanger can be delayed or eliminated. Both performance and reliability are improved. FTI typically installs heat exchanger tube sleeves using either a roll expansion or hydraulic expansion process. While roll expansion of a sleeve can be accomplished very quickly, hydraulic expansion allows sleeves to be installed deep within a tube where a roll expander cannot reach. Benefits of FTI's heat exchanger tube sleeving techniques include: - Sleeves can be positioned any where along the tube length, and for precise positioning of the sleeve eddy current techniques can be employed. - Varying sleeve lengths can be used. - Both the roll and hydraulic expansion processes are rapid and both produce joints that do not require stress relief. - Because of low leak rates and speed of installations, sleeves can be used to preventatively repair likely-to-fail tubes. - Sleeves can be used for tube stiffening and to limit leakage through tube defects. - Because of installation speed, there is minimal impact on outage schedules and budgets. FTI's recently installed heat exchanger sleeving at the Kori-3 Nuclear Power Station in conjunction with Korea Plant Service and Engineering Co., Ltd. The sleeves were installed in the 3A and 3B component cooling water heat exchangers. A total of 859 tubesheet and 68 freespan sleeves were installed in the 3A heat

  15. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among animals: current overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires-de-Sousa, M

    2017-06-01

    Currently, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a universal threat. After being well established in the healthcare setting, it has emerged in the community among people with no risk factors for MRSA acquisition, therefore imposing a new threat. The subsequent detection of MRSA colonizing or infecting animals as well as in food of animal origin was of major concern, revealing new reservoirs for MRSA. The major MRSA clonal lineages circulating in the different settings, i.e. in hospitals, in the community and among animals, are described here, differentiating between clones colonizing companion and food-chain animals. Particular attention is given to the widely spread livestock-associated MRSA clonal complex (CC) 398, which is mainly associated with professional exposure but may be of high pathogenicity. The recent detection of a mecA homologue, designated mecC, with a wide geographical distribution in Europe, and including a large diversity of hosts (food-chain, companion and wildlife animals and also detected in water samples) adds to the threat. Domestication as well as globalization of the livestock industry have intensified exchanges between human and animal bacteria. We report here several cases of transmission of MRSA between companion or food-chain animals and humans, as well as some MRSA clones of human origin that have adapted to new animal hosts eventually by losing useless virulence factors or acquiring new mobile genetic elements. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention......The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  19. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, T

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

  20. Food allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Waserman Susan; Watson Wade

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnost...